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Reproduction of the material contained in this publication is authorized only for non-commercial purposes and if you give a clear reference of this source. Translations contained in this publication are approximate and these have been made in order to achieve a better understanding of the source text. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission (Europe for Citizens). This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Year of publication: 2011























INTRODUCTION Welcome to our “Learning Pass” developed in the frame of the project MIROPE (standing for Mirroring Europe) which main aim is to recognize the history of Europe in the reflection from the actual Europe. Why Learning Pass (LP)? LP reflects the idea of permission to do something. In this sense, this manual could be our boarding pass towards learning and, in this particular case, towards the learning of 20th century European history. In other words, it could be considered as a tool allowing us to board in a travel towards the construction of the actual Europe throughout the knowledge of the recently history of Europe. In our context, this LP tries to make easier to adult and youth teaching staff the task of passing on knowledge, ideas and values. To achieve this mission, we have chosen and developed six important milestones from the 20th Century European History, which could inspire you or be the starting point for the development of creative workshops using artistic expression. If you are reading these pages, it is probably because you are interested in adult and youth education and you are looking for new ideas and additional materials and resources which might help you to improve your techniques and experiences.

This LP is the result of the work and collective effort of the MIROPE project partners, where each partner has developed two themes related to their own history, being these themes the following: Art During Spanish Civil War & Transition Period, written by Fundación INTRAS (Valladolid, Spain); Building and fall of the Berlin Wall written by CJD (Frechen, Germany); and Communism and Transition of the East Block, written by TEATR GRODZKI (Bielsko-Biala, Poland). Should you be interested to find more information (available in English, Spanish, German and Polish) about materials developed in the frame of this project (dissemination materials, activities, manuals, tools, partners’ information, contact details, etc.), please visit our Web site: http://


CONTEXT The concept of European Identity goes beyond of being a geographic or legal concept. Instead of it, it is an abstract concept beyond of the national or continental borders. This concept is built into respect and includes citizen´s wishes and aspirations. These wishes and aspirations drive us to contribute to the construction of Europe. The challenge is to integrate this concept in the daily routine of people at risk of social exclusion by giving them a chance of playing a leading role in the change. And it is at this point where MIROPE project takes an important role. MIROPE is particularly focused in providing new ways of expression about the meaning of being European to people at risk of social exclusion. Using visual arts, MIROPE provides knowledge, invites them to express their opinion and to put Europe in context. One of the aims is to foster reflection, critical thinking and dialogue while they are using visual arts and creative techniques. In the frame of this project, 6 workshops which will give the opportunity to participants to express their opinion about each module throughout different artistic techniques will be developed (please visit http://mirope. to have more information about these workshops and the artworks produced). Focusing the reflection on the 20th Century European history, this LP contains 6 themes that goes through the recent history of Spain, Germany

and Poland, following the same structure: Historical context 1. 2. Useful resources: statements and artistic audiovisual expression Each module starts with a simple and brief description about the historical period and finishes with useful resources to help us to better understand ideas, movements and society during a certain period. On the one hand, you will find statements and extracts from articles, songs, novels and poems. On the other hand: artworks, films, documentaries, etc. from those days. Finally you may find some questions which could foster reflection and make understanding easier. We hope that this LP inspires and helps you to pass on European identity, tolerance, mutual understanding and diversity throughout the history and also inspires participants to elaborate individual and critical artworks around European Identity. Good trip!



Historical context

The Spanish Civil War has been one of the most important periods in the XX century regarding artistic expression. Besides an important bibliography related with the Civil War, we have to emphasize literature, poetry, theatre, cinema and visual arts always stressing specific consequences: distinguished artists and men of letters whom have to live in exile, government censorship and legal prohibitions aiming to adapt artistic expressions to the official rules. The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939 but the starting point was in October 1934, when a social revolution against establishing Communist system (see George Orwell´s book “Tribute to Catalonia”), a military uprising and a general strike broke out together with the split of the two Spains (see Machado´s poem “Songs and Proverbs”): revolutionaries and conservatives, anticlerical and Catholics, left winger revolutionaries and right winger fascists. It was a social, political and military conflict, which has been considerate as a prelude of the Second World War; firstly, because it was used as a testing ground and, secondly, because it included the main European ideologies which would be in conflict soon. In this context, on 17th of July 1936, a group of military men carried out a “coup d’état” addressed to overthrow established regime. The War broke out between two opposite sides: national and republican without the support of the Occidental Democra-

7 cies. The situation spread soon to the whole Spain, but three long years were necessary until one of the sides was proclaimed victorious. During these three years numerous battles were fought in every city of Spain until the collapse of Barcelona in January and of Madrid in March, 1939. After the collapse of Madrid, republican government lost the last cities and the war finished on first of April 1939. 500.000 people were killed, without take into account people dying as a result of malnutrition and disease related to the War. Exile during the post-war period and the removal of the republican ideology and ideas was another consequence. The loss of patrimony is incalculable. Numerous cities and towns were devastated (see Guernica) and more than 20.000 churches were demolished or burnt. The impact of the war was massive: The Spanish economy took decades to recover and emotional repercussions of the war will last until nowadays. Within this context, in the field of literature, there are important novelists from both sides as Miguel Angel, Antonio Buero Vallejo, Camilo José Cela, Miguel Delibes, etc. Novelist whom have to live in exile as Rafael Alberti, Ramón J. Sender o Juan Ramón Jiménez and foreign writers as Ernest Hemingway or George Orwell whom were involved in the conflict. Posters were used as a weapon of war. From national side, they were used to build a singular Falangist aesthetic and to promote “National movement”: Sáenz de Tejada, Teodoro and Alvaro Delgado with J. L. Luca de Tena´s texts. In the other side, Republicans defined the poster as “a cry of pain sticks against the wall”: Martín

Vas, Miró and Dalí from the exile. The impressive “El Guernica” of Picasso is another proof of the art during Civil War. In the field of cinema and TV Luis Buñuel within the Republican side and the NODO ( wiki/No-Do) as main character from National side.

Literature: some statements, novel, poetry, articles and opinions George Orwell, “Tribute to Catalonia”: (see original text in the Spanish LP) (1934) Numerous of the common motivations of the civilized live: ostentation, profit, fear to the employees, etc. just had ceased to exist. Social class division disappear until an unbelievable point in the commercial atmosphere of England: there were just peasants and us, and no one gave orders to anyone. No one was own of anyone. Extract of the statement of Father Alberto de Onaindia, witnessed the bombing of Guernica on 26th April 1937. He was interviewed by the author, Robert Payne, for his book, “The Civil War in Spain” (1963) “Late in the afternoon of April 26th I was going by car to rescue my mother and my sisters living in a town- Marquina. It was one of those magnificently clear days, the sky soft and serene. We reached the outskirts of Guernica just before five o’clock. The streets were busy with the traffic of market day. Suddenly we heard the siren, and trembled. People were running about in all directions, abandoning everything they possessed, some hurrying into the shelters, others running into the hills. Soon an enemy aeroplane appeared over Guernica. A peasant was passing by. ‘It’s nothing, only one of the ‘white’ ones,’ he said. ‘He’ll drop a few bombs, and then he’ll go away.’ The ‘white’ aeroplane made a reconnaissance over the town, and when he was directly over the centre he dropped three bombs. Immediately afterwards he saw a squadron of se-

ven planes followed a little later by six more, and this in turn by a third squadron of five more. All of them were Junkers. Meanwhile Guernica was seized with a terrible panic. Women, children and old men were falling in heaps, like flies, and everywhere we saw lakes of blood. I saw an old peasant standing alone in a field: a machine-gun bullet killed him. For more than an hour these eighteen planes, never more than a few hundred meters in altitude, dropped bomb after bomb on Guernica. The sound of the explosions and of the crumbling houses cannot be imagined. http://www.” Camilo José Cela, “The Beehive”. (see original text in the Spanish LP) Novel that takes place in Madrid during Spanish post-war period and shows throughout a harsh realism the society in those days. Camilo José Cela used more than 300 characters within meddle and working class, in an unstable situation and with an uncertain future. As Camilo José Cela said: “their looks never discover new horizons and their life is a morning eternally repeated”. Ernest Hemingway, “For Whom The Bell Tolls”. (see original text in the Spanish LP) Hemingway relates the story about a young man from USA who fights on the republican side as specialist of explosives and his mission is to blow up a bridge in order to avoid the counteroffensive from national side in Segovia, everything within a love and hopeless story marked by the war. Miguel Hernandez, committed poet

and republican combatant expresses the society in those days with the following words: (see original text in the Spanish LP) “I have travelled around Spain: What have I seen? Together with sad man and worn out from work and starvation, plowman children, miners, blacksmiths, bricklayers, savagely infected from their parents´ expression: children with old face and look of misfortune.” Antonio Machado, extract from “Songs and Proverbs”: (see original text in the Spanish LP) Now there is a Spaniard who wants to live, and to live he begins. Between a Spain that dies and another that yawns. Little Spaniard coming into the world, may God protect you. One of the two Spains will freeze your heart.

Some piece of visual art: movies, photography, TV documentaries, etc. WAR PHOTOGRAPHY: “Portrait of front of Aragon”, “Front of Córdoba” & “Refugees at the Sevilla metro station in Madrid” coleccion/coleccion-1/sala-206-3_ en.html Robert Capa: “Falling Soldier “http:// FILMOGRAPHY: “Soldiers of Salamina” trailer watch?v=IHnjjpD3MXM “Carol´s travel” trailer: SP with EN subtitles. watch?v=DI5F8LocyBo “The girl of your eyes”. Fernando Trueba has taken a story of an acting troupe that flees National side of Spain for an opportunity to make a ‘really huge’ film in Germany. Once there, they discover the sad facts of the regime. “Land and liberty” Ken Loach: SP y EN: ocid=-5904180592045722602# “The Spanish Earth” de Joris Ivens: EN: watch?v=yIZOQyP8usA “A sad trumpet ballad” by Alex de la Iglesia. (2010) WAR POSTERS: cartells/index-cartells.php?selCat=2&s elSubcat=7&Titol=&Autor=&Poblacio=

9 &selPais=&Any_Desde=&Any_Hasta= Posters from the Republican side: Siwe: The land is yours. http://www. /Carteles%20del%20 POUM.htm Carlos Saenz De Tejada: http:// c o m m o n s .w i k i m e d i a . o r g / w i k i / Carlos_S%C3%A1enz_de_Tejada Ignacio Zuloaga: Renau: PAINTINGS: Salvador Dalí: “Premonition of the civil war”, 1936: http://www.xtimeline. com/evt/view.aspx?id=27477 Construction_with_Boiled_Beans_ (Premonition_of_Civil_War) Juan Miró: “Still-Life with Old Shoe” “Help Spain” Mir%C3%B3 html?id=42

Questions for reflection and critical thinking

What does the story means for you? And for your family? And for the world you know? Why was it important so that now the world is a better place?


Historical context

Transition period is the historical period where Spain leaves the dictatorship and begins to be governed by a Constitution, establishing a social state and a democratic country. This period goes from 1975, year of the death of Francisco Franco (although there are some historians whom establish the beginning of this period in 1966 with the approval of the Organic Law of State and principle of openness of Spain), to 1986 with the entry of Spain into the European Community. Transition period of Spain takes place at the same time than the called “The Carnation Revolution” in Portugal, which put and end to the dictatorial regime in Portugal and culminated in a revolution towards the left wing policy. Europe expressed the concerns for both countries declaring: “As more to the left Portugal will place, more to the right will do Spain” these fears promoted in Spain the creation of a moderate opposition which will prepare the transition period after the death of Franco: the Democratic Platform and the Democratic Committee, which in 1976 will be the “Democratic Coordination”. During the last years of the dictatorship, there are some important facts as the murder of Carrero Blanco (potential successor of Francisco Franco) by ETA (terrorist organization) and the execution of two members of ETA and three of FRAP (Revolutionary and Antifascist Patriotic Front) by the Dictatorship in 1975.

11 On 20th November 1975 and after the death of Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos I de Borbón is proclaimed King of Spain, being his mission the implantation of the democracy in Spain. Juan Carlos counts on ample support both within and outside of the country even from the Dictatorship, although he had to get over the most difficult stage: the stress caused by radical groups from left winger revolutionaries and right winger fascists and the army. Adolfo Suarez took a main role as a President: to establish Democracy as the common main goal between the leaders of the different political parties including parties from the Franco regime. The situation was characterized by the tension: in 1976 around 6000 workers started a strike in Vitoria that will finish as a general strike two months later. Police vacated a workers meeting and the result was 5 workers died and more than 60 were injured by the police. That news spread beyond our borders and exported the most barbaric face of Spain in the middle of a diplomatic campaign for the democracy borne out by the Monarchy. Political repression, strikes and demonstrations went all over Spain as an answer; in addition terrorist groups like GRAPO, ETA and the extreme right leaded the increase of violence in Spain. 1977 is an important year for the Democracy: The law of political reform, which removes obstacles from the Franco regime, was approved. Political parties were legalized, even Communist party which was legalized during Easter because the army was unready due to the holidays. At the same time, “the Movement”, the unique party from the Dictatorship, is dissolved the elections are prepared. The first democratic elections since 1936. The new

parliament began working on the new Constitution which will be submitted to referendum in 1979. The diversity of political ideas was obvious now and after solving getting the problems which required a general assent: in 1981 Adolfo Suarez resigned from the Parliament due to disagreements with Juan Carlos I King of Spain and within his party. While members of the Parliament were voting a new successor of Adolfo Suarez, a failed attempt of a military coup (23-F) took place, leaded by the army. This incident was a proof of the real risk of the army. The establishment and normalization of Democracy appeared with the historic elections of 1982, where a Socialist party (PSOE) achieved absolute majority and governed until 1989.

Literature: some statements, novel, poetry, articles and opinions POETRY: Miguel Hernandez, Juan Manuel Serrat: “For freedom” (see original text in the Spanish LP) I bleed for freedom, fight and live on. For freedom, my eyes and my hands as a carnal tree, generous and captive I give to the surgeons. For the freedom I feel more hearts that sand in my chest. Give foam my veins and I come to the hospital and go into the cotton as in lilies Because where some empty hollows, she put two stones into the future, and will make new arms and legs to grow in meat cut down. It will sprout winged with sap without fall relics of my body I loose in each wound. I am like the tree cut down, that sprout and even I have a life.

“Freedom with no anger” by Jarcha (1974): watch?v=NrROdpJb4Ek (see original text in the Spanish LP) The old people say that in this country there was a war and there are two Spains which still bear grudges from unsettled accounts. The old people say that in this country we need a long stick and a firm hand in order to avoid the worst. But I’ve only seen people suffering in silence pain and fear people who only want their food, their woman and living their lives in peace. (Chorus) Freedom, freedom, freedom with no anger hold back your fear and anger for we have freedom, freedom with no anger and if we don’t have it yet, we will certainly get it. The old people say that we do as we please and thus is not possible for a Government to keep the country under control. The old people say that we cannot be given free rein, for here we all are very prone to violence. But I’ve only seen very obedient people even in bed. People who only demand to live in peace and with no more lies.

Alaska y Dinarama (1984) extract from the song “Who cares?”http://www. (see original text in the Spanish LP) The people hint They point to me with their fingers They whisper behind my back and I couldn’t care less How much it gives If I am different from them I am of no ones I have no owner I know that they critique me It consists to me that they hate me Their envy corrodes [them] My life oppresses [them] I am like so, and like so I will continue Never to change Why it [is] I have the blame My circumstances insult them My destiny is what I choose What I have eligo (chosen?) for myself To who does it matter what I do To who does it matter what I say I am like so, and like so I will continue Never to change To who does it matter what I do To who does it matter what I say I am like so, and like so I will continue Never to change The fault is mine For not following the norm It is much late to change now I will maintain in my convictions Reinforce my positions My destiny is what I decide That what I have chosen for me To who does it matter what I do To who does it matter what I say I am like so, and like so I will continue Never to change To who does it matter what I do To who does it matter what I say

13 Some piece of visual art: movies, photography, TV documentaries, etc. VISUAL ARTS: Antonio Saura. http://www. - EN/DE/SP/FR - José María Yturralde. http:// SP/EN - http:// Josep Renau. w w w. u v. e s / c u l t u r a / c / d o c s / expjoseprenaucast.htm - Rafael Alberti. http://www. SP/FR/DE/EN/POR/ PY FILMOGRAPHY: The Madrilenian groove scene: - “Pepi, Luci, Bom and Other Girls on the Heap” by Pedro Almodovar. (1980.) Pepi,_Luci,_Bom com/title/tt0081323/ - “Opera Prima” by Fernando Trueba. (1980) http://movies.nytimes. com/movie/review?res=9C00E0DB10 3BF935A35752C0A964948260 Political transition: - “The National shotgun” by (1978) - “The Wolf” by Miguel Cortois (2004) The_Wolf_(film) Family and life during the transition period: - “Big Family” by Fernando Palacios. (1963) http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/La_gran_familia FOTOGRAPHY: Death of Franco: http:// - w w w. f o t o f o r u m . n e t / e x p o n e /

memoria/1975_1.htm Adolfo Suarez: - Resign of memoria/1981_1.htm - Group ETA: Terroristic memoria/1982_1.htm - Madrilenian groove The scene: expone/memoria/1983_1.htm - from Demonstrations the student community: http:// w w w. f o t o f o r u m . n e t / e x p o n e / memoria/1987_1.htm - Demonstration for the sexual freedom: expone/memoria/1989_1.htm - Squatter in Madrid: http:// w w w. f o t o f o r u m . n e t / e x p o n e / memoria/1990_1.htm

Questions for reflection and critical thinking

What does the story mean for you? And for your family? And for the world you know? Why was it important so that now the world is a better place?


Historical context

The 9th of November in 1989 is treasured well in the minds of millions of Germans: the day of the Fall of the Wall. Unforgotten are the pictures of strangers, locking each other in their arms and shedding tears of joy. After more than 28 years the German Democratic Republic (GDR) opens the border in Berlin and allows a free border crossing from East to West. A whole country is in ecstasy. Almost one year later, on the 3rd of October in 1990, Germany celebrates the reunification of Eastern and Western Germany. But how did it come, that Germany had been divided into East and West for more than 40 years? How did it come that far, that families and friends had been forced to live in two different countries for so long? Since the beginning of the 20th century there was a conflict between two fronts: The western countries under the leadership of the USA and the eastern Bloc under the leadership of the former Soviet Union. The big difference between the East and the West was the political structure that prevailed: The Soviet Union practiced Socialism while the western countries practiced Capitalism. Two completely different ideologies opposed each other. In this time the East and the West treated each other with big hostility. But during the Second World War they had to fight together to defeat Germany. After the war, the victorious powers were the Soviet Union in the East and the USA, France and Great Britain in the West.

15 These four countries distributed Germany among themselves and there were four occupied zones: Three of the western countries and one of the Soviet Union. Berlin, the capital of Germany was located in the heart of the eastern zone. It was divided into East and West as well. But within Germany the old conflict between the East and the West went on (this was declared the “Cold War” later) and it was not possible to govern Germany as one country. The result was, that - four years after the end of the Second World War - two different states were founded on German ground: - In the West the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). - In the East the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The Soviet Union forced the rebuilding into a socialistic state. The Socialist Unity Party of Germany evolved into the party of the state and governed more and more authoritarian and centralist – a party of dictatorship arose in the East. The USA, France and Great Britain promoted to rebuild a country in the character of freedom and democracy in Western Germany and West Berlin. The people in Eastern Germany suffered from this strict regime and began to demonstrate against it, but the regime stopped these demonstrations - sometimes violently. At least 55 people died during one demonstration on the 17th of June in 1953. More and more people left Eastern Germany and moved into the west. Between 1949 and 1961 more

than 2 million people absconded to Western Germany. To stop this flow of refugees the GDR started to build a wall in August 1961. The western part of Berlin was completely surrounded by the Wall. The Wall of Berlin became a symbol of the East/West conflict.

Literature: some statements, novel, poetry, articles and opinions SONGs: “Sonderzug nach Pankow” original text in the German LP)


The Song “Sonderzug nach Pankow” tells the despair of the singer Udo Lindenberg from Westberlin, who wants to give a concert in Pankow, Eastberlin. But he is not given permission because of the prohibition to cross the border. htt p : / / w w w. my v i d e o . d e / watch/2262008/Udo_Lindenberg_ Sonderzug_nach_Pankow_Clip Excuse me, is this the special train to Pankow? I have to go to East Berlin. I have to resolve something with your Indian Chief I am a yodeling-(singing) talent and want to play with a band I brought a bottle of cognac, that´s very delicious. I drink it very easy with Erich Honecker. And I say: “Ey Honey, I sing for little money in the palace of the republic, if you let me.” All the fools who sing pop songs have permission to sing there! May present their garbage. Just little Udo, is not allowed, we don´t understand that! I know for sure, I have many friends in DDR, each hour there are some more. Oh Erich, ey are you truely such a stubborn forest demon? Why don´t you let me sing in the state of labourers and farmers?

Is this the special train to Pankow? Honey I think actually you are quite easy I know deep in your heart you are a rocker too. In secret you like putting on your leather jacket too. And lock yourself in the toilett to listen to westgerman radio Hallo Erich can you hear me? Some: “Wind of Change” (see original text in the German LP) Another central song is “Wind of Change” by the Scorpians, a song that is about hope for change. v1BISBD4HA&feature=related

Some piece of visual art: movies, photography, TV documentaries, etc. Impuls: Some original pieces of the Berlin Wall are regularly designed and sold by modern artists: index-eng.htm Find more information about the History of the Wall on: index.html htt p : / / w w w. m a u e r m u s e u m . d e / english/frame-index-mauer.html

Questions for reflection and critical thinking

What are central points in this story? What does the story mean for you? And for your family? And for the world you know? Why was it important so that now the world is a better place? What can I learn from this event for my future and for the European future? Etc. For this part we recommend to have a short discussion round, where every participant may contribute his thoughts. A discussion in the way of the reciprocal maieutic approach (RMA) would be a good way to deal with the topic. For more information check the project EDDILI (http://reciprocalmaieutic.


Historical context

More than 28 years the Wall, about 4 meters high, led through Berlin and divided the city into East and West. Just under special circumstances people of East Berlin could leave and visit their families in the West. Many people died when they tried to cross the Wall or were caught by the police and went to prison. Nevertheless more than 5000 people were successful in leaving the country. The people in Western Germany tried to help their fellow countrymen. The way how people tried to cross the Wall shows, how desperate they must have been. Many people dug tunnels up to 145 meters or they flew with self-made planes over the Wall. As the eastern government identified abscondence as a crime to the regime, the boarder guards were directed to use their guns in case of runaways. At all more than 100 people were killed when they tried to leave East Berlin. People who got caught went to prison, were examined or even tortured. The tension grew stronger every day, especially because the people in Eastern Germany were aware of the fact that their fellow countrymen in the West could live in freedom. In 1989 lots of people of the GDR left the country via Hungary and Austria or were looking for asylum in embassies of the Federal Republic of Germany, especially in the eastern part of Europe. At the same time the so-called “Montagsdemonstrationen“

(demonstrations which were held on Mondays) took place. Hundred thousands of people participated and protested against the political situation in the GDR. These peaceful demonstrations made the government open the border for the very first time on the 9th of November in 1989. Almost one year later, on the 3rd of October in 1990, Germany officially celebrated its reunification.

Literature: some statements, novel, poetry, articles and opinions STATEMENTS (see original text in the German LP) “After 40 years German Republic, a new generation in Germany should not be lied to about the chance of a reunification. It does not exist.” Gerhard Schröder, 12. 6.1989 “The Reunification is a life-lie” (Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung, 12.3.1987) “Everything is possible – Berlin is free!” Bill Clinton, in his speach on the German Unification Day in Berlin, 03.10.2002 “The Germans are the luckiest people on earth today.” Walter Momper, governing mayor of Berlin, 09.11.1989. “The gate of history was open and we entered.” Helmut Kohl commenting on the German Reunification SONG “Freedom” by Marius Müller Westernhagen. (1987) (see original text in the German LP) It tells a story of a perfect party, everything seems perfect. But freedom is missing. h t t p : / / w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m / watch?v=fmxdyoK2I2s EhZ8nzb1ic&feature=related The second version is nice to watch because of many pictures, but TAKE CARE! It is a review, and the pictures

do show scenes from separation and unification. The song was published and grew before the wall fell down! The contracts are made and there was much laughter and something sweet for dessert Freedom freedom The chapel rum-ta-ta and the Pope was already there and my neighbor in front Freedom freedom is the only one missing Freedom freedom is the only one missing Man is not, unfortunately, naive Unfortunately, primitive man is Freedom freedom was canceled again All the dream of freedom should not miss Party’s to dance on graves Freedom freedom is the only thing that matters Freedom freedom is the only thing that matter.

19 Some piece of visual art: movies, photography, TV documentaries, etc. MOVIE SUGGESTION: “Good Bye, Lenin!”, by Wolfgang Becker, 2003 Shortly before the fall of the Berlin Wall, the mother of 21 year old Alex, a confident citizen of the GDR falls into a coma after a heart attack - and sleeps through the triumph of capitalism. When, after eight months she opens her eyes again, she wakes up in a new country. Because of her weak heart that might react to any excitement, her son Alex decides to conceal what had happened in Germany. There´s no brake for Alex, who on the 79 m² flat ties to keep the GDR alive. He quickly notes that this plan can be implemented more difficult than expected... This movie can be used to present a historical topic in a very vivid way. To make sure the learning process it is possible to hand out questionnaires, which are to be filled in during the movie. For example: 1. In which city does the movie find place? 2. At which day does the first astronaut of the GDR enter the universe? Where does Lara come from? 3. 4. Why is the Coca Cola poster so shocking?

Questions for reflection and critical thinking

What are central points in this story? What does the story mean for you? And for your family? And for the world you know? Why was it important so that now the world is a better place? What can I learn from this event for my future and for the European future? Etc. For this part we recommend to have a short discussion round, where every participant may contribute his thoughts. A discussion in the way of the reciprocal maeutic approach (RMA) would be a good way to deal with the topic. For more information check the project EDDILI. (http://reciprocalmaieutic.


Historical context

Communism was imposed on Poland by force. The Red Army brought communism to Poland on the tank barrels and on the bayonet of the rifles. If it weren’t for the fact that thousands of people died and millions were suffering, this system could be called a nightmare of a drunk, malicious and heartless idiot. Battles were fought against this system, including armed battles. In the period 1944-1956 the number of troops was estimated at 20 000 people. In 1956, the last guerrillas ceased their operations. In June the same year in Poznań, a general strike broke out. Street demonstrations after obtaining weapons turned into armed struggles. The revolt was brutally suppressed by the security forces - the army and police, however, it led to the change of actual position of the Polish First Secretary of KC PZPR. March 1968 brings the protest of secondary school pupils, students, intellectuals and young workers. The authority launches an anti-Semitic witch-hunt, 2700 people are arrested. December 1970 brings workers’ revolt is in Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin and Elblag. The authority’s response to strikes, rallies and demonstrations were gun salvos. In Gdynia, where machine gun from tanks was fired, more than 40 people were killed and over 1,000 were injured. These events have led to changes in authority. The First Secretary of the Central Committee become Edward Gierek, Władysław Gomułka goes on

21 the infamous retirement. In 1976 Workers’ Defence Committee - the organization of opposition issued an “Appeal to the Polish people and the authorities of the Polish People’s Republic”. The appeal announced the creation of the Workers Defense Committee. In August 1980 strikes spread through the entire country. The strike was a sit-in, none of the protesters did not go outside of the workplace. A Trade Union Strike Committee in the Gdansk shipyard coordinates actions in Poland. The authorities signed the August Agreement, during which the most important is the creation of “NSZZ Solidarność” - the first social organization completely independent from the government, 10 000 000 people joined its ranks. At the time of August Agreement, the authorities were preparing plans to suppress the opposition. At night from 12 to 13 December 1981, the First Secretary of the KC PZPR, General Wojciech Jaruzelski introduces martial law. Thousands of people were arrested, tanks rode in the streets of cities, military patrols with weapons and live ammunition guarded the streets and entrances to towns. The decree on martial law takes away civil liberties, sharpens penalties and prohibits strikes. The troops and police pacify strikers. In the “Wujek” coal mine, the police opened machine gun fires, as a result of which nine miners were killed and 21- injured. In view of terrible economic situation, the loss of the USSR forces and still smoldering resistance and strikes, Polish government enters the negotiations with the opposition in February 1989. This year partially free elections were held (35% of the seats

in Sejm, and 100% of the seats in the Senate). In 1990, Polish people elect the president, and in 1991, the first free elections to the Sejm and Senate took place. The society itself begins to decide on its fate, as it should be in a democratic state. This story makes us ask what caused the people rebel and protest against the authorities.

Literature: some statements, novel, poetry, articles and opinions JOKES: (see original text in the Polish LP) The communist authorities did not give anything back of their own free will, but they had to give in social pressure. Establishing of KOR initiated the development of different forms of society organization. The emergence of “Solidarność” was the beginning of the end of communism in Poland. Resistance to authority was manifested in many areas, starting from jokes through literature and science, to the organized opposition activity. People who wanted freedom and could not stand the lies and brutality of communism were numerous enough to lead to the democratization of the country. The exact number of victims of communism in Poland is unknown. What is known, however, is the high price of freedom. The difference between democracy and communist democracy is the same as the difference between the chair and the electric chair. Who is a communist? Everyone who has read all the books of Marx and Lenin. And who are anti-communists? Those, who understand them. Polish constitution and the French constitution guarantee citizens freedom of expression but Polish constitution does not guarantee freedom after expression. LITERATURE: “The power of taste” by Zbigniew Herbert (see original text in the Polish LP) It didn’t require great character at all our refusal disagreement and resistance

we had a shred of necessary courage but fundamentally it was a matter of taste. Yes taste in which there are fibers of soul the cartilage of conscience Who knows if we had been better and more attractively tempted sent rose-skinned women thin as a wafer or fantastic creatures from the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch but what kind of hell was there at this time a wet pit the murderers’ alley the barrack called a palace of justice a home-brewed Mephisto in a Lenin jacket sent Aurora’s grandchildren out into the field boys with potato faces very ugly girls with red hands Verily their rhetoric was made of cheap sacking (Marcus Tullius kept turning in his grave) chains of tautologies a couple of concepts like flails the dialectics of slaughterers no distinctions in reasoning syntax deprived of beauty of the subjunctive So aesthetics can be helpful in life one should not neglect the study of beauty Before we declare our consent we must carefully examine the shape of the architecture the rhythm of the drums and pipes official colors the despicable ritual of funerals Our eyes and ears refused obedience the princes of our senses proudly chose exile It did not require great character at all we had a shred of necessary courage but fundamentally it was a matter of taste. Yes taste

that commands us to get out to make a wry face draw out a sneer even if for this the precious capital of the body the head must fall. TRANSLATED FROM THE POLISH BY JOHN AND BOGDANA CARPENTER SPEECHES: General Jaruzelski’s speeches on the introduction of martial law 13.12.1981 (see original text in the Polish LP) “The citizens! A Polish soldier has always served his homeland faithfully - always on the front line in each social need. Also today, he is meeting his obligation with honour. Our soldiers have clean hands; they do not know self-interest, but a hard military service. They have no other purpose than the good of their nation. [...] Poles! Brothers and sisters! I appeal to you all as a soldier, who remembers well the cruelty of war. Don’t let even one drop of Polish blood flow in this war-torn country that has known so many disasters and suffered so much. Let the joint effort stop the shade of the civil war. Don’t raise barricades where a bridge is needed. [...]” STATEMENTS: 16 of December 1981 (see original text in the Polish LP) “We are sitting in the toolshop of FSC (Truck Car Factory in Lublin). The strike continues. We can hear the crunch of tracks, probably of tanks. We know that WSK Świdnik has already been pacified. We are going to be sent there in the morning. We are to get to know what had happened there and how the pacification took place. We get three addresses of the people from “Solidarność” from the Świdnik factory. We walk side roads for a few kilometers. At the tollbooth of Świdnik

stands a military patrol. Without a pass you can’t move and we don’t have them. However, they are looking out for cars. We pretend to be slightly drunk returning from the party. They don’t stop us. We find the first address from the list. There is nobody in the flat. A neighbour opens the door. He says: “Come to me. He’s been nabbed”. He sits down and briefly talks about the pacification. Knocking down of the fences, armored vehicles, people holding hands try to repulse the attacks of the police, however, the strength of the truncheon does its job, people are selected in order to pick activists out from the crowd leaving the factory. Now we know the technique of their actions, they nab the activists, we also know who was nabbed. We go back the same way. A military patrol lets us go. In the FSC we tell everybody what we have heard. We are sitting and waiting in the toolshop. We know that this night they are going to come to us. They smashed the gate and the wall. Police and army troops get inside. It is like in Świdnik, passive resistance must lose, but the attackers still have a problem. The military officer directing the action gave us a word of honour that we can go out without being beaten with a truncheon and no one will get arrested. This induces people to leave the factory. We are holding each other by hands and in dense rows we go out through the gate. They let go the first few rows, but the next ones are less fortunate. They begin jerking people out from the ranks, hurling insults, and finally they started beating people with their truncheons. This is how much is worth a word of honor of an officer.” P.K. IN THE WUJEK MINE: (see original text in the Polish LP) In the “Wujek” mine nine miners were

23 shot, 21 were wounded. Much more than one drop of blood was wasted. In May 1983, in Lublin, demonstrations take place. People start to stroll about the Litewski Square at the same time when the TV news are broadcast. The news became a propaganda mouthpiece for the Communist Party (PZPR), which was full of lies and slander. ZOMO - the heart of the Communist Party- firstly breaks up the demonstrators using truncheon and gas, and then starts to arrest people. Full Police cars take the demonstrators to the police station. The next day, collective questioning takes place in magistrates’ court. They take 5 people to each interrogation. I was among them. The judge asks for the names. The prosecutor is a policeman. He points his finger at us and says that we behaved aggressively on Litewski Square, that we have caused big material losses and constitute a dander to public safety and to police officers. The judge asks me what I want to say. - Can I ask you something, Officer? The Judge allows. - Do you know us? -No. -Have you ever seen any of us? -No. -So why do you claim that we behaved aggressively? The policeman is silent. But the judge says: - These are not questions. Delete them from the protocol. He sentences us to 30 days in jail or a 5000 fine. I didn’t expect then, that freedom would come so quickly, in 1989. After elections in June 1989, you could heard a song of “Solidarność” everywhere, which was considered an unofficial anthem of Solidarność

already in 1980. Joy was combined with reverie. SONG: „Walls” by Jacek Kaczmarski (see original text in the Polish LP) watch?v=rZFfqSxv51I He was inspired and young, they were a legion. He gave them strength with his song, singing that dawn is near. They lit a thousand candles for him, smoke rising over their heads, He sang it was time for the wall to fall, They sang together with him: Pull the bars from the Wall Drop the chains, break the whip! And the walls will fall, fall fall! And will bury the old world! Soon they knew the song by heart and only the melody without the words Carried the old meaning, shivers through hearts and heads. So they sung, clapped to the rhythm, their applause sounding like gunshots, And the chain was a burden, the dawn was delayed… And he still sung and played: Pull the bars from the walls! Drop the chains, break the whip! And the walls will fall, fall fall! And will bury the old world! And they saw their numbers, they felt their strength and it was time, And with the song that the dawn is near, they marched into the streets;, They destroyed monuments and uprooted pavements — This one is with us! This one is against us! Who’s alone is our worst enemy! But the singer was also alone.

Some piece of visual art: movies, photography, TV documentaries, etc. MOVIES AND DOCUMENTARIES: Interrogation – part (en) h t t p : / / w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m / watch?v=M74ovHZIJmU Feature film by Ryszard Bugajski, 1982. languages: Polski / English / French artykuly/dz_przesluchanie_bugajski Czesław Miłosz, The Captive Mind Captive_Mind Czesław Miłosz, The Captive Minde pdf h t t p : / / w w w. f i l e s t u b e . c o m / c / czeslaw+milosz+the+captive+mind Them: Stalin’s Polish Puppets, Teresa Torańska Tora%C5%84ska Man of Marble film by Andrzej Wajda (en) h t t p : / / w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m / watch?v=22LYox7MITk Man Of Iron film by Andrzej Wajda (en) XERzGaeJt8&feature=related Mezo Owal - Czerwiec 1956 – June 1956 (pl) h t t p : / / w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m / watch?v=chYdJSLAFfI NZS – tak się zaczęło - film dokumentalny (pl) Report from the Besieged City, Zbigniew Herbert (en) report-from-the-besieged-city/ Poznańskie powstanie 1956 (pl) poznanskie-powstanie-1956/919406 Taka jest historia – This is history (en, pl) h t t p : / / w w w. t v p . p l / k a t o w i c e / spoleczne-i-reportaze/reportaze-ifilmy-dokumentalne-tvp-katowice/ wideo/taka-jest-historia/3284760 Interview: Poland’s Jaruzelski Again Denies Seeking Soviet Intervention Against Solidarity (en) h t t p : / / w w w. r fe r l . o r g /c o n t e n t / Interview_Polands_Jaruzelski_Again_ Denies_Seeking_Soviet_Intervention_ Against_Solidarity/1902431.html Interview with a Solidarity member (en) http://breakingdownstereotypes. com/memories_from_our_people/ interview_with_a_solidarity_member. html Chris Niedenthal photograph martial law (pl) Election 1989 – High Noon , Poster Solidarity best%20posters.htm Polish Patriotic Songs: Chłopcy z Placu Broni - Kocham wolność – J love freedom (English lyrics) h t t p : / / w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m / watch?v=35SdHFj2LxA Beats of freedom – History of rock and fight for freedom in Poland http://www. Pomarańczowa alternatywa - The Orange Altrnative Revolution of Dwares h t t p : / / w w w. p o m a r a n c z o w a Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, The Dialectics of Pain docs/Torture.pdf

Questions for reflection and critical thinking

How much can we pay for freedom? What did those who put up resistance but did not live till 1989, gain? Did these events change anything? What can we learn about authority, the world and man from these events?


Historical context

Poland began its process of changes and construction of citizen society after the elections in June 1989. This process continues up to the present. Each time needs a symbol, a shortcut showing the core of the matter. In Poland, this function can be played by history of a certain building. It started to be used on May 1st 1952 and on 16th November 2009 it was enrolled on the list of historic monuments. Since the former date, it was the seat of the Central Committee of Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR). This was the place, where the most important people in the county met, strategic and minor, yet important, decisions were taken and citizens’ lives were examined and regulated. They were regulated according to the truth manifested in the works by Marx, Engels and Lenin (Stalin only up to 1956). In modernistic interiors of the building the Party’s members bustled about, who obligatorily wore red ties. Entering the building was strictly limited, permits were necessary and people from the street could not go into. From 1991 to 2000, the building housed an institution, whose emergence would never cross the mind of any First Secretary of KC PZPR – The Stock Exchange. Red ties were replaced by red braces of brokers, central planning – by market economy. Apart from the stock market, The „White House” seated mostly financial institutions. Marxism was replaced by economic calculations. Currently,

anybody can enter the building and everybody can rent space there – you only need to pay. You can even start your own private business activity there. Money has become very important, even too important. Politics has been economized. However, this transformation has also opened the way of freedom and responsibility for our decisions.

Balcerowicz’s plan was a very painful operation and it was carried out quickly and with consistency. Poland was the first country to change from communism to capitalism. There were no examples to follow, but there was knowledge, imagination of Polish politicians and the determination of Polish population which ensured the realization of the plan.

These changes originated thanks to decisions of the first non-communistic Polish Prime Minister – Tadeusz Mazowiecki. The beginnings of reforms were difficult. Social consequences of the Balcerowicz’s plan, which stifled inflation, introduced privatization and made Polish currency real money, can be seen until today. Polish economy takes 18th place in the world. “Poland is the biggest and the fastest growing economy in Central and Eastern Europe , says Jan van Eck , the boss of Van Eck Global. It lately overtook Belgium and Sweden and it is the only economy in European Economic Area which showed a growth of GDP this year which enables going through the time of recession without bigger economic problems. Poland has one of the lowest CIT in Europe and young well qualified personnel, which make the country an ideal place for international corporations willing to expand in Europe.”

Today we live in a country of real currency, real work, real development possibilities and real concern for work and success of our effort.

People take challenges, found companies, work and make investments. For over 20 years we have had the opportunity to create our own destiny. Unfortunately some have not grabbed the chance. Bitter fate awaited workers of heavy industry. That stronghold of Solidarnosc made possible the collapse of communism and the changes of political system .... and lost so much because of them.

Literature: some statements, novel, poetry, articles and opinions STATEMENTS: When will it be better? It has already been better. (see original text in the Polish LP) A joke told in the times of Balcerowicz’s Plan realization. The plan has made prices to become real and as a result they increased a lot. Enterprises had to start producing things, which were demanded and they had to learn to compete on the market. Hence, the success of the joke. Today, similarly to 1989, despite the crisis, activity and optimism prevail. Szymon Gutkowski (see original text in the Polish LP) A director of one of the biggest advertising agencies in Poland and an active participant of many social actions, the most recent of which was the Initiative Togather98, which was joined by over one hundred organizations from all over the country: “Business, on the other hand, was a ‘promise land’, also because a very interesting possibility had arisen of creating a company from the very beginning with Marcin Mroszczak and Paweł Kastory – my current business partners. Whatever you started at that time, you knew you were going to be one of the firsts, so after some time – one of the largest in the sector. Wasn’t it arrogance? Of course it was extreme arrogance of a young man. [...] But I am aware that what I have I owe not only to my work and work of my coworkers, but also to the fact that in 1989 I was 19, not 50 and not 10. I

27 know that my generation blocked very many positions in business for people slightly younger than us – those, who were 9 in 1989. That is why members of my generation have a huge gratitude debt. We got a present from history, so we have to remember about much more than our own business, own holidays, our companies and our children’s school.” Polish entrepreneurs are optimistic about the future. Research carried out on order of Grant Thornton International - Polish businesspeople are entering the new year with optimism, whose index is on the level of 44%. Poland is located in the middle of the optimism ranking (which includes 36 countries of the world), but when it comes to European countries, our country is the leader in this region. The average level of the optimism index among the EU countries amounts to 7%. Over four fifths of the Polish people (82 %) are convinced that it was worth taking the challenge of changing the political system; only few of them (8%) express dissatisfaction – according to a survey of CBOS (Centre for Public Opinion Research). A problem, which considerably limits the development of a country is corruption. Unfortunately, this phenomenon is present in Poland. Politics has reached the pavement “One of the most important people in Polish film business [Lew Rywin], a man, who is a celebrity of social and political meetings in the Third Republic of Poland, comes to the chief editor of the biggest Polish paper and suggests: “Why don’t you buy an act of law?”. He tries to negotiate conditions, sets a price, gives his account number. He says he comes on behalf of “the powerholding group”. An affair brakes out, since Adam Michnik records Rywin’s

proposal and after six months – but actually why only after six monthsprints it in “Gazeta Wyborcza”. [...] Political elites, which were assumed to represent electors and undergo social control,emancipated themselves and started to parasite on the organism of the Republic of Poland.” Wojciech Maziarski, Michał Karnowski, Polityka sięgnęła brukuw Newsweek POLSKA - number 02/2003 In 2006 CBA(Central Anticorruption Office) was established, which is a special service organization for fighting corruption in public and economic life, particularly in national and local governmental institutions, as well as fighting activity which is against economic welfare of the country. Corruption decreases. Despite difficulties, people are creating their own fate and citizen society. Conditionings of corruption in Poland Anti-corruption activity in Poland (see original text in the Polish LP) “The first years of political transformation after 1989 also created favorable conditions for the growth of various manifestations and forms of corruption. This complete reconstruction of the country’s economic and legal systems was not accompanied by sufficient care for concurrent development of preventing anti-corruption measures and control systems. Fast implementation of market economy rules, privatization, transfers of enormous state property to the private sector at frequent government changes, periodic replacement of civil service resources, administrative reforms and unstable legal system were nurturing very corruption-friendly climate.” A project coordinated by MSWiA (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration)

Politics for beginners (see original text in the Polish LP) “For Janusz Kowalski, a 26 –year-old councillor form Opole, the last weeks were full of emotions not only due to this reason. A former president of the city- Piotr Synowiec from SLD – was led to prosecutor’s office in handcuffs, as he was suspected of taking bribes. This was the effect of Kowalski’s action, who fighting corruption in his region, has already brought to arrest the governor, the head of city council and marshal of the voivodship. A plot, which reminds of an American film.” Newsweek, number 22/04

Some piece of visual art: movies, photography, TV documentaries, etc. Extradition series (pl en subtitles) h t t p : / / w w w.y o u t u b e . c o m / watch?v=b4yMh7lSak4 History of the “House of the Party” (en) The Third Polish Republic (en) Third+Polish+Republic 20 years of Polish Third Republic: Bitterness prevails (en) Assessing corruption in Poland Transparency International Polska (en) Poland 1989 – 2009 photos (en)

Questions for reflection and critical thinking

What is the impact of economic freedom on the life of a person and society? What is the price of overcoming communism? Which difficulties and obstacles must be overcome? Have the changes led to a better life? Did the events of 1989 and the following years change anything in Europe? How should politicians, businessmen and citizens act? What should be important for them?


AUTHORS DESCRIPTION AND WORKSHOPS LEADERS Three organizations from Germany (CJD), Poland (TEATR GRODZKI) and Spain (INTRAS), with different but complementary experiences working with disable people, are participating in this initiative.

INTRAS FOUNDATION is a Spanish nonprofit organisation dedicated to high quality research and intervention in the mental health field. Its main target group consists of people suffering from mental disorders, whereby the organisation also performs activities and offers services to the disabled, the elderly and people at risk of social exclusion in general. INTRAS nowadays consists of 8 centres in 3 different provinces in Spain with over 80 psychiatrist, psychologists and professionals in social and educational fields carrying out training and clinical practice. INTRAS is responsible for the coordination of MIROPE project. More information:

CJD is a large, nationwide educational institution, running about 150 centres in different locations in Germany, employing 8.000 staff members and annually training around 150.000 young people and adults, who are in great majority suffering from various disabilities. CJD acts as an intermediary structure between vocational education, research, rehabilitation and labour market, closely working with the National agency of labour with local and regional departments, universities and high schools in the province and psychologists, hospitals and other important stakeholders in the public health system. More information: www.

MIROPE workshops leader: Rodrigo Villar Sagredo, adult educator in the field of carpentry, metalwork, building, paperback binding and art and creativity at the Social Enterprise running by Intras Foundation in Coreses (Zamora).

MIROPE workshops leader Claudia Feth, pedagogic worker in Germany. She finished her studies in 2007 and works in the area of vocational training close to Cologne at the moment. Claudia mostly accompanies young adults who are learning or mentally handicapped and trains them in social skills as working together in a team or being reliable. By supporting each participant individually this work shows big success. Including the MIROPE project in this work turned out as a good way to teach historic background on the one hand and creativity on the other hand. The participants experienced a room for personal development.

Graduated in Art History from the University of Salamanca (Spain) in 2003, and expert on sculpture, music and theatre, in charge of the Theatre workshops for children in Zamora for 4 years, Rodrigo is a Galician bagpipe and percussion teacher at the Music School and President of the Cultural Association “Utricularis� both in Zamora.


THE BIELSKO ARTISTIC ASSOCIATION GRODZKI THEATRE was founded in 1999 and it groups artists, pedagogues, culture promoters and entrepreneurs engaged in supporting children, teenagers, adults and the elderly from the socially excluded groups. The main activities of the Association include: Arts and educational workshops; Editing projects (manuals, books, film documentaries, newspapers); Training programs for instructors, teachers, therapists, artists, volunteers and workers of nongovernmental organizations; Vocational training programs for socially excluded groups (the Association runs 2 Vocational Rehabilitation Units sheltered enterprise, employing 62 disabled people and Occupational Therapy Workshop providing a day care unit for 30 disabled persons). More information: MIROPE workshops leader - Piotr Kostuchowski graduated as philosopher from the Catholic University of Lublin, Poland, and since then, has been a holder of a number of posts in the domain of education, both formal (director of public school) and informal (adult educator). Piotr’s courses are praised for his creative approach, the coverage of a vast range of cultural issues and an expert use of action methods. Recently he has been involved as a trainer in two Grundtvig initiatives run by Grodzki Theatre (CVE and POTENS projects) and has been coordinating an ESF project involving schools “Passport to Education”.

Mirope learning pass  

Mirope hanbook - english

Mirope learning pass  

Mirope hanbook - english