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5 East U?th.St. New

York, august 22n).


Dear 1,.{r. l,IcCra e :


thinking over the titl-e to the South a:nerican book and t]:i;:k it shoulcl be somethin,q flore concise, anri "qatcly'. Dl|;*k-$;p7;5 Ar"rericao Couldrr't v,,e use somethiirg like "Getting Tolleiher have been


n South,0;,rerican Tre,de,

or iilie have fa.iled- ancl. hon to su,cceedtr "'.]',here or "south.tnerica and Curselve$'r or " i{oy,r to succeeed in South A,rpricat' " Suceers in South Anerica and- how to atta"in itn. Ferhaps none of these are just rigirt br-rt I think somethin55 aLong the.qe lines ir


rn'hat we Erant.

Yours rery





as]< you



for enother copy of THE BCOI( 0

/)).2{ l''l;iS'i Il'{DlES?

/ s_yracuse Unrrrslgi

$n&r -o,,..oo,;*"

Trar*+htlgt>g I' -f


er*a vtr


i,lbrar \


I irlrâ&#x201A;Źsaet

2&, 1918,

Hr. A. fu*tt Yarrlll,

5 Eaet 2?th St", Sew York Glty

Ioar &r, Yerrll1:


have your &ots of Jrta$ffit ESsd ed.ctree*sd t+ l.{:". Hecrae c+&talalag v*ricus srrgsestion* f*r l,he title of ;io?:r :r*rr bo*k *ri t*rath Are:'leaa tr*d.a, arri I ri1l b:irrg' ihe :nat?er to irle ri+tlea wlra* i:g reftrse " Yci:rre fai. tirtb.i,ly,

E. P. ffiff'*g & C*ffi*.SY G&&t OIr



i .,1


,+ | 'l ;"J ,-- r,, L. i..l

lii .:Tli*

S5 New Garden

St:, Geofge tomf, Br.Gulana, Feb.14 th. igtr7

DeAr Mr. liaclae,







.o \fr


d t9


wltllo the lllu."Jtration$ are reirFryablo. As.:an exarq:;l€ of wirat f ll;v€ done r nay rcentl.()n that on ny l.{, trli),- f}61,, the re:+p.rtsc,f rvfltcn I wa$ down with a nea].Iy fata]- dose of Bittcicwater fever for 1sn day,s- I penet::afei1 €.bsi,l.uteJ.y unex.rl.r,r€ct terfi- tory, cllsct.rrral-i,d the,un]"noEn souf:ce o-f one 2Eo mrles

of the large rivofs,



Of hltherto

nnjmrrwfl wa.tol?ways and mc;rrntaln,5 and. vlsj-te._fl who have been tt]-ogtn for a centrr.r-V-or sor

a trlfio Of: Inr[an$ h;^-'^ i have elgo satripd the Eost corarlete col-lection off*rgj-nal rrand1wor*,ro, the riorrd, and., have ne,alay sog onoto*rarhs of the veriou$ Indlans lJ1ustratlnE thelr 6ecrrpati-onsr', house$, dances , everyday }Ife, tlpes otc . Al so colol€d , s,ke tche s of thelr teioo .and pal-nteel deco'ratXons,,, thelr rq€asurern*nt.s, vooahularles legerds, mythe etc. I r:ecentl_y aII-orcrl a loca} pu?rilcatj on tr, p3i:int an an;t from ono of, mY rqanux.ri.pE rhlch I an.n"enrsrj_ng axd.:.f fI can ,secruie a copy:I rqf ff enclose lt herewtth. 1 t}11n{ you sjlcul_tl iE atr}e to JuC$e of tim !5s fla"n.thls and 1f you- wlsh to s-e.our€ the nghts to ..:

the lllook tr. shall tF'gJ-Ad, to hear frtrn you as sooll as pogs{ble. ': , . : ....' My g.s3lbs of:Eyf,hs ant folii lrre woulrl not be J.n shetpe for del1vexy befere aurfuqn, lrut i ara puirlf shl-ng some orf then l.n rE16RlLAi\ID


uI} ask trr: pulrlls}rers to, seno. you cqlles ln wi:lch they appear that you may Judge of tjrc1r lnte+rest I{AGAZTNET

wlth the iclndest rega:rnir and trusfi-ng that, everyii{ng 1r now arra.nged to our rrutl,rat- eF tl sfr.c tl- on, r l€train. :*.


Yourr., sincerery

M I1 Eew-of the O-el-ay ln the rT.I. trooic w11I you/s+t-LL want the liS







A naruow lane of brown*and tranquil rjver with its giassy surface broken by innumerab,le tacubas, their gaunt waterworn trunks and branches standing sharply forth like lalf subme.rged skeletons of prehistoric monsters, and on either hand,. the towering walls of giant forest trees rearing their dense eanoiry of foliage, tangledl rope-,like vines and vivid fowers a hundred feet and more above 'their mirrored


Carib drum reverberated louder and louder while we swept towards the half-hidden entrance to a narrow creek. In a moment the river was lost to vieu,, and rounding a

bend of the creek. the woodskin was run gently upon the mudJy shore beside a dozen others of itr kind. Up from the landing place a gigantic fallen tree trunir formed a natuial bridge and pathway to the summit of the counterparts, bank, and, in single file, we picked our way along the slipSuch was the scene up.on which I looked as my fragile pery tacuba and entered a narrow winding trail through the woodskin sprd swiftly and silently down the upper Barama Iorest. to the steady strokes of my Indiansl paddles. Ever louder boomed the drum as we proceeded and Sudd-enly, through the silence of the vast wilderness, cdme presently, emerging fro,rq- the woods;. we came forth upon a 'faint, a far away sound; a rythmatic, pulsating beat. In- good sized clearing within whiih stood half, a dozen thatdhed stantly the f ashing strokes of the paddles ceased. and we benabs. I had ri"ched th6 Carib campi had qome \rnrested motionless, listening with eagdi ears, for the sound, announced and unbidd'en to the merry making, and I gazed though+o thin and dim that it se"m"-d felt rather than heard, about with interest at the scene to which good fortune h'ad was unmktakable,-the measured boom of an Indian drum. led meAnd, as oncr more the throbbing noise was borne to us on Close at.hand stood a neatly wattled hut, adioirring it was the bosom of the forest bordered river, my pulsbs quicliened, a large open benab and in its shelter, standing about, for there is something indisoibably *'ild, something that reclining in hammocks or sguatting on low wood'en stools; .savors of prirnitive savage man, of cannibal feasts arid weird werâ&#x201A;Ź a score or more of women. Some weie naked,-s6u" .orgies"in the sound of -an Indian tom.tom quivering throdgh for their blue laps,or l6h s|e1lx,-elhers wore a single bagthe still and humid air of a tropic jungle. like garment suspended by a string about the . neek and Tiren, as the paddles dipped once rnor. uod the woodskin exposing shoulders and breast, but all were arrayed in bari Ieaped forward, the centuries seemed swept away and in my baric finery and gay with paint and colour. Ail u'ore their mind I saw another boat upon the river in the wilderness, a glossy blue-black hair neat braids above their napes boat filled with mail.clad'men whode faces blanched at the and diecorated with innumerable scar]et streamers; all liud trioming'drum beats and who w-ith muttered curses, urged arms and Iegs tightly bound with woven.ornamental bands of their Indian slavo-s to greatdr efforts; and crossing .themselves cotton; all u'ore immense necklaces of beads. teeth and prayed thit they might escape from the accurse8 spot ere *seeds; all hail faces painted in strange designs of scarlet and 'twas too late. And good cause had those voyagers of old black and all rvore a tuft of white vu,]ture'do*n upon their to fear for their lives, for t'hey were in the heart o{ the Carib f61sh6615,-1he tribal mark of the true Carib. country, the district inhabited by that once implacable, unA few yards away, beneath another thatched benab, were conquerable, indomitable race the mere 'mention of whose themen,-sp,lendidly muscled, beaurifully proportioned, name brought terror'io:the heart of red man or rvhite, the one cleanlimbed and ptrysicaily as perfect as statutâ&#x201A;Źs of bronze, tfibe to defy the arrned intruders from over seas; the tiibe to on{y in their long, befringed, embroidered and -clad laps; but one and all .with hideously whorir bloodshed and battle were as the breath of life; who beaded palnted faces feaited upon the bodies of their vanquished and who gave. and their long forelocks of hair covered with the snowy ,ulthe word " cannibal " to our language. But unlike tiose ture down, the symbofof their race, mail-clad rnen of centuries past I was hqrrying towards the At the â&#x201A;Źntrance to the merr's benab a tall.Carib r^/as seat-' sound of the Carib drum, ftr there was i"it i"g to fear, the ed, holding, between his knees, a drum of cedar and batCaribi' w;irlike ways have long ,irce b."rlf"orgqtt"n-und boon hide upon which he beat the monotonous rythm of the the torn-tom ca-lled the tribesinen to a festive dance instead wahnoo dance with jaguar bones for drumsticks. of to a ghastly cannibal feast. Close by, stood two great troughs and ever I had long wanted to. visit the Caribs of Guiana for I back and forth between these and the ofmenPaiwarrie and women passhad dw-elt among'. the Caribs of Dominica,-the Iast sur- c<i a young and cornely maid'en with her face curirrusl-v vivors of the race in the Antilles,*and I was most anxious adorned with scarlet, the " Paiwarrie Governor," wh.ose to study the resemblances and differences b;i*;;n rh" a*" dut-v is to keep the drinkers' calabashes constantly filled wirh -


By a long aird no means easy joumey I had

g . \/-

the vile liquor.

chance I had come up64 the camp'dur. Ita rvas by merest the upper -wate-rs of .the Barama; but the I 40 miles of sea rng l)arwarne spree, when, frcim far and near, tlre Caribs in the ill-found, wallowing apology for a steamer; the 36 ha.d foregathered for ihe dance, and by this gooil luch I hours *nt bucking the Barima in a noisy kkosene 1aunch fiad ontained an exceptional opportunity to see the Caribs wheresleep was impossible; the 30 odd *ll..6f jungle road __= through torrential- downpours with shelterlef nieh; in the "ir., {lf"t",,Lyut,hro*n * A_Chapter,fl-o1n Mr. Verrill's forthcoming booh "Among the lndians bush, these were but incidentals and all hardshipl and dis. of the GuianaVilderness." It is to obtain fhotogr.aphs audmaterial fq! eonfoft.s wlre forgotten as the dull rgsonant ttirob qf t!1e this wqrk that the asthor is now visiling the.Colony, reached








whole qunctuated and impelled by the resonant hollow boom

at my arrival on the scene, and, seating myself in an empty hammock, I took the prolfered calabash of Paiwarrfe, for he who would win the confidence of the red men and would obtain an insight of their lives and ways must perforce do as thev do in as far as possible. As yet the da.nce had not commenced and as I wandered at will among the. people and explorgd their benabs I learned much of Carib life and.wat's. Soon we were on friendly terms'; preseilts of tobacco, pipes, knives, ryirrorg, etc., serving to establish myself in their good greces f,nd even old Komahrisr-the P'eaiman and niastd of'ceremonies;-unbent from his surly aloofne-"s, and volving I was his brother, posed for his portrait, and then, leading me to his benab, furnished me with a vocabglary and bther information of the greatest value, besides disposing of his choicest possessions to add to my collectbn, Meantime the drinking was continuing without cessation, but mugh to my surprise, there were no signs of intoxication, although the Indians had cirnsumed enormoub qgantilies of tho lgur, ill-smelling conioction. The only visible eltrect of the liquq was to produce a lethargic, listleis, dull conilition, the men lnd women lying or sitting motionless and silent, but wjth no signs of drowsiness, and apparently wrappqd in the inost qerious and profound thoughe, and often so inert thatthey would not trouble to lift the drink tq their lips, but opening their mouths, qa[ted for the serving maid to pour tb.e liquor down their throats, In a short time, however, the Paiwarrie comrnenced to ui1 6s i,'eathartic and emetie, but theie was nothing-of the nrirlseating,filthy orgy of which I had heard; the people dis- ' to the bush, to return and cont-inue drinking-

of the drum. For a time

I watched,-dn

interested spectator, and tak-

ing photographs as opportunity offered; but at Paiwarrie was

constantly pressed upon me and I had no desire either to drink mors or to oflend the Indians by refusals, and .as there was nothing more to be accornp,lished, I prepared to leave the dancing half.drunken throng to themselves. But my " civilized " Carib boatmen could not be coaxed, cajoled or threatened. into leaving,-such an event as a Paiwarrie spree did not fall to their lot every day and they were determined to make the most of their opportunity. Luckily one of my men was of another tribe, and being un: familiar with the Carib tongue, found himself a mere wall flower. With him und i"y trusty black Sam I .lipped away unnoticed, and ernbarking in my woodskin, head'id i for the'open river and our camp. , As we paddled up stream in the waning light; thre distanl boom of the drum was borne to us on the.breeze and far into the.night the faint; far away reverberatioris told'us that hilarity still reigned among the Caribs. Mtrch'of interest wad <ibtained among these Caribs of the upper Barania and mueh additional and valuable data was secured from othe5 Caribs, both before and after my first .particip4tion jn a Paiwarrie feast, That-they are very different from all other Cuiana [ndians is evident, bur who they are, whence-they came and what their felationship with the other tribes. are problems which hat'e long puzzled ethnologists and are siill unsolved. Of the same stocky build as the other aborigines, yet the Caribs differ markedly in features,.proportions and physical . as bifore: charaeteristics and are stil'l more distinct in habits, tradi' lii an hbur or two'aftei my arrival the Paiwarrie kgan to tions, language, weapons and customs. Thus, among all the other British Guiana tribes, the wornerl:.wâ&#x201A;Źor aprons or 'exert its secondaiy effect; the lethargic morose attitude of .queyus of beads, whereas, the Carib ..women - never use the Caiibs gave way to-laughter and gaiety, they chattered queyus, but adhere to plain cloth laps or, loin otroths; while andlang, the droning booii of 'the drum became a livdly of the men, instead qf berng of, plaiu choth d'evoid the laps tattoo, rude frddleJike instruments squeaked, bone flutes are fringed, qrnarneited, with"','stripsl 'of of decoration, added their shrill irotes to the barbaric discord, and the gslou1"4. and cloth braid and are.often beade&-e,l .:r'r'"' . boys and girls c-ommeneed to prance about, turning and In place of the tattooing, so comm6n amo1rg: the':'Aka' twisting, stamping their feet, and stepping high in tirne with woias, Patamonas, Arekunas and othet ,tdbgs;jthe'Caribs the.drum beats. plinted Soon the men joined the dance, always in couples, an?, ** p;il"r,tr .r puint""*it"sively and, f"r*vitl the as chanrii or no significance ha-ve designs on their.,{aces casting aside their single garments, the women follolved in marks.ol their tattoo neighboutt,-ibut do the b#;;,;"; rapid suecession. Each sex, however, formed Q separate :i gioup, th'e vroiren and girls dancing on the ;mtoth open are-merel.v ornamental, space before their benab and the men occupying a similar Feather crowns and mantles also are unknown amongihe space before their shelter, while the birys dashed about, lrere Caribs, the.only feathers'used for decorative purposes being theqe and everywhere, shaking calabash raitles .rnd yelling the soft white down of the King Vulture which,'guri'rmecl to lil,-e-fiends. the foreheads of the womln or to the forelocks of the nien, constitutes the tribal mark or emblem of the race. In order No doubt there were definite steps and figrires to t[e daice afford.d spot'for attaching this down the Carib men lYâ&#x201A;Źa[ to had. their symbolic rneanings for arrd these unquestionably the " spree " was held to celebrate the end of the period of a long lock of hair, extending from the centre of the head forehead,'the rest of the bair being mourning for a deceased member of the tribe and'the deier- above the ears to the tion of the freld wherein she had been buried. But only clipped short, So inherent and deep seated is this ancient a Carib ciiuld have interpreted the meaning of the intricate custom that even the civilized Caribs of the riverside towns same mannar, although they have not rnovements and the gyrations of the dance or the significance cut their hair in the of the various firrms of ceremonial clubs wielded b) the the remo&est idea as to why they do so. In their necklaces and other fidornmentsjhe Caribs alsti mei': To civilized eyes it appeared a confused iumBle of ' lCaping, prancing, naked bronze figures ; a kaieidoicopic dtffer materially from other tribes, the women wearing whirl of colour and a deafening din of yells, shouts, lhe immense necklacis of beads consisting of. innumerable stringr pi:rcing sound of flutes, the thumping of wooden clubs, the held together by polished rings cut from flalm nuts, whili o0amp and'shgfle 9f barg fept und the whirl of .rattles; $9 ankles and }imbs are tightly bound with fringed cottop bandl,



woven in place


which cannot



removed without are smoke-bron'ned with age and o"r"h.d und ,.poii"d in

innumerable placcs. But despite their lack of industry and their poverty, the L,ikc nearly all the other Indians, the Carib's have their ears pierced. but in addiiion, the worren have the lower Caribs are intelligent, honest, scrupuously neat and cleaiily tip perforated and in the aperture carry one or rnore pins, in habits and, when beyond the sphere of influence of civi-


The lized man, strictly moral according to their own tencts. Indeed, the cleanliness of their villages and persons is most striking and the satin-lft& smoothness, of their skini is - i" sharp coutrast to the scarred and scratched bodies of maoy other tribes'and spoaks eloquently of their physical condition and pcisonal habits. No doubt this is partly due to pins in fact lies thc it ixists amoiig in the lip that carrying no othir Eritish Guiana Indians with the exception of ihe the'fact that the women c.onstantly wear the loose bag-like Macusis and *reir rela'ted tribes of southern Guiana, and as frocks peculiar to'their tribe when in the bush, for they state these people also use white down on their foreheads on fes- that this is donned to protect their skins from thoms, brush tive occasions there is little doubt that they are of Carib and insects; but the men go about nude save for their laps stock, although so widely j€parated geographically and so and. their skins qre also cleau and free from sores, scars or blemishes. tota'lly ilistinct iu mdny other ways. In colour the Caribs ayerage lighter than the othcr tribes. . The v/eapons of the Caribs are also very differont from thosc of ttr-r" othcr British Guiana Indians. The bows are, their skins rgnging from a light gold.n-brown or da* olive ai,a rule, vcry crude arlil primitive, but some d're well made to a reddisfi, lopp.ty hue; -$e women as a rule b€ing and'these difer &om the bows of the Arekunas;'-fata- lighter coloured than the men and their faces, strangily monasrahd othet races in *reir form. and size, as well .as in enough, being ofqen light r than their U"a;o.. Their features are moie regular and finer cut than the other !g th. : d"pth of the groove along the bac}. their noses are often straight or even slightly aquiline, .''of Thi C-atibr;u-.o*r, horniner, are much superior to thod dians'. -most'other tribes and aie usually shorter, while, in addi- their lips fairly'thin, their mouths small and their eyes seltion to bows 4nd arroivs. the CariLs employ long ihrowing doni oblique or almond shaped and often ha"4el or tawnflancts or fuvelins for hunting latge garne, as wel'l as true brown colour. On the whole they are far less Giental in apharpoons for capturiug large fish. Blow pipes and poisoned pearance than the other tribes, many ar€ decidedly Catrcasian cast to'their faces {.rts ar" urrlnowo arnong the ealibs,-save where Aeka- in Teahres. there is a distiiictly.Semitic garments, civilized rnighi readily in t.hey and, if dressed but cerewith them, they make woias hale intermarried monial clulis of .many dilferent types and which are often pass for nativgs of southern and eastern Europe. orAiia which are


to extract jiggers


frorn the feet.

women are adept at removing these pins and reinserting thcm with the tip of the tongue and it is almost fascinating to watch the pins appear and disappear from thc lip withoui apparent cause. But thettrangest feature of this custom of


imrnense size and weight.


In their domesiic aits and crafts the Caribs are very primi. , In statuie the Caribs aycrage taller than the other triber, tive, their baskttry b,eing inferior to that of other Indians, tfd average height of 34 men being 5ft. 6 indies and that' their wooden stoo,ls ruogh and crude, their earthenware poor- of 13 $/omen beins 4ft. 9 inches while one man wa3 Iy madt and t!rcir.hqmmocks of inferior 8rade ;. but theit measured who stood 5ft. l0 inches in height andthe tallest w-4ter calabaslres are well designed anrd neat[r sfoppercd, woman seen was 5ft. 3 inches. The Carib language dilfers essentially frtm , all other thiir drums ale marvels.of ingenuity and patie4cc'and their strqqge fiddles,-made from the hollow lirrrbs of the trum- Guiana tongues and while th,i dialect of each tribe is distinct liet tree or " Gunga Pump,"-st. very cleverly designed and yet the dilferenccs:are often so slight that veryroften a member of one tribe has no dilf,culty in conversing with membirs are far from unmufical. As might be expected of a race ruhose aoc.'stors tor o! apothel. Thus, tlie Arekunas and Ackowoias. can u'niduiitlessr@nturies lived by the sword, figuratively speaking, derstand each others tongue, but in thc case of Carib it is pur-- dilferent, for neither Arekuna nor ALowoia can speak tlc ('irribs are less inclined bo pastoral an&agricr:ltural *tirey are adepi or understand Carib (unless the knowledge is acquired) or suits than the other Guiana trihs, but lstiermen, splendidlrunters and unexcelled boatmen, The,;e vicc versa. Indeed, thcre are scarcely a dozen Carib wotds inhbri,tC characteristics of their, warlike, nornadic forb'ear$ which even remotely resemble the words having the same tend,to hake them, Iazy and improvident however, and, meaning in tbe tongues of the other tribes, although, certain cornpared with the Arekunas, Macusis or even .the Pata- words, such as "toona " (water). ',loorapa " (bow,)' ind monas, they are'miserably poor,-if indeed we can.consider '! poorooua." (anow) are common torseveral tribal tongues. any one poor whose €very want is supplied by nature and This however; is to bc expgcted for such word$ were of who.hai no arnbitions or desires other than to live an un- prime irnportance, and necessity compelled the various

evdntfuI, easy existence with as little cffort as possible. Whereas the benabs of thc other Indians ire usua.lly well supplied with bask*s for variors purpobes, several spare hammocks, numerqus cooking utensils, an ample assortme4t <if bow5 and'arrows. oftan tirres a gun.i*rrat balts of spo! cotton and b4skets oS- raw cotton; the{rouses of rhe C. gribs usually contain but the barest necessitics. Few own guns,,,rnore than a siogle [row with its set of arrows is 14reb peqr, the baskets are usually few and. show signs of long hird u6age, a single earthcn po,t or a battered pail is -\he ordinary extent gf coolinq utensils and the hanmocks


to adopt univerally

understood names



artictes dn which their lives de6nded,

- To''ihe

student of ethnology the Caribs qre perhaps the most interesturg, as well as the most puzzlin!, tribe of rbrthem South Arnerica for once their origin or relationship can be ddnitelv established srcat light.Hill be thrown upon the aborigines of the continent. It has{Ftr'beea egqto,mary to consider the Caribs of the South American nninkind"aaid




the Lcsser Antilles as idontical,

tlp thco*

being that the. intular aborigfnes we.rc meiely wau&reis frorn ihe coast rvho, by stresq of weather or by choice, h'aC migret'


fHE DarV islands that rim the Caribbean

cHndr.Jrcr-E CHRsrua,s ANNUAL, 19i6.Sea.

But with.this


could have reached the shiies of South America in num-

theo]f t cat-upt fully agree for in many ways the two r?ces bers. In fact it is my 6rm conviction that this * exactli are totally ditferent- Putting aside the question of physiqal what did occur and 6at instead of the South American characteristics, which might easily be altered by. enviibn- Caribs migrating northward to the islands, the prigirlal ment, there arc many important points to be consideieil. Caribs were insular people and migrated southwafd to the Thus, the frrst Europeans to visit South America found mainland. . There, frnding a land of promise rqith fo.restd the Indians using hammocks which, to the aborigine, is ppr- teemirg with game, rivers swarming with fiih, and aR abun; haps the mogt important of anicles wigh the of itit dancc of inolfensive, timid-people on which Jo prey, .the

"*..piio, h"m- fierce wanderers established themselves, and finding no furweapOns. But the early voydgers rnul" no mention "f sui- ther use for the sea-going heavy boats in ,"hi"i, they had moclss among the Indians of the Antilles and the few vivors of the insular Caribs never use hammocks and have reached their rew home, they gradually abandoned the type. no lsnowlcdge of their manufacture. To my mind it is iq favour of the lighter craft of the Arowaks and Warraus inconceivqblc that an article of such ancient origia and so which were adapted to river and creek navigation - This indespensible as the hammock should not have been carried theory, too, would account for the hammocks, the white feaby any Indians who strayed or misrated to the islands, for ther tribal emblem and the other peculiarities of the mainno South American lndian goes forth, even on a short land Carib which are non-existant among the Caribs' of journey, without his hammoc[. ' Moreover, the bows and arrows used by the natives of the"Caribbees were vbry different fnrm those common to the Indians of the mainland, while the heavy wooden clubs of the latter are unknown to the insular Indians. Of course such clubs iray have bcen in use before the advent of the whitcs (they are scareely more than ceremonial among the Guiana tribes to-day) but Pere l.abat and other early chroniclen make no mcntion of them or of the white down tribal marks, when describing the abo'rigines of the islands. As these early visitors to the West Indies described the Caribs and their ways quite fully and in detail, they could scarcely. h+ve failed to note such conspicuous chaiacteris-



of the natives had they existed. The fact that .they

wefO .notrme-ntioned

is ample proof, to my mind, that they

were unknown to the aboriginal inhabitants of the islands. But pethaps thc strongest argument against thc theory that the islqnds were peopled by Caribs from South America is found in the canoes of the two races. To,navigate the stretch of open sea that separates Guiana i.'from the"Autrlles would require seaworthy, staunch, large

craft for while a stray canoe mieht be blown to sea and reach the islinds in safety, still, in order to..transport enough peode to populatâ&#x201A;Ź the islands, not one but many, boats must 'the'passage. Any one familiar with the lieht, have made fragile woodskins, or the narrow, cranky, dugout corials of the Guiana hidians wiil be skeptical of the latter's ability to migrate h nuimbers to the islands in such craft. E engranting tlret thir occurred, what then became of these types of boatr when the wave-tossed lndians reached q,safe haven on the Lceward coasts' of the Antilles ) Gre would suppose that having made the' jouraey in corirl or $roodrLb the Caribs, who arc preemineotly canoe Indious. wqild have cgotinued to build rimilar craft.for use in their uew-home. But such is upt the case, for woodeLhs arc unluowu in the Antilles and sucJr dugouu as arc use{ art pcculiar to thc Caribbean and are so totally dir tinci ftom all'types pf South Americarr canocs tliai it fo serfcely possjble to conccirre that they are merely evolutions


Thus, in the islands, where there wâ&#x201A;Źre no


no carnivorous animals, iio -swampy inundated ground and fcw insects dangerous to man, the_re would be 4o necessity for hammocks"or similar devices. So in the islands where all the inhabitants were of one race there *ould bc no nced oJ distinsui$inrq tribal ma*s, even though the denizens of one island warred upon their next door neighbours. But once upon the mainland, uonditions *ould"be very dilferent. Her9, in a low land often poisonous snakes,

inundated, w-here poisonous snalies were common, where prowling b6lss abounded and whcre eountliss insect pests made sleeping dn the,earth da'igeroBs, harrmocks would be required in{ their advantage would quickly be grasped by the newcomirs and the useful articles would b9 adopted for their own use. So too, in this land already inhabited and where the haodful of warlike st4angers was surrounded by hordes of other tribep, a distinctive rnark of recognition was necessary. Wtry the tvhite dowa of the King Vulture was selected i5 rrasy to guess, for this bird invariably flies alone and eats by itself while the common i,lack'vultures stand alorf, waithg until the. King'.s appetite is ghitted and he retires from his feast. And truly sym-

bolicai of the Cqrrbs'rvays is dre mark they chose, for like the Kine Vullute^ they were a race apart from the tir,rid darker sk,nned natives; a race holding themselves aloof a; 'Warrau and the Arowak, as do their dessuperiors of .the cen&Rts of tilday; a people who " ate alonp," for &ey had cannibal proptnsities and only the pickings they left from their fqrays iir their hunts fell to the lot of their neighbours. To-dii, the lVarrau and the A"rowak still looks upon his Carib heieht'out as a superior beiirg; to-day.the Carib siil! iooLs dot^m gpon hir fellow'redmer and scorns, to eat food touihed or p:eparcd by the Warrau, who, as of old. stands aside while ih'e'earib, " cats like thc King Vulture,'l atone.

But whet!,er or not thc Ccribs sprcad frrm te islands to the mairlsnd or vi(e versa, *rc questiou of their origin is yet unanswersd.

Perslanec,.dre ancient legend of Atlantis was rc myth: And that thesc insular Caribs reccnt origin is provcn by the records of the, fonst-clad'iolcanic peats of the Amilles nay be'the last thc Europcai discoverers who describ,ed the canoes of thc vestiges of th4 spbmcrged land and the Qaribs the desceudisland-Ciribs as precisely like those of the prescrt day. ents of its pcople. For aught rve know; they may be of Stairnch, seaworthy, swift aad of(n of enorrpis tize, the Phoepician or Mediterranean lineage, a race whosb 4rccscanoa of the iCaid Indians could easily have wcrthered thc torc we:rc carriod by tempest or baffiing win& actoss thp sear,of thb Atli*ic rir the C3rilbb-an andtryith littL dairger wide'At[nitic aud Vho, uiable to make hedfuay b:NH

from the corial



the Antilles.

canoc$ arc not




against the trade winds, settled on the

west. Or again,

fair islands of




There are eqlally g,ood arguments for eac}


may be one of the lost tribes of is'idle to speculate. Th" .huro.t,are the trufh will lsrael- who, wandering westward albng the African coast, be known and that Iong after the last of the Caribs has were borne out to sea and found the New World, ages eie pasSed into the great beyond the origin of the race will still the-5r

Columbus set fgrth upon his perilous quedt.

remain as much a mystery







TsE Wan


lTs Enrucrs.



Well, de War is still 'pon we, ant aldo de Allies talkin' I Anodda case like'dat you seein' in de Combine Cote. all ova dey face, de Kaisi is still 'pon de peoole (a). But lD. absentee propyieta ent got neida representative dbh. he day will come: Davidt did rtav Col;Li' wid ail'he bis- lYou see de t'ing? De pint pot tu'n down' An' you mannishnis, an1 de Kaisa will meet it ro'.ur" a. i*i"" or. 1;1Ji I believe me, deAtorney General wairt to cry he eyeballs lwo; an' den we gwine see how he gwin" fl"e f.. d. lout a he heafr'becalse dis is de case. But whai de suga.. wrat' to come. Well, dis War mek *L." t'ings we I Pluntut it tt h" or h^e .to de suga plantas -dat- he should s,ee !gfo. an' .rne!;*,g'leal wgrgiq *. ,i1.g pui' 'pbn *" l*unt I,,.4 ,p dey'frah,rase As. fo' de new

befo'. Wha' de Britiili'Guvment ireva di*9Sq_bIrElCsrg,,re,hawt bin in me han' 'bout how dey "fJ plantas d"t;;;'b,v,;.d"i;[f'dyf i:il'f.-'d9.suga fikin.,5"huv,e deysglf, an' if de Scheolma-sta in-Downin' "f iood price i.t a.yru*u, *'l'Streei would a did have to gi'e dem,a piece of he nlio' Kaisa do fo'dern-gi'e dem prevent dem from srrckin' salt t'roulh u *ood.n *'oon o, lq*'q flpggins 'pon top de ba'gin. But tank Heavens, :'"tekkin a numba fo' a name in de Insolvence Cote Office. lt"lings is disapp'int;wha'-l tek fo'a 9 only tu'n out to bea 6. guirds eg[-call n" horse guards But I wish IJut wishto goodnesrJ;w;.;";'l;r"'"*.--tr"*r-;i.l e21call3y1 out, netda n;i{a Maja Maia May May.didn't.have didn't have to goodness de War was done ova. T'inss is I ue no occasion to carf de Fiah Brigade to out de fiah in de unc_onscionable dear. I wasn't de'oman to face d. ";;15'llp.rerara Riva. Now an'again I did fancy I did hear'de to buy a dress fo' de Cjrris'mas dis tirn"; uJ-r*-irj; yln qg"h a calamity belall Sarah, t'ings mus' Ir. in .le lAngel of Acrimony-beatin' she-wings, but nutt'n didn't out of it. If de watas of discussion did want to bile ball'ball. I is reduce rightdown to me bilJa. f Al.ttrf,"" clot' an' fineries gone up 30 per cent., me un"r# Jr""* l lq re a storm dey stop half way in dey intention. De mak-a 9an only exchange. de qomplirnents qf *J a""- | EJectir5 membas, it seem to me, was glsrnsnliss'-I mean shoulila

else. Mc purse-string gotmo'en'dan ay'Wur;"un'lhypnot\:^an' all dose who n'ent out tocuss Mr. Clcraenti : remain-l&${ ouirt dat tle }re wasn wasn'tt such a blood p bloodL t'rrsty t'irsty chicken Ifo' lo. u, y-ou.g:u, I ur"d"t;" b;. Y; Ii;;;'h"*i' [. f after all. de Session stan' too long, doh. I sufipose de food"line (c) everyt'ing i, ,ufe;,-"rf ,", i "to to gi'\satisfaction to de peoplp who does fo'g.idat ent drunk to fo'get heself grow b, heself to glro* bv *# *1,^/t ;i f."I5;;;. f."4""r.lil I dat is to "oon. ldat while :'Sav.\Well " is a sood wo'd " Do Well'' is a Starvation in & lan'. My, ndli"*r ;h-'';; J gwine do wid de Kaisa fo1 iisiribulation},t -; f.Lt Urirg :p"; D,e talk so much English (sood, bad a.n' I lr.1ll. ' an' at las' &y break but in Latin dat a we? Me ent gwine use any ,uaar'Bdlhe, biit *" linditerent) an' Fiiolishness. Dqt ent he quibt in de lian's of d"'io d.-'-'-" H;;;;; so ha'd u, it ,."*,. for you can ffi; ;;h I de Latin out o{of the Lord." An' I contenr an'dere is always some kin'of ahrk, content to leave,he leuue,f,"l;& Cote I-{;;;. |llet in dlt il;i-{"*.. 4.. {e j Foolishness you' hea\dat you can len' you tongue to Foolishness- in you All de same, some people isis ova$in' our$ir' de t'ino t'inc fh f h I ."" i understan' dat suea suga is dear-deyi'usin' deardat in d" War; "." un' I ll"'^ De Imligratbl 4g\t General (Mr. Stewart) get a walk-ova wid he. De why rice gon. ,f, p.opG-i' d;i;;r ;.i'il t.ri.* i;'i,l$: Repo'tas'-Pri2e-in fai prize go td\e Schoolmasta from Bhsame as ,J.; ur,'a. t,irs. ;ri;;;;'";;;f-.-"rija"';, lVo-ciferated Logic vessels. But you can tell # why a han'ful of peppas ;, lbados; also ran, de Guvna ,t'\r. Brassington. De q.-r a d"nel* Secrit&rv rvo'k, for a half-a-bittl an'you rvo'k. but still he an'vou can't can't g.t d.ce* h,,'"i,i'-l^.-'l bunci,i'plan-l Guvna tek away de Guvment Secriibgy tain for unda t'ree bitt an' a half ? 1y"1llito b* ,urel un' I couldn't keep up wid Mr. Thorne. M.r. Thorne get de of 'de plantain.dar fetc-hin' price now! advantaae ova he, f:.r is de t'ing dey Xo3,should ] .flrf'.fish an' " Mary leede.sfe plantain, do", mek gill," nu-tt'n


in de ma'kit


twenty fo' a

Is reallya

!f "urr

tekkin a'hieh plac. I

de pint pot tg;n



oratars wid in Ba'bados. De fiery un' uniam"' Mr. Brassington did itchin' for a fight, r."irui'Ur*r a;d "n' 1



"}aw*y X$r ISt?"



ffiIl* k[Hr



E. ?rtrllls

f!ffie 3ffi f*Ir p# *I*sr ffi* {r anr hr*n* ts*** ;trr rQl$y *a rli$e Lql &g** !E*?.***tsr *lt'tt[*i*. I *ru,t. gr* feltf * tm* &rtot* t*eeth &. &rol* furt* * &H&6r g..**.


Et* 3qnr =El,thrt b- baeri ttl' rEh ea aEselll*ti ree*milhe

#**t** . * t* *.I em rwprry Iq}e**ek sa # t{ ****** X* "

& xc,* ffis6* *mffi,a* f,*B


;i: -:l ;. !'




r*S&** Sryllit* .''

e#e f&#-i* Ea'**S* m* ffi *ry r* t*ts',c t&* 3r, **+ E n{E€ lry {@lc, . )*:.. tik *&r* r it& M t*s[ #ffi s* w* wstt"w€Et gd&m:l #$:*&* & @ tg yoa ctrrq Bta sa* *; . ***;;ffi y.Gr*dp* *d.*s#x i* '&r **# ntiq,r brlf I @ele rct hL€ # ary t*Er S !l*B,lb *rr & IoBft **r* }rt#* & ffir** *r& tt.r* *udt ryttl,m, t* aw *Str$***'t* ilr *S E *Mdl 3& t€ &sr firther trqrc Frr e Gh-*iffi* s*tiA, ry rer *tril fm*s** pff*B*, I rr ,,..'...}.

gtrr*lrtrf ffi*-



svracus,, ,'\)Alv*._^ .r sJ{\ r.r,

95 llew Garden St. Geofger

tgm1, BI.

Dec. J,6th.




John [!acrae, New Yoltr_






r'dr not )cnow lf trere was any deflnlte dec1s10a as to date sf pnbllcatlon of TIfr Bo0I{ Otr' THE msT IliuEs but as I rqntra-ber lt you srild yolr o,ipocted. to have lt out by the flrst of JanuafT. and,r m-sh to asl. 1f .votr wllr tsJ.ndry see tiiai ,ihe, bargnee.on the booic 1o'peutrr rr"o*p6y to paget so lt can e be caf}l€rl to me,as I shalt need lt ve:.y bad)-,y. 'By 'the nay there pronLses to be a ver-v l.arge nrmber of contempraterl

tounsts golng south thts wlnter.


have now rnaoe several


trlirs :.nto ihe r€mote and ll_ttte

and have




rildlan t:r.rres nermr before by wrrltenen. r have a Sreat quantlt:, of natevJ-a1 antl unlo_ue photographs and tu ptary[ng to earbcrty at]. ny and, numerous

.expertoflc'os ar,long the tnolans

ln a i]ootr- whlch r now ca]l rAUoNc TiIE ISDIAIIS 05, TIIE 6UIAM I.TiLDERISSSI I havo a]ready rrj.tten two or three ciiapte)s dei,.lj-ng wtth the tr:Ips I have taF-en so far.rt tsottl.d Dutton e- Co. he lnteresterl 1n puollshlng thls? It 1s not at al-]. rlrl'or tnrt oovers trarrel, re$oulres anfl .qcene3}r of tne lntezlsr and descflbes the 1ndlans.thelr l1fe, ways antl hablts 1n a I


popular end pl,cturesque nanner. I may add that, Intllans Indlan are a nost lnterostl-ng peo.Ile wlth ways that are ver-v

dlfferent f:rort all other races anfl as the,6n1, rofrcs on thern are strrctly sc1enf,i.fl"c I thlnlc a popular tnolc on the zui:Ject'woul.c1 ]re qf lnterest. I also have a very large colJectlon of, the I'ndlangt fcrtE. IQffi, myths ot,c. Am gettLng on wlth,th"' boyst etofy anfl thtnk- Lts gq,1rr* to be even Sstrtar, than I expec ted. '

rr:-tten.paget lnstl:uotlng lrlr/r as to paynent. xft tr6 59pt d:sfios for the llc'J-Ldays and New Year, I Yonrs slncelely, Uave


Pq#l*N;;d "







), -.L.rse

universitY LibrarY



A. I$c



..- r.rniversitY LibrarY





ry d*r S. Iferrillc &Ents you


IFrtdâ&#x201A;ŹSt*d Eqr lxi-aeE

yo*rr welcom

ts ffio

lotter of

t,bn eafinostlous


4tlr. I


ta I|ser Bsrykfpt*


{Bt}lffiil' tn thf,s trelter*



yer? gle& ta &ptr *r*h Smtl nctrDlr'to cf ycur @?


to rea*Lrtn8 tl&a eEpl.sttd uxrrertg&" 3 llk tlp t*ae po:ro e:rl, &lDEr aud I fral qalte mre tbt fga efl.l {*e @}S g*w us- erh serlss af torylo* f,ef bwsr kt ffiS I m


f*rFsrd with eeger


e wlurtla ssriGg,

I &rst atslffi:!-ss i* Y,m f,dr,0"EIEg'XaB your egpoter tho Ba8st lltrrre1y ,iffi I* *odt*g yms c&*r,r*. &'drl*y trs e*ttmly d,$ar d ''ic frnc to tha fest tbt I trsro he oaar ry bcrd. rtth mrt wlth ry v6ry kfnil regard,el f u $nraeralt yoffir*r

#qAffi Syracuse University LibrarY


7A Maln St.

Georgetowt, Br. GuLana

Oet. 41h.1816 Dear Mr. Mc0rae:

Axrlveo safely last Xtlday after a very pleasant voyage although we passed. through the edge of a hrr:rlcane en route. Am off to tlre tnterlor toslorrow fo:r a three reeEg

trlp. I Dotlce by one of the Belx4gda papers that the Froposed" la$ the use of goverrment sontrroLloc auto hriises 61d not pass.therefore r1l1 you see that the referenge to the busses ls e11m1n6.teo fron the ehapter on Bermuda 1n f"hâ&#x201A;Ź book? As r remember 1t r statec that nautomohllcs .are not

;ref"nltieo l.n Be:Anrda lxcept motor 1tr1.:,sses col:trcl1ed uy tlre gorre:ruen,ttr. lt shoutd say s1"*?, that ttautonnolct-lts are no t pezr:fl tiec tt

qulte a l1tt1e on the boyst stor}, already. Gtve Ey regdgds to &fr,paget when you see hln air r shart not have tlme to wrlte to ]trii thls m&tl. I{ave done

Yours slncerely,








tlO. ( i f appl icable):




-Description of Item (Letter, tlinute, Panphlet, Repor!, etc):

Date of Itm (if seYeral stapled pages, top date only) or Sore 0ther lleans of Identi fication:

Xeroring lnstructions:

I i


Dutton Correspondence 1