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Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

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Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

2019 FSAWWA Fall Conference Recap 19 General Information, Contest Winners, Events 26 Sponsor Thank You

News and Features

27 Awards 34 Incoming Chair Reception and Barbecue


4 Evaluation and Implementation of Future Water Supplies for Tampa Bay Water—Andre Dieffenthaller and Ivana Kajtezovic 8 Florida Water Resources Journal: 70 Years and Growing—Richard Anderson 38 2019 FWPCOA Officers and Committee Chairs List 48 Climate Institute Names Faculty Fellow 48 Trofatter to Represent WEF at Florida Water Resources Conference 54 Water Quality Association Seeks Mentors for Certification 56 Company Participation in BBQ Challenge is a Success

36 46 50 52 64

FWEA Focus—Michael W. Sweeney FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski FWRJ Reader Profile—Athena Tipaldos Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak C Factor—Kenneth Enlow

Departments 67 Classifieds 70 Display Advertiser Index

Technical Articles 16 Regional Approach to Alternative Water Supply Planning and Funding is a Win-Win for Central Florida Stakeholders—Scott Manahan, Mary Fickert Thomas, Gene Heath, and Ryan Taylor 40 Purified Water Production: A Research and Development Plant Operator’s Perspective— Anna Ness, Ryan Popko, Greg Wetterau, and David Prah 58 North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Expands Saltwater Intrusion Barrier— Deborah Daigle and Michael Townsel

Education and Training 9 15 25 33 51 55 56 57 66

Florida Water Resources Conference CEU Challenge AWWA Community Engineering Corps FSAWWA Awards AWWA ACE20 FWPCOA Training Calendar AWWA ACE20 TREEO Center Training FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: Participants in the Hydrant Hysteria contest held at the FSAWWA Fall Conference. Complete conference information begins on page 19.

February 2020

Number 2

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

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Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Evaluation and Implementation of Future Water Supplies for Tampa Bay Water Tampa Bay Water (agency) is a regional, wholesale water utility. A special district of the state of Florida, the agency has an unequivocal obligation to provide drinking water to 2.5 million people through its member governments: Pasco, Pinellas, and Hillsborough counties, and the cities of New Port Richey, St. Petersburg, and Tampa.

Master Water Plan Development The agency updates its long-term master water plan every five years as required by its governing documents. The last version of the plan was approved by the agency’s board of directors in December 2018; the 2023 plan update is now underway. The plan, which has a 20-year horizon, inventories existing supply facilities and distribution systems, forecasts future drinking water demands, explores potential water savings through demand management, inventories existing and future regulations related to permitting, inventories and updates source water assessment and protection efforts, and evaluates potential new supply projects through feasibility studies. The plan thus ensures that the agency meets the needs of its members proactively and in an environmentally sustainable and fiscally responsible manner. Planning for regional water supplies presents several challenges. The first challenge is determining the quantity and timing of new drinking water supply. The agency’s regional system sprawls over 600 miles and delivers supplies from diverse sources, such as groundwater, surface water, and desalinated water. In addition, the agency owns a 15.5billion-gallon capacity off-stream reservoir. The overall system is heavily influenced by several factors, including climate variability, climate change, sea level rise, El Niño/La Niña phenomena, and water quality. Determining the right time and location for new water supply is crucial; bringing new supplies online too soon may result in distribution water quality issues and unitary rate increases. By incorporating robust demand forecast modeling into the plan, the agency evaluates different demand and supply scenarios so that it can adapt to different levels of uncertainty with respect to future demands and future climate outlook.


The plan also incorporates the agency’s water shortage mitigation plan. If adopted by the regional water management district, the plan could postpone the need for new supply in the short term so as to avoid building new supply to address extended droughts. Additionally, the plan includes strategies for conservation and demand management that, if implemented by the agency’s members, could produce significant savings over the planning horizon and equally postpone the need for new supply, thus avoiding upfront capital expenditures, as well as operating costs. Based on current projections, the Tampa Bay region will need an additional 10 million gallons of drinking water by 2028, and another 10 million by 2040. Some areas within the region, however, are experiencing varying levels of growth; south Hillsborough County, for example, is experiencing an influx of population at a faster rate than other areas. As a result, the county will need additional supply capacity by 2025. Although the agency has enough supply to meet all current needs of the county, the system constraints are such that a new conduit to deliver existing supplies must be built by 2025. The plan evaluated several options to address this problem, either by constructing a pipeline from the agency’s regional treatment plant to south Hillsborough County, or by developing a new groundwater supply in the south county area. The new groundwater supply concept relies on the county’s recharge of salinity barrier wells, known as the South Hillsborough County Aquifer Recharge

February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Project (SHARP), which, if successful, will generate water use credits that could be used to permit a new groundwater treatment plant through the regional water management district. The plan evaluates several potential water supply project concepts that could meet future needs. These concepts include potable reuse and developing new groundwater supply, as well as expanding existing surface supply. In addition, the agency approved its demand management plan that, if successfully implemented, could postpone the need for new water supply sources. Through the demand management plan, the agency could save 11 million gallons per day (mgd) by 2040, effectively postponing building any new supply. The water supply project concepts were evaluated for their environmental sustainability, reliability, and cost. Over the course of four years, the agency explored the feasibility of these concepts to determine which can be configured to provide a total of 20 mgd by 2035, while at the same time preserving the ability to phase construction of the supply project. Phasing the project would prevent overbuilding the supply capacity, which could have negative operational and maintenance effects. The agency worked with its member governments through a collaborative group, and through the feasibility evaluation process, agency staff and its member governments were able to narrow the list of potential project configurations that could meet future regional demand. Preliminary feasibility studies were completed and presented to the agency board, which approved three potential new water supply projects: S Groundwater wellfield and treatment plant via net benefit from SHARP S Regional surface water treatment plant expansion S Desalination plant expansion The new groundwater wellfield and treatment plant via net benefit from the SHARP project is being evaluated as both a potential solution to the hydraulically constrained south Hillsborough County and as Continued on page 6

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Continued from page 4 a new water supply project that can be phased in. The county is moving forward with the SHARP project, which will eventually consist of injecting 12 million gallons (MG) of treated wastewater into the nonpotable zone of the aquifer in the coastal area of the south county. The main purpose of the SHARP project is to provide a salinity barrier and minimize salt water intrusion into the fresh water aquifer. As a result of this project, the agency could obtain water use credits from the regional water management district to develop a new groundwater supply further inland from the SHARP site. Initially, this project could provide up to 7.5 MG of drinking water per day, which would satisfy the most-immediate south county need for additional capacity, as well as provide some regional benefit. The SHARP project could also be expanded by injecting additional quantities of treated wastewater, either from the county facility or from neighboring City of Tampa wastewater facility. This expansion would address the additional regional demands that need to be met by 2040.

Plan Approval and Recommendations The approval of the plan authorized the agency to proceed with an in-depth feasibility study on the potential new supply projects. The goal of the study is to determine which of the three projects can provide the most reliable and sustainable yield so that the additional 20 mgd could be supplied to the region by 2040. The agency will continue with these studies over the course of several years, while

simultaneously working on a solution to supply south Hillsborough County with additional capacity by 2025. As a part of the detailed study, these projects will be incorporated into the agency’s optimized regional operations plan (OROP) to determine how the newly incorporated supply would affect the reliability of the existing system and identify specific constraints that could be alleviated to optimize new supply. The surface water plant and desalination plant projects will evaluate expanding the facilities. The desalination plant would need to be optimized before being expanded; this will be the focus of the future feasibility study over the next several years. The surface water plant will also be evaluated for optimization and expansion. The agency will evaluate the ability to harness additional quantities of water from the Alafia River, on which it currently relies. Parallel to the feasibility study, the agency will proceed with the implementation of the demand management plan. By working with the member governments, the agency will assist them with implementing specific programs identified in the plan. If these programs are implemented, the region could save 11 MG per day of drinking water supply over the next 20 years. If these savings are realized, the agency may postpone constructing new supply projects beyond what is currently forecast. Along with the feasibility study and demand management, the agency is undergoing an effort to better understand the nexus between financial decisions and water supply decisions so that the sequencing of water supply development can be implemented in an appropriate time frame.

This effort will contribute to the overall feasibility effort; the results of the sequencing study will inform the decision on new supply development. Before determining which project is the most feasible for further implementation, the agency will undergo optimization of existing facilities. The regional surface water treatment plant and desalination plant have been identified as two facilities that could be optimized and made more reliable, and there is a potential to obtain additional yield from the surface water plant. The goal of the optimization is to make the overall system more reliable and capture the maximum yield possible before either of the two facilities is expanded. Another important factor that could affect the timing and quantity of new supply is the Tampa Augmentation Project (TAP) from the City of Tampa. A member government of the agency, the city is the only member that owns and operates its water supply and relies on the agency to provide additional quantities of water during dry times. The city relies on the Hillsborough River and can withdraw up to 82 MG of water a day through its Dave L. Tippin Drinking Treatment Facility. The city is evaluating a potential potable reuse project concept; currently, its wastewater treatment plant discharges upwards of 50 MG per day of treated wastewater into the Hillsborough Bay. The TAP is an indirect potable reuse project that evaluates injecting up to 50 MG of wastewater into the nonpotable zone of the aquifer and withdrawing a certain quantity, either at the natural Hillsborough River reservoir or at the head of the city’s water treatment plant. Currently, the agency and the city are working through institutional aspects of this project. If the city’s project is deemed feasible and permittable, the overall regional demand the agency would need to meet would be decreased. This could result in postponing the need for new supply beyond the 2040 planning horizon. The 2023 long-term master water plan will incorporate all the described efforts that will ultimately answer the question of how much additional drinking water is needed for the region and when new supply needs to be built. Throughout this process, the agency will involve the public, community stakeholders, and elected officials as these efforts move forward. The plan will be presented to the board in December 2023 for approval, which will continue the agency’s long-term water supply planning efforts. Andre Dieffenthaller, P.E., is vice president with Hazen and Sawyer in Tampa and Ivana Kajtezovic is planning program manager with Tampa Bay Water. S


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal: 70 Years and Growing Started in 1949, the Florida Water Resources Journal began as the Overflow for members of the Florida Chapter of the American Water Works Association (AWWA). As the association grew, so did other professional organizations in the state. In 1989, the three leading water

industry associations in Florida, the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA), Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA), and Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), agreed to produce one

joint publication to inform, educate, and advocate for the entire water, wastewater, and stormwater industry in Florida. The Journal, as we all know it, serves consultants, vendors, engineers, manufacturers, contractors, utilities, and the men and women who operate and maintain the vast water/wastewater systems across this great state. Over the years, the Journal has expanded to a circulation of over 9,000 copies a month mailed directly to members from the three associations. We are proud that we just celebrated our 70th year of the Journal and that we can continue producing the best water/wastewater publication in the United States. We look forward to many more years promoting our great industry through technical and generalinterest articles, association and industry news, regulatory updates, and services, such as classified advertising. If you have an article you would like to submit for consideration on either a technical or general-interest topic, please email it to editor@fwrj.com for consideration. Each year, we rely on the support of advertisers to offset the majority of our production and mailing expenses. We make every effort to keep expenses down to allow our advertisers and customers an affordable way to stay in front of industry leaders, decision makers, and people in the industry who use their products and services. If you are interested in more information on supporting the Journal and the benefits of advertising in the magazine to reach thousands in the water/wastewater industry, please call the business office at 352-241-6006 or email Mike Delaney at mike@fwrj.com. Congratulations on the many decades of success and thanks to all those folks who have contributed over the years to make the Journal a great publication! We're looking forward to another 70 years of excellence! S

Richard Anderson President Florida Water Resources Journal


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Water Supply and Alternative Sources. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

Deborah Daigle and Michael Townsend (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS02015360)

1. The Avon Park Permeable Zone is located within the lowermost permeable zone of the a. Upper Floridan aquifer. b. Lower Floridan aquifer. c. Boulder Zone. d. Suwannee Limestone. 2. The injectate water quality standard for this project is a. primary drinking water. b. secondary drinking water. c. secondary wastewater treatment. d. advanced wastewater treatment. 3. The first North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project (NHARP) recharge zone monitoring well located the designated underground source of drinking water a. 100 ft below the 10,000 mg/l total dissolve solids interface. b. at a depth of approximately 500 ft below land surface. c. at a depth of approximately 800 ft below land surface. d. in the Tampa Limestone Formation. 4. The Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department (HCPUD) has developed a standard operating procedure to acidify the well when the ____ is less than or equal to 25 gal/pounds per sq in. (psi). a. silt density index b. specific injectivity c. salt passage ratio d. drawdown 5. In the northern Tampa Bay water caution area, Tampa Bay Water central wellfield withdrawals have _______________________ since 1988. a. doubled b. tripled c. increased by over 100 mil gal (MG) per day d. decreased by over 100 MG per day

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Saltwater Intrusion Barrier


____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Purified Water Production: A Research and Development Plant Operator’s Perspective Anna Ness, Ryan Popko, Greg Wetterau, and David Prah (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 DW/DS02015361)

1. The ozone-biologically active filtration (BAF) system was deliberately shut down approximately _____________ per week to clean the feed pump impeller to the flocculation-sedimentation system. a. once b. twice c. three times d. four times 2. The authors attribute variations in source water characteristics at the Buckman Water Reclamation Facility to a. seasonal variability. b. temperature variability. c. plant upsets. d. its commercial and industrial flows. 3. Sampling events required four operators to be on site for _______ each. a. four hours b. two days c. six hours d. one week 4. Which of the following parameters was not field-measured for the ultrafiltration and low-pressure reverse osmosis (UF-LPRO) system? a. Total chlorine b. Iron c. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) d. Turbidity 5. Which of the following systems was determined to be the most reliable and least subject to variations in source water quality? a. Ozone-BAF-advanced oxidation process (AOP) b. UF-BAF-AOP c. UF-LPRO-AOP d. Ozone-UF-AOP Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



Regional Approach to Alternative Water Supply Planning and Funding is a Win-Win for Central Florida Stakeholders Scott Manahan, Mary Fickert Thomas, Gene Heath, and Ryan Taylor he concept of taking a regional approach to water supply planning is not new in central Florida. The utilities in Polk County, in collaboration with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), prepared a countywide regional water supply plan in 2009. The Central Florida Water Initiative (CFWI) came about in 2011, which was jointly developed by the three water management districts that have jurisdiction in the central Florida region: St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD), South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), and SWFWMD. It was determined in 2015 that approximately 1,100 mil gal per day (mgd) of water supply would be needed in the fivecounty region in 2035, while the sustainable supply from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) is only about 850 mgd, leaving a large deficit. The heavily populated areas of central Florida have nearly reached their limits of permittable, traditional, fresh groundwater, and utilities are now forced, out of necessity, to seek alternative sources of water to meet growing demands. Other water supplies, including brackish water pumpage from the Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA), will need to be developed to help meet the shortfall in demand. The Polk Regional Water Cooperative (PRWC) was formed in 2016 by 16 local government members (15 cities and Polk County), as shown in Figure 1, with the intention of proactively developing a large, regional water supply system to provide additional capacity to the participating members. Public water supply demand projections developed during 2018 in Polk County showed a need of approximately 109 mgd by 2040. The sustainable yield of the UFA, which is the current source of water supply, is estimated to be 72 mgd. The deficit of 37 mgd will need to be met by an alternative water supply (AWS). The PRWC identified over 200 potential water supply projects, and three were selected for implementation. Two of the projects will ultimately involve large-capacity wellfields that



will supply raw water from the LFA to reverse osmosis (RO) treatment facilities at the West Polk and Southeast plant sites: The Southeast plant will have a design capacity of 30 mgd, whereas the West Polk plant is estimated to generate up to 15 mgd of new water supply. A third project, called the Peace Creek Integrated Water Supply Plan (IWSP), seeks to increase available water supply from the UFA by using innovative surface water capture and aquifer recharge methods. The initial phase of work required to implement the new water supply projects included feasibility studies to estimate the yield of each project and to collect the data required for preliminary design of the facilities. The cost to conduct the phase I work, which includes test drilling, groundwater modeling, water quality sampling, and other hydrologic analyses, is $23 million. Funding is being provided by SWFWMD (50 percent share), while the remaining costs will be provided by the member governments, State Revolving Fund (SRF), and other grants or loans from the CFWI and private financial institutions.

Alternate Water Supply Options and Funding The key to the successful implementation of the project is willing participation and clear communication through contracts among the various stakeholders who have a vested interest in the outcome of the project. Having viable, alternative water resources to meet the needs of this growing region is vital to the economy and people who call central Florida home. The collaborative effort of the PRWC members represents a positive change in organizational dynamics and an innovative approach to funding large-scale water supply projects, and brings attention to a region with sensitive natural resources. Rapid population growth in central Florida has greatly stressed its primary water source, the UFA. The population of Polk County for example is projected to increase from an estimated 592,082 in 2015 to 789,760 in 2035 (CFWI, 2015). A

February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Scott Manahan is senior engineering manager with WSP USA Inc. in Fort Myers. Mary Fickert Thomas is client services manager with Carollo Engineers in Orlando. Gene Heath is program manager and Ryan Taylor is executive director with Polk Regional Water Cooperative in Bartow.

number of south Florida utilities have turned to RO desalination of brackish groundwater as their primary AWS because hydrogeologic conditions in the region are favorable for the implementation of this technology. Abundant brackish groundwater resources are available in the aquifer systems, and an extraordinarily transmissive injection zone, the so-called “Boulder Zone” of the LFA, is present and can be used to efficiently and economically dispose of the desalination concentrate. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) promotes the use of AWS and estimates that 70 percent of additional public water supplies developed in the state by 2035 will entail AWS development (Regional Water Supply Planning Annual Report, 2016). The AWS options in central Florida are more limited because of its inland location and local hydrogeological conditions. Brackish groundwater development in central Florida has been much more limited to date than in south Florida because brackish groundwater resources that are hydraulically isolated from the overlying freshwater UFA occur at relatively great depths (and are thus more expensive to utilize) and potential injection zones are less well-developed than in areas further to the south. The cost to develop and treat brackish groundwater supplies can be 50 to100 percent greater than conventional freshwater sources because the supply wells are deeper, the RO treatment process utilizes more energy, and there are costs associated with concentrate disposal (injection wells). As a result, it would be difficult for a small utility to construct, operate, and maintain a brackish RO plant. A significant economy of scale is realized by constructing large, regional water treatment

facilities as opposed to smaller, local plants. The SFWMD regional water supply plan reported an estimated cost of $2.65/1000 gal for brackish water supply from a hypothetical 15-mgd plant that increases to $5.81/1000 gal from a similar 3mgd plant (SFWMD, 2016). The concept of PRWC is to join several utilities together that have common water supply needs, with the goal being the development of a reliable, economical, and sustainable large-scale public water supply to serve the growing population. Examples of funding initiatives that the PRWC has seen as successful include: S The SWFWMD is providing a 50 percent share of the funding for the $23 million feasibility study underway for the three PRWC projects. The district promotes these regional water supply efforts to use AWS, as it reduces stress on traditional groundwater sources and consolidates the withdrawals so that numerous entities are not vying for the resource, which complicates permitting efforts. An added benefit to collaborating with these agencies is that, for example, through these projects, SWFWMD has brought additional technical resources and improved regulatory processes. S The PRWC has secured low-interest SRF loans for the projects, which has eased much of the burden on small municipalities to generate the funds needed to maintain cash flow. S The PRWC members joined forces to draft the Heartland Headwaters Protection and Sustainability Act, which was adopted by the Florida Legislature in 2017 and statutorily

recognizes the vital importance of the region’s water resources to Polk County and the surrounding regions. It declared that fostering partnerships between regional water supply authorities is in the state’s interest and it facilitates state funding support. The goal of this effort was to bring more attention to Polk County, and there has been some success in allocating additional funding in the 2019 legislative session that is currently underway. S The PRWC was recently invited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to apply for a low-interest and flexible Water Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act loan. Full-scale implementation of the three PRWC projects are expected to cost over $600 million to construct, so it’s clear that a group effort is required, given the magnitude of the undertaking. Test drilling at the proposed Southeast and West Polk wellfield locations was initiated during spring 2018 and work has also been conducted at two sites as part of the Peace Creek IWSP. An update on the status of these projects follows.

Test Drilling Updates: Southeast and West Polk Water Treatment Plant Wellfields Locations of the West Polk and Southeast wellfield sites are show in Figure 2. Limited existing data are available on the hydrogeology of the LFA in Polk County, and central Florida

Figure 1. Member governments in the Polk Regional Water Cooperative.

in general. A southeast deep exploratory well (SE-DEW) program was completed near the southern end of the proposed southeast water treatment plant (WTP) wellfield in 2010 (PBS&J, 2010). Pumpage from a wellfield consisting of 15 brackish water LFA supply wells was permitted in 2014 by SFWMD, with a combined withdrawal rate of 37.5 mgd. The proposed southeast WTP production wells will be located along Boy Scout Camp Road between CR-630 and FL-60. A deep LFA southeast test production well (SE-TPW), LFA monitoring well (SE-LFA), UFA monitoring well, and water table aquifer monitoring well were constructed and tested near the north end of the proposed wellfield alignment. The test program began during spring 2018 and included water quality sampling, geophysical logging, packer testing, a long-term aquifer performance test, and lithologic analyses. Testing was completed during March 2019. The production interval of the supply wells occurs between the approximate depths of 1,400 and 1,900 ft. Potential injection zones for concentrate disposal may be present below 2,300 ft at the WTP site. The brackish water source has total dissolved solids (TDS) that vary from approximately 1,200 to 3,000 mg/l and well yields may vary from 2 to 2.5 mgd. The conceptual plan for the SE-WTP is to obtain raw water from the upper part of the LFA (Zone I) and inject the RO concentrate Continued on page 18

Figure 2. Proposed wellfield and Peace Creek project site locations. Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Continued from page 17 into a deeper zone. Figure 3 shows the general stratigraphy of the site and the approximate well depths. The WTP and deep injection well system are planned to be located at the north end of the wellfield alignment. Drilling at the West Polk site (Figure 4) began during spring 2018 and was completed in November 2019. A surficial aquifer monitor well, UFA monitor well, dual-zone monitor well, and test/production well were completed at the Lakeland site. Aquifer performance testing, geophysical logging, and water quality sampling were also completed during 2019. The supply wells at the West Polk site are anticipated to be deep, with Fiberglass casings

set to approximately 1,900 ft below land surface and total depths of roughly 2,200 ft.

Peace Creek Integrated Water Supply Plan Update The purpose of the study is to determine if seasonally available excess surface water can be stored or used for aquifer recharge and wetland rehydration to potentially offset the impacts of freshwater pumpage from wellfields in Polk County. The project involves site evaluations, data collection, modeling, permitting, and data analyses to determine if an IWSP is feasible. Site evaluations were initiated in early 2019 and are currently underway at several locations.

Geotechnical data, including standard penetration test (SPT) borings, slug tests, and water-level monitoring were conducted at two of the sites to assess the potential for storing water and aquifer recharge. The amount of water that may be available for recharge has been estimated with computer model simulations. Currently, the team is pursuing conceptual design alternatives for water use and environmental resource permitting efforts that will be conducted in 2020, assuming favorable results are achieved during the site evaluations.

Conclusions Large-scale water supply offers inherent benefits via economies of scale and regional water supply plans are looked upon favorably by regulators and funding sources. The PRWC has undertaken a focused approach to addressing water supply needs in Polk County with the evaluation of two large water supply wellfields and an innovative plan to increase water storage, wetland restoration, and aquifer recharge. The three projects currently being evaluated are estimated to provide in excess of 45 mgd of public water supply. With construction costs estimated to be over $600 million to implement these projects, a cooperative approach among the utilities, regulators, and other stakeholders is essential to the success of the program.


Figure 3. Southeast test site aquifer units.

Figure 4. West Polk test drilling site.


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• CFWI (2015) Central Florida Water Initiative. Regional Water Supply Plan 2015. A Comprehensive Plan for Orange, Osceola, Polk, Seminole, and Southern Lake Counties. • CFWI (2018) Central Florida Water Initiative, Water for Tomorrow. https://cfwiwater.com/ (accessed 9/5/2018). • Maliva, R.G., Barnes, D., Coulibaly, K., Guo, W., and Missimer, T.M., 2016. SoluteTransport Predictive Uncertainty In Alternative Water Supply, Storage, and Treatment Systems. Groundwater, 54(5), 627-633. • PBS&J (2010) Construction and Testing Report, Southeast Polk County Deep Exploratory Well Frostproof, Fla. • Regional Water Supply Planning Annual Report (FDEP, 2016). • SFWMD Water Supply Plan Update Support Document (2016). • Heartland Headwaters Protection and Sustainability Act, Annual Comprehensive Water Resources Report, FY 2019-20. S


2019 FSAWWA Fall Conference: Building a Resilient Utility Peggy Guingona The Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) celebrated its 93rd year of commitment and dedication to the world’s most important resource by hosting its 25th Fall Conference, with the theme, “Building a Resilient Utility,” from December 8-12 at the Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. The yearly event, which attracted 1700 attendees, included water utility executives and managers, engineers, educators, manufacturers, consultants, operators, students, and others from the water profession. A total of 175 exhibit booths were sold. There were plenty of opportunities to meet old colleagues and make new friends at the continental breakfasts, lunches, meet-and-greet receptions, golf tournament, Poker Night and Happy Hour, and annual BBQ Challenge and reception to welcome the incoming chair, Kim Kowalski.

Opening General Session The Opening General Session (OGS) on Monday afternoon is one of the conference’s mustattend events and has been a part of the conference since 2013. The keynote speaker this year was Jonathan Foley, Ph.D., an expert on global sustainability, food security, fresh water, and climate change. Dr. Foley is a world-renowned climate scientist, sustainability expert, and public speaker. He is the executive director of Project Drawdown, the world’s leading resource for climate solutions. His work focuses on finding solutions to sustain the cli-

mate, ecosystems, and natural resources we all depend on. Foley’s groundbreaking work has led him to become a trusted advisor to governments, foundations, nonprofits, and business leaders around the world. He and his colleagues have made major contributions to the understanding of climate change, ecosystems, food systems, and the sustainability of the world’s resources. He has published over 130 peer-reviewed scientific articles, including many highly cited works in nature and science. He is among the top one percent of the most-cited global scientists. If you have a suggestion for a keynote speaker for next year, please email me at peggy@fsawwa.org.

BBQ Challenge and Incoming Chair’s Reception On Monday evening, the conference held the sixth BBQ Challenge, which was open to all attendees. It was also an opportunity to introduce and welcome the incoming chair, Kim Kowalski (for more information, see page 34).

Technical Program The excellent technical program is successful every year through the dedicated efforts of Dr. Fred Bloetscher. In 2019, the Monday specialty workshops were offered, as they have been in the past. The nine workshops were: S America’s Water Infrastructure Act (AWIA) Risk and Resiliency Assessment Requirements

S Customer Water Quality Concerns and Consumer Confidence Reports S Development of a Project Delivery Manual S Succession Planning S Sustainable Finances for Your Utility S Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Resiliency S Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR-4) and Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) Sampling S Utility Systems Symposium – “It’s Getting Crowded Down Here” S Potable Reuse in Florida Tuesday and Wednesday technical sessions focused on the conference’s theme. The sessions included: S Building Resiliency S Southeast Desalting Association/American Membrane Technology Association (SEDA/AMTA) Session on Membrane Technology S Water Quality S Groundwater Sustainability Challenges S Resiliency and Sanitary Sewers S Information to Build in Resiliency: SCADA Saves the Day S Water Supply Planning Solutions S Potable Reuse S Water Quality S Contractors Council Workshop: How to Address Your Infrastructure Needs Now S Case Studies in Water Treatment Advances S Innovative Water Pipe Solutions S Water Distribution Continued on page 20

Opening General Session

Richard Hope, AWWA vice president and visiting officer.

Dr. Jon Foley, keynote speaker.

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



Continued from page 19 On Wednesday, the Water Use Efficiency Division held a water conservation symposium, with the title, “What's in Your Conservation Portfolio: Current Programs, Trends, and Future Projections.”

Exhibits The exhibit hall, which had 160 booth spaces and 15 tabletops, gave attendees another chance to network and learn about the latest and most innovative products and services in the water industry. Company representatives were available each day to help attendees solve their problems and meet future challenges.

Meetings The FSAWWA Executive Committee held its meeting on Sunday morning, followed by the board of governors meeting in the afternoon, with 33 board members present and other active volunteers attending. This is where the real work of the section is planned for the following year. Three specials guests from AWWA were present: S Richard Hope, AWWA vice president S Ashley Longmore, AWWA section relationship manager S Michelle Hektor, senior manager of development and donor relations, AWWA’s Water Equation


Other meetings were also held by the organization’s councils and committees. There’s a group for almost every water topic. Meetings are also held at other section events throughout the year.

Council/Regions Meeting Lunch

Full STEAM Ahead Program

Students with their mentors.

Robots Challenge


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

RECAP OF 2019 FSAWWA FALL CONFERENCE Full STEAM Ahead Program High School Initiative

On Tuesday, the AWWA Diversity and Member Inclusion Committee, led by Jackie Torbert, committee chair and past FSAWWA chair, and the FSAWWA Young Professionals Committee held a workshop for STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art/architecture, and math) students from the Odyssey Middle School. The program included presentations from the local high school students, a demonstration of robot designs, lunch, and a scavenger hunt in the exhibit hall.

At left: Students at the scavenger hunt. Below: High school students during the discussion session.

High School Academy Students Meet, Greet, and Eat For the fourth year, the FSAWWA Operators/Maintenance Council invited high school students from Heritage High School Academy of Environmental Water and St. Johns Technical High School Academy of Coastal and Water Resources to attend the conference. It’s predicted that over 30 percent of the water industry’s operators will be retiring in the next decade and there is already a shortage of new operators to fill their shoes. The section is taking proactive measures to overcome this shortage through the FSAWWA Operators Initiative. The goals of the initiative are to: S Understand and communicate the need for operators S Support the development of new and existing operators As part of this initiative, FSAWWA provides support to two technical high schools in Florida that provide four years of coursework and training in preparation for students to take the Class C license operator exam. The students attended the conference on Tuesday, December 10. As part of their schedule for the day, they attended a lunch that included a panel Continued on page 22

Battle of the School Flags

Mike Bailey with UCF flag.

Terri Holcomb and Ann Lee with USF flag.

Water For People Duck Race Pictured are (left to right) Ashley Longmore, Cristina OrtegaCastineiras, Ana Maria Gonzalez, Jean Bailey, and Grace Johns. Mike Bailey is in the background.

The Tetra Tech group (left), which was the beverage sponsor and donated 200 rubber duckies, with Juan Aceituno (right), FSAWWA Water For People chair, announcing the start of the race.

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



University of Central Florida Water Bowl champions are (left to right) Jessica Cormier, Daniel Whalen, and Carlyn Higgins.

Dr. Steve Duranceau (back row, fourth from left) poses with past and present University of Central Florida students.

Hydrant Hysteria

Continued from page 21 of both experienced and new operators to discuss their careers in operations and management. The lunch was sponsored by: S Atkins S Carus Corporation S Fluid Control Specialties Inc. S HDR S Hydromax USA S OUC S Reiss Engineering S Swan Analytical S Xylem Inc. Students were also provided with safety vests, donated by Rob Quick and the Florida Tool Store. The Florida Section paid for the printing of the logos.

Battle of Florida School Flags Attendees were challenged to show their school spirit by donating five dollars or more to raise their Florida university flag on a pole at the FSAWWA tabletop booth near the conference registration area (until the next donation!). It was a fun way to raise money for the AWWA Water Equation.

JEA first-place winners.

Ft. Lauderdale Utilities second-place winners.

City of St. Cloud third-place winners.

Water For People Duck Race A duck race was held on Tuesday, December 10, at the conference hotel’s lazy river as a fundraising event for Water For People. A big thanks goes to Juan Aceituno, the FSAWWA Water For People committee chair, and his team for making this a successful event. Special thanks also go to Tyler Tedcastle, Member Engagement and Development Council chair, for wrangling all of the little duckies through the river, and to Greg Taylor, section secretary, for serving as emcee.

JEA in action.

The top three Hydrant Hysteria teams.

Meter Madness

Poster Contest

Brian O'Berry in action.

Winner Paula Campesino with her poster.


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


First Place: Bonita Springs Utilities

Women’s Team First Place: West Palm Beach

Ductile Iron Tap

Second Place: City of West Palm Beach Sewer 1

Third Place: City of West Palm Beach Bulldogs

Backhoe Rodeo

Winner Scotty Almon, with City of St. Cloud.

JEA Water Buoys

Awards The section’s annual business luncheon and awards ceremony celebrated the current roster of statewide officers and inducted the new officers for 2019-2020. Awards were also given for the best papers and to the outstanding volunteers in the water field. See pages 27-33 for award recipients.

Contests Several contests, with both team and individual competitors, were held. Water Bowl Winner: University of Central Florida The University of Central Florida (UCF) retained the title of champion at the 2019 Young Professionals Water Bowl and UCF has been on a winning streak for the past five years. The uni-

versity provided two teams to compete for the title in the single-elimination competition format: UCF Team 1 (Carlyn Higgins, Jessica Cormier, and Daniel Whalen) beat UCF Team 2 (Tulsi Shukla, Courtney Powell, and Paula Campesino), and Team 1 was declared the Water Bowl champion. Teams from the University of South Florida and Florida International University also participated in the contest. The contest is modeled after the classic “College Bowl” television quiz show. Team members were asked questions related to the water industry, encompassing water chemistry, operations, and design of treatment systems. Tyler Tedcastle, Michael Stanley, Cara Elliott, and Madeline Kender facilitated the event. Poster Contest Winner: University of Central Florida Paula Campesino, from the University of

Central Florida, was the 2019 Fresh Ideas Poster Contest winner. She presented her poster entitled, "Evaluating the Disinfection Byproduct Formation Potential of Highly Colored Volcanic Surface Water Supply.” By winning the competition, Campesino receives a trip to ACE20, AWWA’s annual conference and exposition, to be held in June in Orlando, to compete with contest winners from across the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

Operator Events Hydrant Hysteria Hydrant Hysteria is a fast-paced two-person competition to determine who can assembly a fire hydrant the fastest. Two or more teams go head to head while assembling the hydrant Continued on page 24

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


RECAP OF 2019 FSAWWA FALL CONFERENCE Continued from page 23 to see who will be crowned Hydrant Hysteria champion. Hydrant Hysteria Winners First Place: JEA Second Place: Fort Lauderdale Utilities Third Place: City of St. Cloud The first-place winner, JEA, qualifies to compete at ACE20 in Orlando in the AWWA national competition.


Kim Kowalsk (right), incoming section chair for 2019-2020, receives the gavel from outgoing chair, Mike Bailey.

Meter Madness Meter Madness has a new champion: Brian O'Berry of Florida Key Aqueduct Authority! He assembled a water meter 4.87 seconds ahead of Eric Ingram from JEA, making him the secondplace winner. In third place was Chris Schaefer of Destin Water Users. O’Berry qualifies to go to ACE20 in Orlando to compete in the AWWA competition. Meter Madness is a competition where participants receive a bucket of meter parts for a specific water meter to assemble against the clock. To make is more interesting, three to six miscellaneous parts are included in the bucket. After assembly, the meter must work correctly and not leak. Brian Rodriguez with FKAA oversaw the competition.

Second Place: City of West Palm Beach Sewer 1 Third Place: City of West Palm Beach Bulldogs

Tapping Contests Using skill and dexterity, as well as speed, teams of four compete for the fastest time as they perform a quality drill and tap of pipe under available pressure. Two taps are allowed per team. The Fun Tap is the simpler version of the two contests.

Backhoe Rodeo Winners First Place: Scotty Almon, City of St. Cloud Second Place: C. J. Funnell, City of Zephyrhills Third Place: Brad Monk, Destin Water Users

Fun Tap Winners – Women’s Team (new addition to the competition) First Place: West Palm Beach The following helped in the success of the tapping competitions: Josh Anderson, with Florida Pipeline Sales, and Mike Spriggs, with A.Y. McDonald. Backhoe Rodeo Backhoe operators show their expertise by executing challenging lifts and drops of various objects in the fastest time. The judges for the event were Todd Jernigan and Tony Smith with Charlotte County.

Ductile Iron Tap Winners First Place: JEA Water Buoys Second Place: City of St. Cloud

All five operator competitions have been held for a very long time, and for the first time, we had a Fun Tap women’s team. Competitions are open to public and commercial-field operators working in the state of Florida. Contact Mike George at (352) 200-9631 for more information.

Fun Tap Winners – Men’s Team First Place: Bonita Springs Utilities

Peggy Guingona is executive director of Florida Section AWWA.

Annual Luncheon

Mike Bailey gives his outgoing speech.

Peggy Guingona (right) handing the magic wand to Kim.

FSAWWA 2019-2020 officers taking the oath of office, officiated by Bill Young (left).


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Mike crowns Kim.

Kim Kowalski gives her acceptance speech. Section staff and AWWA staff (left to right) are Casey Cumiskey, Donna Metherall, Kim Kowalski, Peggy Guingona, Ashley Longmore, and Jenny Arguello.

Thank you!


FSAWWA Fall Conference Sponsors The section thanks all the sponsors for their generous support of the conference.

Premier Sponsors

• AECOM • American Cast Iron Pipe • Data Flow Systems Inc. • EMA Inc. • Ferguson Waterworks • Jones Edmunds • Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc.

• Reiss Engineering Inc. • SIGMA Corporation • SKS Waterworks LLC • Wager Company of Florida Inc. • Wharton-Smith • Wright-Pierce

Platinum Sponsors

• Atkins • Black & Veatch • Blue Planet Environmental Systems • CDM Smith • Fluid Control Specialties Inc. • Freese and Nichols Inc. • Garney Construction • Grundfos • Harry Warren Inc. • Hazen and Sawyer • HDR

• ISCO Industries • Jacobs Engineering • Mead & Hunt • RK&K • Spirit Group Inc. • Tetra Tech • Thames & Associates • The Ford Meter Box Company • U.S. Pipe • VTScada by Trihedral

Gold Sponsors • American Flow Control • Carter|VerPlanck • Core & Main

Silver Sponsors

• Florida Aquastore & Utility Construction Inc. • Hydra Service Inc. • MARS Company

• Anthrafilter (U.S.) Inc. • Consolidated Pipe & Supply • McWane Ductile

Golf Sponsors Eagle • AECOM • American Cast Iron Pipe • Archer Western • Data Flow Systems • EMA Inc. • Environmental Equipment Services • Environmental MD • Ferguson Waterworks • Jacobs Engineering

• Jones Edmunds • Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc. • Reiss Engineering Inc. • Sigma Corporation • Sks Waterworks LLC • Wager Company of Florida Inc. • Wharton-Smith • Wright-Pierce

• CPH Inc. • Florida Pipeline Sales LLC • WL Plastics

• The Avanti Company


Poker Sponsors Royal Flush



• Smith-Blair • Xylem Dewatering Solutions Inc. • Xylem Inc.

Lunch • Star Pipe Products • The Ford Meter Box Company

February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• AECOM • American Cast Iron Pipe • Core & Main • DATA FLOW SYSTEMS • EMA Inc. • Ferguson Waterworks • First Billing Services Inc. • Jones Edmunds • Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc. • Reiss Engineering Inc. • Sensus • Sigma Corporation • Sks Waterworks LLC • Wager Company of Florida Inc. • Wharton-Smith • Wright-Pierce

Full House • Atkins • Veith Engineering & Business Solutions


Annual Section Awards Recipients of this year’s awards are noted and/or pictured on the following pages. The Florida Section AWWA honored outstanding individuals and organizations in the state’s water industry on two different dates. At the opening general session, held on December 9, the award recipients were as follows:

REGIONS VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR AWARD This award honors individuals who contributed their time and talent to the success of their region.

COUNCIL CHAIR AWARDS OF EXCELLENCE This award honors distinguished service by a council or committee chair that has made the most significant contribution to the council. Courtney Dantone Contractors Council

Ronald Cavalieri Region V

Pranoti Kikale Region VI

Margaret “Becky” Cook Member Engagement and Development Council

Monica Autrey Region IX

Steve Soltau Operators/Maintenance Council

Stephen Kipfinger Region X

Bryan Fletcher Manufacturers/ Associates Council

Rachel Slocumb Region XI

Sean Lathrop Region XII

Ryan Popko Region II (no photo)

Andrea C. Netcher Region III (no photo)

Pamela London-Exner Region IV (no photo)

Elizabeth Fernandez-Cuervo Region VII (no photo)

Rae Hafer Technical and Education Council

Kristen Sealey Public Affairs Council

Monica Autrey Water Utility Council

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



ANNUAL AWARDS LUNCHEON On December 11, FSAWWA honored outstanding individuals and organizations in the state’s water industry at the annual awards luncheon.

AWWA GEORGE WARREN FULLER AWARD The Florida Section recognized Kim Kunihiro for her exceptional performance and leadership as an advocate for the water industry and the members of the section. She was formerly the water production manager and water quality manager for Orange County, overseeing drinking water production, major expansions to the county’s water supply facilities, water quality, regulatory reporting, and Consumer Confidence Reports. Kim served in many positions over her 30 years with the Florida Section, including:

S Water Quality Division chair and Technical and Education Council chair S Florida Section chair in 2016 As section chair, the following are examples of her inclusive style: S Recognizing member and staff contributions and achievements. S Sharing information for water quality, water resource planning, regulatory updates, and hurricane preparation and recovery. S Encouraging members to get involved, communicate with other members of the water community and government officials, learn through available information and training programs, and advocate for safe and reliable drinking water. Kim continues to serve members as an AWWA Water Quality Technology Division trustee and on the planning committee of the Water Quality Technology Conference, including chairing the committee in 2018.

Kim and Richard Hope, AWWA vice president.

Congratulations to Kim.


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

DR. EDWARD SINGLEY AWARD OF EXCELLENCE This award was given to Steve Soltau by the FSAWWA Executive Committee for dedicating his time and talents to the Operators/Maintenance Council’s High School Initiative Program and Roy Likins Scholarship Committee that exceeds his duties and obligations in his service to the FSAWWA board of governors and section. Steve Soltau

ALLEN B. ROBERTS JR. AWARD This award is named in honor of Allen B. Roberts Jr., who worked diligently as the Florida Section's executive director to improve the status of the section by providing valuable leadership. Monica Autrey received this year’s award for her outstanding service as a member. She has contributed most to the section by providing valuable support to its programs through outstanding leadership, creativity, and service in the water-related field, particularly to the resolution of problems and the implementation of activities within the FSAWWA Water Utility Council (WUC). Examples are as WUC secretary, attendance at the Washington, D.C., and Tallahassee Fly-ins, and presenter for the WUC at the 2018 and 2019 Florida Water Forums. Monica continues to contribute to the success of Regions IX and XII. Monica Autrey

RECAP OF 2019 FSAWWA FALL CONFERENCE ROBERT L. CLAUDY AWARD This award is named in honor of Robert L. Claudy, who was a past chair of FSAWWA and is a big supporter and still active in the Roy Likins Scholarship program. Bill Young, a past FSAWWA chair, was the recipient of this MAC award for his efforts in promoting water quality in the industry, community, section, and association, and continued support to the Roy Likins Scholarship program. Bill Young

FSAWWA SERVICE AWARDS The following were honored for their service to the Florida Section:

Daniel E. Glaser Region IV Chair 2017-2019

Mary Meima Region V Chair 2017-2019

Cristina OrtegaCastineiras Region VII Chair 2017-2019

Tyler Tedcastle Engagement and Development Council Chair 2014-2019

Kunal Nayee Region II Chair 2017-2019 (no photo)

Tyler Davis Region VI Chair 2017-2019

CHARLES HOGUE AWARD Mark McDowell was honored by the MAC with this award as its individual member of the year. Mark McDowell

Pamela London-Exner Technical and Education Chair 2015-2019

MAC COMPANY OF THE YEAR AWARD Awarded to Florida Pipeline Sales Accepted by Josh Anderson..

YOUNG PROFESSIONAL OF THE YEAR Rhea J. Dorris was named the young professional of the year.

Bobby K. Gibbs Trustee 2017-2019

Marjorie G. Craig FL2040 Committee Chair 2017-2019

Lisa Wilson-Davis Water Utility Council Chair 2016-2019

MAC DADDY This award honors the Manufacturers/Associates Council (MAC) member who has contributed the most to the success of the FSAWWA Fall Conference. This year it went to Chase Freeman (no photo).

Rhea J. Dorris Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



AWWA AWARDS AWWA honors significant membership tenure with the following awards. The recognition received builds with a member’s years with the association.


GOLD WATER DROP AWARDS Recipients were honored for 50 years of AWWA membership.

Recipients were honored for 30 cumulative years of membership and being at least 65 years of age. Luis Aguiar (pictured) Damann L. Anderson Thomas M. Baber Rim Bishop Neil V. Callahan Kenneth D. Colen

Raymond Diaz Gary A. Iversen Michael J. Henry John R. Leemon Debbie D. Swain

SILVER WATER DROP AWARDS Recipients were honored for 25 cumulative years of AWWA membership. W. Richard Karasiewicz (pictured) Martin Leiter Norman Scally Alfred M. Tenny

Michael R. Alverson Robert J. Bolton Frank A. Brinson Bruce D. Goodin James Huish John Kersten Adriana Lamar Jeffrey J. Lanphere Julianne T. LaRock Alberto M. Lazaro Rodney Alan Main

Mark Morgan Richard L. Nipper Mark D. Oural Robert C. Plummer Tamara Richardson C. Gordon Smith Jack Strain Philip L. Waller E. David Watson Bill Young (pictured)

LANDMARK AWARDS The FSAWWA gives this award to various facilities or structures serving as components of water systems that have historical significance and, as such, may be candidates as an American Water Works Association Water Landmark or a Florida Section Water Landmark. The facility or structure should have been in service and operational for 50 or more years to qualify for this important recognition. Wells, pumps, and piping may qualify if deemed to be of important significance. City of North Port Myakkahatchee Creek Conventional Treatment Plant Dedicated 1963 Chad Nosbisch (left), water and wastewater plant operations manager with North Port Utilities Water, accepts the Water Landmark Award from Dr. Fred Bloetscher.


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

RECAP OF 2019 FSAWWA FALL CONFERENCE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AWARDS An award is given to a utility with outstanding performance during the preceding year that deserves special recognition by the section. The criteria for these awards shall be based on, but not limited to, the following: S Must be a member of AWWA (organization or individual) S Actively supports the activities of the Florida Section S Has completed the questionnaire

Division 2 – Destin Water Users Accepted by (front row) Chris Schaefer and Monica Autrey, and (back row) Brad Monk and Zach Hilton.

Division 6 – Charlotte County Utilities Accepted by {left to right) Duane Smith, Stephen Kipfinger, and Tony Smith.

Division 1 – None

S Demonstrates high standards and integrity The following utilities earned the first-place award in their respective divisions:


Division 3 – City of Coral Springs Accepted by (left to right) Najla Zerrouki, Dwight Parrett, and Alvan Jones.

Division 7 – Collier County Water-Sewer District Accepted by Jerry Zimmerman and Matt Tapley.

Division 4 – Bonita Springs Utilities Inc. – Distribution and Collection Accepted by Lance Reighter and Mike Prescott.

Division 8 – Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department Accepted by Jason Parrillo and Mark Lehigh.

Division 5 – None

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


RECAP OF 2019 FSAWWA FALL CONFERENCE ROY W. LIKINS SCHOLARSHIP The scholarships are awarded each year by the section to outstanding graduate or undergraduate college students enrolled in an accredited Florida institution who are pursuing a degree related to the drinking water industry. The scholarship is named for the late Roy Likins, former president of Palm Coast Utility Corporation and a lifelong member of the American Water Works Association, who served as section chair and secretary-treasurer, as well as Region IX chair with the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association. $5,000 - Courtney Powell, University of Central Florida $4,000 - Daniel Cordona, University of Central Florida $4,000 - Debbie Fulton, Saint Leo University $4,000 - Salome Montoya, Florida International University $4,000 - Angel Villarruel-Moore, University of Central Florida $3,500 - Nathaniel Winn, University of West Florida

Courtney Powell

Debbie Fulton

Salome Montoya

$3,500 - Quinn Zacharias, University of Florida $3,000 - Carlos Cabrejos, Florida International University $3,000 - Elizabeth Patton, University of Florida $3,000 - Gary Qui, University of Florida $3,000 - Marcus Seidman, Florida Atlantic University $2,500 - Daniel Eagan, University of South Florida

Angel Villarruel-Moore

Quinn Zacharias

Gary Qui


City of Titusville Go Native at the Movies (no photo)

Public Education Best in Class – Mega Utility Orange County Utilities Water Division “Water Wise Neighbor” Accepted by (front row) Terri Thill and Bridgett Tolley, and (back row) Jessica Green, Norman Blowers, and Germine Hernandez.


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

City of Ocala Water Conservation Program Accepted by Rachel Slocumb.

Polk County Springs Conservation Projects Accepted by Keeli Carlton.

City of Winter Garden Water Conservation Program (no photo)

RECAP OF 2019 FSAWWA FALL CONFERENCE BEST PAPER AWARDS “Scale Inhibitor Dosage: How Low Can You Go?” Carlyn J. Higgins, S.S., E.I.; and Steven J. Duranceau, Ph.D., P.E. Accepted by Dr. Steve Duranceau and Carlyn Higgins.

“Water Balance and Hydraulic Analysis: Maximizing the Beneficial Use of Reclaimed Water Through Seasonal Changes and Growth” Kirsten Burns and David Ammerman (no photo)

“Improving Climate Change Resilience of Municipal Wastewater Infrastructure” Da Yu, P.E.; Edward Talton, P.E.; Nancy Gassman, Ph.D.; and Steve Hillberg, P.E. (no photo)

Water For People Fundraiser Recognition Water For People Exhibitor Fundraiser Recognition of Gold Sponsors S S S S S S S

Blue Planet Environmental Systems Empire Pipe & Supply Hazen and Sawyer Hydra Service Inc. Hydromax USA Jones Edmunds & Associates Moss-Kelley Inc.

S Reiss Engineering S Xylem Dewatering Solutions Inc. Accepted by (left to right) Juan Aceituno, WFP Committee chair, with Monique Durant, Hazen and Sawyer; and Mark Burgess, Reiss Engineering.

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



Incoming Chair’s Reception and BBQ Challenge was an Attendee Hit! One of the highlights of the conference was the sixth annual BBQ Challenge and the incoming chair’s reception held on the event lawn at the convention center. The setting made for a great evening of music, networking, and excellent food and drinks for more than 500 attendees. Mother Nature cooperated this year, and the beautiful lawn setting was enjoyed by all. It was also a chance to toast Kim Kowalski, incoming chair, who will lead the section in 2020 and hear her speak about what she hopes to accomplish in the coming year. Complimentary beverages were sponsored by the FSAWWA Contractors Council and the following companies: S Barney's Pumps Inc. S Core and Main S Electric Services Inc. S Exceletech Coating & Applications S GML Coatings S North Lake Electric Inc. S PSI Technologies Inc. S Rocha Controls S Wade Trim

The BBQ sides were sponsored by the FSAWWA Contractors Council and the following companies: S C & B Piping Inc. S Construction Services Corporation of Tallahassee S Electric Services Inc. S GML Coatings S HDR S Integ-Crete Construction

Kim Kowalski gives her acceptance speech as section chair.

The entertainment was provided by J.T. Curtis and the Florida Scoundrels.


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Kiewit Water Facilities Florida Co. McDade Water Works Reynolds Construction TSC-Jacobs North Inc. Woolpert

They all helped to make the 2019 event an outstanding success! There is nothing like an ice-cold drink and delicious sides to go with great barbecue! In charge of the event were Mike Alexakis and Richard Anderson, as cochairs, and Mike George and Jonathan Fernald were committee members. This year’s contest featured a record-breaking 15 teams competing for the honor of “grand champion.” Grill masters from the following companies competed for top honors in chicken, pork, ribs, beef brisket, people’s choice, and overall champion: S Aegion Corp./Insituform S Bonita Springs Utilities (first-time entry) S Charlotte County/Jones Edmunds S Core and Main (first-time entry) S Ferguson (first-time entry)


Richard Anderson, emcee for the evening.


FJ Nugent & Associates (first-time entry) Fortiline Garney Construction Kimley-Horn and Associates Inc. PCL Construction Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Pinellas County Utilities (first-time entry) Trench Plate Rental Village of Wellington Wharton-Smith

As the conference attendees socialized and feasted on the barbecue, judging took place to determine the best in each category and the grand champion. Richard Anderson, the barbecue event cochair, announced the results at the end of the evening. First-place honors went to: S FJ Nugent for chicken S Fortiline for pork ribs S Aegion Corp./Insituform for beef brisket S Pinellas County for pork butt Team Pinellas County earned the crowd’s vote, winning the people’s choice award, and was also was declared the “2019 BBQ Grand Champion.” What a feat for Pinellas County— congratulations! Congratulations to all the teams competing this year! We hope to see you in 2020. Overall, this year’s event was a tremendous success that featured great food and fun in a fantastic locale. Watch for news of the seventh annual BBQ Challenge at the 2020 FSAWWA Fall Conference at Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. You don’t want to miss it! S

Pinellas County won the grand champion, pork butt-category champion, and people’s choice awards.

FJ Nugent team, chicken-category champion.

Aegion Corp./Insituform, beef brisketcategory champion.

Fortiline Waterworks team, pork ribs-category champion.

FloridaSection Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



Can You Take Charge of Your Professional Development? Michael W. Sweeney, Ph.D. President, FWEA ost of us by now have an understanding of what asset management means in the context of water infrastructure and utility management. It was “imported” to our sector almost twenty years ago courtesy of primarily Australia, New Zealand,


and the United Kingdom. These nations’ utilities underwent a restructuring to become more financially transparent, to facilitate longer-range planning, and to justify their rates to maintain an acceptable level of service. As the principles and practices of asset management have become more familiar to us over the years, many utilities here in the United States asserted that they were already “doing AM” and have all of the “requisite” master plans, projects, and rate studies to prove it. Other utilities have perceived a functioning asset management program as grounded in a

technological pursuit involving such things as a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), geographic information systems (GIS), and customer information systems (CIS). In reality, both points of view have validity. Boil it all down, and asset management is a decision support process based on continuously refining and executing operations, with maintenance efforts and investment strategies to ensure that desired levels of service and sustainability are achieved. The key to utilities possessing a viable asset management program is to focus on the various essential competency elements as embodied in five questions: 1. What is the current state of my assets? 2. What is my required "sustainable" level of service? 3. Which assets are critical to sustained performance? 4. What are my minimum life cycle costs? 5. What is my best long-term funding strategy? Here is something interesting. According to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency report (EPA 800-F-19-002, February 2019), as of 2018 about 15 states now require some level of asset management planning, even affecting systems serving as few as five hundred people. So why bring up the subject of asset management? Well, it’s budget preparation time for many of us and it’s important to give some thought to starting or improving your programs and updating your answers to those five questions. For me, the answer to the question contained in the title of this column is “yes.” It may be sort of a de facto standard or best practice, but the trend is clear and the bar is rising. We cannot continue to assume we know or have the information needed to determine the condition of all our critical assets. “Assumptions” live in the land near where you don’t know what you don’t know. We as operators, engineers, or managers know the dangers of this realm and the need to chart a course with facts and data that more than justify the necessary future investments to avoid asset failure or noncompliance. When it comes to asset management, even though the principles and practices have been with us awhile, practicing and refining our decision making is where order comes from chaos and where water quality and service are reliability delivered. S


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

2019 FWPCOA OFFICERS AND COMMITTEE CHAIRS For more information on officers and committee chairs, visit the association website site at http://www.fwpcoa.org.

• Chair Robert Case (727) 892-5076 04-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice-Chair Janet DeBiasio 04-treasurer@fwcpoa.org • Secretary Debra Englander (727) 892-5633 04-secretary@fwpcoa.org • Treasurer Vivian Gleaves 04-treasurer@fwcpoa.org

Region 5

CORPORATE OFFICERS • President Kenneth Enlow (813) 226-8708, ext. 239 president@fwpcoa.org • Vice President Patrick Murphy (813) 757-9191 vice-pres@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Rim Bishop (561) 627-2900, ext. 314 sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Athena Tipaldos (407) 246-4086 st-elect@fwpcoa.org • Past President Mike Darrow (863) 409-4256 past-pres@fwpcoa.org

REGIONAL OFFICERS Region 1 • Director Dakota Millican 01-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Russel Burton 01-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice-Chair (currently vacant) • Secretary-Treasurer Albert Bock 01-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • Secreatry-Treasurer-Elect James Tucker 01-sec-elect@fwpcoa.org


Region 2 • Director David Ashley (904) 665-8484 02-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Josh Parker (904) 665-6052 parkje@jea.com • Vice-Chair Larry Johnson johnlarry1953@att.net • Secretary-Treasurer Jackie Scheel (904) 665-8473 ScheJB@jea.com • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Randy Ellis (904) 665-7133 02-sec-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 3 • Director Kevin Shropshire (321) 221-7540 03-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Glen Siler 03-vicepchair@fwpcoa.org • Vice-Chair June Clark (321) 868-1240 03-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary Marcy King-Daniels (321) 221-7570 03-secretary@fwpcoa.org • Treasurer Russ Carson (321) 749-5914 jrcdillo@aol.com

Region 4 • Director Mark DiNobile (727) 892-5841 04-director@fwpcoa.org

February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

• Director Stephen Utter (772) 978-5220 05-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair George Horner (772) 873-6400 GHorner@cityofpsl.com • Vice-Chair Val Santos (772) 462-1150 santosv@stlucieco.org • Secretary-Treasurer John Lang (772) 562-9176 jflang2012@gmail.com

Region 6 • Director Dennis Godwin 06-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Pat Lyles 06-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice-Chair Vincent Munn 06-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Patti Brock 06-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Jessica Hill 06-st-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 7 • Director Renee Moticker 07-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Mauricio Linarte 07-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice-Chair James A. Bauer 07-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary Terry McVeigh 07-secretary@fwpcoa.org • Treasurer Tim McVeigh (954) 683-1432 07-treasurer@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Pavol Pleenik 07-st-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 8 • Director Nigel Noone (239) 565-5352 08-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Matt Astorino (239) 677-0042 08-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice-Chair Igor Gutin 08-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Patrick Long 08-sec-treas@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Diane DiPascale 08-sec-tres-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 9 • Director Scott Ruland (407) 656-2332, ext. 228 09-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Tom Mikell (352) 393-6614 mikelltj@gru.com • Vice-Chair (West) Syed Hasan (352) 393-6769 hasansz@gru.com • Vice-Chair (East) Brian Terry bterry@deltonfl.gov • Secretary Jim Parrish jamesparrish@2001@yahoo.com • Treasurer Glenn Whitcomb champ95@cfl.rr.com • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Kameron Van Kleeck 09sec-treas-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 10 • Director Charles Nichols Sr. (863) 581-0111 10-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Edward Clark 10-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice-Chair Todd Potter 10-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Katherine Kinloch catloch3@verizon.net • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Nathan Silveira 10-st-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 11 • Director Steve Schwab 11-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Scott Stoll scottstolfwpcoa@aol.com • Chair-Elect Ally Munyon 11-chair-elect@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Vonte Tucker 11-sec-treas@aol.com • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Nioker White nwhite@ouc.com

Region 12 • Director Steve Saffels 12-director@fwpcoa.org • Chair Brent Laudicina (941) 773-5551 12-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Vice-Chair Dana Mills 12-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Secretary-Treasurer Zoé Chaiser 813-757-9191 zchaiser@plantcitygov.com • Secretary-Treasurer-Elect John Wolfe (813) 875-2486 12-sec-treas-elect@fwpcoa.org

Region 13 • Director (currently vacant) • Chair (currently vacant) • Vice-Chair Tracy Betz 13-vice-chair@fwpcoa.org • Treasurer Arnold Gibson (386) 466-3350 13-treasurer@fwpcoa.org • Secretary Bill Ewbank 13-secretary@fwpcoa.org

STANDING COMMITTEE CHAIRS • Awards and Citations Renee Moticker awards@fwpcoa.org • Constitution and Rules Kenneth Enlow (813) 226-8708 const-rules@fwpcoa.org • Customer Relations Peter Selberg cust-rel@fwpcoa.org

• Dues and Fees Tom King dues@fwpcoa.org • Education Tom King education@fwpcoa.org • Ethics Scott Ruland ethics@fwpcoa.org • Historical Al Monteleone (352) 459-3626 historian@fwpcoa.org • Job Placement Joan Stokes (407) 293-9465 • Membership Rim Bishop (561) 627-2900, ext. 314 membership@fwpcoa.org • Policies and Procedures Athena Tipaldos st-elect@fwpcoa.org • Program and Short Course Jim Smith programs@fwpcoa.org • Publicity Phil Donovan (561) 966-4188 r6donovan@aol.com • Systems Operators Ray Bordner (727) 798-3969 sys-op@fwpcoa.org • Website Walt Smyser (954) 558-5656 webmaster@fwpcoa.org

SPECIAL COMMITTEE CHAIRS • Audit Tom King audit@fwpcoa.org • Exam Consultant Ray Bordner (727) 527-8121 exam@fwpcoa.org • FWRJ/FWRC Tom King (321) 867-9495 Thomas.j.King-1@nasa.gov • Legislative Kevin Shropshire legislative@fwpcoa.org

• Nominating Raymond Bordner (727) 527-8121 h2oboy2@juno.com • Operators Helping Operators John Lang (772) 562-9176 oho@fwpcoa.org • Safety Peter M. Tyson (305) 797-8201 safety@fwpcoa.org • Scholarship Renee Moticker (954) 967-4230 awards@fwpcoa.org

EDUCATION SUBCOMMITTEES CHAIRS • Backflow Glenn Whitcomb backflow@fwpcoa.org • Continuing Education Jim Smith CEU@fwpcoa.org • Industrial Pretreatment Kevin Shropshire (407) 832-2748 03-director@fwpcoa.org • Plant Operations Jamie Hope (352) 318-3321 hope2protectFLwaters@gmail.com • Reclaimed Water Jodie Godsey reclaimed@fwpcoa.org • Stormwater Brad Hayes stormwater@fwpcoa.org • Utilities Maintenance Robert Case (727) 893-5076 robertcase1952@gmail.com

• Webmaster Walt Smyser (954) 558-5656 webmaster@fwpcoa.org

FWRC/FWRJ APPOINTMENTS • Trustee Tom King (321) 867-3042 Thomas.j.King-1@nasa.gov • Trustee Rim Bishop (561) 627-2900, ext. 314 rbishop@sua.com • Trustee Scott Anaheim (904) 665-8415 sanaheim@bellsouth.net • Member Ray Bordner (727) 527-8121 h2oboy2@juno.com • Member Al Monteleone (352) 259-3924 scooter1030@embarqmail.com • Member Ken Enlow kenlow51@verizon.net • Member Mike Darrow (863) 409-4256 past-pres@fwpcoa.org

ADMINISTRATION • Executive Director (currently vacant) exec-dir@fwpcoa.org • Training Coordinator Shirley Reaves (321) 383-9690 training@fwpcoa.org

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



Purified Water Production: A Research and Development Plant Operator’s Perspective Anna Ness, Ryan Popko, Greg Wetterau, and David Prah Introduction and Background Interest in water reuse technologies has been growing in recent years as the demand for potable water approaches the limit of conventional water supplies. In northeast Florida, the Floridan aquifer is the primary water supply for nearly 337,000 residents of the greater Jacksonville area, served by JEA. It’s anticipated by JEA that potable water demands will continue to increase, necessitating consideration of alternative and sustainable water supplies. As a result, JEA has taken a proactive approach by launching a water purification program to evaluate potable reuse as an alternative water supply. The water purification program includes research and development (R&D) testing, demonstration, and planned full-scale implementation. The primary objective of the R&D phase of the program was to collect trusted technical data through rigorous pilot testing to observe and compare process performance and purified water quality of the two industryleading treatment trains for potable reuse.

This article describes the daily operations and maintenance (O&M) activities, water quality testing protocol, equipment troubleshooting, and lessons learned during R&D testing. Operational performance and water quality results are not the focus here and have been presented in other papers and articles on the R&D testing portion of the project. The JEA R&D testing was the first in Florida evaluating the two leading treatment trains side by side with two drastically different source waters. One source water was from a more traditional municipal water reclamation facility (WRF) primarily consisting of residential customers and the other was from a WRF with significant industrial sources in the collection system. As a result, JEA gained a better understanding of each treatment train’s robustness by observing how the leading treatment trains performed over these widely varying conditions. The first train was equipped with ultrafiltration (UF) followed by low-pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) and an advanced oxidation process (AOP), or UF-LPRO-AOP.

Figure 1. Research and development was conducted for two different water purification process systems.


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Anna Ness is an environmental engineer and David Prah, P.E., BCEE, is a principal with CDM Smith in Jacksonville. Ryan Popko, P.E., is a consulting engineer with JEA in Jacksonville. Greg Wetterau, P.E, BCEE, is vice president with CDM Smith in Rancho Cucamonga, Calif.

The second train included flocculationsedimentation, then ozonation, followed by biologically active filtration (BAF) and AOP, or Ozone-BAF-AOP. Figure 1 presents a process flow diagram depicting both treatment trains. To provide a true side-by-side comparison, these two systems were operated in parallel at the two different JEA WRFs for approximately five months each. The next step in the water purification program will utilize the treatment train selected from the results of the R&D testing and implement this treatment approach for a demonstration facility with a treatment capacity up to 1 mil gal per day (mgd). The purpose of the demonstration facility will be to showcase the advanced water purification technologies, while amassing a considerable foundation of trusted technical data. Water quality data are essential for demonstrating the safety of the purified water to the public and to regulators. Operational data from the demonstration facility will also inform a more-efficient design for a full-scale facility. The demonstration facility will be fully expandable to full-scale implementation, which for planning purposes is approximately 10 mgd of purified water. The actual capacity of the full-scale facility will depend on the future need for the purified water. Contracting with CDM Smith, JEA began a “turn-key” program for the R&D testing where, working collaboratively with JEA, CDM Smith selected and procured the equipment, developed the R&D testing and safety protocol, provided all O&M services, and prepared all applicable reports. The R&D plant was operated continuously and members of the consultant team were onsite daily.

Figure 2. During start-up of the UF-RO system, new RO elements were installed, as well as an inline total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Inline TOC analyzers are not widely used, and this innovative instrument helped operators monitor treatment performance in real time.

Research and Development Testing Objectives While the focus of this article is specifically on R&D plant operations, the overall primary objectives of the R&D testing were as follows: S Characterize the secondary treated clarified effluent, prior to ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, at the Buckman and Southwest WRFs. This water was used as the source water for the R&D treatment trains. S Identify a single-treatment process train system (either UF-LPRO-AOP or OzoneBAF-AOP) for subsequent demonstration and implementation. This determination would be based on treatment performance, capital and O&M costs, waste management, ease of permitting, and reliability/robustness. S Determine appropriate design criteria and operational parameters for the demonstration facility in order to develop a building layout, capital cost estimate, and O&M cost estimate for the demonstration facility. S Develop a comprehensive public outreach plan to clearly explain the treatment processes and safeguards for public health, and provide consistent, readily available information to the community.

Research and Development Plant Equipment This section provides information related to the R&D test equipment employed at the Southwest and Buckman WRFs. The R&D equipment for the two treatment alternatives was procured from various vendors, and the selection was generally made using performance-based

Figure 3. Flocculation-sedimentation was used as a pretreatment step for the Ozone-BAF system. Shown is the sedimentation basin, along with the chemical storage metering pumps and operator interface panels.

specifications. Another criteria for equipment selection was treatment flexibility, not only for varying source water quality, but also for additional variables that are stated, which helped provide detailed costs and a clear direction for demonstration testing. The following subsections provide general information related to the water purification equipment utilized throughout the R&D testing. Ultrafiltration and Low-Pressure Reverse Osmosis The UF system served as the first unit process within the UF-LPRO-AOP system and consisted of the Spectrum Ultrafiltration Pilot Plant as manufactured by Wigen Water Technologies. The UF process consisted of two parallel UF modules. Following the UF process, the UF filtrate was combined into an equalization tank and conveyed to the LPRO system for further purification. A photo of the LPRO system is shown in Figure 2 (the photo was taken during start-up when the elements were being installed). This system, also provided by Wigen Water Technologies, was configured in a 2:2:1:1 array with a total of eighteen 4-in.diameter elements. Individual process variables evaluated as part of R&D testing for the UFLPRO process included a UF module manufacturer, UF flux rate, and LPRO flux rate. Ozonation and Biologically Active Filtration A pretreatment step, consisting of a coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation system, was used prior to the Ozone-BAF-AOP system. Following sedimentation, settled water

was conveyed to the ozonation system for further purification; following the ozonation process, ozonated water was conveyed to the BAF system. Three different media types and two different column configurations were evaluated in the R&D testing. A picture taken inside the Ozone-BAF system (manufactured by Intuitech Inc.) is shown in Figure 3. Individual process variables evaluated during R&D testing of the Ozone-BAF process included coagulation conditions (i.e., coagulant type, dose, settled water pH), sedimentation basin overflow rate, ozone dose-to-TOC ratio, BAF media type (anthracite, spent GAC, virgin GAC), BAF media configuration (parallel versus series), BAF surface loading rate, and empty bed contact time. Advanced Oxidation A common advanced oxidation system served as the final unit process for both processes. This system was manufactured by SUEZ. The UV dose, oxidant dose, and oxidant type (sodium hypochlorite versus hydrogen peroxide) were evaluated as part of the R&D testing.

Data Sources Data that formed the basis of the process train evaluation originated from multiple sources, including online instruments, field measurements, and discrete sampling events. These data included both physical data (i.e., process flows, process pressures, etc.) and water quality data (i.e., turbidity, pH, conductivity, Continued on page 42

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Continued from page 41 temperature, etc.). The UF-LPRO and OzoneBAF systems were typically operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week, unless scheduled maintenance or unscheduled disruptions caused temporary shutdowns.

master spreadsheet. While the process of transferring data was not particularly difficult in itself, ample time of approximately three to four hours each week was allotted to perform the data transfers, quality-check the data, and troubleshoot instruments as needed.

Online Instrumentation Online instruments served a critical role throughout the R&D testing, allowing operators and engineers to remotely monitor the R&D plant data. On many individual unit processes, online instruments provided continuous monitoring of various process parameters via a digital display and internal data logging (i.e., temperature, conductivity, ozone transfer efficiency, process pressures, flow, tank levels, etc.) that enabled the automation of numerous system functions. These online instruments also provided excellent operational data for both physical operating parameters and select water quality parameters, including turbidity, conductivity, and TOC. The R&D plant operators typically transferred data from online instruments into a master Excel spreadsheet once a week. The master spreadsheet for data management was developed by CDM Smith at the beginning of the project with preset plots, which helped operators and engineers quickly recognize anomalies in the operating data. With five months of testing planned for each WRF, the early effort of developing the spreadsheet and plots prior to receiving data was critical for making process decisions quickly and staying on schedule. Raw data from the UF-LPRO system were stored in an online database and managed by the system manufacturer. Raw data from the Ozone-BAF system were stored on USBs, located inside the equipment panels onsite. Also, data stored by the inline TOC analyzers were copied to a flash drive, then uploaded into the

Field Measurements Data obtained from online instruments were supplemented with data obtained from field measurements. Field-measured data included both physical operating parameters and water quality parameters. In some instances, field measurements were intended to verify information obtained from online instruments (i.e., conductivities, pH values, turbidity values, etc.). In other instances, field measurements were intended to generate new information, either to monitor the operation and performance of individual unit processes (i.e., dissolved oxygen concentrations, adenosine triphosphate [ATP] concentrations, TOC concentrations, etc.) or to minimize the potential for process interruptions (i.e., bulk chemical tank levels, differential pressure across basket strainers, etc.). Field-measured data associated with individual unit processes are summarized in Table 1. Physical operating data were collected daily, and field water quality analyses were typically conducted four times each week. Routine Sampling Events Routine sampling events were conducted on a weekly basis throughout the R&D testing to monitor the performance of individual unit processes, as well as the overall treatment process systems. Each of these routine sampling events involved the collection of over 350 discrete samples from various process streams, followed by their packaging and shipment to a certified analytical laboratory for subsequent analysis. Generally, performing routine sampling events required two R&D plant

Table 1. Field-Measured Data and Equipment Utilized

operators to be onsite for at least eight hours each. Additional follow-up with the laboratory was often required to coordinate sampling schedules and notify the laboratory of any changes in sampling protocol, if required. Comprehensive Source and Purified Water Sampling Events Comprehensive source water and purified water sampling events were conducted during the R&D testing to provide a holistic assessment of the R&D plant source water quality and purified water quality from each purification process. Each of the periodic purified water sampling events involved the collection of discrete water samples from six specific locations within the process systems (R&D plant source water, UF-LPRO permeate, UF-LPRO-AOP purified water, UF-LPRO concentrate, OzoneBAF treated water, and Ozone-BAF-AOP purified water). Typically, these sampling events required four operators to be onsite for at least six hours each. This testing protocol allowed for the direct comparison of the two treatment processes. Once collected, all samples were packaged and shipped to a certified analytical laboratory for subsequent analysis. In addition to primary and secondary drinking water standards, more than 250 currently unregulated constituents (i.e., terpenes and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and herbicides, etc.) were investigated for each sampling event.

Operational Lessons Learned This section focuses on the specific operational lessons learned over the 10-month R&D study. To accurately explain abnormalities in operating and water quality data, the importance of good recordkeeping should be emphasized throughout. Accurate documentation and written records were essential in determining the cause for equipment interruptions and assisted in identifying similar issues on other equipment. Close collaboration with WRF staff on scheduling and planned maintenance activities also helped overcome challenges encountered during potable reuse R&D testing. Research and Development Plant Source Water Variability The R&D testing was conducted over an approximately 10-month period. The largest fluctuations in R&D plant source water quality were related to temperature and seasonal variability. For example, atypical operating conditions at Southwest WRF arose from the proliferation of filamentous-bulking bacteria within the wastewater treatment process, as well as the subsequent actions implemented by the


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Southwest WRF operations staff to remedy the situation (i.e., chlorination of the return activated sludge). Ultimately, the plant upset at the Southwest WRF and the lower coagulant dose being evaluated at the R&D plant during that time resulted in elevated values for several water quality parameters, including but not limited to, turbidity, TOC, and total nitrogen. Variability in the source water characteristics was also observed during the R&D testing at Buckman WRF, which is JEA’s largest treatment plant, with a permitted average capacity of 52.5 mgd. Loading conditions to the R&D plant varied on a daily basis, which is indicative of its commercial and industrial customer base.

installed in the Stage 2 pressure vessels. The programming issue and alarm settings were corrected, a manual pressure relief valve was installed as a backup, and the displaced O-ring was replaced. Water quality data were closely monitored following the overpressure event, and it was decided that the event caused a slight compromise in the integrity of the Stage 2 elements, which were subsequently replaced S Power Outages – The regularly scheduled

generator testing conducted by WRF plant staff was generally well-coordinated with R&D plant operations and did not cause any unexpected challenges; however, unplanned power outages (i.e., short “blips” in power supply) would sometimes cause significant challenges, particularly for the UF-LPRO pilot system. For example, a power interruption could cause the breaker on the Continued on page 44

Troubleshooting Equipment The R&D plant typically operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Troubleshooting equipment issues and performing preventative maintenance were key aspects in ensuring satisfactory operation of the R&D plant by reducing the frequency of unplanned shutdown events. This section highlights the normal maintenance duties and specific equipment issues encountered by the R&D plant operators. Most, if not all, of these equipment issues were related to the challenges inherent with the modular, pilotscale systems being tested. Full-scale water purification facilities include many additional design features (i.e., integrated alarms, supervisory control and data acquisition [SCADA], backup power, etc.) to avoid these issues and provide a reliable and robust treatment process. Ultrafiltration and Low-Pressure Reverse Osmosis System From an operational perspective, the UFLPRO process generally provided consistent and reliable operation. While operational anomalies were experienced during R&D testing, these irregularities did not arise from inherent flaws or limitations of the UF-LPRO process itself. Operational abnormalities included programming issues, unplanned shutdown of chemical feed systems, unplanned power outages, etc., and are explained in more detail in the following section. S Programming and Controls – In December 2017, while the R&D plant was operating at the Southwest WRF, an anomaly associated with the programming and controls of the LPRO pilot unit resulted in temporary overpressurization of the LPRO system. This overpressurization event displaced an O-ring that served as a barrier between the feed/concentrate and the permeate streams and damaged the membrane elements Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Continued from page 43 chemical feed pump system to trip, resulting in loss of chemical feed. Also, losing power would cause the online TOC analyzers to cycle off and on, and sometimes resulted in lost data. Ozone-Biologically Active Filtration System Generally, R&D plant operators focused their daily onsite efforts on the Ozone-BAF system. While this system was fully automated, it included more operationally complex unit processes and required more daily maintenance. The primary activities associated with maintaining the Ozone-BAF system are described. S Flocculation-Sedimentation Feed Pump – The Ozone-BAF system was deliberately shut down approximately four times per week to clean the feed pump impeller to the flocculation-sedimentation system. Daily monitoring of the feed pump power output (0 to 100 percent) allowed operators to identify when the pump was getting clogged. The impeller was typically clogged with debris. An inline basket strainer was installed upstream of the equalization tank to help with this problem; however, it didn’t significantly reduce cleaning frequency. Replacement of the feed pump with a pump that is more capable of pumping solids is advised for future projects of this nature. S Ferric Chloride Sludge Waste – The sludge handling system was inspected daily for evidence of floc carryover and/or sludge buildup. The settled floc (sludge waste) was removed intermittently from the sedimentation basin and conveyed to a lift station, which pumped to the headworks of the WRF. The pilot equipment used was designed for typical conditions, and for this project, it was undersized for the coagulant dose required. To help prevent clogging of the sludge collection system, the highest-available sludge flow rate of approximately 1.4 gal per minute (gpm) was used; however, the hoses on the sludge collection system would clog periodically, causing a motor fault alarm and the system to shut down. In addition, due to the high ferric dosages used for this project, the sludge collection motor seal required periodic replacements (three times total), resulting in additional downtime. S Ozone Destruct Catalyst – The ozone-laden off-gas from the ozone system flowed through off-gas piping and an ozone destruct catalyst to remove ozone. During hotweather periods, the water would reach temperatures greater than 88°F. The resultant off-gas during the hot-weather periods was very humid and caused excessive condensation on the inside of the off-gas piping and


destruct catalyst chamber, effectively reducing the life of the catalyst dramatically. This caused the catalyst to undergo frequent replacement, requiring the Ozone-BAF system to be shut down. It’s advised that future projects performed during hot-weather periods be equipped with heaters upstream of the destruct catalyst to drive out excessive moisture. This issue was associated with the pilot-scale equipment and is not typically an issue with full-scale equipment. Advanced Oxidation Unlike the other unit processes, UV-AOP was operated in a batch mode only once a week during sampling. The AOP system was operated in batch mode because the process required constant operator attention. Also, instead of renting separate UV-AOP systems for each process train, one UV-AOP system could be used in a batch mode operation. The UV lamps always operated at the same power setting, and the feed flow rate was varied using manual valves to reach the target dose. Based on the feed flow rate, operators used an Excel spreadsheet to calculate the required chemical feed rate; they then manually adjusted the speed on the chemical dosing pump. The AOP system was manufactured in Switzerland and operated on a 50-Hertz (Hz) power supply, which is different from the 60-Hz supply used in the Unites States. To convert power to the proper setting required for the AOP system, an additional power inverter and transformer were located outdoors adjacent to the AOP system in an enclosed container. While the direct cause of the error is unknown, the AOP system stopped working in August 2017 during the R&D testing at Buckman WRF. An error message was displayed on the power inverter, and operators called upon advice from JEA electricians, the contractor who installed the equipment, the AOP system manufacturer, and the power supply manufacturer (working remotely from Switzerland). Despite best efforts, the AOP system remained inoperable for approximately three weeks until a rental power inverter unit was obtained from a U.S.-based company, shipped to the R&D plant at Buckman WRF, and installed by a certified electrician. Safety Safety was the highest priority for the operation of the R&D equipment. Significant onsite hazards included high-strength chemicals, tripping hazards due to the temporary nature of the facility, heat exhaustion, etc. The CDM Smith operators were trained by the chemical supplier to safely store, pump, and transfer chemicals from bulk storage drums to day tanks

February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

required by the UF-LPRO-AOP and OzoneBAF-AOP treatment trains. To ensure safety while handling chemicals, a protocol was created to define the following: S Personal protective equipment that should be worn with each type of chemical S Procedures for transferring chemicals S Procedures for addressing chemical spills S Procedures for chemical storage The chemical storage area and path for chemical transfer were arranged to make the transfer of chemicals as convenient and safe for operators as possible. In addition, several ambient ozone analyzers were located inside the equipment buildings to monitor ambient ozone and shut down the ozone unit if levels reached the short-term exposure limit. If an alarm condition occurred, a light beacon would blink outside the building to indicate whether it was safe to enter.

Conclusions and Recommendations Operational data and water quality monitoring results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of both water purification technologies to produce purified water that meets drinking water quality standards and goals established for the R&D testing, but the UFLPRO-AOP process exhibited more reliable operation and was less subject to variations in source water quality. Based on this comparison, and along with the life cycle cost estimates provided in the cost evaluation report, CDM Smith recommended the UF-LPRO-AOP system for the demonstration and implementation of JEA’s water purification program. If a utility is considering the development of a potable reuse R&D pilot program, the information presented will provide a better understanding of operator responsibilities, process actions, and lessons learned from the 10-month R&D study in Jacksonville.

Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the JEA staff and operators at Southwest WRF and Buckman WRF for their thoughtful planning, dedication, and willingness to help throughout the R&D project. Additionally, many thanks are due to the JEA team, including Paul Steinbrecher, P.E.; Todd Mackey, P.E.; Tom Bartol, P.E.; Tim Mechum and Chris Howard; and the CDM Smith team, including Shayne Wood, P.E., BCEE; Patrick Victor, P.E., BCEE; Colin Hobbs, P.E., BCEE; and Jeremy O’Neal, P.E., for their expertise, exceptional attention to detail, and drive to move the project forward each day. S


FSAWWA Fall Conference 2019: What a Great Event! Kim Kowalski. Chair, FSAWWA

hat a great Fall Conference we had this past year, held in December at the Omni ChampionsGate in Orlando. The Manufacturers/Associates Council (MAC) planning committee put together a conference packed full of information, entertainment, and value for our members. I would like to thank Peggy


Guingona, the section’s executive director, and her staff for the great job they did for the event. The many volunteers who worked tirelessly on the conference knocked it out of the park this year—it was our biggest conference to date! There were 1,700 total attendees this year, a 5 percent increase over last year. I also want to say a big “thank you” to our sponsors and exhibitors—there would not be a conference without your support!

Conference Events Let’s talk barbecue! The incoming chairs reception and our fifth BBQ Challenge, held on Monday at the conference, was a huge success. There were 15 teams this year that cooked some of

Technical Session



February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the best barbecue I have ever had; many started their preparations on Sunday and cooked throughout the night. Congratulations to Pinellas County for coming in first place overall and thank you to all the teams that participated. I can’t wait for next year! This event was headed by Mike Alexakis, chair of the Contractors Council, and Richard Anderson, Mike George, and Jonathan Fernald were all planning committee members. Let’s not forget to thank the event’s food and bar sponsors from the Contractors Council, and Mike Alexakis handled the fundraising. Thank you! The Water For People fundraisers were successful, thanks to Juan Aceituno, the chair, and his team. The annual Duck Race had many people cheering on their ducks and it was a lot of fun. Thank you to all who were there.

Duck Race

Tapping Contest

Business and Awards Luncheon

BBQ Challenge

Other events held during the conference were the outdoor competitions, which included the Tapping Contest and Backhoe Rodeo; the contests held in the exhibit hall were Meter Madness and Hydrant Hysteria. The Poker Night and the golf tournaments were very wellattended and we appreciate all of the participating sponsors for these two events. Thank you to Josh Anderson for handling the competitions, Terry Gullet for the poker, and Chase Freeman for the golf tournament. Congratulations are in order for the Water Distribution Award winners, which are selected by the MAC and recognize distribution system excellence: S Destin Water Users S City of Coral Springs S Bonita Springs Utilities S Charlotte County Utilities S Collier County S Hillsborough County These awards will be given out throughout the year at their respective city council meetings. Of course, the workshops and technical sessions were excellent and well-attended. Many thanks to Fred Bloetscher, section chair-elect, and Pam London-Exner, chair of the Technical and Education Council, for their work in assembling and coordinating these sessions. The annual business lunch and awards ceremony were held at the end of the conference, with recognition awarded to several deserving agencies and individuals, including: S Landmark Award to City of North Port Myakkahatchee Creek Conventional Treatment Plant (1963) S Allen B. Roberts Award to Monica Autrey S Executive Committee’s Dr. Edward Singly Award to Steve Soltau S Robert L. Claudy Award to Bill Young

Backhoe Rodeo

S George W. Fuller Award to Kim Kunihiro Special thanks to Richard Hope, the visiting officer from AWWA, for attending the conference and imparting some great advice. I would also like to thank Ashley Longmore, our section relationship manager from AWWA, for attending. We love hosting the visiting officers and staff from AWWA as it gives us a chance to “show off ” and gain insight as to how other sections handle their conferences and meetings. At the lunch I was honored to accept the chair’s gavel from Mike Bailey, the outgoing section chair. I really have big shoes to fill! I want to thank Mike for his service to the section and

also personally as a mentor for guiding me to help prepare to take the reins.

Other Section Events I’m looking forward to this year, as we have many different section and regional events, workshops, and seminars coming up. Please visit the FSAWWA website at www.fsawwa.org for more information regarding the events you might be interested in attending. Thanks again for being a member of FSAWWA, and please consider volunteering for any of the various events and activities in your region. I look forward to serving the section and working with everyone toward a great 2020! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Climate Institute Names Faculty Fellow Thomas Ruppert, developing innovative coastal planning outreach materials and specialist with the leading workshops for University of Florida hundreds of profesInstitute of Food and sionals, and noted that Agricultural Sciences his approach has served (UF/IFAS) Florida Sea as a model for other Sea Grant, was recently Grant programs around named a 2019 Florida the United States. Climate Institute (FCI) “Sea level rise presents Faculty Fellow for his serious challenges for work helping coastal many local governments, communities underand an existential threat stand the legal and to some,” Ruppert said. Thomas Ruppert financial implications “Florida has over 200 of increased coastal coastal governments flooding associated with sea level rise and responsible for large amounts of climate change. drainage, road, wastewater, and potable The mission of UF/IFAS is to water infrastructure. We need to develop knowledge relevant to proactively work with these local agricultural, human, and natural governments to help them understand resources and to make that knowledge their legal and financial liabilities that are available to sustain and enhance the tied to infrastructure and how they can quality of human life. With more than a best serve their community into a dozen research facilities, 67 county changing future.” extension offices, and award-winning In presenting the award, Carolyn students and faculty in the UF College of Cox, FCI coordinator, noted that “the Agricultural and Life Sciences, UF/IFAS pioneering work that Thomas has done works to bring science-based solutions to in research and publishing has gained the state’s agricultural and natural state and national recognition and has resources industries, and all Florida moved conversations forward around the residents. complex challenges at the intersection of The Florida Sea Grant Program, sea level rise, law, planning, and hosted at UF/IFAS, is a university-based resilience. Thomas has used this portfolio program that supports research and of accomplishments to raise the profile of education to conserve coastal resources Florida Sea Grant as a national leader in and enhance economic opportunities for policy innovation for comprehensive the people of Florida. In addition to planning.” UF/IFAS, the program is a partnership In his acceptance speech, Ruppert with several other Florida universities, mentioned his excitement about UF’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric increasing focus on climate, sea level rise, Administration, and county and resilience and about the movement governments. toward putting people and human wellThe FCI is a consortium of 10 being at the center of these efforts. Florida universities working toward a “Let’s work to more fully integrate better understanding of climate change UF’s existing climate change and sea and its impacts on the state. The UF is level rise expertise,” he said, “and the lead university coordinating this expand it so that we can fulfill UF’s consortium. The annual FCI award mission of education, research, and recognizes UF faculty members who extension that improves the lives of are making outstanding contributions Floridians.” to research, extension, and education. To learn more about Ruppert’s The award recognized Ruppert for work, visit flseagrant.org/climatehis accomplishments, including change/coastalplanning. S


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Trofatter to Represent WEF at Florida Water Resources Conference John Trofatter will represent the Water Environment Federation (WEF) at the Florida Water Resources Conference, to be held April 26-29 in West Palm Beach. He is a member of the 2019-2020 WEF board of trustees. Trofatter is a global sales manager for Teledyne ISCO and responsible for sales and business development activities of water platform products and services. He has nearly 40 years of experience in the development and application of instrumentation and control systems in water-related industries working in a variety of capacities, including general management, sales, product development, project management, and engineering. A WEF member since 1989, Trofattor became involved with the WEF Operations Challenge in 2001 as a collection systems event judge. He assumed the roles of collection systems event coordinator, operations challenge committee vice chair, and then chair. He also became an active member of the WEF Collection Systems Committee. He later moved to the Committee Leadership Council as vice chair, and then became chair. He’s a member of the New England and Florida Water Environment Associations (WEAs) and a past member of the Michigan and New York WEAs. Trofattor is a graduate of Nassau Community College with a degree in electronic/instrumentation technology and attended City College of New York for electromechanical engineering. He is certified in many business practices, including lean management, 80/20 methodology, goal deployment, and business value stream mapping. S


Athena Tipaldos City of Orlando Work title and years of service. I have been in the water reclamation industry for the last 28 years. I currently serve as the compliance manager for the City of Orlando, where I have been for the last 18 years. Before that I worked with City of Ocoee for 10 years. What does your job entail? I manage the City of Orlando’s surcharge, revenue meter, credit meter, and oil and grease management programs, as well as compliance inspections to ensure that federal, state, and local regulations are met, which include City Code Chapter 30 oil and grease compliance monitoring, U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 106 Work Plan, wastewater treatment plant permit renewals, and the Clean Water Act. I supervise plan, organize, and coordinate the work of staff engaged in collecting wastewater samples, inspections, and enforcing environmental protection laws concerning wastewater, and ensure that the inspection work is done properly regarding all illicit discharges of the sanitary sewer system. I manage the work of the water reclamation facility managers and the environmental control manager to ensure that all facility compliance reports, discharge monitoring reports, annual biosolids reports, nutrient management plans, annual reclaimed water analysis and usage reports, industrial waste and pollution prevention local limits compliance monitoring, and annual reports are submitted on a timely basis. I coordinate all responses to EPA,


Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and local authorities for any noncompliance letters that are received throughout the division. I manage the permit renewal process for all water reclamation facilities and all onsite stormwater monitoring and compliance. I maintain detailed records of all sanitary sewer overflows and field investigation data; analyze data to determine if a violation of applicable city, state, or federal regulations has occurred; and enter all data into the computer database. I conduct research to identify better ways of grease prevention, especially associated with residential users of the collection system, and provide public awareness information about grease prevention and sanitary sewer overflows through public presentations. I prepare periodic and special technical reports and documents; ensure that data and reports are accurate, complete, and in compliance with regulations; review reports, records, and field data to make sure it’s entered correctly in specialized systems, such as Linko, computerized maintenance management systems, or spreadsheets and database such as Excel and Access; and respond to inquiries and audits. I stay abreast of current and emerging environmental regulations and policies related to wastewater point and nonpoint source pollution, erosion, and water quality functions; monitor impacts and inform management of issues; and provide consultation, make recommendations, and assist with implementation of policies and procedures. I assist with special projects; review plans; and confer with managerial, professional, technical, and consultant staff and others to resolve problems and coordinate activities. I perform a variety of administrative duties, including records maintenance, budget projection, and preparation for my section; respond to complaints and resolve problems; attend meetings and conferences; and represent the division and the city in a professional manner. What education and training have you had? I’m a Class C wastewater treatment plant operator and have a Class A industrial pretreatment certification. I’m

February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

also an International Code Council/American Association of Code Enforcement (ICC/AACE) property maintenance and housing inspector and a certified stormwater inspector. What do you like best about your job? I love that I get to be a part of a team that helps keep the environment clean by reducing the number of sanitary sewer overflows. I enjoy teaching others ways to reduce waste and to do their part to help protect the environment. My team offers tours of our education center and water reclamation facility. I enjoy working with other regulator agencies to ensure that the city meets all of its compliance requirements. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association, Florida Industrial Pretreatment Association, International Code Council, American Water Works Association, and National Stormwater Center. How have the organizations helped your career? Direct training and peer networking are very helpful in learning problemsolving skills. It also allows for long-term business relationships where you can help each other with work-related issues. What do you like best about the industry? It allows for a long-term career and is not just a job. What do you do when you’re not working? I love the beach and spend as much time there as I can to relax. I also enjoy playing with my dogs. S

Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Wastewater Permitting? Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-620, Wastewater Facility and Activities Permitting, which wastewater treatment plants must obtain a permit from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP)? a. All wastewater treatment plants b. Domestic wastewater treatment plants only c. Industrial wastewater treatment plants only d. Wastewater treatment plants treating more than 100,000 gallons per day

2. Per FAC 62-620, what is the maximum term for a wastewater facility permit issued by FDEP? a. Three years c. 10 years

b. Five years d. 20 years

3. Per FAC 62-620, when must a permittee apply to renew an existing permit for a wastewater facility? a. At least 30 days before the expiration date of the existing permit. b. At least 90 days before the expiration date of the existing permit. c. At least 180 days before the expiration date of the existing permit. d. When the existing permit is expired.

4. An applicant for a permit for a new or substantially modified wastewater facility must submit as part of the application a

5. After construction of a new or substantially modified wastewater facility, FDEP must be notified of the availability of which documents? a. b. c. d.

a. 48 hours. c. 10 days. 6. Per FAC 62-620, when FDEP prepares a draft permit after reviewing the permit application, the draft permit must be accompanied by a(n) a. b. c. d.

environmental resource permit. fact sheet. FDEP’s engineering plan review. receipt for the fee submitted.

7. Per FAC 62-620, public notice of a draft permit must allow at least 30 days for public comment. Who is allowed to submit written comments on the draft permit, or request a public meeting if no public meeting has been scheduled? a. Any interested person b. Only employees of the applicant c. Only residents or businesses within 50 miles of the wastewater facility d. Only residents or businesses specifically impacted by the proposed permit

b. five days. d. 30 days.

10. Per FAC 62-620, an additional permit condition for domestic wastewater facilities includes a requirement for new or modified facilities to submit that construction has been completed to the point where the facilities are functionally complete. The notification must be prepared by the a. city manager or utility director. b. contractor’s chief executive officer. c. engineer who designed or managed construction on the project. d. wastewater facility manager. Answers on page 70 • References used for this quiz: • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-4 Permits. • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-620 Wastewater Facility and Activities Permitting.

8. Per FAC 62-4, Permits, when a new wastewater facility is issued a permit under Chapter 62-620, what fee is due no later than 60 days after permit issuance? a. b. c. d.

a. construction budget and financing documents for the facility. b. copy of the final detailed design of the facility. c. document with evidence of the public participation process. d. preliminary design or engineering report.


Contractor payment documentation Change order summary Equipment warranties Record drawings

9. FAC 62-620 includes general conditions for all permits. One general condition requires permittees to notify FDEP of any noncompliance that may endanger health or the environment. The FDEP must be notified orally within 24 hours from the time the permittee was aware of the circumstances and a written report within

February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Permit application fee Operation and maintenance fee Building permit fee Regulatory program and surveillance fee

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Water Quality Association Seeks Mentors for Certification Experienced professionals would assist learners in completing required field work The Water Quality Association (WQA) is looking for experienced individuals willing to serve as mentors for water treatment professionals who are earning their certification. The paid mentors are needed when a mentor is not available from the learner’s company to help learners complete the field activities in the Modular Education Program (MEP) three-step approach of reading, elearning, and field activities. “This is an excellent way for our industry experts to share their knowledge with those new to the water quality industry,” said Tanya Lubner, Ph.D., the association’s professional certification and training director. “Mentors are a critical part of helping to ensure continued expertise and consumer protection.” Mentors assist by reviewing the documented results of the field activities and providing the learner with technical knowledge and support throughout the learning process. These activities help learners understand how they will apply their training to their everyday work. Learners are required to have mentors to successfully complete

Professional Piping


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

the MEP, but sometimes companies cannot provide one in-house or would rather outsource the work. The greatest need is often for dealer and distribution company owners who are new to the industry, or individuals within plumbing or well drilling companies tasked with the water treatment portion of the business. The WQA will maintain a list of approved mentors from which learners could select, but WQA will not regulate fees nor mediate disputes. Mentors will set their own fees for their services and collect payment directly from the learners. Details on the program and mentor qualifications can be found at www.wqa.org/mentor_program. S

FWPCOA TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR CLASS TODAY! February 3-7 3-7 3-18 10-14 24-28 24-28 28

......Water Distribution Level 3 ....................Osteen................$225/255 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..........Osteen................$225/255 ......Wastewater Collection C, B** ..............Miami/Dade ......$225/255 ......Utility Maintenance Level 3 ..................Osteen................$325 ......Wastewater Collection A ......................Orlando..............$225/255 ......Water Distribution Level 1 ....................Orlando..............$225/255 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen................$85/115

March 2-4 ......Backflow Repair* ..................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305 16-20 ......Spring State Short School ....................Ft. Pierce

April 6-10 13-15 20-23 20-24 20-24

......Wastewater Collection ..........................Osteen................$225/255 ......Backflow Repair ....................................Osteen................$275/305 ......Backflow Tester* ....................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405 ......Water Distribution 2 ..............................Osteen................$225/255 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution B ..........Osteen................$225/255

May 1 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen................$85/115 18-22...... Water Distribution 3 ..............................Osteen................$225/255 18-22 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..........Osteen................$225/255 29 ......Backflow Tester recerts*** ....................Osteen................$85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses.

Company Participation in BBQ Challenge is a Success For the sixth time, Garney Construction participated in the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association (FSAWWA) BBQ Challenge. The latest competition was held December 2019 at the section’s Fall Conference at Omni Orlando Resort at ChampionsGate. At the competition, cook master Ryan Smith, along with the help of several other employee-owners, served up his famous rib recipe that was a hit among the crowd. What is the trick to their “talk of the town” meats? According to Walker Petty, project engineer for Garney Construction, who was present at the event, “We put the same focus in our barbecue that we do in all of our projects. We were dedicated, as we worked 24 hours straight to make sure we had the right amount of cook time. We focused on quality, taking the time to trim the cuts perfectly. Finally, we care about customer satisfaction, whether it was with plating, service, or portion size—we were there to make sure that those we served were happy about their decision to stop by our booth.” Petty rated the company’s involvement in the competition this year an overall success. “The water industry is such a small, close-knit community, and as a company we were pleased with having yet another great opportunity, through service, to show our customers, engineers, and product partners why our company can be the best option.” Overall, the veranda of the hotel where the challenge took place was filled with live music, the smell of great barbecue, and an opportunity for key players in the water industry to connect. From humble beginnings, this FSAWWA event has continued to grow, and it hosted more than 750 participants for the end-of-theyear event. Garney looks forward to supporting the event again in 2020.


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Expands Saltwater Intrusion Barrier Deborah Daigle and Michael Townsel n 2009, the Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department (HCPUD) began evaluating the feasibility of using highlevel disinfection public access-quality reclaimed water to provide environmental improvements, act as a barrier to saltwater intrusion, create a path to the restoration of water use caution area (WUCA) water levels, and support a long-term and sustainable solution to water management challenges in its service area. The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) has established minimum aquifer levels to be met for prevention or reduction of saltwater


intrusion along the Hillsborough County coast. The county’s goal of 100 percent reuse capability is the driver behind the development of reclaimed water direct aquifer recharge pilot projects along the coastal county. The county’s South Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project (SHARP), located at the Port Redwing Outfall (near Apollo Beach), became the first reclaimed water direct aquifer recharge project in the region. The SHARP project targets saltwater intrusion in the most-impacted area (MIA) of the southern WUCA (SWUCA). The county has continued this program in the northwest

Figure 1. Water Use Caution Areas in Eastern Tampa Bay and Northern Tampa Bay


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Deborah Daigle, PG, is principal hydrogeologist with Arcadis NA in Tampa. Michael Townsel is senior hydrogeologist with Hillsborough County Public Utilities Department in Tampa.

service area by initiating a similar project, phase 1 of the North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project (NHARP), which will also create a salinity barrier and improve water levels within the northern Tampa Bay Water WUCA. The NHARP recharge well (RW-1) is located at the Northwest Hillsborough County Dechlorination Facility (NHCDF) in Tampa. Public access reclaimed water is provided by the Northwest Hillsborough County Water Reclamation Facility (NHCWRF) in Odessa. The RW-1 will recharge up to 3 mil gal per day (mgd) of high-level disinfection public access-quality reclaimed water into the Avon Park Formation of the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) system. The HCPUD is now planning phase 2 of the NHARP expansion and installation of additional Class V recharge wells in the northwest county area. The HCPUD goal is to complete future wells farther inland from the coast in areas where the top of the Avon Park Formation is closer to 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Construction of the first NHARP recharge well and monitoring well began in August 2017. Since the position of the underground source of drinking water (USDW) was unknown at the NHCDF site, the recharge zone monitoring well (RZMW1) was drilled first. The depth of the base of the USDW, defined as water with 10,000 mg/L TDS, was determined to be approximately 500 ft below land surface (bls) within the Ocala Limestone. The recharge zone for NHARP is the Avon Park Permeable Zone (APPZ) within the UFA system. The wells, pipelines, and electrical/supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) at the NHARP site were completed in March 2019, with operational testing completed in mid-2019.

Operational data from SHARP indicates that the water levels have increased from approximately -5 ft National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) to 18.2 NGVD in the RZMW. The freshening of the Avon Park Formation has greatly improved water quality near the coast and the SHARP recharge well, thus creating a barrier to salt water intrusion. Operational challenges observed from SHARP include a loss of well capacity due to fouling. In response, the county has implemented a standard operating procedure to acidify the well when injectivity is reduced to 25 gal/pounds per sq in. (psi).

Background In Florida, saltwater has intruded through a number of pathways, including the following (Prinos, 2013): S Encroachment of seawater into aquifers in response to decreased fresh groundwater levels relative to sea level. S The flow of saltwater inland through canals, rivers, boat basins, and coastal marshes, and subsequent leakage of this saltwater into aquifers. S The movement of connate or relict saltwater in an aquifer. S Leakage of saltwater between aquifers. The reductions in fresh groundwater levels are caused by public and private water supply withdrawals from aquifers, excessive drainage, reductions in precipitation, or increases in sea level. The HCPUD embarked on an innovative program that utilizes highly treated reclaimed water to recharge the UFA along its coastal areas to provide a saltwater intrusion barrier. The source water for the aquifer recharge program is excess reclaimed water from the county’s wastewater treatment plants. In 2009, HCPUD began evaluating the feasibility of using highly treated wastewater from its existing advanced water reclamation facilities (WRFs) in support of a sustainable solution to water management challenges in the southern portion of its service area. The ultimate goal of HCPUD is 100 percent reuse capacity.

Eastern Tampa Bay (ETB) were primarily caused by regional groundwater withdrawals that resulted in lowered lake and wetland levels in the NTB and saltwater intrusion in the ETB. In response to the lowered groundwater and lake levels, the county’s governing board declared each of the areas as WUCAs in 1989. Out of concern for impacts to water resources in ETB, the governing board in 1992 established the SWUCA, encompassing both the ETB and Highlands Ridge WUCAs and all of the area in between. Specifically, the SWUCA encompasses an area of about 5,100 sq mi and covers the southern half of the district, including portions of the county. Historical increases in groundwater withdrawals have resulted in significant saltwater intrusion in coastal portions of the UFA, the principal source of public water supply in the region. In 1990, the district designated the coastal area of the ETB WUCA as the MIA (Figure 1). The SWFWMD has since established minimum aquifer levels to be met for prevention or reduction of saltwater intrusion within SWUCA. In the NTB WUCA, most of the groundwater use is for public supply. As a result, most of the water resource impacts are in areas surrounding the major public supply wellfields, although models do confirm isolated areas of saltwater intrusion. In the NTB WUCA, the Tampa Bay Water central wellfields withdraw an annual average of 90 mgd of groundwater from the UFA. In 1988, Tampa Bay Water operated these wellfields at 192 mgd, but environmental impacts lead to the required reduction per the consolidated

water use permit. Today, Tampa Bay Water operates the wellfields as an interconnected system at this lower pumping limit to promote environmental recovery. In addition, SWFWMD’s goal is to continue evaluating the amount of environmental recovery that can be achieved while withdrawals remain at 90 mgd. Tampa Bay Water is preparing a recovery assessment report that will evaluate the status of the environmental recovery and will also identify any remaining adverse impacts that were not addressed with the pumping reduction.

Hillsborough County Implements Aquifer Recharge to Address Impacts in the Most-Impacted Areas and North Tampa Bay Water Use Caution Area The SHARP is located at the Port Redwing Outfall near Apollo Beach and is the first reclaimed water direct aquifer recharge project in the region (Figure 2). The SHARP project targets saltwater intrusion in the MIA of the SWUCA. The SHARP recharge system began testing operations with injection of reclaimed water in July 2015. The system consists of one Class V aquifer recharge well, one recharge zone monitoring well, and two overlying monitoring wells. Expansion of the program is underway with the installation of two new Class V wells. The injectate water quality is advanced wastewater treatment high-level disinfection effluent from the county’s south central public access reuse system. Continued on page 60

History of Groundwater Withdrawal Impacts in Hillsborough County In the late 1980s it was noted that declines in groundwater levels had occurred in three regions. Declines in the Highlands Ridge, Northern Tampa Bay (NTB) and

Figure 2. Location of the South Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project and North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Sites Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Figure 3. South Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Expansion Locations

Figure 4. Site Geology and Hydrogeology, North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Well Completions


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 59 The county has continued this program in the northwest service area by initiating a similar project (NHARP, phase 1), which will also create a salinity barrier and improve water levels within the NTB WUCA. The NHARP recharge well (NRW-1) is located at the NHCDF in Tampa (Figure 2). A north recharge zone monitoring well (NRZMW-1) was also installed at the facility approximately 1,200 ft northeast of NRW-1. Public access reclaimed water is provided by the NHCWRF. The RW-1 will recharge up to 3 mgd of highlevel disinfection public access-quality reclaimed water into the Avon Park Formation of the UFA system. The wells, pipelines, and electrical/SCADA were completed in March 2019, with operational testing done later that year. The HCPUD is planning phase 2 of the NHARP expansion and installation of additional Class V recharge wells in the northwest county. The county’s aquifer recharge program includes a regional recharge system to provide a level of mitigation to the NTB WUCA and to allow for additional groundwater development in an area that has had historically adverse water level impacts to the aquifer. It’s anticipated that at least seven aquifer recharge wells will be constructed as part of NHARP in several phases over the next 10 to15 years. Each well is anticipated to operate at 3 mgd annual average daily flow (AADF). Additionally, the construction of deep exploratory wells and associated monitoring wells will be initially required to characterize the aquifer in this project area. The total anticipated recharge quantity of the NHARP well program is 21 mgd AADF. The location of future aquifer recharge wells will be adjusted inland per the SWFWMD to areas where the TDS of the top of Avon Park Formation is in the 10,000-mg/L TDS range. The top of the Avon Park at NHARP had a TDS range of approximately 15,000 to 18,000 TDS. The salinity profile into the Avon Park Formation at the SHARP and NHARP sites was unknown prior to drilling of the wells. As shown in Figure 3, future South Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Expansion (SHARE) well locations are approximately 2 mi inland from the original SHARP location, which is also closer to HCPUD’s reclaimed infrastructure. The NHARP expansion wells are also planned to be located farther inland from the NRW-1 site. The drilling of monitoring wells will be performed first at the new recharge sites to confirm the salinity profile.

North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Site Hydrostratigraphy and Recharge Zone The target recharge zone for the NHARP recharge well is the APPZ of the UFA system (Figure 4). The lowermost permeable zone of the UFA is defined as occurring in the hard, fractured dolostone within the Avon Park Formation. The permeability of this zone is due primarily to fractures and interconnecting solution cavities and has been identified as the APPZ (Reese and Richardson, 2007). The APPZ usually lies between the UFA and the Lower Floridan aquifer and within the middle confining unit. This subaquifer is present over most of southern peninsular Florida and characteristically consists of thick units of dolostone with interbedded limestone in its upper part. Permeability in the APPZ is primarily associated with fracturing. The APPZ is the primary production zone in inland areas of Florida and the county. Regional mapping shows the top of the APPZ at approximately 620 ft bls (600 ft below mean sea level NGVD) with a thickness of over 500 ft (Reese and Richardson, 2007) at the NHARP site. The actual top of the APPZ at the NHARP site is encountered much deeper, at approximately 740 ft bls (725 ft below mean sea level). Primary fracture zones within the APPZ were detected at both NHARP wells at depths of approximately 750, 820, and 900 ft bls during drilling, and geophysical logging indicates that most of the flow in the borehole is from these fracture zones. Below the fractured dolostone zones are dolomitic limestone and limestone. The APPZ contains adequate porosity and permeability (including significant fractures and voids) to accommodate an injection rate of 3 mgd. A specific capacity of 700 gpm (gal per minute)/ft was measured in well NRW-1 at the end of the constant rate pumping test at 2,500 gpm. The base of the APPZ was noted by the presence of evaporites at a depth of approximately 1,180 ft bls at the NHARP site. Overlying the Avon Park Formation is the Ocala Limestone, a semiconfining unit that does not readily produce water and retards the upward movement of injectate. The Suwannee Limestone is found at the NHARP site above the Ocala Limestone between approximately 190 and 480 ft bls. The Suwannee Limestone aquifer is used extensively for fresh water supply and has been identified by SWFWMD as a critical aquifer needing water level increases to

Table 1. North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Well Construction Details

mitigate saltwater intrusion. At NHARP the Suwannee Limestone contains slightly brackish water (TDS ~850 mg/L). Above the Suwannee Limestone is the Tampa Member which is between approximately 100 and 190 ft bls at the NHARP site and contains fresh water (TDS ~350 mg/L). To determine the confining characteristics of the stratigraphic units above the recharge zone, rock coring and packer testing was performed. Rock coring indicates low permeability strata between the depths of 464 to 677 ft bls, with vertical hydraulic conductivity ranging from 5.7 x 10-6 cm (centimeters)/sec to 7.2 x 10-11 cm/sec. The very low vertical hydraulic conductivities measured for the core samples collected confirm the confining characteristics of each of the cored intervals. Straddle packer tests were conducted at well NRW-1 at the following depths: S Packer Test No. 1: 717 to 739 ft bls S Packer Test No. 2: 688 to 710 ft bls Calculated hydraulic conductivity for the test intervals was 22 ft/day for Test No. 1 and 16 ft/day for Test No. 2. The relatively low hydraulic conductivities measured during packer tests indicate that the tested intervals are confining. The packer tests generally estimate the hydraulic properties of the interval tested in the horizontal plane. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the type of materials encountered in the tested intervals

is a typical order of magnitude less than the horizontal hydraulic conductivity. In addition to the coring and packer tests, sonic porosity logs also indicate a continuous interval of comparably low sonic porosity located above the first fracture zone within the Avon Park Formation (low porosity interval extends from approximately 710 to 740 ft bls) at each well.

North Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Well Construction Construction of the first NHARP recharge well and monitoring well began in August 2017 under a Class V, Group 2 construction and testing permit from the underground injection control (UIC) division of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). Since the position of the USDW was unknown at the NHCDF site, the NRZMW-1 was drilled first. The depth of the base of the USDW, defined as water with 10,000 mg/L TDS, was determined to be at a depth of approximately 500 ft bls within the Ocala Limestone portion of the geologic section. The TDS then increased to over 25,000 mg/L below a depth of approximately 800 ft bls in the Avon Park Formation during drilling. The RZMW-1 was completed with 703 ft of a 6-in.-diameter fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) casing with an open hole backplugged to 920 ft bls. The goal of FDEP was Continued on page 62

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Continued from page 61 that the monitoring well be completed to isolate the main flow zones within the recharge interval (Figure 4). Two existing shallow monitoring wells (SMW-1 and SZMW-2) were also incorporated into the program at NHARP to monitor the Tampa Member and Suwannee Limestone within the USDW. The wells are completed to depths of 170 and 410 ft bls, respectively.

Operational Observations and Challenges for the Aquifer Recharge Systems Although the NHARP recharge well is not yet operational, HCPUD has operated the SHARP recharge well since 2015. The RW-1 is located on the southern side of the Port

diameter well, with a permitted annual average injection capacity of 3 mgd and a maximum daily injection capacity of 4.5 mgd. The RZMW-1 is located ~1200 ft to the east and monitors the injection zone. Monitor wells (TPW-1 and SMW-1) are utilized to monitor overlying intervals and aquifer zones above the injection interval and are located ~150 ft. north and ~65 ft. northeast of RW-1, respectively. Injection of reclaimed water commenced in July 2015. During the initial discharge of reclaimed water into RW-1, injection rates were initially established at less than 0.5 mgd to condition the well and the Avon Park Formation, but subsequently increased to 1 mgd based on wellhead pressure. Recharge flow rate was increased to 2 mgd in March 2016, with an initial wellhead pressure of 25

Figure 5. Water Levels at South Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project Monitoring Wells

Redwing Discharge Facility, is a 16-in.-

psi. During November 2016, HCPUD increased the targeted recharge flow rate to 2.5 mgd, with an initial wellhead pressure of 73 psi. Figure 5 presents water levels in the SHARP monitoring wells and two regional monitoring wells. The regional wet season and dry season trends can be clearly observed in the overlying monitoring wells consistent with the offsite regional wells. While the seasonality is still visible at RZMW-1, the steady water level increase can be attributed to the injectate. The water levels in RZMW-1 clearly indicate an upward change in water levels in the Avon Park Formation. Water levels have increased from approximately -4 ft to 18.2 NGVD since operation began. Moderate seasonal variability between wet and dry seasons continues and this increase in water level elevation can be attributed to freshening in water quality at this well associated with the horizontal movement of reclaimed water from the recharge well. The increase in water level by an average of approximately 23.5 ft within the Avon Park Formation supports the SWFWMD SWUCA recovery strategy of mitigating saltwater intrusion. The RZMW-1 has indicated a steady decrease in salinity due to the horizontal movement of the fresher reclaimed water within the saline recharge zone. From August 2015 through December 2016, the TDS concentration at RZMW-1 exhibited a decreasing trend from 35,000 to 3,700 mg/l. Water quality at RZMW-1 shows significant freshening, as there is ongoing mixing occurring between the reclaimed water and the saline water in the injection zone. This high degree of mixing is not unexpected due to the highly fractured nature of the injection zone. The release of arsenic at RZMW-1 has fluctuated following acidification events, but now appears stable. No significant metals mobilization has been observed at RZMW-1.

Operational Challenges

Figure 6. Injectivity Versus Daily Flow at South Hillsborough Aquifer Recharge Project


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operational challenges at SHARP, including declines in well performance associated with dissolved and suspended solids in the injectate, have been observed at RW-1. Using a total suspended solids value of 0.5 mg/l and a TDS value of 500 mg/l, there is potential to deposit ~1,500 lbs of solids per mil gal injected annually and an extensive amount of precipitation based on the measured oxidation reduction potential. The chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate in the formation fractures, combined with

suspended solids deposition, appears to be the primary cause of reduced injection capacity. The HCPUD is utilizing the specific injectivity (SI) as an indicator parameter to declining well performance. The SI is calculated as the average daily injection rate divided by the average daily injection pressure and has been utilized in addition to the required parameters to evaluate injection capacity and system performance. Operational data to date indicate that an SI below 25 gal/psi results in reduced system control and wellhead performance. The HCPUD has developed a standard operating procedure to acidify the well when the SI is less than equal to 25 gal/psi. The SI plotted against the daily average injection rate with an SI threshold of 25 is shown in Figure 6 and clearly identifies reduced system performance prior to an acidification event and enhanced performance following an acidification event. The SI is being used to plan future acidification events. These observations continue to support the position that acidizing is a successful procedure to properly maintain the recharge system for beneficial use in the SWUCA. The total volume injected at SHARP from July 2015 through Sept. 5, 2019, is approximately 3.105 bil gal.

program and is planning future expansion of the NHARP program.

References • Prinos, S., 2016. Saltwater Intrusion Monitoring in Florida, Special Issue: Status of Florida’s Groundwater Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Caribbean-Florida Water Science Center, 7500 S.W. 36th St., Davie, Fla. 33314.

• Reese. R.S., and E. Richardson, 2008. Synthesis of the Hydrogeologic Framework of the Floridan Aquifer System and Delineation of a Major Avon Park Permeable Zone in Central and Southern Florida. Scientific Investigations Report 2007-5207. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. S

Conclusions In 2009, HCPUD began evaluating the feasibility of using highly treated wastewater from its existing advanced water reclamation facilities to provide environmental improvements, a barrier to saltwater intrusion, a path to the restoration of WUCA water levels, and support of a long-term and sustainable solution to water management challenges in its service area. Implementation of SHARP and NHARP will create a salinity barrier along two areas of the county coastline where impacts from groundwater withdrawals have been documented. Operation of the SHARP project for approximately three years has shown an increase in water levels and the freshening of the Avon Park Formation, which has greatly improved water quality near the SHARP recharge well, thus creating a barrier to saltwater intrusion. Expansion of both the SHARP and NHARP along the coastal county will expand this barrier and potentially allow for new groundwater development inland in fresher portions of the aquifer. The county is currently installing two additional recharge wells for the SHARP Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



A New Year and New Officers, and What You Need to Know About Potable Reuse Kenneth Enlow President, FWPCOA

reetings, everyone. By this time, we all should be settling into the routines of the new year and moving forward to the tasks at hand.


his tenure helping to make us a stronger organization and increasing membership. I also want to welcome Athena Tipaldos to the position of secretary-treasurer-elect as she takes on the role of a state officer. She will be an asset to the organization with her background in the industry and her enthusiasm.

A Discussion on Potable Reuse As promised in my January column, I would like to talk about potable reuse; specifically, about indirect and direct potable reuse.

FWPCOA Officers The new FWPCOA officers for 2020 were seated at the board of directors meeting held at the Emerald Grande at HarborWalk Village in Destin on January 18. The new officers are: Ken Enlow - President Patrick Murphy - Vice-President Mike Darrow - Past President Rim Bishop - Secretary-Treasurer Athena Tipaldos - Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Please welcome the new officers and don’t hesitate to contact any one of us if you have questions or needs. Contact information is available on the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org. I want to thank Mike Darrow for his dedicated service as the president of FWPCOA over the last two years. Mike did a fantastic job during


First of all: What are we talking about? Indirect potable reuse – This refers to the method of discharging reclaimed water from a wastewater treatment plant to groundwater or surface water to supplement the water supply to a potable water treatment plant. Direct potable reuse – This refers to adding reclaimed water from an advanced wastewater treatment facility into a raw water supply prior to a drinking water treatment facility or directly into the “potable” water distribution system intended for human consumption. There are two basic types of direct potable reuse systems: 1. Advanced treated reclaimed water is introduced upstream of a water treatment facility into the raw water source for a water treatment facility.

February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

2. Advanced treated reclaimed water is introduced directly into the potable water distribution system. Florida’s population is one of the fastest growing in the United States. Although we are surrounded by water, suitable and clean water resources are limited. Continuing to withdraw water from groundwater and surface water sources to maintain this growth could have a serious impact on the natural system and the ability for it to replenish the sources through the hydrological cycle. By introducing reclaimed water from advanced wastewater treatment facilities into the source water, the natural system can be augmented, and therefore take some of the demand off of the natural system. What else could be driving the need to look to potable reuse? Possible changes in regulations could restrict or prohibit discharge of wastewater effluent to surface water sources under certain conditions in the future. This could leave potable reuse as an alternative to current wastewater discharge practices. Where do we go from here? Federal regulations do not exist for potable reuse and regulations vary from state to state where potable reuse has already been practiced. Going forward, Florida will need to establish

regulations for potable reuse. Some of the key questions to be answered are: S How do we permit facilities? S What type/level of operator licenses will be needed? S Are there any changes needed to be made related to water quality regulations for both potable reuse water entering the potable treatment system and finished water entering the distribution system? How can you help? The FWPCOA is working with the Potable Reuse Commission to develop a position statement that would reflect the opinion of the operators we represent concerning potable reuse operator certification and training. A survey has been put together by our Reuse Committee to give the membership a chance to provide their thoughts and input about potable reuse. We hope to have the survey available on the FWPCOA website later in February or early March. It’s very important that the committee gets input from the membership in order to have a clear understanding of our members’ thoughts for our opinion statement. Every opinion counts and this is your chance to express

your thoughts, concerns, and needs for the future of reuse. A case study of a reuse pilot project completed at the City of Clearwater will be presented by Emilie Moore, with Tetra Tech Inc., at the Operators Showcase on Sunday, April 26, at this year’s Florida Water Resource Conference in West Palm Beach. This should be an interesting presentation and a chance for operators to ask questions and provide input.

Upcoming Events Don’t forget to register for the FWPCOA Spring State Short School, which will be held in Ft. Pierce the week of March 16 through March 20. Also, don’t forget to register for the Florida Water Resource Conference, being held April 26 through April 29 in West Palm Beach. That’s it for this C Factor. Keep up the good work. Stay active and make a difference! S

Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020



February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

POSITIONS AVAILABLE WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATORS Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida.

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include: Business Development Leader – Tampa Area Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings, 0-15 yrs. exp.) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com


MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Greater Pine Island Water Association Positions Available Meter Analyst: Minimum Starting $15/hour Distribution Worker: Minimum Starting $17.29/hour - $24.40/hour based on license level and experience To view position details and submit your resume: www.pineislandwater.com

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $47,675. - $90,281. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Lead - Sewer Collections City of Gulf Breeze, FL. Lead worker to perform full range of maintenance and repair activities involved in sewer collections conveyance systems, lift stations, control panels, remote monitoring and alarm systems for both gravity and pressure systems, and implement strategic initiatives, responsible for supervision and training of service workers. Pay Range $18.98-22.00 DOQ. Full time, permanent position. Requires background check and drug screening. Requires active driver’s license. See city website for complete job listing at https://cityofgulfbreezektmle.formstack.com/forms/job_application_copy, email resumes to vgura@gulfbreezefl.gov

North Springs Improvement District Water Treatment Plant Maintenance Technician The North Springs Improvement District is seeking a Plant Maintenance Technician to maintain, repair & replace water plant machinery, pumps, heating and ventilation units, pneumatic systems and plumbing. Performs vibration analysis, troubleshoots & solve mechanical problems. Please email Mimi at MireyaO@nsidfl.gov with your application. The application may also be downloaded at www.nsidfl.gov . Pension and excellent benefit package available.

Water Distribution Field Operator The North Springs Improvement District is seeking a Water Distribution and Wastewater Collection Field Operator. Applicant must obtain a level 3 Water Distribution License within 24 months or must be currently licensed by the Florida Environmental Protection Agency. Please email Mimi at MireyaO@nsidfl.gov with your application or apply on our website at www.nsidfl.gov directly. Pension and excellent benefit package offered.

Water Treatment Plant Operator The North Springs Improvement District is seeking a Licensed Water Treatment Plant Operator. Applicant must be licensed by the Florida Department Environmental Protection with class C, B, or A Water Treatment Plant Operations License. Please email Mimi at MireyaO@nsidfl.gov with your application or apply at www.nsidfl.gov. Pension and excellent benefit package offered.

Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. We provide water and wastewater services to a population of over 500,000 citizens and 75 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are seeking a highly qualified individual to fill a position for a Section Manager of the Environmental Compliance section. This position is responsible for programs including the Industrial Pretreatment Program; wastewater surcharges; Fats, Oil and Grease prevention; and private lift station monitoring and inspection. The Section Manager serves as a core member of the Division’s leadership team supporting the Division Manager to ensure ongoing compliance and effective management of three regional water reclamation facilities. Section Manager - Environmental Compliance Annual Salary $79,310 Min, $97,261 Mid, $115,190 Max Starting salary of external candidates is customarily below the midpoint based on qualifications. Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/careers Positions are open until filled

Positions Available Wastewater Plant Operator A License Operator: $45,715 - $69,226 B License Operator: $41,797 - $62,695 C License Operator: $38,314 - $57,471 Conservation and Sustainability Specialist $51,375 - $77,063

Multiple Positions Available Construction Project Manager I, Locator/Mapping Technician, Equipment Operator, Utilities Mechanic, Maintenance Worker. Apply At: https://www.cityofnewportrichey.org/


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Please visit bsu.us/employment-opportunities to learn more about the available opportunities and view full job descriptions. https://bsu.us/employment-opportunities

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available Senior Utility Engineer, Network Analyst SCADA, Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Equipment Operator, Technical Services Foreman, Crew Leader, Meter Technician, Service Worker, Utility Field Technician. Apply at www.titusville.com

Join South Florida’s Best�in�Class Water Utility! The third�largest water utility in the State of Florida, Palm Beach County maintains a state�of�the�art system that is focused on providing high�quality water, wastewater and reclaimed water services to the 600,000 residents we serve. POSITIONS AVAILABLE Utility Plant Mechanic $41,473.12 � $65,992.16

Water Treatment Operator Positions Available Water Plant Operator A License Operator: $44,217 - $74,284 B License Operator: $42,313 - $71,085 C License Operator: $40,490 - $66,810 Trainee Operator: $36,346 - $59,971 The City of Melbourne is currently accepting applications for the positions of Water Treatment Plant Operator and Water Trainee Operator. To learn more and apply, please visit www.melbourneflorida.org

InstrumentationTechnician $54,115.36 � $86,112.00 Industrial Electrician $49,522.72 � $78,798.72 Professional Engineer $79,468.48 � $126,453.60 Project Manager (Engineering) $88,470.72 � $155,188.80 Utility Plant Operator I $46,681.44 � $74,268.48 Utility Plant Operator II $49,522.72 � $78,798.72

Utilities, Inc. Lead Operator, Water & Wastewater Operators Utilities, Inc. of Florida has several open positions for Water & Wastewater Operators in Polk and Pasco counties as well as a Lead W/WW Operator position in Lake county. Applicants must possess FDEP Water and/or Wastewater licenses. Applicants must have a valid Florida driver’s license with a clean record. To view complete job descriptions & apply for the positions please visit our web site, www.myuiflorida.com. Under Contact us, click on Employment Opportunities. Search the Operations & FL categories.

GS Inima – Water Treatment plant Operator wanted Gs Inima is now accepting application for state certified water treatment plant operators Class C through A to fill full time operator positions, all shifts, at the City of Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Plant. Background check and drug screening required. Full benefit package. Pay Range Class C $20.00 - $25.00, Class B $25.00 - $30.00, Class A BOE. Please send resumes to inimausa@inima.com attention COH

Chief Operators $60,896.12 � $96,907.20 Utility Plant Operator Apprentices $33,706.40 � $53,636.96 Utility Customer Service Superintendent (Call Center) $64,613.12 � $102,806.08 Enjoy great benefits including: Health, Dental, Vision, Life Insurance, Short�Term and Long�Term Disability, Flexible Spending Accounts, EAP and Florida Retirement System (FRS), On�Site CEU Programs and more! Apply online at PBCGOV.com/jobs

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information. Florida Water Resources Journal • February 2020


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 52 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ............Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..................Conservation and Reuse May ..................Operations and Utilities Management; Florida Water Resources Conference June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ..............Disinfection; Water Quality September........Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index AWWA ACE20 ................................................................................56 AWWA ACE20 ..............................................................................51 AWWA Community Engineering Corps ........................................25 Blue Planet....................................................................................71 CEU Challenge ..............................................................................15 Data Flow Systems ......................................................................65 Engineered Pumps ........................................................................8 Ferguson Waterworks ..................................................................45 FSAWWA Awards ..........................................................................33 FSAWWA Drop Savers ..................................................................66 FWPCOA Training ..........................................................................55 FWRC ........................................................................................9-14 Grundfos ......................................................................................49 Hudson Pump & Equipment ........................................................53 Hydro International ........................................................................5 J&S Valve ......................................................................................37 Krausz ..........................................................................................54 Lakeside Equipment ......................................................................7 Mead & Hunt ................................................................................43 Professional Piping ......................................................................63 Stacon ............................................................................................2 UF Treeo ........................................................................................57 Xylem ............................................................................................72


February 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. A) All wastewater treatment plants Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-620.300(1) General Prohibitions, “No person shall discharge wastes to waters without a permit from the department, unless exempted by department rule or statute.” And per FAC 62-620.301(1) General Provisions, “Any person intending to discharge wastes into waters shall apply to the department for the appropriate permit required by this chapter.”

2. B) Five years Per FAC 62-620.320(8) Standards for Issuing or Denying Permits, “No department permit shall be issued under this chapter for a term of more than five years except as provided in Section 403.087, F.S.”

3. C) At least 180 days before the expiration date of the existing permit. Per FAC 62-620.335(1) Renewals, “A permittee shall submit an application to renew an existing permit at least 180 days before the expiration date of the existing permit or as otherwise specified in the generic permit issued under Chapter 62-621, F.A.C.”

4. D) preliminary design or engineering report. Per FAC 62-620.410(3) General Application Requirements, “An applicant shall submit as part of the application for a permit a preliminary design or engineering report and other information in accordance with the Department of Environmental Protection Guide to Permitting Wastewater Facilities or Activities under Chapter 62-620, F.A.C.”

5. D) Record drawings Per FAC 62-620.410(6) General Application Requirements, “Record drawings shall be prepared for new facilities or for substantial modifications to existing facilities permitted pursuant to this chapter. Record drawings shall be prepared and distributed as outlined in the Department of Environmental Protection Guide to Permitting Wastewater Facilities or Activities under Chapter 62-620, F.A.C. Notification of availability of record drawings shall be made on FDEP Form 62-620.910(13).”

6. B) fact sheet. Per FAC 62-620.510(12) Application Processing, “All draft permits shall be accompanied by a statement of basis or a fact sheet on which the department relied in making its decision. The statement of basis or fact sheet shall be prepared in accordance with the Department of Environmental Protection Guide to Permitting Wastewater Facilities or Activities under Chapter 62-620, F.A.C.”

7. A) Any interested person Per FAC 62-620.555(1) Public Comments and Requests for Public Meetings, “During the public comment period provided in Rule 62-620.550, F.A.C., any interested person may submit written comments on the draft permit or may request a public meeting, if no public meeting has been scheduled.”

8. D) Regulatory program and surveillance fee Per FAC 62-4.052(2)(c) Regulatory Program and Surveillance Fees for Wastewater Facilities or Activities Discharging to Surface Waters, “When a new wastewater facility or activity is issued a permit under either Chapter 62-620, 62-621, or 62-624, F.A.C., pursuant to Section 403.0885, F.S., the first annual fee shall be due no later than 60 days after permit issuance.”

9. B) five days. Per FAC 62-620.610(20) General Conditions for All Permits, “The permittee shall report to the department any noncompliance that may endanger health or the environment. Any information shall be provided orally within 24 hours from the time the permittee becomes aware of the circumstances. A written submission shall also be provided within five days of the time the permittee becomes aware of the circumstances. The written submission shall contain a description of the noncompliance and its cause; the period of noncompliance including exact dates and time, and if the noncompliance has not been corrected, the anticipated time it is expected to continue; and steps taken or planned to reduce, eliminate, and prevent recurrence of the noncompliance.”

10. C) engineer who designed or managed construction on the project. Per FAC 62-620.630(2)(a) Additional Permit Conditions for Domestic Wastewater Facilities, “Provide notification to the department on FDEP Form 62-620.910(12), that construction has been completed to the point where the facilities are functionally complete. The notification shall be prepared by the project design engineer or an engineer who has been retained by the permittee to provide professional engineering services during the construction phase of project completion. The engineer shall certify that the facilities have been constructed substantially in accordance with the permit and the approved preliminary design report and application materials or that any deviations will not prevent the system from functioning in compliance with the requirements of Chapter 62-600, F.A.C. The engineer shall note and explain substantial deviations from the approved preliminary design report and application materials. The notification shall be based upon onsite observation of construction, scheduled and conducted by the engineer or by a project representative under his direct supervision, for the purpose of determining that the work proceeded in compliance with the approved preliminary design report and application materials.”

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Florida Water Resources Journal - February 2020  

Water Supply and Alternative Sources

Florida Water Resources Journal - February 2020  

Water Supply and Alternative Sources

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