Florida Water Resources Journal - January 2022

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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Mish Clark

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Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features 4 Process Page: Award-Winning City of Cape Coral’s Southwest Water Reclamation Facility: Optimizing Aeration Control Produces Multiple Benefits—Matt Astorino and Matt Tebow 16 Effective Asset Management is More Than Tools and Techniques—Bradley Hayes 20 Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market Size, Shares, and Trends Report: U.S. and Global Growth 23 Toho Water Authority Named a Top Workplace by Orlando Sentinel 24 2021-2022 FSAWWA Board of Governors 40 Hallandale Beach Honors Robert McColgan 48 Translating Wastewater Surveillance Data 54 WWEMA Elects 2022 Officers and Directors, Announces Award Winner 56 $481M Will Improve Wastewater and Water Quality in Florida 61 News Beat

30 FSAWWA Gold and Silver Sponsors Thank You 31 FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest 33 WEF Access Water Platform 40 FSAWWA 2021 Awards 41 TREEO Center Training 55 FWPCOA Training Calendar


32 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 34 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Emilie Moore 36 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 38 FWEA Focus—Ronald R. Cavalieri 42 Let’s Talk Safety: Carbon Monoxide: A Silent Killer


59 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index

Technical Articles

8 A Holistic Approach to Headworks Design: A

Case Study of the St. Augustine Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 1 Headworks Rehabilitation—Steve Curmode, Ed Fernbach, Yanni Polematidis, and Chris Cerreta 44 To Expand or Intensify? Chattanooga’s Anaerobic Digestion Question—Nicole Stephens, Jeffrey Rose, Stephanie Kopec, Harold Schmidt, and Sudhakar Viswanathan

Education and Training 12 Florida Water Resources

Conference Announcement 13 Florida Water Resources Conference Information 14 Florida Water Resources Conference Sponsorships 15 Florida Water Resources Conference Sponsorships 19 CEU Challenge 26 FSAWWA 2022 Fall Conference 27 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitors Thank You 28 FSAWWA Fall Conference Premier Sponsors Thank You 29 FSAWWA Platinum Sponsors Thank You

Volume 73

ON THE COVER: Wastewater samples show that the new omicron variant is the dominant strain of COVID-19 is some Florida counties. To learn more about wastewater surveillance see page 48.

January 2022

Number 1

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


PRO CE S S PAG E Greetings from the FWEA Wastewater Process Committee! In 2020, the FWEA Process Committee conducted a thorough review of the historical Earl B. Phelps Award scoring criteria. After a detailed, line-by-line review, the FWEA Process Committee recommended updates to the criteria to reduce subjectivity and the potential for inspector bias. For example, instead of scoring points based only on carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD5) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal efficiencies, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficacies were included in the scoring system, even for facilities not permitted for nutrient removal. Overall, a significant number of subjective scoring systems were refined and a detailed, treatment-based objective scoring system was implemented for the 2021 Earl B. Phelps Award evaluation. The evaluation criteria are now heavily focused on effluent quality, including nutrient removal. This allows treatment facilities to compete (in their respective size range and configuration) to earn the Earl B. Phelps Award based on objective, treatment-based excellence. This month’s column highlights the 2021 Advanced Secondary Earle B. Phelps Award winner (City of Cape Coral Southwest Water Reclamation Facility) and the significant aeration control system improvements completed over the past year that resulted in substantial blower energy reduction, while consistently exceeding nitrogen removal regulatory requirements.

Award-Winning City of Cape Coral’s Southwest Water Reclamation Facility: Optimizing Aeration Control Produces Multiple Benefits Matt Astorino and Matt Tebow



he Water Independence for Cape Coral program was started in the late 1980s and was designed to reduce the impact irrigation has on the Mid Hawthorne Aquifer, one of the main sources for drinking water supply for the City of Cape Coral (city). The city has been recognized as having one of the largest municipal residential reuse water systems in the United States, with a daily average of 31.42 million gallons per day (mgd). The city’s irrigation is supplied by treated wastewater from its two wastewater facilities, Southwest Water Reclamation Facility (SWWRF) and Everest WRF, and supplemented by freshwater

canal water pumped from the city’s five freshwater canal pumping stations. The city’s SWWRF was originally constructed in 1992 using a carousel-style oxidation ditch to treat an annual average daily flow (AADF) of 6.6 mgd. The SWWRF was expanded in 2008 to 15 mgd AADF and currently treats approximately 7 to 8.5 mgd seasonally.

Treatment System and Components The headworks consists of two mechanical step screens and one manual bar screen, grit removal provided by four stacked trays, vortextype grit removal units, odor control, and two cyclone/classifier units, followed by a common influent mixing channel. The secondary treatment (activated sludge) process utilizes the anaerobic-

City of Cape Coral Southwest Reclamation Facility

4 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

anoxic-aerobic (A2O) process. Although not a regulatory requirement, the A2O process is capable of biological removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Three A2O process basins receive flow from the common influent mixing channel, with each basin having an anaerobic zone, followed by an anoxic zone and an aerobic zone. Each basin has four floating mixers, with two mixed liquor internal recycle pumps that pump from the end of the aerobic zone to the beginning of the anoxic zone. Mixed liquor from the three basins flows to a common reaeration channel; the combined flow is then split and gravity-fed to five secondary clarifiers (two at 100-foot-diameter and three at 120-foot-diameter) for settling. The sludge pump station, with multiple return activated sludge (RAS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) pumps, discharges to the common influent mixing channel or sludge holding tanks, respectively. Effluent from the secondary clarifiers is gravity-fed to two sets of effluent automatic backwash (traveling bridge) filters. The effluent from the backwash filters then flows by gravity and is split between two chlorine contact chambers (CCC). High-level disinfection is provided by liquid sodium hypochlorite. The reclaimed water is then stored in three 5-million-gallon (MG) tanks, or due to wet weather or low demand, pumped into the deep injection well. The SWWRF provides reclaimed water to the city’s reuse service area system, also known as the Water Independence for Cape Coral system. The SWWRF includes a 6.8-MG reject Continued on page 6

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Continued from page 4 storage tank where substandard reclaimed water may be directed. Biosolids processing includes the carrousel oxidation ditches repurposed into four aerated sludge holding tanks and three centrifuges.

Aeration Control System Optimization One of the major enhancements that the city implemented to optimize treatment efficiency and to reduce power consumption was to make changes to the aeration control system. Wastewater treatment aeration systems are one of the primary contributors to the overall cost of treatment. Typically, the longterm operational costs will significantly exceed the initial capital cost. Optimizing, retuning, and upgrading existing aeration control systems can provide operational cost savings for many treatment facilities, including savings in energy and supplemental carbon, if applicable. Aeration control system strategies typically include the following: S A bility to meet aeration process set point (e.g., dissolved oxygen [DO]) quickly and maintain that set point under variable loading conditions S M inimize actuator starts/stops while consistently maintaining the process set points S O ptimize energy usage by minimizing pressure loss in the system The term “most open valve” (MOV) control is frequently used, but sometimes the exact meaning of the term is not always clear. Jenkins (2013) provides a useful definition: “MOV logic is a technique developed to eliminate excess power demand created by constant pressure control...the fundamental principle is that at least one of the air flow control valves will be at the maximum position at all times.”

The SWWRF was originally furnished with a pressure-based MOV system, coupled with integrally geared, single-stage centrifugal blowers. The pressure-based control system attempts to minimize unnecessary pressure losses compared to a constant pressure blower system. The control strategy for a pressure-based MOV system at SWWRF used three cascades of control loops: 1. The DO proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers calculate an air flow set point for each aeration control zone. 2. Flow/valve flow PID controllers calculate a valve position set point to meet the air flow set point calculated in the first loop. 3. A blower pressure PID controller modifies the blower operation to maintain a floating blower pressure set point calculation based on the MOV position. One of the challenges at the SWWRF with the pressure-based MOV aeration systems was the need to periodically “retune” the DO and pressure PIDs for optimal performance, depending on seasonal flows/loads, ambient conditions, number of operational blowers, etc. After looking at historical DO and air flow trends, the SWWRF staff developed a type of MOV “floating control” aeration strategy, rather than only PIDs. A disadvantage of the pressure-based MOV-DOPID control is that it assumes a linear relationship between DO concentration and air flow rate, whereas, in reality, the relationship is dependent on a variety of factors (temperature, oxygen mass transfer, and other process-related factors) that are constantly changing. The term “floating control” is similar to an “adjust/wait and see” approach, in that the control system waits for an operatoradjustable delay response, which gives the process DO concentration adequate time to adjust to changes in air flow. The results of the new strategy, developed in-house, achieved DO measurements in the

Back row, left to right: Anthony Rivoli, operator; Dakota Kayatta, custodian; Brad Trautman, operator; Matt Astorino, chief operator; Troy Charno, operator; Marcus Papp, instrumentation; Carlos Rodriguez, programmer; Zach Pentaude, laborer; and Joe Holowell, maintenance supervisor. Front row, left to right: Rob Tracy, operator; John Pitzer, operator; Igor Gutin, operator; Pat Long, water reclamation manager; Dale Kingsbury, maintenance mechanic; and James Thomas, maintenance mechanic.

6 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

basins much tighter to the actual DO setpoint and reduced the blower aeration header pressure approximately 0.5 to 1 pounds per square inch (psi). After these changes, the WRF blower amp draw was reduced by approximately 100 amps, resulting in significant operational cost savings. Other improvements this past year at the SWWRF include the following: S Installation of TSS probes in the WAS and aeration basins (mixed liquor suspended solids [MLSS]) to optimize and maintain consistent process control with solids retention time (SRT). S Installation of ammonia ion selective electrode (ISE) probes in the process tanks to record, trend, and optimize DO setpoints to provide sufficient aeration for complete nitrification, while minimizing “excess” DO concentrations, thus saving energy on aeration. S Installation of new, fine bubble, membrane diffusers for increased oxygen transfer efficiencies. Moving forward, the SWWRF staff is developing a process-model-based control algorithm to calculate the air flow set points in each control zone based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR), utilizing the ammonia ISE data and coupled with the optimized MOV aeration control strategy. The dedication and hard work of the entire SWWRF maintenance, electrical, and operational staff resulted in the SWWRF consistently producing exceptional effluent quality, exceeding all regulatory requirements, and reducing chemical usage and energy consumption. The SWWRF is proud to be the recipient of the Advanced Secondary Earle B. Phelps Award for the second year in a row. Matt Astorino is chief operator of the Southwest Water Reclamation Facility in City of Cape Coral and Matt Tebow is a water and wastewater engineer S with Kimley-Horn in West Palm Beach.

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A Holistic Approach to Headworks Design: A Case Study of the St. Augustine Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 1 Headworks Rehabilitation


Steve Curmode, Ed Fernbach, Yanni Polematidis, and Chris Cerreta

he City of St. Augustine (COSA) owns and operates the Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 1 (WWTP No. 1), with a permitted capacity of 4.95 mil gal per day (mgd), as shown in Figure 1. The existing headworks structure for the plant was built in 1984 and is equipped with a mechanically cleaned step screen, bypass channel with a bar rack, and vortex-style grit chamber. Most municipalities now employ fine screening (less than or equal to 6 mm) and advanced grit removal processes for preliminary treatment. Although not required, use of such equipment has proven to be cost-preventative by protecting downstream processes from damage that can come from large solids and rags entering the plant, and grit and solids accumulation, thus reducing maintenance costs.

Historically, plant system design has been driven by effluent regulations, but there is a shift in attention toward influent flow analysis when designing headworks is needed to optimize performance. Traditionally, preliminary treatment equipment has been selected based on requirements of downstream processes, rather than influent characteristics. Sizing and selecting screening and grit removal equipment without characterizing the influent flow can result in higher capital costs, poor performance, and sometimes, damage to the equipment. Throughout the last several years, operations at WWTP No. 1 have experienced poor performance from screening and grit removal equipment. This has led to temporary bypass measures, grit accumulation downstream (biological basins and clarifiers),

Figure 1. St. Augustine Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 1

8 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Steve Curmode, is wastewater superintendent at the City of St. Augustine. Ed Fernbach, P.E., is a headworks technical expert at CDM Smith in Portland, Ore. Yanni Polematidis, P.E., BCEE, PMP, is a senior project manager and principal engineer at CDM Smith in Jacksonville, Fla. Chris Cerreta is an environmental engineer at CDM Smith in Denver.

wear of equipment, and increased operation and maintenance oversight, which have all strained plant resources. Additionally, the preliminary treatment structure has undergone significant structural deterioration resulting from the high hydrogen sulfide environment, exposure to salt air from the nearby coastal waterway, and failure of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) lining system in the channels. To address the issues at the pretreatment system, and the deteriorating infrastructure under a defined capital budget, COSA began exploring ways to rehabilitate the existing structure, rather than replacing it with a new one. A Phase 1 study project was conducted in spring 2019 that evaluated the screenings, grit removal, and structural rehabilitation options that meet project constraints and reuses most of the existing headworks structure. Several constraints were immediately identified: S Meeting a stringent existing hydraulic grade line in the headworks S Existing footprint limitations S Addressing staff operational preferences S Fixed capital budget To properly address these constraints during the Phase 1 evaluation study ahead of making design and capital decisions, COSA implemented three tests/studies, each designed to better understand the three primary project drivers of improved screening, improved grit Continued on page 10


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Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


Continued from page 8 removal, and structural rehabilitation. Results from these studies were used to refine design criteria and select equipment and rehabilitation methods that address concerns specific to WWTP No. 1.

Screenings Evaluation The existing screen in the headworks channel is a step screen with 6-mm openings installed in 2007. It consists of a 2-horsepower (hp) motor and is designed to handle 11 mgd. At the time of the evaluation, the screen was

operating as intended mechanically, but did not achieve the intended removal of rags and debris that can harm downstream processes. Evidence of this poor capture could be seen in the receiving dumpsters, where screenings appeared to accumulate at a rate of less than 1 cu yd per week, indicating minimal removal at a plant that receives a peak-hour flow (PHF) up to 12 mgd. To understand the limitations of the existing screen and identify methods of improving performance at the headworks, COSA performed an analysis of the influent wastewater characteristics to determine the most-effective screen size and type to replace

Figure 2. Screening Study Test Results

Table 1. Overview of Grit Characteristics

the existing screen. The purpose of the test was to sample the wastewater from the plant and incorporate the findings in the design and proposal of screening equipment for that specific facility. The procedure consists of pumping flow upstream of the screen through two sieves, each with different opening sizes and types that are meant to simulate different size screens so that the performance of each can be evaluated. The test began with an influent flow analysis that characterized flow and debris entering the plant. Testing occurred Dec. 1920, 2018, and included slotted and perforated openings ranging from 3 to 6 mm in size. Partial results of each sieve tested can be seen in Figure 2, where differential pressure equates to headloss across the screen and total gallons equates to flow across the screen. As seen in Figure 2, differential pressure, or headloss across the screen, tends to increase with flow. Smaller openings tend to have a greater increase in differential pressure, as seen by comparing the “2P” and “6P” opening sizes. The screenings capture ratio (SCR) was also estimated by weighing the screenings captured on each sieve and dividing this by the total weight of solids in the waste stream. These results were ultimately used to make recommendations on opening size, opening type, and screen style meant to be the most effective at removing debris and inorganics specific to WWTP No. 1, while limiting differential pressure such that hydraulic limitation are met. Results of the screening evaluation concluded that the existing step screen is achieving poor capture due to the style of screen, which frequently disturbs the screenings mat and negatively affects capture. The results led to the elimination of screens that are typically used for large-debris removal, such as with combined sewers and in lift stations. Given the tight hydraulic grade line, perforated plate screens and very fine screens were also eliminated from consideration. Upon refinement of the design criteria, it was concluded that for a PHF of 12 mgd (through a single channel), a mechanical center flow with 6-mm slotted openings was mostsuitable for COSA. This screen meets the key criteria of simple retrofit (small footprint), low headloss (<11 in.), limited carryover, high capture rate, and proven experience regionally.

Grit Characterization Study The existing grit removal system is a vortexstyle grit chamber designed to handle a flow of 11 mgd. Like the step screen, the grit system is not achieving intended removal, which is clear

10 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 3. Distribution of Influent Grit at Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 1

through the small accumulation of grit in the receiving dumpsters and accumulation of grit in the downstream clarifiers. To better understand the size, concentration, and behavior of grit entering the plant, COSA employed a company specializing in grit characterization to perform a grit study. Results of this study will be used to develop grit removal design criteria specific to WWTP No. 1 that ensure the proper equipment selection is made. Testing occurred on March 6, 2019, during normal flow conditions and was timed to bracket the daily peak flow ramp-up, given that most grit enters a plant during daily flow peak. The testing procedure consists of pumping water upstream of the existing grit collection chamber into a simulated settler that is then used to analysis the captured grit. Table 1 provides a summary of grit size that is often found at WWTPs across the United States. Partial results of the grit characterization study can be seen in Figure 3, which revealed that the majority of grit entering the plant is fine, and that just under half is considered to be very fine. This confirms that, without targeting the sugar sand, much of the influent grit is missed by preliminary treatment equipment and subsequently allowed into the downstream treatment processes. Additionally, the influent grit concentration at the time of sampling was above the Florida average at 60 lb/mil gal (MG), as seen in Figure 4. Grit loading is known to be greatest during peak wet weather events, particularly during the first flush. Given that the grit concentration was above average during sampling at average flows, it’s expected that grid loads will far exceed this value during PHF, further emphasizing the need for adequate removal. Results from the grit characterization

Figure 4. Grit Concentration at Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 1

study helped develop site-specific design criteria for grit capture and processing equipment that target fine to very fine grit. Like screening technologies, CDM Smith conducted an evaluation of different grit removal technologies that considered design criteria and other project drivers, including operation and maintenance, cost, performance data, and client preference. The stacked tray grit removal system was selected, along with grit washing and dewatering equipment that is sized to capture the fine 74-micron grit. This technology meets grit removal design criteria and several project drivers, including repeatable performance based on actual test data, studies, and successful installations in the region.

led to the conclusion that the existing concrete can be rehabilitated to continue functioning as originally designed and help shape structural repair and modification recommendations. Through these results, the following repairs and/or modifications were recommended: S Remove existing PVC liner S Clean and repair concrete surfaces S Clean and inject structural repair materials in structural concrete cracks S Clean and resurface concrete top slab and stairs S All proposed concrete surface repairs shall include sulfate and weather-resistant top surface S Remove and replace corroded guardrail and light poles

Structural Evaluation


The headworks structure has undergone significant structural deterioration resulting from the high hydrogen sulfide environment, exposure to salt air from the nearby coastal waterway, and failure of the lining system (PVC liner) in the channels. To determine the condition of the existing concrete and its ability to be rehabilitated, CDM Smith conducted a structural evaluation on Feb. 26, 2019, and recommended that a petrographic analysis be performed. Two concrete cores were obtained from the top slab in April 2019 and sent to an independent lab to undergo analysis. An analytical image of one concrete core used to determine structural integrity can be seen in Figure 5. Results of this test revealed that the concrete is of good quality and in good condition. It was determined that erosion and carbonation on the top deck is present, but does not extend beyond a ¼ in. into the cores. This

When beginning a headworks project, be it a new structure or modifications to an existing structure, it’s important to utilize planning-level studies to develop site-specific design criteria. Doing so can minimize upfront costs, ensure proper equipment selection, balance operational preferences, and avoid future headaches and rework. The Phase 1 study led to results that conclusively allow COSA to reuse its existing headworks structure with a technology selection that was specifically sized to the tested influent characteristics of screenings and very fine grit within a limiting hydraulic grade line. Through a unique approach of utilizing key research studies and opportunities available to municipalities from manufacturers, COSA was able to appropriately select high-performance pretreatment equipment and rehabilitation methods that address concerns specific to the plant’s aging infrastructure ahead of making design and capital decisions. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


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Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


Effective Asset Management is More Than Tools and Techniques Bradley Hayes Keeping track of utility assets and preventative maintenance has always been a challenge. It’s critical to maintain accurate records to inform capital improvement plans (CIPs), but the process by which we do so has long been evolving. When I started my career as a lift station mechanic in 1977, my supervisor emphasized the importance of writing everything down in a logbook and maintaining accurate records. Paper forms were used to record information about each component in the system and the information was stored in file folders. By the mid-1980s, computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) were introduced, but the software was not user-friendly, and it consumed more time than logging everything on paper. In the 1990s, the idea of asset management was born through the concept of capacity, maintenance, and operation management (CMOM), which became the topic of conversation among utility directors and operators. As the utility director, from 2006 to 2018, for the City of Tavares (city) in central Florida, I advocated for better, more-detailed maintenance records to determine where best to invest our dedicated funding and optimize our operations. In 2009, I hired a firm to digitize the utility’s water and sewer plans to upload to a geographic information system (GIS), but the result was a huge failure. I had to hire another company capable of reviewing the plans and importing the data into GIS, which took a couple of years to complete. With all the water, wastewater, and stormwater asset information finally catalogued in GIS, the utility was then well-positioned to develop a CMMS for the wastewater collection system and treatment plant. At this point, I also pushed to upgrade the metering system to advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) to improve meter accuracy and incoming revenue from user fees. This experience led me to visit the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) State Revolving Fund (SRF) staff in 2017 to raise my growing concern that utilities were seeking funding year after year to repair or rehabilitate the same equipment due to poor asset management and planning. I invited the consulting firm to join me to showcase its ability to create and implement successful CMMS and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software that catered to the utility. I was able to show the SRF staff the customized dashboard that put all of the asset data at my fingertips and the ease with which I

could generate charts, graphs, and reports to track maintenance and meet regulatory compliance requirements.

Developing a Standard for Best Practices The evolution of asset management during my career inspired my quest to conduct a pilot study that would inform a standard of practice for similar-sized utilities in Florida. Two years after retiring from my position as utility director and accepting a position at Woodard & Curran, SRF staff commissioned the city to conduct an asset management pilot program that would establish best practices of asset management planning for midsize utilities serving between 10,000 and 50,000 customers. The launch of this program coincided with the new Florida Administrative Code Rule 62-552700, which requires utilities that receive financial support to maintain an active fiscal sustainability and asset management (FSAM) program with a rate reduction of 0.1 percent on state loans with reimbursement eligibility. Funded by the drinking water and clean water SRF, the study was conducted from January 2020 to May 2021, with the water utility focused on: 1) Applying U.S. Environmental Protection Agency asset management guidelines in Florida. 2) Addressing best practices for the selection of asset management technology. 3) Connecting an asset management plan to fiscal management concepts. The program was a collaborative effort among Tavares Utilities Department staff, Woodard & Curran, and SRF staff to identify and analyze both CMMS and enterprise asset management system (EAMS) software. The resulting practical guide for mid-sized utilities in Florida will apply to water, wastewater, stormwater, reclaimed water, public works, and other utilities.

Assessing Key Functional Requirements The utilities department staff participated in a kick-off workshop and detailed questionnaire as the first step in identifying critical functionality requirements and features for CMMS or EAMS software. The feedback from staff helped identify key operational and business needs, while also prioritizing the criteria on which to select and evaluate software packages. The goal is for the

16 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

software to streamline asset data collection and management, including vertical and horizontal asset inventory, service calls, scheduling, tracking and prioritizing maintenance, collecting and processing asset data to drive risk-based capital planning, and generating appropriate reports. Unlike the limited technology in the 1980s, this modern software will be interoperable and user-friendly to provide a high return on investment (ROI) by improving efficiency and maximizing the useful life of all assets, and by being both customizable and easily updated. The platform will also integrate seamlessly with Esri GIS and existing software for metering, billing, citizen requests, closed-circuit television (CCTV), SCADA, backflow, and laboratory data.

Evaluating Multiple Software Solutions The project team identified 10 software packages to evaluate, including two already used by the city, the standard FSAM software for small water utilities, and seven industry-standard packages. Once selected, these were evaluated for the functionality of each software package based on the requirements identified by staff. The team determined six key functional areas to rate each platform: S Service Requests S Asset Inventory S Work Orders S Query and Reporting S Advanced Asset Management S Overall Useability Each functional area included a list of specific criteria by which to assess and rank the software packages. Software evaluations were completed using previous implementation and software administrator hands-on experience, demonstrations, previous studies, vendor information requests, trial subscriptions, and industry research. Table 1 shows how each software platform ranked on average in each functional area. Figure 1 shows the total scores for each software platform based on the total of average ranking, weighted by functional area. The score matrix is as follows: 0 = does not include the feature indicated; 1 = ome functionality or ability to integrate; 2 = fully performs feature, less user-friendly, less customizable, and provides direct third-party integration; or 3 = very effective for this feature and user-friendly.

This scoring process helped the project team rank each of the software packages, identifying four packages for utility staff to review further with onsite vendor interviews and virtual demonstrations. Additional meetings with each vendor were requested to test mobile access and discuss key aspects of implementation, such as data migration, requested integrations, requirements, and impacts on staff time. Following these meetings, additional information was requested regarding detailed annual software costs, hosting environment, and implementation costs, including data migrations and integrations. In addition to a deeper evaluation of the software, the city had to consider how the implemented software would ultimately be hosted. The three options—On Premise, Tavares Cloud, and Vendor Cloud—were evaluated based on 10 criteria, as shown in Table 2. Woodard & Curran recommended using Vendor Cloud due to its built-in benefits, including reduced information technology (IT) infrastructure and maintenance costs, as well as high availability, scalability, and excellent disaster recovery in a cybersecure environment. Woodard & Curran also noted that onsite hosting would require hardware maintenance costs and Tavares Cloud would require monthly subscription fees, making Vendor Cloud the most-cost-effective option.

Table 1. Software Platform Rankings

Implementation and Beyond This scoring process provided an unbiased comparison for the CMMS and EAMS software packages. City officials further reviewed implementation costs, including data migration and weighing hosting environment options to determine which software package best met its needs. Having the utility staff involved in the process secured early support from the people who will use the software daily, setting them up for success during implementation and beyond. A phased implementation process is suggested to reduce client cost and staff disruptions, but the water utility staff was excited to start using the technology. The project team input a myriad of data into the software, including asset inventory, asset condition, service requests, work orders, and maintenance schedules. With these data entered, city staff can quickly view dashboards, generate reports, maintain key performance indicators (KPI) and level of service (LOS) goals, track preventative and corrective maintenance, and manage repair and rehabilitation costs. During implementation, training is provided for stakeholders to champion the new technology across each department. Once the system is fully operational, the software engineering partner can further provide support through build-out, updates, patches, data entry, and other services Continued on page 18

Figure 1. Total Scores for Each Software Platform

Table 2. Software Options

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


Continued from page 17 as needed, which proves beneficial when making such an investment in technology. Not only has opting for an EAMS software package positioned the city to meet the FSAM requirements of the SRF programs, it has also proved significantly beneficial in organizing and managing assets and positions the city for increased demand on the utility due to future growth. Key recommendations coming out of this pilot program will provide guidance for similar-

sized utilities, but unique operating environments, regulatory structures, or governance may call for customization to address the following issues: S Risk Reduction - An objective method to prioritize the order in which certain assets should be addressed to reduce overall system risk. S Renewal Planning - Leverage asset management and effective utility management techniques plan for maintenance, rehabilitation, or replacement of critical assets.


Knowledge Paves the Way for Success


As leaders in Florida wastewater treatment for over 40 years, we understand the need to accomplish big things with less while protecting the natural environment. We’ve designed and built the most treatment capacity for Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Systems (IFAS) in Florida— so you can do more with a smaller footprint.

EXPERIENCE EXCEPTIONAL 18 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S D efensibility - Operations, maintenance, and capital renewal plans must be fully defensible, based on objective criteria, modeling, life cycle cost, and other easy-tounderstand information. S Sustainability - Asset management must be easily sustained to meet annual performance goals under budget constraints. S Integration - Practices must effectively leverage investment in compatible GIS, hydraulic modeling, failure tracking, customer complaint, and other systems. S Validation - Organizations must be able to target field data collection and assessment of the system to validate, refine, and validate decisions. S Training - Utility staff must properly be trained for any asset management process to be successful.


Imagine driving a Dodge 383 GTS Coupe off the lot for just $6,000 in 1968. Only 2,112 of this make and model, with the 383 engines, were made that year, making a typically depreciating asset worth a lot of money 50 years later if wellmaintained. This includes regular oil changes, replacement of air and oil filters, switching out spark plugs, new brake pads, tire rotations, new paint, and more. Maintaining a car of this caliber requires an understanding of critical components, knowing the consequence of those components failing, and planning for the necessary cost of repairs or replacement on a monthly and annual basis. Without this care and attention, the car has no value today; however, that same car in mint condition could now sell for at least $78,000. The investment made in a robust asset management software package is much the same: if not properly used, the value is lost. With the data integrated into CMMS or EAMS software, however, utilities can take the steps necessary to properly maintain the infrastructure, reaping the greatest ROI and fueling informed decisions for CIPs. While proper maintenance takes time and requires staff to be operating with the same goal in mind, the result is a sustainable facility that continues to provide clean, quality water to its customers, while keeping rates steady. Bradley Hayes is a senior consultant with Woodard & Curran in Lakeland. Rachel Osborn, technical manager, is with Woodard & Curran in Portland, Maine, and Tami Ray, practice leader, and Tom Bryant, P.E., senior consultant, are with Woodard & Curran in Lakeland; all three contributed to this article. S

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Wastewater Treatment. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015394)


Grit load is known to be greatest during a. low flow. b. cold weather. c. dry weather. d. peak flow.

2. W hich of the following was not identified as a contributor to the structural deterioration of the headworks? a. High velocity flow b. High hydrogen sulfide c. Exposure to salt air d. PVC liner failure 3. Th e grit characterization study revealed that the majority of the grit entering the plant is classified as a. silt. b. fine. c. large. d. gravel. 4. Th e screen capture ratio is defined as the weight of solids captured on each sieve divided by the total _________________ in the waste stream. a. dissolved solids b. suspended solids c. weight of solids d. v olatile 5.

The plant’s existing step screen achieves poor capture because a. the pore openings are too small. b. it allows the screenings mat to be disturbed. c. hydraulic overload results in frequent bypass. d. the flow channel is too small.

SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

To Expand or to Intensify? Chattanooga’s Digestion Question

A Holistic Approach to Headworks Design: A Case Study of the St. Augustine Wastewater Treatment Plant No. 1 Headworks Rehabilitation Steve Curmode, Ed Fernbach, Yanni Polematidis, and Chris Cerreta


Nicole Stephens, Jeffrey Rose, Stephanie Kopec, Harold Schmidt, and Sudhakar Viswanathan (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW02015395)

1. Th ermal hydrolysis process requires a temperature of ______ degrees centigrade. a. 1 60 to 165 b. 180 to 185 c. 1 90 to 200 d. 2 00 to 210 2.

A t this facility, secondary waste activated sludge is stabilized by a. h eat processing. b. lime addition. c. v acuum assisted presses. d. a eration.

3. Th is facility’s secondary treatment process is not expected to effectively handle increased ammonia generated by the recommended process because a. i ts historic performance indicates that this will be a problem. b. it lacks hydraulic capacity. c. t he process is not designed to reduce ammonia. d. a mmonia loading is expected to increase by a factor of 20. 4.

W hich of the following is not listed as a selected process? a. L ower digester operating temperature b. Produces Class A biosolids c. I mproved dewaterability d. I ncreased biogas production

5. C onventional digesters cannot operate at the projected high organic and hydraulic loading rates due to a. e xcessive cost. b. a heat requirement beyond that which is practical to apply. c. i nsufficiently viscous sludge. d. a mmonia toxicity.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


Water and Wastewater Treatment Equipment Market Size, Shares, and Trends Report: U.S. and Global Growth The global water and wastewater treatment equipment market size was valued at $61.60 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4 percent from 2021 to 2028. Rising demand for clean water due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, coupled with diminishing freshwater resources, is anticipated to propel the product demand over the forecast period. Rising environmental concerns, coupled with the necessity to comply with stringent government regulations pertaining to water and wastewater treatment across the globe, are likely to boost market growth, as are increasing investments in wastewater treatment facilities.

The United States dominated the North America regional market in 2020 because of the presence of well-developed water and wastewater treatment infrastructure, along with stringent regulations regarding effluent discharge. In addition, the rising need to upgrade the existing facilities of aging infrastructure in the country is estimated to augment market growth. The global market has witnessed the development of advanced components, including membranes and filters, which offer high functional efficiency and operate for a longer duration. In addition, rising demand for clean water from refineries and the development of advanced components to treat effluents in oil

20 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and gas, and also manufacturing industries, are anticipated to drive the market over the forecast period. Several government authorities have introduced strict regulations regarding wastewater emissions from the industrial and municipal sectors, which will drive the product demand in the years to come. The high cost, however, associated with the operation, maintenance, and monitoring of wastewater treatment plants, is likely to restrain market growth to some extent.

Equipment Insights The membrane separation segment led the market and accounted for 19.7 percent of the global revenue share in 2020. This segment will register the fastest CAGR from 2021 to 2028. Membrane separation is a physical treatment technology where feed water is forced at high pressure through a semipermeable membrane to separate specific materials from the solution. Membrane separation offers several advantages, such as minimum operation area and high filtration efficiency, over the existing techniques. Biological treatment is usually a secondary process used to remove contaminants remaining after primary treatment. Stringent regulations aimed at controlling water pollution in the manufacturing and municipal sectors through the utilization of ecofriendly means in developed markets, including the U.S., Canada, Germany, and Japan, are expected to increase the need for biological treatment equipment. The sludge treatment segment of the market

is expected to have the second-highest CAGR over the forecast period. These systems include sludge screening, drying, dewatering, and thickening. Sludge screening equipment is used to remove solids, such as hair, plastics, and fibers, to prevent the disruption of subsequent sludge treatment processes. Another common disinfection technique is ultraviolet (UV). A UV system consists of a UV light source that is placed inside a transparent protective sleeve. As the water passes through the flow chamber, the UV rays are introduced into the water supply to destroy bacteria, as well as inactivate several viruses in the water.

Process Insights Primary treatment is used for separating floating materials and heavy solids from effluent. Wastewater is passed through several tanks and filters that separate water from contaminants. Low operating costs and high market visibility are expected to play a crucial role in increasing the application scope of primary treatment over the forecast period. The secondary treatment process segment is expected to register the second-fastest CAGR of 4 percent from 2021 to 2028. Secondary treatment is used mainly for removing soluble organic matter and chemicals, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, by using trickling filters, biotowers, rotating biological contactors, and activated sludge systems. The biological processes used in secondary treatment can either be aerobic or anaerobic. The tertiary treatment process segment led the market in 2020, accounting for over 43 percent of the global revenue share. Tertiary treatment is used to improve effluent quality before the water is reused or discharged into the environment. In this process, the inorganic substances and compounds, viruses, bacteria, and parasites left after secondary treatment processes are removed to make water ideal for reuse. A membrane bioreactor is another advanced treatment system that integrates the conventional biological treatment processes, such as the activated sludge process with membrane filtration, to provide more-efficient and moreeffective removal of organic and suspended solids. The solid/liquid filtration is achieved by using microfiltration or ultrafiltration membranes.

Application Insights The municipal application segment led the market and accounted for 66.1 percent of the global revenue share in 2020. Growing urban populations, along with favorable government policies focused on promoting infrastructure Continued on page 20

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


Continued from page 21 development, are expected to increase the product demand in the municipal sector, especially in developing markets like China, India, and Brazil. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities are primarily used to protect water resources and natural aquatic systems by eliminating effluent organic matter, pathogens, and nutrients from wastewater. Rising awareness pertaining to wastewater treatment and the increasing government focus on improving water and wastewater treatment infrastructure across the globe are expected to boost the segment growth over the forecast period. The industrial application segment is likely to witness a CAGR of 4.1 percent over the forecast

period. This segment provides a wide application scope for fresh and processed water in several industries. Rapid industrialization, technological developments, and an increasing number of production units result in high demand for fresh and processed water. The aforementioned factors are anticipated to augment the product penetration in the industrial segment. A rising number of industrial activities and rapid urbanization have led to environmental deterioration owing to untreated or inadequately treated industrial wastewater effluents. Growing awareness, however, about environmental degradation and the increased stringency of regulations pertaining to the discharge of effluents from industries into water bodies are expected to drive this segment growth.

Regional Insights Stringent federal and state regulations pertaining to wastewater in the U.S., coupled with increasing upgrades due to aging infrastructure, are expected to support market growth in the country. Moreover, increasing oil and gas exploration activities in the U.S. and Canada are expected to drive the product demand, thereby augmenting the market growth in North America. The Asia Pacific area led the global market and accounted for a revenue share of 33.9 percent in 2020. The regional market is estimated to expand further at the fastest CAGR from 2021 to 2028. Increasing investments in the wastewater management sector, coupled with the rapidly expanding manufacturing sector, are likely to have a positive impact on market growth. Furthermore, the growing residential sector in the region is expected to boost product penetration in municipal wastewater facilities. The market in Europe is also anticipated to witness significant growth over the forecast period. Stringent laws and directives, such as the Water Framework Directive, Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive, and the Drinking Water Directive, are anticipated to increase spending on water and wastewater treatment equipment in the region. Major factors contributing to water pollution in Central and South America, including industrial waste, sewage, and leaking landfills and increased concerns about health and safety, are expected to drive product demand in the regional market. Water pollution is considered a major health and environmental concern in Brazil.

Key Companies and Market Share Insights The market is characterized by the presence of both multinational and regional players that are engaged in the design, manufacturing, distribution, and installation of a wide range of products. Major companies have invested heavily in research and development initiatives and are also focusing on integrating advanced technologies to develop solutions that can be utilized across the market. Companies are also focusing on economies of scale, as water and wastewater treatment equipment is widely used in industrial and municipal sectors. Market participants are forming partnerships with industrial companies to provide technical expertise in many sectors, including food and beverages, as well as and oil and gas. Some prominent players in the global water and wastewater treatment equipment market include:

22 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal


eolia V SUEZ DuPont Pentair plc Xylem Inc. Aquatech International LLC Evoqua Water Technologies LLC Ecolab Inc. Calgon Carbon Corp

Segments Covered in the Report This report forecasts revenue growth at global, regional, and country levels and provides an analysis of the latest industry trends in each of the subsegments from 2017 to 2028. For the purpose of this study, the global water and wastewater treatment equipment market report has been segmented on the basis of equipment, process, application, and region as follows: S Equipment Outlook • M embrane Separation • B iological • D isinfection • S ludge Treatment • O thers S Process Outlook • P rimary • S econdary • T ertiary S Application Outlook • M unicipal • Industrial S Regional Outlook • North America • U.S. • Canada • Mexico • Europe • Germany • France • U.K. • Russia • Norway • Asia Pacific • China • India • Japan • Australia • Central and South America • Brazil • Argentina • Venezuela • M iddle East and Africa • UAE • Saudi Arabia • Egypt For more information about this report go to www.researchandmarkets.com. S

Toho Water Authority Named a Top Workplace by Orlando Sentinel Toho Water Authority (Toho) has been designated as a Central Florida Top Workplace by the Orlando Sentinel. This recognition, which was announced last November, ranked Toho as No. 27 among medium-sized companies in central Florida. The companies selected, based on data collected by a third-party research organization, exemplify the best in the areas of leadership, communication, career growth, working environment, managerial skills, wages, and benefits. To be ranked, companies had to meet or exceed thresholds based on employee satisfaction surveys, and judges, who are qualified human resources leaders, made the final selections. Some of the criteria judges reviewed included: S Health and life insurance S Flexible spending accounts S 401K accounts, childcare S Maternity/paternity leave S Elder care programs S Flextime S Employee rewards S Internal communications tools such as newsletters and intranets S Tuition reimbursement

S Training programs “We’re very proud of this recognition,” said Karen Rentz, Toho’s human resources director, noting that Toho continuously strives to improve. “Toho values and remains committed to our dedicated, hardworking team members who serve our community every day.” This isn’t the first time Toho has been recognized for fostering a positive work environment. In the past, Toho has won the same honor from the Orlando Sentinel for seven consecutive years. This year, Toho won the honor, despite the numerous obstacles due to the coronavirus pandemic, which included continuing essential operations, while also increasing remote work options. Toho is the largest provider of water, wastewater, and reclaimed water services in Osceola County. Formed in 2003, it currently serves over 115,000 customers in Kissimmee, Poinciana, and unincorporated areas of Osceola County. Toho owns and operates 13 water plants and eight wastewater plants with the purpose of providing efficient and reliable water services to the people in Osceola County. S

Toho employees display their award.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


2021-2022 FSAWWA BOARD OF GOVERNORS Florida Section AWWA by Region

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Emilie Moore, P.E. Chair Black & Veatch 3405 W. MLK Blvd., Suite 125 Tampa, Florida 33607 E: MooreE@bv.com Greg Taylor, P.E. Chair-Elect Wright-Pierce 601 S. Lake Destiny Drive, Suite 290 Maitland, Florida 32751 E: greg.taylor@wright-pierce.com

Florida Section AWWA by Region

Marjorie Craig, P.E. Vice Chair City of St. Cloud 1300 Ninth Street, Bldg. A St. Cloud, Florida 34769 E: Marjorie.Craig@stcloud.org Fred Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E. Past Chair Florida Atlantic University P.O. Box 221890 Hollywood, Florida 33022 E: h2o_man@bellsouth.net Lisa Wilson-Davis Secretary City of Boca Raton Utility Services Department 1401 Glades Road Boca Raton, Florida 33431 E: lwilsondavis@myboca.us Tyler Tedcastle, P.E. Treasurer Carter & VerPlanck, a DXP Company 601 S.E. 10th Avenue Pompano Beach, Florida 33060 E: TTedcastle@cviwater.com Mark Lehigh Section Director Hillsborough County Water Resources Services 332 N. Falkenburg Road Tampa, Florida 33619 E: lehighm@hillsboroughcounty.org

Richard Anderson General Policy Director Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 E: randerson@regionalwater.org

Andrew Greenbaum Operators and Maintenance Council Chair Tampa Bay Water 2575 Enterprise Road Clearwater, Florida 33763-1102 E: agreenbaum@tampabaywater.org


Terri Holcomb, P.E. Public Affairs Council Chair Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 E: tholcomb@regionalwater.org

Jonathan Fernald, ENV SP Contractors Council Chair PCL Construction Inc. 1 N. Dale Mabry Highway, Suite 300 Tampa, Florida 33609 E: jefernald@pcl.com Mark McDowell Manufacturers and Associates Council Chair InfraTech Group 2920 Eunice Avenue Orlando, Florida 32808 E: mcdowell_mark@ymail.com Coleman McClain Member Engagement and Development Council Chair American Cast Iron Pipe Company 1830 N. University Drive, # 377 Plantation, Florida 33322 E: cmcclain2@american-usa.com

24 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Bina Nayak, Ph.D. Technical and Education Council Chair Pinellas County Utilities 1620 Ridge Road Largo, Florida 33778 E: bnayak@pinellascounty.org Kevin Carter Water Utility Council Chair Broward County 2555 W. Copans Road Pompano Beach, Florida 33069 E: kcarter@broward.org

REGION CHAIRS Felicity Appel, P.E. Region I Chair (North Central Florida) Kimley-Horn 2619 Centennial Blvd., Suite 200 Tallahassee, Florida 32308 E: felicity.appel@kimley-horn.com Ryan Popko, P.E. Region II Chair (Northeast Florida) JEA 4215 Talleyrand Avenue Jacksonville Beach, Florida 32205-7633 E: popkrr@jea.com Andrea Netcher, Ph.D., P.E. Region III Chair (Central Florida) Plummer 401 East Jackson Street, Suite 110 Tampa, Florida 33602 E: anetcher@plummer.com Russell Ferlita, Ph.D., P..E Region IV Chair (West Central Florida) City of Dunedin 1415 Pinehurst Road, Suite F Dunedin, Florida 34697 E: rferlita@dunedinfl.net

Heath Hardy, P.E. Region IX Chair (West Florida Panhandle) HDR Engineering Inc. 25 W. Cedar Street, Suite 200 Pensacola, Florida 32502-5945 E: heath.hardy@hdrinc.com Michael Acosta, P.E. Region X Chair (West Central Florida) City of North Port 4970 City Hall Blvd. North Port, Florida 34286 E: macosta@cityofnorthport.com Rachel Slocumb Region XI Chair (North Florida) City of Ocala 1805 N.E. 30th Avenue, Bldg. 600 Ocala, Florida 34470 E: RSlocumb@ocalafl.org Sean Lathrop Region XII Chair (Central Florida Panhandle) Bay County Utility Services 3410 Transmitter Road Panama City, Florida 32404 E: slathrop@baycountyfl.gov

Karen Miller Region V Chair (Southwest Florida) GHD 2675 Winkler Avenue, Suite 180 Fort Myers, Florida 33901 E: Karen.Miller@ghd.com


Kara Mills Region VI Chair (Southeast Florida) City of Boca Raton 1401 Glades Road Boca Raton, Florida 33431 E: kmills@myboca.us

Jay Madigan Trustee Lake Cane Restoration Society E: jay.madigan@lakecane.com

Austin P’Pool, P.E. Region VII Chair (South Florida) The Corradino Group 4055 N.W. 97th Avenue Miami, Florida 33178 E: appool@corradino.com Pierre Vignier Region VIII Chair (East Central Florida) City of Port St. Lucie Utility Systems Department 900 S.E. Ogden Lane City of Port St. Lucie, Florida 34983 E: PVignier@cityofpsl.com

Pamela London-Exner Trustee P: (813) 781-0173 E: pamlondon2@gmail.com

Scott Richards, P.E. Trustee Carollo Engineers Inc. 200 E. Robinson Street, Suite 1400 Orlando, Florida 32801 E: srichards@carollo.com

Monica Wallis, P.E. Destin Water Users Inc. P.O. Box 308 Destin, Florida 32540 E: mautrey@dwuinc.com

SECTION STAFF Peggy Guingona Executive Director Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4820 F: (407) 593-0251 E: peggy@fsawwa.org Casey Cumiskey Membership Specialist/Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4806 F: (407) 593-0251 E: casey@fsawwa.org Donna Metherall Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4805 F: (407) 593-0251 E: donna@fsawwa.org Jenny Arguello Administrative Assistant Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4804 F: (407) 593-0251 E: jenny@fsawwa.org

Kirsten Sealey, P.E. Trustee Gainesville Regional Utilities P.O. Box 147051 Gainesville, Florida 32614-7051 E: sealeykm@gru.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


THANK YOU for attending our




Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress November 27 to December 1, 2022


American Water Works Association

It\\ ® Florida Section

THANKYOU Negotiating the .. E W NORMAL


A.Y. McDonald Manufacturing ABM Building Services Advanced Drainage Systems, Inc. Aegion - lnsituform Technologies, LLC - Underground Solutions, Inc AECOM American Cast Iron Pipe American Flow Control Anthrafilter ARCOS Armorock Polymer Concrete Avanti Company Avista Badger Meter Bingham & Taylor Blue Planet Environmental Systems, Inc. Carboline Carollo Engineers Carter &VerPlanck CHA Consulting, Inc. ClowValve Commerce Controls, Inc. Consolidated Pipe & Supply Core & Main LP Cornerstone H2O CROM Danus Utilities Data Flow Systems, Inc. Dewberry Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association EJ Company Empire Pipe & Supply England-Thims & Miller, Inc. Environmental MD, Inc. EnviroSales of Florida, Inc. F.J. Nugent & Associates Inc Ferguson Waterworks Florida Aqua Store Florida Pipeline Sales

Florida Protective Coatings Services, Inc. Florida Section AWWA Flotech Inc. Fluid Control Specialties Inc. Ford Meter Box Fortiline Freese and Nichols FTC FWRC/FWRJ GK Solutions GML Coatings Guardian Equipment, Inc. Halff Associates Harry Warren Inc. Haskell Hawkins Inc. Hazen & Sawyer HDR Hydromax USA IDEXX Laboratories lnfratech Group ISCO Industries Itron Jacobs JCM Industries Jones Edmunds & Associates Kamstrup Water Kennedy/M&H Valve & Hydrant Kimley-Horn and Associates KUBOTA Membrane USA Lake Cane Restoration Society Lazenby & Associates Matco-Norca and Milwaukee Tool McWane Ductile Mississippi Lime Company Moss-Kelley, Inc. MTS Environmental Mueller Co. Nanostone Water, Inc.

National Metering Services, Inc. Neptune Technology Nicor Odyssey Manufacturing Co. Porter Associates Precon Tanks PSI Technologies PVC Pipe Association R&M Service Solutions RieberLok RK&K

Sensus/Xylem Sigma Corporation SKS Waterworks, LLC Smith-Blair, Inc. Specified Sales Associates Spirit Group Inc. Stenner Pumps SUEZ Advanced Solutions swan Analytical Tetra Tech Thames & Associates Thompson Pipe Group Thompson Pump & Manufacturing Tradewinds Power Corp Trihedral U.S. Pipe U.S. Submergent Technologies U.S. Water Services Corporation USSI LLC Utility Services Associates, LLC Volition Controls Corp. Wachs Utility Wager Company of Florida WAPROValve Water Werks Wharton-Smith, Inc. Woolpert Wright Pierce




E W PREMIER SPONSORS A special thank you and recognition to all the sponsors for their generous support of the FSAWWA Conference.

Wager Company of Florida




E W PLATINUM SPONSORS A special thank you and recognition to all the sponsors for their generous support of the FSAWWA Conference.




E W GOLD & SILVER SPONSORS A special thank you and recognition to all the sponsors for their generous support of the FSAWWA Conference.

Gold Sponsors Carollo Engineers Fortiline Waterworks Trihedral Inc. Woolpert

Silver Sponsors GHD McWane Ductile

Utilities Invited to Host Local “Drop Savers” Contest The Florida Section of the American Water Works Association will again sponsor the statewide “Drop Savers” Water Conservation Poster Contest during National Drinking Water week, scheduled for May 1-7, 2022. Submission deadline is Friday, March 11, 2022, for local winners to be submitted for judging at the state level, Florida utilities are encouraged to begin preparations for showcasing the creativity of their local children. The contest gives children from kindergarten through high school the opportunity to design a poster about water conservation. Early in the year, local winners are chosen in five different age groups, with winning entries advancing for statewide judging. Utilities publicize the local contests, distribute the contest material to local schools, coordinate the judging, recruit prize sponsors, and arrange local award ceremonies. Although the state winners will be announced in mid-April prior to Drinking Water Week, utilities should start planning their local celebration now. Interested utilities may download the complete package of “Drop Savers 2022” start-up materials from the “Drop Savers” Florida Section web site at www.fsawwa.org/dropsavers. If you have questions or problems downloading the materials, please contact state coordinator Melissa Velez at (754) 229-3089 or by email velezm@bv.com. Looking forward to seeing your utility represented this year!


A New Year, New Officers, and More Training Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA


reetings everyone. I hope you all are doing well. Welcome to the new year. I’m looking forward to 2022 and am excited to see another successful year for the FWPCOA. This is the last C Factor column I will be writing as president of the FWPCOA. I am turning the reins over to Patrick Murphy, the incoming president of the association for 2022. I would like to thank everyone for the support I have received from the officers, directors, and committee chairs during my tenure. Without them I would not have had the successful two years I experienced as president.

Ken’s 2002 Harley-Davidson Road King Classic.

Ken working virtually in his home office.

My two years have been exciting and unique. I believe I am the first president to lead the association during a pandemic. Many of the normal ways of doing business had to be altered as a result of this, but as utility professionals we demonstrated our resilience through our ability to adapt, and for the first time in FWPCOA history, we went virtual for our business and committee meetings. Our Online Training Institute successfully provided training opportunities for our members and utility professionals to allow these individuals to continue the progression of their careers when we could not provide classroom training because of COVID-19 restrictions. In 2021 we were able to go back to the classroom, holding two successful short schools in cooperation with the Indian River State College. Although certain COVID protocols had to be implemented, the short schools went off without any significant issues.

Looking Forward to 2022 The FWPCOA is already planning its next short school. The Short School Committee and our training office are planning to present the spring short school at Indian River State College on March 14-18, 2022. The Education Committee, with the Support of Darin Bishop, the FWPCOA administrator, will be continuing its efforts to produce FWPCOA training manuals. This initiative has proven to be very successful to date, with the manuals that are already produced being utilized in the classroom. I want to thank Tom King, the Education Committee chair, and Darin for coordinating this effort, and also all of those committee chairs and members for providing the materials (and the editing required) to make this program successful. This is an ongoing effort as we continue to produce additional manuals that are in production now and will be in the future. The FWPCOA has secured a three-year contract for a training center in Deltona. This center will be available for scheduling training classes by the state training office and regions. For information, and to schedule classes, contact Shirley Reeves in the training office at training@fwpcoa.org. The Florida Water Resources Conference is scheduled to be held April 24-27, 2022, at the Volusia County Ocean Center in Daytona. The FWPCOA will be hosting the Operator

32 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Showcase being held Sunday afternoon at the conference from 2 to 5 p.m. We will have an open forum to discuss direct and indirect potable reuse and other regulator changes that will impact our industry. Refreshments will be served. We hope to see you there. Go to www.fwrc.org to register for the conference. Also, don’t forget to visit us at Booth 405 in the exhibit hall during your visit to FWRC.

New Officers for 2022 Once again, I want to introduce you to the new officers for 2022: Patrick (Murf) Murphy – President Athena Tipaldos – Vice-President Rim Bishop – Secretary-Treasurer Kevin Shropshire – Secretary-Treasurer Elect I want to thank you in advance for your support of their leadership. I know that all the regions and members, along with your new leadership, will make 2022 and the future successful for our organization and our industry.

FWPCOA Training Update The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our Online Training Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper right-hand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@ fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at training@fwpcoa.org. Once again, I want to thank each and every one of you for your support over the last two years; I would not have been able to do this without you. That’s all I have for my last C Factor. Everyone take care and, as usual, keep up the good work! S

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www.AccessWater.org Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022



Celebrating 2021 and Toasting 2022! Water Treatment Plant Awards Emilie Moore, P.E., PMP, ENV SP Chair, FSAWWA


elcome to 2022! It was great seeing everyone at our FSAWWA 2021 Fall Conference in Orlando. More than 1500 people attended the conference and over 500 people attended the Monday night BBQ Challenge! That’s incredible attendance and it was so fantastic to see everyone at all of the events. Our FSAWWA staff and volunteers worked behind the scenes months in advance (and the week of) the conference to make it a success. Thank you to our FSAWWA staff (Peggy Guingona, Jenny Arguello, Casey Cumiskey, and Donna Metherall) and their families, all prepping for and facilitating the conference. Thanks go to our Manufacturers/ Associates Council (MAC) volunteers (Kim Kowalski, Kevin Stine, Mike George, and countless others) who brought together a sold-out exhibit hall and the biggest BBQ Challenge yet. Thank you to Dr. Chi Ho Sham, president of AWWA, for joining our conference in person—it was our honor to have you with us. Thank you also to Fred Bloetscher, now FSAWWA past chair, for leading the conference’s technical program and for his mentorship and leadership throughout 2021 getting us back to the “new normal.” During the Opening General Session at the 2021 Fall Conference, we recognized many volunteers for membership, contributions, and distinguished service, and we also recognized the best water treatment plants and operators in Florida for the most recent full year of service (2020). Let’s take a closer look at what it takes to be recognized for a water treatment plant (WTP) award and a WTP operator award.

For the Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Award, each application is evaluated for the WTP’s water quality, operation records, maintenance, professionalism, safety, emergency preparedness, and public relations. In addition, the WTP can be considered for the Most Improved Water Treatment Plant Award based on demonstrated improvements to the WTP during the last 12 months. Water and wastewater treatment plant capacities are defined in F.A.C. 62-699.310, with Class A water treatment plants as the largest WTPs. Our Water Treatment Plant Award winners are: Most Improved WTP Class A Coral Springs Improvement District

Left to right: Fred Bloetscher, FSAWWA chair; Christian McShea, chief operator; and Chi Ho Sham, AWWA president.

Most Improved WTP Class C City of Lynn Haven

Left to right: Fred Bloetscher, FSAWWA chair; Derek Rizzuto, lead water operator; and Chi Ho Sham, AWWA president.

34 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Outstanding WTP Class A Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority

Left to right: Fred Bloetscher, FSAWWA chair; Richard Anderson, director of operations; and Chi Ho Sham, AWWA president.

Outstanding WTP Class B City of Clearwater

Left to right: Fred Bloetscher, FSAWWA chair; Fred Hemerick; Timothy Ferlanie; and Chi Ho Sham, AWWA president.

Outstanding WTP Class C Peter’s Creek, Clay County

Left to right: Fred Bloetscher, FSAWWA chair; Dwight Garth; Ross Bland; and Chi Ho Sham, AWWA president.

Congratulations to the Water Treatment Plant Award winners!

Water Treatment Plant Operator Awards Operators are eligible for the Marvin N. Kaden Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Operator Award and the AWWA Operator’s Meritorious Service Award. Selection is based on six categories of accomplishments: S P ublic health standards continuous compliance S O utstanding plant maintenance contributions S E quipment/process modifications for treatment improvements S S pecial training efforts S S pecial acts demonstrating public dedication S O utstanding contribution to the distribution system Justification is also based on their accomplishments, biographical data (e.g., employment history, civic organization memberships, year joining AWWA, professional organization memberships, professional awards or honors, educational background, and publications), and a citation of their accomplishments. Our WTP Operator Award winners are: Outstanding WTP Operator Robert Nelson, City of Palm Coast

during the AWWA Annual Conference and Exposition (ACE) in Denver. In Robert’s spare time, he studies programmable logic controller programming and volunteers his time training and educating future operators/ trainees in the four-month water treatment study group in Palm Coast.

Meritorious WTP Operator Sam Stone, Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority

Meritorious WTP Operator Karla Berroteran-Castellon, Village of Wellington

Left to right: Fred Bloetscher, FSAWWA chair; Sam Stone, Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority; and Chi Ho Sham, AWWA president.

Left to right: Fred Bloetscher, FSAWWA chair; Karla Berroteran-Castellon, Village of Wellington; and Chi Ho Sham, AWWA president.

Karla Berroteran-Castellon has a degree in chemical engineering, with a minor in environmental engineering. She has worked with Wellington’s water treatment plant since 2006, beginning as an operator apprentice; she then earned her Class A operator’s license and was promoted to water plant superintendent in 2013. In 2017, under Karla’s leadership, the water treatment plant was awarded the Most Improved Class A Water Treatment Plant from FSAWWA. Karla is currently the president of the Southeast Desalting Association (SEDA) and is dedicated to the training and certification of water plant operators in membrane treatment.

Sam Stone has been employed at the Peace River facility for 40 years, working with General Development Utilities for 10 years and then with the Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority for the past 30 years. Sam has served in almost every capacity, beginning with operator, then moving to project manager, laboratory director, and environmental compliance officer; he is now the authority’s land and environmental services manager. His 40 years of experience has established him as the historian of the Peace River facility. Sam continues to be a mentor to all the employees he has coached and understands that the mostvaluable part of an organization is the people. Congratulations to these awardees and thank you for demonstrating water excellence! Thank you to Paul Kavanagh with the FSAWWA Operators and Maintenance Council for receiving the nominations and orchestrating the evaluation of the applications with the review team. Please reach out to these professionals and congratulate them! (I’ve included their photos here.) They are the horsepower behind producing the best drinking water and have shown outstanding dedication to our world of water. I’m looking forward to sharing a great 2022 with you and what may lay ahead! Let’s make this a year to remember. Blessings and be well. S

Left to right: Fred Bloetscher, FSAWWA chair; Robert Nelson, City of Palm Coast; and Chi Ho Sham, AWWA president.

Robert Nelson has an associate of science degree in engineering technology and has worked as an operator for the City of Palm Coast for over seven years. In 2019, during Robert’s first year of participating on the Palm Coast Top Ops team, he helped secure a state championship, while placing second in the national Top Ops competition

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring? 4. P er the EPA Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants website, all laboratories conducting analyses for the UCMR must be approved by

Donna Kaluzniak

1. P er the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants, EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) to collect data for contaminants that are known or suspected to be present in drinking water and

a. a re regulated by the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). b. d o not have health-based standards set under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). c. h ave health-based standards set under the SDWA. d. have no potential health effects on the population. 2. P er the EPA Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants website, the UCMR establishes a program to monitor for priority unregulated contaminants in drinking water every five years. Which public water systems (PWS) must conduct the monitoring? a. A ll systems b. All systems serving 3,300 people and greater and a representative sample of systems serving under 3,300 people c. O nly systems serving 3,300 people and greater d. Only systems serving 10,000 people and greater 3. P er Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule for the Fifth Monitoring Cycle (UCMR 5): Public Meeting and Webinar (UCMR 5 Public Meeting), the SDWA requires EPA to establish a list of contaminants that are not subject to any NPDWR, known or anticipated to occur in PWS, and may require regulation. This is called the

a. b. c. d.

ontaminant Candidate List (CCL). C Contaminant Priority List (CPL). M onitoring Cycle List (MCL). Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring List (UCML).

a. b. c. d.

a state environmental regulatory agency. a state public health agency. E PA. the National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Center.

5. P er the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule 5 Public Meeting, who funds the costs for sampling and analysis for PWS serving 10,000 people and less? 6.

a. b. c. d.

EPA T he state environmental regulatory agency The state public health department PWS

er Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant P Monitoring Rule 5 for Public Water System Fact Sheet (UCMR 5 Fact Sheet), the 30 contaminants proposed for the fifth UCMR (UCMR 5) include 29 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and a. b. c. d.

ibromoacetonitrile. D Haloacetonitriles. Legionella pneumophila. Lithium.

7. P er the EPA Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants website, the proposed UCMR 5 was published on March 11, 2021. The UCMR 5 would require a sample collection for 30 chemical contaminants between what years?

a. b. c. d.

2 021 and 2023 2022 and 2026 2 022 and 2024 2023 and 2025

8. P er the UCMR 5 Public Meeting, where are the sampling points for the proposed UCMR 5?

a. b. c. d.

Entry point to the distribution systems Entry point to the treatment facility Every source water entry point Multiple locations throughout the distribution system

36 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

9. P er the UCMR 5 Public Meeting, what is the sampling frequency for surface water systems (including those using groundwater under the direct influence of surface water) during their year of sampling?

a. b. c. d.

Monthly F our times per year (about every three months) Three times per year (about every four months) Twice per year (five to seven months apart)

10. P er the EPA Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants website, who is responsible for posting the analytical results to the EPA webbased Safe Drinking Water Accession and Review System (SDWARS)?

a. L aboratories that performed the sample analysis b. PWS c. State environmental regulatory agency d. State public health agency Answers on page 62

References used for this quiz: • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants webpage: https://www.epa.gov/dwucmr • U.S. EPA, Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule for the Fifth Monitoring Cycle (UCMR 5): Public Meeting and Webinar: https://www.epa.gov/system/files/documents/202109/815a21001.pdf • U.S. EPA, Revisions to the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) for Public Water System Fact Sheet (UCMR 5 Fact Sheet) https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2021-01/ documents/ucmr5-proposal-factsheet-draft.pdf

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com


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Investing in U.S. Water Infrastructure Ronald R. Cavalieri, P.E., BCEE President, FWEA

Water Infrastructure is Fundamental to Our Nation’s Economic Health and Competitiveness America’s clean water infrastructure is massive. By keeping the nation’s water infrastructure in a state of good repair, we strengthen our economy and invest in the future. Local, state, and federal action to increase investment in our water infrastructure today will lead to a resilient, efficient, and reliable water future and protect public health for generations to come. In my July column it was noted that America’s water infrastructure is failing. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) created an Infrastructure Report Card to assign grades for infrastructure in the United States based on condition, safety, capacity, and other factors. The most-recent report card assigned drinking water and wastewater infrastructure a C- and D+, respectively. The recently enacted Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (Act) will

provide significant funding for the nation’s critical water infrastructure.

The U.S. Infrastructure and Investment Jobs Act The Act was passed by Congress and signed into law on Nov. 15, 2021. It will provide significant public investment in U.S. transportation networks, broadband, and public works projects. The Act allocates an estimated $1.2 trillion in total funding over 10 years, including $550 billion in new spending over the next five years. The new spending will be split between improving the transportation network ($284 billion) and the nation’s core infrastructure ($263 billion). Funding for core infrastructure includes the power grid, broadband, water, environmental resiliency, and environmental remediation. The Act includes funding for a range of issues and seeks to embed sustainability and equity in new infrastructure investments. The passage of the legislation is a once-in-a-generation opportunity to improve our nation’s aging infrastructure.

Funding for Drinking Water and Wastewater Infrastructure The Act includes the Senate Drinking Water and Wastewater Infrastructure Bill (S. 914) passed by the Senate on April 29, 2021. The bill reauthorizes existing programs and creates new programs to support drinking water and

38 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

wastewater infrastructure projects. Most of this funding is allocated to the existing Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (SRF) and the Clean Water State Revolving Fund SRF, both administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bill provides $55 billion in new spending, including: S $43.4 billion in SRF S $15 billion for lead service line replacement through the SRF S $10 billion to address per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contamination S $3.5 billion for the Indian Health Service Sanitation Facilities Construction Program Here is a summary of the funding authorized under this legislation. Drinking Water State Revolving Funds These funds authorize funding through Fiscal Year (FY) 2026 for the SRF, which provides capitalization grants to states for loans supporting water infrastructure projects. It authorizes $2.4 billion for FY 2022, $2.75 billion for FY 2023, $3 billion for FY 2024, and $3.25 billion for FYs 2025 and 2026. Clean Water State Revolving Funds These funds are authorized through FY 2026 for the Clean Water SRF, which provides capitalization grants to states for loans supporting water quality improvement projects. They authorize $2.4 billion for FY 2022, $2.75 billion

for FY 2023, $3 billion for FY 2024, and $3.25 billion for each of FYs 2025 and 2026. Drinking Water Assistance for Small and Disadvantaged Communities This authorizes funding for the Assistance for Small and Disadvantaged Communities Drinking Water Grant Program, which helps public water systems in underserved and disadvantaged communities meet Safe Drinking Water Act requirements, in the amounts of $70 million for FY 2022, $80 million for FY 2023, $100 million for FY 2024, $120 million for FY 2025, and $140 million for FY 2026. Addressing Lead Contamination in School Drinking Water Systems This authorizes funding to address lead in school drinking water systems in the amounts of $30 million for FY 2022, $35 million for FY 2023, $40 million for FY 2024, $45 million for FY 2025, and $50 million for FY 2026. Resiliency and Sustainability Grants These grants authorize $50 million annually for the Midsize and Large Drinking Water System Infrastructure Resilience and Sustainability Grant Program and create a corresponding $25 million per year for the Clean Water Infrastructure Resiliency and Sustainability Program for small communities. Both of these programs would provide financing for resiliency projects, including conservation and supply augmentation projects. Addressing Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Stormwater Reuse This authorizes funding for the sanitary sewer overflow and stormwater reuse municipal grants at $280 million annually for FYs 2022 through 2026, with requirements to allocate at least 25 percent of such funds toward systems serving rural or otherwise disadvantaged communities. Reauthorization and/or Creation of Additional Grant and Loan Programs These programs authorize and fund several other specific grant and loan programs, including: S $50 million annually through FY 2026 for reauthorization of the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) loan program, which provides low-cost loans for a variety of water infrastructure projects. S $ 35 million annually through FY 2026 for technical assistance and grants for emergencies affecting public water systems, with an additional $15 million annually for technical assistance to small public water systems. S $ 20 million annually through FY 2026 to create the Wastewater Efficiency Grant Pilot Program for projects by publicly owned treatments works (POTWs) that seek to

improve waste-to-energy systems, with individual grants capped at $4 million. S $25 million annually through FY 2026 to reauthorize an existing pilot program for alternative water source projects, including potable water reuse, wastewater and stormwater capture and treatment, and groundwater recharge projects. S Research into water infrastructure technologies and community needs, which requires EPA to study safe drinking water technologies and community needs in the year following the bill enactment. It provides $75 million annually through FY 2026 for research, investigations, training, and informational grants authorized under Section 104 of the Clean Water Act. S The Water Data Sharing Pilot Program requires EPA to facilitate sharing of information among stakeholders by creating a water-data-sharing pilot program and directs EPA to create a Water Reuse Interagency Working Group. It authorizes appropriations for the grant program for FYs 2022 through 2026.

A Generational Opportunity and a Challenge

The market will drive the development of new techniques to improve efficiency and effectiveness of project delivery. Equipment and material suppliers must prepare their supply chains for the increased demand. New technology companies will have an opportunity to bring innovative solutions for a more resilient and sustainable future. The industry needs to adopt operational best practices in maintenance and prioritize capital to the highest-risk and mostcritically-needed assets. As water professionals we look forward to this challenge to restore our nation’s water infrastructure.

References S B ipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act Summary: A Road to Stronger Economic Growth. Maria Cantwell, U.S. Senator for the State of Washington. S Th e U.S. Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act: Breaking it Down. McKinsey and Company, November 2021. S U .S. Water Infrastructure: Making Funding Count. McKinsey and Company, November 2021. S

The influx of capital for water infrastructure projects will put increased demand on the utility infrastructure market. Utility managers, operators, consultants, contractors, and equipment and material suppliers will need to be prepared to meet this challenge. Effective capital planning and execution will be needed to make the most of the available dollars, especially considering the current inflationary and supply chain issues.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


Hallandale Beach Honors Robert McColgan The City of Hallandale Beach and its mayor, Joy F. Cooper, recently recognized Robert McColgan with a certificate of appreciation for his service to the city’s water plant operations and his involvement on its boards and committees. S

2021 FSAWWA AWARDS Outstanding and Most Improved Water Treatment Plant Awards Class A, Class B, Class C Deadline: Friday, March 18, 2022

Outstanding Water Treatment Plant Operator Award Deadline: Friday, March 18, 2022

AWWA Operator’s Meritorious Service Award Deadline: Friday, March 18, 2022

For more information please go to our website www.fsawwa.org/WTPawards or contact Paul Kavanagh at (813) 264-3835 or kavanaghp@hillsboroughcounty.org

40 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal



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352.294.3874 Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Carbon Monoxide: A Silent Killer S Water gushing from a 30-inch pipe near the

University of California poured into Pauley Pavilion, and six people helping clean up the flooded arena were treated for carbon monoxide exposure from generator exhaust.

S Carbon monoxide leaking from a faulty flue

pipe attached to a water heater killed the manager and sickened 27 others at a restaurant in New York.

S Downed

power lines from ice storms in the Northeast and Midwest forced hundreds of thousands to spend the holidays without electricity, and carbon monoxide from gasoline-powered generators is blamed for eight deaths.

S A 77-year-old man was found dead his home after leaving his car running in the garage.

These true stories are just a fraction of the deaths and illnesses reported every year from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Exposure to CO can occur on the job, as well as in homes and buildings that are inadequately ventilated and lack the proper detection devices. People can be affected by CO poisoning using gasolinepowered tools, such as concrete cutting saws, high-pressure washers, floor buffers, welders, pumps, compressors, and generators. An odorless, tasteless, colorless gas, CO is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, such as gasoline, natural gas,

fuel oil, charcoal, or wood. Because of the potential for CO poisoning, small gasoline-powered engines and tools present a serious health hazard when operated indoors or in an enclosed space. The CO can rapidly accumulate, even in areas that appear to be well-ventilated. Buildup can lead to dangerous or fatal concentrations within minutes. Opening doors and windows or operating fans does not guarantee safety.

Health Effects of Carbon Monoxide The CO interferes with the delivery of oxygen in the blood to the rest of the body. When high concentrations of CO are inhaled, it can displace the oxygen in the bloodstream and cause one or more of the following symptoms:


Poor coordination Confusion and disorientation Fatigue Nausea Headache Dizziness Weakness Visual disturbances Changes in personality Loss of consciousness

If the concentration is high enough and the exposure is long enough, CO exposure can lead to death. Approximately 1,000 people die each year as a result of CO poisoning, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Prevention Techniques In the workplace, the CDC has the following recommendations to prevent CO poisoning:

S Do not use or operate gasoline-powered

Let’s Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY20. The code is good for the Let’s Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.

42 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

engines or tools inside buildings or in partially enclosed areas.

S Learn to recognize the symptoms and signs of CO overexposure.

S Always place pumps, power units, and

gasoline-powered compressors outdoors and away from air intakes so that engine exhaust is not drawn indoors where the work is being done.

S Consider using tools powered by electricity or

compressed air if they are available and can be used safely.

S Use personal CO monitors where potential

sources of CO exist. These monitors should be equipped with audible alarms to warn workers when CO concentrations are too high or when exceeding the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ceiling limit for CO of 200 parts per million.

S Conduct a workplace assessment to identify all potential sources of CO exposure.

S Educate workers about the sources and

conditions that may result in CO poisoning, as well as the symptoms and control of CO exposure.

S Monitor employee CO exposure to

determine the extent of the hazard.

S Always use the proper fuel in a combustion device.

S Don’t leave a motor vehicle or gasoline-

powered lawn mower running in enclosed spaces, such as a garage or shed.

First Aid for Exposure If you have any symptoms, or notice that a coworker is impaired, immediately turn off the equipment, go outdoors or to a place with uncontaminated air, and do the following:

S Call 911 or another local emergency number

for medical attention or assistance. Be sure and tell the first responder that you suspect CO poisoning.

S Stay away from the work area until tools are

deactivated and measured CO concentrations meet accepted guidelines and standards.

S Watch coworkers for the signs of CO toxicity. S If you are affected by CO, do not drive a

motor vehicle—get someone else to drive you to a health care facility.

For more information go to the CDC fact sheet on CO at http://www.cdc.gov/co/pdfs/ flyer_danger.pdf. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022



To Expand or Intensify? Chattanooga’s Anaerobic Digestion Question Nicole Stephens, Jeffrey Rose, Stephanie Kopec, Harold Schmidt, and Sudhakar Viswanathan


he City of Chattanooga (city) currently processes primary and secondary solids through anaerobic digestion and lime stabilization, respectively. The city is evaluating simplified solids handling approaches that accommodate future growth, including conversion to full-plant mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD). A pilot-scale study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using thermal hydrolysis pretreatment and intensified MAD to accommodate stabilization of future-year (2034) full-plant solids loads within the existing anaerobic digestion complex. Results from the study indicated that stable operation can be achieved at an intensified organic loading rate of 6.4 kg/m3-d (0.4 lb/ft3-d) when thermal hydrolysis pretreatment is applied, therefore reducing the need to build additional digester infrastructure. Secondary benefits were also observed, including increased volatile solids destruction and biogas production, Class A quality biosolids, and improved dewaterability. The purpose of this article is to discuss the results of a pilot-scale demonstration study evaluating intensified anaerobic digestion through thermal hydrolysis pretreatment at the Moccasin Bend Wastewater Treatment Plant (MBWWTP), located in Chattanooga, Tenn. Water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) are undergoing a transformation from being traditionally focused on removing contaminants from wastewater to now recovering resources.

Utilities are realizing the benefits of enhancing bioenergy, biosolids, water, and nutrient recovery and the value it brings to the overall bottom line for the end user. As this paradigm shift drives the development of emerging technologies, any WRRF can participate in a circular economy that benefits the consumer by preserving and renewing water, energy, and material resources at the local level. Anaerobic digestion is a key component in realizing a circular economy. It’s well-documented that anaerobic digestion has the potential to generate more energy than it consumes. When anaerobic digestion is integrated with combined heat and power (CHP), or conversion of biogas to biomethane, it can deliver cost-effective, netenergy-neutral, or positive solutions for WRRFs. The feasibility and efficiency of anaerobic digestion can be further enhanced with pretreatment, such as a thermal hydrolysis process (THP), which enables intensified loading to digesters, resulting in increased digestion capacity and enhanced performance, such as increased volatile solids reduction (VSR). The increased VSR can yield other benefits, including Class A-quality biosolids, increased biogas production, improved dewaterability, and improved nutrient availability for subsequent recovery. The THP was first applied to improve sludge dewaterability (Haug et al.,1978), but has since grown into a pretreatment alternative for intensified anaerobic digestion. The THP is the

Figure 1. Pilot System Configuration

44 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Nicole Stephens is associate environmental engineer with Stantec Consulting Inc. in Raleigh, N.C. Jeffrey Rose is director of wastewater with City of Chattanooga (Tenn.). Stephanie Kopec is an environmental engineer with Stantec Consulting Inc. in Ann Arbor, Mich. Harold Schmidt is regional wastewater practice leader with Stantec Consulting Inc. in Tampa. Sudhakar Viswanathan is national sales manager–biosolids and bioenergy with Veolia in Raleigh, N.C.

engineered application of temperature (160 to 165°C) and pressure (6 to 9 bar) to more-effectively disintegrate floc and lyse-wasted solids, which is the rate-limiting step in anaerobic digestion. The resulting lysed sludge product has lower viscosity and increased available volatile solids for digestion.

Methodology The MBWWTP receives and treats flows from the city and the surrounding region prior to discharge to the Tennessee River. The facility currently produces over 90 dry tons per day (dtpd) of solids, with a projected-year (2034) annual average solids production of 120 dtpd and maximum-month solids production of 150 dtpd. The plant sludge composition is approximately 60 percent primary and 40 percent secondary solids.

A minimum of 32.5 Ml of digester volume is therefore required to accommodate full-plant anaerobic digestion under year 2034 flows and conventional operating conditions. The project, however, hypothesized that THP pretreatment could address the challenges outlined and allow for intensified full-plant anaerobic digestion within the existing digester infrastructure. Such an approach would also result in Class A biosolids and the secondary benefits of increased biogas production and improvements to sludge dewaterability. Previous studies have demonstrated that anaerobic digestion of high-strength manure can be sustained at over 2,000 mg/L total ammonia concentrations (Esquivel-Elizondo et al., 2016). A pilot-scale study was employed to demonstrate the practical application of this knowledge for domestic wastewater and to demonstrate the efficacy of THP pretreatment to improve digestibility while maintaining a high OLR. Major components of the pilot-scale system included a prethickening plate and frame press to generate 22 percent solids prior to hydrolysis, a Bio ThelysTM high-solids THP system with a dynamic mixer, and two 740-liter anaerobic digesters (Figure 1). Three test phases were conducted simulating increasing OLRs to a test digester, with

Increasing THP Fraction in Feed

Increasing %TS







0.20 6

OLR (lb/cf-d)


10 Flow (gpd)

Approximately 47 dtpd of thickened primary sludge is stabilized via two-phase anaerobic digestion (2pad) and dewatered via centrifuges. Secondary waste activated sludge (WAS) is cosettled with the remaining primary sludge, stabilized through lime addition, and dewatered via vacuum-assisted plate and frame presses. The two biosolids products are then blended, resulting in an overall Class B product for beneficial use. Given the increasing drivers for Class A biosolids and the industry trend toward resource recovery, the city identified a need to simplify the MBWWTP solids handling approach by implementing full-plant anaerobic digestion. The existing anaerobic digester complex consists of six 2.27-megaliter (Ml) digesters, which provide a combined working volume of 13.6 Ml. If no new digesters are added to accommodate future fullplant solids production, the facility will have to operate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.3 kg/ m3-d (0.45 lb/cf-d). Conventional digesters cannot operate at these high organic and hydraulic loading rates due to the following: S Kinetic limitations in a completely mixed reactor S M ixing energy required for highly viscous, high-solids sludge S R ate-limiting steps (such as hydrolysis) inherent to the digestion process S A mmonia toxicity








Digester Feed Rate

Test OLR

Control OLR

Figure 2. Pilot Digesters Volumetric Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate Table 1. Summary of Pilot-Derived Inputs

a target maximum OLR of 7.3 kg/m3-d (0.45 lb/ cf-d). A control digester was operated at OLRs consistent with standard MAD practices. Digester stability and the acclimation of archaea and bacteria to high concentrations of ammonia in the intensified test digester were closely monitored. Test and control digester performance were compared in terms of organic and hydraulic loading rates, VSR, biogas production, and dewaterability of the resulting digestate. The project also considered the Bio Thelys dynamic mixer’s ability to provide moreefficient steam delivery and rapid condensation for improved lysis relative to other commercially available THP systems. Data from the study were used to inform a business-case evaluation comparing the capital and annual operating expenditures required to expand the MBWWTP anaerobic digester complex to

accommodate future full-plant solids production, or intensify solids stabilization within the existing anaerobic digester footprint through addition of high-solids thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

Results The volumetric loading and organic loading rates administered to each digester during the pilot period are shown in Figure 2. Construction activities at the gravity thickener complexes and pipe tap clogging prohibited consistent sludge collection through the testing period, most significantly during the first month of operation. The control OLR also varied slightly over the testing period as a result of inconsistent total solids concentrations in gravity thickener underflows. The fraction of hydrolyzed sludge in the test Continued on page 46

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Table 2. Business-Case Evaluation Conceptual Design Criteria

Figure 3. Cumulative Life Cycle Cost

Table 3. Weighted Qualitative Comparison of Alternatives

Continued from page 45 digester feed stream was gradually increased by approximately 5 to 10 percent per week to allow the test digester to properly acclimate. Toward the end of the testing period, the organic loading rate was increased to a maximum of 5.6 kg/m3-d (0.37 lb/cf-d) by increasing the total solids concentration of the hydrolyzed feed sludge from 10 to 12 percent. Key data obtained from the pilot evaluation are summarized in Table 1. A partial THP condition was not tested at the MBWWTP; therefore, several parameters needed for the business-case evaluation were informed by previous THP piloting efforts by the Metro Wastewater Reclamation District. A business-case evaluation was developed concurrently with piloting efforts, beginning with an assessment of future flow and load conditions and existing digester capacity. Key design criteria used to inform the digester capacity evaluation is summarized in Table 2. The three alternatives evaluated, and their key scope items, are also described. Capital costs were estimated for each alternative using a Class 5 opinion of probable construction costs; escalation, engineering, and administrative costs were added to derive a total project cost estimate. Annual operations and maintenance costs were also estimated for each alternative based on year 2030 annual average flow and load conditions. The cumulative annual net present cost of each alternative was calculated and is presented in Figure 3. Alternative 1: WAS Thickening Improvements + New Digester Complex S Construct a new WAS thickening facility to ensure a minimum blended raw sludge concentration of 6 percent total solids (TS). S Construct a new MAD complex consisting of six digesters, with sufficient capacity to treat year 2034 flows and loads with one digester out of service. S Maintain the existing anaerobic digestion complex for future treatment. Alternative 2: New Prethickening + Partial-Plant THP S Construct a new prethickening facility for 60 percent of the solids load. S Construct a new partial-plant THP facility, including steam generation and sludge cooling. S Expand the existing digester complex to include two new MADs providing sufficient capacity to treat year 2034 flows and loads with one digester out of service. S Replace the digester gas handling system. Alternative 3: New Prethickening + Full-Plant THP S Construct a new prethickening facility for 100 percent of the solids load.

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S C onstruct a new full-plant THP facility, including steam generation and sludge cooling. S E xpand the existing digester complex to include two new MADs providing sufficient capacity to treat year 2034 flows and loads with one digester out of service. S R eplace the digester gas handling system.

Discussion While the annual operating costs associated with Alternative 1 were estimated to be approximately 16 percent lower than that of Alternatives 2 and 3, the significant capital investment required to construct an entirely new and properly sized digester complex resulted in a higher overall net present cost. Furthermore, the city is interested in pursuing energy recovery alternatives, such as combined heat and power or generating renewable natural gas. Incorporating such improvements into the evaluation would result in more-favorable annual operating costs for the THP options, as there is a significant increase in biogas production with THP. Another key consideration was the impact to the dewatering sidestream and whether additional

treatment is necessary to ensure that the higherstrength centrate does not adversely affect the facility’s ability to meet effluent ammonia limits. Pilot testing showed that the concentration of ammonia in centrate is expected to increase by a factor of five for Alternative 1 and 15 for Alternatives 2 and 3. Given the historic secondary treatment performance, the city is not expected to be able to accommodate the increased ammonia loads; therefore, a sidestream deammonification was recommended. For planning purposes, the ANITATMMox moving bed bioreactor system was assumed for Alternative 1 and the integrated fixed-film activated sludge system was assumed for Alternatives 2 and 3. A qualitative comparison was also performed by collaboratively weighting evaluation categories and scoring each alternative to capture the city’s priorities. Results are presented in Table 3 and indicate that the full-plant THP alternative is the most favorable. This is primarily due to the alternative’s ability to produce Class A biosolids, where Alternatives 1 and 2 will not.


The pilot study successfully demonstrated

stable MAD operation with intensified organic loading rates and thermal hydrolysis pretreatment. Data from the study were used to inform a business-case evaluation, which concluded that such intensified operation would allow the MBWWTP to leverage existing digester capacity to treat future flows and loads, while minimizing capital expenditure. Secondary operational benefits were also observed, including increased volatile solids destruction and biogas production, Class A quality biosolids, and improved dewaterability, which resulted in a more-favorable net present cost.

References • H aug, R.T.; Stuckey, D.C.; Gossett, J.M.; and Mac Carty, P.L. (1978). Effect of Thermal Pretreatment on Digestibility and Dewaterability of Organic Sludges. J. Water Pol. Control Fed. January, 73–85. • Esquivel-Elizondo, S.; Parameswaran, P.; Delgado, A. G.; Maldonado, J.; Rittmann, B. E.; and Krajmalnik-Brown, R. (2016). Archaea and Bacteria Acclimate to High Total Ammonia in a Methanogenic Reactor Treating Swine Waste. Archaea, 2016, 1–10. S

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Translating Wastewater Surveillance Data How to ensure your wastewater-based epidemiology program provides insights that can influence public health decisions Rasha Maal-Bared, Mark Sobsey, Naoko Munakata, Kari Brisolara, Lee Gary Jr., Jay Swift, Samendra Sherchan, Scott Schaefer, Albert Rubin, Charles Gerba, Kyle Bibby, Robert Bastian, Lola Olabode, Akin Babatola, Robert S. Reimers, and Leonard Casson Wastewater contains a tremendous number of resources, such as water, energy, and nutrients. The coronavirus pandemic has helped highlight one often-overlooked resource flowing through the sewers: information. Faced with the need for noninvasive and scalable tools to supplement individual clinical testing and contact-tracing efforts, public health officials and wastewater experts have begun turning to wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), which is also known as wastewater surveillance. This practice can monitor substances of concern in communities by detecting and quantifying their concentrations in community wastewater. Making the most of this potentially powerful tool requires three core tasks. First, it’s essential to understand what WBE is, how it works, and its limitations. Second, the WBE team must include the right people to collect, analyze, and use the data, which includes adding a new role to the process to translate knowledge from wastewater analysis to public health decisions. Finally, all sample collection and analysis activities need to be standardized to ensure that the resulting decisions are based on comparable data. These elements can help create a successful WBE campaign that uses information extracted from wastewater to aid and improve public health actions.

What is Wastewater-Based Epidemiology? Monitoring wastewater through the regular collection and analysis of wastewater samples for pathogens and chemicals has been used for decades to support public health decisions around the globe. In the 1940s, environmental virologists at Yale University used WBE by culturing cell assays to monitor for the presence of poliovirus in communities. This approach enabled public health professionals to detect when a polio outbreak was about to occur,

as well as estimate the level of infection in the community. Later, when the polio vaccine became available in the 1950s and 1960s, WBE also aided evidencebased decisions about initiation and targeting of polio vaccination campaigns in communities where the virus was detected in wastewater. In 2013, WBE was able to prevent a polio outbreak in Israel, which had been polio-free since 1988. More recently, the approach has been expanded to include norovirus, hepatitis A virus, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and the rubeola virus (which causes measles) in countries such as Australia and the Netherlands. In 2009, WBE was implemented to trace the use of an antiviral drug (oseltamivir) during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Japan. The WBE was also successfully used globally for the surveillance of opioid and illicit drug use by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and Statistics Canada. The approach relies on the assumption that any substance that is excreted by humans and is stable in wastewater can be used to backcalculate the original concentration excreted by the serviced population, provided that the excretion (or shedding), substance fate, and transport and wastewater flow patterns are wellunderstood.

How Wastewater-Based Epidemiology Works with COVID-19 For the virus that causes COVID-19, ribonucleic acid (RNA) is shed from symptomatic and asymptomatic cases in saliva, sputum, urine, and feces. These multiple shedding routes and evidence from other coronaviruses suggested early on that the likelihood of COVID-19 virus RNA detection in wastewater and collection systems was high. This high reliability indicates that WBE can help overcome challenges faced by traditional public health tools. Scaling the conventional testing systems for mass surveillance of populations proved challenging in 2020 due to the high cost of repeatedly testing large portions of the population; limitations in human, clinical, and testing resources; insufficient sensitivity; and inadequate throughput. In addition, research

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has shown that 20 to 45 percent of infected individuals exhibit delayed onset of symptoms or do not show symptoms at all. Even if the infection is symptomatic, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that only one in seven COVID-19 symptomatic illnesses in the United States were reported between February and September of 2020. Finally, contact tracing has proven to be challenging due to training requirements for staffing call centers and the lack of consistency across states and regions. The first successful report of COVID-19 monitoring by WBE came from the KWR Institute in the Netherlands. This was a proof-ofconcept study to determine if current molecular biology tools are sensitive enough to detect the RNA of COVID-19 virus in untreated wastewater at a water resource recovery facility (WRRF). Since then, the COVID-19 virus RNA has been found in untreated wastewater and untreated sludge worldwide. These findings have shown some correlation with the number of infections in the community. In some cases, such as Italy and Brazil, retrospective analyses of wastewater confirmed the presence of the virus in wastewater before community transmission had been identified. Many studies successfully reported the use of qualitative approaches that report the presence or absence of virus RNA in wastewater. Other work takes on a more semiquantitative approach based on concentrations of the virus (or its nucleic acid) to reveal trends of infection in the population, but mainly within individual communities.

Using the Information While, to date, many wastewater samples have been collected and analyzed for COVID-19 RNA, the results have seldom been used to inform public health actions. Three main factors are hindering use of this data: S Public health authorities primarily deal with testing results, hospital infection and treatment data, and health outcomes; newly produced WBE data does not readily fit into their current data collection structures, risk evaluation systems, and decision-making frameworks. S Many knowledge gaps remain when it comes

Figure 2 outlines the four critical elements of a successful WBE program: S Sampling design S Method validation S Knowledge translation S Communication plan Each element also contains several factors that should be considered when creating or participating in a WBE program.

Sampling Design The importance of collecting a representative sample with a comprehensive and informative set of associated data cannot be overemphasized. Many WRRFs support onsite laboratories for regulatory testing (e.g., fecal indicator bacteria), but molecular biology and associated testing techniques are not common in these laboratories. Having a detailed but understandable Continued on page 50

Table 1. Collaborator Contributions to Support WBE Efforts

Develop a detailed sampling plan to assess temporal and spatial variations Develop SOP and sample submission form Develop a site-specific job safety assessment Develop a sample storage, handling, and shipping plan Document hydrological changes in the sewershed Document retention and conditions in the collection system Document changes in process and influent quality Document hauled wastes added to the system Document collection system geometry Document population size and water use data Perform a thorough method validation Conduct ongoing QA/QC Determine method sensitivity and incorporating recoveries in RNA concentration calculations Normalize virus RNA concentration per mL Estimate viral decay rates and sorption to solids Convert data into actionable results for public health authorities Collect clinical data from positive cases Collect clinical data related to shedding of RNA per person Determine under what conditions WBE data follow infection trends Develop a communication plan for data and results (content, frequency, platform, duration) Communicate that RNA concentrations do not correlate with infectivity Communicate what WBE results can and cannot tell Determine and implement public health interventions








Knowledge user

Needed Element for Wastewater-Based Epidemiology Support

Knowledge translator or interppreter

Many organizations have suggested that successful WBE-based public health decision making requires cooperation among three main multidisciplinary groups of collaborators with different expertise, perspectives, and priorities: the sample provider, the data producer, and the knowledge users (Figure 1). The Water Research Foundation (WRF) in Denver acknowledged this interdependence in its spring 2020 report, “Wastewater Surveillance of the COVID-19 Genetic Signal in Sewersheds,” that emerged from the Virtual International Water Research Summit on COVID-19. The WBE samples are collected from WRRFs or collection systems by public or private utilities that fill the role of sample provider. Collecting a representative sample in a standardized manner and properly storing and transporting it prior to analysis are the first steps of WBE. These samples need to be analyzed by data producers who process, concentrate, extract, and run the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to provide analytical results for COVID-19 nucleic acid (specifically, virus RNA) presence and concentrations in the samples. The data producers often act as the project leaders by monitoring progress, addressing challenges, and managing communication activities among team members, given that health authorities and utilities have other priorities and responsibilities. Data producers include laboratory personnel or research teams with expertise in molecular biology and microbiology of wastewater and can be located at a utility, an academic institution, or a private-sector entity. To be used to support public health decisions, these data now must be converted from PCR-based measurements (such as copies per unit volume) to sample concentration estimates and adjusted for testing reliability and efficacy and wastewater-related factors by consideration of known hydrodynamic conditions and population size, which may change from sample to sample within a wastewater system. Theoretically, this provides sample COVID-19 virus RNA concentration estimates from repeated analysis over time. This knowledge translator role, however, often remains unfilled. This gap—arguably the

Elements of a Successful Campaign

Data Producer

Assembling the Right People

most important role for making WBE data useful in public health decisions—is where raw wastewater RNA results are translated to information actionable by public health authorities. Closing this gap is key to enabling the use of WBE data to support public health actions, since many public health agencies engaged in COVID-19 response are overwhelmed in identifying, tracking, and reporting COVID-19 cases and, more recently, in rolling out COVID-19 vaccination campaigns. The information created by the knowledge translators, public health authorities, and decision makers—who become the knowledge users—can make public health and infection control decisions about containment efforts and mitigation responses. All of these collaborators must work together closely and transparently with defined responsibilities and obligations to the team. These roles need to be articulated at the beginning of the WBE campaign. Table 1 outlines the contributions of each collaborator group.

Sample provider

to SARS-CoV-2 shedding in feces and decay in the sewershed, making interpretation of results challenging. S Not all molecular laboratories (i.e., data producers) have the expertise, public health knowledge, and authority to efficiently and correctly convert viral RNA concentrations to actionable results and trends to support public health response efforts.
















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Continued from page 49 sampling plan and a standard operating procedure (SOP) describing when, where, what, and how to sample wastewater for the virus that causes COVID-19 is needed. This SOP should standardize sampling collection and handling practices that allow utilities to participate by planning around other responsibilities. These plans and their implementation are essential, especially given reductions in staffing during COVID-19, to allow utilities to provide uninterrupted core services to their communities. The SOP facilitates sampling by ensuring the sample collectors know what is required of them, what the procedures entail, and which sitespecific safety precautions to use. The SOP should be accompanied by a sample submission form to encourage consistent documentation of relevant information and critical parameters, such as wastewater flow rate. Ensuring this consistency enables the knowledge translators to convert from detected RNA concentrations to trends in community COVID-19 infection burdens. The SOP should include the following topics: Sampling Points The sampling plan should outline sampling locations, frequency, sample volume, and duration (schedule over time). Utilities already collect samples from various points in their processes using different sampling locations. These locations often already are indexed in a utility’s laboratory information management system (LIMS). If usual sampling points are not suitable for WBE sample collection, data producers need to work with the utility to identify the best sampling locations that are also safe for sample collectors. The CDC states that samples should be collected at representative locations that preferably precede the addition of chemicals or mixing of different waste streams at the WRRF that may obscure or prevent the location of the contributing population. The WRF report mentioned earlier suggests collecting samples after the headworks, but utilities should be cautioned against sampling treated primary effluent, as this would lead to an underestimation of virus RNA concentrations because the virus sorbs to solids that are removed in primary treatment. Depending on the WRRF, representative and well-informed sampling may not always be possible. In addition, if a WBE campaign is trying to identify hotspots in the collection system (i.e., monitoring sentinel sites), sampling must occur in the system instead and similar considerations must be made. While privacy issues are not a concern with COVID-19 WBE given the anonymity of members of the population served, future WBE efforts may focus on illicit drug use and other controversial contaminants. Studying more-contentious

contaminants in collection systems or smaller WRRFs may have privacy risks that should be considered. Sample Types and Containers While data producers have reported the detection of COVID-19 virus RNA in both wastewater and solids samples for WBE assessments, major WBE initiatives are focused on method development and analysis for untreated wastewater. This is due to many reasons, including the lack of simple, reliable, reproducible, and widely used methods for virus analysis in untreated sludge or biosolids; the presence of inhibiting chemicals that interfere with detection in sludge; difficulty in normalizing the data for interpretation; and the high variability in results. If solids samples are preferred, data producers can describe desirable sample qualities to the utility partner to obtain some guidance on the best sampling locations, methods, and data needed for results interpretation. The data producer should also discuss whether a composite sample is preferred over a grab sample. While composite samples from the WRRF may be ideal to get a representative sample, composite sampler bottles usually are reused and not disinfected. In these cases, the data producers and knowledge translators need to determine if the use of grab samples is sufficient to meet research needs. Consultation with the sample collectors is especially important if novel sampling devices, such as dialysis filters and passive samplers, are being tested. Required sample volumes are based on the analytical procedure and whether additional concentration steps are needed prior to RNA extraction. Utilities should also consider several other factors: S Is the collected sample volume sufficient for meeting facility regulatory purposes and archiving, in addition to COVID testing? S Are there enough sampling bottles on hand for the additional samples? S Are these sample bottles and their composition suitable for collecting, transporting, storing, and analyzing WBE samples? Sample Storage, Shipping, and Transport The CDC recommends refrigeration of samples during collection and sample storage at temperatures between 0 and 4°C. It cautions that freezing–thawing cycles result in signal loss and also recommends that samples be processed within 24 hours of collection, as effective actionable wastewater surveillance relies on rapid data collection. Many WRRFs will not be able to meet these requirements, given how expensive refrigerated composite samplers are. This is particularly

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challenging for smaller facilities, where coolers may not be readily available or incorporated into the operating budget and where winter temperatures will result in freezing, even if precautions are taken. If samples are expected to be shipped on a weekly basis, the data producers may need to discuss returning and circulation of coolers to sample providers. Also, if the WRRF is collecting weekly samples and shipping overnight, hold times and logistics will need to be discussed, as well as shipping costs. If a smaller WRRF is being recruited, but shipping and handling logistics are prohibitive, data producers must consider if involving the WRRF is worth the additional workload to the operations team in place, especially if hold times compromise data quality. Samples also must include sufficient supporting metadata for the team to understand, process, analyze, and make use of the samples; this includes chain-of-custody documentation and tracking. Facility Flow Patterns, Rainfall Data, and Additional Flow Contributions Affecting Sample Quality Most WRRFs are subject to diurnal variations and have periods of high and low influent flow. They may also have extensive collection systems with high retention times, lift stations, surface water intrusions, and groundwater infiltration contributions. These factors, along with volume and type of industrial dischargers, affect the volume and quality of influent, which, in turn, affects COVID-19 RNA detection in samples and the interpretation of COVID-19 trends over time in the community. Best practices would encourage collecting rainfall, hauled septage loading, landfill leachate flow, and diurnal variations in flow. In addition, in some cases, collection system boundaries may not be clearly delineated. For example, interconnected, regional collection systems can exchange flows. These exchanges change the served population size, demographics, and COVID-19 case numbers that need to be used for the data analysis and modeling approach for samples. Similarly, if only grab samples are collected, the data producers must consult with WRRF staff (sampler providers) to collect representative samples that capture peak times of human fecal loading and to understand the solids residence time for solids. Water Quality Variables Many smaller WRRFs will not be able to provide much detail about wastewater quality parameters, other than those listed in their discharge and/or reuse permits. They will also have limited staffing and personnel to support extra sampling. It would be helpful to clarify with data producers and knowledge translators which

variables are essential and which ones are “nice to have.” Making these distinctions can help ensure that the research demands do not deter smaller WRRFs from participating.

Method Validation To use WBE as an effective early warning system, virus nucleic acid recovery and concentration methods must be sufficiently effective and sensitive enough to detect very low levels in a wastewater sample. This can be challenging since most methods were historically optimized for the more-resilient nonenveloped viruses, but COVID-19 virus is an enveloped virus and potentially sensitive to various techniques and conditions that may change during sample handling, processing, and concentration. Variables, such as temperature, pH, and organic solvents (chloroform or cesium chloride solutions), and partitioning methods, such as filtration, solids separation, sedimentation, and centrifugation, could all reduce the amount of virus in the sample during analytical procedures, resulting in underestimates or nondetects. In addition, many laboratories have more experience with no-enveloped viruses, or may have no experience with wastewater sampling and testing. Thus, performing a full method validation and optimization and developing an SOP is imperative. This should include the following considerations:

Method Sensitivity Method sensitivity is calculated using the sample concentration factor and the matrix spike recovery. Virus detection in wastewater often requires a sample concentration step to improve detection limits, such as combinations of filtrations, ultracentrifugation, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, with a range of pH values, chemicals, filter types, centrifuge speeds, and purification steps. A matrix recovery control is used to calculate virus loss and involves adding a known amount of non-COVID-19 virus with comparable properties

to a wastewater sample prior to processing. Some consideration must be given to what organism (e.g., human coronavirus or other phage) will be used for matrix spikes to determine the recovery efficiency of the method. Method sensitivity can change with every sampling campaign due to changes in wastewater chemical and physical properties. These considerations are important for comparing COVID-19 concentrations in wastewater over time, as well as for conversion of results into a useful parameter. Continued on page 52

Figure 1. Building a Successful Wastewater Surveillance Campaign

Quality Assurance and Quality Controls (QA/ QC) The QA/QC plays an important role during data production in laboratories because many variables can affect the amount of COVID-19 virus RNA recovered and measured in a wastewater sample. The QA/QC components ensure the production of reliable, repeatable, and useful data that can be utilized by public health officials. The QA/QC characterizes the quality of the data produced, determines the limit of detection (LoD) of the method, and what ongoing QA/ QC parameters are needed to monitor method performance. The QA/QC parameters should include method and extraction blanks, field replicates, positive and negative nucleic acid amplification controls, reagent and matrix spikes, standard curves, and dilutions. Replicates ensure the reproducibility of the data; blanks confirm the absence of contamination. Spikes and dilutions control for inhibition of nucleic acid amplification and for matrix interferences. Analyst proficiency is also critical and must be accounted for with initial and ongoing proficiency evaluation of analytical method performance.

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Continued from page 51 Normalization of Data Normalization (or data conversion) remains a very challenging area for WBE studies with no accepted standards. Some data producers do not normalize RNA concentrations and provide data users with raw RNA trends, keeping all sample collection and analysis variables constant. The COVID-19 virus concentrations, however, are measured by PCR in units of gene copies per reaction volume, a measure that is not necessarily actionable or familiar to decision makers. To convert this into a concentration that potentially reflects COVID-19 infections in the population, the measurement can be adjusted to account for both flow conditions into the facility at the time of sample collection—that is, daily flow if using a composite sample, the percentage of infections (or cases) in the population, and the population size served. Ultimately, the data would be converted to viral gene copies per person contributing to the sewershed per day. If flows and population sizes are unknown, research teams may choose to use other fecal normalization variables to estimate them. These variables are microbes or chemicals that are excreted or otherwise present in wastewater in a more uniform and predictable manner; examples include chemical biomarkers, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), creatinine, cholesterol, coprostanol, nicotine, and cortisol, or such viral indicators as crAssphage, pepper mild mosaic virus, or specific coliphage groups and adenoviruses in the same samples analyzed for COVID-19 virus RNA.

Knowledge Translation Whether the chosen WBE approach aims to provide qualitative or semiquantitative results, wastewater surveillance needs to reliably make connections among the measured COVID-19 virus RNA concentrations at the WRRF, hydrological and environmental conditions, COVID-19 RNA concentrations shed per capita, the burden of infection in the population served, and the size of the contributing population. The easiest way to integrate WBE data into the public health decision framework would be to translate the measured virus gene copies into a number of infected individuals. These data could be more readily used by decision makers in determining where, when, and what types of public health interventions are needed. This approach, however, is extremely challenging in practice. Even when researchers can follow a stepby-step data normalization protocol based on recommendations made by national agencies and organizations, findings may be difficult to compare spatially or longitudinally since so many unmonitored factors can impact

the result. It is essential to better understand when a spike in predicted case numbers or RNA concentrations is considered a problem that needs to be remediated with public health interventions. The current approach provides no triggers or thresholds for action and thus cannot inform decision making directly. Most local public health agencies do not know what to do with WBE data; they don’t know how to interpret the data or make it actionable for their purposes. These agencies have a system to manage public health crises— based on testing and tracking infections, reporting infections, illnesses, and death, and rolling out immunization programs—and often do not have the time in the midst of a pandemic to integrate a new source of information. This gap highlights the need to publicize success stories to the public health community and generate specific recommendations of how best to integrate WBE data into current reporting systems. It’s also the gap that could be filled by knowledge translators, such as epidemiologists, infection control professionals, modelers, and geographic information system (GIS) mappers, who should create tools from the data produced by the WBE analytical teams. These tools would help describe where, how, and under what conditions the RNA results can be used for early detection and trend tracking of infections. The tools need to identify when and under what conditions RNA presence and concentrations are consistent with infections and what thresholds should trigger immediate public health responses. They may also want to characterize changes in RNA levels from sentinel sites as the vaccine is rolled out, especially in targeted settings, such as nursing homes, prisons, and other high-risk facilities. Once these tools are developed, training and workshops will be needed to educate a new generation of public health professionals in their application to make the most of wastewater surveillance.

Communication Plan A communication plan should consider the following: Content, Platform, and Frequency Timely, transparent, and open communication among all collaborators will be critical to a WBE effort success. The data producers should determine preferred result-reporting platforms and communication practices of all team members. This should include a discussion about types of results communicated (RNA concentrations versus trends), communication platforms (email versus meetings), and update frequency (immediate, weekly, monthly, etc.). These meetings should be

52 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

structured with a multidisciplinary audience in mind. Some discussion should focus on whether the WRRF would like to see its WBE results and how those data will be used internally or externally. The team also needs to identify conditions under which immediate corrective actions may be required. For example, unexpected nondetects or unusually high results could signal a problem with sample collection or analysis. Interpreting these outliers may require some interaction with the sample provider to better understand process fluctuations, flow disturbances, and influent characteristics on that sampling date. How to Use Data Distinguishing what WBE results can and cannot do early on can help collaborators better understand how their contributions will help the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, WBE data has been used in three effective ways: S I ndividual wastewater samples have been used to represent a snapshot of community infections. These snapshots provide qualitative (presence or absence) results and help monitor the occurrence of infection in the community. S A more structured, longitudinal sampling approach, on the other hand, has provided information related to COVID-19 trends of infection (increasing or decreasing). S S creening at targeted sites (senior-living homes, correctional facilities, or college dormitories) has been the trigger for additional individual-based testing and mitigation measures. What Data Cannot Tell At the moment, the actual number of infections in the community cannot be calculated with any certainty. To measure the number of cases using WBE requires additional data, including the patterns and variability of fecal shedding of COVID-19 virus RNA from infected individuals, RNA decay rates in wastewater, and a more-complete characterization of sewersheds. Risk As interest in measuring COVID-19 RNA concentrations in treated effluent and biosolids grows, it’s important to emphasize to collaborators and utility staff that the detection of RNA does not imply that infective virus is present, nor is it related to the effectiveness of a wastewater treatment process. A growing number of peerreviewed publications are using RNA data to assess risk to wastewater workers, public health, and wildlife. These papers often overestimate risk and should be read with caution.

Wastewater-Based Epidemiology Forecasts The WBE is not a new public health decision support tool, but the current mobilization scale and standardization of COVID-19 wastewater surveillance efforts have surpassed all previous attempts to monitor infectious agents in wastewater. How these efforts could be translated to meet the constantly evolving infection transmission dynamics of a large city, like Los Angeles or Toronto, remains a daunting and very challenging task. What is certain is that successful WBE campaigns require the implementation of a formalized and organized strategy. This strategy needs to include a detailed sampling design, analytical method validation, knowledge translation strategy, and communication plan. Currently, three main multidisciplinary groups of collaborators make up WBE programs: sample providers, data producers, and knowledge users. This trio would benefit from the support and expertise of a fourth group: knowledge translators or interpreters. Their contribution will be to develop the tools necessary to operationalize WBE results and determine when, where, and how findings correlate with actual infection levels in the community. Only then can local health agencies truly use WBE data to combat COVID-19 in communities.

Orleans. Jay Swift is a principal engineer with Gray and Osborne in Seattle. Samendra Sherchan is an assistant professor at Tulane University in New Orleans. Scott Schaefer is wastewater practice leader with AE2S in Saint Joseph, Minn., and chair of the WEF Disinfection and Public Health Committee. Albert Rubin is a professor emeritus in the department of biological and agricultural engineering at North Carolina State University in Raleigh. Charles Gerba is a professor of epidemiology and biostatistics, department of environmental science, at the University of Arizona in Tucson. Kyle Bibby is an associate professor and the Wanzek collegiate chair in the department of civil and

environmental engineering and earth sciences at the University of Notre Dame in Ind. Robert Bastian is a water expert and 2016 WEF fellow in Washington, D.C. Lola Olabode is a program director at the Water Research Foundation in Washington, D.C. Akin Babatola is the laboratory and environmental compliance manager at City of Santa Cruz in Calif. Robert S. Reimers is a professor emeritus at the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine in New Orleans. Leonard Casson is an associate professor at the Swanson School of Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh and maintains an active research partnership with the Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority. S

Figure 2. Steps in Clinical and Wastewater Surveillance Efforts for COVID-19

This article was prepared by the Water Environment Federation (WEF) Disinfection and Public Health Committee (DPHC) Waterborne Infectious Disease Outbreak Control (WIDOC) Working Group. It originally appeared in the April 2021 issue of Water Environment & Technology. Reprinted with permission from WEF. All rights reserved. ______________________________________ Rasha Maal-Bared is wastewater treatment specialist at EPCOR Water Services Inc. in Edmonton, Canada, and current chair of the Waterborne Infection Disease Outbreak Control Working Group. Mark Sobsey is a retired part-time research professor in environmental sciences and engineering at the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. Naoko Munakata is a supervising engineer at the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts. Kari Brisolara is the associate dean for academic affairs and an associate professor of environmental and occupational health sciences at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans. Lee Gary is an adjunct professor at Tulane University in New Orleans, an instructor with the basic academy at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)/Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, Md., and the owner and CEO of Strategic Management Services–USA in New

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


WWEMA Elects 2022 Officers and Directors, Announces Award Winner New Officers and Directors The members of the Water and Wastewater Equipment Manufacturers Association (WWEMA) elected new officers and directors during its 113th annual meeting held Nov. 3-5, 2021, in Miami Beach. The 2022 WWEMA Executive Committee members are: S C hair Vince Baldasare - sales manager, Gorman-Rupp Company, Mansfield, Ohio S Chair-Elect Diane Meyer - director of marketing, Val-Matic Valve and Manufacturing Corporation, Elmhurst, Ill. S V ice-Chair William (Bill) Decker -vice president and general manager, Equipment Services Group, Aqua-Aerobic Systems Inc., Loves Park, Ill. S T reasurer Henk - Jan van Ettekoven - president, HUBER Technology Inc., Denver, N.C. S I mmediate Past Chair John Collins - chief executive officer, JCM Industries Inc., Nash, Texas Jay Conroy, president, Hydro-Dyne Engineering Inc., Clearwater, Fla., was appointed as assistant treasurer. Three members were newly elected to the WWEMA 2022 board of directors: S R on Dollar - senior vice president of sales and marketing, WRT LLC, Westminster, Colo. S R obert Jeyaseelan - president, Vapex Environmental Technologies LLC, Cocoa, Fla. S C hris Thomson – director of strategic initiatives, Sensus, a Xylem brand, Morrisville, N.C.

John Collins cited van Ettekoven’s outstanding service to and support of the association. Van Ettekoven is involved in public health protection and writes industry articles on behalf of WWEMA on this issue, serves on the WWEMA Strategic Planning Committee and the association’s Investment Committee, is an active first-term WWEMA board member, and will be a 2022 member of the Executive Committee, serving as treasurer. He has been engaged in the water industry since 2007 and has served as the president of HUBER Technology Inc. since 2014. He also regularly attends and provides leadership support for key WWEMA meetings, including the Washington Forum, Presidents Council, and the association’s annual meeting. Additionally, van Ettekoven is a board member on the German American Chamber of the Southeast and the German Language and Culture Foundation. The association is grateful for his leadership and service and congratulates him on this well-deserved award! Since 1908, WWEMA has informed, educated, and provided leadership on the issues that shape the future of the water and wastewater industry. Its member companies supply the most-sophisticated and leading-edge products and technologies, offering solutions to every water-related environmental problem and need facing today’s society. S For more information, visit www.wwema.org.

One member was re-elected to serve a second three-year term: S H enk-Jan van Ettekoven - president, HUBER Technology Inc., Denver, N.C.

2021 Morriss Award Winner Also at its November meeting, WWEMA named Henk-Jan van Ettekoven, president of HUBER Technology Inc., the recipient of the 2021 James C. Morriss Member Achievement Award. The award is presented each year to a WWEMA member for significant contributions to the mission of the association, and to the overall benefit of the water and wastewater industry. In presenting the award,

54 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Henk-Jan van Ettekoven



for the latest updates on classes January

10-14..... Water Distribution Level I................................................Deltona............... $325 10-14..... Wastewater Collection A.................................................Deltona............... $325 24-27..... Backflow Tester...............................................................Deltona............... $375/406


7-10..... Water Distribution Level III.............................................Deltona............... $325 17..... Reclaimed Water Distribution C abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155 18..... Reclaimed Water Distribution B abbreviated 1-day.........Deltona............... $125/155 21-23..... Backflow Repair..............................................................Deltona............... $275/305 24..... Backflow Tester Recertification.....................................Deltona............... $85/115


14-18..... Spring State Short School..............................................Ft. Pierce


4-7..... Wastewater Collection C................................................Deltona............... $325

11-14..... Backflow Tester...............................................................Deltona............... $375/405 28..... Backflow Tester Recertification.....................................Deltona............... $85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


$481M Will Improve Wastewater and Water Quality in Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis was joined by Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Secretary Shawn Hamilton and Chief Science Officer Dr. Mark Rains to announce the awards for 103 wastewater and springs projects totaling $481 million. The projects awarded will improve wastewater and water quality in waterbodies across Florida, reducing total nitrogen loading by more than 700,000 pounds per year. “These awards are going to make a big difference for our world-renowned springs and water quality all throughout the state of Florida,” said Gov. DeSantis. “Florida’s water resources are what our economy runs on and our environment is really integral to what these communities are all about. We’re blessed to have these resources and we have a responsibility to leave them better than we found them.” Said FDEP Secretary Shawn Hamilton, “We’re taking another step forward for the protection of our state’s natural resources. This funding will support 103 important projects to construct, upgrade, or expand wastewater treatment facilities to provide advanced waste treatment, upgrade or convert traditional septic systems, and acquire land that will restore and protect our springs and other waterways.” “As a lifelong Floridian, I see this investment in future water quality projects

as good news, especially with so much of the funding going toward mitigation of septic and sewer issues that have contributed to red tide issues in our state,” said Capt. C.A. Richardson, ambassador for Captains for Clean Water. “Never has our state seen so much support on behalf of water quality and our natural resources. It gives hope to all of us who call Florida home! Captains for Clean Water stands behind these initiatives and they will make a difference for future generations.” According to Brian Armstrong, executive director of Southwest Florida Water Management District, “Protecting the first-magnitude springs in our district is a top priority. Thanks to the leadership of the governor and funding from FDEP, we’ll be able to do even more to improve our springs, such as taking harmful septic tanks offline, which are contributing significant nitrogen pollution to the springs system.” The more than $481 million awarded was made available through three grant programs administered by FDEP: Wastewater Grant Program, springs restoration grants, and Small Community Wastewater Grant Program. The money is allocated as follows: S $394 million from the Wastewater Grant Program for wastewater treatment improvements, including septic-to-sewer projects and projects for advanced waste

56 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

treatment upgrades. The money awarded is from federal funds. S $ 67 million for projects to protect Florida’s world-renowned springs, including land acquisition/conservation easements and wastewater infrastructure improvements. Of the $67 million awarded, $50 million is from state funds and $17 million is from federal funds. S $ 20 million for the Small Community Wastewater Grant Program for wastewater facility improvements in rural areas of economic opportunity and financially disadvantaged communities. The money awarded is from federal funds. “We are excited to partner with the state in protecting Weeki Wachee Springs from the impact of conventional septic systems,” said Jeff Rogers, Hernando County administrator. “This funding not only removes 224 septic systems from the Weeki Wachee springshed, it also upgrades the master infrastructure needed to implement the county’s 20-year plan to convert nearly 3,400 septic systems to a centralized sewer.” The FDEP wastewater grant program was established in the Clean Waterways Act, which Gov. DeSantis signed into law in 2020. The program prioritizes wastewater projects in basin management action plans, restoration plan areas, and rural areas of opportunity

and also requires at least a 50 percent match, which may be waived by FDEP for rural areas of opportunity. Florida is home to more first- and secondmagnitude springs than anywhere in the United States. Florida’s springs can support entire ecosystems, offer many recreational opportunities, and serve as economic drivers for communities. State government has made a significant financial commitment to springs restoration, dedicating $225 million since

Fiscal Year 2019-20. This funding has enabled FDEP to assist local governments and other stakeholders to identify and construct projects that are imperative to achieving restoration goals. The Small Community Wastewater Grant Program funds septic-to-sewer conversions and wastewater treatment facility improvements in rural areas of opportunity and fiscally constrained counties, as defined in Section 288.0656 and 218.67(1), Florida Statutes.

Gov. DeSantis also announced an award of $114 million for the first grants from the Wastewater Grant Program. Out of the $114 million awarded, more than $53 million—46 percent of the funding—was granted to the Indian River Lagoon, the most biologically diverse estuary in North America and an important resource for species such as the Florida scrub jay, manatees, and sea turtles. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


Utilities Director

Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida. Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include:

Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions:

EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II – Stormwater - Superintendent – Collections, Wastewater, & Stormwater - Wastewater Plant Operator – Class C

Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Reverse Osmosis Water Facility Operators The City of Tarpon Springs Reverse Osmosis Water Facility is hiring for Operator A and B positions. Please visit www.ctsfl.us for full job descriptions, salary, and application. Background check/drug screen required. www.ctsfl.us

Job Title: Utilities Director Closing Date/Time: Continuous Salary $111,056.00 - $180,465.00 Annually Job Type: Full Time Location: Land O’ Lakes, Florida Department: Public Infrastructure Fiscal & Business Administration General Description: Pasco County is seeking an engaged, customer service-oriented leader to be our next Utility Director. This is a highly responsible, senior management position involved with leading and directing all staff in exceeding the expectations of Pasco County’s water, wastewater and reclaimed water customers. Minimum Requirements: PHYSICAL SKILLS: Ability to communicate effectively using verbal, written and visual communication. EDUCATION, TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE: Graduation from an accredited college or university with a Master’s Degree in Management, Business Administration, Public Administration or a related field is required. A State of Florida Professional Engineering License may be substituted in lieu of a Master’s Degree. Ten years experience in progressively responsible supervisory positions with a minimum of eight years experience in public utility system management or in an agency of comparable size or responsibility. LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS OR REGISTRATIONS: Must possess a valid driver’s license. Technical licensure (i.e., Professional Engineering) or management credentials (i.e., Certified Public Manager) preferred. ADA STATEMENT: A qualified employee or applicant with a disability may be afforded a reasonable accommodation to perform the essential job functions of a position in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act. FOR A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION AND TO APPLY, PLEASE VISIT OUR WEBSITE: www.pascocountyfl.net

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Laboratory Quality Manager, Utility Asset Program Manager, GIS Analyst, Electronics Technician, Water Quality Technician, Water Quality Coordinator, Industrial Electrician, Equipment Operator, Utility Field Technician. Apply at www.titusville.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022


GS Inima USA City of Hialeah Reverse Osmosis Plant

Salary / Benefits $65,000 to $85,000.00 (based on experience and qualifications) Health, Dental and 401K Accepting applications for a Chief Operator position. Must have experience with a Drinking Water Plant and Reverse Osmosis membrane. The Chief Operator shall possess a minimum of 15 years’ experience with operation of drinking water treatment facilities, including five years of management responsibility, five years’ experience with membrane treatment systems and shall hold a Class A (Category II) operators certificate issued by the State of Florida, valid drivers. Contact Jennifer.cruz@inima.com

Water Treatment Plant Operator

Location: Florida City, FL Salary Range: $52,646 - $80,612 The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring a WTP Operator. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a water treatment plant according to local, state, and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery, and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator

Salary Range: $52,646. - $80,694. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring a WWTP Operator. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

60 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Town of Davie Management and Hourly Opportunities

The Town of Davie is looking for candidates to fill management and hourly positions in our Utilities Department. Salary Range $18.96 - $41.30 depending on the position. To learn more about the positions and complete and application go to https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/davie.


Annual Salary: $58,754-$94,653 D.O.Q. Closing Date: OPEN UNTIL FILLED The City of Tarpon Springs is now hiring a Water Division Manager to perform the administration and management of the City’s Reverse Osmosis Water Facility, Freshwater Wellfield, Water Distribution Maintenance and Water Quality, and Meter Repair and Maintenance. Provides leadership and guidance through long-range planning, organization, scheduling, staffing, information management and budget management. For more information and to complete an application, please navigate to the following link: https://www.ctsfl.us/project/employment-opportunities/

Water and Wastewater Engineer

The City of Altamonte Springs seeks a Water and Wastewater Plant Engineer with 5+ years experience and PE in Florida. Competitive salary/benefits. Apply: www.Altamonte.org/Jobs.

City of St. Petersburg Plant Maintenance Technician IRC53575

IRC53575 This is specialized and skilled technical work maintaining water and wastewater process equipment at the Cosme Water Plant in Northwest Hillsborough County and pumping stations in the City of St. Petersburg. Work involves inspecting, servicing, calibrating, and maintaining sophisticated electrical systems, telemetering devices, monitoring instruments and mechanical equipment, analyzing, diagnosing, and correcting mechanical and electrical/electronic equipment malfunctions. The Plant Maintenance Technician in conjunction with a Plant Maintenance Technician II and Plant Maintenance Supervisor may have some planning duties such as estimating manpower, materials, and supplies; providing training and guidance to assigned plant maintenance crews; maintaining records of inspection and repair activities; and planning, scheduling, and performing tasks in a preventive maintenance program for all plant equipment. Work requires considerable independent judgment and the exercise of specialized maintenance skills of a highly technical nature. Due to the critical nature of water and wastewater utilities, an employee in this position must be able to report to work outside of normally scheduled work hours to respond to emergency conditions and/ or address urgent needs, at the discretion of management. This position may also be assigned to standby duties on a rotating periodic basis. Requirements: Valid High School Diploma/GED with some technical course work in mechanical and electrical systems; valid Driver License; progressive journeyman level experience in the maintenance and repair of water and/or wastewater treatment equipment, monitoring instruments, electrical devices, and mechanical systems. Close Date: Open Until Filled; $23.49 - $33.65 Hourly; See details at www.stpete.org/jobs EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets’ Pref

City of St. Petersburg Asset Coordinator IRC53553

IRC53553 This is responsible professional, technical, and analytical work in the research, data analysis, design, development, review, and evaluation of organizational projects and data reporting requirements in support of the asset management system in the Water Resources Department. Work requires coordinating the asset management processes for asset inventories, maintenance records, and condition assessments through procedure development, process audits, and training of key staff on GIS, asset management software applications, and maintenance management software; performing detailed tasks associated with departmental programs to comply with regulations; maintaining project work tables to analyze and assess operational efficiencies; coordinating and implementing approved procedures; reviewing project data and documentation for accuracy and completeness. Requirements: valid Bachelor’s Degree; considerable progressive and responsible administrative experience with databases, GIS, and asset management systems; some supervisory experience; progressive experience in computer proficiency with asset management software applications for maintaining and managing the built and natural environment. Closes: Open Until Filled; $57,712 - $96,169; See details at www.stpete.org/jobs EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets’ Pref

Water Distribution Field Supervisor

The City of New Port Richey is seeking a Water Distribution Field Supervisor and multiple other positions. Visit our website for full job descriptions, salary, and to download an application. www.cityofnewportrichey.org/jobs/

Multiple Positions Available: Project Manager: $70,835.55 - $113,336.89/annually Senior Project Manager: $76,030.91 - $ 121,649.46/annually Utilities Instrumentation and Control Systems Specialist: $56,114.71 $85,294.61/annually For More Info and to Apply go to: http://agency.governmentjobs.com/hollywoodfl/default.cfm EOE M/F/D/V

Broward County Water and Wastewater Engineering Division Engineering Unit Supervisor

The Engineering Unit Supervisor (EUS) is a critical position for the Engineering Division of Broward County’s Water and Wastewater Services. This position is responsible for supervising Project Management and Inspection Personnel. This position oversees and manages utility programs and projects, including but not limited to: The Florida Department of Transportation liaison for utility-related programs, distribution and collection capital project programs, short main and regional lift station rehabilitation programs, and other projects as required. For more information and/or to apply, please visit: https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/broward/jobs/3291285/ engineering-unit-supervisor-water-wastewater-services

NEWS BEAT Agriculture Commissioner Nikki Fried held a series of events across Florida announcing the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) Office of Agricultural Water Policy (OAWP) Clean Water Initiative, updating and strengthening the department’s water policies to better protect the state’s natural resources. At stops in Fort Myers, Sarasota, Tampa, St. Petersburg, and Stuart, Commissioner Fried met with scientists, environmental advocates, and local elected officials to roll out the new initiative and to discuss the many issues facing Florida’s waterways from coast to coast, including red tide, blue-green algae blooms, record manatee deaths, and the Piney Point phosphogypsum spill. “From starting at zero when I came into office to where we are with the announcement of our initiative, we have come a long way to make these landmark changes, and I want to thank my team for working on this for the past two and a half years to get us to the point we are now,” Commissioner Fried said. “We are rewriting the rules when it comes to

agricultural water policy in the state and taking landmark action to increase accountability, transparency, and coordination. Our work is not done, but I am proud that we are standing up and taking concrete action to promote clean water in our state. As part of its initiative, the OAWP is: • Updating Florida’s agricultural best management practices (BMPs) with the latest research, data, and technologies available. • Prioritizing high-value projects within the cost-share program to get the greatest bang for the buck as farmers continue to employ more-efficient nutrient and water usage practices as stewards of the land. • Supporting multifaceted practices, such as cover crops and no-till drills, that provide significant climate mitigation and carbon sequestration benefits. • Conducting in-person site visits in cooperation with agricultural stakeholders, rather than relying on voluntary selfreporting when it comes to compliance. • Working with producers on corrective action

plans and referring cases of noncompliance to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) for enforcement. • Collecting and aggregating detailed records of the nutrients being applied by agricultural producers on the production landscape. • Increasing transparency and coordination with the public, stakeholders, agriculture industry, and agency partners through enhanced education and training outreach, including in-person and online resources. The OAWP works with agricultural producers, industry groups, FDEP, the university system, and Florida water management districts to develop and implement agricultural BMPs addressing both water quality and water conservation. The BMPs are practical, cost-effective actions that agricultural producers can take to conserve water and reduce the amount of pesticides, fertilizers, animal waste, and other pollutants entering our water resources. The updated manuals will be individually released as each one is completed. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2022



Test Yourself Answer Key Continued from page 36

January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index 2021 FSAWWA Awards ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 40 Blue Planet Environmental Systems ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 63 CEU Challenge ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19 Data Flow �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47 Florida Aquastore ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57 FSAWWA 2022 Fall Conference �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitors Thank You ���������������������������������������������������� 27 FSAWWA Fall Conference Premier Sponsors Thank You �������������������������������������� 28 FSAWWA Gold and Silver Sponsors Thank You ����������������������������������������������������� 30 FSAWWA Platinum Sponsors Thank You ���������������������������������������������������������������� 29 FWPCOA Training Calendar �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55 Florida Water Resources Conference Announcement ������������������������������������������� 12 Florida Water Resources Conference Information ������������������������������������������������� 13 Florida Water Resources Conference Sponsorships ��������������������������������������������� 14 Florida Water Resources Conference Sponsorships ��������������������������������������������� 15 Gerber Pumps �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Heyward ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 2 Hudson Pump ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 Hydro International ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 5 Lakeside Equipment Corporation ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7 Mead Hunt ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 PolyProcessing ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43 UF TREEO Center ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Vaughn Nugent ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58 WEF Access Water Platform ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 33 Xylem ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64

62 January 2022 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. B ) do not have health-based standards set under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).

Per the EPA website, Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants, “EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) to collect data for contaminants that are suspected to be present in drinking water and do not have health-based standards set under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).”

2. B ) All systems serving 3,300 people and greater and a representative sample of systems serving under 3,300 people

Per the EPA website, Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants, “The SDWA Amendments of 1996 and the amendments by Section 2021 of America’s Water Infrastructure Act of 2018 (AWIA) provide for: • Establishing a program to monitor for priority unregulated contaminants in drinking water every five years. • M onitoring all large systems serving greater than 10,000 people, monitoring all small public water systems serving between 3,300 and 10,000 people, and a representative sample of small public water systems serving fewer than 3,300 people; this expanded scope is conditioned on the availability of appropriations and sufficient laboratory capacity. • S toring analytical results in a National Contaminant Occurrence Database (NCOD).”

3. A) Contaminant Candidate List (CCL)

Per the UCMR 5 Public Meeting, the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL): “The SDWA 1412(b)(1)(B) required EPA to establish a listing of contaminants that are: • N ot subject to any proposed or promulgated NPDWR • K nown or anticipated to occur in PWS • M ay require regulation under the SDWA • Published every five years.”

4. C) EPA

Per the EPA website, Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants, “All laboratories conducting analyses for the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) must be approved by EPA.”

5. A) EPA

Per the UCMR Public Meeting, EPA responsibilities on behalf of small PWS, “EPA funds costs associated with analyses and shipping for small PWS (i.e., those serving 10,000 or fewer people).”

6. D) Lithium

Per the UCMR 5 Fact Sheet, “The UCMR 5 proposal specifies assessment monitoring for the 30 contaminants (29 PFAS and lithium). . .”

7. D) 2023 and 2025

Per the EPA Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants website, “The proposed fifth Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 5) was published on March 11, 2021. The UCMR 5, as proposed, would require sample collection for 30 chemical contaminants between 2023 and 2025 using analytical methods developed by EPA and consensus organizations.”

8. A) Entry point to the distribution systems

Per the UCMR 5 Public Meeting, Sampling Frequency and Locations, “Sampling is proposed at the entry points to the distribution systems.”

9. B) Four times per year (about every three months)

Per the UCMR 5 Public Meeting, Sampling Frequency and Locations, “The UCMR 5 proposal identifies sampling frequencies and locations consistent with those used in UCMR 1 – UCMR 4 • Surface water systems (including those using groundwater under the direct influence of surface water) sample four times (~three months apart) during their year of sampling • Groundwater systems sample two times (five to seven months apart) during their year of sampling.”

10. A) Laboratories that performed the sample analysis

Per the EPA Monitoring Unregulated Drinking Water Contaminants website, “Based on the UCMR 5 proposed rule, published March 11, 2021, laboratories responsible for sample analysis would post data to EPA’s web-based Safe Drinking Water Accession and Review System (SDWARS) on behalf of public water systems (PWS), consistent with prior UCMR cycles. Users (including PWS that wish to review/approve data posted by their laboratories) access SDWARS through EPA’s Central Data Exchange (CDX).”




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