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THERMORESPONSIVE SYSTEM Team Francis Redman Pablo Nithin Bhargav Ramesh Sandesh Kagganti Ramesh

MAA01 2016 / 17

MASTER IN ADVANCED ARCHITECTURE

RS.3 - DIGITAL MATTER //

INTELLIGENT CONSTRUCTIONS

Senior Faculty Areti Markopoulou Fabrication Expert Alexandre Dubor Computational Expert Angelos Chronis


CAN FLUIDS ALONG WITH THEIR STATE TRANSITIONS BEHAVE AS ACTIVATORS FOR PASSIVELY OPERATED SYSTEMS WHICH ARE CAPABLE OF REPLACING ELECTRICALLY POWERED ONES?

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INDEX Acknowledgements ................................................................................................... 4 Abstract ...................................................................................................................... 6 State of Art ................................................................................................................. 8 Phenomenon ............................................................................................................. 12 Objective ................................................................................................................... 14 Heat Dissipation Techniques.................................................................................... 20 Material ..................................................................................................................... 34 Prototype 1.0 ............................................................................................................ 32 Prototype 2.0 ............................................................................................................ 46 Fabrication ................................................................................................................ 64 System Values .......................................................................................................... 80 Geographical Conditions ......................................................................................... 84 Case Study ............................................................................................................... 92 Vision ...................................................................................................................... 100

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would never have been able to complete this project without the great support of our friends, family, faculty and staff. We would like to express our deepest gratitude to our advisors Areti Markopoulou, Alexandre Dubor, Angelos Chronis for guiding us through this challenging project and to provide us with continuous courage and determination. Our special gratitude to Martin Seymour, Ricardo Valbuena, Matteo Guarnaccia, Nikhil Shetty, and Karthik Dhanabalan for helping us in completing this project. MORPHLUID | THERMORESPONSIVE SYSTEM

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ABSTRACT

Architecture has undergone numerous changes and transcended into an ever evolving system which is both adaptable and sustainable. Thus wielding the power to control and negotiate how a space reacts to the built environment. Depleting resources and large scale propaganda of sustainability have led architects to be environmentally aware and cost effective at the same time. Traditional construction mechanisms are gradually losing their sway in the era of modern architecture leading the way to smart and flexible solutions. Fordism, which emerged as the popular idea of the postwar economic boom, led to the initialization of mass production of goods. However, it bore the brunt of monotony and lacked customization and exclusivity. The next rung in the ladder was mass production of goods which were capable of being utilized in applications in varied fashion, thus bringing in flexibility, innovation and not to forget, exclusivity to the masses.

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The technological advances in fabrication have thrown light of innumerable opportunities to innovate and experiment for better, faster and economic solutions. The inconceivable theories of the past decades have been realized with ease, making machines an intelligent, adaptable resource. Machines were initially conceived to lessen human effort and achieve its purpose. Present day modernism has ambitious designs for every product manufactured and strives to assert aesthetic value to machines as well. Machines are in continued state of evolution to perform complex processes with minimal consumption and aesthetic appeal. Nature, since time immemorial has been a perfect muse for architects to derive inspiration and has been obediently imitated in form and structure. Nature still continues to inspire but unlike in the past, the complex nature of process which enable life to sustain has grabbed the limelight. Though hard to imitate and clone, nature’s simple solutions still arouse curiosity in designers. Works of imminent authors like Benoit Mandelbrot(theorist of fractal geometry and developer of the theory of roughness and selfsimilarity) and D’Arcy Thompson (biologist and mathematician who developed the theory of transformation in “On Growth and Form”) pioneered the study and application of natural process and structures.

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STATE OF ART During the course of the research we came across some very interesting projects along the similar lines of thought. These projects were a source of inspiration and reinforced our belief in the idea. The most significant ones that kept us constantly on our toes and inspired us to excel were the Media-TIC by Enric Ruiz-Geli and the Barcelona Active Gallery by AdriĂ Escolano and Maria Ubach.

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STATE OF ART Media-TIC

The building volume forms a cube of 44m x 44m x 37.82m high; the site is 3,572.45 m2 in which the basement occupies the entire area, while above ground the occupation is 54.20%. In total, the Media-TIC has 16,000 m2 above ground and two floors below ground (7100 m2) with capacity for 200 parking spaces. The building is divided so that the upper floors (from eighth to fourth) are rented for big companies, the second and third floor have small spaces for emergent companies and the first floor with the Cibernariun and an auditorium offers a course program open to all city residents. The ground floor does not have pillars; public space invades the building with 36m x 40m of free space. The building lobby can host exhibitions, workshops, events acting as a multi-use space. The construction is built from the top and moves downwards, becoming transparent, anti-gravitational, and almost liquid at the bottom. Thus, its impact on the street is minimal. According to the dimensioning of the exterior installation the interior temperature is controlled. The faรงade made of inflatable ETFE cushions oriented south acts as a variable sunscreen opening in the winter to gain solar energy, and closing in summer to protect and shade. In the south west faรงade, Nitrogen based fog is introduced in the cushions, that by increasing its particles produces greater opacity, thereby protecting users from the harsher rays in the afternoon.

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Barcelona Active Gallery

This no energy façade prototype developed by Adria Escolano and Maria Ubach was developed with the aim to create not just an envelope, but one that actively interacts with the interior and exterior. The prototype was made keeping in mind Mediterranean conditions and was meant to be a solution for the traditional interior courtyard glass façade. Consisted of watertight plastic 90x30x25cm containers on a steel substructure, façade is a set of elements which store differently colored liquids, forming dynamic and amusing proposal for interior façade of a typical Barcelona building. Reacting to the different amounts of solar radiation, façade elements rotate, providing necessary natural ventilation to the inner courtyard-oriented rooms. The rotation of façade units is based on principle of equilibrium – when temperature increases, the liquid in the container reaches its evaporation state and its centroid gets shifted. The container further rotates until reaching stability again. The number of units reacting is defined by different pressures inside the unit, so the façade openings vary.

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PHENOMENON

Plants

Humans

Photosynthesis

Perspiration

Co 2 exchange

Ventilation

?

Passive approach

Photosynthetic reaction

Cooling system (Increasing Carbon Footprint)

Thermoresponsive reaction

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OBJECTIVE Digital and technological tools have transformed the perception and perspective of how architects visualize space and form. Based on theories discussed previously the research has been conducted and executed to achieve results to provide design solutions in an efficient yet sustainable manner. The research primarily deals with a passive cooling system titled “Morphluid” – which responds and reacts to climatic conditions to provide the user with optimum habitable environment. The success of this prototype would effectively reduce the usage of artificial cooling systems which not only consume absurd quantity of electricity but also burden the planet with an enormous carbon footprint. Passive cooling systems are a sustainable building approach that focus on heat gain control and heat dissipation in a building in order to improve the indoor thermal comfort with low or no energy consumption. This approach works either by preventing heat from entering the interior (heat gain prevention) or by removing heat from the building by natural cooling. Natural cooling utilizes on-site energy, available from the natural environment, combined with the architectural design of building components (e.g. building envelope), rather than mechanical systems to dissipate heat.

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Therefore, natural cooling depends not only on the architectural design of the building but on how the site’s natural resources are used as heat sinks (i.e. everything that absorbs or dissipates heat). Passive cooling covers all natural processes and techniques of heat dissipation and modulation without the use of energy. Protection from or prevention of heat gains encompasses all the design techniques that minimizes the impact of solar heat gains through the building’s envelope and of internal heat gains that is generated inside the building due occupancy and equipment. It includes the following design techniques: • Microclimate and site design - By taking into account the local climate and the site context, specific cooling strategies can be selected to apply which are the most appropriate for preventing overheating through the envelope of the building. The microclimate can play a huge role in determining the most favourable building location by analysing the combined availability of sun and wind. The bioclimatic chart, the solar diagram and the wind rose are relevant analysis tools in the application of this technique. • Solar control - A properly designed shading system can effectively contribute to minimizing the solar heat gains. Shading both transparent and opaque surfaces of the building envelope will minimize the amount of solar radiation that induces overheating in both indoor spaces and building’s structure. By shading the building structure, the heat gain captured through the windows and envelope will be reduced.

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OBJECTIVE • Building form and layout - Building orientation and an optimized distribution of interior spaces can prevent overheating. Rooms can be zoned within the buildings in order to reject sources of internal heat gain and/or allocating heat gains where they can be useful, considering the different activities of the building. For example, creating a flat, horizontal plan will increase the effectiveness of cross-ventilation across the plan. Locating the zones vertically can take advantage of temperature stratification. Typically, building zones in the upper levels are warmer than the lower zones due to stratification. Vertical zoning of spaces and activities uses this temperature stratification to accommodate zone uses according to their temperature requirements. Form factor (i.e. the ratio between volume and surface) also plays a major role in the building’s energy and thermal profile. This ratio can be used to shape the building form to the specific local climate. For example, more compact forms tend to preserve more heat than less compact forms because the ratio of the internal loads to envelope area is significant. • Thermal insulation - Insulation in the building’s envelope will decrease the amount of heat transferred by radiation through the facades. This principle applies both to the opaque (walls and roof) and transparent surfaces (windows) of the envelope. Since roofs could be a larger contributor to the interior heat load, especially in lighter constructions (e.g. building and workshops with roof made out of metal structures), providing thermal insulation can effectively decrease heat transfer from the roof. • Behavioural and occupancy patterns - Some building management policies such as limiting the number of people in a given area of the building can also contribute effectively to the minimization of heat gains inside a building. Building occupants can also contribute to indoor overheating prevention by: shutting off the lights and equipment of unoccupied spaces, operating shading when necessary to reduce solar heat gains through windows, or dress lighter in order to adapt better to the indoor environment by increasing their thermal comfort tolerance. • Internal gain control - More energy-efficient lighting and electronic equipment tend to release less energy thus contributing to less internal heat loads inside the space.

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HEAT DISSIPATION TECHNIQUES The modulation and heat dissipation techniques rely on natural heat sinks to store and remove the internal heat gains. Examples of natural sinks are the night sky, earth soil, and building mass. Therefore passive cooling techniques that use heat sinks can act to either modulate heat gain with thermal mass or dissipate heat through natural cooling strategies. • Thermal mass - Heat gain modulation of an indoor space can be achieved by the proper use of the building’s thermal mass as a heat sink. The thermal mass will absorb and store heat during daytime hours and return it to the space at a later time. Thermal mass can be coupled with night ventilation and a natural cooling strategy if the stored heat that will be delivered to the space during the evening/night is not desirable. • Natural cooling refers to the use of ventilation or natural heat sinks for heat dissipation from indoor spaces. Natural cooling can be separated into five categories different categories: ventilation, night flushing, radiative cooling, evaporative cooling, and earth coupling. • Ventilation as a natural cooling strategy uses the physical properties of air to remove heat or provide cooling to occupants. In select cases, ventilation can be used to cool the building structure, which subsequently may serve as a heat sink. • Cross ventilation - The strategy of cross ventilation relies on wind to pass through the building for the purpose of cooling the occupants. Cross ventilation requires openings on two sides of the space, called the inlet and outlet. The sizing and placement of the ventilation inlets and outlets will determine the direction and velocity of cross ventilation through the building. Generally, an equal (or greater) area of outlet openings must also be provided to provide adequate cross ventilation. • Stack ventilation - Cross ventilation is an effective cooling strategy, however, wind is an unreliable resource. Stack ventilation is an alternative design strategy that relies on the buoyancy of warm air to rise and exit through openings located at ceiling height. Cooler outside air replaces the rising warm air through carefully designed inlets placed near the floor.

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MATERIAL 18

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MATERIAL Test

Acetone Boiling Point

Methanol Boiling Point

56.05 °C

64.7 °C

75 ml

Moving >>>

Moving >>>

Temperature : 25°C min Time : 30 min

Water Level 50 ml

0 ml

Acetone

Methanol

Total liquid measured

50 ml

50 ml

Total liquid rise in tube (cm)

21 cm

15 cm

Total liquid rise in tube (ml)

1.68 ml

1.2 ml

Total liquid rise calculation (cm - ml) Total Length of the tube = 41 cm 18.7 cm = 1.5 ml 1 cm = 15.7 / 18.7 1 cm = 0.080 ml So, 41 cm = 3.28 ml 20

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Water Boiling Point

78.24 °C

99.98 °C

75 ml

Moving >>>

Moving >>>

Ethanol Boiling Point

Water Level 50 ml

0 ml

Ethanol

Water

50 ml

50 ml

13 cm

5 cm

1.04 ml

0.48 ml

• It was very clear observing Acetone rising much faster out of all the liquids. Water being the least. The result was quite evident as per the boiling points of each liquid. • It was also evident that the rate of evaporation depends on the surface area exposed to the sunlight.

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MATERIAL Test

The following fluids were considered because of their low latent heat of vaporisation, hence they would react to day temperatures. • Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol with the formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). Methanol acquired the name “wood alcohol” because it was once produced chiefly as a by-product of the destructive distillation of wood. Methanol is the simplest alcohol, being only a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group. It is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odour very similar to that of ethanol. However, unlike ethanol, methanol is highly toxic and unfit for consumption. At room temperature, it is a polar liquid, and is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel. Methanol has a high toxicity in humans. • Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is a volatile, flammable, colourless liquid with a slight characteristic odour. Its chemical formula is C2H6O. • Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO. It is a colourless, volatile, flammable liquid. • Acetone is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent. It is typically used for cleaning purposes in the laboratory. • Water (H2O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odourless liquid, nearly colourless with a hint of blue. It is a universal solvent known to dissolve many substances. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. Water has a relatively high boiling point of 100°C.

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• Under laboratory conditions while testing the 4 liquids acetone seemed to be the best performing one. However, while taking into consideration practical conditions water seemed the best choice. • Alcohols have a lower boiling point (acetone: 56°C, methanol: 64.7°C, ethanol: 78°C) when compared to water at 100°C. Thus, in higher temperature regions in tropical and arid conditions water is the better choice of liquid. • Water is a universal solvent. The pigment used in order to make it a shading device will easily dissolve in water rather than alcohol. Water is a non-reactive liquid when compared to the rest. The alcohols may react to the materials like plastic, acrylic, glass used in making the container thus making them unsuitable. • Among the four liquids water is the only one that is non inflammable. Being a building roofing material the safety factor is considerably low for alcohols as they are highly inflammable. Methanol and acetone are toxic to human health. • The reasons stated above make water the best option that is easily available and can be handled with ease.

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MATERIAL Water

User Friendly

Thermoresponsive

Water

Low Cost

Non Hazardous

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MATERIAL Water Displacement + Reversibility

Water moving >>>

Temperature: > 25°C

75 ml Water Level 50 ml

0 ml

Supplier Flask (pressure locked)

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Receiver Flask


Temperature: < 25°C

<<< Water moving

75 ml Water Level 50 ml

0 ml

Supplier Flask

Receiver Flask

(pressure locked)

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MATERIAL Water Property Enhancement Temperature: >25°C Time: 30 min

75 ml

Water Level 50 ml

0 ml

Glass

Black Bulb

Total liquid measured

50 ml

50 ml

Total liquid rise in tube (cm)

6 cm

8 cm

Total liquid rise in tube (ml)

0.48 ml

0.64 ml

Total liquid rise calculation (cm - ml) Total Length of the tube = 41 cm 18.7 cm = 1.5 ml 1 cm = 15.7 / 18.7 1 cm = 0.080 ml So, 41 cm = 3.28 ml 28

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Water

Boiling Point

99.98 °C

Reflective Surface Box

Black Box

50 ml

50 ml

7 cm

13 cm

0.56 ml

1.04 ml

• Out of all four, the black box test had the most effective rate when compared to the others.

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APPLICATION PARAMETERS

INPUT sun

CONTROL MODE Manual

water

Passive

Automatic

Digital Control

SPEED fast

intermediate

Roof

Wall

Pavilion

Integrated System

slow

Faรงade

APPLICATION

Panels

SCALE Element

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Wall

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Building

Urban


APPLICATION POSSIBILITIES

Shading and Ventilation - Roof Panels

Shading Canopy

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PROTOTYPE 1.0

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PROTOTYPE 1.0 Functional Principles

Rectangular frame

Introducing copper tubes in the periphery of the panel in order to store the fluid, which is also the activator.

A flap in a rectangular frame, The movable flap is acting as the shader in the panel

In order to increase the rate of heat, we are locating the tubes in the matte black surfaces, as it will attract more heat.

The shader is inactive during night and when there is no powerful sun.

Passive method of shading and ventilating spaces.

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PROTOTYPE 1.0 Overview

Balance The mechanism is similar to a simple machine, in this case a lever (in simpler terms, a see saw). The point of balance is where the shader acts as a lever due to the varying weight of water around the pivot.

Copper Tubes Copper being a good conductor of heat, is an ideal material for the liquid to be heated in. The copper tube has an increased surface area which enables to maximize absorbency and thus aids in the thermal expansion of the liquid within.

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Shader The shader behaves as a container for the pigmented liquid as it is drawn from the copper tubes. The shader begins to deflect as the water starts to flow in and is held in place by the counter balance.


Counter Weight The counter weight helps in balancing the weight of the shader which is considerably more.

Water Inlet The heated pressurized liquid flows from the copper tube into the shader, thus altering its transparency and its position based on the utility.

The copper tubes are exposed to the sun. Copper being a good conductor of heat, is an ideal material for the water to be heated in. The copper tube has an increased surface area which enables it to maximize absorbency and thus aids in the thermal expansion of the liquid within. The water heats up and evaporates causing increase in volume due to a transition in state. As the water continues to evaporate, pressure builds up in the container. The pressure within the heater causes water to move to the shader through the water inlet. As the water gradually increases within the shader, the weight of the water causes it to tilt by rotating on its pivot point. The shader also consists of a counterbalance which aids in balancing it and bringing it back to its original position as the temperature reduces during the course of the day. The water is pigmented with a black hydrosoluble dye which clouds the surface of the shader thus cutting off the sunlight which further reduces the heat accumulation within the building. The mechanism is based on the simple concept of high and low pressure points. The liquid tends to move from a high pressure point to a low pressure point.

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PROTOTYPE 1.0 System Components

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et

l r in

ate w nd ns t a ctio h eig onne w r c nte pipe u Co Counter weight Shader (top) Gasket Inlet tube

Shader (bottom)

Copper tubes

Structural frame

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PROTOTYPE 1.0 States

As the temperature decreases, a low pressure point is created within the copper tubes leading to a suction force which forces the water back to the heater thus reversing the process without any loss in material i.e., in this case pigmented water. Here the counter balance comes into play and forces the shader back to its former position. Though copper is a good conductor of heat. The thickness of the copper tubes reduced effective transfer of heat to the water resulting in slow rate of evaporation, which in turn reduces the pressure build-up within the heater. Further, the copper tubes are bulky and reduce the opening width of the shader thus, hampering the original purpose of the shader. We reached to a conclusion that much thinner tubes were required for an efficient design. The additional existence of the counter balance was also an obstacle because the principle of the design required the shader to align themselves independent of an external weight. The counter balances presence would hinder the concept of the design and it had to be removed in the successive prototype. The prototype was functional, however it appeared to seem like an industrial model with no aesthetic value. Since we were successful in achieving a working prototype, the second stage was focused on improving its functional design and make it more aesthetically appealing as well as to achieve a fully integrated and symbiotic module.

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Before activation

During activation

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PROTOTYPE 1.0 Detail

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PROTOTYPE 1.0 Future Considerations

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FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS • Supply framework is bulky and occupies a considerably large space. • The thickness of the copper tubes acts as hindrance in the effective transfer of heat to the interior thus slowing down the process of heating the water. This affects the efficiency of the shader. • Balance of the shader can not be calibrated effectively, hence leading to the introduction of a counter balance. • The flat geometry of the top casing module led to the accumulation of condensated water vapor.

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PROTOTYPE 2.0

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PROTOTYPE 2.0 Introduction

Compared to its predecessor, Prototype 2.0 is more sophisticated and the problems that we faced in the previous model were eliminated. Much thought and effort has been put into the geometric shape of the prototype as we have worked on numerous options before arriving to the optimum and final design. The final shape of the prototype resembles a kite where the shorter diagonal behaves as pivot with the heater and the shader on either side. The shape and weight has been calibrated accurately to replicate the functionality of the previous model. Prototype 2.0 is sleeker and is devoid of supply frames thus increasing the surface area of the panel. We have used two 2mm custom acrylic layers compressed under pressure with a silicon gasket sandwiched between them, similar to the concept of a pressure cooker, in order to lock the air. Care had to be taken as the screws used would create a point load and wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be uniformly distributed. Hence two pressure frames were introduced, one on each face, to distribute the pressure equally. The silicone gasket took approximately 20 hours for its casting. The hinges have been calibrated using the Grasshopper script to calculate weight based on fulcrum principles, densities and volumes. The shader has also been designed to a curvilinear fashion to account for the collection of moisture droplets due to condensation. This new geometry allows for the condensed droplets to flow back into the container. There is a pipe connecting the heater and the shader enclosed within the silicone gasket. Another pipe has been provided within the valve which is hidden from sight. The valve modulates the pressure within the heater. The new geometry of the module enables the liquid to keep it stable along a central axis based on the weight and volume calculations. The inlet pipe has to be in equilibrium to prevent the loss of pressure.

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PROTOTYPE 2.0 Balancing Morphology

Because the new geometric language of the module needs to be self balanced, meaning that the heater container would act as the counterweight for the shader, a big part of the design time was focused on how to get the most efficient form. By building an initial parametric model which allowed us not only to easily digitally fabricate all components of our prototype but also to shift the hinge position and change the geometry of the containers in order to play with the volumes, we were able to then apply calculations to the script by using fulcrum principles along with densities and volumes to get the right weight of the materials used for our prototype. The result of this algorithmic setup gave us the opportunity to explore different formal outcomes for our modules and at the same time providing us with the necessary information to verify the balance between both containers.

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PROTOTYPE 2.0 Grasshopper Script

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PROTOTYPE 2.0 Design + Components

Before activation

During activation

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Bolts and nuts

Pressure frame (top)

Top container (divided into heater and shader)

Silicone gasket

Bottom container (divided into heater and shader)

Pressure frame (bottom)

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PROTOTYPE 2.0 Enhancements + Comparison

Prototype 1.0

System Heater Component

Copper tubes around the panel, inside the frame

Shader Component

Water with pigment

Counter Weight

Acrylic pieces as counter weight system

Frame / Casing

Encasement of copper tube

Design

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Isolated system

Not intergrated , but passive system

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Prototype 2.0

System

Integrated system Inside module

Heater Component

Water with pigment

Shader Component

Heater acting as a counter weight system

Counter Weight

Minimum, only for panel support

Frame / Casing

Intergrated and passive system

Design

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PROTOTYPE 2.0 Comfort Parameters

Condition

Bright Temperature Hot Comfort Parameters Cold Illumination Dark

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Response

Shade

Ventilate

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PROTOTYPE 2.0 Module Variation

Response

Input

SHADING + VENTILATE sun

water

pigment

sun

water

pigment

SHADING + NON VENTILATE

NON SHADING + VENTILATE sun

water

sun

water

NON SHADING + NON VENTILATE

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Modules

Ventilation

Shade

Fixed Module

Shade

Ventilation

Light

Fixed Module

Light

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PROTOTYPE 2.0 Showcasing Structure

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Modules

Frame

Supports

Base

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FABRICATION 64

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FABRICATION Fabrication Process

ling

il CM

CN

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en Ov


s res P m

u

u Vac

tter u C er

Las

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FABRICATION Thermoforming Mold

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FABRICATION Thermoforming Mold

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FABRICATION Thermoformed Containers

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FABRICATION Hinge Components

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FABRICATION Silicone Gasket Casting

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FABRICATION Framing Layers

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SYSTEM VALUES

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SYSTEM VALUES Benefits

Energy Saving

Low Cost

Natural Ventilation

No Environmental Impact

Comfort

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Energy Saving Morphluidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roofing solution can be applied to a habitable space that will be controlling the comfort levels by virtue of its roof alone with no additional air conditioning systems required. Thus the energy consumption of the building is drastically brought down.

Low Cost As Morphluid does away with any kind of air conditioning system, the cost of installation of these systems is saved on. Moreover the heavy electrical expenditure and maintenance cost of these systems are completely avoided.

Natural Ventilation It has been proven that continuous natural air circulation rather than air conditioning is better for a working environment, thus providing a better and ventilated fresh atmosphere.

No Environmental Impact The materials used in the system are not harmful to the environment and can be re used again. Thus,providing an environment friendly solution.

Comfort The system can be easily maintained and water being a readily material makes it a user friendly mechanism. The water inside the shader container should be replaced only once a month, making the system a very cost effective and sustainable solution.

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GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS

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GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS Climate Map

Hot semi-arid climates (BSh) Cold semi-arid climates (BSk) Hot-summer mediterranean climate Warm-summer mediterranean climate

Semi-arid Climates KÜppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential, dominated by either grasses or shrubs. The 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month.

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Jaipur, India

Patos, Paraiba, Brazil

Hot semi-arid climates (BSh)


Mediterranean Climates

Valencia, Spain

San Francisco, USA

Hot summer Med. Cli. (Csa)

Warm summer Med. Cli. (Csb)

Mediterranean climates, also called dry summer climates, are characterized by warm to hot summers and rainy winters. They are located on the western sides of continents, between roughly 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the Equator.

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GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS Temperature Map

Temperature legend (°C)

Required temperature

< -29.5 - 29.5 to -25.0. -24.5 to -15.0 -14.5 to -10.0 -9.5 to -5.0

Minimum temperature

25 °C

-4.5 to 0.0 0.5 to 5.0 5.5 to 10.0 10.5 to 15.0 15.5 to 20.0 20.5 to 30.0 30.5 to 35.0 35.5 to 40.0 > 40.0

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45 °C Maximum temperature


Required average temperature regions

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GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS Optimum Locations

After having analyzed the types of climates and temperature conditions in which our system would work best, we focused on narrowing down the most suitable and optimum locations for it to perform. Because the modules are activated at a minimum temperature of 25°C, we looked at places which have this condition as a constant all throughout the year. By using digital tools such as Ladybug, which is a plugin for Grasshopper used to obtain, analyze and visualize environmental conditions using global data, we were able to study the comfort conditions that a cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s climate provides as well as the average annual temperatures. With this process we were able to select a reduced set of cities which had the proper characteristics, in terms of climate and temperature, for the system to work properly during most or all parts of the year.

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Reno, NV (United States)

Patos, Paraíba (Brazil)

Murcia (Spain)

Jaipur, Rajasthan (India)

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CASE STUDY

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CASE STUDY Mixed-Use Plaza in Jaipur

To demonstrate the capabilities and potential of the Morphluid system, a case study was created. The strategically designed mixed-use public plaza further arguments the flexibility of the roofing system, showcasing how under the same roof multiple quality of spaces can take place while also generating different types of comfort. After this case study, climatically located in Jaipur, calculations were made regarding the saved costs that Morphluid could potentially bring to the table. Considering the amount of total sunlight hours which could activate the system, electrical costs could be decreased 35%. Besides saving a substantial amount of money, this would also contribute to lower carbon emissions into our atmosphere.

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Morphology of roof designed specifically for the prevailing winds to generate a crossventilated scenario in which the hot air in double height spaces is taken out of the building by passive ventilation.

Gridded roof surface open to module variation possibilities depending on the desired comfort that would be created in the space below.

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CASE STUDY Mixed-Use Plaza in Jaipur

Arranged modules with varying responses to accomodate the spaces below according to their comfort requirements.

Occlusion analysis of the space with the arranged modules on the roof, demonstrating the different levels of lighting and shading generated by the system.

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VISION

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VISION A Passive and Responsive Future

Morphluid envisions a future with passive systems capable of responding to global environment utilizing the simple and natural phenomena of evaporation. Driven by design and adaptability, the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s components can be built with available materials and in the absence of complex technical know-how. With water as a common fuel, the module runs low on expenses and enables society to take action by striding away from regular automated systems while opening a possibility to lower electrical consumption to a bare minimum. The aim was to make the system available to the masses. Fabrication laboratories have been set up all over Europe to inspire people to turn their ideas into products and prototype by providing easy access to advanced technology. Thus, we can replicate this prototype using commonly available materials in one of these. Passive cooling is an age old technique to reduce the heat contained in a building. By using the system we have conceived as the roof the building shall be effectively passively cooled. Thus, artificial air conditioning can be avoided completely, reducing the carbon footprint of the building and economizing on overall expenditure. The system would also prevent the use of coolants that are toxic and responsible for ozone depletion. Morphluid provides an all-round solution to all of the above.

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THERMORESPONSIVE SYSTEM

Profile for Francis Redman

Morphluid | Thermoresponsive System  

Can fluids along with their state transitions behave as activators for passively operated systems which are capable of replacing electricall...

Morphluid | Thermoresponsive System  

Can fluids along with their state transitions behave as activators for passively operated systems which are capable of replacing electricall...