Florida Water Resources Journal - January 2021

Page 1


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Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Jamey Wallace (FWEA) Jacobs Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features


13 Enlow Re-Elected as FWPCOA President for 2021 36 2020-2021 FSAWWA Board of Governors 45 2021 Florida Water Resources Conference Canceled 46 Process Page: The Water Independence for Cape Coral Program—Matt Tebow 47 News Beat

12 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 21 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Fred Bloetscher 22 Legal Briefs: Streamlined or FastTracked: Florida Angles to Assume Federal Dredge-and-Fill Water Permitting Authority—Kyle Robisch 28 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 32 Let’s Talk Safety: The Increased Hazards of Night Work 38 FWEA Focus—James J. Wallace 40 FWEA Committee Corner: 2020-2021 FWEA High School Video Contest Open for Entries—Shea Dunifon 48 Reader Profile—Suzanne Mechler

Technical Articles 4 Selection 2020: Village of Wellington Votes for an Anaerobic Selector to Achieve Sludge Volume Index and Phosphorous Control—Shannon

LaRocque, Bryan Gayoso, Alonso Griborio, Paul Pitt, and Eric Stanley

24 Brevard County South Central Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility Expansion With Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge—Kevin Lee, Pia

Departments 51 Classifieds 53 New Products 54 Display Advertiser Index

Prohaska, and Larry Li

42 L ow-Cost Operating Modifications and Supplemental Carbon Automation to Achieve a Future Nitrogen Permit at a Florida Municipal Facility—Victoria Reuvers and Mahsa Mehrdad

Education and Training 14 FSAWWA Fall Conference Attendee Thank You 15 FSAWWA Fall Conference Exhibitors Thank You 16 FSAWWA Fall Conference Premier Sponsors Thank You 17 FSAWWA Fall Conference Platinum Sponsors Thank You 18 FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest 19 AWWA Women for Water Circle of Giving and Blue Thumb Junior Detective Program 20 FSAWWA Boot Camp 34 CEU Challenge 35 FWPCOA Training Calendar 49 TREEO Center Training

Volume 72

ON THE COVER: Aerial view of the Brevard County South Central Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility 6-mgd integrated fixed film activated sludge expansion. (photo: Lucas Lustik, Sure Thing Photography)

January 2021

Number 1

Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021



Selection 2020: Village of Wellington Votes for an Anaerobic Selector to Achieve Sludge Volume Index and Phosphorous Control Shannon LaRocque, Bryan Gayoso, Alonso Griborio, Paul Pitt, and Eric Stanley


he Village of Wellington (village) Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) is an oxidation ditch aeration-type activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. The WRF is permitted to operate with a capacity of 6.5 mil gal per day (mgd) on a three-month average daily flow (TMADF) basis. Two important goals were identified in the recently completed WRF master plan and reuse master plan: S Improvement of sludge settleability S Reduction of effluent total phosphorous (TP) As part of the WRF master plan, it was determined that improvement of the sludge volume index (SVI), a measure of the settleability of solids in secondary clarifiers, is a critical goal to support operation of the WRF within allowable permit constraints as it approaches a rated flow of 6.5-mgd

TMADF. Simultaneously, as part of the ongoing reuse master plan, in-plant reduction of phosphorous from the WRF effluent was recommended to be reduced. Installation of an anaerobic selector tank was identified as the preferred method to improve SVI, and as Phase 1 of a two-phased approach to reduce effluent TP. The return activated sludge (RAS) chlorination was also recommended to provide operators an additional low-cost tool to control occasional sludge-bulking episodes. It was determined that modifying the aerobic digestion process to operate at lower dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and maintain higher pH is anticipated to reduce effluent phosphorous levels. Under future Phase 2, variable frequency drives (VFDs) will be installed on the digester blowers and operational control will be modified to reduce DO or allow for cyclical aeration.

Figure 1. Slow Sludge Settleability Effects on Treatment Performance

4 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Shannon LaRocque is utilities director and Bryan Gayoso is water reclamation facilities superintendent with Village of Wellington (Fla.) Utilities Department. Paul Pitt is wastewater process design director, Alonso Griborio is senior associate, and Eric Stanley is an associate with Hazen and Sawyer in Boca Raton.

Phases of Operation Phase 1: Anaerobic Selector to Reduce Sludge Volume Index Slow-settling sludge is a chronic issue at the WRF, with an average SVI of 260 milliliters per gram (ml/g), and fifth-percentile SVI of 230 ml/g always in exceedance of the typical maximum recommended value of 200 ml/g. The slow settleability is related to a long solids retention time (SRT), combined with limited oxygen, and utilization of carbon by undesirable filamentous organisms. The primary concern of high SVI is that it increases the risk of permit carbonaceous five-day biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) and total suspsended solids (TSS) permit exceedances, and the inability to produce reuse water during process upsets or wet weather events. A secondary, but important, concern related to slow sludge settleability is that phosphorus release occurs in the clarifier sludge blankets due to the resulting high anaerobic detention time of sludge. Although the immediate concern for high SVI levels and slow settleability may be lessened due to the fact that 100 percent of effluent is filtered, the slow settleability will become more of a concern over time as flow rates to the wastewater plant are expected to increase. Continued on page 6

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Continued from page 4 A schematic illustrating the sequence of how the slow sludge settleability affects treatment performance is presented in Figure 1. Phase 2: Reduction of Effluent Total Phosphorus The downstream C-51 Canal has a total

maximum daily flow (TMDL) requirement for TP of 50 parts per bil (ppb). Although the WRF currently does not have effluent TP or total nitrogen (TN) limits, the village continually endeavors to improve surface water quality discharged to the regional surface water system (C-51 Canal) by implementing stormwater management programs to meet the target; therefore,

Figure 2. Effects of Digester Overaeration and Low pH Inhibition on Treatment Performance

stakeholders may be sensitive to increased TP loading that may migrate from reuse water applied to the receiving basin and the canal system, which is why the concurrent reuse master plan investigated reuse water impacts to surface water phosphorous loadings. During sampling, it was discovered that current elevated effluent phosphorous levels at the WRF appear to be mostly attributed to the low pH inhibition of the aerobic digesters. As air is provided to the aerobic digesters, nitrification occurs (conversion of ammonia [NH3-N] to nitrate nitrogen [NO3-N]), which consumes alkalinity; as alkalinity is consumed, the pH in the process drops. If oxygen continues to be provided after the nitrification process has occurred, acid production continues, resulting in lower pH and destruction of alkalinity to neutralize the acid. This low-pH condition can deactivate or kill biomass, since microorganisms are sensitive to low pH. Because the inactive biomass is not respiring, dissolved oxygen levels further increase. As a result, the filtrate from the belt filter presses following the digesters contains significant levels of TP, which are then returned to the main process and stress the plants ability to uptake phosphorous biologically. Modifying the aerobic digestion process to operate at lower DO levels or cyclic aeration, and the maintenance of neutral pH, would likely reduce nutrients and oxygen demand recycled back to the aeration basins, and also improve solids capture at the belt filter presses. The biological removal of phosphorous by the anaerobic selector implemented under Phase 1 could then be leveraged for TP removal, as well as SVI reduction. Figure 2 illustrates the sequence of how overaeration and the low pH inhibition condition affects the treatment performance of the WRF. Figure 3 presents a side-by-side comparison of filtrate from sludge taken from an overaerated low-pH digester to a neutral-pH digester.

Clarifier Capacity Analysis

Figure 3. Comparison of Filtrate From Overaerated Digester to Neutral-pH Digester

6 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Prior to recommending measures to improve the SVI, the capacity of the WRF was checked at current SVIs. The WRF clarifiers were checked against typical solids loading rate (SLR) and surface overflow rate (SOR) values, and compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Class I reliability. Table 1 demonstrates that, for the conditions shown, the number of clarifiers online is within typical values, with Continued on page 8

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Continued from page 6 one clarifier offline; however, even though the clarifiers meet typical values, the criteria shown in Table 1 do not account for SVI values above 200 ml/g. Clarifier blanket levels and SVI measurements were collected during the sampling week to evaluate the settleability performance of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS). Eight clarifier blanket readings were taken at each clarifier over the course of five days. The blankets and transition zone were consistently high throughout the sampling event, demonstrating slowsettling solids, as shown in Figure 4. The SVI readings were also performed on the MLSS of Aeration Basin No. 2 and Aeration Basin No. 3 over the course of three days. The SVI values measured were indicative of slowsettling sludge. A picture of one of the SVI tests performed is shown in Figure 5. The slow sludge settling conditions observed during the sampling week were also consistent with available historical data. State point analysis (SPA) is a method for evaluating secondary clarifier capacity based

on the solids flux theory, which does account for SVI. This method uses site-specific SVI data to roughly predict the thickening behavior of secondary clarifiers, and also accounts for RAS underflow rates. Historical SVI values are summarized in Table 2. The 2015-2017 5th percentile, 95th percentile, and average SVI data (reflecting the best-performing 5 percent of SVI data and the worst 5 percent of clarifier sludge settleability days, respectively) were evaluated to determine clarifier capacity to settle solids and produce satisfactory clarifier effluent. The results of the SPA analysis at the current average daily flow (ADF) flow rate of 3.6 mgd, 75 percent RAS rate, and 3,000 mg/L MLSS are shown in Figure 6. A clarifier operating within its hydraulic and solids loading capacity should show the intersection of the diagonal lines beneath the flux curve line, and should also show the segments of the diagonal lines that are below the point of intersection, beneath the flux curve line; therefore, Figure 6 demonstrates that, even at the current 3.6-mgd ADF flow rate and average SVI of 260, the plant

is already critically loaded, and at 95th percentile SVI of 290, the plant is beyond critically loaded. This is consistent with the findings during the November 2019 sampling event of high clarifier blankets, and with the recent plant upset condition in January 2020. The results of the SPA analysis indicate that the WRF can likely not function much beyond its current capacity and continue to meet permit limits and produce reuse water at currently observed levels of SVI. As plant flow rates increase towards the plants rated capacity of 6.5-mgd TMADF, assuming current high ranges SVI persist, the WRF clarifier performance would be further reduced. Morefrequent plant upset conditions and inability to produce reuse water would result; therefore, it’s critical to implement improvements to reduce SVI at the plant.

Microscopic Analysis of Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids

A MLSS sample was collected and Continued on page 10

Table 1. Clarifier Capacity Analysis Versus Typical Values Clarifier Design Criteria Parameter

10 State Standards

Surface Overflow Rate @ PHF Solids Loading Rate @ MDF EPA Class I Reliability


Village of Wellington (Design Flow Rate with 3 clarifiers online)







Treat 75% of flow with the largest unit offline

Clarifier Details with Largest Unit Offline Number (each) Surface Area Total (sf)

(1) 90 ft dia, (1) 70 ft dia, (1) 65' dia 13,530

Figure 5. Photograph of Sludge Volume Index Test Results after 30 Minutes of Settling Time

Table 2. 2015-2017 Sludge Volume Index Data


Figure 4. Typical Photos of Clarifier Blanket Levels

8 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

SVI (ml/g)



5TH Percentile


95TH Percentile




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Continued from page 8 analyzed with a microscope. Significant levels of filamentous microorganisms were noted, with significant interfloc bridging and filaments protruding from the flocs. The overall filamentous organism level was “very common-abundant.” At these levels, significant interference with the activated sludge settling properties would be expected. The high SVI values are caused by filamentous organisms associated with simple readily biodegradable material (rbCOD), such as Nostocoida Limicola, and long SRT (type 0041). A picture of the floc, observed with abundant levels of filament, is shown in Figure 7.


25 Intersection of lines outside of curves indciates operation outside of acceptable loading conditions at curent range of SVI values


Solids Overflow Rate


Solids Underflow Rate Flux Curve - SVI avg


Anaerobic Selector Overview 10.0











Flux Curve - SVI 95th


Solids Flux (lb/sf/day)


Solids Concentration (x1000 mg/L)

Figure 6. Clarifier State Point Analysis at 3.6-mgd Average Daily Flow

Figure 7. Microscopic Photograph of Large Flocs With Significant Amount of Filaments

30 Intersection of lines within curves indicates operation inside of acceptable loading conditions at proposed range of SVI values


Solids Flux (lb/sf/day)



Solids Overflow Rate Solids Underflow Rate


Flux Curve - SVI avg Flux Curve - SVI 95th



Solids Concentration (x1000 mg/L)












Figure 8. Clarifier State Point Analysis at 6-mgd Average Daily Flow With Improved Sludge Volume Index

10 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

A selector can improve secondary solids settleability by precluding the growth of filamentous bacteria and selecting for bacteria that form tight, dense flocs with good settling properties. Filamentous bacteria can form bridges between flocs, keeping them in suspension and decreasing secondary clarifier performance. Many filamentous bacteria use rbCOD very efficiently, but cannot store or utilize these substances under anoxic or anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic selectors allow for the rapid uptake of rbCOD under conditions where filamentous organism growth is restricted, limiting their proliferation in the downstream aerobic zone of the secondary treatment process. Implementation of a selector zone can reduce the operation and maintenance costs associated with nuisance organisms, such as those identified in the microscopic samples, as well as increase secondary clarifier performance by improving settleability. The anaerobic selector allows for the removal of rbCOD by polyphosphateaccumulating organisms (PAOs) under anaerobic conditions, which facilitates biological phosphorous removal and reduction of effluent phosphorous. Filamentous organism growth is restricted in anaerobic conditions, limiting potential proliferation in the secondary treatment process. Anaerobic selector efficacy is dependent on operation at a suitable minimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 minutes at design flowrates.

Evaluation and Sizing of Anaerobic Selector As stated previously, an anaerobic selector HRT of 30 minutes at design flow rate is a typical criterion for anaerobic selector sizing. Additionally, a calibrated BioWin™ model

was used to predict an uptake of rbCOD in the anaerobic zone (thereby preventing rbCOD availability for filamentous bacteria in the downstream aeration basin). A typical target rbCOD uptake in a selector zone is 90 percent of rbCOD. An anaerobic selector zone was inserted into the process model at design maximum month average day flow (MMADF), as shown as Figure 9. The model predicted that a 200,000-gal tank is adequate to remove rbCOD, promote PAO growth for biological phosphorous removal, and “select” for wellsettling PAO bacteria at design conditions.

Description of Proposed Anaerobic Selector

To Aeration Basins

Figure 9. View of Anaerobic Selector Inserted Into BioWin Model

An anaerobic selector is proposed as a common tank to receive all plant flow, upstream of the aeration basins. It’s recommended that the anaerobic selector be baffled into at least two separate zones to allow for efficient uptake of rbCOD. Highefficiency vertical mixers are proposed for each zone. Although the anaerobic selector is not anticipated to be a significant source of odors, the zone would be contained with aluminum covers and connected to the odor control system, given the odor sensitivity of surrounding residents. Piping and valves would also allow for bypass of the anaerobic zone. The proposed location and conceptual layout for the anaerobic selector at the WRF is shown in Figure 10.

Conclusion Reducing SVI at the WRF is a critical goal. Reduction of SVI by implementing an anaerobic selector was identified as the preferred alternative. The detailed design of Phase 1 is currently underway at the time of this writing. The RAS chlorination was also recommended to provide operators an additional low-cost tool to control occasional sludge-bulking episodes. Figure 11 illustrates the recommended strategy to reduce SVI. The concurrent reuse master plan recently concluded that reduction of effluent TP to <1.5 mg/L is sufficient to prevent increased TP loading into surface waterways by reuse water. Figure 12 illustrates the recommended strategy to achieve effluent TP < 1.5 mg/L. S

Figure 10. Plan View of Proposed Anaerobic Selector

Figure 11. Phase 1 Strategy to Reduce Sludge Volume Index

Figure 12. Phase 2 Strategy to Achieve Total Phosphorus Removal < 1.5 mg/L

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021



A New Year, a New Beginning Kenneth Enlow

President, FWPCOA

Committee, and served on the state Publicity Committee. She helped organize and instruct at state and regional short schools throughout her years as a member. Everyone please congratulate Janet on her appointment as an honorary life member.


reetings, everyone, and Happy New Year! I am really looking forward to the new year and believe that 2021 will be bright and successful for FWPCOA.



New Board of Directors I would like to welcome the 2021 board of directors and officers. I know that all of us will do our part to make the year successful and productive. The officers for 2021 are: Ken Enlow – President Patrick Murphy – Vice-President Rim Bishop – Secretary-Treasurer Athena Tipaldos – Secretary-Treasurer-Elect Mike Darrow – Past-President If you have any needs, please contact any one of us through our FWPCOA contact email or phone numbers. These can be found on our website at www.fwpcoa.org.

Janet DeBiasio is Newest Life Member Janet DeBiasio was selected as honorary life member of the association by the board of directors at Janet DeBiasio its October 2020 meeting. Janet’s career includes her employment with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for 10 years, as well as working for the Florida Department of Environment Protection (FDEP). Janet was a longtime employee with the City of St. Petersburg (March 1993 through May 2017) when she retired. She has been an active member of FWPCOA since shortly after her employment with St. Petersburg and has remained active since here retirement. She served on the Region IV executive board, as well as representing Region IV as director on the state board of directors. Janet served on the state Education Committee as a member of the Industrial Pretreatment

Rules in Review Some of the rules of note that are in review by FDEP are related to stormwater discharge, wastewater, and biosolids. If you are a stormwater, wastewater, wastewater collection, or reclaimed water operator, you will want to do further investigation on these rule changes to see how they may affect your operation and you. Stormwater Rules S Environmental Resource Permitting Rules for Stormwater Design and Operation Regulations (ERP Stormwater) The FDEP and the water management districts will be initiating rulemaking as directed by Section 5 of Chapter 2020-150, Laws of Florida, to update the stormwater design and operation regulations for environmental resources. Rulemaking review will begin Jan. 1, 2020. Check the FDEP website for dates and times for the workshops. S 62-621.300(7), Regulated Phase II MS4s The FDEP proposes amendments to Chapter 62-621.300(7), F.A.C., to revise and update forms for the existing generic permit for discharge of stormwater from Phase II Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems for consistency with current EPA requirements and to clarify permit language. Wastewater Rules S 62-600, Domestic Wastewater Facilities The FDEP proposes amendments to Chapter

12 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal



62-600, F.A.C., Domestic Wastewater Facilities, to update provisions, as well as implement the relevant provisions of Florida’s Clean Waterways Act (Chapter 2020-150, Laws of Florida). 62-604, Collection Systems and Transmission Systems The FDEP proposes amendments to Chapter 62-604, F.A.C., Collection Systems and Transmission Facilities, to update provisions, as well as implement the relevant provisions of Florida’s Clean Waterways Act (Chapter 2020-150, Laws of Florida). 62-610, Reuse of Reclaimed Water and Land Application Phase 1 The FDEP proposes amendments in Chapter 62-610, F.A.C., to update the chapter to be consistent with other Title 62 chapters, correct regulatory references, clarify current language, and require electronic submittal of annual reuse reports through the business portal. Two separate rulemaking efforts, Phase I and Phase II, will be undertaken by the department in order to amend this chapter. Phase I does not include amendments for potable reuse. Phase II will include all the proposed amendments to adopt recommendations of the Potable Reuse Commission’s 2020 report, “Advancing Potable Reuse in Florida: Framework for the Implementation of Potable Reuse in Florida,” as required by Florida’s Clean Waterways Act of 2020. Phase II will be announced later in 2020. 62-620.610, General Conditions for All Permits The FDEP proposes amendments to Rule 62620.610, F.A.C., General Conditions for All Permits, to revise the general condition for reporting noncompliance, such as sanitary sewer overflows, spills, and unauthorized discharges, including the incorporation of the public notification of pollution provisions of Section 403.077, Florida Statutes. 62-640, Biosolids The FDEP proposes amendments to Chapter 62-640, F.A.C., Biosolids, to revise monitoring and permitting criteria for the land application and management of biosolids. The proposed amendments also address biosolids provisions from Chapter 2020-150, Laws of Florida. Please take time to review the proposed

changes. Some of these changes will significantly impact how you operate your facilities and conduct your business.

What’s Next for 2021 The FWPCOA is planning an onsite meeting for the board of directors to be held in Plant City on Jan. 23, 2021, at 9:30 a.m. This will be our first onsite meeting since January 2020. The FWPCOA Short School Committee and training office are planning a spring short school at Indian River State College to be held March 15-19, 2021. The board meeting will be held on March 14, 2021, if all goes as planned. We are also looking to continue to build our library of FWPCOA training manuals and to offer continued training through our Onsite Institute.

Training Update We are still looking for additional venues that can and will accommodate our training classes. Since school has resumed, we do have some venues opening up, but we still need to follow social distancing and classroom limits. We will continue following the latest Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for conducting training and are willing to follow any guidelines required by the facility, including off-hours, like nights and weekends. The training office is in need of proctors for online courses in all regions. If you are available to be a proctor, please contact the training office at 321-383-9690. In the meantime, and as always, our Online Institute is up and running. You can access our online training by going to the FWPCOA website at www.fwpcoa.org and selecting the “Online Institute” button at the upper righthand area of the home page to open the login page. You then scroll down to the bottom of this screen and click on “View Catalog” to open the catalog of the many training programs offered. Select your preferred training program and register online to take the course. This is a good way to get those needed CEUs for your license renewal, which is due by April 30, 2021, but time is getting short. For more information, contact the Online Institute program manager at OnlineTraining@ fwpcoa.org or the FWPCOA training office at training@fwpcoa.org. That’s all I have for this C Factor. Everyone take care, and as usual, keep up the good work! S

Enlow Re-Elected as FWPCOA President for 2021

Kenneth Enlow was re-elected president of FWPCOA at the association’s October 2020 meeting. His term starts this month. Enlow is a graduate of Lebanon High School in Lebanon, Mo., and served in the U.S. Air Force from October 1970 until April 1974 (active duty) and served his inactive duty with the Air Force Reserves until October 1976. He also served in the U.S. Navy Reserves from August 1980 through July 1986. He attended Hillsborough Community College and obtained two associates degrees, in preliberal arts and occupational safety and health, which he earned utilizing his military veteran benefits. Enlow was project manager for the Tampa Bay Water Surface Water Treatment Plant, with 48 years of service in the water industry. He began his career in water treatment when he entered the Air Force in October 1970 and first stepped foot in a water treatment plant in December 1970 as a water and wastewater purification maintenance technician. He was discharged from the Air Force on April 10, 1974, and began working for the City of Tampa Water Department on April 20 of that year at what is now the David L. Tippin Water Treatment Plant. Besides plant operations, his duties there included operating the raw and finished water pumps, utilizing steam-driven turbines for both high- and low-service pumping. To qualify for operating the steam power plant, he became a firstclass stationary steam engineer and used this experienced later on to join the Navy Reserves as a boiler technician. He obtained his Class A drinking water license during his 18-year tenure

with City of Tampa and moved on to work for the City of St. Petersburg’s Cosme Water Treatment Plant as the chief operator in 1992. In 2002, he left City of St. Petersburg and become the operations manager for Veolia North America (formally U.S. Filter Operating Services) at the Tampa Bay Water Surface Water Treatment Plant. There he was promoted to assistant project manager when the plant was expanded from 66 million gallons per day (mgd) to 120 mgd in 2010, and promoted to the position of project manager in July 2017. He retired from Veolia North America in October 2020. Enlow is a life member of FWPCOA and a member of the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association. He served FWPCOA as a trustee and officer in both Region 4 and Region 12, and served on and chaired the state Education Committee. He’s taught short school classes in the regions and at state short schools, and is still active as an instructor. He is married to his wife, Rose, and they celebrated their 47th anniversary on Aug. 5, 2019. They have two children and three grandchildren. When he’s not working, Enlow likes to ride his motorcycle and play video games. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


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THANK YOU to our




Looking forward to seeing you at the Hyatt Regency Grand Cypress on November 28 to December 2, 2021.

Utilities Invited to Host Local “Drop Savers” Contest The Florida Section of the American Water Works Association will again sponsor the statewide “Drop Savers” Water Conservation Poster Contest during National Drinking Water week, scheduled for May 2-8, 2021. Submission deadline is Friday, March 12, 2021, for local winners to be submitted for judging at the state level, Florida utilities are encouraged to begin preparations for showcasing the creativity of their local children. The contest gives children from kindergarten through high school the opportunity to design a poster about water conservation. Early in the year, local winners are chosen in five different age groups, with winning entries advancing for statewide judging. Utilities publicize the local contests, distribute the contest material to local schools, coordinate the judging, recruit prize sponsors, and arrange local award ceremonies. Although the state winners will be announced in mid-April prior to Drinking Water Week, utilities should start planning their local celebration now. Interested utilities may download the complete package of “Drop Savers 2021” start-up materials from the “Drop Savers” Florida Section web site at www.fsawwa.org/dropsavers. If you have questions or problems downloading the materials, please contact state coordinator Melissa Velez at (754) 229-3089 or by email velezm@bv.com. Looking forward to seeing your utility represented this year!

Women for Water Circle of Giving 2020 AWWA’s Water Equation established the Women for Water Circle of Giving in 2020 to raise money to fund STEM youth programming across North America. Each Circle of Giving donor contributed $1,000 and had the ability to nominate and vote on youth programs to fund. In its inaugural year, the Women for Water Circle of Giving awarded $10,750 to support six influential youth programs. Each of these youth programs is STEM focused and ultimately seeks to foster a deep appreciation for science and the environment. The funds received by programs this year will be used to create educational videos, provide technological access for economically challenged families, renovate an elementary STEM laboratory, provide supplies for senior student capstone projects, encourage water conservation, and award scholarships to environmentally conscious schools and students.

For more information about the Women for Water Circle of Giving, please contact Michelle Hektor at mhektor@awwa.org or visit our website at we.awwa.org/womenforwater

Blue Thumb Junior Detective Program The Blue Thumb Junior Detective Program is managed by the Orange County Utilities Water Division Water Conservation program and provides water conservation presentations and activities to K-12 students in Florida’s Orange County. The curriculum includes the elements of the water cycle, how water is used, where drinking water comes from, water conservation, and water efficiency. One of the program’s goals is to generate water savings through interactive classroom and homework activities. The program received $4,000 that will be used to purchase portable power banks and headphones, which have become a necessity for students to stay engaged while at home. This funding will ultimately assist economically challenged families, incentivize student participation, and foster an appreciation for water conservation and the environment.




CEUs and PDHs

(up to 12 hours of continuing education)


3 DAYS OF TRAINING More information coming soon.




Here’s to a Better 2021! Fred Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E. Chair, FSAWWA


appy New Year and welcome to 2021, with the sincere hope that the year will allow us to put the fiasco that was 2020 behind us. Despite the difficulties last year, the Florida Section has been active, and we have accomplished a number of firsts.

Virtual Fall Conference and Region Events Under the leadership of Kim Kowalski, our past chair, and the efforts of staff members Peggy, Donna, Casey, and Jenny, the section delivered its annual conference virtually, but with the added benefit that those in attendance listened to real-time presentations with the opportunities to ask questions. As a further benefit, we will be keeping the technical sessions active to all participants through January, so if you missed it, you can still listen in and get those professionals development hours (PDHs) and continuing education units (CEUs). We had more than 60 people participate in the COVID-19 session that Rae Hafer set up. There were more than 60 in the potable reuse session as well, so it seems that attendance was good overall. Thank you all for supporting this section event. I’ll talk more about the conference next month. Several regions held virtual events, a first for most of us, and they did so with some success. While nothing can replace the camaraderie of in-person events, virtual opportunities allow our members to stay in touch, see familiar faces, and keep up on industry news. We will continue with our events and training in 2021, with the hope that we will see the awaited vaccine come to pass.

million vaccines to the American public is a huge job. Three vaccines now show promise; two doses are needed, 21 days apart for at least one. The U.S. Army has been tasked with this effort as a part of Operation Warp Speed. General Gustavo Perna, a logistics expert, leads the distribution effort. He says he is “ready to go” once the order is given. His whiteboard has an extensive schedule, starting with “Day 0.” His goal is to prevent any single point of failure in the logistics of delivery of the vaccine, two of which must be kept at very cold conditions. Obviously, the logistics dictate that first responders and medical personnel will have access first. Our Water Utility Council leadership should argue that our water and wastewater staffs should be a close second. We may need to lobby our elected officials to accomplish this goal, as teachers, the elderly, and many others will want—and deserve— to receive vaccines early in the process. Our employees work in the trenches every day (some literally!) to ensure reliable water and sewer services. There should be a concerted effort by the section and the utilities at the start of 2021 to get our folks vaccinated as soon as possible to protect them from the potential effects of COVID-19 in their workplaces. This is especially important given that, on the wastewater side, several utilities have participated in COVID-19 tracing in

wastewater, starting with Miami-Dade County. Florida Atlantic University (FAU) did six events on campus and noted that, as the semester wore on, COVID-19 cases climbed. Dormitories and athletics were the “hot spots” at FAU, something not unexpected. Other schools have tracked COVID-19 cases with students, staff, and faculty, which bear out the trend. The FAU is reaching out to some local communities that wish to track COVID-19 this winter. The information will be useful for hospitals, doctors, and health departments in predicting the potential needs of a community. We know that COVID-19 is out there and our people can be exposed to it. Our mission is one that cannot fail. We are an essential industry, and our members are essential personnel. With winter upon us, flu, colds, and COVID-19 will mix. I recall a line from the old “Hill Street Blues” television series: “Let’s be careful out there.” Let’s be safe as well, and hope that with the potential of a vaccine around the corner, the section and its activities, the interactions that bring us all together, will get back to whatever the “new normal” will be. So, thank you for all you do to keep us safe! Good riddance to 2020—let’s get on with 2021! S

A Vaccine on the Horizon Dr. Anthony Fauci says that Americans might start to see the vaccine delivered at the start of this year. The effort to deliver 350

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021



Streamlined or Fast-Tracked: Florida Angles to Assume Federal Dredge-and-Fill Water Permitting Authority

Kyle Robisch


n the next few months, Florida aims to make Clean Water Act (CWA) history, hoping to become just the third state to assume CWA section 404 permitting authority. In early November last year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) wrapped up the public comment period concerning Florida’s proposal to take over statewide section 404 permitting authority from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (the Corps). Florida’s proposal drew thousands of comments, from interested parties across the state, and EPA expects to decide soon. Most expect EPA to grant Florida’s request—before the next presidential inauguration. So what’s the big deal? If you’re building or discharging near (or in) waters or wetlands, chances are you need a permit or two. Under the current regime, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the state water management districts regulate most discharges through the Environmental Resource Program (ERP) permitting program. Federal authorities—specifically, the Corps— often regulate those same discharges and projects, in parallel, through the section 404 program. One project, in other words, often requires permittees to jump through overlapping state and federal permitting hoops. The CWA allows state agencies to “assume” federal section 404 permitting authority. Florida recently submitted an application to do just that, seeking to join Michigan and New Jersey as the only states currently authorized to implement the section 404 program (though other states are pursuing section 404 assumption). As part of the application process, FDEP issued a suite of new regulations, negotiated a “memorandum

22 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

of agreement” with EPA, and started training staff on section 404 permitting requirements. The FDEP contends that assumption would “streamline” state water permitting, uniting state and federal permitting requirements under a single state permitting umbrella. As FDEP sees it, nearly 85 percent of state (ERP) and federal (section 404) review requirements already overlap, meaning assumption could generate significant time, resource, and cost efficiencies for Florida permittees and regulators. The FDEP also couches assumption as giving Floridians a greater say over their own natural resources. Many commenters agreed, describing the current system as slow, duplicative, and inefficient; yet, some worry that streamlining could stray into rubberstamping. Certain interest groups, in particular, argue that Florida state agencies are under-resourced, potentially less attentive to federal obligations, and prone to green light projects. With the comment period closed, the decision is in EPA’s hands. Smart money says EPA is likely to approve Florida’s request, probably around the new year. If that happens, the Corps, EPA, and FDEP will begin transition work almost immediately. While the regulated community should expect some regulatory growing pains, efficiencies should materialize sooner rather than later. The ability to submit one application, to one set of regulators who are applying harmonized regulatory criteria, should enhance permitting predictability, efficiency, and economics. At the same time, the regulated community shouldn’t expect dramatic substantive permitting changes. If Florida assumes section 404 authority, federal law requires that state authorities regulate dredge-and-fill activities at least as stringently as the CWA, using most of the CWA regulatory criteria. As is often the case, litigation does add an aura of uncertainty. Unhappy interest groups could sue EPA over any assumption decision, seeking to undo and enjoin assumption. And EPA retains oversight authority over state section 404 assumption, including over certain individual permit decisions and the overall delegation decision. If FDEP shirks its permitting duties, or interest groups end up dissatisfied, EPA can object to individual permitting decisions or—more drastically— withdraw section 404 assumption authority entirely. With a presidential changing of the guard looming, anything could happen. Happy New Year to all! Kyle Robisch is an environmental, regulatory, and business attorney based out of the Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP Tampa office.

He assists clients with a wide range of legal issues, including infrastructure development, federal and state environmental permitting, and all manners of litigation (environmental and otherwise). Kyle is especially experienced with the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. He recently chaired

the American Bar Association’s Water Resources Committee and is a proud second-generation Florida Gator. You can reach Kyle at 813-5595595 or krobisch@bradley.com. He welcomes S your ideas for future article topics.

Celebrating 150 years of providing innovative solutions, dependable responsiveness and a deep commitment to success 100 NORTH TAMPA STREET, SUITE 2200 TAMPA, FL 33602 813.559.5500 bradley.com | ALABAMA | FLORIDA | MISSISSIPPI | NORTH CAROLINA | TENNESSEE | TEXAS | WASHINGTON, D.C. No representation is made that the quality of the legal services to be performed is greater than the quality of legal services performed by other lawyers. ATTORNEY ADVERTISING. Contact: R. Craig Mayfield, Esq., 813.559.5533, cmayfield@bradley.com, Bradley Arant Boult Cummings LLP, 100 North Tampa Street, Suite 2200, Tampa, Florida 33602. ©2020

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021



Brevard County South Central Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility Expansion With Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Kevin Lee, Pia Prohaska, and Larry Li Kevin Lee, P.E., is project manager with Mead & Hunt Inc. in Port Orange. Pia Prohaska is process engineer and Larry Li is product manager with Kruger in Cary, N.C.

T Figure 1. Clarifiers With Perimeter Walkways and Launder Covers (photo: Lucas Lustik, Sure Thing Photography)

he Brevard County Utilities South Central Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) serves the growing area of Viera. The WWTF had a rated capacity of 6 mil gal per day (mgd) and needed additional capacity to serve further development in the area. Brevard County (county) issued a request for qualifications to select a design engineer for a 3-mgd expansion. Due to the high rate of development and population growth projections in the service area, a 6-mgd expansion was recommended. Ultimately, the WWTF was expanded from a rated capacity of 6 to 12 mgd.

Project Components The overall project consisted of the following: S A new 12-mgd pretreatment structure. S Rehabilitation of the existing 6-mgd biological process mixing equipment. S Installation of a new 6-mgd biological process train. S Clarifiers, cloth media filters, chlorine contact, aerated sludge holding, and sludge dewatering expansion. S 1-mil gal (MG) reuse storage tank. S High-service pumping reuse. S Remodel of the existing operations building and laboratory. S Construction of a new maintenance building for the service area’s maintenance staff.

Figure 2. Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge System Layout

24 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The conceptual design was started in 2015 and construction was completed in 2019. The design was funded by the utilities’ capital budget and the construction was funded by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) State Revolving Fund (SRF) program.

Figure 4. Stainless Steel Retention Screens in Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Zone Figure 3. Mixed Liquor Flowing From the Preanoxic Basin to the Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Zone Covers (photo: Lucas Lustik, Sure Thing Photography)

The existing 6-mgd biological nutrient removal (BNR) train uses a five-stage oxidation ditch process. The initial design concept was to mirror the existing process for the capacity expansion; however, the site did not have enough available area to install a mirror of the existing process train. The limited site area led to a treatment process evaluation to select the best option for the WWTF expansion.

Treatment Plant Expansion Details The owner and engineer decided to use an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) process for the expansion. The IFAS process provides high-efficiency wastewater treatment and allows for smaller basins than conventional activated sludge processes. The process provides efficient wastewater treatment meeting advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) standards with smaller basins and less energy. The 6-mgd expansion was installed in 50 percent less area and has 33 percent less installed horsepower (HP) than the existing 6-mgd wastewater process. The WWTF design included a focus on low-maintenance processes for ease of operation and maintenance for the lifespan of the facility. The pretreatment structure provides 3-millimeter (mm) screens, grit removal, and 1-mm fine screens. The wastewater is “cleaned” by the pretreatment structure, which reduces the county’s maintenance by reducing rags and the wear on downstream equipment. This clean wastewater also makes it possible to add IFAS media in the BNR to improve nutrient removal. Conventional clarifiers with launder covers require no maintenance of weirs and launders. Low-speed conical mixers are used in the anaerobic and anoxic basins. These mixers are very high efficiency and virtually rag-free, which

Figure 5. Effluent Produced by the Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Process

also reduces maintenance. Figure 1 shows the clarifiers with perimeter walkways and launder covers, and the elevated walkways that connect the process basins, another feature for easy operation and maintenance. A conceptual schematic of IFAS basins is shown in Figure 2.The IFAS process constructed at this WWTF is a five-stage BNR process that includes one anaerobic zone for biological phosphorus (P) removal, followed by a preanoxic zone for denitrification. The aeration volume consist of two reactors, with the first one having plastic media at a fill fraction of 42 percent (IFAS zone) to increase nitrification

capacity without increasing the solids loading rate to the clarifiers, and the second one being an aerated polishing reactor without any media. The first aerobic reactor operates at a dynamic residual dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration within the range of 2 to 4 mg/L. The second aerobic reactor operates at a constant residual DO concentration of 0.5 to 1 mg/L to minimize DO carryover in the mixed liquor recycle to the pre-anoxic zone. The DO control in the IFAS zone is based on a patented ammoniumbased aeration control (ABAC) algorithm where the DO setpoint is dynamically controlled by Continued on page 26

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


Figure 6. Three 200-Horsepower Turbo Blowers (photo: Lucas Lustik, Sure Thing Photography)

Continued from page 25 the in situ online measurements of ammonium concentrations in the polishing reactor. The ABAC algorithm ensures that the IFAS system operates at the appropriate DO concentration, depending on the incoming total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) load to the plant at any given time, contributing to a substantial reduction in energy use, as well as a more stable effluent ammonium and total nitrogen (TN). The overall control and operation of the five-stage IFAS BNR system at the WWTF is similar to conventional activated sludge processes with no media. Figure

Figure 7. Aerial View of 6-mgd Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Process Train (photo: Lucas Lustik, Sure Thing Photography)

3 shows the mixed liquor flowing over a weir from the preanoxic basin into the IFAS zone Effluent from the aerobic zones flows to the postanoxic zone for further polishing of the nitrates to meet the effluent TN limit. Prior to the postanoxic zone, a portion of the polishing zone effluent is diverted and recycled back to the pre-anoxic zone to enhance denitrification. Following the postanoxic zone is a re-aeration zone for burning off any excess carbon. Effluent from the re-aeration zone is clarified and filtered prior to disinfection and discharge from the facility.

Figure 8. Aerial View of 6-mgd Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Process Train (photo: Lucas Lustik, Sure Thing Photography)

26 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The IFAS system combines suspended growth and fixed film within the same bioreactor, which increase the overall biomass of bacteria that can be maintained, and thus reduces the required activated sludge volume. In this process, plastic media is added to the aeration basin and maintained in suspension. Stainless steel retention screens, shown in Figure 4, are used to retain the media within the IFAS basins, thereby increasing the overall solids inventory by up to 100 percent without increasing the solids loading to the final clarifiers. The large protected surface area on the IFAS plastic media allows for biofilm growth. As an added bonus, the biomass growth on the media will also act as a constant source of nitrifiers, as the biofilm in the protected area will constantly slough off and seed the aerobic reactors with nitrifying bacteria. This will result in mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) having an increased potential for nitrification compared to traditional nitrifying activated sludge systems with no media. The five-stage BNR system was designed with a total suspended growth of seven days, including the nonaerated zones. Experience shows that denitrification is more efficient at lower solids retention times (SRT). In the overall design, the SRT of the system at the WWTF is lower than a nitrifying activated sludge system and the mixed liquor has a larger population of denitrifiers, enhancing the overall denitrification removal rate. The BNR process was placed into service at the end of February 2019. The new IFAS process train was started at about 60 percent of the total plant influent flow at an average daily flow of

about 2.5 mgd. The new process acclimated presence of additional nitrifiers provides much quickly and was producing AWT-quality more stable and efficient ammonia removal effluent within 60 days. After initial start-up throughout the year within a smaller footprint and process optimization, the existing process than is otherwise needed in conventional train was taken out of service in June 2019 for processes. These advantages resulted in a 6-mgd IFAS equipment replacement. This time the actual load of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and process train (Figures 7 and 8) that has the total suspended solids (TSS), as well as the TKN following features, compared to the adjacent in the influent, was close to the design capacity, 6-mgd activated sludge process at this site: with an AADF of 4.62 mgd and slightly higher influent concentration of BOD and TSS. Figure 5 shows effluent TN and TP concentrations from July 2017 to June 2018 compared to July 2019 to June 2020. These data illustrate the improved nitrogen removal capabilities of the IFAS process train. Figure 5 also shows that the IFAS process produces effluent, which meets AWT standards without any addition of external carbon. The process air is provided by three turbo blowers: two duty and one standby. Figure 6 shows the turbo blowers within a building lined with sound-attenuating wall coverings. The blowers provide 750 standard cu ft per minute (SCFM) of process air each and have 200-HP motors. The power requirement from aeration is the majority of connected HP for the BNR process. The total connected HP for the 6-mgd IFAS process train is 33 percent less than the adjacent five-stage oxidation ditch process. Based on the experience of designing and operating the IFAS system at the WWTF, the main advantages of this process are: S Plastic media is a host site for nitrifying bacteria. S Constant seeding of nitrifiers to the MLSS for high ammonium potential. S Aerated volume and footprint is smaller than conventional BNR. S Can handle varying seasonal loads throughout the year. S Operates similar to conventional BNR processes. S Stainless steel medium-bubble diffused aeration with no need for maintenance or replacement. S Both media and media retention screen are maintenance-free.

S 50 percent smaller footprint S 33 percent less installed HP For these reasons, the IFAS process should be evaluated if a facility needs to improve treatment level, expand capacity, or has limited site area. S


Conclusion The five-stage biological IFAS process provides several enhancements to conventional BNR processes. The performance data have shown that this facility consistently meets the AWT effluent standards, while operating near capacity without any external carbon addition. The media within the IFAS zone allows nitrifying bacteria to attach themselves and reside in the aerated basin with sufficient DO, lowering the suspended aerobic SRT significantly. The

Mead & Hunt has been treating the Florida water/wastewater industry since 1968. We know what it takes to get the job done right. From treatment to distribution, we are here to serve you.



Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


Test Yourself

What Do You Know About Water Quality Credit Trading? 5. Per FAC 62-306, which of the following activities is eligible to generate credits?

Donna Kaluzniak

1. F lorida Administrative Code (FAC) 62-306, Water Quality Credit Trading, establishes requirements for water quality credit trading between pollutant sources to reduce or eliminate what type of pollutants?

a. b. c. d.

Disinfection byproducts Heavy metals Nutrients Suspended solids

2. P er FAC 62-306, the intent of trading of water quality credits is to provide flexibility among pollutant sources to meet the requirements of a reasonable assurance plan (RAP) or a(n) a. b. c. d.

a dministrative order (AO). b asin management action plan (BMAP). c onsent order (CO). t otal maximum daily load (TMDL).

3. P er FAC 62-306, the annual pollutant load from a pollutant source after performing all required pollution control activities, below which water quality credits may be generated, is the a. b. c. d.

b aseline. c redit allowance. p ollutant limit. w ater quality allowance.

4. P er FAC 62-306, a credit is the amount of an entity’s pollutant load reduction below the baseline that will be available for trading. Credits shall be in a. b. c. d.

average parts per million per month. maximum parts per million per day. pounds or kilograms per month. pounds or kilograms per year.

a. Implementing best management practices (BMPs) as required under a permit. b. Changing a process to reduce the quantity of water discharged through reuse. c. Reducing a pollutant loading as required under a BMAP. d. Reducing a pollutant loading as required under a RAP. 6. Per FAC 62-306, a credit buyer must submit information on the term of the trade, the number of credits traded, documentation to calculate the credits generated, the date when the credits will be generated, the time frame the credits will be applied under the trade, the unit price for each purchased credit, and the amount of any state funding used to generate the credits traded to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP). How must this information be submitted to FDEP? a. Complete a water quality credit trading web form on FDEP’s water quality credit trading website. b. Submit an engineering analysis report on water quality credits to FDEP. c. Submit a water quality credit trading affidavit form to FDEP. d. Submit a water quality credit trading request letter to FDEP. 7. Per FAC 62-306, for trades where the seller and buyer discharge to different water body identification units (WBIDs), the amount of credits proposed to be traded shall be adjusted by what means? a. Cost agreement between buyer and seller to ensure equitable costs for the buyer and income for the seller. b. Consent order through FDEP to provide assurance that the seller will adjust modifications commensurate with differences in WBIDs. c. Location factors (LFs) to provide reasonable assurance that the proposed trade does not result in localized adverse impacts to the waterbody or water segment. d. A WBID adjustment control document to automatically adjust credits month by month.

28 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

8. Per FAC 62-306, an uncertainty factor (UF) reflects the uncertainty associated with estimated credits. For proposed trades involving estimated credits, FDEP uses what default UF ratios for urban stormwater? a. 1:2 c. 2:1

b. 1:3 d. 3:1

9. Per FAC 62-306, how are water quality credit trades monitored and reviewed? a. Credits are tracked by each of the water management districts, and credits in each district are posted on the district website. b. Credit buyers and sellers discharging to each WBID track the credits and record them on an FDEP website. c. The FDEP tracks all credit generation preapprovals and all credits traded, and posts the information on its website. d. The managers for each BMAP or RAP track all credits traded and post them on the individual BMAP or RAP website. 10. Per FAC 62-306, who is responsible for achieving the load reductions on which the credits are based and complying with the terms of the permit, or the BMAP or RAP, and any trading agreements entered? a. b. c. d.

he buyer of credits. T The seller of credits. Both the buyer and seller of credits, equally. Both the buyer and seller of credits, as detailed in the agreement between the parties. Answers on page 54

References used for this quiz: • Florida Administrative Code 62-306, Water Quality Credit Trading • FDEP Florida Water Quality Trading Registry Website: https://floridadep.gov/dear/waterquality-restoration/content/florida-water-qualitycredit-trading-registry

Send Us Your Questions

Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com








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Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


L ET’ S TA LK S A FE TY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

The Increased Hazards of Night Work


ight shifts are a fact of life for many companies and employees. While they allow companies to keep a job going 24/7 if there is a deadline in place, in many cases, night shifts are often used to avoid causing disruption during busy, “high traffic” periods. Night shifts are sometimes not very popular with employees, as they can be inconvenient to most lifestyles. Depending on the nature of the job, there may be hazards associated with night-shift work. It’s imperative, therefore, that employers are aware of the risks and employees have received the proper worksite safety training to cope with night shifts.

Unique Conditions Working at night presents some special safety challenges, particularly for people working in traffic areas. The biggest challenge is finding a way to cope with the reduced visibility. At dawn and dusk, the sun is low in the sky and causes glare on a vehicle’s windshield. Once the sun has set, the distance a motorist can see is restricted by headlight efficiency, and some drivers have poor night vision. Statistics show that 25 percent of workers killed on the job when struck by a vehicle were working between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., but only 9 percent of the workforce is on duty during those

hours. This statistic means that crews working at night are three times more likely to be struck by a vehicle than their daytime counterparts. Even when workers are wearing reflective safety vests, motorists aren’t always able to determine that the object with the reflective tape is a human. When turned sideways, bending over, or standing motionless, workers are often mistaken for traffic cones or other safety markers. Motorists are less likely to slow down for a marker on the roadside than for a worker. Safety experts also note that working near the road is more dangerous at night because traffic is lighter, allowing motorists to travel faster through the work zone. The condition of drivers at night also presents a hazard to workers. A higher percentage of drivers at night are subject to fatigue or to alcohol or drug impairment.

Making Work Safer Here are some things you can do to make the work zone safer at night: S M ake sure your work clothing has an abundance of reflective material. The bright orange or yellow that motorists can see so well during the day does little good at night unless it‘s accompanied by reflective material on your vest or jacket, hard hat, and pants.

S L ine up parked equipment to serve as a boundary to protect work zones. S Use floodlights to illuminate flagger stations, equipment crossings, and any other areas where crew members will be working. Floodlights can cause a disabling glare for drivers entering a work zone, so once the lights are set, a utility worker should drive through the area to observe their positioning and make adjustments as necessary. S Because of reduced visibility, crew members need to slow down and work more cautiously, especially when working around excavations. Shadows and dark areas inside trenches make the simple job of getting in and out of them more difficult. Footing near trench walls may appear to be more stable than it actually is. S Crew members signaling and operating excavation equipment also need to take extra care in their job duties. The glare from traffic headlights and the fact that some excavation areas are partially hidden in shadows makes jobs more difficult.

Onsite Night Work Reduced visibility isn’t just an issue at offsite work locations; because of dark areas and shadows created by floodlights, an area of the facility you are quite familiar with during daylight

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32 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

hours looks different at night. Outdoor filter beds, stairways and ramps, equipment storage areas, loading docks, and large water tanks are all areas that are more difficult to negotiate in the dark. Water storage tanks, for example, may be extra cold and have more moisture on them at night, making footing or handholds more slippery and dangerous. Dew may also exist on loading docks, stairways, and ramps, so slow down and take extra time and caution when walking across these areas.

When moving around the facility grounds at night, always carry a large flashlight with you to supplement whatever fixed lighting is available. It’s a good idea to also carry a small backup flashlight in case the larger light stops working during your rounds. Even though vehicular traffic is minimal on treatment plant grounds in the evening, you should still wear reflective clothing anytime you are outside the facility so that coworkers and

emergency personnel can see and identify you when they are on the facility grounds. If you take the necessary precautions, your night-work duties can be performed without any problems, keeping your workers and the public protected. Don’t get left in the dark; make the night S shift safe and secure!

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Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Wastewater Treatment. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators ( DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 334203119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

EARN CEUS BY ANSWERING QUESTIONS FROM PREVIOUS JOURNAL ISSUES! Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

Brevard County South Central Regional Wastewater Treatment Facility Expansion With Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Kevin Lee, Pia Prohaska, and Larry Li (Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015379)

1. C ompared to the adjacent 6-mil-gal-per-day (mgd) activated sludge process on the same site, the integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) process train a. requires 33 percent less installed horsepower. b. removes 75 percent as much total nitrogen. c. provides equally stable and efficient ammonia removal throughout the year. d. has a 55 percent smaller footprint. 2. Th e primary purpose of the plant’s initial anaerobic zone is a. nitrification. b. denitrification. c. biological phosphorus removal. d. gas production. 3. Th e dissolve oxygen control in the IFAS zone is based on _____________ measurements taken in the polishing reactor. a. d issolved oxygen b. nitrate c. p hosphorous d. ammonium 4. S olids inventory within the IFAS basins is increased by up to 100 percent by the addition of a. s tainless steel media. b. a carbon source. c. p lastic media. d. return activated sludge. 5. W hich of the following is not listed as a low-maintenance feature of this facility? a. M agnetic drive centrifugal blowers b. Conical mixers c. Pretreatment screens d. Clarifier launder covers

34 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 ____________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

___________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Low-Cost Operating Modifications and Supplemental Carbon Automation to Achieve a Future Nitrogen Permit at a Florida Municipal Facility Victoria Reuvers and Mahsa Mehrdad (Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW02015380)

1. Th roughout the trial, the average nitrate and nitrite (NOx)-N Tank No. 5 effluent concentration was ____ mg/l. a. 6.7 b. 10 c. 20.2 d. 2 2 2. I n July, the dissolved oxygen concentration in Aeration Tank No. 6 dropped to 1.5 mg/l, limiting a. ammonia oxidation. b. denitrification. c. phosphate reduction. d. nitrate reduction. 3. I n the operational control strategy, the __________ algorithm adjusts process conditions to changes in influent conditions. a. return activated sludge (RAS) b. b lower control c. feedforward d. feedback 4. Th e MicroC® 2000 product replaced _____________ as a carbon source. a. carbon dioxide b. carbonic acid c. methanol d. ethanol 5. S tudy results conclude that internal recycle pumps should be sized to achieve up to ____ percent of average plant flow to maximize nitrate recycling. a. 100 b. 200 c. 300 d. 400



for the latest updates on classes January

11-14.............. Backflow Tester.............................. St. Petersburg......... $375/405 11-15.............. Stormwater C.................................. Deltona.................. $325 25-28.............. Backflow Tester.............................. Deltona.................. $375/405


1-5.............. Water Distribution Level III............ Deltona.................. $325 4.............. Reclaimed Water C 1-day ............ Deltona.................. $125/155 4.............. Reclaimed Water B 1-day.............. Deltona.................. $125/155 8-10.............. Backflow Repair*............................ St. Petersburg......... $275/305 15-17.............. Backflow Repair............................. Deltona.................. $275/305 26.............. Backflow Tester Recerts***........... Deltona.................. $85/115


8-11.............. *Backflow Tester............................. St. Petersburg......... $375/405 15-19.............. Spring State Short School............. Ft. Pierce


5-9.............. Wastewater Collection C............... Deltona.................. $325 12-14 .............. Backflow Repair*............................ St. Petersburg........ $275/305 12-15 .............. Backflow Tester............................... Deltona.................. $375/405 29.............. Backflow Tester Recerts***............ Deltona.................. $85/115 Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, pleasecontact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. *B ackflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


2020-2021 FSAWWA BOARD OF GOVERNORS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Fred Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E. Chair Florida Atlantic University P.O. Box 221890 Hollywood, Florida 33022 P: (239) 250-2423 E: h2o_man@bellsouth.net Emilie Moore, P.E. Chair-Elect Black & Veatch 3405 W. MLK Blvd., Suite 125 Tampa, Florida 33607 P: (813) 207-7902 E: MooreE@bv.com Greg Taylor, P.E. Vice Chair Wright-Pierce 601 S. Lake Destiny Drive, Suite 290 Maitland, Florida 32751 P: (407) 907-8087 E: greg.taylor@wright-pierce.com Kim Kowalski Past Chair Wager Company of Florida Inc. 720 Industry Road Longwood, Florida 32750 P: (407) 834-4667 E: kkowalski@wagerco.com Lisa Wilson-Davis Secretary City of Boca Raton, Utility Services Department 1401 Glades Road Boca Raton, Florida 33431 P: (561) 338-7310 E: lwilsondavis@myboca.us Marjorie Craig, P.E. Treasurer City of St. Cloud 1300 Ninth Street, Bldg. A St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 957-7104 E: Marjorie.Craig@stcloud.org Tyler Tedcastle, P.E. Treasurer-Elect Carter|Verplanck 601 S.E. 10th Avenue Pompano Beach, Florida 33060 P: (850) 264-9391 E: TTedcastle@cviwater.com


Mark Lehigh Section Director Hillsborough County Water Resources Services 332 N. Falkenburg Road Tampa, Florida 33619 P: (813) 272-5977, ext. 43270 E: lehighm@hillsboroughcounty.org Richard Anderson General Policy Director Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 P: (941) 806-9967 E: randerson@regionalwater.org

COUNCIL CHAIRS Michael Alexakis Contractors Council Chair Wharton-Smith 370 E. Crown Point Road Winter Garden, Florida 34787 P: (407) 402-6134 E: malexakis@whartonsmith.com Mike George Manufacturers/Associates Council Chair R&M Service Solutions 10482 Dunkirk Drive Spring Hill, Florida 34608 P: (352) 200-9631 E: mgeorge@r-mservice.net

36 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Jerome (Jay) Madigan Member Engagement and Development Council Chair Lake Cane Restoration Society P: (614) 403-7723 E: jay.madigan@lakecane.com Andrew Greenbaum Operators and Maintenance Council Chair Tampa Bay Water 2575 Enterprise Road Clearwater, Florida 33763-1102 P: (813) 929-4551 E: agreenbaum@tampabaywater.org Terri Holcomb, P.E. Public Affairs Council Chair Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 P: (941) 316-1776 E: tholcomb@regionalwater.org Bina Nayak, Ph.D. Technical and Education Council Chair Pinellas County Utilities 1620 Ridge Road Largo, Florida 33778 P: (727) 582-2306 E: bnayak@pinellascounty.org Kevin Carter Water Utility Council Chair Broward County 2555 W. Copans Road Pompano Beach, Florida 33069 P: (954) 831-0718 E: kcarter@broward.org

REGION CHAIRS David Roberts, P.E. Region I Chair (North Central Florida) City of Tallahassee 4505 Springhill Road, Building A Tallahassee, Florida 32305 P: (850) 891-1228 E: david.roberts@talgov.com Ryan Popko, P.E. Region II Chair (Northeast Florida) JEA 4215 Talleyrand Avenue Jacksonville Beach, Florida 32205-7633 P: (904) 665-8516 E: popkrr@jea.com Rhea Dorris, P.E. Region III Chair (Central Florida) Kimley-Horn 189 S. Orange Avenue, Suite 1000 Orlando, Florida 32801 P: (407) 427-1626 E: Rhea.Dorris@kimley-horn.com Kenneth Broome, P.E. Region IV Chair (West Central Florida) Stantec 777 S. Harbour Island Blvd., Suite 600 Tampa, Florida 33764 P: (813) 204-3305 E: kenneth.broome@stantec.com Karen Miller Region V Chair (Southwest Florida) GHD 2675 Winkler Avenue, Suite 180 Fort Myers, Florida 33901 P: (239) 215-3910 E: Karen.Miller@ghd.com Monique L. Durand, P.E. Region VI Chair (Southeast Florida) Hazen and Sawyer 4000 Hollywood Blvd., Suite 750 N Hollywood, Florida 33021 P: (954) 967-7085 E: mdurand@hazenandsawyer.com Austin P’Pool, P.E. Region VII Chair (South Florida) The Corradino Group 4055 N.W. 97th Avenue Miami, Florida 33178 P: (305) 594-0735 E: appool@corradino.com Vacant Region VIII Chair (East Central Florida)

Heath Hardy, P.E. Region IX Chair (West Florida Panhandle) HDR Engineering Inc. 25 W. Cedar Street, Suite 200 Pensacola, Florida 32502-5945 P: (850) 432-6800 E: heath.hardy@hdrinc.com Ann Lee Region X Chair (West Central Florida) Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 P: (941) 316-1776 E: alee@regionalwater.org Elizabeth McAlister Region XI Chair (North Florida) DRMP Inc. 7525 N.W. 4th Blvd., Suite 70 Gainesville, Florida 32607 P: (352) 371-2741 E: emcalister@drmp.com Sean Lathrop Region XII Chair (Central Florida Panhandle) Bay County Utility Services 3410 Transmitter Road Panama City, Florida 32404 P: (850) 630-1954 E: slathrop@baycountyfl.gov

TRUSTEES Monica Autrey, P.E. Trustee Destin Water Users Inc. P.O. Box 308 Destin, Florida 32540 P: (850) 837-6146 E: mautrey@dwuinc.com Andrew May, P.E. Trustee JEA 21 W. Church Street Jacksonville, Florida 32202 P: (904) 665-4510 E: mayar@jea.com

Pamela London-Exner Trustee P: ((813) 781-0173 E: pamlondon2@gmail.com Kirsten Sealey, P.E. Trustee Gainesville Regional Utilities P.O. Box 147051 Gainesville, Florida 32614-7051 P: (352) 393-1621 E: sealeykm@gru.com

SECTION STAFF Peggy Guingona Executive Director Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4820 F: (407) 593-0251 E: peggy@fsawwa.org Casey Cumiskey Membership Specialist/Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4806 F: (407) 593-0251 E: casey@fsawwa.org Donna Metherall Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4805 F: (407) 593-0251 E: donna@fsawwa.org Jenny Arguello Administrative Assistant Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4804 F: (407) 593-0251 E: jenny@fsawwa.org

Scott Richards, P.E. Trustee Carollo Engineers Inc. 200 E. Robinson Street, Suite 1400 Orlando, Florida 32801 P: (407) 377-4312 E: srichards@carollo.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021



Bring on the New Year! Renewals and New Beginnings in 2021 James J. Wallace, P.E. President, FWEA


n so many ways, 2020 feels like it took far more than one calendar year to complete. Yet, in other ways, it also feels like it ended in the blink of an eye. That’s the dichotomy of this past year. It’s a time none of us would like to relive, with multiple challenges that don’t bear repeating; however, at the same time it has been a year where we have grown and learned so much. Take the fact that our industry, specifically our water, wastewater, and reclaimed water utilities, has performed so admirably over this past year. Despite all the challenges that a pandemic and challenging weather provided, utilities in the state of Florida provided service equal to, and in some cases better than, historical precedents. Next time you bump into a member of your local utility, especially the frontline operations personnel, please be sure to thank them for their hard work and dedication to this profession and the environment. While our work and our industry do not often grab the

spotlight, take great pride in the tremendous work that has been done, and don’t be shy in sharing that message. We also learned in 2020 that we are resilient and able to adapt to new norms. The virtual workplace took off in 2020, and while many of us yearn for a return to prepandemic workflows and working environments, we must acknowledge that we successfully learned to use the many necessary virtual tools to continue to perform our jobs with minimal disruption. This also applies to our service organizations. The FWEA pivoted from in-person training and networking to the virtual environment. While we hope that, little by little, we will return to more “normal” operations, we know that the skills and lessons we learned will provide benefits for years to come. Now that 2020 is officially in the history books, we shift our focus to 2021. Speaking of 2021, this column will focus on the outlook for the year ahead, as well as some important reminders (license renewals) and a preview of an exciting new opportunity (FWEA Connect).

the exceptional work in our industry during this past year. The ability of our utilities (and operations personnel) to provide exceptional water, wastewater, and reclaimed water service—in the face of new and persistent threats—engenders significant optimism for the year ahead as we return to a more stable environment. This optimism extends to our professionals, who were also able to stay on schedule in the design, manufacture, construction, and delivery of environmental solutions when faced with a global pandemic. The outlook for FWEA in 2021 will include the reintroduction of many activities and offerings through FWEA that were either delayed or canceled in 2020. While we will not see a full return to the former calendar in 2021, we will continue to see virtual offerings mixed in with the reintroduction of in-person events. Outdoor activities, including golf tournaments and sporting clays, which provide charitable resources to FWEA scholarship funds, will be reestablished with reasonable, acceptable, and appropriate social distancing guidelines.

Outlook: The Year Ahead

License Renewals

I look to 2021 with tremendous optimism. While my optimism extends to all facets of life, I’ll focus this discussion on our industry, in general, and FWEA, specifically. It’s easy to maintain optimism when you’ve witnessed

Yes, it’s that time again—that time every other year, in odd years, when state of Florida professional engineering licenses, drinking water and wastewater operator licenses, and registered contractor licenses must be renewed. The time when everyone lines up the final professional development hours (PDHs) and continuing education units (CEUs) to meet renewal requirements. As a reminder, the schedule for each is provided below: S Florida professional engineer licenses – Feb. 28, 2021 expiration S Florida drinking water, wastewater, and water distribution operator licenses – April 30, 2021 expiration S Registered contractor licenses – Aug. 31, 2021 expiration Providing professional development to our members is part of FWEA’s mission statement. Furthermore, FWEA’s strategic goal around workforce and professional development states the following: “FWEA seeks an active and healthy opportunity to expand value to its members,

38 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

and to continue to provide professional development at the highest level for relevant and innovative education and training and helps the industry in identifying and developing a skilled workforce.” With FWEA’s mission statement and strategic goal as the backdrop, I will remind you that a plethora of opportunities to gain PDHs and CEUs through FWEA offerings will be provided in 2021. Whether you are grabbing those last development hours for this current license renewal or getting a head start on your 2023 license renewal, look no further than FWEA.

FWEA Connect! This upcoming March, FWEA will be providing a significant technical program in alignment with the committees of FWEA. This program will be delivered virtually through a new offering we have titled “FWEA Connect.” The initial parameters established by FWEA for the program are as follows: S S cheduled for March 29-30, 2021 S F our sessions (Monday morning and afternoon, Tuesday morning and afternoon) S T wo parallel tracks per session aligned with FWEA committees: Wastewater Process; Biosolids; Collection Systems; Water Resources, Reuse, and Resilience (WR3); Utility Management; and Operations/ Operations and Maintenance/Safety S S essions will be two hours (9:30 - 11:30 a.m. and 1:00 - 3:00 p.m.) S E ach session will include four presentations (25 minutes for each presentation and five minutes for questions and answers), with an optional 30-minute panel discussion at the conclusion of the session

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Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


FWEA COMMITTEE CORNER Welcome to the FWEA Committee Corner! The Member Relations Committee of the Florida Water Environment Association hosts this article to celebrate the success of recent association committee activities and inform members of upcoming events. To have information included from your committee, send details to Melody Gonzalez at gonzalezm@bv.com.

Melody Gonzalez

2020-2021 FWEA High School Video Contest Open for Entries


Shea Dunifon

he FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee (PCOC) has announced the 2020-2021 theme for its annual video contest. The “To Flush

or Not to Flush” video contest is open to all Florida high school students, inviting them to create a video—no longer than 45 seconds—to help raise awareness of what does (or does not) belong down the toilet. Past student entries have ranged from

songs to animations, comedy skits, and public service announcements. While many of these entries are educational and entertaining, one of the greatest challenges for students (and main judging criterion) is accuracy. The goal of the video contest is to get students thinking (and hopefully, researching) a topic that is often “out of sight, out of mind.” This year, the PCOC is challenging students to correctly identify items that are (or are not) flushable. The 2020-2021 contest marks the third year the contest has been held. Last year, Seminole High School in Pinellas County took first place from 15 total entries. This year, the PCOC has recruited four additional volunteers from across the state to help promote the contest in nine additional counties not represented by entries in previous years. Each year, the goal is to grow the number of entries from across the state. Student winners can receive $700, $500, or $300 for their videos. As an added incentive, the teachers of the first-, second-, and third-place winners will also earn money to spend in their classrooms. To view last year’s entries, please visit the FWEA YouTube page. To learn more about the video contest and its rules, please visit the contest webpage at https://fwea.org/ video_contest.php. All entries are due by 11:59 p.m. on Friday, Feb. 12, 2021. If anyone is interested in volunteering to help promote the contest in their community or would like a digital copy of the contest flyer to share with a local high school or high school group, please feel free to reach out to me at sdunifon@pinellascounty.org. Shea Dunifon is the education coordinator at Pinellas County Utilities South Cross Bayou Advanced Water Reclamation Facility in St. Petersburg and is chair of the FWEA Public Communications and Outreach Committee. S

40 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

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Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021



Low-Cost Operating Modifications and Supplemental Carbon Automation to Achieve a Future Nitrogen Permit at a Florida Municipal Facility Victoria Reuvers and Mahsa Mehrdad


wastewater treatment plant, located in Florida, has a daily average flow of 6.5 mil gal per day (mgd). The facility was issued a new permit by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection reducing the future plant effluent nitrate and nitrite (NOx) concentration to 10 mg N/L or below. Originally, the facility was comprised of six suspended-growth trains (600,000 gal each) running in parallel. Figure 1 shows the layout of the facility. Each train includes a small anoxic zone, followed by an aeration basin. To avoid expensive penalties and/or a full plant upgrade, the facility decided to make minor and low-cost modifications to the existing process. These modifications include expanding the anoxic zone, implementing an internal recycle (IR), and adding a supplemental carbon source. A pilot study was performed on one of the six trains to verify that these modifications would

allow the facility to achieve the future effluent requirements. The primary objectives of the study were to: S Demonstrate stable operation, while achieving a plant NOx concentration below 10 mg N/L. S I dentify key operating criteria, such as dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in aeration basins, IR flow rate, and carbon source addition. S F ine-tune the automated carbon addition to reduce overall chemical costs and periods of overdosing. S I dentify site-specific considerations for implementation of the full plant operation. Before the pilot study commenced, a process performance model using a Biowin® simulator was calibrated based on the facility’s historical data. The process simulator model was originally run with methanol built in for the carbon source.

Figure 1. An aerial view of the facility.

42 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Victoria Reuvers is program manager and Mahsa Mehrdad is senior process and applications engineer with Environmental Operating Solutions Inc. in Bourne, Mass.

A review of safety factors and costs was used to determine that an alternative nonhazardous, nonflammable, and glycerol-based carbon source product called MicroC® 2000 would be used. The simulation predicted that, with an IR rate of 300 percent of the influent train flow and 280 gal per day (gpd) of MicroC addition, effluent nitrate concentration would decrease from 10 mg/L to approximately 6.7 mg/L with four of the six trains in operation.

Pilot Project The pilot project was executed between May and November 2020. Process modifications were performed on Aeration Tank No. 6 as the evaluation train. The existing anoxic zone was expanded to three times the original size using a membrane baffle system, slightly reducing the volume of the aeration basin. High-volume, low-head pumps were located at the discharge end of the train to provide a return rate between 100 and 300 percent of the average influent flow. Two HACH Nitratax probes were installed in the train to collect real-time NOx concentration data, which are utilized by the automated control strategy. An external carbon source was supplemented via two pumps at different locations. Pump No. 1 was feeding MicroC to the anoxic zone of the Aeration Tank No. 6 to enhance denitrification using a Nitrack® controller, and Pump No. 2 was a manual MicroC pump, feeding a set rate of 96 gal into the common headworks. There were four trains online during the first months of the evaluation; thus, roughly 24 gal were assumed to enter the evaluation Train No. 6.

Data Collection The nitrogen removal performance of the train was evaluated by collecting data from upstream and downstream of the anoxic zone. The first method of data collection was through real-time monitoring by two HACH Nitratax probes. The first probe was located at the end of the anoxic basin, and the second at the end of the aeration basin. The second method used was collecting grab samples from similar locations in Aeration Tank No. 6 as the evaluation train and Aeration Tank No. 5 as the control train. These grab samples were analyzed by the facility using the same methods for each sample and collecting the samples at the same time of the day at the identical location. Control Strategy A Nitrack controller was deployed to optimize the carbon dosage into the anoxic basin. The control strategy is a unique combination of a feedforward and feedback control algorithm in order to optimize the carbon feed to a specific site. Feedforward control actively adjusts the process conditions to changes in influent conditions, called disturbances, but does not adjust manipulated variables based on system performance. Conversely, feedback control actively adjusts manipulated variables based on system performance, but can have difficulty adjusting to disturbances in influent flow conditions. The combination of a feedforward with a feedback control algorithm ensures that the effluent nitrate limit is achieved with continuous adjustment based on changing influent conditions. The facility influent flow, return activated sludge (RAS) flow, and Nitratax probes data were received and used by the controller to estimate the amount of required carbon in the anoxic zone.

Figure 2. Nitrogen removal performance and supplemental carbon addition in Aeration Tank No. 6. Shown is (top [a]) period of operation from May to September 2020, and (below [b]) after the evaluation period, from September to November 2020.

Results and Discussion The trial started in mid-May of 2020 by a MicroC addition into evaluation Train No. 6. Figures 2a and 2b depict the Aeration Tank No. 6 performance and the supplemental chemical addition. The evaluation trial was divided into two periods. The first period, depicted in Figure 2a, was from May 18 through September 1, when the process was unstable due to significantly varied influent loading, process upsets, and instrumentation issues, which are described further. In the second period of operation, from September to November, the process performance became steady and consistent, as shown in Figure 2b. Table 1 includes the detailed results of the evaluation trial at different stages of operation. Continued on page 44

Figure 3. Comparison of the Grab NOx samples from the aeration effluent of Evaluation Train No. 6 and Train No. 5.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


Continued from page 43 The average monthly grab sample results for aeration effluent NOx-N in both Train No. 6 and Train No. 5 are shown in Figure 3. Throughout the trial, the aeration effluent NOx-N concentration of Tank No. 6 remained

less than the nitrogen limit of 10 mg N/L. The average effluent NOx-N concentration in Aeration Tank No. 6, with MicroC addition, was 6.7 mg N/L compared to 20.2 mg N/L in the Aeration Tank No.5 as the control train. The minor process modifications with the external

Figure 4. Ammonia and NOx-N concentrations at the aeration effluent of Train No. 6.

carbon addition improved the nitrogen removal performance by 67 percent. After Evaluation The results confirmed that the process modifications and the addition of the carbon source were capable of reducing the effluent NOx of Aeration Tank No. 6 to below 10 mg N/L, as shown in Figure 2b. Once the process remained stable, without any instrumentation or process upsets, the Nitrack anoxic set point of 1.5 mg N/L was met consistently with the calibrated automation system. On September 1, the facility reduced the number of online trains from four to three, consequently increasing the flow and nitrogen loading to each train. As a result, the influent train flow increased from 1.71 to 2.28 mgd, subsequently decreasing the IR ratio since the pump capacity was at 5.5 mgd. With a 55 percent increase in influent flow, the IR ratio decreased by 23 percent (3.14Q to 2.42Q). Figure 2b illustrates that the anoxic effluent NOx-N set point was consistently met, with an average concentration of 1.17 mg N/L.


Figure 5. Nitrogen removal loading and cost of the carbon source per day in Aeration Tank No. 6.

Table 1. Summary of the process performance during the evaluation trial.

Start Date End Date GRAB NOx Aeration Effluent in Tank 6, mg N/L GRAB NOx Anoxic Effluent in Tank 6, mg N/L GRAB NOx Aeration Effluent in Tank 5, mg N/L PROBE NOx Aeration Effluent in Tank 6, mg N/L PROBE NOx Anoxic Effluent in Tank 6, mg N/L NOx Removed, lb N/day Set Point MicroC Dosed, gpd gal MicroC/ lb NOx-N removed Price MicroC $/day

Pre-Trial a b c d Post-Trial 18-May 27-May 25-Jun 16-Jul 4-Aug 1-Sep 27-May 17-Jun 30-Jun 1-Aug 20-Aug 12-Nov 6.2 5.4 11.9 6.7 10.5 7.02 0.69 0.31 1.32 0.59 5.65 0.5 19.62 16 19.73 22.31 25.11 17.28 8.3 7.8 11.5 8.4 7.0 9.2 1.7 1.4 3.4 1.7 2.3 1.1 300 350 430 325 210 440 1.5 2.5 3.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 264 170 36 33 87 78 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.1 540 350 75 70 180 160

44 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Fine-Tuning and Optimization The MicroC feed to the anoxic basin was optimized using the Nitrack controller and two Nitratax probes located at the end of the aeration basin and the end of the anoxic zone. The combination of feedforward and feedback control was modified, and some additional sitespecific variables were altered until periods of overdosing and underdosing were minimized and the optimal carbon dose was achieved. Section (a) in Figure 2a shows the period of operation (between May 27 and June 21) when the controller modifications were implemented. Figure 2a shows that the MicroC utilization decreased significantly from 0.8-gal MicroC/lb NOx-N removed to 0.3-gal MicroC/lb NOx-N, while similar NOx removal was achieved. Dosing The MicroC dosage into Train No. 6 halted for a short period of time due to some issues at the facility. Pump No. 1, which fed the anoxic zone and was being controlled by the Nitrack, was turned off between June 25 and July 1, resulting in the effluent NOx of both the anoxic and aerobic basins to spike, as seen in section (b) in Figure 2a. Manual Pump No. 2 was turned off early in July through July 31; thus, the additional 24 gal of MicroC into Train No. 6 were not received. Nitrification On July 5, the plant accidentally wasted

more sludge than usual, reducing the mixed liquor suspended solids from 4,500 to 2,000 mg/L overnight and washing out a large portion of the biomass inventory. In addition, during the month of July, the DO concentration in the Aeration Tank No. 6 dropped below 1.5 mg O2/L, limiting the ammonia oxidation. As shown in Figure 4, nitrification began to gradually deteriorate on July 17 and was lost by 85 percent by the end of July. While ammonia was not being successfully converted to NO3 prior to returning the mixed liquor back to the anoxic zone, less nitrate load was present for removal. As a result, the NOx removal in the anoxic zone reduced from 400 lb N/day to less than 300 lb N/day, as shown in section (c) of Figure 2a. Instrumentation Beginning in August, the aeration effluent NOx probe started to malfunction, resulting in inaccurate readings as high as 10-12 mg N/L. These readings are a critical part of the Nitrack control strategy and greatly impact the MicroC dosing into the anoxic basin. Section (d) in Figure 2a shows carbon dosing spikes due to the inaccurate probe reading. The probe was

replaced, and no further instrumentation issues occurred after the evaluation period. Summary Table 1 summarizes the detailed results of this evaluation trial at various stages of operation. The MicroC usage was highest the first month of the evaluation and then significantly reduced after some fine-tuning of the control strategy to optimize the automated chemical feed. The average MicroC usage of 157 gpd prior reduced to 55 gpd after control optimization and achieving a steady process. Figure 5 presents the nitrogen removal and price per day for MicroC added into Aeration Tank No. 6. The average price per day during the start-up was $566, which was reduced to $160 by September, and after the evaluation period. This is while Aeration Tank No. 6 received a third of the total plant loading after the evaluation period, compared to a fourth of the plant loading during the start-up, due to the number of trains online. By optimizing the system and control strategy, the facility was able to reduce the average daily chemical cost by over 70 percent.

Conclusions and Recommendations This entire evaluation was conducted during COVID-19. Due to the constant travel restrictions, the collaboration among EOSi, the contractor, and the facility staff was crucial to the success of this evaluation. Based on the data gathered during this study, the modifications will be expanded to the remaining five aeration tanks to provide the county with the means of meeting the NOx limits for groundwater monitoring without major facility upgrades. It’s recommended that the IR pumps are sized to achieve up to 400 percent of the average plant flow to maximize the amount of nitrate recycled from the aeration basin back to the anoxic, allowing more NOx to be removed. In addition, the carbon feed system should be designed to dose MicroC in both the headworks and each anoxic basin to provide adequate flexibility to the operators at the facility. Finally, four of the six trains should remain online to ensure that the loading to each train remains low enough to achieve the final effluent S goals.

2021 Florida Water Resources Conference Canceled

Due to concerns for health and safety, the action taken by Gov. Ron DeSantis banning large gatherings, travel restrictions, and factors beyond our control that will severely impact the quality and negatively affect attendance, we regret to inform you that the 2021 Florida Water Resources Conference, scheduled for March 28-31, 2021, at the Gaylord Palms Resort and Convention Center has been canceled. Thank you for your continued support and dedication to Florida’s clean water environment.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


PRO CE S S PAG E This column highlights the City of Cape Coral’s Southwest Water Reclamation Facility, which received the Advanced Secondary Earle B. Phelps Award in 2020.

The Water Independence for Cape Coral Program Matt Tebow

Background The Water Independence for Cape Coral program was started in the late 1980s and was designed to reduce the impact that irrigation has on the Mid Hawthorne Aquifer, one of the City of Cape Coral’s main sources for drinking water supply. The city has been recognized as having one of the largest municipal residential irrigation demands in the United States, with a daily average of 31.42 million gallons per day (mgd), according to the annual reuse report for Fiscal Year 2019. The city’s irrigation is supplied by treated wastewater from its two wastewater facilities, Southwest Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) and Everest WRF, and supplemented by freshwater canal water pumped from the city’s five freshwater canal pumping stations. The Southwest WRF was originally constructed in 1992 using a carrousel-style oxidation ditch to treat an annual average daily flow (AADF) of 6.6 mgd. The Southwest WRF was expanded in 2008 to 15 mgd AADF and currently treats approximately 7 to 8.5 mgd seasonally.

Treatment System and Components The headworks consists of two mechanical step screens and one manual bar screen, grit removal provided by four stacked trays, vortex-

type grit removal units, odor control, and two cyclone/classifier units, followed by a common influent mixing channel. The secondary treatment (activated sludge) process utilizes the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) process, including anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic zones. Although not a regulatory requirement, the A2O process is capable of biological removal of both nitrogen and phosphorus. Three A2O process basins receive flow from the common influent mixing channel, with each basin having an anaerobic zone followed by an anoxic zone, and then followed by an aerobic zone. Each basin has four floating mixers, with two mixed liquor internal recycle pumps, which pump from the end of the aerobic zone to the beginning of the anoxic zone. Mixed liquor from the three basins flows to a common reaeration channel; then, the combined flow is split and gravity-fed to five secondary clarifiers (two at a 100-feet diameter and three at a 120feet diameter) for settling. The sludge pump station, with multiple return activated sludge (RAS) and waste activated sludge (WAS) pumps, discharges to the common influent mixing channel or sludge holding tanks, respectively. Effluent from the secondary clarifiers is gravity-fed to two sets of effluent automatic backwash (traveling bridge) filters. The effluent from the backwash filters then flows by gravity and is split between two chlorine contact chambers (CCC). High-level disinfection is provided by liquid sodium hypochlorite.

Aerial View of Southwest Water Reclamation Facility

46 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

The reclaimed water is then stored in three 5-million-gallon (MG) tanks or, due to wet weather or low demand, pumped into the deep injection well. The WRF provides reclaimed water to the city’s service area system, also known as the Water Independence for Cape Coral system, to supplement with potable water irrigation. The WRF includes a 6.8-MG reject storage tank, where substandard reclaimed water may be directed. Biosolids processing includes the carrousel-style oxidation ditches repurposed into four aerated sludge holding tanks and three centrifuges.

Challenges and Successes The WRF is unique since it receives WAS from the city’s Everest WRF (13.4 mgd). This creates operational challenges due to the higher solids loading and increased nutrient loading from the centrifuge centrate (Everest and Southwest WAS). The original WRF design philosophy considered total nitrogen (TN) reduction to less than 10 mg/L as N. Although not required for discharge to the reclaimed water system, the Southwest WRF historically struggled to consistently meet the original design intent of effluent TN less than 10 mg/L, while maintaining a stable process with the increased solid and nutrient loadings from the Everest WAS. Beginning in 2018, Matthew Astorino, the

Southwest Water Reclamation Facility Aeration Basin No. 2

new chief operator, spent many hours reviewing historical data and current operational strategies. With the help of staff, he was able to make numerous changes over the course of a year, and within that time, reduced the average effluent nitrogen from 15 mg/L to 6 mg/L. The initial operational changes included reducing and optimizing the internal nitrate recycle and relocating the dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors in the aeration basins to provide more consistent and representative DO readings. Then, the staff focused its attention on the current DO control strategy by reviewing the existing control logic associated with the blowers, DO setpoint, proportionalintegral-derivative (PID) control, and mostopen-valve (MOV) strategies. The previous strategy utilized only a PI control method in the programmable logic controller (PLC) and had issues maintaining the DO setpoint within the basins.

After looking at historical DO and air flow trends, the staff started utilizing the D function of the PID control loop by creating a new strategy looking at the rate of change of the actual DO measurements to come up with an additional parameter to adjust the proportional gain. The results of the new strategy, developed in-house, achieved DO measurements in the basins much tighter to the actual DO setpoint, which in turn saved energy on the blower usage and improved the TN removal process. After these changes, the WRF saw an improvement in pH and a remarkable reduction in effluent TN from an average of 15 mg/L to 6 mg/L. Matthew and his team have also taken on major, in-house projects, such as rebuilding electrical panels, completely rehabilitating the sodium hypochlorite storage tanks and pumps, and numerous updated and optimized control schemes on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), including in-house PID

tuning. They created a cascade and PID control loop after installing a free chlorine analyzer on the influent side of the CCC to automate the sodium hypochlorite dosing for the CCC. Since this improvement, the WRF has saved over 300 gallons of sodium hypochlorite per day and found the new strategy to be much easier to operate versus the original scheme. The dedication and hard work of the entire maintenance, electrical, and operational staff resulted in the Southwest WRF consistently producing exceptional effluent quality, exceeding all regulatory requirements, in addition to reduced chemical usage and energy demands. Matt Tebow, P.E., is a water/wastewater engineer with Kimley-Horn in West Palm Beach. S

NEWS BEAT The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), in partnership with the Fish & Wildlife Foundation of Florida, has purchased a 578acre parcel in Gulf County within the St. Joe Timberland Florida Forever project. The property lies within the Apalachicola River and Bay watershed and expands upon the state’s recent 20,168-acre addition to the Lake Wimico tract. Through this acquisition, the public will have access to large expanses of natural areas throughout north Florida. These tracts include examples of almost all the natural communities of north and central Florida, including scrub, swamps, and springs. “This land is one of the most undeveloped, diverse, productive, and economically important natural systems in the southeastern United States,” said Noah Valenstein, FDEP secretary. “This acquisition will protect drinking water supplies, preserve the vitality and connectivity of wildlife habitats, and expand public lands access. This success is the result of cross-sector partnerships and dedicated coordination.” “The permanent protection of Lake Wimico is a great example of Florida Forever dollars being used to protect numerous aspects of Florida’s resources,” said Callie DeHaven, director of FDEP division of state lands. “We’re proud that we were able to work with our partners to complete this important acquisition and we look forward to continuing to build

these types of partnerships to acquire additional lands for conservation and recreation.” Said Andrew Walker, Fish & Wildlife Foundation of Florida president and chief executive officer, “We’re thrilled to partner with FDEP to add to the Apalachicola River wildlife and environmental area, ensuring that future generations can experience its natural beauty. The public is also part of this effort by purchasing the Wildlife Foundation of Florida license plate. Twenty-five dollars from each purchase supports protection and management of public lands.” “The public will benefit from this partnership as it provides more access to enjoy natural Florida,” said Kipp Frohlich, director of Florida Fish & Wildlife Commission (FWC) division of habitat and species conservation. “This project aligns perfectly with our mission to manage fish and wildlife resources and provide recreational opportunities—now and for future generations.” Florida Forever is the state’s conservation and recreation lands acquisition program, a blueprint for conserving the state’s natural resources and renewing its commitment to conserve its natural and cultural heritage. The FDEP division of state lands is Florida’s lead agency for environmental management and stewardship.


The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) governing board has

unanimously approved full funding for the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) Reservoir Project’s Stormwater Treatment Area (STA). “This vote will fully fund the Stormwater Treatment Area, the state’s portion of the EAA Reservoir Project, and help us continue to expedite this critical project,” said Chauncey Goss, SFWMD governing board chair. “Under the leadership of the governor, we are already turning dirt ahead of schedule to make this project a reality even sooner. The EAA Reservoir Project is critical to reducing damaging discharges, sending more water south, and storing excess rainfall.” The $64 million transfer from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) will provide SFWMD all the funds it needs to complete the 6,500-acre STA that will clean water stored in the 240,000 acre-foot EAA Reservoir and allow it to be moved south to the Everglades. The SFWMD expects to complete the STA portion of the project by 2023. When used in conjunction with other critical Everglades restoration projects that will be completed over the next several years, the EAA Reservoir Project will reduce environmentally damaging discharges from Lake Okeechobee to the northern estuaries. The project will also increase the flow of clean water south to Everglades National Park. The reservoir and STA are a combined Everglades restoration effort being completed by SFWMD and the U.S. Army Corps of Continued on page 48

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


FWRJ READER PROFILE I currently serve as CDM Smith’s client service leader for various municipalities in Palm Beach and Broward counties and the South Florida Water Management District. I have extensive project management experience working on large planning-level efforts, design projects, construction management, and design-build. What education and training have you had? I have a master’s degree in engineering from the University of Florida. I’m a professional engineer and board-certified environmental engineer.

Suzanne E. Mechler CDM Smith, Boca Raton Work title and years of service. I am an associate and client service leader with CDM Smith and have been with the company for 18 years. What does your job entail? I’ve been on the front lines of water, wastewater, and stormwater work in south Florida for almost 20 years, focusing on solving issues and implementing infrastructure projects.

News Beat

Continued from page 47 Engineers (USACE). The reservoir is one of more than two dozen projects that Gov. DeSantis identified shortly after taking office in 2019 as key priorities for Everglades restoration. DeSantis directed state agencies in Executive Order 19-12 to expedite the completion of these projects to support Everglades restoration and state water quality improvements.


The U.S. House of Representatives has approved the 2020 version of a biennial water bill that prioritizes federal water projects, which this year includes several to help clean the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee rivers and Indian River Lagoon. Pending final approval from the Senate, the legislation will be sent to the White House for President Donald Trump’s signature. Earlier versions of the Water Resources and Development Act were approved by the Senate on July 10 and the House on July 29 of last year. Provisions in the WRDA bill affecting

What do you like best about your job? I like serving clients and solving problems, applying innovation and creativity, and the opportunities to advance the profession. I just love water. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to the Florida Water Environment Association and currently serve as secretary/ treasurer. I also belong to American Public Works Association and American Water Resources Association-Florida. How have the organizations helped your career? I have been involved in FWEA since

south Florida include an amendment requiring the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to minimize harmful Lake Okeechobee discharges to the St. Lucie and Caloosahatchee rivers, and consider prohibiting them to the St. Lucie. The Corps is in the process of rewriting management guidelines for the lake, known as the Lake Okeechobee System Operating Manual (LOSOM). The bill mandates that the Corps minimize discharges to the estuaries as part of the new guidelines. The amendment also calls for the Corps to accelerate construction of the Everglades Agricultural Area reservoir by not considering it a “new start” project. R.D. James, assistant secretary of the Army for Civil Works, gave the project that designation, making it ineligible for federal construction funds until Oct. 1, 2021. The designation, however, shouldn’t slow the project because planning, designing, and permitting will keep construction from beginning for a couple of years. The South Florida Water Management District has started work on its part of the project, a 6,500-acre marsh known as a stormwater treatment area (STA), and plans to

48 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

I was a student at the University of Florida. I participated in the Student Design Competition and had an opportunity to attend WEFTEC and compete. The FWEA has always been an outlet to a community of dedicated water professionals and my engagement in FWEA has enabled me to grow in my career and develop long-lasting relationships. Through FWEA, I engaged in the WEF Water Leadership Institute, which is an amazing program for connecting with similar professionals nationwide. What do you like best about the industry? The commitment to the public to manage our water resources, provide clean water, and serve the needs of our communities. This is a dedicated group of people who serve every day without any expectations of acknowledgment. They do their job because it’s important, and it has to be done. These are my people! What do you do when you’re not working? I’m a mom to my amazing eight-yearold son, Ryder. I also enjoy photography, mountain biking, and traveling. Somehow we squeezed in snowmobiling in Colorado in early 2020 and a RV virtual school tour of the Great Smoky Mountains in September. S

finish by December 2023, although parts of the project could be pressed into service earlier. Other Treasure Coast-specific provisions in the WRDA bill include: • An amendment requiring that the Corps coordinate with federal and state agencies to monitor, forecast, and notify the public of blue-green algae levels in Lake Okeechobee. • The Loxahatchee Watershed Restoration Project in northern Palm Beach County and southern Martin County, to help restore the river’s natural flow and improve aquatic ecosystems and vegetation. • A new federal project to build structures to help restore Fort Pierce beaches and prevent further erosion. • An amendment to remove the cap on the cost of the C-43 reservoir on the west side of Lake Okeechobee to prevent delays in the project. The reservoir is designed to collect local stormwater runoff and lake discharges in the wet season, when flows can cause harmful algae blooms in the Caloosahatchee River estuary. The water would be released during the dry season, when it’s needed to stop saltwater intrusion. S

Classroom, Virtual, Hybrid & Online Learning

Water/Wastewater Courses Water Class C Certification Review Jan. 4-8, 2021 | Gainesville, FL | Virtual available

Introduction to Electrical Maintenance Jan. 11-13, 2021 | Gainesville, FL | CEUs: 2.0

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Water Class B Certification Review Feb. 1-5, 2021 | Gainesville, FL | Virtual available

Microbiology of Activated Sludge Feb. 9-11, 2021 | Gainesville, FL | CEUs: 2.2

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www.treeo.ufl.edu Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


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50 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

For information please contact:

Carl Eric Johnson Inc. (800) 737-2235 www.cejco.net

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com


Reiss Engineering delivers highly technical water and wastewater planning, design, and construction management services for public agencies throughout Florida.

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Reiss Engineering is seeking top-notch talent to join our team!

Available Positions Include:

Client Services Manager Water Process Discipline Leader Senior Water/Wastewater Project Manager Wastewater Process Senior Engineer Project Engineer (Multiple Openings) To view position details and submit your resume: www.reisseng.com


U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Foreman, Treatment Plant Operator. Apply at www.titusville.com

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $51,112. - $96,050. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021


City of St. Petersburg – Water Reclamation Facilities Manager IRC51381

City of St. Petersburg - Water Reclamation Facilities Manager (IRC51381) This is highly responsible supervisory, administrative and technical work directing operations and maintenance of large, complex wastewater treatment plants, pumping stations and associated reclaimed water facilities. Work involves direction of activities to achieve permit compliance for wastewater treatment and effluent disposal. This leadership position provides oversight for a large staff and is responsible for preparation and oversight of an annual budget of approximately $16 million; review of maintenance records and reports; and the selection, placement, promotion, training, appraisal, safety and discipline of assigned employees. Requirements: Have a valid Bachelor’s degree -OR- have a valid High School Diploma/ GED and possess a current State of Florida Class “A” Certificate for wastewater treatment plant operation will be considered in lieu of the Bachelor’s degree; possess and maintain a valid Driver License; have considerable progressively responsible experience in the operation, management, and maintenance of wastewater/ water reclamation treatment facilities; have considerable knowledge of Federal, State and local regulatory requirements and methods of compliance for water reclamation facilities; be able to organize, supervise and effectively inspect the work of plant operators and others engaged in the operation of wastewater treatment plants; be able to successfully direct work in the repair and maintenance of plant equipment and facilities; be able to establish and execute safety and performance standards; be able to develop and implement safety and water reclamation facility training programs. Close Date: 01-04-2021 (11:59 PM EST); $88,091 - $136,084; See details at www.stpete.org/jobs EEO-AA-Employer-Vet-Disabled-DFWP-Vets’ Pref

Plant Operator Immediate available opening for a Plant Operator certified in water and wastewater treatment. Must have a least single FDEP Class “C” licensure, with strong preference for dual licensure. Valid driver’s license. Job benefits include Health/Visions/Dental Insurance, prescription drug, 401(k) savings plan, and paid vacation/holiday. We are a drugfree (DFW) and an Equal Opportunity Employer (EOE). Please apply at: jobs.barroncollier.com


Salary $20.44 Hourly FULL-TIME Department/Division: W&S -WASTEWATER TREATMENT Under close supervision, follows a defined training program in wastewater treatment to become a certified operator; performs daily tasks in the operation and maintenance of the wastewater treatment facility; APPLY: Online at www.covb.org and review complete job description. City of Vero Beach, FL 772 978-4900 EOE/DFWP

52 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Career Opportunity for Professional Engineer Toho Water Authority Kissimmee, FL $76,525 - $121,469 An exciting opportunity for a Professional Engineer is now available! Toho Water Authority is a rapidly growing independent authority and the largest provider of water, wastewater and reclaimed water services in Osceola County with a service population over 100,000. TWA owns and operates 13 water plants and 8 wastewater plants. With a 300+ person workforce, we treat and distribute approximately 37.5 million gallons of potable water and reclaims 27 million gallons of wastewater each day. TWA values customer service, collaboration, teamwork, productivity, and innovation! TWA is leading a multijurisdictional effort to implement the largest inland desalinization facility project in Florida, is among the few recipients of the Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) loan in the US, is piloting an indirect potable reuse project, and is currently in the preliminary design phase for a combined surface water facility to augment reclaimed water and produce potable water. TWA recognizes that our employees are our greatest assets and our competitive compensation package, including benefits and work life balance offers employees the satisfaction of being employed among the Top Places to Work in Central Florida. TWA is looking for a forward thinking and motivated Professional Engineer who is ready for an exciting role. This position offers an opportunity to apply and build upon your water and wastewater infrastructure project management skills in managing and planning capital project assignments through construction; master plans, engineering studies and hydraulic modeling. Additional responsibilities of the Professional Engineer may include design of collection and distribution system and lift station rehabilitation projects. This position will be mentored by a Chief Engineer and works closely with a highly dedicated and knowledgeable team of engineers, administrative staff, engineering technicians, construction inspectors and development management staff. The Professional Engineer position at TWA may work somewhat independently depending on ability, expertise and experience. The Engineering Division oversees a five year Capital Improvement Plan budget of approximately $600 million. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications and experience. Compensation package also includes competitive medical benefits, onsite wellness center, retirement match, generous paid leave, professional development, and more! TO APPLY, applicants who possess a Bachelor’s Degree from an ABET accredited university in Engineering and a State of Florida Professional Engineer License or the ability to obtain within one year. Strong organizational skills, communication skills, and ability to manage multiple priorities a must. An emphasis is placed on writing skills and public presentations. To learn more about TWA and to apply, please visit www.tohowater.com. Toho Water Authority is an Equal Opportunity Employer. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, or protected Veteran status.

Coral Springs Improvement District Multiple Positions Available:

CSID offers: Salary levels at the top of the industry District paid Health Insurance Water Plant Operator-Applicant must have a valid Class “C” or higher Drinking Water license and experience in Reverse Osmosis/ Nano Filtration treatment processes preferred however not required. The minimum starting salary for this position is $48,500. Salaries to commensurate relative to level of license and years of experience in this field. Plant Maintenance Mechanic-Applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and plumbing maintenance work on water and wastewater plant equipment. Must be able to perform duties including independent inspections, troubleshooting, and repairs to a wide variety of machinery including pumps, motors, generators, electrical systems, and both diesel and gasoline engines. The minimum starting salary for this position is $58,000. Salary to commensurate relative to certification and years of experience in this field. The District has excellent company paid benefits including a 6% noncontributory investment money purchase pension plan and voluntary 457 plan with a match up to 6%. EOE. Applicants must have a valid Florida driver’s license, satisfactory background check and pass a pre-employment drug screening test. Applications may be obtained at csidfl.org. Submit applications and resumes directly to Jzilmer@csidfl.org or fax to 954-753-6328.

Manatee County, Fl Water Treatment Plant Operator

HOURS: 2 Days on 2 Days off / 8:00pm to 8:00am Location: 17915 Waterline Road, Bradenton, FL

$15.65 - $26.25 Hourly (DEPENDENT ON QUALIFICATIONS (DOQ) Click Here for a complete job description: https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/manateecounty/class specs/ 840593?keywords=994-100&pagetype=classSpecifications

Utilities Director

DeSoto BOCC is seeking qualified applicants for: Utilities Director. Salary Negotiated. Complex supervisory, administrative, and professional work in planning, organizing, and directing environmental, water, sewer, and other utility projects and programs. Accredited 4 year college or university degree in Civil Engineering, Public Administration, or a closely related field. Six years professional civil engineering exp. including 2 years utilities. Certified in water and waste water treatment Class “B” operation or the ability to obtain within 6 months. (EEO and Drug-Free Work Place) Visit www.desotobocc.com for more info.

LOOKING FOR A JOB? The FWPCOA Job Placement Committee Can Help! Contact Joan E. Stokes at 407-293-9465 or fax 407-293-9943 for more information.

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The UV disinfection uses strong short-wavelength radiation to inactivate microorganisms by destroying the nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA. The Acuva system purifies water in two steps: a composite filter removes sediment as activated carbon removes impurities, and the UV-LED chamber then sterilizes harmful bacteria and viruses. The UV-LED technology is more compact, uses less power, starts instantaneously, and offers a longer life span than mercury lamps. These capabilities allow it to be used in a more flexible nature in not only homes and businesses, but also watercraft, recreational vehicles, and remote vacation homes and cabins with suspect drinking water quality. Acuva’s IntenseBeam technology allows for precise control of optics, hydrodynamics, and kinetics within the UV chamber to deliver an intense beam of ultraviolet light directly into flowing water, creating additional efficiencies. The optic and hydrodynamic design creates a controlled environment, matching water velocity and UV irradiance to ensure full disinfection throughout the chamber. These

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The Dynasonics TFX-5000 ultrasonic clamp-on flowmeter from Badger Meter accurately measures the volumetric flow of clean liquids and those with small amounts of suspended solids or aeration, such as surface water or raw sewage. It’s suitable for water and wastewater applications, such as lift stations, booster pump stations, and water mains. This meter provides accuracy up to 0.5 percent and flow rates ranging from 0.07 to 33,000 gpm on pipes as large as 48 inches. Designed to clamp onto the outside of pipes, the meter does not contact the internal liquid, allowing for installation without shutting down operations in new and retrofit applications. It’s equipped with an internal clock and built-in 8 GB data-logging capabilities to log flow down to one second. It also pairs with dual clamp-on resistance temperature detectors for Btu energy measurement. (www.badgermeter.com) S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021



Test Yourself Answer Key From page 28

January 2016

Editorial Calendar

January.............. Wastewater Treatment February............ Water Supply; Alternative Sources March................. Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April................... Conservation and Reuse May .................... Operations and Utilities Management June................... Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July .................... Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies August............... Disinfection; Water Quality September......... Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October.............. New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November.......... Water Treatment December.......... Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index Blue Planet ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 55 CEU Challenge ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 34 Florida Aquastore �������������������������������������������������������������������� 39 FSAWWA �����������������������������������������������������������������������������14-20 FWPCOA Training Calendar ��������������������������������������������������� 35 Gerber Pumps ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 Grundfos ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 50 Heyward �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 Hudson Pump �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41 Hydro International �������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 J&S Valve ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29 Lakeside Construction �������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Mead & Hunt ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 Moss Kelley �������������������������������������������������������������������������30-31 UF TREEO Center �������������������������������������������������������������������� 49 Water Treatment & Controls Technology ������������������������������ 33 Xylem ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56

54 January 2021 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. C) Nutrients

Per FAC 62-306.100(1), Scope and Intent, “This chapter establishes the requirements for water quality credit trading between pollutant sources to reduce or eliminate nutrient or nutrient-related impairments pursuant to Section 403.067, F.S.”

2. B) basin management action plan (BMAP).

P er FAC 62-306.100(2), Scope and Intent, “The generation, registration, and trading of water quality credits provided for in this chapter are intended to provide flexibility among pollutant sources to meet the nutrient reduction requirements of an adopted basin management action plan (BMAP) or reasonable assurance plan (RAP).”

3. A) baseline.

Per FAC 62-306.200(1), Definitions, “A ‘baseline’ means the annual nutrient load from a pollutant source after performing all required pollution control activities, below which water quality credits may be generated. The baseline will be set forth in the permit, BMAP, or RAP. The baseline for a point source is the entity’s annual waste load allocation under the BMAP or RAP, or a water quality-based effluent limitation established in a permit, whichever is more stringent.”

4. D) pounds or kilograms per year.

Per FAC 62-306.200(3), Definitions, “A ‘credit’ means the amount of an entity’s nutrient load reduction below the baseline that will be available for trading purposes pursuant to the requirements of this chapter. Credits shall be in either the units of pounds per year or kilograms per year.”

5. B) Changing a process to reduce the quantity of water discharged through reuse.

P er FAC 62-306.400 (1)(b) and (2), Credit Eligibility, “(1) Activities that are potentially eligible to generate credits include, but are not limited to. . . (b) Operational changes or the modification of a process or process equipment that reduce the quantity of water discharged through reuse, recycling, water conservation, or other measures and thereby reduce the load of nutrients discharged. . . (2) Activities that are not eligible to generate credits include: ( a) A reduction in nutrient loading that is required under a regulatory program, including a BMAP or RAP. However, reductions beyond those required under a regulatory program shall be eligible to generate credits. ( b) Implementation of BMPs that are required under a permit or the adopted BMAP or RAP.”

6. C) Submit a water quality credit trading affidavit form to FDEP.

P er FAC 62-306.600(1), Use of Credits and Credit Adjustments, “A credit buyer must submit to the department information on the term of the trade, the number of credits traded, documentation to calculate the credits generated for the trade, the date when the credits will be generated, the time frame the credits will be applied under the trade, the unit price for each purchased credit, and the amount of any state funding used to generate the credits traded. The credit buyer must submit the trade information to the department on Form 62-306(2), “Water Quality Credit Trading Affidavit” effective December 2015, which is adopted and incorporated by reference herein. Copies of the form, which must be signed by the credit seller and credit buyer, may be obtained by writing to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2600 Blair Stone Road (MS #3510), Tallahassee, FL 32399.”

7. C ) Location factors (LFs) to provide reasonable assurance that the proposed trade does not result in localized adverse impacts to the waterbody or water segment.

P er FAC 62-306.600(7)(a), Use of Location Factors to Adjust Credits, “For trades where the seller and buyer discharge to different WBIDs, the amount of credits proposed to be traded shall be adjusted by the applicable LF to provide reasonable assurance that the proposed trade does not result in localized adverse impacts to the waterbody or water segment.”

8. C) 2:1

P er FAC 62-306.600(8)(a), Use of Uncertainty Factors to Adjust Credits, “For proposed trades involving estimated credits, the department shall use default UF ratios of 2:1 for urban stormwater (if 2 pounds or kilograms of removal are estimated, 1 pound of credit will be created) and 3:1 for agricultural runoff, unless the department established the nutrient reduction capability of the activity in the applicable BMAP or RAP, excluding any nutrient reduction capabilities identified as provisional in the BMAP or RAP. However, a buyer or seller may propose and document the basis for a lower UF ratio to the department if justified by site-specific considerations.”

9. C ) FDEP tracks all credit generation pre-approvals and all credits traded, and posts the information on its website.

P er FAC 62-306.700(1), Water Quality Credit Availability and Trade Tracking, “The department shall track all credit generation pre-approvals and all credits traded, and shall post the information on its website.”

10. B) The seller of credits.

P er FAC 62-306.800(4)(a), Compliance with Trade Provisions, “(4) Liability: ( a) A seller of water quality credits is responsible for achieving the load reductions on which the credits are based and complying with the terms of its permit, or the BMAP or RAP, and any trading agreements into which it has entered.”

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2021





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