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Net Neutrality The  case  for  a  free  and   open  internet

Written, designed,  and  photographed  by  Kyle  Evans


Dedication This book  is  dedicated  to  my  parents,  because  if  they  hadn’t  given   birth  to  me,  I  never  would  have  been  born.  If  I  had  never  been  born,   I  never  would  have  been  able  to  write  this  book.

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Acknowledgements I  would  like  to  acknowledge  all  of  the  people  who  helped  make  this  book   possible.  I  would  like  to  thank  my  Freestyle  teachers,  who  are  Mr.  Greco,   Ms.  Parkinson,  and  Mr.  Florendo.  Without  my  teachers,  I  would  never  have   obtained  the  skills  I  need  to  created  a  book  of  this  quality.  I  would  also  like   to   thank   the   people   I   interviewed,   who   helped   provide   substance   to   this   book.  Those  people  include  Dave  Evans,  Mohan  Avula,  and  the  former  pi-­ racy  scene  member  I  interviewed  who  asked  to  remain  anonymous.  I  wish   to  also  thank  my  fellow  Freestyle  students  that  provided  technical  support   IRUP\ERRNZKHQPHVVLQJZLWKLQ'HVLJQEHFDPHGLI¿FXOW,DOVRZDQWWR acknowledge  my  fellow  Freestyle  students  because  not  only  did  they  help   me   get   my   book   working,   they   also   gave   me   inspiration   for   cool   photo-­ graphs.  The  wonderful  product  that  this  book  exists  of  now  is  the  result  of   many  contributions  from  a  variety  of  sources,  including  my  fellow  students.

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Table of  Contents Title  page..............................................................................................................1 Dedication............................................................................................................2 Acknowledgements..............................................................................................4 Table  of  Contents.................................................................................................7 Foreword..............................................................................................................8 Introduction.......................................................................................................10 Chapter   1............................................................................................................14 Chapter   2...........................................................................................................20 Chapter   3...........................................................................................................26 Conclusion..........................................................................................................31 Bibliography.......................................................................................................33 7


Foreword Since  the  1970s,  the  internet  has  grown  rapidly  and  become  the  quickest   way  for  companies  to  do  business.  Originally  invented  by  the  military  for  secu-­ rity  usage,  the  internet  has  become  what  is  quite  possibly  the  most  important   invention  of  the  last  few  decades.  As  such,  preserving  the  internet  in  a  state  that   is  open  to  anybody  who  wants  to  use  it  is  notably  important.   Like  most  teenagers,  I  frequent  the  internet  for  a  variety  of  reasons.    Wheth-­ er   it   be   to   get   homework   from   Facebook   friends   or   to   browse   funny   cat   pic-­ tures  during  periods  of  boredom,  I,  like  many  people,  rely  on  the  internet  to  get   through  the  day.  In  only  a  few  generations,  the  internet  has  greatly  changed  the   way  the  world  works.   When  I  began  working  on  my  book  on  net  neutrality,  I  did  so  because  I’ve   always  been  interested  by  computers.  Given  that  the  internet  is  one  of  the  key   reasons  people  use  computers,  it  only  made  sense  to  narrow  down  this  exposi-­ tion  to  the  internet  itself.

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Over the  last  few  years,  along  with  many  other  frequenters  of  the  internet   I  have  been  shocked  by  attempts  of  Congress  to  limit  the  openness  of  the  inter-­ net.  In  2011,  Congress  introduced  multiple  bills  which  would  attempt  to  reduce   online  piracy,  including  the  Stop  Online  Piracy  Act  and  the  Protect  Intellectual   Property  Act.   Some  people  call  me  the  space  cowboy.  Others  call  me  the  gangster  of  love.     But  quite  frankly,  I  like  to  think  of  myself  as  more  that.  A  man  who  will  look   into  the  important  issues,  so  that  others  don’t  have  to.  The  internet.

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Introduction    A  couple  years  back,  a  woman  named  Gertrude  Walton  was  accused  of  sharing  over  700  songs   illegally  on  the  internet,  making  them  available  to  download  for  free.  The  Recording  Industry  Associa-­ WLRQRI$PHULFDRU5,$$IRUVKRUWZDVQœWKDSS\ZLWK*HUWUXGHœVDFWLRQVDQGDVDUHVXOW¿OHGDODZVXLW against  the  woman  to  force  her  to  pay  for  damages.  The  whole  thing  was  a  typical  copyright  takedown,   done  regularly  by  companies  who  want  to  protect  their  copyright.  There  was  just  one  problem  with   this  case.  Gertrude  had  passed  away  over  a  year  ago.  Not  only  that,  but  when  the  RIAA  decided  to  go   after  Gertrude’s  daughter  to  force  her  to  pay  for  these  damages,  the  RIAA  learned  another  interesting   fact.  Gertrude’s  family  never  even  own  a  computer,  because  she  hated  them,  and  wanted  nothing  to   do  with  them.  But  how  does  a  woman  who  doesn’t  even  own  a  computer  illegally  upload  music  to  the   internet?    7KLVZDVH[DFWO\WKHTXHVWLRQWKHUHFRUGFRPSDQ\œVODZ\HUVSRQGHUHGRYHUEHIRUHWKH\¿QDOO\ decided  to  drop  the  case  after  a  few  months.  But  hey,  companies  make  mistakes;  they  dropped  their   lawsuit,  so  what’s  the  problem?  Well,  other  than  the  fact  that  this  isn’t  the  only  example  of  record   companies   suing  dead  people,  there’s  a  reason  companies  go  through  this  legal  process  when  they   accuse  somebody  of  a  crime.  The  sixth  amendment  to  our  Constitution  promises  the  right  to  a  fair   trial  to  anybody  accused  of  a  crime  in  order  to  protect  them  from  being  sent  to  jail  for  something  they   didn’t  do.   But  as  of  late,  this  idea  of  free  speech  on  the  internet  has  been  threatened  more  and  more  con-­ sistently.  The  whole  concept  of  net  neutrality,  the  very  cornerstone  of  freedom  on  the  internet,  has   recently  been  threatened  by  bills  in  Congress  such  as  the  Stop  Online  Piracy  Act,  the  Protect  Intel-­ 10


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lectual Property  Act,  and  the  Anti-­Counterfeiting  Trade  Agreement.  The  main  purpose  of  these  bills   is  to  help  curb  internet  piracy,  which  is  responsible  for  a  loss  of  $11  to  $12  billion  dollars  annually  in   the  software  industry  (Gale).  Companies  that  own  copyrights  being  violated  by  software  piracy  are   actively  encouraging  the  government  to  be  more  diligent  in  combating  this  problem.   There’s  no  doubt  that  software  piracy  is  a  problem.  But  the  ways  Congress  has  attempted  and   continues  to  attempt  to  solve  it  only  damage  the  internet  by  violating  the  principles  of  net  neutrality   for  the  sake  of  limiting  software  piracy.  As  Christopher  Marsden  notes  in  his  book  Net  Neutrality:  To-­ wards  a  Co-­Regulatory  Solution,  even  the  president  has  acknowledged  the  importance  of  the  internet.   As  Obama  stated  in  an  interview:   “The  big  telephone  and  cable  companies  want  to  change  the  Internet  as  we  know  it.  They  say   that  they  want  to  create  high-­sped  lanes  on  the  Internet  and  strike  exclusive  contractual  agreements   with  Internet  content-­providers  for  access  to  those  high-­speed  lanes.  Those  of  us  who  can’t  pony  up   the  cash  for  these  high-­speed  connections  will  be  relegated  to  the  slow  lanes.  We  can’t  have  a  situation   in  which  the  corporate  duopoly  dictates  the  future  of  the  internet  and  that’s  why  I’m  supporting  what   is  called  net  neutrality.”  (Marsden,  21).    

Essentially, in  attempts  to  undermine  digital  piracy,  the  age  of  internet  discrimination  will  begin.

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Chapter  1

What  is  net  neutrality?   Imagine  that  you  are  now  the  CEO  of  Facebook.  Other  than  having  your  personal  life  exposed  in   the  movie  The  Social  Network,  you  now  have  a  pretty  cool  life.  You’re  the  youngest  billionaire  in  the   world,  having  launched  the  second  most  popular  site  on  the  internet  only  eight  years  ago.  Not  a  bad   deal  by  any  standards.   As  the  CEO  of  Facebook,  you’re  aware  that  one  of  the  reasons  people  use  your  site  is  to  share   content  with  your  friends.  This  includes  status  updates,  photos,  videos,  and  anything  else  the  average   person  wants  to  share  with  their  friends  and  family.  Some  of  the  things  people  most  commonly  share   is  music  and  music  videos,  posting  them  on  each  others  walls,  saying  “aww  hell  naw  brah  this  song  is   sick.â€?  In  itself,  this  is  pretty  harmless.  People  get  to  share  their  favorite  songs  with  each  other  quickly,   it’s  a  nice  website  you’ve  got.   But  obviously,  when  people  share  music  with  each  other  on  Facebook,  that  content  doesn’t  be-­ long  to  them.  It  belongs  to  the  copyright  company  that  helped  create  that  music.  And  if  the  copyright   company  doesn’t  want  their  content  to  be  shared,  then  that’s  their  right.  So  let’s  say  a  copyright  com-­ pany  doesn’t  want  their  music  to  be  shared  over  Facebook.  This  is  their  right,  and  unfortunately,  even   though  you’re  the  world’s  youngest  CEO,  there’s  not  much  you  can  do  about  it.   Under  the  current  system,  any  company  that  doesn’t  want  their  content  on  Facebook  has  a  few   options.  The  most  prevalent  one  is  simply  asking  Facebook  to  remove  the  content.  They  can  contact   Facebook,  issue  a  subpoena  to  remove  the  content,  and  Facebook  will  do  so  if  they  agree.  If  Facebook   GRHVQÂśWDJUHHWKH\ÂśOOPRVWOLNHO\JRWKURXJKDVKRUWOHJDOGLVSXWHDQGUHVROYHWKHFRQĂ€LFW1LQHWLPHV out  of  ten,  however,  Facebook  just  removes  the  content  to  keep  everybody  happy.   Recently,  legislation  has  been  going  through  congress  that  is  attempting  to  change  the  way  this   14


Not all  tech  savvy  people  look  this  cool.  Dave  Evans,  the  Chief  Futurist  of  the  Internet  Business  Solutions  Group,  gives   his  views  on  net  neutrality  in  an  exclusive  interview  in  the  coming  pages.  Also,  does  anybody  ever  read  the  captions? 15


content  would  potentially  be  removed  from  Facebook.  Acts  such  as  the  Stop  Online  Piracy  Act,  Pro-­ tect  Intellectual  Property  Act,  and  the  Anti-­Counterfeiting  Trade  Agreement  have  all  tried  in  recent   months  to  change  the  way  this  content  is  protected  on  the  internet  (Harvey).   If  these  acts  were  to  be  passed,  copyright  companies  would  no  longer  have  to  contact  Facebook   to  have  their  content  removed  from  their  website.  Instead,  these  companies  would  be  given  tools  that   allow  them  to  remove  the  site  directly.  What  this  means  is  that  copyright  companies  would  be  directly   allowed  to  interfere  with  the  content  that’s  posted  on  Facebook,  Twitter,  Google,  etc.  all  in  the  name   of  protecting  their  content.  ,QWKHRU\WKLVLVÂżQH%XWELOOVVXFKDVWKH'LJLWDO0LOOHQLXP&RS\ULJKW$FWZKLFKZDVSDVVHG in  1999,  have  shown  that  such  legislation  is  ripe  for  abuse  (“Unsafe  Harborsâ€?).  The  Digital  Millenium   Copyright  Act  is  cited  by  legal  professionals  as  digital  tyranny,  being  utilized  to  remove  content  that   the  companies  disagree  with  (Lee).  If  net  neutrality  were  violated  by  passing  any  of  these  acts,  it  would   only  become  easier.   The  internet  relies  on  the  ability  to  be  open  and  free.  Without  this  idea  of  having  a  free  and  open   internet,  the  very  purposes  of  the  internet  become  null  and  void.  Christopher  Marsden,  author  of  “Net  

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Neutrality:  Towards  a  Co-­Regulatory  Solution�  explains  the  idea  that  net  neutrality  is  a  vital  instru-­ ment  for  the  internet,  and  by  violating  such  rights  so  that  copyright  companies    can  make  more  money   is  ludicrous.   Similarly,  in  an  interview  with  Dave  Evans,  another  passionate  response  is  given.  As  Dave  de-­ scribes  it,  The  internet  is  where  it  is  today  because  of  innovation,  and  innovation  comes  from  people   being  able  to  be  creative  and  to  try  new  things,  and  when  you  remove  net  neutrality,  or  you  start  plac-­ ing  restrictions  on  people,  you  start  putting  barriers  to  innovation,  and  therefore  you  start  putting   barriers  to  advancing  the  internet.  In  fact,  it’s  not  even  just  the  internet,  Any  time  you  put  barriers  on   VRPHWKLQJFUHDWLYLW\DQG\RXVWDUWSXWWLQJXSZDOOVIRUSHRSOHLWPDNHVLWGLI¿FXOWDQGSHRSOHZLOO always  take  the  path  of  least  resistance�  (Evans).

Since  it’s  a  part  of  his  job,  Dave  Evans  often  spends  a  lot  of  time  on  the  internet.  But  that’s  not  the  only  work  Dave   does.  He  also  works  a  lot  on  individual  projects,  programming  software  that  seems  very  futuristic.  It  meets  his  title   of  “Chief  Futurist�  quite  well. 17


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“The Internet   is   the   most   powerful   communications   tool   humans   have   ever   created.   Placing   limits   on   this   tool  would  be  akin  to  placing  tape  on   ones  mouth.”  

-­Dave Evans

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Chapter  2 So  who  cares?

 Dave  Evans  is  the  Chief  Futurist  for  Cisco  Systems,  as  well  as  the  chief  technologist  for  their   Internet  Business  Solutions  Group.  According  to  him,  the  internet  is  one  of  the  most  necessary  instru-­ ments  for  innovation  that  we  have  today.     “The  Internet  is  the  most  powerful  communications  tool  humans  have  ever  created.  Placing  lim-­ its  on  this  tool  would  be  akin  to  placing  tape  on  ones  mouthâ€?  (Evans).   The  internet  has  always  been  a  place  where  one  can  start  a  small  business  cheap  and  easily.  eBay   was  founded  so  the  owner’s  wife  could  sell  Pez  dispensers,  and  is  now  the  largest  auction  site  on  the   LQWHUQHW:KLOHVWDUWLQJDSK\VLFDOEXVLQHVVLVFRVWO\ZLWKH[SHQVHVVXFKDVRIÂżFHOHDVLQJRUHPSOR\HH contracting,  a  website  can  be  started  for  as  little  as  $20  -­  the  rough  cost  of  a  domain  name  and  server.   But  if  net  neutrality  were  to  be  violated,  the  costs  of  starting  a  business  on  the  internet  would  be   increased  dramatically.  In  order  to  start  a  small  business  online,  anybody  who  wants  to  do  so  would   EHUHTXLUHGWRFRPSO\ZLWKWKHWHUPVGHÂżQHGE\DQ\DFWYLRODWLQJQHWQHXWUDOLW\,QWKHFDVHRIWKH examples  listed  previously,  this  includes  being  able  to  respond  to  a  take  down  request  to  have  their   content  removed.  In  essence,  internet  companies  would  be  required  to  actively  police  their  sites  in   order  to  get  things  done.   But  is  this  feasible?  Facebook  has  over  700  status  updates  posted  to  its  site  every  second,  Twit-­ ter  has  over  600  tweets  posted  every  second,  and  an  hours  worth  of  video  is  uploaded  to  YouTube   every  second.  Monitoring  all  of  this  content  is  virtually  impossible.   Let’s  go  back  to  Dave  Evans  for  a  second.  Among  other  things,  Dave  is  the  founder  of  Wetware   LLC,  a  small  company  he  and  his  co-­worker  started  as  a  side  project  from  Cisco.  The  company  creates   software  that  allows  computers  to  integrate  over  the  internet  in  a  seamless  experience.  The  product   works  excellently,  but  requires  internet  usage  to  use.  If  ISPs  charged  him  extra  to  deliver  content  to   his  customers,  he  would  be  out  a  good  chunk  of  change.  In  essence,  violations  of  net  neutrality  make   running  small  internet  based  businesses  impossible. 20


No, this  isn’t  a  computer  hacker,  although  it  may  look  like  it.  This  is  just  a  student  working  away  on  one  of  his  proj-­ ects.  While  the  internet  comes  in  many  shapes  and  forms,  the  one  we  are    most  accustomed  to  is  the  familiar  form   of  a  web  browser.  But  on  the  technical  side  of  things,  the  internet  is  actually  a  series  of  complex  pieces  of  code  that   interact  with  each  other.  In  essence,  the  internet  is  a  series  of  tubes  that  interact  with  each  other. 21


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Since  the  1970s,  computers  have  become  increasingly  common.  Originally  created  to  be  used  by  the  internet,  they   now  exist  in  nearly  every  household  in  America.  Some  countries  such  as  Sweden  are  pushing  to  make  internet  usage   a  right,  not  a  privelage.  This  would  mean  that  people  are  granted  internet  as  one  of  their  rights.  That  would  make  an   LQWHUHVWLQJ¿UVWDPHQGPHQWIUHHGRPRIVSHHFKUHOLJLRQSUHVVDVVHPEO\SHWLWLRQDQGLQWHUQHW

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Chapter 3 what  next?

In  attempts  to  limit  net  neutrality,  the  idea  comes  to  two  main  circumstances.  One  is  the  attempt   to  limit  piracy,  and  the  other  is  the  cost  that  ISPs  are  forced  to  pay  in  order  to  make  up  for  bandwidth   and  other  issues.  But  will  either  of  these  really  be  curbed?   Let’s  start  with  piracy.  Music  piracy  is  fairly  common  amongst  teenagers,  many  of  which  go  to   our  school.  Mohan  Avula,  a  junior  at  Los  Altos  High  School,  does  not  believe  that  violations  of  net   neutrality  would  limit  his  ability,  or  desire,  to  pirate  things.   “I  don’t  think  I  would  really  stop  pirating  things.  Those  bills  are  more  targeted  towards  the  sites   that  host  illegal  stuff”  (Avula).   In  a  sense,  Mohan  is  right.  The  bills  that  Congress  frequently  tries  to  pass  typically  do  target  the   websites  that  host  illegal  content.  But  would  these  sites  really  be  affected  if  any  of  these  bills  were  to   pass?   Not  according  to  an  anonymous  source,  who  was  interviewed  about  his  involvements  with  the   piracy  “scene”.  The  “scene”  in  the  world  of  piracy  consists  of  the  people  who  create  the  piracy  websites   and  upload  the  content  illegally,  allowing  other  people  to  access  it.  He  believes  that  by  passing  these   acts,  internet  piracy  would  not  be  curbed  in  the  slightest.   “It’s  all  about  notoriety  and  feeling  like  a  badass,”  he  said.  “These  bills  Congress  is  trying  to  pass   doesn’t  solve  any  of  the  problems,  just  waste  money”  (Anonymous).   Scene  members,  or  those  who  actively  participate  in  the  world  of  piracy,  typically  hang  out  in   what  are  known  as  Internet  Relay  Chat  channels,  also  known  as  IRC  channels  (Anderson).  According   to  our  anonymous  source,  the  bills  Congress  is  attempting  to  pass  are  in  no  way  going  after  the  real   issue,  but  simply  going  after  chump  change.

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“It’s all  about  notoriety  and  feeling   like   a   badass.   These   bills   Congress   is  trying  to  pass  doesn’t  solve  any  of   the  problems,  just  waste  money.”  

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-­Anonymous


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While it’s  tough  to  say  what  the  best  way  to  end  internet  piracy  is,  the  ways  Congress  has  attempted  to  do  so  aren’t   working.  Net  neutrality  is  one  of  the  most  important  aspects  of  the  internet,  in  order  to  preserve  an  internet  where   anybody  can  post  anything  they  want  online.  The  government  has  attempted  to  limit  net  neutrality  in  the  past,  but  it   is  incredibly  important  that  we  disregard  their  efforts  and  push  forward  with  innovation. 30


Conclusion  Internet  piracy  is  bad.  But  internet  commerce  is  good.  Where  can  we  draw   the  line?  :KLOHLWLVTXLWHGLI¿FXOWWRVD\ZKDWWKHEHVWZD\WRVWRSLQWHUQHWSLUDF\LV multiple  testimonies  given  here  examine  the  fact  that  piracy,  while  a  growing   SUREOHPLVEHFRPLQJTXLWHGLI¿FXOWWRVWRS%XWOLPLWLQJIUHHGRPRQWKHLQWHU-­ net  isn’t  the  way  to  do  that.   Internet  piracy  is  bad,  nobody  wants  to  argue  against  that.  But  the  internet   goes  beyond  the  scale  of  internet  piracy.  The  internet  is  the  most  open  source   IRULQIRUPDWLRQWREHVKDUHGDQGIRUWKHIXWXUHWREHDFFHVVHGDWRXU¿QJHUWLSV It  is  necessary  for  innovation  to  continue  that  we  continue  to  support  the  inter-­ net  and  prevent  it  from  being  damaged  by  big  companies.

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Bibliography Marsden,  Christopher  T.  Net  Neutrality:  Towards  a  Co-­regulatory  Solution.  London:         Bloomsbury  Academic,  2010.  Print. “Software  Piracy  Is  Copyright  Infringement.â€?  Copyright  Infringement.  Ed.  Roman  Espejo.     Detroit:  Greenhaven  Press,  2009.  Opposing  Viewpoints.  Rpt.  from  “What  Is  Piracy?â€?       2008.  Gale  Opposing  Viewpoints  In  Context.  Web.  31  Mar.  2012. /HH7LPRWK\%Âł+RWÂżOH7XUQV7DEOHV$FFXVHV:DUQHU%URWKHUVRI'0&$$EXVH´$UV   Technica.  Web.  31  Mar.  2012. Anderson,  Nate.  “The  Hackers  Hacked:  Main  Anonymous  IRC  Servers  Invaded.â€?  Ars         Technica.  Web.  31  Mar.  2012. Harvey,  Jason.  “A  Technical  Examination  of  SOPA  and  PROTECT  IP.â€?  Blog.reddit.  17  Jan.       2012.  Web.  31  Mar.  2012. “Unsafe  Harbors:  Abusive  DMCA  Subpoenas  and  Takedown  Demands.â€?  Electronic  Fron-­     tier  Foundation.  25  Sept.  2012.  Web.  31  Mar.  2012. Evans,  Dave.  “Interview  with  Dave  Evans.â€?  Personal  interview.  12  Mar.  2012. Anonymous.  “Interview  with  former  piracy  scene  member.â€?  Personal  interview.  14  Mar.       2012. Avula,  Mohan.  “Interview  with  Mohan  Avula.â€?  Personal  interview.  19  Mar.  2012.

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Kyle_Evans  

+,"$-'."$/0&$'$/&""$'12$ 03"1$)1#"&1"# 4&"'#"2$5*$6*("$78'1. The  case  for  a  free  and   open  internet Written,  designe...

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