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Editor’s Office and Advertiser Information:

Florida Water Resources Journal 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive Clermont, FL 34711 Phone: 352-241-6006 • Fax: 352-241-6007 Email: Editorial, editor@fwrj.com Display and Classified Advertising, ads@fwrj.com

Business Office: P.O. Box 653, Venice, FL 34284-0653 Web: http://www.fwrj.com General Manager: Editor: Graphic Design Manager: Mailing Coordinator:

Michael Delaney Rick Harmon Patrick Delaney Buena Vista Publishing

Published by BUENA VISTA PUBLISHING for Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc. President: Richard Anderson (FSAWWA) Peace River/Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority Vice President: Lisa Prieto (FWEA) Prieto Environmental LLC Treasurer: Rim Bishop (FWPCOA) Seacoast Utility Authority Secretary: Holly Hanson (At Large) ILEX Services Inc., Orlando

Moving? The Post Office will not forward your magazine. Do not count on getting the Journal unless you notify us directly of address changes by the 15th of the month preceding the month of issue. Please do not telephone address changes. Email changes to changes@fwrj.com, fax to 352-241-6007, or mail to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Membership Questions FSAWWA: Casey Cumiskey – 407-979-4806 or fsawwa.casey@gmail.com FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318 FWPCOA: Darin Bishop – 561-840-0340

Training Questions FSAWWA: Donna Metherall – 407-979-4805 or fsawwa.donna@gmail.com FWPCOA: Shirley Reaves – 321-383-9690

For Other Information DEP Operator Certification: Ron McCulley – 850-245-7500 FSAWWA: Peggy Guingona – 407-979-4820 Florida Water Resources Conference: 407-363-7751 FWPCOA Operators Helping Operators: John Lang – 772-559-0722, e-mail – oho@fwpcoa.org FWEA: Karen Wallace, Executive Manager – 407-574-3318

Websites Florida Water Resources Journal: www.fwrj.com FWPCOA: www.fwpcoa.org FSAWWA: www.fsawwa.org FWEA: www.fwea.org and www.fweauc.org Florida Water Resources Conference: www.fwrc.org Throughout this issue trademark names are used. Rather than place a trademark symbol in every occurrence of a trademarked name, we state we are using the names only in an editorial fashion, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. None of the material in this publication necessarily reflects the opinions of the sponsoring organizations. All correspondence received is the property of the Florida Water Resources Journal and is subject to editing. Names are withheld in published letters only for extraordinary reasons. Authors agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Florida Water Resources Journal Inc. (FWRJ), its officers, affiliates, directors, advisors, members, representatives, and agents from any and all losses, expenses, third-party claims, liability, damages and costs (including, but not limited to, attorneys’ fees) arising from authors’ infringement of any intellectual property, copyright or trademark, or other right of any person, as applicable under the laws of the State of Florida.

News and Features


18 2019-2020 FSAWWA Board of Governors 27 Enlow Elected as FWPCOA President for 2020 40 Horizontal Directional Drilling? Wait, No….Slipline!—Kerstin Lesley Kenty, Dinesh Kamath, and Dennis Simpson 48 First Glimpse of the 2019 FSAWWA Fall Conference 56 News Beat

20 Test Yourself—Donna Kaluzniak 28 C Factor—Kenneth Enlow 30 Let’s Talk Safety: Be Hip to the Hazards by Avoiding Arc Flash 32 Reader Profile—Alice Varkey 46 FWEA Focus—Michael W. Sweeney 56 FSAWWA Speaking Out—Kim Kowalski


Technical Articles 4 Evaluating Innovative Blower Technologies With “Low-Speed” Turbo Units—Lucas Botero, John Paul Castro, Julie Gass, Hector Torres, and Olena Lytvyn 22 It’s Screen Time: Largest Headworks Design Under Construction in Florida!—Sangeeta Dhulashia, Sparkle Noble, Lynette Ramirez, and Daniel Edwards 51 Optimize Your Headworks System Design Through Onsite Testing: How Treatment Plant Operators Can Improve Process Protection and Reduce Expenditures by Selecting Optimal Screen Equipment—Jay R. Conroy and Samuel Sturtevant

59 Classifieds 62 Display Advertiser Index

Education and Training 12 13 14 15 16 29 34 35 36 37 38 39 47 49 55

FWRC Attendee Registration FWRC Operations FWRC Exhibitor Information FWRC Exhibit Booth Layout FWRC Exhibitor Registration FWPCOA Online Training Institute FSAWWA Fall Conference Sponsors Thank You FSAWWA Fall Conference Golf and Poker Night Sponsors Thank You FSAWWA Fall Conference Open Bar Sponsors Thank You FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest One AWWA Operator Scholarship CEU Challenge TREEO Center Training 2019 FSAWWA Awards FWPCOA Training Calendar

Volume 71

ON THE COVER: Westside Regional Water Reclamation Facility Improvements. These improvements to the City of Daytona Beach’s primary 17-mgd wastewater treatment plant will restore the facility to full operating capacity, while reducing the maintenance required to operate aging equipment. Upon completion, the facility will boast upgraded technology required to automate existing processes, provide consistent plant operations, and improve the quality of water. (photo: PC Construction Co.)

January 2020

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Florida Water Resources Journal, USPS 069-770, ISSN 0896-1794, is published monthly by Florida Water Resources Journal, Inc., 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711, on behalf of the Florida Water & Pollution Control Operator’s Association, Inc.; Florida Section, American Water Works Association; and the Florida Water Environment Association. Members of all three associations receive the publication as a service of their association; $6 of membership dues support the Journal. Subscriptions are otherwise available within the U.S. for $24 per year. Periodicals postage paid at Clermont, FL and additional offices.

POSTMASTER: send address changes to Florida Water Resources Journal, 1402 Emerald Lakes Drive, Clermont, FL 34711

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



Evaluating Innovative Blower Technologies With “Low-Speed” Turbo Units Lucas Botero, John Paul Castro, Julie Gass, Hector Torres, and Olena Lytvyn he City of Key West (city) owns the Richard A. Heyman Environmental Protection Facility (facility), where all of the city's wastewater is treated. The city was interested in increasing redundancy at the facility as part of an initiative to improve resiliency, which requires increasing the air delivery capacity at the plant. The existing aeration system is comprised of two multistage centrifugal blowers with inlet throttling control. An evaluation of different blower technologies for increasing the plant capacity was made, with the goals of optimizing energy consumption and providing sufficient firm capacity in case of mechanical breakdown of any of the blower units. A total of five different alternatives were evaluated for the facility: 1. Additional multistage blower with inlet valve throttling 2. Additional multistage blower with variable frequency drive (VFD) 3. Integrally geared single-stage blowers with variable vanes 4. Integrally geared single-stage VFD (referred also as low-speed turbo blowers) 5. Dry screw blowers


Integrally Geared Single-Stage Turbo Blowers With Variable Frequency Drives and “Low-Speed” Turbo The integrally geared single-stage turbo blower is comprised of a turbo blower volute, with its high-efficiency impeller and integral gearbox unit that is coupled to a standard-speed motor to drive the impeller with VFD for capacity control. Figure 1 shows the main components of this technology in a directdriven application. The units are also available with belt drives that allow the stacking of the blower and motor, reducing overall footprint, as can be seen in Figure 2. The combination of the increasing speed gears or belt drives with a standard VFD is probably the most important element of the low-speed blower. The shaft speed of the motor driver is connected to an increasing speed gearbox (and, in some cases, a belt assembly as well) to achieve high-speed output to drive the blower impeller and achieve high-speed turbo efficiencies when compressing air. This results in the simplification of the design by not requiring inlet guide vanes and diffuser vanes for flow

Figure 1. Integrally Driven Single-Stage Turbo Blowers With Low-Speed Turbo (photo: Inovair)


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Lucas Botero, P.E., BCEE, ENV SP, is a process engineer with Black & Veatch in Coral Springs. John Paul Castro is utility director with City of Key West. Julie Gass, P.E., is a global blower specialist with Black & Veatch in Kansas City, Mo. Hector Torres, P.E., is a blower specialist with Black & Veatch in San Juan, P.R. Olena Lytvyn, P.E., is an engineering manager with Black & Veatch in Miami.

control, as is the case with traditional integrally geared blowers, and allowing the use of standard motors, unlike gearless turbo blowers with noncontact bearings. The main components of the gearbox are depicted in Figure 3. The units are typically in an enclosure that’s assembled at the factory and are ready for installation upon arrival. Figure 4 shows typical enclosures for direct-driven low-speed turbo blowers. Main Technology Features The low-speed turbo units combine the more robust elements of two technologies: a Continued on page 6

Figure 2. Vertically Mounted Low-Speed Turbo (photo: Inovair)

Figure 3. Gearbox Components of Low-Speed Blower (photo: Inovair)

Continued from page 4 centrifugal turbo volute impeller, and a speedincreasing gearbox with a standard VFD for flow control instead of variable vanes. As mentioned, the main differences are that they are not driven by ultra-high speed motors with sophisticated VFDs and controls (as is the case with high-speed turbo blowers), which don’t have the complexities of a dualpoint control system that uses two sets of variable vanes, as is the case with traditional integrally geared units. Variable vane linkages need periodic cleaning and can be difficult to access, so eliminating the vanes removes this maintenance task. A regular 1800-revolutionsper-minute (rpm) or 3600-rpm motor drives the low-speed blowers, allowing the installation of common VFDs to achieve flow/pressure control. Conventional programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are also used to control the units. Another important feature of the lowspeed blowers is that they use a mass airflow-based control system, which adjusts the

blower speed as required to maintain the required mass flow of air as the temperature changes. This helps minimize excess power consumption for wastewater aeration, where mass flow is key for the process. Another key and unique advantage to these units is that two blowers can be stacked for small-footprint installations.

City of Key West Blower Evaluation The city has forward-thinking views regarding its assets. At the facility, the city was interested in adding redundancy to its existing aeration system. Due to this, Black & Veatch performed an investigation of the blower and air distribution system at the plant, with the goal of exploring sustainable options for the city. Blower Selection The existing blower system at the facility has enough capacity to meet system demands from the main process train; however, plant staff felt that, in the event when the existing

Table 1. Summary of Selections for Blower Evaluation


Figure 4. Direct-Driven Unit Enclosures (photo: Inovair)

January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

equalization basin required aeration during the high-load season, the existing two multistage blowers did not have sufficient firm capacity. Therefore, an extensive airflow evaluation was conducted and it was found that a blower, with a capacity of 4,600 standard cu ft per minute (scfm), will cover the required flows for approximately 88 percent of the time, while the existing blower could provide the balance of the air flows 12 percent of the time. This combination minimizes the capital expenditures of adding a new redundant unit and provides an excellent opportunity for energy savings. The blowers were evaluated at a discharge pressure of 9.2 pounds per sq in. gauge (psig) and a suction pressure loss between 0.3-0.4 psi (from dirty inlet filters and inlet piping). Any variation in discharge pressure should have a relative impact on rankings of the alternatives. Manufacturers’ Selections Table 1 shows the different manufacturers used for the evaluation and the associated technology. Probabilistic Cost Evaluation All the proposed alternatives were compared from the financial standpoint of life cycle costs. Given the large number of input variables required to predict total cost, capital expenditures (CAPEX), and operating expenses (OPEX), a probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. In this evaluation, each of the main variables affecting the total cost of each alternative (CAPEX + OPEX) was assigned a probability function specific to the variable. Then, a Monte Carlo-type simulation (with over 10,000 iterations) was run for each of the Continued on page 8

Table 2. Evaluation Input Parameters


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Continued from page 6 alternatives and the probability curve envelopes of the total cost for each alternative were generated. The Monte Carlo method is a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results. The method involves using random values within a certain range to solve for a variety of possible outcomes, and thus provide a realistic statistical evaluation. This is often used in physical and mathematical problems and is most useful when it’s difficult or impossible to use other approaches. Monte Carlo methods are mainly used in three problem classes: optimization, numerical integration, and generation of draws from a probability distribution. In this case, each of the evaluated options has multiple variables that make it impossible to predict a specific result without doing multiple iterations of the different variable combinations. Thus, a Monte Carlo simulation is required to combine the different alternatives in a probabilistic distribution. Budget equipment costs were obtained from the blower manufacturers based on the design requirements listed in Table 1. Installation cost is assumed to be 40 percent of the equipment cost; maintenance costs and electrical infrastructure costs to provide the required power to the blowers are not included in the evaluation of alternatives. The five blower alternatives were evaluated assuming the blowers operate for 100 percent of the year over a 20-year evaluation period and have a varying power cost rate. All alternatives were compared with the net present worth method within the Monte Carlo analysis. Note that the results provided by the analysis are comparative costs for purposes of equipment selection only and do not represent total project costs for aeration system modifications. Aeration system controls were not specifically included in this evaluation; system control capabilities are similar across the alternatives. Anticipated controls would consist of a new master control panel to control sequencing and capacity of the blowers. Table 2 includes the input parameters considered in the evaluation. For additional information about the different input variables used in the probabilistic model developed use the QR Code provided. The representative plots from the analysis showing the CAPEX,

OPEX, and total expenditures (TOTEX) for each of the alternatives are shown in Figures 5, 6, and 7, respectively. In the plots the alternatives are numbered in accordance with Table 3. Results A summary of the results from the analysis is shown in Table 4, which shows the minimum, maximum, and mean values from the analysis. The percent difference for each option is compared to the multistage centrifugal with inlet throttling, as that is the technology currently used in the plant. This comparison is shown as a negative percent difference to indicate that the alternative is more expensive than the base alternative, and a positive number indicating the savings with the specified alternative. The capital cost of the multistage centrifugal with inlet throttling is the secondleast expensive option at $169,051-$404,189, with a mean value of $282,937. The capital cost of the dry screw technology is the leastexpensive option at $145,981-$336,873, with a mean value of $238,001, which represents a savings of 14 to 17 percent (16 percent). The other three alternatives all have higher capital costs than dry screw and multistage with inlet throttling. In contrast to the lower capital cost, and as expected, the power consumption from the multistage blowers with inlet throttling is the greatest of all the technologies, with an annual operating present worth of $91,815-$358,297, with a mean value of $182,554, or $1,836,300$7,165,940, with a mean value of $3,651,080 over a 20-year period. The most-efficient alternative was the integrally geared turbo with adjustable frequency drive (AFD), with an annual operating present worth of $71,183$274,904, with a mean value of $141,235, or $1,423,660-$5,498,080, with a mean value of $2,824,700 over a 20-year period, which represents a 22 to 24 percent (23 percent) savings (over a 20-year period) compared to the existing blowers. Overall, the blower alternative with the lowest total present worth (capital cost + operating cost) is the integrally geared turbo with AFD, with a total present worth of $1,350,489-$4,232,682, with a mean value of $2,332,649 over a 20-year period, for a savings of 14 to 22 percent (19 percent), followed by the dry screw blower, with a total operating present worth of $1,302,014-$4,333,168, with a mean value of $2,341,288 over a 20-year period at 17 to 20 percent (19 percent). Total savings over a 20-year period for the integrally geared with AFD and dry screw versus multistage with inlet Continued on page 10

Table 2. Evaluation Input Parameters (continued)

Table 3. Alternative Numbering in Analysis Plots

Figure 5. Capital Expenditures for the Evaluated Alternatives Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Figure 6. Annual Value of Operational Expenditures for the Evaluated Alternatives Table 4. Evaluation Summary

Figure 7. 20-year Present Worth of Total Cost of Ownership for the Total Expenditures

Continued from page 9 ,othrottling was $571,665 (18 percent savings) and $489,343 (15 percent savings), respectively. The city evaluated all the information on the different alternatives and performed a survey of existing low-speed turbo units in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The feedback from all of the references provided by the manufacturer was very positive, providing confidence in the product. The other aspect evaluated was the potential increase of power costs. Since the low-speed turbos have better efficiency compared to the dry screw positive displacement (PD) units (closest competitor), then their selection will provide hedging against future power increases. Therefore, the city is implementing the low-speed turbos at the facility.

Conclusion There are several blower alternatives in the market for WWTP applications. In the case of this facility, additional redundancy was used to also improve energy efficiency in the air delivery system at the plant, leaving the city wellpositioned for more sustainable operations at the facility. The integrally geared single-stage turbo blowers with VFD control have emerged in the market as a viable alternative for certain airflow ranges, using standard components, such as motors, VFDs, etc., which reduces the capital cost and operational complexities of high-speed turbos and allows their installation in lessstringent environmental conditions. S


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020




January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


Mike George Manufacturers/Associates Council Chair R&M Service Solutions 10482 Dunkirk Drive Spring Hill, Florida 34608 P: (352) 200-9631 E: mgeorge@r-mservice.net

Kim Kowalski Chair Wager Company of Florida Inc. 720 Industry Road Longwood, Florida 32750 P: (407) 834-4667 E: kkowalski@wagerco.com Fred Bloetscher, Ph.D., P.E. Chair-Elect Florida Atlantic University P.O. Box 221890 Hollywood, Florida 33022 P: (239) 250-2423 E: h2o_man@bellsouth.net

Florida Section AWWA by Region

Emilie Moore, P.E. Vice Chair Tetra Tech 5201 Kennedy Blvd., Suite 620 Tampa, Florida 33609 P: (813) 579-5107 E: emilie.moore@tetratech.com

Ana Maria Gonzalez, P.E. Section Director (until ACE20) Hazen and Sawyer 999 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Suite 1150 Coral Gables, Florida 33134 P: (786) 655-5484 E: agonzalez@hazenandsawyer.com

Michael Bailey, P.E. Past Chair Cooper City Utilities 11791 S.W. 49th Street Cooper City, Florida 33330 P: (954) 434-5519 E: mbailey@coopercityfl.org

Mark Lehigh Section Director (begins ACE20) Hillsborough County Water Resources Services 332 N. Falkenburg Road Tampa, Florida 33619 P: (813) 272-5977, ext. 43270 E: lehighm@hillsboroughcounty.org

Marjorie Craig, P.E. Treasurer City of Dania Beach 1201 Stirling Road Dania Beach, Florida 33004 P: (954) 924-6808 x3617 E: mcraig@daniabeachfl.gov

Mark Lehigh General Policy Director Hillsborough County Water Resources Services 332 N. Falkenburg Road Tampa, Florida 33619 P: (813) 272-5977, ext. 43270 E: lehighm@hillsboroughcounty.org

Secretary Greg Taylor, P.E. Wright-Pierce 601 S. Lake Destiny Drive, Suite 290 Maitland, Florida 32751 P: (407) 907-8087 E: greg.taylor@wright-pierce.com



Michael Alexakis Contractors Council Chair Wharton-Smith 370 E. Crown Point Road Winter Garden, Florida 34787 P: (407) 402-6134 E: malexakis@whartonsmith.com

January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Jerome (Jay) Madigan Member Engagement and Development Council Chair Lake Cane Restoration Society P: (614) 403-7723 E: jjmadigan@gmail.com Andrew Greenbaum Operators and Maintenance Council Chair Tampa Bay Water 2575 Enterprise Road Clearwater, Florida 33763-1102 P: (813) 929-4551 E: agreenbaum@tampabaywater.org Terri Holcomb, P.E. Public Affairs Council Chair Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 P: (941) 316-1776 E: tholcomb@regionalwater.org Bina Nayak, Ph.D. Technical and Education Council Chair Pinellas County Utilities 1620 Ridge Road Largo, Florida 33778 P: (727) 582-2306 E: bnayak@pinellascounty.org Kevin Carter Water Utility Council Chair Broward County 2555 W. Copans Road Pompano Beach, Florida 33069 P: (954) 831-0718 E: kcarter@broward.org

REGION CHAIRS David Roberts Region I Chair (North Central Florida) City of Tallahassee 4505 Springhill Road, Building A Tallahassee, Florida 32305 P: (850) 891-1228 E: david.roberts@talgov.com

Angela Bryan Region II Chair (Northeast Florida) Four Waters Engineering Inc. 324 6th Avenue North Jacksonville Beach, Florida 32250 P: (904) 414-2400 x51 E: abryan@4weng.com Rhea Dorris, P.E. Region III Chair (Central Florida) Kimley-Horn 189 S. Orange Avenue, Suite 1000 Orlando, Florida 32801 P: (407) 427-1626 E: Rhea.Dorris@kimley-horn.com Kenneth Broome Region IV Chair (West Central Florida) Stantec 777 S. Harbour Island Boulevard, Suite 600 Tampa, Florida 33764 P: (813) 204-3305 E: kenneth.broome@stantec.com Karen Miller Region V Chair (Southwest Florida) GHD 2675 Winkler Avenue, Suite 180 Fort Myers, Florida 33901 P: (239) 215-3910 E: Karen.Miller@ghd.com Monique L. Durand, P.E. Region VI Chair (Southeast Florida) Globaltech Inc. 4000 Hollywood Boulevard, 750 N Hollywood, Florida 33021 P: (954) 967-7085 E: mdurand@hazenandsawyer.com Austin P’Pool, P.E. Region VII Chair (South Florida) The Corradino Group 4055 N.W. 97th Avenue Miami, Florida 33178 P: (305) 594-0735 E: appool@corradino.com Vacant Region VIII Chair (East Central Florida) Alicia Keeter Region IX Chair (West Florida Panhandle) South Walton Utility Co. Inc. 369 Miramar Beach Drive Miramar Beach, Florida 32550 P: (850) 837-2988 E: aak@swuci.org

Ann Lee Region X Chair (West Central Florida) Peace River Manasota Regional Water Supply Authority 9415 Town Center Parkway Lakewood Ranch, Florida 34202 P: (941) 316-1776 E: alee@regionalwater.org Elizabeth McAlister Region XI Chair (North Florida) DRMP Inc. 7525 N.W. 4th Blvd., Suite 70 Gainesville, Florida 32607 P: (352) 371-2741 E: emcalister@drmp.com Sean Lathrop Region XII Chair (Central Florida Panhandle) Bay County Utility Services 3410 Transmitter Road Panama City, Florida 32404 P: (850) 630-1954 E: slathrop@baycountyfl.gov

Tyler Tedcastle, P.E. Trustee Carter|Verplanck 601 S.E. 10th Ave. Pompano Beach, Florida 33060 P: (850) 264-9391 E: TTedcastle@cviwater.com

SECTION STAFF Peggy Guingona Executive Director Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4820 F: (407) 593-0251 E: peggy@fsawwa.org


Casey Cumiskey Membership Specialist/Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4806 F: (407) 593-0251 E: casey@fsawwa.org

Juan Aceituno, P.E. Trustee Jacobs 3150 S.W. 38 Avenue, Suite 700 Miami, Florida 33146-1530 P: (305) 441-1864 F: (305) 443-8856 E: juan.aceituno@jacobs.com

Donna Metherall Training Coordinator Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4805 F: (407) 593-0251 E: donna@fsawwa.org

Monica Autrey, P.E. Trustee Destin Water Users Inc. P.O. Box 308 Destin, Florida 32540 P: (850) 837-6146 E: mautrey@dwuinc.com

Jenny Arguello Administrative Assistant Florida Section AWWA 1320 Tennessee Avenue St. Cloud, Florida 34769 P: (407) 979-4804 F: (407) 593-0251 E: jenny@fsawwa.org

Andrew May, P.E. Trustee JEA 21 W. Church Street Jacksonville, Florida 32202 P: (904) 665-4510 E: mayar@jea.com Scott Richards, P.E. Trustee Carollo Engineers Inc. 200 E. Robinson Street, Suite 1400 Orlando, Florida 32801 P: (407) 377-4312 E: srichards@carollo.com

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Test Yourself What Do You Know About the Water Management Districts? Donna Kaluzniak

1. Per the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) webpage on Water Management Districts (WMD Web Page), the state’s five water management districts are responsible for the administration of water resources at the regional level. Which office or agency has supervisory authority over the water management districts? a. Florida Department of Environmental Protection b. Florida Department of Health c. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission d. Office of the Governor 2. Per FDEP’s WMD Web Page, the four core mission areas of the water management districts are water supply, water quality, flood protection and floodplain management, and a. biosolids management. b. environmental financial oversight. c. natural systems. d. wastewater treatment. 3. Per FDEP’s WMD Web Page, water managers must find the balance between meeting public supply needs while maintaining healthy natural systems. Two programs water managers use to ensure the water resources and associated ecological systems are protected are water use reservations and a. Florida water plan. b. minimum flows and levels (MFLs). c. outstanding Florida waters. d. recovery strategy. 4. Per FDEP’s Water Supply webpage, each water management district must create a regional water supply plan that includes water supply and resource development, funding, technical data, and more. How often must the regional water supply plans be completed? a. Annually b. Every five years c. Every 10 years d. Every 20 years

5. Per FDEP’s WMD Web Page, the water management distgricts’ regional water supply plans must include projects, costs, and projections to meet all existing and future reasonable-beneficial uses and to sustain the water resources and related natural systems. What planning period must the regional water supply plans cover? a. One year b. Five years c. 10 years d. 20 years 6. Per FDEP’s WMD Web Page, regulatory programs are delegated to the water management districts that include permitting consumptive use of water, environmental resource permitting, and a. effluent disposal permits. b. septic tank permits. c. stormwater notice of intent. d. well construction permits. 7. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 40D-2 Consumptive Uses of Water, an individual water use permit (WUP) must be obtained from the water management district prior to withdrawal of water if what threshold is exceeded? a. Annual average quantities from any source or combined sources are greater than or equal to 100,000 gal per day (gpd). b. Total withdrawal capacity from any source or combined sources is greater than or equal to 100,000 gpd. c. Withdrawal is from a well having an outside diameter of 4 in. or greater at the surface. d. Withdrawal is from any surface water body. 8. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 40D2 Consumptive Uses of Water, to obtain a WUP, the applicant must assure that the consumptive use of water is a reasonablebeneficial use, will not interfere with any presently existing legal uses of water, and a. is consistent with the public interest. b. is only drawn from approved aquifers. c. is augmented by reuse. d. is approved by the local municipality.

9. Per Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 40D2 Consumptive Uses of Water, permits issued for a duration of 20 years or longer must submit a compliance report to maintain reasonable assurances that the conditions for issuance can continue to be met. How often must the compliance report be submitted? a. Annually b. Every five years c. Every seven years d. Every 10 years 10. Per FDEP’s webpage, Water Well Contractor Licensing and Permitting, all persons applying for a water well contractor license to engage in the business of water well contracting or to renew an existing contractor license must file their application with a. the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. b. the Florida Department of Business. c. each water management district where they will be working. d. the water management district where they will perform most of their work. Answers on page 62 References used for this quiz: • Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Water Management Districts Web Page: https://floridadep.gov/water-policy/waterpolicy/content/water-management-districts. • FDEP’s Water Supply Web Page: https://floridadep.gov/water-policy/waterpolicy/content/water-supply. • FDEP’s Water Well Contractor Licensing and Permitting Web Page: https://floridadep.gov/water/source-drinkingwater/content/water-well-contractor-licensingand-permitting. • Florida Administrative Code (FAC) 40D-2 Consumptive Use of Water.

Send Us Your Questions Readers are welcome to submit questions or exercises on water or wastewater treatment plant operations for publication in Test Yourself. Send your question (with the answer) or your exercise (with the solution) by email to: donna@h2owriting.com


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



It’s Screen Time: Largest Headworks Design Under Construction in Florida! Sangeeta Dhulashia, Sparkle Noble, Lynette Ramirez, and Daniel Edwards iami Dade County (county) is among the top ten most populous counties in the United States with 2.7 million people. The Miami Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) owns and operates three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): North District, Central District, and South District. Unlike other utilities in the state, MDWASD is faced with the dual challenges of providing increased treatment capacity for growth, while also preparing for more stringent discharge requirements at each of its plants. Both challenges must be met using the aged infrastructure of the existing plants. The project site is the Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant (CDWWTP), which is located on Virginia Key. Principal components of the system associated with CDWWTP were constructed in the 1950s and ‘60s, making it the oldest and largest of the three MDWASD facilities. Although the system has been growing and expanding for the last 70 years, the last major expansion and upgrades were completed over 30 years ago in the 1980s. The plant has undergone numerous expansions and upgrades from its original permitted capacity of 47 mil gal per day (mgd) as a modified activated sludge process to its current configuration as a 143-mgd average annual daily flow (AADF) and 360-mgd peak flow high-purity oxygen-activated sludge facility. The CDWWTP has two separate liquid


process treatment streams: Plant 1 is rated at 60 mgd AADF and Plant 2 is rated at 83 mgd AADF.

Existing Headworks Influent wastewater to CDWWTP is conveyed and distributed through four large-diameter force mains to Plant 1 and Plant 2. The raw wastewater discharges into two identical aerated grit chambers at each plant that consists of two aerated grit baffled channels, air piping, submerged diffusers, grit removal rake/elevator mechanism, and odor control. Currently, screening of influent raw wastewater does not take place at the plant, but is provided at the two major pump stations that deliver the wastewater to CDWWTP for treatment.

Peak Flow Methodologies Several peak flow methodologies were considered as part of the design flow determination. The first methodology, which is the maximum “planned” peak, consisted of following the Ocean Outfall Legislation (OOL) Compliance Plan (June 2013) by MDWASD. This plan has a recommended alternative, which consisted of consideration that, by 2035, the proposed West District Wastewater Treatment Plant (WDWWTP) will be operational and will reduce some influent to CDWWTP.

Sangeeta Dhulashia, P.E., PMP, is area manager/senior principal with Stantec in Miami. Sparkle Noble, P.E., is associate environmental engineer with Stantec in Baton Rouge, La. Lynette Ramirez, P.E., is senior advisor–capital projects and compliance, and Daniel Edwards, P.E., is consent decree senior program manager, with Miami Dade Water and Sewer Department.

Under this plan, the projected average day and maximum day flows in 2035 are 83 mgd and 333 mgd, respectively. The second methodology reviewed three years (2011 to 2013) of historic influent wastewater flows and determined that the average peak factor was 2.9. This peak factor, when applied to the permitted capacity of 143 mgd of CDWWTP, results in a projected peak flow of 412 mgd. The third methodology reviewed past historic plant influent flows from year 2001 to 2003, and the more-recent historic plant influent flows from years 2011 and 2013 were also reviewed. The maximum day flow recorded at the plant over these periods was approximately 360 mgd. Based on stakeholder consensus, it was concluded that the projected flows for headworks improvements will consider average day flow of 143 mgd and maximum day flow of 333 mgd.

Technology Options

Figure 1. Technology Options and Selection of Screens


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Several screening and grit removal options were considered. The options, short list, and selection of screening options are shown in Figure 1. The perforated plate-type screens were further considered for design. Currently, grit is removed using aerated grit chambers at CDWWTP; therefore, the aerated grit chamber and the application of the multiple-tray grit removal system (HeadCell®) were assessed relative to the new grit removal facilities. Although the existing aerated grit chambers were reported to be undersized and not as efficient in grit removal, this technology was assessed further, since the existing struc-

tures are in place. The HeadCell technology represents the most recent advance technologies for the removal of fine sand particles found in south Florida and can be scaled to match required capacities. Both process options reviewed for grit removal present viable approaches to this unit operation for alternative evaluations.

Headworks Upgrade Alternatives Three alternative configurations were evaluated for this project: 1. Retrofit – New fine screens in the existing structure, and grit removal using the existing aerated grit chambers. 2. Hybrid – New coarse and fine screens in a new screenings building, and grit removal using existing aerated grit chambers. 3. New – New headworks building consisting of coarse and fine screens, and new grit removal (aerated grit chambers or HeadCell technology). The retrofit alternative consisted of a total of eight 6-millimeter (mm) perforated platetype fine screens retrofitted in exiting grit channels, such that there were two parallel screens per channel where each screen was designed with a capacity to handle 70 percent of the flow. The remaining portion of the grit channel was used for grit removal. The hybrid alternative incorporated a new screening building where all raw influent would be screened. A total of five 20-mm coarse screens, followed by five 3-mm perforated plate-type fine screens, along with one bypass channel, were planned for this alternative. The existing aerated grit chambers were planned to be used exclusively for grit removal. The influent force mains were to be rerouted and manifolded to feed into the new screening building. The new alternative considered a new screening building, like the hybrid screenings structure and a new grit removal structure. Grit removal had two subprocess options: 1) aerated grit chamber (AGC) and 2) HeadCell. The screenings portion was the same as the hybrid alternative, with a total of five 20-mm coarse screens, followed by five 3-mm perforated plate-type fine screens, along with one bypass channel. The influent force mains to the headworks were rerouted and manifolded to feed into the new building. The alternative approaches presented for headwork improvements range from a straightforward rehabilitation/upgrade (retrofit) to a complex total replacement (new), along with an alternative in between these two

Figure 2. Oxygenation Train Process Configuration

extremes (hybrid). Such large variability in the basic approaches complicates the relative assessment of alternatives in that the final facilities are so different that it’s challenging to make direct comparisons. The selection of a preferred alternative represented a philosophical choice to some degree. Based on the qualitative and quantitative assessments, and in consultation with MDWASD personnel, the recommended approach for CDWWTP’s headworks improvements was the retrofit alternative. The ability of this alternative to handle project peak flows left its long-term viability in question. An additional separate investigation was undertaken to evaluate hydraulics to verify the retrofit alternative’s ability to handle projected peak flows. This included the development and assessment of an approach different than the current operations and considered potential modifications to the existing infrastructure.

magnetic flow meters at each basin inlet and reactivated. Currently, the oxygenation trains operate in plug flow mode at Plant 2. Contact stabilization is a modification of the activated sludge process in which the introduction of the raw wastewater is moved downstream in the aeration tank. This provides a relatively short detention time for the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) to be in contact with the feed stream before mixed liquor leaves the reactor for solids separation. This configuration was determined to offer MDWASD better peak flow management and treatment stability. Under this configuration, the raw wastewater will be added to Stage 3 of each process train, as noted in Figure 2. The RAS will be added at the head of the aeration tank inlet separately and aerated before being blended with the mainstream influent. The existing mode of operation will still be used during average flow conditions.

Other Replacements and Improvements

Relocation of Electrical Equipment

Return Activated Sludge Replacement and Contact Stabilization at Plant 2 Plant 2 had an original return activated sludge (RAS) configuration where it was fed into the influent of each oxygenation trains using a 48-in. line, which is currently abandoned. Currently, RAS is being fed into the effluent box of headworks where it’s mixed with influent and directly piped to the effluent box of oxygenation train. The original RAS configuration is being replaced in-kind from the effluent RAS manifold, along with new 18-in.

The existing motor control centers (MCCs) were residing within the headworks building, and they were surrounded by a corrosive environment due to the presence of moisture and hydrogen sulfide off-gas emission of raw sewage. The design included new electrical equipment for air scrubbers and electrical equipment for headworks to be housed in a new building. The designed layout has an environmentally controlled (air-conditioned and air-purified) atmosphere. The finished Continued on page 24

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Continued from page 23 floor elevation was adjusted to confirm with the climate adaptation goals of MDWASD.

Unique Design Features Building Information Model Software Repair and rehabilitation projects are challenging when it comes to accurately depicting existing conditions, particularly for older infrastructure with limited and unreliable as-built drawings. For the headworks project, three layout alternatives were evaluated using a building information model (BIM), which allowed the designers to efficiently create and present multiple options in a visual environment to facilitate better decisions with fewer surprises. This software allowed for multiple disciplines to work on different elements of the building design at the same time, allowing for improved clash detection. In addition, designers can share information, such as specific design details from another discipline, which can be incorporated as a background and built upon during various phases of the design. For this project, Revit® modeling was an essential design tool that allowed discipline leads to coordinate their designs and reduce potential conflicts. The use of BIM software for the design provided a visual environment for effective communication and collaborative decision making. During the detailed design, review meetings were expedited by navigating through the model to visualize comments and obtain collaborative input on comment resolution. With BIM, the team was able to see the goal before it was constructed, which helped ensure that the final constructed facility matched the client’s needs and expectations. Figure 3 and Figure 4 illustrate the 3D renderings of the improvements to the oxygenation train and headworks.

Sea Level Rise and Climate Change As a result of a county ordinance, a sea level rise (SLR) assessment was incorporated into all design and construction activities. The SLR design criteria for existing assets within wastewater treatment plants were adopted by MDWASD based on recommendations in the report, “Technical Memorandum: Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant Engineering Approach for Climate Adaptation and Resiliency,” prepared by MWH (2014). A design elevation of 16 ft was highlighted for all three regional WWTPs. The design of the electrical buildings that would house critical equipment, such as MCCs and remote telemetry units (RTUs), commenced with a planned elevation of 19 ft, which was later changed to 20.3 ft. Design challenges for the project varied for each of the design disciplines that were required for this project. The MDWASD requested that, since the building is being elevated, it preferred the ground floor to be open and accessible, with at least one wall opening and walls on the remaining three sides. The electrical buildings were designed to have blocks and stucco, with no gap/veneer in between. Since the building was elevated, an equipment-handling platform was needed to move the equipment in and out to perform maintenance. A hinged double door and a rollup door (with manual operation) were provided for access to the equipment. Additionally, a 5-ft-wide exterior platform with removable side-mounted handrails was provided. An elevated building required multiple stairs to provide two means of egress; therefore, platforms and staircases were provided along both sides of each building. Fast Tracking Procurement and Permitting Since this project is part of a consent decree, the project is required to meet the com-

Figure 3. 3D Rendering of Oxygenation Train Configuration


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

pliance schedule. There are stipulated liquidated damages associated with substantial completion of construction projects. A workshop was conducted to explore alternative approaches to implementation of the headwork’s improvements with the intent of reducing the overall schedule for consent decree compliance. Two strategies were discussed: S Incremental – Reductions in all of the individual implementation steps. S Fundamental – Go to an alternative delivery approach. The merits of each were reviewed and discussed. The MDWASD management was involved in committing to reduction in procurement durations. The timing for contractor procurement was committed at 180 days, and for permitting, 120 days. These activities were conducted simultaneously, such that the contractor procurement was for the governing duration. Additionally, since the last original structure was constructed in the 1980s, the condition of the existing grit chambers was questionable. It was known that some structural repairs would be needed for portions of grit chambers. The use of a “private provider” to accelerate the procurement of permits from the City of Miami building department was also considered. An approach involving employment of an alternative delivery mechanism was also considered. The conventional design-bid-build approach is limited relative to acceleration potential, and design-build also offered limited time savings for this type of project. Another approach with potential significant schedule savings was construction management at risk (CMAR). A major drawback to such an approach, however, was MDWASD’s lack of experience; therefore, an incremental approach

Figure 4. 3D Rendering of Headworks Improvement

was selected to reduce durations in individual project phases. Equipment prepurchase of long lead equipment (equipment, product, or system that is identified at the earliest stage of a project to have a delivery time long enough to directly affect the overall lead time of a project) was performed with this project, where screens, washer, compactor, MCCs, and RTUs were planned to be purchased by the owner and handed over to the contractor to save time in the overall picture. The design was completed in eight months, with procurement of major equipment initiated at 60 percent design phase, and contractor procurement was initiated in parallel to dry run permit approvals.

Project Challenges Aging Infrastructure Plant 1 grit chambers were constructed in 1951 (with repairs in 1996) and Plant 2 was constructed in 1974 (with repairs in 2000). While the design of the project was in progress, it was important to determine the condition of the chambers from within. Since headworks is a critical infrastructure, the assessment was scheduled to be performed during the dry season (November to May), where a chamber could be taken out of service to perform the inspections and tests. Since only one chamber was available at a time for inspection and tests, inspection of the influent box and effluent box was limited to visual observation. Assessment efforts were conducted for grit chambers in parallel with permitting and procurement of the design package. Several nondestructive and destructive tests were performed to assess the condition. The tests indicated that the existing concrete in the grit chamber was sound, with no substantial distress or damage; minor concrete repairs were required upstream of the flume; and major repairs to the concrete surfaces and steel embeds downstream of the flume were needed. Additional structural repair details were developed and included in the bid package. A line-itemlevel dedicated allowance was assigned to unknown repairs that were anticipated to be needed in the influent box and effluent box of each headworks structure. During construction, the assessment and repairs to the influent box and effluent box were scheduled to be performed during the dry season, which required the entire plant to be out of service for a limited amount of time. Owner-Furnished Equipment The general contractor (GC) package was designed around one vendor, with conser-

Figure 5. Owner-Furnished Screenings Equipment Under Installation

vatism built into the design. Equipment was awarded to a supplier different from the vendor, around which the GC package was designed. The low-bid vendor package had to be closely reviewed by procurement since the original prequalified vendor had undergone an acquisition. There were differences in the package submitted by the low-bid vendor and the vendor around which the GC package was prepared, including no brush drives, additional deflector drives, and wider chutes. To minimize any ambiguity for the GC and potential future claims, the design team quickly coordinated these changes among all disciplines, and updated the permit resubmittal and bid documents to capture the changes. These documents were submitted to purchasing as an addendum during the bid phase to avoid repermitting, and potential budget and schedule claims. Illustrated in Figure 5 are the owner-furnished screens, conveyer, washer compactor, and chute assembly during installation at Plant 1. Hydraulics The MDWASD indicated that, based upon cost and schedule constraints, the retrofit alternative was the preferred approach; however, the hydraulic model indicated limitations with this alternative that did not allow it to convey the peak design flow. The hydraulic calculations and assumptions were further reviewed to overcome the hydraulic constraints. Several options were evaluated in order to either increase the driving head through the system or decrease the headloss through the existing hydraulic structures. The options considered in-

cluded raising the elevation of existing structures, new relief piping, new structures (splitter boxes), and new routing connections to existing piping. The most-effective approach was using the existing piping to increase the conveyance capacity from the headworks to the oxygenation tanks downstream for Plant 2. This required a side weir to be added downstream of each grit chamber in Plant 2. The weirs would discharge into the existing Plant 2 bypass channel to reduce headloss through the Parshall flume. Weir elevations would be adjustable so that the amount of flow discharged into the existing bypass channel is limited to the amount necessary to prevent overtopping at the grit chambers. The existing bypass channel feeds into a pipeline that currently bypasses the entire secondary process feeding into the secondary clarifiers’ effluent channel. This pipeline was modified to feed directly into the oxygenation tanks using four feed lines. A valve was placed on the Plant 2 bypass pipeline to prevent the wastewater from bypassing secondary treatment. Results from the hydraulic model analysis indicated that these modifications would increase the hydraulic capacity of the retrofit alternative. When plant inflows reach 360 mgd, approximately 11 percent of the total plant flow will be conveyed through the Plant 2 bypass. Figure 6 depicts the hydraulic bypass relief. Recognizing the limitations of the computerized hydraulic model, a second approach was proposed by MDWASD and consisted of Continued on page 26

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Figure 6. Hydraulic Relief for Plant 2

Continued from page 25 performing a hydraulic stress test of the Plant 2 headworks. Testing was carried out in the field to simulate peak flow conditions and determine available free board under this high-

flow scenario. Hydraulic field test was carried out during high flow conditions, in which flows over 100 mgd in each of the Plant 2 flumes were sustained for the duration of the test without overtopping the hydraulic struc-



January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Figure 7. Special Prefabricated 48-in.-by36-in. Connections at Plant 2

ture. The hydraulic profile for Plant 2 was updated using the field data from the calibrated flowmeters and observed water level upstream of the Parshall flumes, coupled with the estimated losses through the screens. Based on the field data gathered from flowmeters, the Plant 2 profile reflecting flows of 194 mgd that were previously based on modeling results and were substituted with the hydraulic stress test results. These results negated the need for the previously proposed bypass. Operational Strategies During Construction A preliminary sequence of construction was developed for this project to consider allowing enough treatment capacity of the plant to remain in service for the anticipated flows. The proposed screen configuration was developed to allow operation of three grit chambers at a time, as the work was to be performed on the one remaining chamber, thus avoiding the need to completely shut down either Plant 1 or Plant 2 headworks or limiting construction to the dry season. To permit full operation of CDWWTP, a longitudinal wall in the bypass channel and four new slide gates were proposed to be located downstream of the existing gates and at the edge of the new screens. A divider wall in the bypass channel was proposed between the existing pair of gates and the proposed new gates; the additional gates were necessary to be provided upstream of each screen. This allowed each grit chamber to be isolated, dewatered, and the grit removed, followed by minor structural improvement; coated, fine screen channels constructed; and equipment installed.

Two chambers could therefore be retrofitted with screens at the same time during the dry season, and one chamber could be retrofitted during the wet season. Only one oxygenation train out of four trains at Plant 2 could be worked on at any given time. The downtime on the influent line to oxygenation train could be a maximum of four hours. A special prefabricated 48-in.-by36-in. connection was designed, as shown in Figure 7, to accommodate the four-hour downtime constraint from operations in order to construct the contact stabilization connection, while minimizing the downtime for the oxygenation tanks. Plant 1 has achieved substantial completion and Plant 2 was commissioned in April 2019.

Conclusion A project with such magnitude of complexity can only be successful with collaboration and clear communication. There were a multitude of MDWASD parties contributing to the successful completion of such a fast-paced project, including: S Management and operations department, procurement department, and compliance department S Designers, consisting of various subconsultants S Program management and construction management (PMCM) team S Equipment supplier S Contractor S Permitting agencies The lines of communication were open and each party understood the common goal and critical timeline. Challenges arise in any project, but proactive and effective identification of the challenge, reporting on it, and coming up with corrective action is the key to the successful completion of a project. The design challenges encountered during this project offered an opportunity for all stakeholders to work together collaboratively and throughout the various phases of the project.

Acknowledgments Sincere gratitude goes to MDWASD for its support throughout this project. Special thanks go to Lynette Ramirez, Daniel Edwards, Manny Moncholi, Francois Saint-Phard, Isaac Smith, Don Basset, Luis Casado, Yurfa Glenny, Hal Schmidt, Ray Rials, Brian LaMay, William Vogel, Vicente Arrebola, CD subconsultants, PMCM team, and Poole and Kent. S

Enlow Elected as FWPCOA President for 2020 Kenneth Enlow was elected president of FWPCOA at the association’s October 2019 meeting. His term starts this month. Enlow is a graduate of Lebanon High School in Lebanon, Mo., and served in the U.S. Air Force from October 1970 until April 1974 (active duty) and served his inactive duty with the Air Force Reserves until October 1976. He also served in the U.S. Navy Reserves from August 1980 through July 1986. He attended Hillsborough Community College and obtained two associates degrees, in preliberal arts and occupational safety and health, which he earned utilizing his military veteran benefits. Enlow is currently project manager for the Tampa Bay Water Surface Water Treatment Plant and has 48 years of service in the water industry. He began his career in water treatment when he entered the Air Force in October 1970 and first stepped foot in a water treatment plant in December 1970 as a water and wastewater purification maintenance technician. He was discharged from the Air Force on April 10, 1974, and began working for the City of Tampa Water Department on April 20 of that year at what is now the David L. Tippin Water Treatment Plant. Besides plant operations, his duties there included operating the raw and finished water pumps, utilizing steam-driven turbines for both high- and low-service pumping. To qualify for operating the steam power plant, he became a first-class stationary steam engineer and used this experienced later on to join the Navy Reserves as a boiler technician. He obtained his Class A drinking water license during his 18-year tenure with City of Tampa and moved on to work for the City of St. Petersburg’s Cosme Water Treatment Plant as the chief operator in 1992. In 2002, he left City of St. Petersburg and become the operations manager for Veolia North America (formally U.S. Filter Operating Services) at the Tampa Bay Water Surface

Water Treatment Plant. There he was promoted to assistant project manager when the plant was expanded from 66 million gallons per day (mgd) to 120 mgd in 2010, and promoted to his current position of project manager in July 2017. In his current job he’s responsible for the overall operation of the Tampa Bay Water Surface Water Treatment Plant, which includes operations, maintenance, solids, and the laboratory, and has a staff of 26. There is also one satellite project for the maintenance of hydrogen sulfide removal at the S.K. Keller Water Treatment Facility. Enlow is a life member of FWPCOA and a member of the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association. He served FWPCOA as a trustee and officer in both Region 4 and Region 12, and served on and chaired the state Education Committee. He’s taught short school classes in the regions and at state short schools, and is still active as an instructor. He is married to his wife, Rose, and they celebrated their 47th anniversary on Aug. 5, 2019. They have two children and three grandchildren. When he’s not working, Enlow likes to ride his motorcycle and play video games. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



The Legacy We Leave Kenneth Enlow President, FWPCOA

appy New Year and Greetings! Let me open by thanking the membership and regional directors for putting their trust in me to represent FWPCOA as its president. It’s truly an honor and I hope to serve the membership this coming year to promote our profession, protect our waters, and provide the best training offered in the state of Florida. I have been working in the water profession since joining the U.S. Air Force in 1970, stepping into my first water plant in December of that year. Having spent nearly a lifetime working in this profession, I sometimes wonder: What legacy will I leave behind? A “legacy” can be defined as wealth or money passed on to a relative or someone seen as worthy, or something transmitted by or received from a predecessor. Wealth, however, does not have to be monetary in the sense that knowledge gained by an individual over the years through education, training, and experience could be counted as wealth—hence the term “wealth of knowledge.” In the nearly 50 years I have been working at water utilities there have been many people who have mentored or taught me the things I needed to know to do my job and to advance in my career. These people took the time to pass on their experiences to help me understand my job. Through their dedication and effort, I was able to avoid the mistakes they made and gain from their experiences. This was their legacy, the wealth of knowledge they were able to pass down to me. In turn, as I progressed in my career, I felt I owed my fellow operators the same consideration that was given to me by my mentors and supervisors. So, how could I or would I do this? Well, it all started without me even realizing it. The first time I showed the “new guy” or trainee how to per-



form a task I unknowingly began that effort, as have many people. As you continued to work with that person, they became more familiar with their job and begin to be a productive part of the work group. You helped them study for their exams and congratulated them when they were successful in passing their tests and becoming certified. There is a special satisfaction in knowing you helped them succeed. As time goes on you see many successes, some of which you were directly involved with, or in many cases, the successes of the next generation of new guys growing from the mentoring given to them by the ones you mentored. A legacy of knowledge is wealth that can be passed on to a multitude of worthy people, and you can pass this wealth on to others even beyond your workplace by teaching in the classroom. Teaching in the classroom is really no different than teaching and mentoring the single new person on the job. When we pass on our knowledge to help people grow and succeed, the number of ears listening does not change the message. You can present a subject at a regional meeting to help your fellow operators get continuing education units (CEUs) or teach a class at a regional or state short school. So, let me say this: Your wealth of knowledge can be passed on to others who are worthy and deserving of these jewels. Someone during your career took the time to invest in your success, and therefore passed on their legacy. Pay this forward by passing on your legacy to the ones who are the future of our industry. Without doing this, your wealth of knowledge will never luster and will lose value in the ages of time.

January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Goals for the New Year As we move forward this year there are some items to focus on as goals for 2020. First, we are moving forward with getting our training manuals and classroom visual aids put together that will represent our training programs in a professional manner with FWPCOA-designed programs. We are near completion for our wastewater collection manual and are moving forward for stormwater C and B, utility maintenance, customer service, and backflow. Building this training library is a demonstration of how FWPCOA continues to lead the state of Florida in operator training. Our online training program continues to strive to provide quality training to the operators in the state. We have added a Class B water operator and a Class B wastewater operator online course approved by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) for the prerequisite for exam qualification. These courses were developed from the ground up by one of our members, Scott Ruland, and are a demonstration of the quality of our training programs. We are working with the Florida Water Environment Federation (FWEA) on an initiative to provide utility maintenance training utilizing the FWPCOA training program that could be offered to their membership. Mike Darrow is chairing a committee set up at the request of the Potable Reuse Committee to provide an opinion statement from FWPCOA for the development of operator qualifications, training, and certification for potable reuse. Mike will need input from all of the membership to make sure that what we propose will protect the certified operators in Florida and provide a vehicle for their advancement as we move forward with the ever-pressing need to find safe and protected water sources. I encourage all members to do some investigation into both direct and indirect potable water reuse. I plan on providing a column sometime this year dedicated to direct potable reuse. Well, that’s it for this C Factor. I’m looking forward to the new year with prosperity for all. S

LET’S TALK SAFETY This column addresses safety issues of interest to water and wastewater personnel, and will appear monthly in the magazine. The Journal is also interested in receiving any articles on the subject of safety that it can share with readers in the “Spotlight on Safety” column.

Be Hip to the Hazards by Avoiding Arc Flash n arc flash is the light and heat produced from an electrical arc supplied with sufficient electrical energy to cause substantial damage, harm, fire, or injury. Electrical arcs experience negative incremental resistance, which causes the electrical resistance to decrease as the arc temperature increases. One of the major causes of arc flash in the workplace is a metallic object making phaseto-phase or phase-to-ground contact with energized conductors or circuit parts. That object could be a tool, a part of the equipment, or dangling wires that are not properly secured. Another possible cause of arc flash due to an overvoltage condition is voltage transients (spikes) from inductive load switching or lightning strikes. The transient may last only microseconds, but it can also carry thousands of amps of energy. Other causes include things as simple as touching a test probe to the wrong surface, worn connections, gaps in the insulation, improperly installed parts, or dust and corrosion that cause resistance heating.


Arc Flash Danger Arc hazards in a water or wastewater utility are most likely to come from switchboards, panel boards, and motor and industrial control centers. Workers at risk are

those examining, servicing, or providing maintenance on these components. Temperatures during an arc flash can reach as high as 35,000 degrees—nearly four times the temperature of the surface of the sun! Two thousand people each year are admitted to burn centers with severe arc flash injuries. Arc flashes can injure or kill workers at distances of 15 to 20 feet. The threat goes beyond just the person working on the electrical piece of equipment; because arc flashes are so large and powerful, anyone in the immediate area is at risk. An arc flash can burn the skin directly and ignite a worker’s clothing. Shrapnel, molten metal droplets, and particles are all dangerous elements of an arc flash or blast. These incidents can also result in hearing and respiratory damage, as well as eye and face injuries.

Regulations Specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) regulations and recommendations address arc flash safety at the work site. Some examples are visible labeling of electrical equipment and advising workers when a dangerous condition associated with the possible release of energy caused by an electric arc exists. Mandates from OSHA stipulate that only qualified persons are permitted to work on electrical conductors and circuits.

Arc Flash Safety There are several safety measures workers can take to reduce the risk of arc flash. Get Trained on Safe Work Practices The OSHA regulations 29CFR1910.332 and .333 and NFPA 70E require that all

employees who may potentially be exposed to electrical hazards must undergo training to: S Identify and avoid electrical hazards. S Follow safe work practices, such as lockout/tagout procedures, maintaining hazard boundaries, and abiding by personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements. Qualified persons must also receive additional training that covers such topics as: S Understanding how electrical equipment and power systems operate and the manufacturer’s requirements for their operation. S Skills and techniques to test for the presence and absence of voltage. S Understanding how to assess risk for a specific task and how to apply the hierarchy of risk control methods. Have a Written Plan Have a written plan and permit system for conducting any work on or near energized equipment of more than 50 volts. The permit should list required conditions and work practices specific to the location of the work, the circuit and equipment involved, the hazard analysis, required PPE and tools, safe work practices, access control, and boundaries for approach by other workers. Conduct a Flash Hazard Analysis Flash arc hazard boundaries and limits of approach are based on the voltage and calculated using various formulas. It’s important to establish and ensure an electrically safe work area that’s maintained throughout the work period. It’s a good idea to periodically properly test for voltage and grounding power conductors. De-Energize Equipment Before Accessing Until electrical circuits are tested and

The 2018 Let's Talk Safety is available from AWWA; visit www.awwa.org or call 800.926.7337. Get 40 percent off the list price or 10 percent off the member price by using promo code SAFETY17. The code is good for the 2018 Let's Talk Safety book, dual disc set, and book + CD set.


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

found absent of voltage, they must be considered energized. Before working, take these simple steps: S Inspect your test instruments and verify them with a known voltage source. • Do not use test instruments or tools that have defects that could cause safety issues. • When working in isolated environments, such as wind towers, verifying the absence of voltage can be difficult. Meter proving is an acceptable method to verify test instrument operation when other sources are not available. S De-energize and lockout/tagout the equipment. S Reverify that your meter is functioning properly. Conduct Regular Inspections Knowing the maintenance history of the equipment in your facility is one of the first steps to preventing an arc flash event. The key to identifying an abnormal reading is to gather baseline readings for important components and equipment. Critical components to inspect include electrical connections, insulation, and circuit breakers. Both American National Standard Institute/National Electrical Testing Association (ANSI/NETA) maintenance testing specifications and NFPA’s practice for electrical equipment maintenance recommend the use of a test and calibration decal system that alerts maintenance personnel to likely issues with installed equipment. Refer to these documents for further information. Select Tools Rated for the Environment Use the proper tools, which are doubleinsulated. A high-visibility yellow layer provides insulation for the tool, and an outer highvisibility orange layer protects the lower layer. If

the yellow underneath layer can be seen, the tool should be removed from service. These tools generally have a maximum safety rating of up to 1,000 volts to protect you from accidental contact, but are not designed to be used on energized circuits. Examine your tools before each use, keep them clean and dry, and have a qualified person recertify them periodically. Test instruments, test probes, flexible clamps, and other accessories must meet safety requirements established by such organizations as ANSI, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Make sure your meter and accessories have the appropriate electrical measurement category (CAT) and voltage rating for the electrical environment in which you will use them. Extend your safety zone with noncontact or wireless test tools, which allow you to take readings on an energized part without making contact. These tools enable you to attach the probes or clamp to the measurement target and remove yourself from the arc blast zone to read the results. Some of the most common noncontact and wireless tools for electrical inspections include: S Noncontact voltage detectors S Infrared thermometers S Visual infrared thermometers S Infrared cameras Install Infrared Windows for Switchgear Inspection Installing properly certified infrared (IR) windows allows technicians to inspect electrical equipment without removing the panel cover. This makes it easier for companies to comply with NFPA 70E when inspecting switchgear and motors. In selecting IR windows look for: S High visibility for thermal and visual inspections.

S Grounding to the metal enclosure to avoid the release of static electricity. S Easy-to-open covers that are easy to keep track of and reduce the technician’s time within the hazard area. Follow Proper Lockout/Tagout Procedures Visually verify that the disconnect has opened the circuit, apply lockout/tagout devices, test for the absence of voltage, and use ground-phase conductors to counteract stored energy and induced voltage. Wear appropriate PPE. Depending on the voltage present, arc flash safety guidelines may require safety glasses, hearing protection, flame-resistant clothing, a full flash suit, face shield, a switching coat and hood, shoes, and gloves. Protective clothing is “arc rated” depending on the anticipated hazard.

Other Tips Additionally, when working with potentially energized equipment: S Position your body to the side and away as much as possible during switching. S Avoid touching switchgear and metallic surfaces. S Use metal-clad and arc-resistant switchgear and current-limiting power circuit breakers and reactors. Arc flash and arc blast are very real dangers in today’s industrial electrical environment. By following best practices, using the proper equipment, and staying as far away from energized components as possible, you can reduce your risk of those events and keep you and your fellow employees safe. For more information, see the Workplace Safety Awareness Council pamphlet on arc flash at: https://www.osha.gov/dte/grant_materials/fy 07/sh-16615-07/arc_flash_handout.pdf. S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



Alice Varkey, P.Eng. GHD, Tampa Work title and years of service. My title is associate. I have worked for GHD for 16 years based out of three different offices: Waterloo and Newmarket/Toronto in Ontario, Canada, and Tampa. What does your job entail? I am a leader in strategic planning and business development for GHD’s five markets (water, energy and resources, environment, property and buildings, and transportation) in Florida, with a special focus in expanding the water/wastewater business. As a business development strategist, I have the opportunity to work closely with and learn from the many skilled professionals within GHD, as well as leaders within the industry and community. I’ve been fortunate to have developed extensive experience with public consultation, planning, permitting, design, and contract administration for both public and private sector projects.

What do you like best about your job? What I like best about my job is that I have the opportunity to keep learning, while making a positive impact for the environment and the community. I started working for GHD performing phase I environmental site assessments, and since then, I have had the opportunity to work on projects on source-separated organics management, groundwater/surface water compliance, leachate treatment, and wastewater treatment. This diverse experience across GHD’s various markets allows me to continue to develop professionally, while expanding and strengthening community relationships. What professional organizations do you belong to? I belong to the Florida Water Environment Association (FWEA), Water Environment Federation (WEF), Florida Section American Water Works Association (FSAWWA), and American Water Works Association (AWWA). How have the organizations helped your career? The FWEA has helped my career in many ways. I moved to Florida from Canada seven years ago in September 2012 and FWEA gave me the

What education and training have you had? I have a bachelor of applied science in chemical engineering from the University of Toronto in

Alice at Mt. Kilimanjaro summit after Rotary End Polio Now fundraiser climb.


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Hockey fans Joshua and Sophie at a Tampa Bay Lightning game.

opportunity to quickly form connections and develop relationships with clients, regulators, academia, contractors, vendors, and consultants in the industry. It also allowed me to develop as a technical professional and as a leader. I am honored to have the privilege to serve as FWEA’s director at large for 2019-20 and to have served as FWEA’s chair of the West Coast Chapter in 2016-17. What do you like best about the industry? I believe the water industry is key to creating a sustainable future locally and globally. It provides the opportunity to develop and implement sustainable solutions for access to clean drinking water and sanitation for communities. What do you do when you’re not working? I enjoy spending time with family and being an active member of Rotary International, which has been part of my life for nine years, starting in Toronto and now in Tampa. Rotary is a volunteer organization of 1.2 million members globally working together on sustainable humanitarian projects locally and internationally. In my various leadership roles with Rotary, I have enjoyed seeing the change it makes in people’s lives. I’m honored to serve as assistant governor for Rotary District 6890 (2018-20), and to have served as president of the Rotary Club of Tampa Westchase (2015-16) and president of the Rotary Club of Toronto Twilight (2011-12). The best part of my day is spending time with my husband, Vigel, and my two children, Joshua (four years old) and Sophie (15 months old). We enjoy the outdoors (sun and snow), watching hockey and basketball, and playing board games. I also enjoy traveling: exploring Florida and other states in the U.S., as well as visiting family and friends in Canada, Brazil, and India, and making new friends in other countries I visit. S

Alice with husband, Vigel, and children, Joshua and Sophie.


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Operators: Take the CEU Challenge! Members of the Florida Water and Pollution Control Operators Association (FWPCOA) may earn continuing education units through the CEU Challenge! Answer the questions published on this page, based on the technical articles in this month’s issue. Circle the letter of each correct answer. There is only one correct answer to each question! Answer 80 percent of the questions on any article correctly to earn 0.1 CEU for your license. Retests are available. This month’s editorial theme is Wastewater Treatment. Look above each set of questions to see if it is for water operators (DW), distribution system operators (DS), or wastewater operators (WW). Mail the completed page (or a photocopy) to: Florida Environmental Professionals Training, P.O. Box 33119, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. 33420-3119. Enclose $15 for each set of questions you choose to answer (make checks payable to FWPCOA). You MUST be an FWPCOA member before you can submit your answers!

Earn CEUs by answering questions from previous Journal issues!

___________________________________ SUBSCRIBER NAME (please print)

Article 1 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

Article 2 _________________________________ LICENSE NUMBER for Which CEUs Should Be Awarded

If paying by credit card, fax to (561) 625-4858 providing the following information: ___________________________________ (Credit Card Number)

Contact FWPCOA at membership@fwpcoa.org or at 561-840-0340. Articles from past issues can be viewed on the Journal website, www.fwrj.com.

____________________________________ (Expiration Date)

Evaluating Innovative Blower Technologies, Including “Low-Speed” Turbo Units

It’s Screen Time: Largest Headworks Design Under Construction in Florida!

Lucas Botero, John Paul Castro, Julie Gass, Hector Torres, and Olena Lytvyn

Sangeeta Dhulashia, Sparkle Noble, Lynette Ramirez, and Daniel Edwards

(Article 1: CEU = 0.1 WW02015358)

(Article 2: CEU = 0.1 WW02015359)

1. The blowers were evaluated at a suction pressure loss between 0.3 and 0.4 pounds per sq in. (psi) to allow for a. internal blower deterioration over time. b. proposed changes in plant pneumatic systems. c. dirty inlet filters. d. a margin of design error. 2 The existing aeration system uses a. multistage centrifugal blowers with inlet throttling. b. integrally geared single-stage blowers. c. dry screw blowers. d. rotary lobe blowers.

1. Currently, waste stream screening is a. not done. b. provided at two major pump stations. c. accomplished by perforated plate screens. d. accomplished by rotary drum screens. 2. ______________ wastewater treatment offers the Miami Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) better peak flow management and treatment stability. a. Contact stabilization b. Extended aeration c. Step feed d. Plug flow

3. Which of the following is not listed as an advantage of low-speed turbo blowers? a. Can be stacked for small-footprint installations. b. No variable vane linkages, which are difficult to clean. c. Volumetric output is controlled by discharge pressure. d. Do not require sophisticated variable frequency drives.

3. The existing Plant 2 headworks bypass channel a. bypasses the entire secondary process. b. conveys bypassed flow to the oxygenation process. c. is too small to convey projected peak flow without overtopping the headworks. d. is badly deteriorated and must be replaced.

4. Overall, the blower alternative with the lowest total present worth was determined to be a. integrally geared turbo. b. multistage with inlet throttling. c. multistage with variable frequency drive. d. dry screw.

4. Electrical equipment was relocated a. to provide room for additional oxygenation units. b. to a less confined area, providing sufficient space for expansion c. to protect it from the effects of moisture and sewage gases. d. closer to the operations control room.

5. Which of the following was an assumption upon which the comparative blower evaluation was completed? a. Nonvarying power cost rate b. Blowers operating 80 percent of the year c. Installation cost equals 40 percent of equipment cost d. 25-year evaluation period

5. In its current configuration, the Central District Wastewater Treatment Plant (CDWWTP) a. has a rated capacity of 143 mil gal per day (mgd). b. has three separate liquid process streams. c. receives an average daily flow that exceeds its rated capacity. d. is a high-purity oxygen-activated sludge facility. Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Horizontal Directional Drilling? Wait, No‌.Slipline! Successfully managing project changes within site-use constraints while maintaining project vision Kerstin Lesley Kenty, Dinesh Kamath, and Dennis Simpson Pinellas County (county) is located in west central Florida (Figure 1) and is the mostdensely populated county in the Tampa Bay area. Pinellas County Utilities (PCU) provides

Figure 1. Pinellas County Locator Map

service to more than 300,000 water customers and treats 28.5 million gallons of wastewater daily at two facilities. One facility, the W.E. Dunn Water Reclamation Facility (WED WRF), is in the northwestern area of the county, and adjacent to the Innisbrook Golf Resort (Figure 2). In 2016, PCU had a major failure in a 30inch ductile iron pipe (DIP) force main, which prompted a condition survey of other DIPs of similar age. Survey results showed that a 42-inch DIP had trapped gasses, was traversing homeowner backyards and the Innisbrook Golf Course, and was tying into the headworks of the WED WRF. The PCU, concerned that a catastrophic failure could be imminent, declared this an emergency project and immediately began to design activities to install a redundant force main to allow a service outage in the 42-inch force main for rehabilitation.

Figure 2. Project Location Map

Location Stretching from Bee Pond Road on the south to the WED WRF on the north (Figure 2), the pipe corridor consisted of a blend of two 10-foot easements (side by side) and county-owned property, which is leased to the golf course. Figure 3 shows the location of the two 10-foot easements approximately 2,100 feet in length, sandwiched between the course and upscale homes and containing a 36-inch reclaimed water line, in addition to the existing 42-inch DIP force main. The section on county-owned land was approximately 1,000 feet in length, with most of that land under lease to the resort and in use for the south course. The tight easement did not allow for an additional open cut installation of the redundant force main. The decision was made to install a replacement pipe using horizontal directional drilling (HDD) as a single drill for the entire length because of the tight space; the crowded easement, which in some cases had swimming pools and decks within it; and the near impossibility of long-term bypassing due to the need to traverse the working golf courses.

Pipe Materials Concurrently, work had begun on a separate project to upgrade the headworks to the WED WRF upstream of the tie-in for this pipe, and significant sediment had been found in the pipe as part of that project, suggesting that it was oversized. In a separate investigation, it was concluded to replace the existing 42-inch pipe with a 36-inch pipe. Materials considered for the pipe were highdensity polyethylene (HDPE) and fusible polymerized vinyl chloride (FPVC). Due to the subsurface conditions, and a smaller-size option for FPVC pipe, FPVC was the preferred choice. At each terminus, the new FPVC pipe would need to be tied in to the existing DIP. The narrow easement traversed the backyards of many upscale homes, was adjacent to one of the Innisbrook golf courses, and traversed an additional Innisbrook Resort golf course.


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Neighboring Community Public involvement was important for this project given that large portions of the easement were within the backyards of homes backing up to the golf courses. Figure 4 shows the easement nestled between the homes and the golf course; with the easement sometimes located only inches off a homeowner’s pool deck, the work would surely be noticed by the homeowners. In addition, the Innisbrook Resort hosted an annual Professional Golfers Association of America (PGA) tournament. While the tournament was not conducted on either of the courses adjacent to this project, Innisbrook was very concerned with its image during tournament week, and all courses at the resort received additional traffic during that time. In addition, the golf courses needed to remain open during the construction, and golf cart traffic had to be maintained for the golfers. At project inception, an integrated public information campaign was implemented that included public meetings for the homeowners and one-on-one meetings and updates for the Innisbrook staff. The Innisbrook groundskeeper was also present onsite observing a lot of the day-today work, interfacing with the contractor directly. As the project progressed and changed, homeowner public involvement evolved to include an information pop-up display, door-to-door communications, and a dedicated hotline for residents to reach out to the project team. Throughout the project, the proactive and transparent communication strategy helped mitigate concerns and allowed twoway communication on all issues related to the project.

Geotechnical Considerations and Design In terms of geomorphic districts, the site is in the lower southwestern corner of the Ocala Karst District. The occurrence of karst features varies from abundant and closely spaced to scattered in the area. The district is dominated by sinkholes and shallow bowlshaped depressions, producing a rolling topography. Generally, downwardpercolating groundwater slowly dissolves the underlying limestone, leading to covercollapse sinkholes and cover-subsidence features. Cover-collapse sinkholes form rather abruptly from the structural failure of an underlying cavern roof, whereas coversubsidence features generally occur in areas where sediments sag as carbonates dissolve underneath. Springs, sinks, sinking and

Figure 3. Aerial View of Easement and Pipe Alignment

Figure 4. Drill Alignment Proximity to Neighboring Homes

resurgent streams, and caverns commonly occur within the district. The geotechnical investigation revealed geology in the area consistent with the previous description, leading to alignment constraints for HDD. Research conducted by Jacobs indicated that the golf course had been a former site for land application of treated wastewater, and the activities had been noted to have resulted in several collapses of underlying solution cavities. In addition, anecdotal descriptions of a sinkhole that developed during construction of improvements to the WED WRF facility were provided by PCU staff. After standard penetration test boring information suggested that there could be a limestone pinnacle in the HDD pathway, a geophysical survey using seismic methods was performed. This investigation revealed that there were no limestone pinnacles in the HDD pathway and that there were some soft areas believed to be older cover-subsidence features. Another concern of the design team was that the limestone was relatively shallow along the alignment, which left the team with two choices: drill deep into the karstic limestone, or remain shallow (on the order of 30 to 50 feet below existing grade) and avoid the voided structure of the limestone. The decision to plan a relatively shallow drill for the entire length presented a risk of drilling fluid from the borehole coming to the surface under pressure. When the drilling fluid

pressure in the borehole exceeds the pressure of the ground surface above it, or there is overburden pressure, inadvertent return of drilling fluid to the surface, or “frac-out,” can occur. Risk of frac-out is high when the pilot bore is near the ground surface, particularly at the exit point. The second issue was the presence of unconsolidated materials and past voids that had filled in along the pipe corridor. Because of this condition, the HDD was designed as a single drill, with a shallow entry angle on the north end to maintain as much cover above the identified loose soil zone where evidence of historical voids existed. The design team also planned and implemented requirements for relief wells and immediate spill cleanup teams that could work in the confined backyard easement area. Taking all the requirements and constraints into account, the initial design was provided as a single 3,100-foot HDD, with a maximum depth of 55 feet due to the shallow limestone depth. This method was selected for its cost-effectiveness, relatively low risk of settlement, and ability to cross beneath the existing utilities, private improvements, and golf courses. Due to the emergency nature of the project, the general contractor was sole-sourced, but three drillers were prequalified to provide pricing for the project. During solicitations for pricing, the Continued on page 42

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Continued from page 41 drillers expressed many of the same concerns that the design engineers had identified, namely, the karst geological nature of the area and the shallow limestone. The drillers felt that the risk to do a single 3,100-foot HDD was too great at such a shallow depth due to the sandy soils and the potential for frac-out. The drillers wanted to drill deeper through the limestone; however, limestone near the project is considered highly voided and unsuitable for HDD installation. Unsupported broken rock within the rock mass and within filled collapse chambers introduced an additional risk of FPVC pipe damage during pullback and a stuck drill string during pilot and reaming. The risk of fluid loss, steering difficulties, and the potential to encounter cobble-sized fragments, was considered too great to design an HDD within the rock at this site. To mitigate some of these concerns for the drillers, the project was redesigned into two shorter HDD drills: the north drill, which was approximately 1,000 feet in length, and the

south drill, which was approximately 2,100 feet in length, as shown in Figure 5. Because the county owned the property on the northern end of the HDD site, it was possible to break the project into two HDD sections to be installed separately, and both were pulled from the same pit in between the two sections. Delineation between the two drills is shown in Figure 6, along with the stratigraphy defined in the Geotechnical Baseline Report (GBR) from CH2M HILL (2017). The maximum allowable drill fluid pressure was calculated using the method of Bennett and Walin (2008), with the revised approach recommended by Staheli, et al. (2010), incorporating a factor of safety of 2.5. For the north drill, the lowest factor of safety (defined as the ratio of the ultimate maximum frac-out pressure to the predicted circulating pressure) was predicted to be 3.9, approximately 600 feet from the start of the drill. With two shorter drills, the drillers were more comfortable with the conditions and the mitigation of the fracout risk.

Figure 5. P-Wave Velocity Cross Section Data With Two-Drill Geotechnical Baseline Report Profile

Figure 6. Two-Drill Alignment Plan (top) and Profile (bottom)


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Construction North Drill The contractor mobilized and first began the north drill in mid-September. The drill consisted of a run of approximately 1,000 feet across the 12th hole of the Innisbrook south golf course. As noted in Figure 7, the launch pit was stationed to the north end of the drill and the receiving pit was in a county roadway right of way just north of Skye Lane. The entry point had been shifted slightly to the north at the contractor’s decision, to avoid the need to protect a number of existing utilities. Before commencement of the drill, an onsite meeting was held with the design engineer, the engineer’s HDD expert, the contractor, the contractor’s guidance specialist, and the engineer’s onsite inspector for HDD. The geological information included in the GBR was reviewed and the importance of not running the pilot too close to the limestone was reiterated. Prior to the meeting, the HDD contractor and guidance specialist were not aware of the provision of a GBR. Two days into drilling, the driller experienced difficulty in returning drilling fluid, and shortly after, a void opened on the tee box of the 12th hole of the Innisbrook south course. At this time, drilling stopped. Upon review of the guidance data, it became evident that the driller had chosen a deeper drill profile than specified, with a bend radius that did not meet design guidelines, as shown in Figure 8. Note in the figure that the hatched zone was specifically to be avoided during drilling. Discussions ensued with the engineer, the driller, the contractor, and golf course and county personnel. Ultimately, it was decided that changing the alignment was risky without an additional geotechnical investigation, and the driller was not comfortable continuing the drill with the geotechnical conditions uncovered. The county was under a time constraint for the project, both because of the need to get the new pipe into service proactively, and the need to complete all work on the golf course before March 2018, when Innisbrook hosted the PGA Valspar Championship. The only viable installation method left was to open cut this section of pipe across the golf course. Throughout the project, county personnel and the general contractor had been communicating directly with the Innisbrook Resort. When the open cut option was considered, the resort was informed and consulted. Coincidentally, the resort was planning to shut down the south course for two weeks in October, which opened a window for the contractor to perform the open cut work.

The contractor set out to install nearly 1,000 feet of 36-inch FPVC, which had been fused in anticipation of the HDD install within the two-week shutdown window. One week prior to the golf course shutdown, the irrigation system was located, looped, and protected, final locates were performed, and the site was prepared for digging. When the time came to install the pipe, the contractor began on a Monday morning and mobilized three crews working 12-hour shifts for six days to install the pipe. The execution was flawless, with separate excavation, backfill, and grading crews onsite simultaneously. The weather was favorable, and the contractor put the final section of pipe in the ground four days after starting (on a Thursday evening of the first week), and by Friday, was backfilling. The second week included completing final grading and additional backfilling. South Drill Meanwhile, the challenge of completing the south HDD still loomed. Hurricane Irma had disrupted operations, as the crew fusing the pipe was based out of Boca Raton. The fusing crew returned to the site and completed fusing the pipe concurrently with the north open cut installation. The driller remobilized to the site a week and a half after the north open cut installation was complete. As shown in Figure 9, the south drill launched from the southern side of Bee Pond Road and exited in the same roadway right of way that the north drill was planned to exit, just north of Skye Lane. The project schedule had been affected by the issues encountered during installation of the pipe at the north drill, both on the project site and for the driller. The driller mobilized as soon as possible and scheduled the drill to begin on a Saturday to maintain the schedule. During this operation, the driller encountered conditions where drill fluid was not being returned and was concerned that another sinkhole would open, possibly in the backyard of someone’s home. The driller retracted the pilot drill to begin a new profile, but encountered the same issues with drill fluid not returning due to the hydraulic connection to the first drill path. As this continued, the driller became very concerned that another sinkhole was about to open, and again retrieved the equipment from the pilot drill and proceeded to pack up and demobilize from the site on Saturday afternoon. With the driller demobilized, the team reconvened on the following Monday to troubleshoot solutions, with few apparent options. The contractor communicated his

Figure 7. North Drill Alignment

Figure 8. Two-Drill Vertical Alignment With As-Drilled Pilot Profile and Field Notes

Figure 9. South Drill Alignment

driller’s concerns and that he was not inclined to complete the drill. Subject matter experts on the engineer’s side conveyed that, with the driller, removing the equipment with many of the mitigation options available was not viable, and it made continuing the drill on the south side very difficult. The contractor suggested that, instead of using HDD to install the south section of pipe, it be installed via slipline. During the design phase, modeling had indicated that

the pipe be sized for a 36-inch diameter instead of the original 42-inch pipe in the ground. Given this information, the suggestion was made to install the 36-inch FPVC pipe by sliplining the original 42-inch DIP. This was an intriguing suggestion, and the contractor had done some preliminary work determining if the FPVC pipe would fit inside of the DIP, and then reached out to the FPVC pipe manufacturer, Underground Continued on page 44

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Continued from page 43 Solutions, to determine if the deflection angles were acceptable for the material. Assuming that the materials were allowed for a viable installation, the installation via this method would require that a bypass be installed, because the pipe being sliplined was still in operation. This was only available as a solution if the north section of pipe, installed via open cut, had the connections completed. It was tested, and was able to be put into use during the work. Southern Installation: Gopher Tortoises Gopher tortoises are a protected species in Florida, and they were found in the pipe staging area for the southern installation during the design phase. Both the animals and their burrows are protected, because the burrow can provide habitat for additional protected species. As per Florida law, a gopher tortoise survey was completed before construction commenced, and any gopher tortoises that encroached on the project site were removed and relocated by a licensed gopher tortoise agent. Due to the numerous stops and starts between the project commencement and the slipline of the southern installation, gopher tortoises moved back into the project area. This situation required additional survey, permitting, and removal, and held the project up for about a week while it was resolved. Southern Installation: Sliplining Switching to a slipline required a coordinated effort among the engineer, owner, and contractor. The pipe manufacturer was also consulted to verify that the installation was within the FPVC’s tolerances and was reasonable. Since the original DIP was installed around 1972, the existing as-builts were consulted and any area that looked to have a deflection that could exceed the pipe tolerance was excavated and visually examined. The plan was to remove any areas of DIP where the deflection tolerances were not within the necessary limits to slipline the alignment with FPVC. Additionally, the contractor dug a few potholes to verify elevations and ensure that there weren’t unknown deflections that could derail the installation. During this investigation, the contractor worked on bypass options. There were a few different configurations that would be sufficient to convey the flow in the existing 42inch pipe, but the final result was dual HDPE pipes (18-inch and 24-inch), with two road crossings with road plates. After the bypass line was put into service, the road plates were clogged within a week, and the original pipe


had to be put back into service, while the road crossings were redesigned and installed as temporary open cut installations. In addition to the bypass, another aspect of the project was the need to drain and clean the original pipe before installation. This was a significant unknown in the project, given that the pipe had not been cleaned since its 1972 installation. Knowing the pipe was oversized, there was concern for what would be found in the bottom of it. In the end, it took six weeks to clean approximately 2,000 feet of pipe. Finally, the slipline installation was performed on a Saturday, with the HDD contractor using rod sets to perform the pull. The installation was successfully completed without incident. Connection and Close Out After the installation of the pipe via slipline, the connections had to be performed, along with final testing, before the line could be put into service. This was accomplished quickly, and the pipe went into service in August 2018. Shortly after, the contractor began dismantling the bypass line and restoring the installation corridor to the original condition.

Lessons Learned This project started out as routine (except for the accelerated timeframe) and the HDD project anticipated having low visibility and minimal disruption to neighbors. Ultimately, the installations required constant communication, coordination, cooperation, and proactive change management. Through open communications, changes were able to be conveyed proactively to stakeholders, ensuring that all parties were up to speed as things evolved, allowing decisions to be made and implemented quickly. As the project shifted to open cut across the golf course, the open dialogue that had been started with Innisbrook was instrumental in moving that portion of the project forward. In the same way, Innisbrook was helpful in providing temporary easement and access across its property to allow various parts of the project to be completed. Throughout the project and the ensuing changes, the need for public outreach and involvement increased exponentially. Having the public involvement team engaged from the beginning allowed it to answer questions and contribute meaningful suggestions on how to create a dialogue with homeowners. One key takeaway is the importance of a strong public outreach program, regardless of the nature of the project.

January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

It will never be known whether the two drills could have been completed successfully with better coordination among the driller, guidance specialists, and the owner’s engineers. In the case of the north drill, the HDD contractor ignored repeated warnings to avoid a loose subsurface zone that represented a historic cavity collapse. On the south drill, the lack of onsite dialogue and inability to provide supplemental equipment, such as a washover casing during pilot advancement, left the team with little choice once the HDD contractor had unexpectedly demobilized over the weekend. The drilling contractors who bid on the project were vetted via a prequalification step for experience with both the method and geological conditions. In theory, the driller should have had the requisite experience to respond proactively to the geologic uncertainties. It’s possible that a more experienced, or more aggressive, drilling contractor may have been less intimidated by the conditions on the second drill and not immediately demobilized. With the known sinkhole potential in the area, and the cost of the loss of drilling fluid for the contractor, it was a difficult situation. A key lesson from this project is that not every unfortunate decision leads to a worse outcome. Ultimately, the driller’s hasty demobilization stopped what could have been a lengthy and increasingly risk-prone process to traverse that section of the drill to complete the project. Instead, the process enabled an opportunity to re-evaluate the installation and implement a solution that turned out to be superior to the original. Another important lesson reinforced was the importance of cooperation and coordination among the owner, contractor, and engineer. Traditionally, especially as a project progresses through the construction phase, these relationships can become contentious. Adverse relationships did not evolve on this project, and as a result, the project team was responsive and supportive as challenges arose. The county was adamant that the culture of its organization include all partners working toward the same success. Examples of teamwork included the upfront project bidding when the drillers were pricing the project based on their perceived risk and the engineer had to complete a redesign. Later in the project, when the contractor had to switch to an open cut installation, the engineer had to get a plan and a profile prepared in a very short time period, and complete a site visit to confirm that the project could progress within the tight timeframe. The change of the project from a drill to

a slipline on the south drill was another instance when the trust relationship among the owner, contractor, and engineer was instrumental in keeping the project moving forward. Likewise, this relationship was important when the gopher tortoises were found in the FPVC lay down area and the contractor was at a complete standstill before the engineer’s team pulled the permits and relocated the tortoises. Finally, understanding that unforeseen challenges arise when construction begins, regardless of the anticipated delays, thoughtful preparation, and thorough due diligence, is imperative. It’s important to be engaged in the project throughout, as a designer, to meaningfully contribute viable solutions should things not go as planned.

for Horizontal Directional Drilling Projects.” Presented at the International Pipelines Conference 2008, Atlanta, Ga., July 22-27, 2008. • CH2M Hill Engineers Inc. (CH2M). “PWave Velocity Cross Section Data with TwoDrill Geotechnical Baseline Report Profile.” August 2017. • Staheli, Kimberlie; Price, C. G.; and Wetter, L. “Effectiveness of Hydrofracture Prediction for HDD Design.” Presented at the North American Society for Trenchless Technology

(NASTT) No-Dig Show, Chicago, Ill., May 2-7, 2010. Kerstin Lesley Kenty, Ph.D., P.E., PMP, ENV SP, is a senior project manager and client service manager with Jacobs in Tampa and served as the project manager for this project. Dinesh Kamath, P.E., is a senior project manager for Pinellas County Utilities in Clearwater and served as the county’s project manager on this project. Dennis Simpson, P.E., is engineering section manager with Pinellas County Utilities in Clearwater. S

Recommendations and Conclusions This dynamic and challenging project ultimately resulted in a successful installation with minimum disruption to the adjacent homeowners and the operating golf course. Proactive communications regarding change management, which kept the homeowners (via the homeowner’s association) and the golf course personnel (via management) informed as the project changed, contributed to the successful outcome of the project. Without the open working relationship with the golf course, there would have never been agreement for the open cut work to proceed during its shut down. Without the open cut section installed, a bypass solution would not have been possible. All projects and teams face challenges— it’s the way that the team comes together to handle the challenges that ultimately determines project success. Even projects that are, from technical and physical environment standards, installed correctly are rarely perceived as overly successful by the parties involved when the relationships devolve. Also, when these relationships break down and communication stops, situations develop where it’s difficult for the owner or engineer to make the best decisions for the project. This project is a great example of contractor input helping to drive a successful solution. Technical expertise is always leveraged to obtain its best value when communication among all parties is open. That is the formula to successfully address unforeseen challenges on a project.

References • Bennett, David and Walin, Kathryn. “Stepby-Step Evaluation of Hydrofracture Risks Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



Take Charge of Your Professional Development Michael W. Sweeney, Ph.D. President, FWEA everal years ago, I was offered the opportunity to speak with three other presenters on a televised broadcast on emerging issues out of Comcast’s TV campus in Denver. The audience was estimated at a couple of thousand. The event included a small studio audience of 30 to make us TV amateur “stars” feel comfortable, and it was broadcast online and on public access. We had one rehearsal to make sure our 20-minute presentations met our allotted time slot (give or take 10 seconds). Not the usual meeting setting for me. During the question and answer session, I was asked this direct question, which I may add, was also a really good interview question: “What is the most important thing a professional should do to further their development?” After a deep breath and a smile to conceal my pensiveness, my equally direct response went something like this: “Earn a higher certification level, even though your job doesn’t require it.” There are many good or better responses to that question; as they say, “There’s six ways to Sunday.” I admit that picking that response was in part reflexive. After seeing the surprised looks on some of the audience members’ faces, I elaborated further by explaining (and hopefully, persuading) that whatever your profession, go beyond the artificial constraints


of your current job description. Reject the notion that your job description is a job prescription. I believe that’s one approach where professional development can begin on a personal level. A fuller answer to the one I gave at the session is applicable to virtually all professions and would include these contributors to professional development: S Continuing education beyond minimum requirements (so much content is available online for free). S Participation in professional development with an organization (like FWEA). S Increasing duties and responsibilities to gain and broaden experience. Bringing this topic back home to our industry, here is the thought process and examples regarding this proposition. Our FWEA members are largely comprised of technically based professionals, including engineers and operators, as well as academics (teachers and students) and administrative and business support specialists. For operators, investing time wisely can lead to obtaining more knowledge and skill, which can culminate into tangible proof of your professional growth. In the case of this advice, spend time and obtain certification and licensure beyond what your current job requires. The little “secret” lies with the definition of any certificate or license and serves as a validation of my advice. A license legally represents that one meets the minimum requirements and demonstrates the minimum knowledge level necessary for that specific license. If you know in your heart

of hearts that you are or can exceed those requirements, why not invest in yourself by further demonstrating your capabilities in a tangible way? For example, let’s say your current job requires a C license; pursuing and achieving a B license demonstrates what you know and serves as your investment in professional development. The same rationale applies by going all the way and obtaining the A license. The same advice applies to engineering positions, and any other position for that matter. In some instances, the professional engineer license may not be required, but completing the registration and licensing process provides the same type of proven professional development. A supplementary development goal beyond the P.E. may be pursuing and achieving board certification for environmental engineering (BCEE). Similar certifications exist for other types of engineers and technicians. The main takeaway of this topic includes an understanding that it’s no one else’s responsibility but your own to grow yourself. Professional development as defined here is not intended to be about earning more money or climbing the promotion ladder. In the end, you make your own breaks, and good fortune may collaterally result. But, there are other benefits to making professional development your New Year’s resolution: S Self-satisfaction from gaining a deep sense of accomplishment. S Futureproofing yourself—stretch yourself by building experience, creating options, and making dreams possible. S Adding credentials that match your capabilities may open doors you have not yet imagined. So, take charge of your professional development by being your best advocate. S


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


First Glimpse of the 2019 FSAWWA Fall Conference Several events from the conference are pictured here. The full conference wrap-up will appear in the magazine’s February 2020 issue.


Exhibit Hall

Technical Sessions

Poster Session

Hydrant Hysteria


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

BBQ Challenge

Backhoe Rodeo

Meter Madness

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Tapping Contest


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Annual Business Meeting and Awards Luncheon


Optimize Your Headworks System Design Through Onsite Testing: How Treatment Plant Operators Can Improve Process Protection and Reduce Expenditures by Selecting Optimal Screen Equipment Jay R. Conroy and Samuel Sturtevant Evolution of Wastewater Treatment The wastewater industry is trending toward tighter effluent standards, which is due to stricter environmental regulations and advancements in treatment technologies. These advancements can treat higher-volume flows, but the improved processes continue to require proper attention to each stage. These improvements demand finer and more-efficient screening. Many new treatment technologies, such as membrane systems, cloth

Figure 1. Center flow fine band screen installed in headworks channel.

filters, integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems, rely heavily on the performance of fine screens that are located upstream from them. The screens protect them from debris that can cause the process to fail or be damaged. Process equipment has become more sophisticated and, in turn, more sensitive to foreign material. It’s becoming commonplace that the main downstream process at the plant either dictates or plays a significant role in

Jay R. Conroy is an environmental engineer and president, and Samuel Sturtevant, P.E., is a mechanical engineer and research and development engineering manager, with Hydro-Dyne Engineering in Clearwater.

determining the specific type and opening size of the screening equipment (Figure 1) that precedes it. Some processes even require screens Continued on page 52

Figure 2. Screen capture ratio performance for 6 millimeter fine screen types.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Continued from page 51 with specific screenings capture ratio (SCR) and maximum opening size for warranty validity.

Challenge with Traditional Screen Sizing

Figure 3. Screening fluctuation factors.

Figure 4. Comparison sieve blinding curves.


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

Each plant has its own unique characteristics that dictate the amount of screening protection it requires based on influent flow and collection systems. In any given treatment plant, several items have a direct impact on the quantity, size, and consistency of screenings in the influent flow. This includes the design of a collection system, local industries feeding the plant, size and number of pumping stations, storm water infiltration, and variations in flow. Engineers specify and manufacturers generally size screens using industry standard blinding factors based on a screen’s SCR. The SCR is the measurement of the percentage of screenings a screen captures and can be relative to the screen opening size (or some arbitrary opening size) depending on the test procedure. There are many factors that contribute to the screen SCR, including design and wear life of the unloading mechanism, such as a rotating brush or spray wash. A rotating brush may perform well at first, but have reduced effectiveness due to brush wear over time. This brush wear would reduce the screen SCR, while a spray wash would be more consistent over time with minimal wear. Thompson RPM, an independent testing facility based in the United Kingdom, is currently the only independent company actively engaged in testing screening equipment. The company recently published findings on tests of SCR for 59 different screen designs. The graph in Figure 2 illustrates maximum, minimum, and average SCRs for various types of screening technologies tested at the facility. The National Screen Evaluation Facility Inlet Screen Evaluation Comparative Report (1999-2015) tested five different families of screens (band, fine, spiral, slot, and step) built by 18 different manufacturers, with opening sizes from 1 millimeter (mm) to 7 mm. This gave an accurate representation of the types of capture to be expected from the most common screen families. Screen opening size, however, should not be the only factor considered when determining the proper screen for an application. As shown in Figure 2, even screens with the same opening size can have drastically different SCRs. For example, the 6-mm opening size recorded an SCR as low as 32 percent for a spiral style screen and as high as 85 percent for a through flow fine screen. Several factors must be addressed when

determining the proper screen for an application (Figure 3). The first step in this process is to recognize the limitations of the plant and narrow the applicable technologies; consideration must be given to channel dimensions, hydraulic conditions, budget, screenings handling requirements, and site restrictions.

Onsite Testing to Address Challenges A hammerhead onsite screen sizing (HOSS) test, as shown in Figure 5, can characterize the properties of wastewater influent and effluent. Solids loading characteristics can now be expanded from generalized total suspended solids (TSS) or biological oxygen demand (BOD) ranges to include stratification of solid sizes present in the waste stream and clarification and visual inspection of material types (organic and inorganic). A HOSS test, in addition to data from the plant operator, helps to capture critical information for the application demands and headworks system. The analysis of the individual plant’s unique influent and downstream process equipment determines the appropriate screen type, size, and operational sequence. A technical report is generated with recommendations for confident selection of the optimal screen equipment. Other objectives can be covered, including SCR performance of installed equipment and optimum screen combinations for dual stage screening, as well as insight into blinding rates for screen sizing (Figure 5).

The Importance and Benefits of Properly Sized Screens The primary purpose of screening is to remove as much nonorganic material from the influent flow as possible to protect downstream processes from excessive wear and damage. Proper screen selection, sizing, and operation directly impact all downstream processes. If a screen is not protecting subsequent equipment as intended, maintenance costs can increase substantially, while the life of that equipment can be reduced dramatically. Improper screening can also remove more organic material than desired, which can starve biological plant processes of the nutrients they were designed to treat, while simultaneously increasing screening handling and disposal costs. It has been shown that proper fine screening at the head of a plant will significantly reduce maintenance costs and extend the equipment life of downstream processes. Ideally, the goal would be to remove nearly all

Figure 5. Hammerhead onsite screen sizing test.

Test sieve in front of installed screen

Test sieve downstream of installed screen

Figure 6. Largo-screen capture test samples.

nonorganic material at the head of the plant to reduce the strain on the equipment downstream. Realistically, limitations in allowable head losses, channel sizing, equipment cost, and screening equipment capabilities prevent this goal from being an option. Thorough analysis of influent flow to a treatment plant provides an excellent return on investment. The benefits of focusing on the headworks screen extend from initial operation through the life cycle of the equipment selected. The advantages of understanding the characteristics of solids in the waste stream begin with proper screen sizing to balance capital expense with long-term operation.

Case Study 1: Largo A wastewater reclamation facility (WRF) located in the City of Largo purchased a center flow band screen with a 6-mm perforated screen. As part of the contract, a HOSS test was performed to ensure that a minimum of 80 percent SCR was met with the newly installed screen equipment. The SCR test was performed using a 6-mm perforated plate, both upstream and downstream of the existing screen. The test demonstrated visual results (Figure 6), with a SCR of 99 percent for the new 6-mm perforated center flow screens. This SCR for the 6-mm perforated screen was relative to a 6-mm sieve.

Review of Case Studies

Case Study 2: Destin A WRF evaluated the replacement of existing 6-mm opening step-style screening Continued on page 54

Several case studies showcase what the HOSS test offers.

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Continued from page 53 equipment. The challenge in the past was equipment failing to capture rags, which would bypass the 6-mm continuous slotted belt screen and enter the downstream pumps; because of this, the pumps required continuous maintenance. A HOSS test was conducted to determine the optimal size and type of screen for higher screening capture with emphasis on rag removal. After evaluating multiple screen opening sizes and types, the conclusion was to

use a 6-mm perforated screen to capture rags, which in turn eliminated pump maintenance. The advantage in using this screen in this unique influent stream is its ability to remove inorganics (rags, wipes, etc.), while keeping the waste disposal costs low. Case Study 3: Tampa The Falkenburg Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant was in the process of obtaining replacement screens as part of a major plant

upgrade project. The downstream treatment process required a specified 3-mm perforated screen opening. A dual-stage screening approach was required for screening load sharing of a relatively large flow. One advantage of the HOSS test is that it can use a multiplestage sieve approach to better characterize the screen capture of each stage; different sieve combinations are tested to confirm the best choice. It was determined that, for long-term results, the ideal first-stage screen would use a 6-mm perforated plate. This combination of 6mm and 3-mm perforated screen equipment would be a balanced solution for screening load sharing.

Conclusion The HOSS test is an essential tool for utilities, as it ascertains the appropriate screen size to give the proper amount of grid surface or open area for the blinding expected in order to balance initial capital outlay and long-term screen operating costs. It also determines the most-effective screen size to obtain a healthy balance of eliminating inorganics, while minimizing disposal waste costs. Inorganics, rags, and insoluble particles are detrimental to downstream processes and equipment; optimal screening of these inorganics will significantly lower the treatment plant maintenance cost. In addition, the test can empirically establish the optimal dual-stage screen combination for maximum equipment life and minimum impact on downstream processes and equipment. The benefits of a properly selected screen include: S Maximized SCR S Proper balance of idle versus run time reduces maintenance and extends operating life of headworks screens S Decreased maintenance across the plant S Decreased capital costs attributed to oversized equipment and channels S Proper design and sizing of screening handling equipment The benefits of a properly selected screen include: S Maximized screenings capture ratio S Proper balance of idle versus run time reduces maintenance and extends operating life of headworks screens S Decreased maintenance across plant S Decreased capital costs attributed to oversized equipment and channels S Proper design and sizing of screenings handling equipment S


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal


......Backflow Tester* ....................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405 ......Reclaimed Water Field Site Inspector Orlando..............$350/380 ......Stormwater C ..........................................Osteen................$260/290 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen................$85/115

February 3-7 3-7 3-18 10-14 24-28 24-28 28

......Water Distribution Level 3 ....................Osteen................$225/255 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution C ..........Osteen................$225/255 ......Wastewater Collection C, B** ..............Miami/Dade ......$225/255 ......Utility Maintenance Level 3 ..................Osteen................$325 ......Wastewater Collection A ......................Orlando..............$225/255 ......Water Distribution Level 1 ....................Orlando..............$225/255 ......Backflow Tester Recerts*** ..................Osteen................$85/115

March 2-4 ......Backflow Repair* ..................................St. Petersburg ......$275/305 16-20 ......Spring State Short School ....................Ft. Pierce

April 6-10 13-15 20-23 20-24 20-24

......Wastewater Collection ..........................Osteen................$225/255 ......Backflow Repair ....................................Osteen................$275/305 ......Backflow Tester* ....................................St. Petersburg ......$375/405 ......Water Distribution 2 ..............................Osteen................$225/255 ......Reclaimed Water Distribution B ..........Osteen................$225/255

Course registration forms are available at http://www.fwpcoa.org/forms.asp. For additional information on these courses or other training programs offered by the FWPCOA, please contact the FW&PCOA Training Office at (321) 383-9690 or training@fwpcoa.org. * Backflow recertification is also available the last day of Backflow Tester or Backflow Repair Classes with the exception of Deltona ** Evening classes *** any retest given also

You are required to have your own calculator at state short schools and most other courses. Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020



2020 Will Be a Great Year! Kim Kowalski Chair, FSAWWA

am honored to have the privilege to lead the Florida Section of the American Water Works Association as the 94th chair in 2020. I would like to congratulate each new member of the FSAWWA Executive Committee and board of governors on their election and thank those who are staying on. We have a strong and talented team for 2020 and I look forward to working with everyone more closely, especially the staff, which includes Peggy Guingona, our executive director, and Casey Cumiskey, Donna Metherall, and Jenny Arguello, in our efforts to have a great year! I would like to give a special thanks to all the past chairs who have given the section exemplary leadership, especially Mike Bailey, our 93rd chair, who did such a great job of moving the section forward in a positive way. Mike, like Bill Young before him, addressed various issues with commitment and knowledge that will benefit us for the year to come.


When I started volunteering for the section, in 2001, I never thought I would be the chair. My journey started with the Manufacturers/Associates Council, the MAC, as a volunteer for the Fall Conference annual golf tournament, stuffing goodie bags and helping with registration. I found such camaraderie within the MAC that it made me want to commit further. I worked my way up to conference chair, and then the MAC chair for five years. This is what started my journey with the board of governors, and with the help and guidance of Jeff Nash, Richard Anderson, and Rick Ratcliffe, I have never looked back. These “guardian angels” have become lifelong friends and confidants that I value in a personal way, but they also act as valuable resources for me professionally. The Fall Conference is near and dear to my heart; it’s put on by volunteers from within the MAC and brings together utilities, consultants, manufacturers, regulators, and students to learn from the industry’s best. Through the technical sessions, workshops, and exhibits, attendees get firsthand information on the latest technologies and

developments to help utilities take actions to implement for Florida’s future. The conference isn’t just work; there are many fun activities to get involved with as well. From the BBQ competition to trying your luck at the Texas Hold ‘em poker tournament—it’s a great time! Then you can hit the green in our annual golf tournament benefitting the Roy Likins Scholarship fund and the Water Equation. There are so many ways to get involved with the section, from a regional level to the various councils. What I am trying to say is get involved. You never know where you may end up and will make lasting friendships while doing so. I am looking forward to my year as chair—there will be lots of section and regional events, workshops, and seminars coming up. Please visit the FSAWWA website often (www.fsawwa.org) and keep an eye out for events that might be of interest to you. Thanks again for being a member of FSAWWA and I’m looking forward to working with you all toward an amazing 2020! S

News Beat The American Water Works Association (AWWA) has announced the launch of an ondemand video streaming platform. Viewers can watch high-resolution videos, organized based on content and subject matter, at their convenience. The first channel to launch under this new platform is “Safety First,” where viewers can access 120 videos, spanning 10 hours, related to utility safety training. This set of videos can strengthen employees’ skills and encourage a safe work culture. “Employee safety is major concern at water utilities, and the “Safety First” channel provides an easy way for trainers to access expert-vetted AWWA video content to complement safety talks and tailgates,” said Tony Petrites, AWWA's product manager.


The new channel is available through a yearly subscription on AWWA’s video streaming webpage or in the AWWA Store. Once purchased, customers can visit video.awwa.org to access the video content. AWWA will expand its video content by adding more channels to its streaming platform in the future. Also released is the AWWA 2019 Compensation Survey of Water and Wastewater Utilities, which provides current data and analysis of salaries, salary ranges, and compensation practices in the water and wastewater utility industry. The data is divided into three products to guide utilities serving different population sizes (over 100,000; 10,000 to 100,000; and under 10,000). The survey offers up-to-date data and is designed to help utilities:

January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

S Compare salaries to those of similar utilities by filtering data by type of ownership or management, population size, and total number of employees. S Reference salary range minimum, midpoint and maximum levels for each position (as well as 50th percentile), company-weighted average pay, and employee-weighted average pay. S Compare similar jobs, even if titles are different. S Review recent changes to overall staffing levels, workplace policies, and cost-control initiatives. S Access segmented data for all participants, water-only participants, and water-andwastewater participants. For more www.awwa.org.





Street Lee, P.E., ENV SP, has been promoted to president of engineering at McKim & Creed. In this new role, he will oversee engineering services companywide. Prior to his promotion, he served as senior vice president. Lee came to McKim & Creed in 1986, three years after graduating from North Carolina State University. When the company established its Florida offices in 1994, he volunteered to relocate from Wilmington, N.C., to Clearwater to oversee water and wastewater services. During his tenure, McKim & Creed has become a leader in water and wastewater engineering in the Southeast and has established such niche service lines as instrumentation and controls, SCADA, and buried infrastructural renewal and replacement. “This promotion supports our continued growth, as well as recognizes the tremendous contributions that Street has made to the firm. He has been with McKim & Creed for over 30 years, progressing from an entry-level position, and has been a great example of our core values of respect for people, client satisfaction, continuous improvement, ownership, and safety,” said John T. Lucey, McKim & Creed chief executive officer.


Brandon Lucas has joined Lovibond®as the sales manager for water products, effective September 2019. Lovibond has been a leading manufacturer of water quality products for 130 years. The company focuses on providing analytical solutions that are designed to simplify analysis and provide users with accurate results in the laboratory, field, and online. Lucas will focus on analytical and process instrumentation growth in the water sector working with the company’s key distribution partners, as well as its internal team. He has a background in marketing management, with certifications from leading national sales programs and experience in business-to-business sales. He is passionate about helping people identify the best solutions to fulfill their needs.


Continued on page 58 Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Continued from page 57 Lovibond® has announced that Shaina Marfil has joined its team as the North American laboratory and portable products sales manager, effective August 2019. Marfil will focus on analytical instrumentation growth in the water sector by working with the company’s key distribution partners, as

well as its internal team. She has a background in environmental policy and management, with experience in environmental laboratory sales. She is tenacious about maintaining the integrity of a customer’s journey and is passionate about exceeding customer expectations.


The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) governing board has approved several actions that will help expedite the completion of the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wet-

lands Restoration project in Miami-Dade County. "This pristine and beautiful wetlands ecosystem is one of the most beautiful natural resources in South Florida. Restoration includes renewing the flow of clean freshwater to the wetlands, and I'm glad we're moving this important Everglades restoration project forward," said Charlie Martinez, SFWMD governing board member. "I look forward to our strong partnership with Miami-Dade County to protect and restore this natural treasure." The Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands project, a component of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), will restore freshwater flows to southern Biscayne Bay and Biscayne National Park, while improving salinity distribution near the shoreline. It will also restore historical freshwater wetland habitat adjacent to the bay, which acts like a sponge, soaking up water in the wet season and slowly releasing it in a more natural pattern. This project will improve the area's ecological health by helping to reestablish productive nearshore habitat, including nursery habitat for fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Additionally, the project will restore the distribution of freshwater flows to southern Biscayne Bay and Biscayne National Park, while improving salinity distribution near the shoreline. The board approved a share of the costs to design one of the components of the project, the Cutler Wetlands Flow-way. The project is an even cost-share with Miami-Dade County, which has been a partner in the ongoing environmental restoration work, and the design work is scheduled to be completed by next year. "I'm proud of the collaboration between Miami-Dade and the South Florida Water Management District on the Cutler Flow-way completion," said Daniella Levine Cava, Miami-Dade County commissioner. "Our combined effort will go a long way to restoring the wetland habitat critical to a healthy Biscayne Bay and help us protect against saltwater intrusion into our water supply." The board also approved entering into a grant agreement with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection that would give SFWMD $1.5 million in state funding, originally allocated by the Florida Legislature, to pay for planning the second phase of the Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands restoration. The second phase is expected to deliver more freshwater to the bay and Biscayne National Park to help balance salinity levels and improve habitat.


U.S. Rep. Vern Buchanan has announced that $1.9 million in funding from the National Continued on page 61


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

CLASSIFIEDS CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES - Classified ads are $20 per line for a 60 character line (including spaces and punctuation), $60 minimum. The price includes publication in both the magazine and our Web site. Short positions wanted ads are run one time for no charge and are subject to editing. ads@fwrj.com

POSITIONS AVAILABLE CITY OF WINTER GARDEN – POSITIONS AVAILABLE The City of Winter Garden is currently accepting applications for the following positions: EXPERIENCED & TRAINEES/LABORERS - Collection Field Tech – I, II, & III - Distribution Field Tech – I, II, & III - Public Service Worker II - Stormwater Please visit our website at www.cwgdn.com for complete job descriptions and to apply. Applications may be submitted online, in person or faxed to 407-877-2795.

Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Salary Range: $47,675. - $90,281. The Florida Keys Aqueduct Authority is hiring 2 WWTP Operators. Minimum Requirements: Must have a Florida Class “C” WWTPO license or higher. Responsibilities include performing skilled/technical work involving the operation and maintenance of a wastewater treatment plant according to local, state and federal regulations and laws. An employee in this classification must have the technical knowledge and independent judgment to make treatment process adjustments and perform maintenance to plant equipment, machinery and related control apparatus in accordance with established standards and procedures. Salary is commensurate with experience and license classification. Benefit package is extremely competitive! Must complete on-line application at http://www.fkaa.com/employment.htm EEO, VPE, ADA

Orange County Utilities is one of the largest utility providers in Florida and has been recognized nationally and locally for outstanding operations, efficiencies, innovations, education programs and customer focus. We provide water and wastewater services to a population of over 500,000 citizens and 72 million annual guests; operate the largest publicly owned landfill in the state; and manage in excess of a billion dollars of infrastructure assets. Our focus is on excellent quality, customer service, sustainability, and a commitment to employee development. Join us to find more than a job – find a career. We are seeking a highly qualified individual to fill a position for an Environmental Management System Project Manager. The position is responsible for developing, implementing and administering the Orange County Utilities environmental management system (EMS). The EMS helps utilities effectively serve the public through a formal continuous improvement program. The Project Manager is responsible for updating a formal capacity, management, operation and maintenance (CMOM) program through the EMS including assessment and mitigation of existing gaps. The EMS Project Manager works with Senior Management to establish organizational work processes, perform internal technical and process audits and develop corrective recommendations to optimize the use of human and material resources. Environmental Management System Project Manager Fiscal & Operational Support Division Annual Salary $79,310 Min, $97,261 Mid, $115,190 Max Starting salary of external candidates is customarily below the midpoint based on qualifications. Apply online at: http://www.ocfl.net/careers Positions are open until filled

Village of Wellington Water Treatment Plant Chief Operator position The Water Treatment Plant at Wellington is searching for an experienced Chief Operator. Job posting and application available on our website: https://wellingtonfl.munisselfservice.com/employmentopportunities/default.aspx . Wellington is located in Palm Beach County, Florida. Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


City of Titusville - Multiple Positions Available

Utility Billing Manager $72,250 - $101,662/yr. Utilities Foreman (Water & Storm Water)

Senior Utility Engineer, Network Analyst SCADA, Industrial Electrician, Maintenance Mechanic, Equipment Operator, Technical Services Foreman, Crew Leader, Meter Technician, Service Worker, Utility Field Technician. Apply at www.titusville.com

$50,828 - $71,520/yr.

Utilities System Operator II & III $41,815 - $58,841 / $43,907 - $61,780/yr. Apply Online At: http://pompanobeachfl.gov Open until filled.

City of Wildwood


Experienced Industrial Pretreatment Technician needed to join our amazing wastewater team. Responsible for overseeing the City’s Industrial Pretreatment Program. Must have a valid driver’s license and ability to obtain a Class C license within two years. Starting Pay Range: $36,000 - $42,000yr. Applications online www.wildwood-fl.gov or City Hall, 100 N. Main St, Wildwood, FL 34785 Attn: Melissa Tuck. EEO/AA/V/H/MF/DFWP.

U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for state certified water and wastewater treatment plant operators. All applicants must hold at least minimum “C” operator’s certificate. Background check and drug screen required. –Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS U.S. Water Services Corporation is now accepting applications for maintenance technicians in the water and wastewater industry. All applicants must have 1+ years experience in performing mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing abilities and a valid DL. Background check and drug screen required. -Apply at http://www.uswatercorp.com/careers or to obtain further information call (866) 753-8292. EOE/m/f/v/d

Lead - Sewer Collections City of Gulf Breeze, FL. Lead worker to perform full range of maintenance and repair activities involved in sewer collections conveyance systems, lift stations, control panels, remote monitoring and alarm systems for both gravity and pressure systems, and implement strategic initiatives, responsible for supervision and training of service workers. Pay Range $18.98-22.00 DOQ. Full time, permanent position. Requires background check and drug screening. Requires active driver’s license. See city website for complete job listing at https://cityofgulfbreezektmle.formstack.com/forms/job_application_copy, email resumes to vgura@gulfbreezefl.gov


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

City of Zephyrhills - Wastewater Superintendent & Wastewater Plant Operator The City of Zephyrhills is accepting applications for the following positions: Wastewater Superintendent & Wastewater Plant Operator. Apply online at: https://www.ci.zephyrhills.fl.us/Jobs.aspx https://www.ci.zephyrhills.fl.us/Jobs.aspx

News Beat Continued from page 58 Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will go to Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota to study red tide. “Mote Marine Laboratory works tirelessly to counter red tide and improve Florida’s water quality,” Buchanan said. “I will continue my push in Congress to deliver resources to fight the plague of red tide and protect southwest Florida’s environment.” Funding comes from NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Competitive Research Program. Michael Crosby, Mote president, will oversee spending. The money comes a year after red tide savaged Florida’s west coast. The Florida Legislature this year approved the Florida Red Tide Mitigation and Technology Development Initiative, a partnership between Mote Marine and the Fish and Wildlife Commission’s Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. Gov. RonDeSantis signed that into law in June and $18 million will be spent over the next six years on combating red tide, with much of that being spent at the Sarasota laboratory. In May, U.S. Rep. Charlie Crist announced $10 million in new funding to address harmful algal blooms, including red tide. Buchanan also pushed an amendment passed by the U.S. House of Representatives directing the National Institutes of Health to designate $6.25 million to research the long-term health effects of red tide and harmful algal blooms. Additionally, Buchanan and Crist cosponsored the Coastal Communities Ocean Acidification Act (HR 1716), as have Florida Republicans Michael Waltz and Francis Rooney. If passed, the legislation will require NOAA to examine the impact of ocean acidification and

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instruct the Secretary of Commerce to determine when communities suffered direct economic damage. The Florida Congressional Delegation, chaired by Buchanan and Fort Lauderdale Democrat Alcee Hastings, met in February to discuss the impacts of red tide and other environmental threats in Florida.


The Water Quality Association supports Lead and Copper Rule revisions proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and is encouraging its members to review them and submit public comment by Jan. 13, 2020. The revisions were designed to improve how communities treat and test for lead in drinking water and force quicker regulatory response when lead is detected. The proposal continues the push for replacing lead water service lines and requires communities to inventory lead lines, provide corrosion control treatment, follow new improved sampling procedures, monitor schools and child-care centers, and increase communications with residents when their water tests at higher than the action level of 15 parts per billion (ppb) of lead. Although the plan does not change that action level, it sets a new “lead trigger level” of 10 ppb, which would require water systems to take actions working toward lead reduction at that point. The revised rule also would allow community water systems serving less than 10,000 people and all nontransient and noncommunity water systems to use point of use devices certified to remove lead in place of corrosion control treatment. In addition, to address potential lead line disturbance, such as during a lead line replacement, systems will provide a certified pitcher to remove lead for up to three months and conduct a follow-up test.


The U.S. Senate has passed the 2020 Interior Environment and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, which will now be sent to President Trump for his signature. The National Association of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) worked with Congress on its decision to provide substantial funding for a variety of initiatives that are critical to the continued success of the public clean water sector. The final language includes an additional $200 million in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funding, for a total of $9.06 billion. Of this total funding, $1.6 billion is for the Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF), $28 million for Sewer Overflow and Stormwater Control Grants, and $1 million for the Water Workforce and Infrastructure and Utility Development Grants. There is also language to ensure timely implementation of the Integrated Planning Clean Water Act Amendment that was also passed. “NACWA has worked tirelessly with both the House and Senate during this process to ensure that the needs of the public clean water sector are met,” says Adam Krantz, the chief executive officer of NACWA. “The legislation passed provides new funding for key clean water priorities, while also underscoring the importance of allowing communities the freedom to better sequence and prioritize their obligations and investments under the Clean Water Act’s integrated planning provision. The inclusion of the sewer and stormwater grant funding is especially noteworthy, as it signals Congress’s recognition that federal grant dollars—and not just loans—are critical to addressing our nation’s clean water infrastructure needs.” S

Florida Water Resources Journal • January 2020


Test Yourself Answer Key From page 20 January 2016

Editorial Calendar January ............Wastewater Treatment February ..........Water Supply; Alternative Sources March ..............Energy Efficiency; Environmental Stewardship April ..................Conservation and Reuse May ..................Operations and Utilities Management; Florida Water Resources Conference June ................Biosolids Management and Bioenergy Production July ..................Stormwater Management; Emerging Technologies; FWRC Review August ..............Disinfection; Water Quality September........Emerging Issues; Water Resources Management October ............New Facilities, Expansions, and Upgrades November ........Water Treatment December ........Distribution and Collection Technical articles are usually scheduled several months in advance and are due 60 days before the issue month (for example, January 1 for the March issue). The closing date for display ad and directory card reservations, notices, announcements, upcoming events, and everything else including classified ads, is 30 days before the issue month (for example, September 1 for the October issue). For further information on submittal requirements, guidelines for writers, advertising rates and conditions, and ad dimensions, as well as the most recent notices, announcements, and classified advertisements, go to www.fwrj.com or call 352-241-6006.

Display Advertiser Index 2019 FSAWWA Awards ................................................................49 Blue Planet....................................................................................63 CEU Challenge ..............................................................................39 Data Flow Systems ......................................................................50 Engineered Pump LLC ..................................................................45 Florida Aquastore ........................................................................57 FSAWWA Fall Conference Sponsors ............................................34 FSAWWA Fall Conference Golf and Poker Sponsors ..................35 FSAWWA Open Bar Sponsors ......................................................36 FSAWWA Drop Savers Contest ....................................................37 FWPCOA Online Training Institute................................................29 FWPCOA Training Calendar ..........................................................55 Florida Water Resources Conference ....................................11-16 Grundfos ......................................................................................17 Hudson Pump and Equipment......................................................21 Hydro International ........................................................................5 Infosense ......................................................................................60 J&S Valve ......................................................................................33 Lakeside Construction ..................................................................7 One AWWA Operator Scholarship ................................................38 PC Construction............................................................................54 Professional Pumps ....................................................................58 Stantec..........................................................................................27 UF Treeo Center ............................................................................47 Stacon ............................................................................................2 Xylem ............................................................................................64


January 2020 • Florida Water Resources Journal

1. A) Department of Environmental Protection Per FDEP’s Water Management District webpage (WMD Web Page), “It is a policy of the Legislature that the state’s water resources be managed at a state and regional level. The Department of Environmental Protection, responsible for the administration of the water resources at the state level, exercises general supervisory authority over the state’s five water management districts, which are responsible for the administration of the water resources at the regional level.”

2. C) natural systems. Per FDEP’s WMD Web Page, “The four core mission areas of the water management districts are: (1) water supply, (2) water quality, (3) flood protection and floodplain management, and (4) natural systems.”

3. B) minimum flows and levels (MFLs). Per FDEP’s WMD Web Page, “One major challenge associated with water supply planning is finding the balance between meeting public water supply needs while maintaining the healthy natural systems essential to Florida's economy and quality of life. Two ways that water managers ensure that the water resources and associated ecological systems are protected are through the implementation of minimum flows and minimum water levels (MFLs) and water use reservations (Reservations) programs.”

4. B) Every five years Per FDEP’s Water Supply webpage, “Every five years, each district creates a regional water supply plan. Regional water supply plans include a water supply and water resource development component, a funding strategy for water resource development projects, consideration of how the water supply development project options serve the public interest or save costs, technical data to support the plan, a list of water bodies for which minimum flows and levels have been established or will be established, recovery or prevention strategies for the water bodies not meeting their minimum flows and/or levels, and a list of water reservations.”

5. D) 20 years Per FDEP’s WMD Web Page, “Where it determines that existing sources of water are not adequate to supply water for all existing and future reasonable-beneficial uses and to sustain the water resources and related natural systems for the planning period (20 years), a district develops a regional water supply plan setting forth projects, costs, and projections over a 20year period that are needed to meet all existing and future reasonable-beneficial uses and to sustain the water resources and related natural systems. The districts are also proud to costshare the implementation of many of those projects.”

6. D) well construction permits. Per FDEP’s WMD Web Page, “Regulatory programs delegated to the districts include programs to manage the consumptive use of water, well construction, and environmental resource permitting.”

7. A) Annual average quantities from any source or combined sources is greater than or equal to 100,000 gal per day (gpd). Per FAC 40D-2.041(4)(b) Permits Required, “Unless expressly exempted by law or district rule, a water use permit (WUP) must be obtained from the district prior to any use, withdrawal, or diversion of water. An individual WUP must be obtained from the district prior to withdrawal of water if any of the following thresholds are met or exceeded . . . (b) Annual average quantities from any source or combined sources is greater than or equal to 100,000 gpd.”

8. A) is consistent with the public interest. Per FAC 40D-2.301 Conditions for Issuance of Permits, “(1) To obtain an individual WUP, renewal, or modification, an applicant must provide reasonable assurance that the proposed consumptive use of water, on an individual and cumulative basis: (a) Is a reasonable-beneficial use; (b) Will not interfere with any presently existing legal use of water; and (c) Is consistent with the public interest.”

9. D) Every 10 years Per FAC 40D-2.371 Ten-Year Compliance Reporting, “(1) Except for permits issued pursuant to subsection 373.236(6), F.S., permits issued for a duration of 20 years or longer shall require submittal of a compliance report under subsection 373.236(4), F.S., once every ten years, when necessary to maintain reasonable assurances that the conditions for issuance can continue to be met.”

10. D) the water management district where they will perform most of their work. Per FDEP’s webpage, Water Well Contractor Licensing and Permitting, “As required by statute, FDEP has delegated to each of the WMDs its authority to implement a program for the licensing of water well contractors and for permitting the location, construction, repair, and abandonment of water wells. As a result, all persons applying for a water well contractor license to engage in the business of water well contracting or to renew an existing contractor license must file their application with the WMD where they will perform most of their work; however, a contractor license is valid statewide.”

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