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Vol. :1 Issue : 01 ` : 30

MAY-JUNE-JULY 2011

tIcf ImÀjnI kÀÆ-I-em-ime

tIcf ImÀjnI kÀÆ-I-em-ime

Imem-hØm hyXn-bm-\hpw


Front Cover Inside


sabv, Pq¬, Pqsse e¡w 1 ]pkvXIw 1

KALPADENU Vol 1 No. 1 May, June, July 2011 Rs.

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Printed & Published by.. on behalf of... Disclaimer : Kalpadenu is dedicated to providing useful, well researched information on scientific and holistic parctices in agriculture, food and health. The views expressed by writers are their own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the chief editor, Kalpadenu magazine.

DÅ-S¡w


Editorial


Editorial


\½psS `£y-kp-c£

{]iv\-§Ä ]eXv !

\½psS `£y-kp-c£ {]iv\-§Ä ]eXv !

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1

c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-§Ä `b-¡p¶ Hcp taJ-ebmbn temI-amsI '`£y-kp-c£' amdn-bn-cn-¡p¶p. H¶pw c­pw hÀj-¡m-e-t¯¡v Bh-iyamb `£y-[m-\y-§Ä kw`-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v hsc H«\-h[n cmjv{S-§Ä Hcp§n Ign-ªn-cn-¡p-¶p. AWp-i-àn-sb-t¸mse `qhn-hcw X{´-{]-[m\yw \ÂIn AXoh cl-ky-ambpw kq£n-¡p¶p!! CXn-t\-¡mÄ {]m[m\yw \ÂIn `£y-kp-c-£m{]-iv\s¯ Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡m³ {]bmkw! 121 tImSn P\-§Ä¡v Bh-iy-amb Acnbpw tKmX¼pw Hcp hÀj-¡m-e-t¯¡v th­Xv Icp-X tiJ-c-ambn C´y kq£n-¨m 9.5 tImSn S¬ Acnbpw 8 tImSn S¬ tKmX¼pw 4 tImSntbmfw S¬ tNmfw, _Pdm XpS-§n-b-hbpw kw`-cn¨v tISp-IqSmsX \mw kq£n-¡-Ww. CXnsâ aqeyw c­-ce£w tImSn cq]bn-te-sd th­n-hcpw!! `£y-kp-c-£-bpsS Hcp {][m-\-L-S-I-amb [m\y taJ-e-bn-te¡v C{Xbpw \nt£]w thWsa-¦n ]mÂ, ap«,. amwkw, ]b-dn-\-§Ä, ]¨-¡dn, tXbn-e, Im¸n, XpS-§n-b-h-bpsS taJ-e-bnse Imcyw IqSn CtXm-sSm¸w IW-¡m¡n Iq«n-hm-bn¨m AXv \s½ \n{Zm-c-ln-X-cm-¡pw-hn[w `oI-cambn tXm¶pw. Cu {]iv\w F{X 'Atcm-N-I-ambn' tXm¶nbmÂt¸mepw P\-§fpw cmjv{Shpw kwkv¡mchpw kÀtÆm-]cn cmPy-¯nsâ ]c-am-[n-Im-chpw \ne-\n¡-W-sa-¦n A`w-Kpcw `£y-h-kvXp¡Ä Dev]mZn-¸n¨v Ah kÀÆÀ¡pw In«p-¶Xpw {]m]y-am-b-Xp-amb kwhn-[m-\-krjvSn kaq-l¯n\v e`y-am-¡ntb Xocq. AXn-\m cmjv{S¯nse `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\¯nsâ {]Y-ahpw apJy-

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

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hp-amb ISa `£y-kp-c£ kwhn-[m\w ap³]v ]dª coXn-bn cq]-s¸-Sp¯n Ømbn-bmbn \ne-\nÀ¯p-I-bm-Wv. asäÃmw AXn\p ]n¶n Xs¶-bmWv F¶ Imcyw kwi-bn-t¡-­-XnÃ! C´y Ncn-{X-{]-[m-\-amb Hcp ImÂhbv]v `£y-kp-c£ cwK¯v XpS-§n-bn-cn-¡p¶ Ime-L«-am-Wn-Xv. am{X-hp-aÃ, `£Ww AtXmsS P\-§fpsS Hcp "Ah-Im-i-ambn' Xocp-I-bm-Wv. `£y-hkvXp-¡-fpsS hnti-jn¨pw [m\y taJ-e-bnse DÂ]m-Z-\w, kw`-cWw, hnX-cWw F¶o taJ-e-Ifn h¼n¨ IpXn-¨p-Nm«w CtXmsS Ømbn-bmbn krjvSn-¡-s¸-S-Ww. ""Irjn-bpsS cwK¯v 5% A[nIw hfÀ¨ {]Xo£n-t¡-­-XnÃ. AXn-\m Cu taJ-e-bn h³tXm-Xn-epÅ s]mXp-[-\-\n-t£]w Bh-iyapt­m'' XpS-§nb Nn´m-K-Xn-IÄ CtXmsS `cW-Np-a-Xe \nÀÆ-ln-¡p¶ iàn-IÄ adt¶ aXnbm-hq. `£y-kp-c-£sb "Hml-cn-I-t¼m-f-¯nse' DbÀ¨ XmgvN-I-fpw, km¼-¯nI hfÀ¨m-kq-N-\I-fp-ambn Iq«n-I-eÀ¯n-]-d-ªm cmjv{Sw `£yI-em-]-¯n-te¡v hsc sNs¶-¯n-tb-¡pw.! ImcWw, temI-[m-\y-hn-]-Wn-bnse I¨-h-S-kmln-Xy- `mjm-ssi-en-bn ]d-ªm shdpw, "CuÀ¡nÂ' Øm\-amWv Acn-hn-]-Wn Ae-¦-cn¡p-¶-Xv!! DZm-l-c-W-¯n\v, temI¯v sam¯w D­m-¡p¶ AcnbpsS shdpw 3 apX 5% hsc am{X-amWv BtKm-f-hn-]-Wn-bn hcp-¶-Xv. AXn\m ]Ww F{X D­m-bmepw temI hn]-Wnbn Acn hm§m³ In«n-Ã. F.-sI.-47 tXm¡p-hm§m³ {]bm-k-an-ænepw Acn Xcm³ Bfv D­mInÃ! Acn CÃm-¯-Xp-X-s¶-bmWv AXn-\pÅ Imc-Ww.


`£y-kp-c-£bv¡v h³]n¨ Icp-¯pÅ cmjv{SamWv C¶v C´y. icm-icn Acn-þ-tKm-X¼v DÂ]mZ\w Ct¸m-g-t¯-Xnsâ Cc-«n-bm-¡p-hm³ \ap¡v Ign-bWw. Irjn-¡msc AXn\p Icp-¯p-Å-h-cm¡p-Ibpw Bh-iy-amb kÀÆ kml-N-cy-§fpw kuI-cy-§fpw Hcp¡n sImSp-¡p-Ibpw thWw. AXn-t\m-sSm¸w `£y Kth-j-Ww, hnI-k\w, kw`-c-Ww, hn]-W-\w, hnX-cWw F¶o taJ-eIÄ¡v \½psS cmPy-kp-c-£¡v \evIp¶ AtX {]m[m\yw \ÂI-Ww. asämcp t]mwh-gnbpw Ømbn-bmb `£y-kp-c-£ -kr-jvSn-¡m³ ]cym]vX-a-Ã. F{X A\p-`-hn-¨mepw Hcp ]cn[n Ign-bpt¼mÄ `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-tI-{µ-§Ä Cu kXyw ad-¡p-¶-XmWv Ncn{Xw \s½ ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. Hcn-¡epw hn«p-hn-gvNbv¡v Iogvhg-§m-¯-hn[w P\X Ak-ln-jvWX {]ZÀin-¸n-¡p-t¼msg AhÀ CXp a\-Ên-em-¡p-¶pÅp F¶pw Ncn{Xw \s½ ]Tn-¸n-¡p-¶p. Ignª Adp-]Xp hÀjs¯ ITn\m²zm-\-^e-ambn Kth-jW hnI-k-\-cw-K¯v krjvSn-¡m³ Ignª apt¶äw ]qÀÆm-[nIw tZio-bm-h-iy¯n\v DX-Ipw-hn[w hnI-kn-¸n-¡-Ww. kzIm-cyh¡-c-W-aà ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-sSbpw bYmÀ° hnI-k-\-¯n-sâbpw ]mX-sb¶v Cu \bs¯ BZyw BtÇ-jn¨ iàn-IÄ¡v a\-Ên-embn XpS§n-bn-«p-­m-I-Ww. temI ImÀjnI cwK¯v 60-þ70I-fn AÂ`pXw krjvSn¨ A´m-cmjv{S ImÀjnI Kth-jW tI{µ§Ä t]mse tZin-bØm-]-\-§-fp-sSbpw hfÀ¨ apc-Sn¨p \n¡p¶ ImgvN F´m-bmepw {]Xym-i-P-\-I-a-Ã. Cu Npäp-]m-Sn-emWv Imem-hØm hyXn-bm\w krjvSn-¡p¶ {]Xym-Lm-X-§sf t\cn-Sm-\pÅ bÚ-§sfbpw ImtW-­Xpw. CXn-sâ-sbÃmw A´n-a-\jvSw Hcp IW-¡n\v t\m¡p-t¼mÄ Irjn-¡mÀ¡mWv kw`-hn-bv¡p-¶-Xv. Irjn-¡msc-¡mÄ F´-psIm­pw kzm[o-\hpw DbÀ¶ PohnX \ne-hm-c-hp-apÅ D]-t`m-àm-¡-fpsS kaqlw CXv Irjn-bn krjvSn-¡m³ CS-bpÅ tZmj-^-e-§sf Adn-bp-¶n-Ã. s]mÅp¶ hne¡b-ähpw hn`h iq\yXbpw A\p-`-h-s¸-Sp-t¼mÄ Ahcpw IÀj-I-k-aq-l-s¯-bmWv ]gn-¡p-¶-Xv.

CS- \ n- e - ¡ mcpw \b- c q- ] o- I - c - W - ¡ m- c p- a mb bYmÀ° {]Xn-kÔn krjvSm-¡Ä At¸mgpw em`w-sIm-¿p¶ km¼-¯nI hfÀ¨ t\Sp-¶p. Imem-h-Ø-mamäw Irjn-bn hcp-¯p¶ hyXnbm-\-§-sf-¡p-dn-¨pÅ ]T-\-ku-I-cy-§fpw AXn\pÅ {]Xn-hn-[n-Ifpw IÀj-IÀ¡v e`y-am-¡m\pÅ {Inbm-ßI bÚ-§Ä bYmÀ°-¯n \S-¡p-¶pt­m F¶p kwi-b-ap-­v. FÃm ImÀjnI hnf-I-fnepw Imem-hØ hyXn-bm\w Dev]m-Z\w CSn¨p Xmgv¯n-tb¡p-sa¶ `bw hfsc hn]p-e-am-bn-«p-­v. F§ns\Cu ØnXn hnti-js¯ \mw t\cn-SWw F¶v IÀjI kaql-t¯mSv ]d-bm\pw Ah {]mhÀ¯n-I-am-¡m-\papÅ ]cn-]m-Sn-IÄ D­m-I-Ww. Ct¸mÄ GXp hnf-bpsS hne-¡-b-ä-¯n\pw bYmÀ°- Im-cWw IW-¡n ImWn-bv¡p¶ Af-hn-epÅ Dev]¶§sf D­m-Im-¯Xpw, D­mIp¶ DÂ]mZ-\s¯ h³InS B[p-\n-I-im-kv{X-k-t¦-X-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn¨v kw`-cn¨v kq£n¨v hn]-Wn-bn-te¡v hne-XmgvN D­m-ImsX {Iao-I-cn¨v e`y-am-¡p¶ hn]- W n- i - à n- I - f psS anI¨ at\- P v s aâ v sshZ²yw aqehpw kw`-hn-¡p-¶-XmWv F¶ kXyw Bcpw hninjym imkv{X-km-t¦-XnI hnZ²À t]mepw Xpd¶p ]d-bp-¶n-Ã. asäm-cp-Imcyw, Dev]m-Z\D]m-[n-I-fpsS e`yX Npcp-§p-¶p F¶-XmWv. `qan, shÅw, cmk-h-fw, ssPh-h-fw, IoS-\m-in-\n, b{´-§Ä Ch-bp-sSsbÃmw e`yX Npcp-§p¶p sh¶v am{X-aà hneIÄ Gdp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. DZmlc-W-¯n-\v, cmkhf e`yX Xosc Ipd-ªn-cn-¡p¶p. tIc-f¯n Hcp Ime¯pw 5500  ]cw Unt¸m-Ifn cmk-hfw hnän-cp-¶-bn-S¯v Ct¸mÄ icn-bmb \qdv, \à Unt¸m-IÄt]mepanÃ. cmk-hf£maw XoÀ¡m³ ssPh-Irjn hn]p-eo-I-cW¯n\v Ignªn«n-Ã. F´pw ssPh-h-f-sa-¶-t]-cn BÀ¡pw hn¡m³ Ign-bp¶ \mY-\n-Ãm¯ Ah-Ø-bmWv kkym-lmc aqeI Dev]m-Z\hnX-c-W-ta-J-ebn ImWp-¶-Xv. ssPh-h-f-am-bmepw cmk-h-f-am-bmepw AXv Irjn-bn-S¯v F¯n-¡m³ `oa-amb IS-¯p-Iq-enbmWv th­n hcp-¶p-Xv. AXp-IqSn IW-¡m-¡n-

\½psS `£y-kp-c£ {]iv\-§Ä ]eXv ! sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

2


\½psS `£y-kp-c£ {]iv\-§Ä ]eXv ! 3

bm hf-¯nsâ hne Cc-«n-bm-Ipw. C¯-c-¯n \nc-h[n "NnÃd' Nne-hp-IÄ¡p ]pdta Ch-sbÃmw \nÀÆ-ln-¡m³ BÄ¡msc In«m-¯Xpw hfscb[nIw {]iv\§Ä krjvSn¡p-¶p. Irjn-hn«v aäp ]Wn¡v ]Wn-¡mÀ t]mIp-¶-Xns\-¡p-dn¨v hkvXp-\n-jvT-amb ]T-\-§Ä Bcpw D­m¡n {]kn-²o-I-cn-¡p-¶n-Ã. Imem-h-Ø-amäw Hmtcm tZi¯pw Htcm hnfbnepw Hmtcm coXn-bn {]Xn-^-en-¡p-¶-Xmbn IÀj-IÀ ]d-bp-¶p. dº-dnsâ Id-sb-Sp-¸v, tX³ kw`-cWw ]«-a-c-¸nsâ BLmXw Ch-sb-t¸mse Xs¶ ]¨-¡dn Irjn-bnepw hmg-Ir-jn-bnepw Ipcp-ap-fIv Irjn-bnepw hcp¯p¶ hyXn-bm-\§Ä ]e-Xm-Wv. Ah-sbÃmw \nc-´-c-ambn ho£n-¡m\pw IÀj-I-k-lm-bn-bmbn ip]mÀiIÄ \ÂIm-\pÅ bÚw A{X Ffp-¸-a-Ã. hfsc hn]p-e-ambn \ne-hn-epÅ kÖo-I-c-W§sf CXn\v D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ {]{Inb Xs¶ hfsc ]T\w Bhiyambn-«p-Å-Xm-Wv. C{X-b-[nIw ZoÀL-Im-e-hn-f-Ifpw CS-hn-f-Irjn-Ifpw Ch-tbmSv tXmfp-cp½n \n¡p¶ ]ip, BSv, tImgn, tX\o¨ hfÀ¯-ep-sam-s¡-bpÅ \½psS sNdp-InS Irjn-bn-S-§sf Imem-hØ hrXn-bm-\- B-Lm-X-§-fn \n¶p c£n¨p \ne\nÀ¯Ww F¶-Xns\sNdp-Xm-bn-«Ã, hepXmbn Xs¶ ho£n-bv¡-Ww. CXn-\pÅ Kth-jW ]T\-¯n\p Hcp A´m-cm-jv{S-K-th-j-W-tI{µw Ip«\m-«n Øm]n-bv¡-W-sa¶v UmIvSÀ Fw.-F-kv. kzman-\m-Y³ Xncp-h-\-´-]pcw kb³kv Im¬{KÊnepw XpSÀ¶v ]e kt½-f-\-§-fnepw iànbmbn Bh-iy-s¸-«p-sh-¦nepw AXnsâ XpSÀ bÚ-§Ä th­{X iàn-bm-¡m³ \ap¡v Ignªn-«n-Ã. ]T-\-§fpw Kth-j-W-§fpw sIm­pam-{Xta ]pXnb I­p-]n-Sn-¯-§Ä¡v hgn sXfnbp-I-bp-Åq. AÃmsX \jvS-]-cn-lm-c-XpI hnXcWw F{X DZm-c-am-bmepw {]iv\-]-cn-lm-c-am-hnà Xs¶! `£y-kp-c-£bv¡pw Imem-hØm amä-§sf {]Xn-tcm-[n-bv¡m\pw hnhn[ Unkn-¹n-\p-Isf Iq«n-bn-W-¡n-bpÅ Kth-jWw AXym-h-iy-am-Wv. CXn\p ^­n-Ã. imkv{X-Ú-·m-cpsS \nb-a\w ac-hn-¸n-¡Â XpS-§nb Nph-¸p-\mSm ]cn-]m-Sn-IÄ hnLm-X-am-I-cp-Xv. `£y-kp-c-£m-b-{´-§Â¡v \nc-h[n ]²-Xn-Ifpw AXn-hn-]p-e-amb hmbv]m sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

hnX-c-W-§fpw {]Nm-cW i_vZ-§-tfmsS \S-¸nem-¡p-¶-tXm-sSm¸w Ah-bpsS icn-bmb D]-tbmK-s¯-¡p-dn-¨pÅ hne-bn-cp-¯Â AXym-h-iy-amsW¶v DÂ]m-Z-\-cw-Ks¯ DbÀ¨-Ip-dhpw hne-Ib-ähpw ImWp-t¼mÄ tXm¶p-¶p. \mepe£w tImSn-bnÂ]cw cq]bpsS ImÀjnI hmbv] CXn\Iw Cu hÀjw Irjn-¡mbn \ÂIn Ign-ªp. ]t£ AXnsâ {]Xn-^-e\w DÂ]m-Z-\-cw-K¯v ImWp-¶n-Ã. tIc-f-¯nse Xs¶ Irjnhmbv] D]-tbm-K-\n-co-£Ww hfsc ZpÀº-e-am-Wv. Gähpw \à kl- I - c W kwhn- [ m- \ - a pÅ kwØm-\-amWv tIc-fw. aäp-Å-bn-S¯v C¡mcyw CXnepw hfsc tami-as{X! Irjn-bv¡pÅ [\-\n-t£]w Irjn-bn-S-§-fnte¡v hn\n-tbm-Kn-bv¡msX aäp D]-tbm-K§Ä¡mbn hn\n-tbm-Kn-bv¡p-¶Xv kmÆ-{Xn-I-am¡p-¶Xv ]ptcm-K-Xnbv¡p ]Icw ]nt¶m-«pÅ Xncn-¨-Sn-bnse Iem-in¡q!. AXp IqSn Imem-hØ-am-ä-¯nsâ tXmfn-te¡v Ibän c£-s¸Spw hn[-apÅ {]tbm-K-§Ä [mcm-f-ambn ImWp-¶-Imcyhpw ZuÀ`m-Ky-I-c-am-Wv. Hcp lcnX iàn-bmbn amdm-\p-Å FÃm kuI-cy-§fpw C´y-bn-en-¶p-­v. Ahsb ^e{]-Z-ambn AXn-hn-]p-e-amb IÀj-I-]-¦m-fn-¯t¯msS icn-bmb \nim-t_m[w DÄs¡m­v \S¸n-em-¡m-\m-bn-cn-¡Ww {iaw. AXnsâ ap³]´n-bn Kh¬saâ v Xs¶ D­m-I-Ww. "]n³ koäv' ssUhn§v \S¯n kÀÆhpw kzmIm-cy-ta-Je¡pw hmWn-Py-i-àn-IÄ¡pw ssIam-d-cp-Xv. 1960þ70 Ime¯v ap³]-´n-bn \n¶v Kh¬saâ v \bn- ¨ - t ¸mÄ `£ykzbw- ] - c y- ] v X - X - s b¶ kz]v\w \ap¡v bYmÀ°y-am-¡m³ Ign-ªp. Ct¸mÄ AXm-hÀ¯n-¨m C´y Hcp ap³\nc BtKmf [m\y-i-àn-bmbn DbÀ¶v temI-¯nse Xs¶ ]«nWn amäm-\pÅ bÚ-¯nsâ t\XrØm-\-t¯bv¡v DbÀ¯-s¸-Spw. `£y kpc£bpw Imem-h-Ø-hy-Xn-bm-\hpw \nb-{´nbv¡m³ Ign-bp¶ Hcp amXrIm iàn-Iq-Sn-bmbn At¸mÄ C´ysb temIw hmgv¯pw. (tI-c-f-¯nse ImÀjnI ]{X-{]-hÀ¯\ cwK¯v hyàn ap{Z ]Xn-¸n¨ {io. BÀ. tlen ^mw C³^Àtaj³ _yqtdm-bpsS {]Ya {]n³kn-¸Â C³^Àta-j³ Hm^o-k-dm-bn-cp-¶p. Irjn hIp¸v Ub-d-IvS-dmbn kÀÆokn \n¶v hnc-an-¨p.)


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lcn-X-hn-¹hw! kn. tPmÀPv tXmakv

ÌÀ sN¿p¶ hn¯n-\-§-sf-bm-Wv t\mdn³ F¶p hnfn-¡p-I. CXn t\mdn³þ10 F¶ Ipdnb C\w tKmX¼v skkn-ensâ khn-tij {i² ]nSn-¨p-]än. 1946  skkn CXv Ata-cn-¡-bn-te-¡-b-¨p. ]pÄam-\nse hmjnw-KvS¬ tÌäv kÀÆ-I-em-im-ebnse H.-thm-K Cu Ipdnb tKmX-¼n-\-§-fn Kth-jWw Bcw-`n-¨p. CXn-\n-sS, saIvkn-t¡mbn ]pXp-Xmbn Bcw-`n¨ ImÀjnI Kth-jW tI{µ-¯n \n¶pw t\mÀa³ C. t_mÀtemKv 1953  ]pÄam³ kµÀin-¡p-Ibpw Ipų tKmX-¼n\-§-fpsS khn-ti-j-X-IÄ t\cn«v t_m²ys¸SpIbpw sNbvXp. At±lw thmK-ep-ambn tKmX-¼n-\-§Ä ]¦p-sh-¨p. ]pÄam-\n \n¶p In«nb C\-§Ä \ne-hn-epÅ saIvkn-¡³, sImf¼n-b³ tKmX-¼n-\-§-fp-ambn k¦-cWw \S-¯pIbpw 1961  BZy-ambn t\mdn³þ10 Po³ AS§nb hk-´-Ime tKmX-¼n-\-§Ä ]pd-¯n-d-¡pIbpw sNbvXp. bYm-À°-¯n lcnX hn¹-h-¯n\p Imc-Wamb kwK-Xn-IÄ saIvkn-t¡m-bn 1943 Xs¶ Bcw-`n-¨n-cp-¶p. AXn-\p- ap¼v saIvkn-t¡m-bnse ImÀjn-I-cwKw hf-sc-b-[nIw XIÀ¶-Snª \nesaIvkn-t¡m- ImWn¨ hgn bn-em-bn-cp-¶p. tdm¡v-s^-ÃÀ ^ut­-j\pw lntcm-jn-a-bnepw \mK-km-¡n-bnepw Ata-cn¡ saIvkn-¡³ kÀ¡mcpw tNÀ¶v Hcp kky-{]-P-\t_mw_p hÀjn-¨Xpw c­mw temI-a-lm-bp-²- \-tI{µw XpS-§p-¶Xv B hÀj-am-Wv. an¶-tkm« ¯n kJy-I-£n-IÄ hnPbw t\Sn-bXpsams¡ kÀÆ- I - e m- i m- e - b n tPmen sNbv X n- c p¶ GhÀ¡pw AdnhpÅXmWtÃm? bp²-¯n-\p- t\mÀa³ C. t_mÀtem-Kn-\m-bn-cp-¶p Npa-X-e. tijw P¸msâ ]p\À\nÀ½m-W-¯n\v ]e ]²- 1961  {]kvXpX tI{µw ]pd-¯n-d-¡nb Xn-Ifpw kJy-I-£n-IÄ BtemNn¨p. Ata-cn- t\mdn³þ10 AS-§nb tKmX-¼n-\-§Ä saIvkn¡³ Irjn-h-Ip-¸nse Fkv. skkn kmÂa¬ ¡³ `£y-[m\y DÂ]m-Z-\-¯n Hcp h³IpP¸msâ bp²m-\-´c ImÀjnI {]iv\-§-fn-emWv Xn¨p Nm«w Xs¶-bp-­m-¡n. 1944  saIvknt¡m {i²-sh-¨-Xv. “ t\mdn³” F¶p hnfn-¡p¶ tKmX- Bh-iy-amb tKmX-¼nsâ ]Ip-Xnbpw Cd-¡p-aXn ¼n-\-§Ä At±-l-¯nsâ {i²-bnÂs¸«p. P¸m- sN¿p-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n 1956 HmsS AhÀ Cd\n t\mdn³ F¶ hm¡nsâ AÀ°w Irjnbpw ¡p-aXn \nÀ¯n kzbw ]cym-]vXX t\Sn. 1964  h\hpw” F¶m-Wv. Irjn þ h\w-h-Ip-¸n cPn- tKmX¼v Ib-äp-aXn Bcw-`n-¡-¯-¡-hn-[-¯nÂ

thWw C\nbpsamcp lcn-X-hn-¹hw!

X{´m\´c `mcX¯n hfsc tbsd Ne\§Ä kyjvSn¨ H¶mWv lcn-X-hn¹hw F¶ t]cn ChnsS kw`hn¨ Irjnbnse amÁ§Ä. lcnXhn-¹h kay²n Ahkm\n¨psh¶pw `t£ymÂ]mZ\w Gsd¡psd \nÝeambn Htc X«n \n¡p¶p sh¶XpamWv Hcp c­mw lcnX hn¹hs¯¡pdn¨v kwkmcn¡m³ \s½ t{] cn¸n¡p¶Xv. Btfmlcn Irjn `qan Ipdªp hcp¶p F¶ bmYmÀ°yw \½psS ap¼nep­vv. asÁmcp hn-¹hs¯¡pdn¨v kwkmcn¡p¶Xn\p ap¼mbn H¶mw lcnX hn-¹h¯nte¡p \bn¨ Imcy§fpw AXnsâ _m¡n]{Xhpw IqSn hniIe\w sNt¿­Xp­v. lcn-X-hn-¹hw Hcp ]cm-P-b-am-bn-cp¶p F¶p hnebncp¯p¶phcpw IpdhÃ. Nne-sc-¦nepw Btcm-]n-¡p-¶-Xp-t]mse cmk-h-f-hpw, IoS-\m-in-\nbpw {]N-cn-¸n-¡m-\pÅ Hcp X{´w am{X- a m- b n- c pt¶m CXv v ? aÁv _ZepIÄ D­mbncpt¶m? C¡mcy§Ä hniZambn¯s¶ ]cntim[nt¡­nbncn¡p¶p.

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

4


DÂ]m-Z\w hÀ²n-¸n-¡m\pw km[n-¨p. Cu hnP-bKmY C´ym, ]m¡n-Øm³ t]mepÅ Zcn{Z cmPy§-fn h³ {]Xo-£-bp-WÀ¯n-bXv kzm`m-hnIw am{Xw.

thWw C\nbpsamcp lcn-X-hn-¹hw!

am{Xw. cmk-h-f-§-fpw, IoS-\m-in-\n-Ifpw D]-tbmKn¨p XpS-§p-¶-tX-bp-Åq (shdpw c­p iX-am\w am{Xw) ]«n-Wnbpw Zmcn-{Zyhpw \nXy kw`-h-§Ä. `£y-h-kvXp-¡Ä¡v Xohn-ebpw. hntZ-i-¯p-\n¶v `£y-[m-\y-hp-am-bpÅ I¸Â sshIn-bm ]«nWnbpw el-fbpw \S-¡p¶ Ah-Ø. Pe-tkkar²n C´y-bnte¡v hym]n¡p¶p N\kuIcyw Iq«pI, IqSp-X Øe¯v Irjn `mcXw Ncn-{Xm-Xo-X-Imew apXÂt¡ £ma-§- Cd-¡p-I, sa¨-s¸« C\-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn-¡pI XpSfpsS \mSm-bmWv Adn-b-s¸-«n-cp-¶-Xv. {_n«o-jp- §nb ]cn-]m-Sn-I-sfm¶pw P\-kwJym hÀ²-\-hpImÀ C´y-bn hcp-¶-Xn-\p-ap-¼pÅ alm-£-a- ambn X«n¨p t\m¡p-t¼mÄ Gip-¶n-Ã. Iq\n§-sf-¸-änbpw hdp-Xn-I-sf-¸-änbpw IrXy-amb IW- t·Â Ipcp-t]mse ]m¡n-Øm³ þ ssN\m B{I¡p-I-fn-Ã. 1765  {_n«o-jp-ImÀ _wKmÄ {]hniy a-W-§fpw XpSÀ¶pÅ sISp-Xn-Ifpw. `£y-cwssI¸n- S n- b n- e m- ¡ nbXp ap- X  C´y¡v K¯v Hc-ÛpXw kw`-hn-¡-W-sa¶v Ghcpw B{KkzmX{´yw e`n-¡p-¶-Xp-h-sc-bpÅ Ime¯v 21 ln-¨p. saIvkn-t¡m-bn hnPbw I­p-Xp-S-§nb {][m\£ma-§fpw At\Iw sNdp-£m-a-§fpw ImÀjnI ]cn-jvI-c-W-§Ä C´y-bnse `c-W-t\hdp-Xn-bpw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«p­v. {_n«o-jp-ImÀ Xr-Xz-s¯bpw imkv{X-Ú-·m-scbpw BIÀjnHmtcm alm-£m-a-¯n\pw tijw ^mao³ I½o-j- ¡p-¶-Xv A§n-s\-bmWv. \p-IÄ \ntbm-Kn-¡pI ]Xn-hm-bn-cp-¶p. Nne `t£ymÂ]m-Z\hÀ²-\hv e£y-am¡n `mcXw s]mSn-ss¡-IÄ, AXm-bXv ImÀjnI Kth-jW \S-¸n-em-¡n-b Hcp {][m-\-s¸« ]cn-]mSnbmWv tI{µ-§Ä, Nne ]²-Xn-IÄ, Ch-sbms¡ \S-¸n- 1961  Xnc-sª-Sp¯ PnÃ-I-fn XpS-§nb em¡n t\m¡n-sb-¦nepw £ma-§Ä BhÀ¯n-¨psIm-t­-bn-cp-¶p. Gähpw HSp-hn-e-t¯Xv 1942þ43 DuÀÖnX Irjn PnÃm-]-²Xn (IADP). CXn\v  kw`-hn¨ _wKmÄ £ma-am-Wv. BhÀjw t^mÀUp ^ut­-jsâ klm-b-ap-­m-bn-cp-¶p. am{Xw acn-¨-h-cpsS F®w 15 e£w hcpw. CXp Pe-tk-NnX taJ-e-bnse Irjn-bpsS A`n-hr-²nIqSmsX]«n-Wnbpw ZpcnXhpw At\-Im-bn-c-§-sf- bm-bn-cp¶p e£yw. asämcp £ma-]ÀÆw hcp-¶psh¶v Xncn-¨-dn-ª-tXmsS kÀ¡mÀ 1964  bmWv _m[n-¨-Xv. DuÀÖnX ImÀjnI {]tZ-i-]-²Xn (IAAP) Bcwc­mw temI-a-lm-bp-²-Im-e-¯-\p-`-h-s¸« h³ `£y-£m-a-¯nsâ ]Ým-¯-e-¯n {_«o- `n-¨p. B[p-\nI ImÀjnI apd-IÄ \S-¸n-em-¡p-Ijp-ImÀ tImf\n cmPy-§-fn-seÃmw 1939  XpS- bm-bn-cp¶p Dt±-i-sa-¦nepw \ne-hn-epÅ \mS³ C\-§fp]tbmKn¨vv hnfhv hÀ²n-¸n-¡pI Akm§n-sh¨ “ `£y-[m\yw IqSp-X Irjn sN¿pI” ²y-am-sW¶v a\-Ên-em-bn. hf-{]-tbmKw IqSn(Grow More Food) ]cn-]mSn Dt±-in¨ ^e-sam¶pw bm tKmX¼v adnªp hogp-¶-X-ÃmsX hnfhv \ÂIn-bn-Ã. C´y- kzmX{´w t\Spt¼mÄ `£y hÀ²n-¡p-¶n-Ã. hnfhv {]Xn slIvS-dn\v 1000 kpc£bpambn _Ôs¸« C§s\bpÅ Intem{Kmw F¶ Af-hn X«n-\n-¶p. hnfhv CXn\nch[n {]iv\§fp­mbncp¶p. kzm`mhnI \- ¸ p- d - t ¯¡v sIm­p- t ]m- I m- \ m- I p- ¶ n- à . ambpw `£y-Im-cy-¯nemWv kzX{´ `mcXw CXns\F§s\adn-¡-S-¡m-sa-¶mbn imkv{XGhpa[nIw {i² sNep¯nXv. “ asäÃmw AÂ]w Ú-·m-cpsS Nn´. CXnsâ D¯-c-am-Wv sshIn-bmepw kmc-an-Ã. ]t£, Irjn H«pw t\mdn³þ10 Po\p-I-fpsS cq]-¯n t\mÀa³ sshIn-¡q-Sm” . ]Þnäv Ph-lÀem s\lr- t_mÀtemKv sIm­p-h-cp-¶-Xv. hnsâ 1947 se {]kn-²-amb Cu hmNIw `£y-Im1964  ]Þnäv s\lr-hnsâ ac-Ws¯ cy-¯n cmjv{S-¯nsâ DXvIWvT shfn-hm-¡p-¶Xm-Wv. 1951  C´y-bnse P\-kwJy 36 tImSn, XpSÀ¶v em _l-ZqÀ imkv{Xn {][m-\-a-{´n`£y-[m-t\ymÂ]m-Z\w shdpw 51 Zi-e£w S¬ bmbn. {]K-Û-\m-bn-cp¶ kn. kp{_-Ò-Wy-am-bn-

5

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse


cp¶p `£y-þ-Irjn hIp¸v a{´n-bm-b-Xv. cmPyw hen-sbmcp ZpÀLS kÔn-bn-eqsS IS¶p t]mhpt¼m-gmWv kp{_-ÒWyw a{´n-bm-hp-¶-Xv. `£y\o-¡n-bn-cp¸v iq\yw. 1961 \pw 1965 \pw CS-bn C´y 25.4 Zi-e£w S¬ [m\yw Cd-¡p-aXn sNbvXp. 1967þ67 hÀj-§-fn asämcp £ma-Zpc´w XcWw sN¿p-hm³ 19.0 Zi-e£w S¬ `£y-[m\yw IqSn Cd-¡p-aXn sNbvXp. A¶s¯ {][m-\-a{´n imkv{Xn cmjv{S-t¯mSv BgvN-bn Hcp t\cw D]-h-kn-¡m³ ]d-ªXv C¯-cp-W¯n kvac-Wo-b-am-Wv. A{Xbpw Zb-\o-b-am-bncp¶p C´y-bnse `£y-cw-Kw. C´y-bn lcn-X-hn-¹hw kw`-hn-¡p-¶Xv kn. kp{_-Ò-Wy-s¯-t¸m-semcp {Im´-ZÀin-bmb `cW-IÀ¯mhv D­m-b-Xp-sIm­v am{X-am-sW¶v ]ecpw hne-bn-cp-¯p-¶p. t_mÀtem-Knsâ tKmX¼n-\-§-fpsS km²y-X-IÄ a\-Ên-em-¡nb kp{_ÒWyw Ch- b psS AXn- t h- K - h ym- ] - \ - ¯ n\v h³tXm-Xn-epÅ tKmX¼v hn¯v Cd-¡p-aXn¡v Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp-¡p-Ibpw AXn\v ]mÀe-saânsâ A\p-aXn t\Sn-sb-Sp-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp. 1966  23,000 S¬ hn¯mWv Cd-¡p-aXn sNbvX-Xv. C{X h³tXm-Xn-epÅ hn¯n-d-¡p-aXn Ch hf-sc-s¸s«¶v tKmX¼v taJ-e-I-fn hym]n-¡p-¶-Xn-\n-Sbm-¡n. CXnsâ Ae-sbm-en-IÄ C´y-bmsI am{X-a-Ã, ]m¡n-Øm³t]m-epÅ Ab cmPy-§fnepw F¯n. C´y-bn lcn-X-hn-¹hw A\p-`-h-s¸-Sp-¶Xv 1967-þ78 Ime-L-«-¯n-em-Wv. \mep-Im-cy-§-fmWv \S-¸n-em-b-Xv. 1) AXypÂ]m-Z\tijn-bpÅ C\-§Ä {]Nmc-¯n-em-bn. 2) D¯-tc-´y³ tKmX¼p taJ-e-bn Hcp¸q tKmX-¼n-\p-]-Icw tKmX¼v þ s\Ãv ]cn-{I-a¯n-eqsS Ccp-¸p-Irjn Bcw-`n-¨p. 3) IqSp-X Øe-t¯¡v Irjn hym]n-¨p. 4) \qX\ImÀjnI apd-IÄ (cm-k-h-fw, IoS-\min-\n, Pe-tk-N-\w, b{´-§Ä) hym]-Iambn kzoI-cn-¡-s¸-«p.

Norman E.Borlaugh

h³\miw HgnhmIp¶p C´y-bnse lcn-X-hn-¹-h-¯nsâ apJy inev]nbmb {io. kn. kp{_-Ò-Wysâ _lp-am-\mÀ°w 2011  ]pd-¯n-d-¡nb X]m Ìm¼v

lcnX hn¹-h-k-ar²n £ma-§Ä D­m-hp-¶Xn \n¶v C´y-sbbpw ]m¡n-Øm-s\bpw c£n¨p. A§n-s\-bmWv 1970 se kam-[m-\-¯n-\pÅ t\m_ ]pc-kvImcw CXnsâ {][m\inÂ]n-bmbn-cp¶ t\mÀa³ t_mÀtem-Kn\v e`n-¡p-¶-Xv. `£y-[m-t\ymÂ]m-Z-\-¯nse Cu IpXn-¨p-Nm-«t¯m-sS, Zcn-{Z-cm-Py-§-fn \n¶v ]«nWn ac-W§Ä h³tXm-Xn Hgn-hm-Ip-¶-Xp-I-­v, A´ÀtZ-

Hmtcm a\p-jy\pw kpØn-c-amb \ne-bn `£Ww In«p-¶-Xn\v Btfm-lcn 0.5 slIvSÀ Irjn thW-sa-¶mWv s]mXp-sh-bpÅ IW-¡v. Øe-hn-kvXrXn CXnepw Ipd-ªm kpØn-cXsb l\n-¡p¶ ISpw-Irjn {]tbm-K-§Ä sImt­ Blm-c-ap-­m-¡m³ Ign-bq. ISpwIrjn coXn-IÄ IqSn ]cn-K-Wn-¨m Hmtcmcp¯À¡papÅ `£-W-ap-­m-¡m³ 0.05 apX 0.5 slIvSÀ hsc `qan Bhiyambnhcpw. Irjn-bpsS hnIm-k]- c n- W m- a - § Ä ]cn- t im- [ n- ¨ m \ap¡nXv a\ÊnemIpw. a\pjy³ Irjn XpS§p¶Xv 10,000 hÀjw ap¼mWtÃm? BZyIme {]mIrXIrjncoXnIÄ amÁ§Ä¡p sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

thWw C\nbpsamcp lcn-X-hn-¹hw!

iob hnI- k - \ - ¯ n- \ m- b pÅ Ata- c n- ¡ ³ GP³kn (USAID) bpsS Xe-h³ hneyw tKmUv, 1968  Cu {]Xn-`m-ks¯ “ lcn-X-hn-¹hw” F¶p hnti-jn-¸n-¨-Xn \n¶mWv Cu t]cv e_v [ - { ]- X njv T am- I p- ¶ - X v . “ lcnXhn¹hw” F¶ hnti-jWw icn-b-sÃ-¶mWv ]e ImÀjnI hnZ- K v [ cpw A`n- { ]m- b - s ¸- S p- ¶ - X v . Imc- W w, CsXmcp ]pXnb hn¹-h-sam-¶p-am-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. CXv hnI-knX apX-em-fn-¯-cm-Py-§-fn ]t­ D­mb-Xm-Wv. tKmX-¼nsâ Imcy-¯n hSt¡ Ata-cn¡bpw bqtdm-¸pw, s\Ãn P¸m\pw Xmbvhm\pw ssIh- c n¨ kmt¦- X nI t\«- § Ä aq¶mw temI¯v {]mhÀ¯n-I-am-¡pI am{X-am-bn-cp-¶p. tKmX- ¼ nsâ Imcy- ¯ n “ t\mdn³þ10” BWv“ hn¹hw” D­m-¡n-b-sX-¦n s\Ãn Xmbvhm\n \n¶v Is­-Sp¯“ UnþPnþhpþsP³ F¶ C\-amWv amäw Ipdn-¨-Xv. 1966  sF.-BÀþ8 F¶ AÛp-X-s\Ãv ]pd-¯n-d-§n. XpSÀ¶v aäp hnf-I-fnepw amä-§-fp-­m-bn. ]t£, tKmX-¼n-ep­m-b-Xp-t]m-epÅ Hcp IpXn-¨p-Nm«w Acn-bntem aäp hnf-I-fntem Zriy-am-bn-Ã. 1960þ2000 Ime-L-«sa-Sp-¯m C´y-bnse tKmX-¼pÂ]m-Z\w ]¯nc-«n-tbm-f-am-b-Xmbn ImWmw. s\Ãv, \men-c-«n, ]cp¡³ [m\y-§Ä, c­n-c-«n, ]b-dp-hÀ¤-§Ä, 75 iX-am\w F¶n-§-s\-bmWv DÂ]m-Z\w hÀ²n-¨Xv. 1960-þ2000 ImeL«saSp¯m icm-icn hÀ²\\men-c«n hcpw.

6


thWw C\nbpsamcp lcn-X-hn-¹hw! 7

hnt[bambn Xmsg¸d-bp¶ L«-§-fn IqS-n IS¶pt]mcp-¶Xmbn ImWmw. 1) Blmcw Im«n \n¶v tiJ-cn-¡epw th«bm-Sepw 2) {]IrXn Irjn (BZyImeIrjn.-þ- Dghv, hfw, IoS\min\n Chsbm¶panÃ) 3) ]p\wIrjn AYhm amä-Irjn (a®nse ^e]qjvSn Ipdbp¶tXmsS AXpt]£n¨v ]p¯³ `qanbn Irjnbnd¡p¶p) 4) ssPh-Irjn (ssPh-hf§Ä D]bmKn¨p XpS§p¶p) 5) B[p-\nI Irjn ({SmIvdpw, cmkhf§fpw IoS\min\nIfpw {]Nmc¯nembn.) 6) l c n X h n ¹ h w t a m U  I r j n (]pXphn¯pIÄ DÄs¸« kmt¦XnI hnZyIÄv) 7) kpØnc Irjn (?) Ch Hmtcm¶ns\bpw Hcp ImÀjnIL«w F¶p k¦ån¡m³ km[n¡pw. IrjncoXn-IfpsS Hmtcm -]-cn-Wm-a-Znibnepw Hmtcmcp¯À¡p-apÅ `£-W-ap-­m-¡m³ Bhiyamb `qan-bpsS Afhv Ipdªv Ipdªv h¶Xmbn ImWmw. Btfm-lcn `qan-bpsS C¶s¯ AhØ t\m¡mw. a\pjy³ Irjn XpS§p¶ ImeL«¯n Cu temI¯msI Act¡mSn P\§sf D­mbncp¶pÅp. ]Xn\mbncw hÀj§Ä¡ptijw 1804 emWv Cu kwJy 100 tImSn IS¡p¶Xv. 1901  CXv 140 tImSnbmbn¯oÀ¶p. temI-P-\-kwJy 1960 300 tImSnbmbn IpXn¨pbÀ¶p. F¦nepw, A¶pw Hmtcm-cp-¯À¡p-apÅ `£Ww D¸m-Zn-¸n-¡p-¶Xn\v 0.5 slIvSÀ `qan hoXw D­m-bn-cp-¶p. ]t£, 1999sâ Ah-km-\-t¯msS, tIhew 39 hÀjw sIm­v, temI-P-\-kwJy CXnsâ Cc-«nbmbn 600 tImSn Ihn-ªp (temI- P-\-kwJy 500 tImSnbnse¯nbXmbn tcJs¸Sp¯nbncn ¡p¶Xv 1987 Pqsse 11 BWv. Pqsse 11 temI-P\-kwJymZn\ambn sIm­mSp¶p). C¸mÄ -P-\kwJy 690 tImSn Ihnªncn¡p¶p. AXm-bXv, e`y-amb Btfm-lcn Irjn-`q-an-bpsS Afhv 0.5 slIvS-dn \n¶pw 0.21 slIvSÀ Bbn. temI¯v P\-kwJym hÀ²-\-hnsâ tXmXv 1.2% BWv. AXnsâ AÀ°w ASp¯ 58 hÀjw sIm­v temI P\X ho­pw Cc-«n-bmhpsa¶mWv. 2057 Bhp-t¼m-tg¡pw P\-§-fp-sSF®w 1200 tImSn Ihnbpw, Btfm-lcn Irjn `qan 0.12 slIvS-dn\pw Xmtg¡v t]mIp-Ibpw sN¿pw. FÃm Z¼-Xn-Ifpw c­p-Ip-«n-IÄ aXn F¶v C¶p apX Xocp-am-\n¨m Xs¶ temI-P-\-kwJy 1300 tImSnbnse¯ntb Ønc-amhq. CXn\v 70 hÀjw ka-b-sa-Sp¡p-Ibpw sN¿pw. C\n C´y-bnse ØnXn t\m¡mw. 1901 23.8 tImSn am{X-am-bn-cp¶p C´y-bnse P\-kw-Jy. 1961 CXv 43.9 tImSn-bm-bn.. 2001 Â, tIhew 40 hÀjw sIm­v, P\-§-fpsS F®w 102.7 tImSn-bmbn; GI-tZiw c­c Cc«n hÀ²\! Ct¸mÄ 121 tImSn-bn-se¯n \n¡p-¶p. C´y-bnse P\-s¸cp-¸-¯nsâ tXmXv 1.68% BWv. AXm-bXv, 41 hÀjw sIm­v C´y³ P\-kwJy Cc-«n-bm-hpw; 2042  C´y-bn 205 tImSn-bn-e-[nIw P\-§-fp­m-hpw! C´y-bn Ct¸mÄ 142 Zi-e£w sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

slIvS-dn-emWv Irjn. CXv ASp¯ 30þ40 hÀjw sIm­v 100 Zi-e£w slIvS-dmbn Ipd-bp-sa-¶XmWv \s½ Ipg-¡p¶ {]iv\w. Btfm-lcn Irjn `qan Ct¸mÄ 0.12 slIvSÀ am{X-am-Wp-Å-Xv. CXv 2042 HmsS 0.049 slIvSÀ Bbn Ipd-bp-sa¶Xv XoÀ¨-bmbpw \s½ {]Xn-k-Ôn-bn-em-¡pw. lcnX hn¹-h-¯n\v Fs´ms¡ Ipg-¸-§Ä Ct¸mÄ Is­-¯n-bmepw aq¶mw temIs¯ 20mw\qÁm­nse hensbmcp {]Xn-kÔnbn \n¶v c£n-¡m-\mbn F¶-Xn kwi-b-an-Ã. tXmakv tdm_À«v am¯p-kv, At±-l-¯nsâ kp{]-kn-²-amb P\-kwJym kn²m-´-¯n (1798Â) ]d-ª-Xv, `t£ymÂ]m-Z\w P\-kwJy hÀ²-\-hn-\-\p-k-cn¨v Db-cnà F¶pw henb Zpc´-§-fp-­m-Ip-sa-¶p-am-bn-cp-¶p. 1967  ]mUIv ktlm-Z-c-·mÀ (hn-eyw-]m-UIpw t]mÄ ]mU-Ipw) “ ^mao³ 1975” F¶ ]pkvXIw Fgp-Xn. 1975 BIp-¶-tXmsS C´ym D]-`q-J-Þ-¯n h¼n¨ £mahpw ]«n-Wn-bp-ap-­m-Ip-sa¶v {]h-Nn-¨p. t]mÄ GÂdn¨nsâ 1968  Cd-§nb “ Zn t]m¸pte-j³ t_mw_v” F¶ ]pkvX-Ihpw C´ysb Fgp-Xn-¯-Ån. Cu {]h-N-\-§-sfÃmw sXämsW¶v sXfn-bn-¨p-sIm-­mWv lcnX hn¹hw ChnsS kw`-hn-¡p-¶-Xv. Ignª aq¶v þ \mep ZiI-§Ä¡p-Ån {]Xo-£nX BbpÊv 10 hbÊv I­v IqSn. ac-W-\n-c¡v Ipd-ªp. P\kwJy c­c Cc«n hÀ²n¨psh¦n `t£y-mÂ]m-Z\w \menc«nI­v hÀ²n¨p. lcnX hn¹hw aq¶mw temI-cm-Py-§-fnse 100 tImSn P\-§sf ]«nWn ac-W-§-fn \n¶v c£n-¨-Xmbn IW-¡p-Iq-«p¶p. ChÀ apgp-h³ kaq-l-¯nse {]m´-h¡-cn¡-s¸« Zcn-{Z-cm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¶Xpw {it²-b-am-Wv.

Bhm-k-tijnbpsS {]iv\w lcn-X-hn-¹hw Hcp -h³ hnP-b-am-bn-¯oÀ¶tXmsS hnaÀi-\-§fpw Db-cm³ XpS-§n. Ignª Ipsd hÀj-§-fmbn lcnX hn¹-hs¯ XÅn-¸-dbp¶ Hcp {]h-WX hÀ²n-¨p-h-cp-¶p-­v. CXv


thWw C\nbpsamcp lcn-X-hn-¹hw!

{][m-\-ambpw A´Àt±-iob kÀ¡m-cn-Xc kwL- epÅ A]-ISw H¶m-tem-Nn¨p t\m¡q. CXp S-\-IÄ (F³.-Pn.-H.) XpS§n h¨-Xm-Wv. ASp¯ Xs¶-bmWp ssPh {]mtZ-in-I-hm-Zhpw (bioIme¯v {]_-e-am-b-XmWv F³.-Pn.-H. XcwKw. regionalism). Hmtcm {]tZ-i¯pw DÅ hn`-h-§Ä¡v BtKmf h¡-c-W-¯nsâ clky AP-­-IÄ ]cn-[n-bp-­v. Cu hn`-h-§-fp-]-tbm-Kn¨v Pohn-¡m\S-¸n-em-hp-¶Xv F³.-Pn.-H. IÄ hgn-bm-sW¶ hp¶ Pohn-I-fpsS F®-¯nepw ]cn-[n-bp-­v. Cu hnaÀi\w \ne-\n¡p-¶p. C´y-bn {]hÀ¯n- ]cn-[n-bmWv Bhm-k-tijn (carrying capacity). a\p¡p¶ kÀ¡m-cn-Xc kwL-S-\-IÄs¡Ãmw IqSn jy-s\m-gn-¨pÅ Pohn-I-fpsS Imcy-¯n Bhm-k10,000 tImSn cq]-bpsS hntZi klmbw e`n-¡p- ti-jn-¡-¸pdw t]mIm³ Ign-bn-Ã. A§ns\kw`¶p-sh-¶pw, AXn {][m\w Ata-cn-¡, {_n«¬, hn-¨m {]IrXn CS-s]-Spw. Akp-J-§Ä, £maPÀ½\n F¶o cmPy-§-fm-sW¶pw Adn-bp- §Ä, {]IrXn Zpc-´-§Ä F¶n-h-bn-eqsS Bhmt¼mÄ CX-{X- \n-Êm-c-ambn XÅn-¡-f-bm-\m-hn-Ã. k-ti-jn-bn-se¯n \nt¶m-fpw. kz´w Bhm-kkmaq-ly-{]-Xn-_-²-X-tbmsS {]hÀ¯n-¡p¶ ti-jn-bn ssII-S-¯m-hp¶ Htc Hcp Pohn a\pF³.-Pn.-H.- I-fp-ap-s­¶ Imcyw hnkva-cn-¡p-¶n-Ã. jy-\m-Wv. sa¨-s¸« BtcmKy c£m-kw-hn-[m-\C´y-sb-t¸m-epÅ cmPy-§-fn kzoI-cn-¡-s¸- §-fn-eq-sS-bpw, Blmcw e`y-am-¡p-¶-Xn-eqSp¶ B[p-\nI Irjn k{¼-Zm-b-§Ä¡v kÀÆ{X sSbpw, {]IrXn Zpc-´-§sf ^e-{]-Z-ambn t\cn-SpIpg-¸-amsW¶v hcp-¯n-¯oÀ¯v ]n´n-cn-¸³ ¶-Xn-eq-sSbpw Ir{Xn-a-ambn Bhm-k-tijn “ _Z” Irjn coXn-I-fn-te¡v XÅn-bn-Sp-¶-Xn\p DbÀ¯m-\m-hpw. ]n¶n KqV e£y-§-fp-s­¶v kwi-bn-¡-Ww. lcn-X-hn-¹-h-¯n-eqsS `£y-[m\y DÂ]m-Z\w lcnX hn¹-hs¯ XpSÀ¶v 1974  Kmcäv IqSn-b-Xp-sIm­v C´y-bp-sSbpw aäv aq¶mw lmÀUn³ F¶ Ata-cn-¡³ a\pjy ]cn-ØnXn temI cmjv{S-§-fp-sSbpw Bhm-k-tijn Ir{Xn-aimkv{X (human ecology) s{]m^-k-dm-Wv kZm-Nm-c- ambn IqSn. C§s\Ir{Xn-a-ambn Bhm-k-tijn ]-c-amb Hcp {]iv\w D¶-bn-¡p-¶-Xv. _tbm-k- IqSp-¶Xv Ahn-Sps¯ kzm`m-hnI hn`-h-§-fpsS b³kv F¶ hnJymX imkv{X-am-kn-I-bn ASn-¯d XIÀ¡pw. CXv `mhn-bn Ct¸mÄ At±lw “ sse^v t_m«v kZm-Nmcw” (Life Boat kzm`m-hnI Bhmk tijn-¡p-Ån am{Xw Ethics) F¶ Bibw Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡p-I-bp­mbn. \n¡p¶ apX-em-fn¯ cmPy-§-sfbpw _m[nsse^v t_m«nse PohnXw” (Living on a lifeboat) ¡pw. HmÀ¡p-I, C´y¡v `qan-bpsS 2.4 iX-am\w F¶v t]cn« Cu teJ-\-hpw, Ct±-l-¯nsâ `q`m-K-§-sf-bp-Åq, ]t£, temI P\-X-bpsS 17 Xs¶ 1968  kb³kv amkn-I-bn h¶“ s]mXp- iX-am-\hpw I¶p-Im-en-I-fpsS 15 iX-am-\hpw Ø-e-§-fpsS Zpc-´-hpw” (Tragedy of the commons) Chn-Sp-­v. k¼¶ cmjv{S-§Ä ]e-Xnepw P\hf-sc-b-[nIw P\-{i² ]nSn¨p ]än-b-h-bm-Wv. kwJym hÀ²-\hv ]qPy-tam, \yq\tam BWv. lmÀUn³ `qansb Hcp I¸-ep-am-bn D]-an-¨-p.. AtX kabw Zcn{Z cmjv{S-§-fn 37 hÀjw GXp I¸epw ap§n \in-¡m³ t]mIp-t¼mÄ sIm­v P\-kwJy Cc«n¡psa¶v IW¡p Iq«pPoh- c - £ mÀ°w IS- e n- t e- ¡ n- S p- ¶ - X m- W tÃm ¶p. lcnX hn¹hw sIm­v am{X-amWv ChnsS sse^v t_m«v. Hcp sse^v t_m«n 50 t]À¡v Bhm- k - t ijn hÀ²n- ¨ - X v . CXn- s \- b mWv Ib- d m- s a¶v Icp- X p- I . CXmWv AXnsâ lmÀUn\pw knÂ_-Ôn-Ifpw hnaÀin-¨-Xv. temI]camh[n tijn (carrying capacity). \mÂ]-Xp-t]À P-\-kw-Jy-bpsS shdpw 5 iX-am\w (30 tImSn) CXn Ib-dn-¸-än-sb¶pw Icp-Xp-I. IS-en am{Xw A[n-h-kn-¡p¶ bp.-F-kv.-F. temI CXn\p Npäp-ambn 100 t]ÀIq-Sn-bp-­v. Chsc c£- DuÀÖ-¯nsâ 25 iX-am-\hpw D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sps]-Sp-¯m³ {ian-¨m t_m«n-ep-Å-hcpw acn¡pw. ¯p-¶p-sh¶v Adn-bp-t¼mÄ Cu Ien-Xp-Å-ensâ ]¯p-t]sc IqSn Ib-ämw. ]t£ 100 t]cn clkyw a\-Ên-em-hpw. lcn-X-hn-¹-h-¯n\v _Z-ep\n¶pw Xnc-sª-Sp¸v ZpjvI-chpw Akm-²y-hp-am- IÄ krjvSn-¡p-¶-Xn-\pw, `£y-k-lm-b-§Ä Wv. am{X-a-Ã, IrXyw 50 t]sc sh¨pÅ bm{X sh«n-¡p-d-¡p-¶-Xn-ep-sams¡ lmÀUnsâ kn²mA{X kpc-£n-X-hp-a-Ã. t_m«n-ep-ÅXv apX-em- ´-§Ä t{]c-I-am-bn. Ipä-t_m[w sIm­mtWm fn¯ cmPy-§-fm-Wv. IS-en \o´p-¶Xv Zcn-{Z-cm- F¶-dn-bn-Ã. C{X-sbms¡ Zcn{Z cmjv{S-§sf Py-§-fpw. Ahsc sSIvt\m-f-Pnbpw `£y-k-lm- t{Zmln¨ Kmcäv lmÀUn³ Ah-km\w Bßbhpw \ÂIn klm-bn-¡p-¶Xv apX-em-fn-¯-cm-Py- lXy sN¿p-I-bm-Wp-­m-bXv (2003Â). lmÀUn³ §-fpsS kpc£sb A]-I-S-s¸-Sp-¯p-sa-¶mWv ]d- ª - X n- t \mSv tbmPn- ¨ mepw CsÃ- ¦ nepw lmÀUn³ kn²m-´n-¡p-¶-Xv. Cu Hcp kn²m´w Bhm-k-tijn Fs¶m¶v Ds­-¶pw, P\-kwJy hyàn-Ifpw cmPy-§fpw FSp¯p {]tbm-Kn-¨m- Ipd-¨p-sIm-­p-h-tc-­-Xm-sW¶pw AwKo-I-cnt¨ aXn-bm-hq.

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

8


thWw C\nbpsamcp lcn-X-hn-¹hw!

tIc-f-¯n lcnX hn¹hw D­mbnà !

9

ioen¨ ae-bm-fn-Isf sh«n-em-¡pw. D¯-tc-´y³ taJ- e - b nse Pe ZuÀe- ` y- ¯ nsâ Hcp {][m\Imc-W-ambn ]d-bp-¶Xv Aim-kv{Xo-bamb tKmX¼vþs\Ãv ]cn-{I-a-am-Wv.

D¯-tc-´y-bn `£y-[m-t\ymÂ]m-Z\cwK¯v hen-sbmcp IpXn-¨p-Nm-«-ap-­m-sb-¦nepw cmPy¯nsâ ]e `mK-§-fnepw CXp-t]m-epÅ IpXn¸v D­m-bn-Ã. tIc-f-¯n `£y-[m-\y-Irjn F¶p ]d-bm³ s\Ãp-am-{X-ta-bp-Åq. Ignª 50 hnaÀi-\-§fnse s\Ãpw ]Xncpw hÀjs¯ tIc- f - ¯ nse s\ÂIr- j n- b psS lcnX hn¹-h-¯n-s\-Xn-sc-bpÅ hnaÀi-\Ncn{Xw XIÀ¨-bpsS IY- am-{X-amWv ]d-bp-¶-Xv. §sf hkvXp-Xm-]-c-ambn hne-bn-cp-t¯-­-Xp-­v. tIc-f-¯nse 3 tImSn 33 e£w P\-§Ä¡v Hcp hn¹-hhpw Ønc-a-Ã. Ah Ah-km\]cn-lm-c(2011 se sk³kÊv aXn¸v) {]Xn-Zn\w 460 {Kmw amÀ¤-hp-am-Ip-¶n-Ã. Hmtcm hn¹-hhpw ]pXnb F¶ IW¡v sh¨v BsI 50 e£w S¬ [m\yw {]iv\-§Ä D­m-¡n-tb-¡mw. Ah Xncn-¨-dnªv thWw. 2008-þ09 hÀjs¯ \½psS [mt\ymÂ]m- ]cn-l-cn-¡m³ t\m¡msX “ hn¹-h” - s¯-¯s¶ Z\w 2.34 e£w slIvS-dn \n¶v 5.902 e£w \ncm-I-cn-¡p-¶Xv {]Xnhn¹-h-Im-cn-I-fpsS ]WnS¬ am{X-am-bn-cp-¶p. 1965 þ66  (l-cn-X-hn-¹-h-Im- bm-Wv. lcnX hn¹hw Ipsd-b[nIw {]iv\e- L - « - ¯ n\v sXm«p- a p- ¼ v) tIc- f - ¯ nse §Ä¡v ]cn-lm-c-am-bn-cp-¶p. ]pXnb Ipsd {]iv\s\ÃpÂ]m-Z\w 8.02 e£w slIvS-dn \n¶v 10.06 §-fp-­mbn F¶Xv t\cp-am-Wv. e£w S¬ Bbn-cp-¶p. CtX-hsc tcJ-s¸-SpbYmÀ°-¯n lcnX hn¹-h-¯nsâ ]cn¯nb ]c-am-h[n DÂ]m-Z\w 1975-þ76  BWv, 8.85 ØnXn kwc-£-W-hiw th­ coXn-bn Bcpw e£w slIvS-dn \n¶v 13.65 e£w S¬. AXm-b- hne-bn-cn¯nbn-«n-Ã. DZm-l-c-W-¯n-\v, 1950 se Xv, “ hn¹hw” F¶p hnfn-¡m³ ]änb Hcp amähpw temI `t£ym¸m-Z\w 60 tImSn slIvS-dn tIc-f-¯nse `£y cwK-¯p-­m-bn-«n-Ã. Ipd¨p \n¶v 69.2 tImSn S¬ Bbn-cp-¶p. c­m-bn-c-¯n ]pXnb s\Ãn-\-§fpw, cmk-h-f, IoS-\m-in\nIfp- GXm-­ntX Øe¯p \n¶p Xs¶ 207 tImSn ap-]-tbm-Kn¨p XpS§n F¶-Xp-am-{X-amWv amäw. S¬ `£Ww hnf-bn-¡m-\m-bn. icm-icn aq¶n-c«n {]Xn slIvSÀ icm-icn hnf-hp- IqSn h¶p-sh- hnfhv! 1950 Ifnse kmt¦-XnI hnZy 2000 epw XpS¦nepw BsI hnfhv Ipd-ªp-h-cn-I-bm-Wp-­m-bXv . tIc- f - ¯ n- \ p- t h­ `£y- [ m- \ y- ¯ n cp-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n BsI 180 tImSn GXm­v ap¡m `mK-¯n\pw D¯-tc-´y³ slIvSÀ Øew th­n hcp-am-bn-cp¶p! Cu lcnX hn¹-h-k-ar-²nsb B{i-bn-¡p¶ \ap¡v AÀ°-¯n GI-tZiw 120 tImSn slIvSÀ h\`q-ansb lcn-X-hn-¹hw c£n-¡p-I-bmWv sNbvXlcn-X-hn-¹-hs¯ No¯ ]d-bm³ F´-h-Imiw? Xv. C´y-bpsS Imcy-sa-Sp-¯m 53 Zi-e£w `£y kpc£ Dd-¸p-h-cp-¯m³ tIc-fo-bÀ slIvSÀ `qan-bmWv agp-hn \n¶v Hgn-hm-b-Xv. H¶pw sN¿p-¶n-sÃ-¶-XmWv kXyw. tIc-f-¯n C{Xbpw `qan sh«n-s¯-fn¨p Irjn-bn-d-¡m-\p-­m1960-þ61  GI-tZiw 41 iX-am\w Øe¯v `£y- Ip-am-bn-cpt¶m F¶ tNmZyw XXvImew ad-¡mw. hn- f - I Ä Irjn sNbv X n- c p- ¶ p. CXnsâ lcn-X-hn-¹-h-¯nsâ Gähpw henb \yq\-XCt¸mgs¯ IW¡v tIhew 12 iX-am\w am{Xam-Wv. s\Ãn-sâbpw ac-¨o-\n-bp-tSbpw Irjn bmbn ]mÝm-Xy-temIw ImWp-¶Xv CXv P\-kwhnkvXoÀ®w GXm­v aq¶n-sem-¶m-bn. ]¨-¡-dn- Lym- h À²- \ - h n\v t{]c- I - a mbn F¶- X m- W v . IÄ, ]gw, ]m F¶n-h¡v A\y kwØm-\- aq¶mw temI-cm-Py-§-fn icm-icn BbpÊpw §sf B{i- b n- t ¡­ Ah- Ø - b n- e p- a m- b n. ImÀjnI Kth-jW t\«§Ä tIc-f-¯n\p shfnbn-epÅhÀ `£y-hnf cwK¯v {]tbm-Kn-¨-t¸mÄ \maXv dº-dn {]tbm-Kn-¨p! Fs´-¦nepw “ hn¹hw” \S-s¶-¦n AXv dº-dn am{X-am-Wv. 1950  tIhew 0.75 e£w slIvSÀ Øe¯p am{X-am-bn-cp¶p dºÀ Irjn, DÂ]m-Z\w 0.16 e£w S®pw. 2008-þ-09  dºÀ Irjn-bpsS hnkvXoÀ®w 5.17 e£w slIvS-dmbn DbÀ¶p,. DÂ]m-Z-\-am-Is« 7.83 e£w S®p-am-bn. AXm-bXv kmt¦- X nI Adn- h n- s \- ¡ mÄ hn]- W n- b mWv Irjnsb \bn-¡p-¶Xv! Npcp-¡-¯n Cu BtKmfh¡-c-W-¡m-e¯v Irjn ChnsS \ne\n¡-W-sa-¦n BZyw hn]Wn Dd-¸m-¡-Ww. bYmÀ°-¯n D¯-tc-´y-bn D­mb lcn-Xhn-¹hw \½psS s\ÂIrjn taJ-esb XfÀ¯pI-bm-Wp-­m-b-Xv. lcnX hn¹hw \S¶ kwØm\-§-fn \n¶v \nÀºm[w Acn-bpw, tKmX¼pw Ipdª hne¡v Hgp-Im-\m-cw-`n-¨-tXmsS \mw s\ÂIrjn Dt]-£n¨p XpS-§n. Cu Hgp¡v XpScp-¶n-sÃ-¦n \mw ]«nWnbmb-Xp-X-s¶. Hcp Imcy-¯n ae-bm-fn-IÄ Bi-¦-s¸t« aXn-bm-hq. D¯-tc-´ybn s\ÂIrjn Ipd-¡m\pÅ \nÀt±iw Acn Blmcw am{Xw Xn¶p sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse


IqSn. a®nsâ ^e-]pjvSn thK-¯n \jvS-am-bn, kky-t]m-j-W-¯nse Ak-´p-en-Xm-hØ Pe-e-`yX Ipdªp; cmk-h-f-§Ä, IoS-\m- ]cn-l-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v kwtbm-PnX t]mjI {Iain\nIÄ XpS-§nb \nth-i\-§-fpsS D]-tbmKw amWv apt¼m«p sh¡p-¶-Xv. ssPh-h-f-§-fpw, hÀ²n-¨p þ F¶n-h-sbms¡ DbÀ¶p-h¶ amäp cmk-h-f-§fpw k´p-enX tXmXn \ÂIp¶ {]iv\-§-fm-Wv. C´y-bn-em-sW-¦n lcnX imkv{Xo-b-co-Xn- Xs¶. kky-tcm-K þ IoS-\n-bhn¹hw Pe-tk-NnX taJ-e-bn am{X-amWv Ne- {´-W-¯n\v imkv{Xo-b-amÀ¤-§Ä Ah-ew-_n-¡\-§-fp-­m-¡n-bXv. ag-Irjn {]tZ-i-§Ä Ah-K- Ww. IoS-§sf kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw km¼Wn-¡-s¸-«p. CXn-s\ms¡ ]cn-lm-c-ap-­m-I-Ww. ¯nI t{Zml-]-cn[n (economic threshold level) ISag-Irjn {]tZ-i-§-fpsS Ak-´p-en-Xm-hØ ]cn- ¶m am{Xta IoS-\m-in\n Xfnt¡­-Xp-Åq. l-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v tI{µ-kÀ¡mÀ \S-¸n-em-¡p¶ IoS-\m-in\n Xfn-¨m ]men-t¡­ Im¯n-cp¸v Hcp ]²-Xn-bmWv ag-Irjn {]tZ-i-§Ä¡pÅ Imew (waiting period), IoS-\m-in\n hm§p-t¼m-gpw, tZiob \oÀadn hnI-k\]²Xn. asäm¶v {Kma Xfn-¡p-t¼mgpw FSp-t¡­ ap³I-cp-X-ep-IÄ hnI-k\a{´m-ebw \S-¸n-em-¡p¶ “ lcn-bmen” F¶nh IÀj-IÀ Ct¸mgpw Kuc-h-ambn FSp-¡p]²-Xn-bm-Wv. CXn-tâbpw A´-ʯ ag-Irjn ¶n-Ã. kky-P\y IoS-\m-in-\n-I-sf-bpw, FXnÀ {]tZ-i-§-fpsS \oÀadn hnI-k\w Xs¶. Pe- {]mWn-I-sf-bpw, {]Xn-tcm[ tijn-bpÅ kky-bnapÄs¸-sS-bpÅ {]IrXn hn`-h-§-fpsS ]p\-cp-²m- \-§-sfbpw D]-tbm-Kn-¡m³ ]äp-¶n-S¯v cmk-Ioc-Whpw kwc-£-W-hp-amWv e£yw. S-\m-in-\n-bpsS Bh-iy-an-Ã. CsXÃmw kwtbm-Pnkwtbm-PnX kky-kw-c-£-WP\- k w- J ym- \ n- b - { ´- W - ¯ nsâ Imcy- ¯ n ¸n-¨p-sIm-­pÅ “ am\p-jnI coXn-IÄ am{Xta \ap¡v kzoI-cn-¡m- ¯n\v \nÀ`m-Ky-h-im {]m[m\yw In«n-Im-Wp-¶n\m-eq. P\n-¨p-ho-gp¶ Ipªp-§fpw, {]mb-am-b- Ã. H¶p-In If-cn-¡p-]p-d-¯v, AsÃ-¦n F¶-XmWv IoS-\m-in\n hcpw ]«n-Wn-In-S-¶pw, ]«nWn P\y tcmK-§Ä Bimsâ s\©¯v” _m[n¨pw acn¨v P\-kwJy Ipd-b-W-sa¶v B{K- cwKs¯ Ah-Ø. CXv amdntb Xocq. ln-¡p-¶Xv F{X {Iqc-amWv! Bh-iy-¯n IqSpt_mÀtemKv ]d-bp¶p “ a\p-jy-\p-­m-¡nb X a\p-jyÀ P\n-¡m-Xn-cn-¡m³ t\m¡mw. ssPh-ssh-hn[yw ({]m-tZ-inI C\-§fpw aäpw) AXmWv \mw sN¿p-¶Xpw sNt¿-­-Xpw. P\- \jvS-s¸-Sp¶psh¶mWv Nne-cpsS ]cm-Xn. CXv kwJym \nb-{´W Imcy-¯n C´y-bpsS Po³ _m¦p-I-fp-­m¡n kwc-£n-¡m-hp-¶-tX-bpapt¶äw {it²-b-am-Wv. Åq. {]Ir-Xn-bnse kzm`m-hnI ssPh-ssh-hn[yw

thWw C\nbpsamcp lcn-X-hn-¹hw!

Bcv kwc-£n¡pw? ImSn-Ãm-Xm-Ip-¶-Xtà henb am\w shs¨-¦nepw IqSn hc-Ww. C§ns\kw`-hn{]iv\w?” ImÀjnI C\-§-fpsS sshhn[yw kwc- ¡m-¯-Xnsâ ImcWw lcn-X-hn-¹-h-¯nsâ ]cm£n-¡p-¶-Xn\v tdmanse CâÀ\m-j-W ¹mâ v P-b-ambn hne-bn-cp-¯p-¶Xv icnbÃ. lcn-X-hnP\-änIv dntkmgvkÊv C³Ìn-äyq«v (IPGRI) A´m- ¹hw AXnsâ ISa \nÀvÆ-ln¨p Ign-ªp. C\n cm-jv{S-X-e-¯n {]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶p-­v. C´y-bn- ]pXnb hn¹-h§Ä \S-¡-Ww. P\-kw-Jym-hÀ²em-sW-¦n \yqUÂln tI{µ-ambn \mj-W \-hn-\-\p-k-cn¨v `£y-kp-c£ Dd-¸m¡n t]mh-W_yqtdm Hm^v ¹mâ v P\-änIv dntkmgvkÊpw sa-¦n ]pXnb hgn-IÄ t\m¡-Ww. Irjn-Øew (NBPGR) AXnsâ hnhn[ {]mtZ-inI tI{µ-§fpw Ipdªp hcp¶p F¶ bmYmÀ°yw I­n-söv {]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶p. Ch-bpsS {]hÀ¯\w Xr]vXn- \Sn-¨n«v Imcy-an-Ã. P\-s¸-cp-¸-ap-­m-Ip-t¼mÄ kw`-hn-¡p¶ Hcp I-c-hp-am-Wv. {][m\{]iv \w [mcmfw Irjn-`qan ImÀjn-tI-Xc C´y-bnse sdt¡mÀUv `£y-[m-t\ymÂ]mZ\w 2008-þ09 embn-cp-¶p, 234.47 Zi-e£w S¬. ]c- Bh-iy-§Ä¡mbn amä-s¸-Sp-sa-¶-Xm-Wv. Hmtcm am-h[n Øe¯v Irjn Cd-¡p-¶p-­v. Ignª ]uc\pw ]mÀ¸n-Sw, KXm-K-Xw, hyh-km-bw, Ipsd hÀj-§-fmbn Cu ]cn-[n¡v apI-fn-te¡v h m W o - P y w , h n t \ m - Z w , h n Z y m - ` y m - k w , DÂ]m-Z\w Db-cp-¶n-Ã. 2009-þ10  `t£ymÂ]m- tZhmeb§Ä, aÁv Bßo-bImcy§Ä F¶o Z\w 218.11 Zi- e £w S¬ Bbn- c p- ¶ p. Bh-iy-§Ä¡mbn Øew Bh-iy-am-Wv. Hmtcm cmPy¯nsâ Nne `mK§fn A\p`hs¸« hyàn¡pw 0.025 slIvSÀ Øew hoXw Cu BhhcĨbmWv ImcWw. P\-kwJy 1.68 iX-am\w iy-¯n\v th­n hcp-sa-¶mWv IW¡v. Irjnsh¨v hÀ²n-¡p-t¼mÄ `t£ymÂ]m-Z\w 3 iX- `qan hymh-km-bn-Im-h-iy-§Ä¡mbn amäm³ sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

10


thWw C\nbpsamcp lcn-X-hn-¹hw!

]mSnövv Fw.-F-Êv. kzman-\m-Ysâ t\Xr-Xz-¯nepÅ IÀj-IÀ¡m-bpÅ tZiob I½o-j³ ip]mÀi sNbvXn-«p-s­-¦nepw \S-¸n-em-hp¶ Imcyw I­p Xs¶ Adn-b-Ww. C´y-bn Ct¸mÄ 142 Zi-e£w slIvS-dn-emWv Irjn. CXv ASp¯ 30þ40 hÀjw sIm­v 100 Zi-e£w slIvS-dmbn Ipd-bp-sa-¶-XmWv \s½ Ipg-¡p¶ {]iv\w. `£y [m\yw Ønc-ambn Cd-¡p-aXn sNbvXv `£y kpc£ Dd-¸p-h-cp-t¯­n hcptam F¶ `oXn \s½ th«bmSp¶p­v. `£y-[m-\y-§fpsS hne DbÀ¶m ]mh-§-fpsS ]n¨-¨-«n-bnemWv a®p-ho-gp-I. Irjn-bn-S-§-fn DÂ]m-Z-\£-aX Iq«n BsI `£ym-hiyw hÀ²n-¸n-¡p¶ \S- ] - S n- b mWv GsXmcp t£a- c m- j v { Shpw ssIsIm-Åp-I. CXn-\p-X-Ip¶ GXv _Zepw kzoImcyw Xs¶.

11

{][m\shÃp-hn-fnbpw CXp-X-s¶. {]iv\-§Ä Xncp¯n apt¼m-«p-t]m-hm³ B[p\nI imkv{Xw “ kpØnc hnI-k\w” F¶ Bib- a mWv apt¼m«p sh¡p- ¶ - X v . “ \½psS s]mXp`mhn (Our Common Future) F¶ {_­vemâ v dnt¸mÀ«v C¯cpW¯n kvacWobamWv. 1987 emWv t\mÀth {][m\a{´nbmbncp¶ t{Km lmÀsew {_­vemâ v (Gro Harlem Bruntland) F¶ alXnbpsS A²y£Xbn temI ]cnØnXn hnIk\I½oj³ Cu dnt¸mÀ« v apt¼m«p sh¡p¶X.v 1992 se `ua D¨tImSnbn kpØnc hnI-k\w F¶ Bi-b-w AwKoIcn¡ s¸«p. `mhn- X - e - a p- d - b psS hn`- h m- S n- ¯ d XIÀ¡m¯ Xc- ¯ n- e pÅ hnI- k \amWv kpØnc hnI-k\w. ImÀjnI cwK¯mW¦n kwtbm-PnX t]mjW hyhØ, kwtbm-PnX IoS-\n-b-{´-Ww, kwtbm-PnX If-\n-b-{´Ww, `qan ]cn-]m-e\w (land husbandry), \oÀ \ne-§-fpsS kpkvYnc hnIk\w, \½psS {]Xo-£]s¯m-¼Xmw \qäm-­p-hsc temI-amsI hnf- kwc-£-Ww, h\-kw-c-£-Ww, \oÀadn hnI-k\w hÀ²-\hv D­m-bXv IqSpX Øe¯v Irjn XpS-§n-b-h-sbms¡ tNÀ¶ Hcp B[p-\nI sNbvX-Xp-sIm­v am{X-am-Wv. Ccp-]Xmw \qäm- k p Ø n - c - I r j n h y h Ø b m W v \ m w \à ImÀjnI apd-IÄ” Bbn­m-b-t¸m-tg¡pw Irjn Øe-¯nsâ ]cn[n e£yantS­Xv. “ hÀ²n-¸n-¡m³ Ffp-¸-a-söv a\-Ên-embn, DÂ]m- cn-¡Ww \½psS e£yw. DÂ]m-Z\£aX Z\£a-X-bn-te¡v Du¶Â amdn. Ccp-]Xmw \qäm- C\nbpw hÀ²n-¸n-¡p¶ C\-§fpw Irjn-co-Xn­n-ep-­mb hnf-hÀ²-\-hnsâ 80 iX-am-\hpw Ifpw CtXm-sSm¸w kwtbm-Pn-¸nt¨ aXn-bm-hq. DÂ]m-Z\£aX IqSn-b-Xp-sIm­v kw`-hn-¨-Xm- _tbmsSIvt\m-f-Pn-bp-sSbpw \mt\m-sS-Ivt\m-fWv. Ct¸m-gs¯ `t£ymÂ]m-Z\w \ne-\nÀ¯n- Pn- b psSbpsams¡ km²y- X - I Ä ImÀjnI bm am{Xw t]mc, P\-kwJy hÀ²n-¡p-¶-Xn-\- cwK¯v XoÀ¨-bmbpw {]tbm-P-\-s¸-Spw. C¯cw \p-k-cn¨v `£y-[m\y hfÀ¨ Iq«n-s¡m-­p-h-cn- K t h j W § f m W v C \ n t h ­ X p w Ibpw thWw. \nÀ`m- K y- h - i mÂ, ]ecpw t { ] m Õ m l n ¸ n t ¡ ­ X p w . C X n \ p ] I c w Bthit¯msS DbÀ¯n¡m«p¶ ssPhIrjn D¯cm[p\nI ZÀi\§fne[njvTnXamb t]mepÅ “ _Z” coXnIsfm¶pw DÂ]m-Z-\-£- Aimkv{Xob IrjncoXnIÄ ]e tImWpIfn a-X¡v Du¶Â \ÂIp-¶n-Ã. lcnXhn¹h¯n\p \n¶pw DbÀ¶p hcp¶p. Ch¡v t{]mÕml\hpw ap¼pv, 1950þ-60 Ifnse AhØ GhÀ¡padnhpÅ In«p¶p. C¯cw {]hWXIsf apfbnse \pÅn XmWtÃm? ]ecpw ]dbp¶Xp t]mse Cu kpØn-cXbpsS hnhn[am\§Ä ]cnKWn¨p AhkvY hnXcW¯nse AkaXzw sIm­p sIm­pÅ Xo{h]co£W§Ä¡v \mw apt¼m«p am{Xw D­mbXÃ. P\- k w- J ym- h À²- \ - h n- htc­nbncn¡p¶p. Hcp c­mw l-cn-X-hn-¹-h-tam \m\p]mXnIambn `t£ymÂ]m-Z\w hÀ²n-¸n¨v As¦n \nXy- l - c n- X - h n- ¹ - h - w Xs¶tbm `£y-kp-c£ Dd¸p hcp-¯pI F¶ {ia-I-c-amb Bbncn¡Ww \½psS e£yw. ZuXy-amWv C´y³ ImÀjnI cwK¯n\p ap¼n-epÅ-Xv. ]t£, ]cn-Øn-Xnsb Ah-K-Wn-¡m\pw (tUm. kn. tPmÀPv tXmakv shÅm-\n-¡c tlmÀ«n]än-Ã. C´y-sb-t¸mse P\-_m-lp-ey-apÅ ¡Ä¨d tImtf-Pn At{Km-Wan hn`mKw s{]m^-kaq¶mw-tem-I-cm-jv{S-§Ä A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn-¡p¶ dm-Wv) sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse


tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw:Hsc¯nt\m«w eo\m Ipamcn. Fkv.

A

Hssdk kssäh bpsS C³Un¡ D]hÀ¤¯nÂs¸« C\§fmWv. Iyjn sN¿s¸Sp¶ s\ÃpIfpw AhbpsS Im«p _Ôp¡fpw X½n kz`mh¯n henb hyXymk§fp­v. Im«ps\-ÃpIfn \n¶pw B[p\nI s\ÃpIfnte¡pÅ ]cnWmaw Nn{Xw 1 Nn{Xw 1. Im«p s\Ãn \n¶pw B[p\nI s\Ãnte¡pÅ ]cnWmaw Common Ancestor Wild perennials Oryza rufipogon (AA)

Oryza longistaminata (AA)

Wild annuals Oryza nivara (AA) Cultivated annuals

Oryza barthii (AA)

Wild annuals Oryza spontanea (AA) Oryza glabberima (AA)

Oryza sativa (AA) Oryza stapfii Indica

Japonica

Javanica

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

Xnhnimeamb kky temI¯n s¸Sp¶ {Kao\ntb ( Graminiae ) AYhm t]mtbkntb ( Poaeceae ) IpSpw_¯nse Hssdtk (Oryzae) hwi¯nÂs¸Sp¶ Hcp {][m\ [m\yamWv s\Ãcn. 20 e[nIw AwK§fpÅ Cu hwi¯n [m\y¯n\mbn Iyjn sN¿s¸Sp¶Xv cs­®w am{XamWv, Hssdk kssäh (Oryza sativa)bpw Hssdk ¥m_dna (Oryza glaberrima) bpw. _m¡n FÃmw Xs¶ s\Ãnsâ Im«p PmXnIfmbn IW¡m¡s¸Sp¶p. HcÀY¯n¸dªm Cu Im«p s\ÃpIfn \n¶mWv C¶p \mw Iyjn sN¿p¶ s\Ãn\§Ä Dcp¯ncnªn«pÅXv. Hssdk kssähbpw AXnsâ ASp¯ _Ôp¡fmb Im«p s\ÃpIfpw Gähpw IqSpXembn ImWs¸Sp¶Xv Z£ntWjybnepw Z£nW ]qÀtÆjybnepambXn\m CXv Gjy³ s\Ãv F¶dnbs¸Sp¶p. Hssdk ¥m_dna AYhm B{^n¡³ s\Ãv ImWs¸Sp¶Xv B{^n¡³ cmPy§fnepw sk³{S Atacn¡³ \mSpIfmb Kzm\, F kmÂhtUmÀ F¶nhnS§fnepamWv. Hssdk kssähsb AXn\pffnse sshhn[ys¯ ASnØm\am¡n C³Un¡, Pmt¸mWn¡, PmhmWn¡ F¶n§s\ aq¶v D] hÀ¤§Ä (k_v kv ] ojokv ) Bbn¡qSn hn`Pn¨n«p­v. C´ybpw tIcfhpw DÄs¸Sp¶ Gjy³ `qJÞ¯n Iyjn sN¿s¸Sp¶Xv

12


aWw, LS\ ChbnseÃmw Xs¶ [mcmfw sshhn[yw ZyiyamWv. s\Ãnsâ DXv`hw Xs¶ tIcfamtWm F¶p kwibw tXm¶n¸n¡p¶ Xc¯nepÅXmWvv tIcf¯nse s\Ãn I­p hcp¶ ssPhsshhn[yw. s\Ãn BsI 20 Hmfw Im«pPmXnIfpÅXn Oryza nivara (AA), Oryza rufipogon (AA), Oryza officinalis( CC) Oryza malampuzhaensis( BBCC) Oryza granula F¶o 5 F®w tIcf¯nsâ

]e `mK§fnembn ImWs¸Sp¶Xmbn A´Àt±iob s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ¯n \n¶pw \S¯nb kÀtÆ dnt¸mÀ«p sNbvXn«p­v. tIcf¯nse s\ÂhbepIfn C¶v kpe`ambn I­p hcp¶ hcns\Ãv Oryza sativa, Oryza nivara , Oryza rufipogon Ch X½nepÅ k¦cW {]{InbbneqsS Dcp¯ncnªXmsW¶mWv A\pam\n¡p¶Xv . s\Ãns\B{Ian¡p¶ H«pan¡ IoS§Ä¡pw tcmK§Ä¡psaXnsc {]Xntcm[tijn \ÂIp¶Xn\pw aät\Iw kz`mh hntij§Ä¡pw \nZm\amb Po\pIÄ Cu Im«ps\ÃpIfn AS§nbncn¡p¶Xn\m Chsb kwc£n¡p¶Xn\pw ]pXnb C\§Ä cq]s¸Sp¯p¶Xn Chsb D]tbmKn¡p¶Xn\papÅ {ia§Ä temIsa¼mSpw \S¶p hcp¶p.

tIcf¯nse ]c¼cmKX s\Âhn¯n\§Ä

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

B[p\nI s\Ãn\§Ä {]Nmc¯n hcp¶Xn\p ap¼v tIcf¯n IrjnsNbvXncp¶Xv AXXv {]tZi§fnse hyXykvX kmlNcy§Ä¡v A\ptbmPyambXpw hncn¸n\pw ap­I\pw ]p©bv¡pambn {]tXyIambn«pÅhbpamb \mS³ s\Ãn\§fmbncp¶p. hncn¸p Irjn¡pw ]p©Irjn¡pw kab¢n]vXnbpÅXpw ap­I³ Irjn¡v EXp¢n]v X nbpÅXpamb C\§fmWv {][m\ambpw Irjn sNbv X ph¶ncp¶Xv . Z£nW tIcf¯n H¶mw hnf¡pw (tabv BKÌv) ]p©Irjn¡pw (Unkw_À, amÀ¨v) {lkzIme hn¯pIfpw

13

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

c­mw Irjn¡v (Ppembv, P\phcn) shŨ¼mhv, AXn¡ncmgn, ap­I³, tNdmSn XpS§nbhbpamWv {]Nmc¯nencp¶Xv. a²ytIcf¯n H¶mw Irjn¡v Adp]XmwImcn, HmWm«³, Noc XpS§nb {lkzIme C\§fpw ap­I\v C«n¡­¸³, Nntäy\n XpS§nb aqt¸dnb C\§fpw Irjn sNbvXpt]m¶p. D¯c tIcf¯n hncn¸pIrjn¡p]tbmKn¨ncp¶ {][m\C\§Ä Bcy³, Xhf¡®³, Iga, ]d¼ph«³ F¶nhbmbncps¶¦n c­mw Irjn¡v shÅcn, Ihp§n³ ]p¯me, Fch¸m­n, Nntä\n F¶nhbpw ]p©Irjn¡v sX¡³ Noc, sXm®qdm³ F¶nhbpamWv km[mcWbmbn Irjn sNbvXph¶ncp¶Xv. CXn\p ]pdta Bgw IqSnb {]tZi§fn hben¯qÆ, sImf¸me, Ip«mS³, sImSnb³ F¶nhbpw, s]m¡mfn \ne§fn hncn¸phn¯v, s]m¡mfnhn¯v, IpdpI XpS§nbhbpw tamS³ \ne§fn I«tamS³, Idp¯tamS³, Nph¶ tamS³, N¼mhv F¶nhbpw hn]peambn Irjn sNbvXph¶ncp¶p. kpKÔ s\Ãn\§fmb PocIime, KÔIime, Iba, ]p¡pe¯cn, XpS§nbhbpw Huj[KpWapÅ \hc, Fcpa¡mcn, Idp¯ N¼mhv F¶nhbpw A¡me¯v {]Nmc¯nencp¶ C\§fs{X. B[p\nI s\Ãn\§fpsS BhnÀ`mht¯mSpIqSn Chbntesdbpw A{]Xy£ambn«ps­¦nepw Bcy³, Xhf¡®³, sN¦ga, ap­I³, tNdmSn, PocIime, KÔIime, Nntä\n XpS§nb C\§Ä C¶pw IÀjIcpsS CSbn {]Nmc¯nep­v. ta hnhcn¨ ]e C\§fpw AhbpsS {]tXyI kz`mh hntij§Ä sIm­pXs¶ {]ikvXnbmÀÖn¨hbmbncp¶p. {]XnIqe kmlNcy§sf AXnPohn¡phm³ Ignbp¶Xpw s\Ãnep­mIp¶ IoS tcmK _m[IÄs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijnbpÅXpamb Cu s\Ãn\§fmWv ]n¶oSv ]pXnb s\ÃpIfpsS hnIk\¯n s\SpwXqWpIfmbn hÀ¯n¨Xv. C¯cw kz`mh hntij§Ä {]ISn¸n¨ncp¶ Nne \mS³ s\Ãn\§fpsS ]«nI Xmsg s¡mSp¡p¶p.


]«nI 1. {]Xn-tcm[ tijn-bpÅ \mS-³ s\Ãn-\-§Ä -{]tXyIX

C\§Ä

Kmfo¨bvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

AXn¡ncmb, Acph¡mcn, Acn¡ncmbn, sNs¶Ãv, Nntä\n, Fch¸m­n, I«tamS³, sImSnb³, ]d¼ph«³, ]d¡pfwNntä\n, Xhf¡®³, hS¡³ Nntä\n, shůn¨oc, shfp¯Noc

HmeNpcp«nbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

AXn¡ncmb, Acn¡ncmbn, sN¼³, sN¼mhv, Nntä\n, shůn¨oc

X­pXpc¸s\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

AXn¡ncmb, Acn¡ncmbn, Fch¸m­n, Ihp§n³]q¯me, sX¡³Nntä\n, sX¡³Noc, hÂkcs¨¼mhv, Ipfs¸cphmf

shÅapªbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

sN¼³, sNdnbNntä\n, Nntä\n, sN¼c¼m­n, sX¡³

]¨¯pÅs\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

AXn¡ncmb, Fch¸m­n, sImSnb³,s]m¶mcy³, Xhf¡®³, sX¡³ h«³, shfp¯Noc

Ce¸pÅntcmK¯ns\ Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

Idp¯tamS³, I«tamS³, sImSnb³, ]d¼ph«³, Icnsh®Â, XSp¡³, sXm­n, ]mÂs¯m­n, hS¡³ Nntä\n

t]mf Ahn¨nens\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

Fch¸m­n, sXm­n, ]mÂs¯m­n, shÅcn

aqSpNobens\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

]d¼ph«³

_mIväocnb CeIcn¨nens\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

Idp¯tamS³, sX¡³Nntä\n

hcĨbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

Nph¶ tamS³, sNdnbmcy³, tamS³, Idp¯tamS³, I«tamS³, Ip«ntamS³, ]d¼ph«³, ]md]nfÀ¸³, Ics\Ãv, sXm®qdm³, ]S\shÅ, Np«mcy³, ssh¡¯mcy³, Ichmf

shÅs¡«ns\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

Bcy³, sN¦ba, sN¼mhv, Iba, Ihp§n³]q¯me, sImSnb³, Ip«mS³, Xhf¡®³, shÅt¡men hben¯qÆ, shůn sImf¸me, tNdmSn

D¸pck¯ns\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

B\s¡mS³, sN«nhncn¸v , sNdphncn¸v , Nq«ps]m¡mfn, IpXncphn¯v, HmÀ¡ba, Hmcpap­I³, s]m¡mfn, hncn¸v, HmÀ¸mba, IpdpI

Huj[ KpWw

sNs¶Ãv, Fcpa¡mcn, Ifa¸mcn, IcnwIpdph, Idp¯N¼mhv, Ihp§n³]q¯me, Ipªns\Ãv, Rhc, s\Sphmen, \cn¡mcn, s]cps\Ãv, ]qhmen, X\hmf, DfpwI¯n, hmes\Ãv, hmcI³, thÂhmen

Db˦ ]mNIKpWw

sX¡³, h«³, Ihp§n³]q¯me

kpKÔ s\ÃpIÄ

PocIime, KÔIime, Iba, sIm¯w]mecn¡ba, s\bv¨oc, ]q¡pe¯cn, Ipªn¡ba, cmPIba sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

apªbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

AXn¡ncmb, Acn¡ncmbn, sN¶n\mbI³, sN¼³, sNdnbNntä\n, Nntä\n, sN¼c¼m­n, Fch¸m­n, CuizcawKew, Iba, Icnsh®Â, Idp¯shům³, Ihp§n³]q¯me, sIm¨phn¯v, sImSnb³, ]d¡pfwNntä\n, Xhf¡®³, sX¡³, hS¡³ Nntä\n, henbsN¼m³, hÂkcs¨¼mhv, shůnn¨oc, shfp¯Noc, shÅt¨\n¸³,

14


tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

tIcfw s\Ãp KthjW¯nsâ \mÄ hgnIfneqsS

15

tIcfobcpsS apJymlmchpw `£y kpc£bpsS apJap{Zbpamb s\ÃcnbpsS DXv¸mZ\w hÀ[n¸n¡p¶Xn\mbn {_n«ojv A[o\Xbnembncn¡pt¼mįs¶ Nn«tbmsSbpÅ s\Ãp KthjW¯n\pÅ {ia§Ä tIcf¯n Bcw`n¨ncp¶p 1905  Xfn¸d¼n Hcp ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw Øm]n¨p sIm­v XpS§nb s\ÃpKthjW¯n\v C¶v Hcp \qäm­ne[nIw ]g¡ap­v. tImb¼¯qcn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯ DXv ¸ mZ\tijn IqSnb C\§Ä sIm­ph¶p ]co£n¨p t\m¡pIbmbncp¶p Xfn¸d¼n Øm]n¨ KthjW tI{µ¯nsâ Dt±iyw. CtX¯pSÀ¶v 1914  \mKÀtImhnen s\Ãn\p th­n Hcp ^mapw 1916  Be¸pgbv¡Sp¯v Ip¸¸pdw F¶ Øe¯v Hcp ]co£WtI{µhpw Øm]nXambn. Ip«\m«n c­psImÃw IqSpt¼mÄ am{Xw sNbvXp h¶ncp¶ ]p©Iyjn hÀjw tXmdpw sN¿m\pÅ km²yX ]cntim[n¡p¶Xn\mbn Øm]n¨ Cu tI{µw 1921  \nÀt¯­nh¶p. 1917  HÃq¡cbn Øm]n¨ tI{µoIyX ^man \S¯nh¶ KthjW§fpsS ^eambn 'sIm¨n³1', sIm¨n³ 2 F¶o s\Ãn\§Ä ]pd¯nd¡pIbpw CXn 'sIm¨n³1' hfsc {]Nmcw t\SpIbpw sNbvXp. ]n¶oSv sX¡³ XncphnXmwIqdnse PeZuÀe`yw A\p`hs¸«ncp¶ Øe§Ä¡p tbmPn¨ {lkzImebn\§Ä Is­¯p¶Xnte¡mbn 1921  Fct\enepw Icn\ne§fnse A¾Xzw Ipd¡p¶Xn\pÅ ]co£W§Ä¡mbn 1926  Be¸pgbnse ]pd¡mSpw Hmtcm ]co£WtI{µ§Ä Øm]n¨psh¦nepw {ItaW Ahbpw AS¨p]q«pIbmWp­mbX.v D¯ctIcfhpw Z£nW Im\dm PnÃIfpw DÄs¸Sp¶ ]ÝnaXocs¯ s\ÂIyjn kap²cn¡p¶Xn\mbn 1927 ]«m¼nbn Hcp s\Ãp {]P\\tI{µw (]mUn {_oUnwKv tÌj³) Øm]n¨tXmsSbmWv tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWcwKw iàn {]m]n¨sX¶p ]dbmw. XpSÀ¶v 1940  as¦m¼nepw ASqcnepw 1944  ImbwIpf¯pw Hmtcm KthjW tI{µ§Ä IqSn \nehn h¶p. C´y³ ImÀjnI KthjW kanXnbpsS `mKnIamb km¼¯nI klmbt¯msS as¦m¼n \S¯nb KthjW§fn Ip«\mS³ {]tZi§Ä¡\ptbmPyamb s\Ãn\§Ä hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡p¶Xn\mWv Du ¶  s I m S p ¯ n c p ¶ s X ¦ n  I m b w Ipf¯pÅ tI{µw HmWm«pIcbv¡p sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

th­nbpÅ KthjW {]hÀ¯\§fmWv \S¯nbncp¶Xv. sh«pI {]tZi§fnte¡p th­ KthjW{]hÀ¯\§Ä¡mbn C´y³ ImÀjnI KthjW kanXnbpsS `mKnIamb km¼¯nI klmbt¯msS ASqcn Øm]n¨ KthjW tI{µw G.Un.BÀ 1 apX G.Un.BÀ 11 hscbpÅ C\§Ä ]pd¯nd¡nb tijw 1954  sIm«mc¡cbnte¡p amän Øm]n¡pIbpw tIcf¯nsâ sX¡³ {]tZi§Ä¡mbpÅ C\§Ä hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡p¶Xn {i² tI{µoIcn¡pIbpw sNbv X p. tIcf¯nse ae{¼tZi§Ä¡pÅ KthjW {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡mbn 1946  hb\m«nepff A¼ehb F¶ Øe¯v Hcp KthjW tI{µw Øm]n¡pIbpw ChnsS ^ehy£§fnepÅ KthjWt¯msSm¸w s\Ãp KthjWhpw Bcw`n¡pIbpw sNbv X p. shÅmbWnbnemcw`n¨ ImÀjnI tImtfPn\v kao]w 1955  Ica\bnemcw`n¨ amXyIm ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw s\Ãnsâ ]cn]me\apdIsf¸änbpÅ ]T\§fn {i² tI{µoIcn¨p. . 1956  tIcf kwØm\¯nsâ ]ndhnsb¯pSÀ¶v s\Ãp KthjW {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡p ]pXnsbmcp am\w ssI h¶p. KthjW {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡p Np¡m³ ]nSn¡p¶Xn\mbn a®p¯n tI{µ¯n Hcp ssdkv kvs]jyenÌns\” \nban¡pIbpw Nme¡pSn, ]cnbmcw, IpgÂaµw F¶o Øe§fn¡qSn s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ§Ä XpS§pIbp-ap­mbn. 1970 aäp c­p tI{µ§fpw \nÀ¯em¡n s¡m­v Nme¡pSn tI{µs¯ C´y³ ImÀjnI KthjW kanXnbpsS km¼¯nI klmb¯n\p Iogn sIm­p hcpIbpw s\Ãnsâ PetkN\hpambn _Ôs¸« KthjW§Ä Bcw`n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. C´y³ ImÀjnI KthjW kanXnbpsS \nÀt±i{]Imcw 1963  kwØm\s¯ s\ÃpKthjWw Hcp tI{µoIyX KthjW tI{µw, aq¶p {]mtZinI KthjW tI{µ§Ä, c­p D]tI{µ§Ä F¶nhbnembn ]p\kwLSn¸n¡phm³ Xocpam\n¨p. CtX¯pSÀ¶v ]«m¼nbnse s\Ãp {]P\\tI{µs¯ tI{µ s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ ambpw a®p¯n, as¦m¼pv , ImbwIpfw F¶nhnS§fnepÅ


CXphsc \qdne[nIw s\Ãn\§Ä tIcf¯n {]Imi\w sN¿s¸«n«p­v.

sa¨s¸Sp¯nb \mS\n\§Ä IÀjIcpsS CSbn {]NmcapÅ \mS\n\§fn \n¶pw \nÀ²mcWw hgn sa¨s¸Sp¯nb C\§Ä hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡p- ¶ Xnembncp¶p BZyIme KthjW {]hÀ¯\§Ä {][m\ambpw {i²]Xn¸n¨n-cp¶Xv. ]«m¼n {]mtZinI ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µ¯n \n¶pw CXp hsc {]Imi\w sNbvX 58 C\§fn 34 F®hpw C{]Imcw hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯hbmWv . CXp IqSmsX sIm«mc¡cbn \n¶p 1, sshäne, ImbwIpfw, A¼ehb F¶nhnS§fn \n¶pv 2 hoXw, as¦m¼n \n¶p 3 F¶n§s\ \m¸¯n\mev C\§Ä \mS\n\§fn \n¶pw \nÀ²mcWw hgn hnIkn¸n¨v {]Imi\w sNbvXhbmWv. AhbpsS hniZmwi§fpw {]tXyIXIfpw ]«nI 1  sImSp¯ncn¡p¶p. DbÀ¶ KpWta·bpw {]XnIqe kmlNcy§sf AXnPohn¡ph\papÅ Ignhn\pw ]pdta s\Ãns\B{Ian¡p¶ ]ehn[ IoS§tfmSpw tcmK§tfmSpw s]mcpXn \n¡phm\pÅ tijnbpamWv Cu X\Xv C\§sf IÀjIÀ¡p {]nbs¸«Xm¡nbXv . AXnep]cn ChbpsS KpW§Ä BtKmf hym]Iambn¯s¶ Gsd hneaXn¡s¸Sp¶Xv ssPh AssPh k½À±§sf AXnPohn¡phm\pXIp¶ ]pXnb C\§Ä Dcp¯ncns¨Sp¡p¶Xn Ch hln¡p¶ ]¦neqsSbmWv. DZmlcW¯n\v IoStcmK {]Xntcm[tijnbnepw Imcy£aamb {]Imi kwtÇjW¯nepw ap³]´nbn \n¡p¶Xpw hfsc Ipdª aq¸papÅ ]nSn_n 10 F¶ s\Ãn\w tIcf¯n\I¯pw ]pd¯papÅ At\Iw ]pXnb C\§fpsS hnIk\¯n {][m\ ]¦p hln¨n«p­v. IoStcmK {]Xntcm[tijnbpsS Imcy¯n A´mcm{ã{]ikvXn t\Snbn«pÅ C\§fmWv ]nSn_n 18, ]nSn_n 19, ]nSn_n 21 XpS§nbh. tZiobhpw A´Àt±iobhpamb At\Iw C\§Ä Dcp¯ncns¨Sp¡p¶Xn\v Cu C\§Ä D ] t b m K s ¸ S p ¯ n b n « p ­ v . C ¶ p w Cu C\§fn ]eXpw IÀjIcpsS CSbn {]Nmc¯nepap­v.

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

tI{µ§sf {]mtZinI KthjW tI{µ§fmbpw DbÀ¯pIbpw sIm«mc¡cbnep­mbncp¶ D]tI{µt¯msSm¸w s]m¡mfn \ne§Ä¡\ptbmPyamb hn¯n\§fpw IyjncoXnIfpw hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡p¶Xn\mbn sshänebn Hcp D]tI{µw IqSn XpS§pIbpw sNbvXp. ]T\w, KthjWw, hnÚm\hym]\w F¶o taJeIsf kwtbmPn¸n¨p sIm­pt]mIp¶Xn\mbn 1972 tIcf ImÀjnI kÀÆIemime Øm]n¡pIbpw AXphsc Iyjn hIp¸n\p Iogn \S¶p h¶ncp¶ s\Ãp KthjW {]hÀ¯\§Ä kÀÆIemimebnte¡p amäpIbpw sNbv X tXmsS kwØm\s¯ s\Ãp¸mZ\ cwK¯v Hcp IpXn¨pNm«w thWsa¶ hyàamb Dt±i e£yt¯msS KthjW {]hÀ¯\§Ä XzcnXs¸Sp¯p¶Xn\pÅ {ia§Ä Bcw`n¨p. hnfbne[njvTnXamb KthjW§Ä¡p ]Icw hnjbm[njvTnXamb KthjW§Ä¡mbn ap³Xq¡w. 1981  tZiob ImÀjnI KthjW ]²Xn \nehn hcpIbpw tIcf¯nse hnhn[ {]tZi§fnse {]iv \ m[njv T nX KthjW§Ä¡p th­n A©p taJem ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µ§Ä Øm]n¡pIbpw sNbvXp. Xmsg¸dbp¶ Cu taJem ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µ§fnepw AhbpsS IognepÅ D] tI{µ§fnepambmWvv C¶pv tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw ]ptcmKan¡p¶Xv. 4taJem ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw, shÅmbWn 4t{Im¸nwKv knkväw dnkÀ¨v skâÀ, Ica\ 4taJem ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw, IpacIw 4s\Ãp KthjW tI{µw, as¦m¼pv 4s\Ãp KthjW tI{µw, ImbwIpfw 4s\Ãp KthjW tI{µw, sshäne 4s\Ãp KthjW tI{µw, a®p¯n 4taJem ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw, ]«m¼n. 4taJem ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw, ]oent¡mSv 4taJem ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µw, A¼ehb ta¸dª tI{µ§fnseÃmambn \S¶p h¶ KthjW {]hÀ¯\§fpsS ^eambn

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

16


tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

]«nI 1. \mS\n\§fn \n¶pw \nÀ²mcWw hgn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯n«pÅ C\§Ä.

17

C\w

\mS³ t]cv

aq¸v

Irjn kabw

{]tXyIXIÄ

]nSn_n 1

Bcy³

145þ150

hncn¸v

shÅs¡«pÅ ]mS§Ä¡v tbmPn¨Xv

]nSn_n 2

s]m¶mcy³

135þ140

hncn¸v

]nSn_n 3

Fch¸m­n

125þ130

ap­I³

shÅs¡«pÅ ]mS§Ä¡v tbmPn¨Xv Pe£maapff ]mS§Ä¡v A\ptbmPyw

]nSn_n 4

shÅcn

140þ145

ap­I³

]nSn_n 5

shfp¯cn¡ba

140þ145

hncn¸v

]nSn_n 6

AXn{Imb

145þ150

ap­I³

sX¡³ IÀWmSI{]tZit¯¡mbn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯Xv

]nSn_n 7

]d¼ph«³

125þ130

hncn¸v

]Ånbm \ne§fnte¡pw HmcpÅ ]mS§fnte¡pw tbmPn¨Xv

]nSn_n 8

Nph¶cn Xhf¡®³

130þ135

hncn¸v

kzmtZdnb tNmdvv. X­n\pw CeIÄ¡pw sNdnb hbeäv\ndw

]nSn_n 9

shfp¯cn Xhf¡®³

135þ140

hncn¸v

kzmtZdnb tNmdvv. X­n\pw CeIÄ¡pw sNdnb hbeäv\ndw

]nSn_n 10

sX¡³ Noc

100þ105

hncn¸v

DbÀ¶ {]ImikwtÇjtWtijn, DbÀ¶ amwkt¯mXv

]nSn_n 11

lÃnK

145þ150

hncn¸v

sX¡³ IÀWmSI {]tZit¯¡mbn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯Xv

]nSn_n 12

sX¡³ Nntä\n

130þ135

ap­I³

apª, HmeNpcp«n¸pgp, ]¨¯pff³, _mIvSocnb CeIcn¨n F¶nhbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn

]nSn_n 13

Iba

134þ140

aq¶p]qhpw

sX¡³ IÀWmSI {]tZit¯¡mbn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯Xv

]nSn_n 14

akvImXn

130þ135

hncn¸v

sX¡³ IÀWmSI {]tZit¯¡mbn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯Xv

]nSn_n 15

Ihp§n³ ]q¯me

165þ170

ap­I³

Icns¦md Irjn¡p tbmPn¨Xv aecp­m¡m³ Gähpw tbmPn¨bn\w

]nSn_n 16

Ihp§n³ ]q¯me

155þ160

ap­I³

Icns¦md Irjn¡p tbmPn¨Xv aecp­m¡m³ Gähpw tbmPn¨bn\w

]nSn_n 17

PÍp lÃnI

145þ150

hncn¸v

sX¡³ IÀWmSI {]tZit¯¡mbn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯Xv

tNämgapff ]mS§Ä¡v tbmPn¨Xv Pe£maanÃm¯ Ccp¸q \ne§Ä¡v tbmPn¨Xv

]nSn_n 18

Fch¸m­n

130þ135

ap­I³

hcĨsb {]Xntcm[n¡m\pff Ignhv, apª, Kmfo¨, ]¨¯pų, X­pXpc¸³ F¶nhbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn.

]nSn_n 19

AXn{Imb

145þ150

ap­I³

apªs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn

]nSn_n 20

hS¡³ Nntä\n

125þ130

ap­I³

t]mftcmKw, Kmfo¨ Chs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn, DbÀ¶ Acn hogvN

]nSn_n 21

sX¡³

125þ130

ap­I³

apª, ]¨¯pų, X­pXpc¸³, Kmfo¨, t]mftcmKw F¶nhs¡Xnsc DbÀ¶ {]Xntcm[tijn

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse


C\w

\mS³ t]cv

aq¸v

Irjn kabw

{]tXyIXIÄ

]nSn_n 22

shfp¯h«³

115þ120

hncn¸v

]nSn_n 23

sNdnbmcy³

110þ115

hncn¸v

]nSn_n 24

Nph¶ h«³

115þ120

hncn¸v

aW IeÀ¶ {]tZi§fn s]mSn hnX¡v tbmPn¨Xv

]nSn_n 25

sXm®qdm³

115þ120

hncn¸v

aW IeÀ¶ {]tZi§fn s]mSn hnX¡v tbmPn¨Xv

s]mSn hnX¡v A\ptbmPyw aW IeÀ¶ {]tZi§fn s]mSn hnX¡v tbmPn¨Xv

hbeäp \ndapff CeIfpw X­pw IfItfbpw hcns\Ãnt\bpw Ffp¸¯n \o¡w sN¿m³ klmbn¡p¶p. ]¨¯qhÂ, »mÌv, t]mftcmKw F¶nhsb sNdp¯p \n¡p¶p.

]nSn_n 26

sN¦ga

115þ120

hncn¸v

]nSn_n 27

sImSnb³

130þ135

ap­I³

]nSn_n 28

I«tamS³

115þ120

hncn¸v

»mÌv tcmKs¯ sNdp¯p \n¡p¶p. tamS³ Irjn¡v A\ptbmPyw

]nSn_n 29

Idp¯tamS³

110þ115

hncn¸v

»mÌv tcmKs¯ sNdp¯p \n¡p¶p. tamS³ Irjn¡v A\ptbmPyw

]nSn_n 30

Nph¶tamS³

110þ115

hncn¸v

»mÌv tcmKs¯ sNdp¯p \n¡p¶p. tamS³ Irjn¡v A\ptbmPyw

]nSn_n 31

Ce¸¸q¨¼m³

120þ125

hncn¸v

sN¦Â {]tZit¯¡v tbmPn¨Xv

]nSn_n 32

Acph¡mcn

120þ125

ap­I³

]nSn_n 33

Acp¡ndmbv

125þ130

ap­I³

]nSn_n 34

henbN¼m³

105þ110

hncn¸v

s]mSn hnX¡v A\ptbmPyw

Fw H 1 Fw H 2

sN«nhncn¸v IÃS¨¼mhv

105þ110 085þ110

hncn¸v hncn¸v

D¸pcks¯ sNdp¯p \n¡p¶p. DbÀ¶ IoS {]Xntcm[tijn

Fw H 3

IpªXn¡nc

165þ180

hncn¸v

A¾ck¯nt\bpw Hmcnt\bpw sNdp¡m\pÅ Ignhv

bp BÀ 19

N¼mhv

85þ110

hncn¸v

»mÌns\{]Xntcm[n¡m\pÅ Ignhv

bp BÀ 110

HmcpapMI³

140þ150

ap­I³

D¸pckapÅ a®n\v tbmPn¨Xv

sIm«mc¡c1

Ipänt¨dmSn

140þ150

ap­I³

tIcf¯nsâ sX¡³ PnÃIfn c­mw Irjn¡v tbmPn¨Xv

sshäne 1

sN«nhncn¸v

85þ110

hncn¸v

D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p.

sshäne 2

Nq«ps]m¡mfn

125þ130

hncn¸v

D¸pckt¯bpw A¾ckt¯bpw AXnPohn¡m\pff Ignhv

hb\mSv 1

sXm­n

140þ150

DbÀ¶ IoS{]Xntcm[ tijnbpw ssiXys¯ AXnPohn¡phm\pÅ Ignhpw.

hb\mSv 2

]mÂs¯m­n

140þ150

DbÀ¶ IoS{]Xntcm[ tijnbpw ssiXys¯ AXnPohn¡phm\pÅ Ignhpw.

t]mf tcmK¯ns\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn Cet¸³, CeNpcp«n]pgp, apª, ]¨¯pų, shůpų Chs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

18


tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

C³Un¡ Pmt¸mWn¡ k¦cW ]²Xn

19

Ime¯pXs¶bmWv ^nen¸o³knepÅ A´mcm{ã s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ¯n \n¶pw Hssdk kssähbnse c­v D] hÀ¤§fmb sF. BÀ 8 F¶ C\hpw ]pd¯nd§nbXv. C³Un¡, Pmt¸mWn¡ F¶nhbpsS temIsa¼mSpw {]Ncn¨ sF. BÀ 8 KpWta·IÄ Hcpan¸n¡p¶Xn\mbn 1950- -60 tIcf¯n ]co£n¡p¶Xn\mbn sIm­pImeL«¯n temI¯nsâ hnhn[`mK§fn XpS§nsh¨ C³Un¡ Pmt¸mWn¡ k¦cW h¶Xv 1960 IfpsS Ahkm\amWv. A¶phsc ]²Xn tIcf¯nepw GsäSp¯p \S¸nem¡n- Iyjn sNbvXp h¶ncp¶ \mS\n\§tf¡mÄ sb¦nepw AXv A{Xta hnPbn¨nÃ. aq¶nc«ntbmfw hnf hÀ²\hv \ÂInb Cu k¦cW¯neqsS Dcp¯ncns¨Sp¯ hn¯p- AXv`pX hn¯ns\ IÀjIÀ lÀjmcht¯msS Ifnse hÔyXbmbncp¶p Cu {iaw ]cmPb- hcthäpsh¦nepw IoS§fpsS B{IaW¯n\v s¸Sm\p­mb ImcWw. F¶m Cu ]²Xnbn- hfsc thKw hgns¸Sp¶ CXnsâ kz`mhw eqsS atejybn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯ 'ajqcn' tIcf¯nse s\ÂIyjnbnepw \mi\ã§fpF¶ C\w tIcf¯nÂ, {]tXyIn¨v ]me¡m«p ­m¡n. 1970 Ifn aq¶p hÀjw XpSÀ¨bmbn Ip«\m«nep­mb apª_m[ bpsS {][m\ PnÃbn h³ {]Nmcw t\SpIbp­mbn. ImcWw apªbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn CÃmXncp¶ sF. BÀ 8 C\¯nsâ hym]Iamb D]tbmKamWv v . k¦cW¯neqsS ]pXnb AXy¸mZ\tijnbpÅ s\Ãn\§Ä s\Ãnse Ipdnb X­n\m[mcamb Po³ s\Ãn\§Ä Dcp¯ncns¨Sp¡pt¼mÄ DXv¸mZ\ Is­¯pIbpw k¦cW¯neqsS Cu Po\ns\ £ a X b v s ¡ m ¸ w I o S t c m K { ] X n t c m [ aän\§fnte¡mhmln¨v DXv¸mZ\£aX IqSnb t i j n b v ¡ p w { ] m [ m \ y w \  I W s a ¶ C\§Ä hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡phm\papÅ {ia§Ä X n c n ¨ d n h m W v ] n ¶ o S p Å K t h j W temI¯nsâ hnhn[ `mK§fn Bcw`n¨Xvv { ] h À ¯ \ § s f \ b n ¨ X v . A X n \ m  Adp]XpIfpsS XpS¡¯nemWv. C§s\ A¶]qÀ®bv¡p tijw ]pd¯nd¡nb hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯ Nne C\§Ä A\ykwØm- C\§fn A¡me¯v s\Ãns\ _m[n¨ncp¶ \§fn \n¶pw A\ycmPy§fn \n¶p {][m\IoSamb apªs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ Xs¶bpw DXv¸mZ\ hÀ²\hn\mbn tIcf¯n tijnIqSn DÄs¸Sp¯phm\pÅ {ia§fpw sIm­p h¶p ]co£n¡pIbp­mbn«p­v . \S¯pIbp­mbn. A§ns\ hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯ tImb¼¯qcn \n¶pw sIm­ph¶ Pn. C. _n . C\§fmWv Fgp]XpIfn ]pd¯nd§nb 24, ssXhm\n \n¶pw sIm­ph¶ ssX\m³ 3, tcmlnWn, AizXn, tPymXn, `{Z XpS§nh. hnhn[ Sn. F³.1 F¶ s\Ãn\§sfÃmw Xs¶ CXnsâ DbÀ¶ DXv¸mZ\ £aXbvs¡m¸w {]Xy£ DZmlcW§fmWv. DXv¸mZ\£aX- Iyjn kab§Ä¡pw Iyjn coXnIÄ¡pw bn ap³]´nbn \n¶ncp¶ Cubn\§Ä Hcpt]mse tbmPn¨ tPymXn, AcnbpsSbpw ]t£ AcnbpsSbpw tNmdnsâbpw KpW\nehmc- tNmdnsâbpw KpW ta³a sIm­v FÃmhn`mK¯nepw IoStcmK {]Xntcm[ tijnbnepw ]mtS ¯nÂs¸«hcpsSbpw {]iwk ]nSn¨p ]äpIbpw ] c m P b a m b n c p ¶ p . A X p s I m ­ p X s ¶ tIcf¯n Gähpa[nIw Iyjn sN¿s¸Sp¶ Chbn¸eXpw IÀjIÀ XnckvIcn¡pIbmWp- C\ambn amdpIbpw sNbv X p. 1974  ­mbXv. Cu A\p`h¯nsâ shfn¨¯nemWv ]pd¯nd¡nb Cu C\w C¶pw hym]Iambn Nmªp hogp¶ kz`mhapÅ, C³Un¡ D] Iyjn sN¿s¸Sp¶p. 1976  ]«m¼n KthjW tI{µ¯n\v hÀ¤¯nÂs¸« \½psS \mS\n\§fpsS k z ` m h K p W § Ä \ n e \ n À ¯ n s ¡ m ­ v t^mÀUv ^ut­jsâ km¼¯nI klmbw Ahbnte¡v Ipdnb X­nsâ Po³ IS¯nhn«v e`yamIpIbpw IqSn sNbvXtXmsS apª]pXnb C\§Ä kyãn¡pIbpw AXp hgn s¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijnbpÅ C\§Ä DXv ¸ mZ\ £aX hÀ[n¸n¡p¶Xn\papÅ h n I k n ¸ n s ¨ S p ¡ p ¶ X n \ p Å K t h j W {ia§Ä \½psS \m«nemcw`n¨Xv. CXn\mbn {]hÀ¯\§Ä¡pv ]pXnsbmcpWÀÆv ssIh¶p. ]«m¼n s\ÃpKthjW tI{µ¯nemcw`n¨ Cu ]²Xnhgn Is­¯nb {]Xntcm[tijn{]hÀ¯\§fpsS ^eambmWv 1966  bpÅ IĨdpIÄ ]n¡me¯v ]pXnb Z£ntWjybnse¯s¶ BZys¯ aq¸p C \ § f m b n h n I k n ¡ p I b p w ] p X n b IpdªXpw AXyp¸mZ\tijnbpapÅ C\§fpsS hnIk\¯n\pÅ t{kmXÊmbn “ A¶]qÀ®” F¶ C\w ]pd¯nd¡nbXv. CtX D]tbmKs¸SpIbpw sNbvXn«p­v. 1992-  ]«m¼n s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ¯n \n¶pw ]pd¯nd¡nb 'PbXn' F¶ C\w Cu ]²XnbneqsS Dcp¯ncnªXmWv. CXn\nsS 1990  as¦m¼p s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ¯n \n¶pw apªs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijnbpÅ Bi, ]hngw, ImÀ¯nI, AcpW, aIw, cay, I\Iw XpS§nb C\§fpw ]pd¯nd¡n. kwtbmPnX IoS tcmK \nb{´W¯n H¶ntesd IoS§Ä¡pw tcmK§Ä¡psaXnsc {]Xntcm[tijnbpÅ C\§fpsS {]m[m\yw a\kvknem¡n AhbpsS hnIk\¯n\mbpÅ KthjWw Bcw`n¡p¶Xv F¬]XpIfpsS ]IpXnbnemWv. CXnsâ ^eambn 1993 Â

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse


{]Imi\w sN¿s¸«p. AXypXv]mZ\tijn¡p ]pdta kpjp]vXmhØbpw, {][m\ tcmK§Ä¡pw IoS§Ä¡psaXnsc {]Xntcm[tijnbpw H¯nW§nb Un.1 AYhm Da, 1996þ98 Imebfhn Ip«\mS³ ]mS§fn \miw hnX¨ Kmfn¨bv s ¡Xnscbpw \à \nebnepff {]Xntcm[tijn {]ISam¡n. Ip«\mS³ IÀjIÀ¡p hfsc {]nbs¸«Xmbncp¶ ]hngw F¶ C\w amXrkkyambpw D¸pcks¯ sNdp¯p \n¡p¶Xn\v temI {]ikvXXnbmÀÖn¨ s]m¡mfn ]nXrkkyambpw D]tbmKn¨mWv Cu C\w Dcp¯ncns¨Sp¯Xv. \à _eapÅ X­pw a®n Bgv¶nd§p¶ thcp ]Se§fpapÅ Da km[mcW \nebn adnªp hogpIbpanÃ, ]pfn ckapÅ a®nepw D¸p ckapÅ a®nepw Iyjn sN¿m³ km[n¡pIbpw sN¿pw. 1998  {]Imi\w sN¿s¸« Da 2008  ]¯p hbkvkp ]qÀ¯nbm¡nbt¸mÄ t\«§fpsS Hcp \o­ \nc Xs¶ IcØam¡n. 96 98 Imebfhnep­mb Kmfn¨bpsS B{IaWw Ip«\m«nse s\ÂIyjnbnep­m¡nb \ãw 80 tImSnbne[nIambncp¶p. ]n¡me§fn CXv Hgnhm¡m³ klmbn¨Xv Da F¶ s\Âhn¯mWv. A¶phsc D]tbmKn¨ncp¶ C\§sf At]£n¨v slÎdn\v 1.5 apX 2 S¬ hsc hnfhÀ[\\ÂIm³ Ignbp¶Xp aqew slÎsdm¶n\v 12000 apX 18000 cq] hsc A[nI em`ap­m¡m³ IÀjI\p km[n¡p¶p F¶Xv Hcp \nkvkmc Imcyaà Xs¶. C¶v Ip«\mS³ ]mS§fpsS 80 iXam\¯ne[nIhpw Iyjn sN¿s¸Sp¶Xv Da bmWv. 2007- 08 ep­mb th\ agbn tIcfamsI IpfnÀ¶p hnd¨p \n¶t¸mÄ Ip«\mS³ IÀjIsc Hcp ]cn[n hsc c£n¨p \nÀ¯nbXv Da F¶ Cu AXv`pX hn¯p Xs¶ bmsW¶Xn\p kwibanÃ. Ip«\mS³ ]mS§Ä¡p th­n Dcp¯ncns¨Sp¯sX¦nepw tIcf¯nse aäp Øe§fnepw Da hym]n¨p Ignªp. tIcf¯nse GXm­v 50 iXam\¯n\-Sp¯v hbepIfnepw C¶v Da hym]n¨p Ignªncn¡p¶p. CXp hgn kwØm\¯n\v Hcp hÀjw GXm­v 120 apX 150 tImSn cq]bpsS A[nI hcpam\w D­m¡m³ km[n¡p¶p. FIvkvtd, BÂ^m, Kmam XpS§nb hnIncW civanIfp]tbmKn¨v sNSnIfpsS Po³LS\bnÂ

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

]«m¼n s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ¯n \n¶pw ssIcfn, Im©\, BXnc, sFizcy F¶o C\§fpw as¦m¼p s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ¯n \n¶pw cRvPn\n, ]©an, ]hn{X F¶o C\§fpw hnIkn¸n¨p ]pd¯nd¡n. XpSÀ¶v hnhn[ ImÀjnI KthjW tI{µ§fn \n¶pw {]Imi\w sN¿s¸« C\§fnseÃmw Xs¶ DXv¸mZ\ £aXbv¡pw IoStcmK {]Xntcm[ tijnbv¡pw Bhiyamb Po\pIÄ k¶nthin¸n¨n«p­v. BcXn, awKfajqcn, hÀj, tizX, Kucn, Aley, a\p{]nb F¶o C\§Ä CXn\v DZmlcWamWv. CXn\pw ]pdta hnhn[ Iyjnkab§Ä¡pw IyjncoXnIÄ¡pw tbmPn¨Xpw {]XnIqe kmlNcy§sf AXnPohn¡phm\pÅ Ignhp {]ISn¸n¡p¶Xpamb C\§Ä¡mbpff KthjW§Ä hnhn[ KthjW tI{µ§fn Bcw`n¡pIbpw Ah ^e{]m]v X nbnse¯pIbpw sNbv X Xnsâ ^eambn hncn¸p Iyjn¡p th­n HmWw, `mKy, Nn§w, lÀj; ap­I³ Iyjn¡mbn IcpW, [\y, s]m¡mfn \ne§Ä¡p th­n sshäne 3, 4, 5, 6, 7; ImÀ¯nI¸Ån Xmeq¡nse D¸pckapÅ a®n ap­I³ Iyjn¡p th­n kmKc; tNämgapff \ne§Ä¡mbn aIcw, Ipw`w; Icn\ne§fnse ]pfnckapÅ a®nte¡mbn Icnjva, IyjvWm©\; ssltd©pIfnse XWp¸ns\ AXnPohn¡p¶ Zo]vXn F¶o C\§fpw hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯p. tIcf¯nse s\Ãp¸mZ\w hÀ²n¸n¡p¶Xnsâ `mKambn tIcf¯nsâ s\Ãdbmb Ip«\m«n {][m\ Iyjnbmb ]p© Iyjn¡p ]pdta c­mwIyjnbpw hn]peoIcnt¡­Xps­¶ Bibhpw F¬]XpIfn iàambn. F¶m A¶p Ip«\m«n {]Nmc¯nencp¶ s\Ãn\§fpsS, {]tXyIn¨pw tPymXn, ]hngw XpS§nb C\§fpsS s\·WnIÄ sImbv X p kab¯p­mIp¶ agbn IXncnÂv¡nfnÀ¡p¶ kz`mhw {]ISn¸n¨ncp¶Xv Hcp henb t]mcmbvabmbn. Cu Ahkc¯nemWv IXncnÂv¡nfnÀ¡m¯ AYhm kpjp]vXmhØbpÅ AXypXv]mZ\C\§Ä Dcp¯ncns¨Sp¡m³ th­nbpÅ ]²Xn as¦m¼v s\Ãv KthjW tI{µ¯n Bcw`n¨Xv. 1983þ84  XpS§nb Cu ]²XnbneqsS as¦m¼v s\Ãv KthjW tI{µ¯nep­mbncp¶ Ccp\qtdmfw s\Ãn\§sf kpjp]vXmhØbpsS ASnØm\¯n ITn\ kpjp]vXmhØbpÅXv, kpjp]vXmhØ IpdªXv, kpjp]v X mhØ CÃm¯Xv F¶n§s\ aq¶m¡n Xcw Xncn¨p. XpSÀ¶v ITn\ kpjp]vXmhØ {]ISn¸n¨ s]m¡mfn, IpdpI, sNs¶Ãv F¶o \mS³ C\§fpw kpjp]vXmhØ CÃm¯Xpw F¶m AXypXv]mZ\ tijnbpÅXpamb `{Z, Bi, ]hngw, ImÀ¯nI F¶o C\§fpw X½n k¦cWw \S¯pIbp­mbn. C§s\ DXv ] mZn¸n¨ k¦cs\ÃpIfpsS ]n³Xeapd-Ifn \n¶pw sa¨amb sNSnIsf ]e L«§fnembn sXcsªSp¯v ]e hnf]co£W§Ä \S¯pIbpw sNbvXp. CXn hfsc sa¨amb \nehmcw ]peÀ¯nb c­v IĨdpIÄ - Un 1 Dw Un 6 Dw ]n¶oSv Da, tchXn F¶o t]cpIfnÂ

20


sNdnb hyXymk§Ä hcp¯m³ km[n¡p¶ Cu b n \ w h n I k n ¸ n s ¨ S p ¯ n c n ¡ p ¶ X v . DĸcnhÀ¯\w” F¶ {]{Inb hgnbpw ]pXnb c i v a n b v ¡ p ] p d t a t I c f I m À j n I C\§Ä hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡phm\pÅ {ia§Ä kÀÆIemimebpsS hnhn[ s\Ãp KthjW t I c f I m À j n I k À Æ I e m i m e b n  tI{µ§fn \n¶mbn caWnI, A\izc, [\p, \S¶n«p­v. ]«m¼n s\Ãp KthjW tI{µ¯n sshäne 5 XpS§nb C\§fpw DĸcnhÀ¯\w \n¶pw ]pd¯nd¡nb “ civ a n C\amWv hgn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯n«p­v. DĸcnhÀ¯\w hgn tIcf¯n tIcf ImÀjnI kÀÆIemimebnse hnhn[ hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯ BZys¯ C\w. D¸pshÅw KthjW tI{µ§fn hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯ I b d p ¶ H m c p ] m S § Ä ¡ \ p t b m P y a m b AXy¸mZ\tijnbpff s\Ãn\§fpsS hniZ HmÀ¸m­n F¶ \mS\n\¯n \n¶pamWv hnhc§Ä ]«nI 3  sImSp¯ncn¡p¶p. Iyjn kabw

{]tXyIXIÄ

1966

95-þ100

aq¶p ]qhpw

DbÀ¶ hnfhv, F¶m apª, Ce¸pÅn t]mftcmKw ChbpsS B{IaW¯n\p thKw hnt[bamIp¶p.

]nSn_n 10/ sFBÀ 8

1971

85-þ110

hncn¸v, ]p©

Ce¸pÅn, ]pÅn¡p¯v Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn.

AizXn

]nSn_n 10/ UoPn H hq sP³

1971

120-þ125

hncn¸v, ]p©

Ce¸pÅn, ]pÅn¡p¯v Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn.

{XnthWn

A¶]qÀ®/ ]nSn_n 15

100-þ105

aq¶p ]qhpw

apªbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. Ce¸pÅn, t]mftcmKw ChbpsS B{IaW¯n\p thKw hnt[bamIp¶p.

]nSn_n 39

tPymXn

]nSn_n 10/ sFBÀ 8

1974

110þ125

aq¶p ]qhpw

apªbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. Ce¸pÅn, t]mftcmKw ChbpsS B{IaW¯n\p thKw hnt[bamIp¶p.

]nSn_n 40

i_cn

A¶]qÀ®/ sFBÀ 8

1974

130þ135

hncn¸v, ap­I³

t]mftcmK¯n\p thKw hgns¸Sp¶p.

]nSn_n 41

`mcXn

]nSn_n 10/ sFBÀ 8

1974

120þ125

hncn¸v, ap­I³

Ce¸pÅn, ]pÅn¡p¯v Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

]nSn_n 42

kphÀ® tamS³

G BÀ kn 11775  \n¶pw \nÀ²mcWw

1976

110þ115

hncn¸v

hcĨbv¡pw Ce¸pÅn tcmK¯n\psaXnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

amXr ]nXy kky§Ä

]nSn_n 35

A¶]qÀ®

SnF³ 1 / ]nSn_n 10

]nSn_n 36

tcmlnWn

]nSn_n 37

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

]nSn_n 38

21

{]Imi\w sN¿s¸« hÀjw

aq¸v

t]cv

C\w

1971

]nSn_n 43

kzÀ®{]`

`hm\n/ {XnthWn

1985

105þ110

hncn¸v

DbÀ¶ {]ImikwtÇjtWtijn hcĨbv¡pw, X­pXpc¸\pw Ce¸pÅn tcmK¯n\psaXnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. t]mftcmK¯n\pw _mIvSocnb CeIcn¨nen\pw thKw hgns¸Sp¶p.

]nSn_n 44

civan

HmÀ¸m­n bpsS ayq«â v

1985

150þ160

ap­I³

apª, Kmfo¨, X­pXpc¸³, CeNpcp«n¸pgp F¶nhbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

]nSn_n 45

a« {XnthWn

{XnthWnbn \n¶pw ]p\À \nÀ²mcWw

1990

100þ105

aq¶p ]qhpw

apªbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. Ce¸pÅn, t]mftcmKw ChbpsS B{IaW¯n\p thKw hnt[bamIp¶p.

]nSn_n 46

PbXn

{XnthWn/ sFBÀ 2061

1992

120þ125

hncn¸v, ap­I³

shff Acn. apª, Ce¸pÅn, ]pÅn¡p¯v Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

hncn¸v, ap­I³

shÅs¡«pÅ ]mS§Ä¡pw ]q´Â¸mS§Ä¡pw tbmPn¨ C\w. Ce¸pÅn, t]mf Icn¨nÂ, CeNpcp«n¸pgp F¶nhbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. t]mftcmK¯n\p hgns¸Sp¶p.

]nSn_n 47

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

\ocP

sFBÀ 20/ sFBÀ 5

1992

140þ150


t]cv

amXr ]nXy kky§Ä

{]Imi\w sN¿s¸« hÀjw

aq¸v

Iyjn kabw

{]tXyIXIÄ

]nSn_n 48

\nf

{XnthWn/ shff¯n sImf¸me/ kn H 25

1992

160-þ180

ap­I³

apª, Kmfo¨, t]mftcmKw Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn Ce¸pÅn tcmK¯n\p hgns¸Sp¶p.

]nSn_n 49

ssIcfn

sFBÀ 36/ tPymXn

1993

110-þ115

aq¶p ]qhpw

Kmfo¨, CeNpcp«n¸pgp, Ce¸pÅn t]mftcmKw Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn

]nSn_n 50

Im©\

sFBÀ 36/ ]hngw

1993

105-þ110

aq¶p ]qhpw

Ce¸pÅn, ]pÅn¡p¯v, Xpw{Kq sshdkv Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

]nSn_n 51

BXnc

_n BÀ 56- 46 -1 / IĨÀ 23 332 2

1993

120-þ130

hncn¸v, ap­I³

apª, Kmfo¨, Ce¸pÅn, t]mftcmKw Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

]nSn_n 52

sFizcy

tPymXn/ _n BÀ 56- 46 -1

1993

120-þ125

hncn¸v, ]p©

apª, Kmfo¨, Ce¸pÅn, t]mftcmKw Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

]nSn_n 53

awKf ajqcn

ajqcn bn \n¶pw ]p\À \nÀ²mcWw

1998

130-þ140

hncn¸v, ap­I³

t]mftcmKw, thÄ am¤«v, Ccp¼bncv Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

]nSn_n 54

IcpW

kn H 25/ F¨v 4

1998

135-þ140

ap­I³

X­pXpc¸³, Ce¸pÅn, t]mftcmKw, Ccp¼bncv Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

]nSn_n 55

lÀj

Fw 210/ ]nSn_n 28

2000

105-þ115

hncn¸v

hcĨbv¡pw Ce¸pÅn tcmK¯n\psaXnsc {]Xntcm[tijn. s]mSnhnXbv¡v A\ptbmPyw

]nSn_n 56

hÀj

Fw 210/ ]nSn_n 28

2002

110-þ120

hncn¸v, ap­I³

hcĨbv¡pw Ce¸pÅn tcmK¯n\psaXnsc {]Xntcm[tijn. s]mSnhnXb¡pw \Sn¨nen\pw A\ptbmPyw

]nSn_n 57

tizX

sFBÀ 50/ kn 14 40

2002

130-þ135

hncn¸v, ap­I³

shff Acn. ]me¡Snsâ Ing¡³ {]tZi§fnse c­mwIyjn¡p tbmPn¨Xv

]nSn_n 58

A\izc

]nSn_n 20 sâ ayq«â v

2006

130-þ135

ap­I³

Kmfo¨, t]mftcmKw Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

]nSn_n 59

kwbpà

Fw2/]nSn_n 28

2010

115-þ120

hncn¸v

Iq«pap­I³ Iyjn¡v tbmPn¨Xv

]nSn_n 60

sshimJv

kzÀ®{]` bn \n¶pw \nÀ²mcWw

2010

115-þ120

hncn¸v

Ics\ÂIyjn¡v tbmPn¨Xv. hcĨbv s¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

FwH 4

`{Z

sFBÀ 8/ ]nSn_n 20

1978

110-þ140

hncn¸v, ap­I³

apªbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. t]mftcmK¯n\p hgns¸Sp¶p.

FwH 5

Bi

sFBÀ 11 1 66/ sIm¨phn¯v

1981

115þ120

hncn¸v, ap­I³

apª, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨nÂ, Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

FwH 6

]hngw

sFBÀ 8 / Icnsh®Â

1985

115þ120

hncn¸v, ap­I³

apª, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨nÂ, Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

FwH 7

ImÀ¯nI

{XnthWn/ sFBÀ 1539

1987

105þ110

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨nÂ, Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

C\w

22


Iyjn kabw

{]tXyIXIÄ

1990

100-þ110

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, Kmfo¨, X­pXpc¸³, t]mftcmKw, ]pÅn¡p¯v, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

G BÀ kn 6650/ Pb

1990

100-þ110

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, Kmfo¨, X­pXpc¸³, t]mftcmKw, ]pÅn¡p¯v, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

cay

Pb/ ]nSn_n 33

1990

115-þ120

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, Kmfo¨, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

FwH 11

I\Iw

sFBÀ 1561/ ]nSn_n 33

1990

120-þ125

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, Kmfo¨, X­pXpc¸³, t]mftcmKw, Ce¸pÅn, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

FwH 12

cRvPn\n

FwH 5/ Cw{]qhvUv tkm\

1995

120-þ130

aq¶p ]qhpw

Ce¸pÅntcmK¯ns\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

FwH 13

]hn{X

kptcJ/ FwH 5

1998

115-þ120

aq¶p ]qhpw

Kmfo¨, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

FwH 14

]©an

t]mX\/ FwH 5

1998

115-þ120

aq¶p ]qhpw

Kmfo¨, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

FwH 15

caWnI

Fw H 1 sâ ayq«â v

1998

105-þ110

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, Kmfo¨, t]mftcmKw, Ce¸pÅn, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[tijn.

FwH 16

Da

]hngw/ s]m¡mfn

1998

120-þ125

hncn¸v, ap­I³

apª, Kmfo¨ Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. Hcp amkw hsc kpjp]vXmhØ.

FwH 17

tchXn

IĨÀ 12814/ FwH 6

1998

100-þ105

aq¶p ]qhpw

apªbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. Hcp amkw hsc kpjp]vXmhØ.

FwH 18

Icnjva

Fw H 1/ FwH 6

1998

115-þ120

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, Kmfo¨, Ccp¼bncv Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

FwH 19

IyjvWmRvP\

Fw H 1/ FwH 6

1998

105-þ110

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, Kmfo¨, Ccp¼bncv Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

Kucn

`{Z / IĨÀ 25331 1

2002

115þ120

aq¶p ]qhpw

apª, X­pXpc¸³, CeNpcp«n¸pgp, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

102þ105

aq¶p ]qhpw

Ip«\m«nse Ccp¸q ]mS§Ä¡p tbmPn¨Xv. apª, Kmfo¨, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨nÂ, ]pÅn¡p¯v, Chbvs¡Xnsc, Hcp {]n[n hsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. apª, X­pXpc¸³, CeNpcp«n¸pgp, t]mftcmKw, ]pÅn¡p¯v, Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn

t]cv

amXr ]nXy kky§Ä

FwH 8

AcpW

Pb/ ]nSn_n 33

FwH 9

aIw

FwH 10

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

FwH 20

23

{]Imi\w sN¿s¸« hÀjw

aq¸v

C\w

{]Xymi

sF.F.än.4786/ AcpW

sIssh FÂFw 2

e£van

sIm«mc¡c/ s]mUphn

1981

175þ180

ap­I³

sIssh FÂFw 3

`mKy

XSp¡³/ Sn F³1

1985

120þ125

hncn¸v ]p©

apª, shÅñ apª, t]mf tcmKw, hcĨ Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

sIssh FÂFw 4

HmWw

sIm¨phn¯v/ Sn F³ 1

1985

95þ105

aq¶p ]qhpw

t]mftcmKw, Ce¸pÅn, t]mf Icn¨n hcĨ Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

FwH 21

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

2010


t]cv

amXr ]nXy kky§Ä

{]Imi\w sN¿s¸« hÀjw

aq¸v

Iyjn kabw

{]tXyIXIÄ

sIssh FÂFw 5

[\y

Pb/ ]nSn_n 4

1992

120þ125

ap­I³

X­pXpc¸³, CeNpcp«n¸pgp, t]mftcmKw, Ce¸pÅn Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

sIssh FÂFw 6

kmKc

Hmcpap­I³

1993

175þ180

ap­I³

D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. HmWm«pIcbnse Hmcpap­I³ ]mS§Ä¡p tbmPn¨Xv.

sIssh FÂFw 7

Nn§w

Fw 2/ IĨÀ 25331 1

2002

95þ100

hncn¸v

hcĨsb AXnPohn¡p¶p. s]mSnhnXbv¡v A\ptbmPyw

sIssh FÂFw 8

[\p

]nSn_n 20 sâ ayq«â v

2002

150þ160

ap­I³

{][m\ tcmK§Ä¡pw IoS§Ä¡pw FXnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

sIm«mc¡c 2

aIcw

Ipänt¨dmSn

2002

150þ160

ap­I³

tIcf¯nsâ sX¡³ PnÃIfnse tNdmSn \ne§fnte¡v c­mw Irjn¡v tbmPn¨Xv

sIm«mc¡c 3

Ipw`w

Ipänt¨dmSn

2002

165þ170

ap­I³

tIcf¯nsâ sX¡³ PnÃIfnse tNdmSn \ne§fnte¡v c­mw Irjn¡v tbmPn¨Xv

sIm«mc¡c 4

Xpemw

Hm.Fw 1/ ]¦Pv

2010

135þ140

ap­I³

HmWm«pIcbnse c­mw Iyjn¡v tbmPn¨ C\w

hnänFÂ 3

sshäne 3

sshäne 1/ Sn F³1

1987

110þ115

hncn¸v

D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. s]m¡mfn¸mS§Ä¡v A\ptbmPyw

hnänFÂ 4

sshäne 4

sN«nhncn¸v/ sFBÀ 4630-22- 2- 17

1993

120þ125

hncn¸v

D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. s]m¡mfn¸mS§Ä¡v A\ptbmPyw

hnänFÂ 5

sshäne 5

ajqcn ayq«â v

1995

115þ120

hncn¸v

D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. s]m¡mfn¸mS§Ä¡v A\ptbmPyw

hnänFÂ 6

sshäne 6

sNdphncn¸v/ sF BÀ 5/ Pb

2004

115þ120

hncn¸v

D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. s]m¡mfn¸mS§Ä¡v A\ptbmPyw

hnänFÂ 7

sshäne 7

sFBÀ 8/ ]mävss\23

2006

115þ120

hncn¸v

shff Acn. DbÀ¶ amwkt¯mXv. D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. s]m¡mfn ¸mS§Ä¡v A\ptbmPyw.

hnänFÂ 8

sshäne 8

sF. BÀ 4730-94-43-1 / kn.Fkv BÀ 10

2010

115þ120

hncn¸v

shff Acn. DbÀ¶ amwkt¯mXv. D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. s]m¡mfn ¸mS§Ä¡v A\ptbmPyw.

Gknhn 1

BcXn

Pb/ ]nSn_n 33

1993

120þ135

hncn¸v, ap­I³

FwF³ssh 1

{lkz

sFBÀ 8/ Sn 140

1993

70þ75

aq¶p ]qhpw

hfsc aq¸p IpdªXv

FwF³ssh 2

Aley

]nSn_n 10/ Sn F³1/Sn F³1

1998

90þ102

aq¶p ]qhpw

t]mftcmKw, CeNpcp«n¸pgp, hcĨ Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

FwF³ssh 3

a\p{]nb

]n sI 3355- 5- 1 4- / `{Z

2006

105þ110

aq¶p ]qhpw

{][m\ tcmK§Ä¡pw IoS§Ä¡pw FXnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

IpªpIpªv hnsIF 1 IpªpIpªp C\¯n \n¶pw hÀ® \nÀ²mcWw

2002

115þ120

aq¶p ]qhpw

{][m\ tcmK§Ä¡pw IoS§Ä¡pw FXnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. kzmtZdnb tNmdv.

apª, t]mftcmKw, t]mf Icn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

C\w

24


C\w

hnsIF 2

Ftgmw 1

Ftgmw 2

t]cv

amXr ]nXy kky§Ä

IpªpIpªp IpªpIpªv C\¯n \n¶pw {]nb \nÀ²mcWw

Ftgmw 1

Ftgmw 2

Pb/IpXncv

Pb/HmÀ¡ba

{]Imi\w sN¿s¸« hÀjw

aq¸v

Iyjn kabw

{]tXyIXIÄ

2002

115þ120

aq¶p ]qhpw

{][m\ tcmK§Ä¡pw IoS§Ä¡pw FXnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn. kzmtZdnb tNmdv.

hncn¸v

ssI¸mSv \ne§Â¡v tbmPn¨Xv. D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. Kmfo¨, Ipg¸pgp, CeNpcp«n¸pgp t]mftcmKw, _mIvSocnb CeIcn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

hncn¸v, ap­I³

ssI¸mSv \ne§Â¡v tbmPn¨Xv. D¸pcks¯ AXnPohn¡p¶p. Kmfo¨, Ipg¸pgp, CeNpcp«n¸pgp t]mftcmKw, _mIvSocnb CeIcn¨n Chbvs¡Xnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn.

2010

2010

k¦c s\Âhn¯v

tIcf¯nse s\Ãp KthjWw: Hsc¯nt\m«w

k¦c hocyw F¶ {]Xn`mkw NqjWw sNbvXp hnfhp hÀ[n¸n¡m\pÅ KthjW§fpw tIcf ImÀjnI kÀÆIemimebn \S¶p hcp¶p. c­v hyXyاfmb s\Ãn\§Ä X½n _oP k¦e\w \S¯n e`n¡p¶ hn¯v H\mw Xeapdbn¯s¶ IrjnsN¿m\p]tbmKn¡p¶XmWv k¦cs\Âhn¯v AYhm ssl{_nUv ssdkv. k¦c hocyw Gähpa[nIw {]ISambn¡mWp-¶Xv H¶mw XeapdbnemIbm AXv Gähpw IqSnb Afhn NqjWw sN¿m³ km[n¡p¶p F¶XmWv CXpsIm­pÅ t\«w. k¦cs\Ãn\§sf At]£n¨v DbÀ¶ hfÀ¨m\nc¡v, \n_nUamb thcp]Se§Ä, DbÀ¶ {]ImikwtÇjWw, hÀ²n¨ tXmXnepÅ Nn\¸pIfpw, IXncpIfpw, Hmtcm IXncnepapÅ aWnIfpsS hÀ²\hpw `mc¡qSpXepw, hnfhnepÅ hÀ²\hv ChsbÃmw k¦cs\Âhn¯nsâ {]tXyIXIfmWv. k¦chn¯pIÄ k¦cs\Ãn\§sf At]£n¨v 20 - - 25 iXam\t¯mfw hnf hÀ²\hv Xcp¶XmWv. AXmbXv k¦chn¯nsâ D]tbmKw sIm­pam{Xw Hcp slIvSdn GXm­v 1 S®n IqSpX hnfhÀ²\hv \ap¡v

25

135þ140

120þ125

{]Xo£n¡mw. {Kao\ntb IpSpw_¯nÂs¸Sp¶ s\Ãv, tKmX¼v apXemb kky§Ä kzbw ]cmKWw s]mXpXXzambn kzoIcn¨n«pÅhbmIbmÂv C§s\bpÅ kky§fn ]c]cmKW¯n\mbn amXrkky§sf X¿mdm¡n FSpt¡­Xp­v. CXn\mbn amXr kkyambn D]tbmKn¡p¶ C\§fpsS tIkc§Ä Ir{XnaamÀ¤§fp]tbmKn¨v \o¡w sNbvXtijamWv ]nXr kky¯nsâ ]cmKw D]tbmKn¨v _oPk¦e\w \S¯p¶Xv. F¶m hym]Iamb Irjn¡mhiyamb k¦chn¯pIÄ Dev]mZn¸n¡m\mbn Cu amÀ¤§Ä kzoIcn¡pI {]mtbmKnIaÃ. AXn\mbn {]tXyI kt¦XnI hnZyIÄ D]tbmKnt¡­Xp­v. {]IrXymXs¶ tIkc§Ä \nÀÖohhpw kzbw ]cmKWtijnbnÃm¯Xpamb amXr kky§sf hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¯v Ahbp]tbmKn¨mWv hn¯pIÄ Dev]mZn¸n¡p¶Xv. C§s\ hn¯pev]mZn¸n¡p¶ coXnbn F \ncIÄ, _n \ncIÄ, BÀ \ncIÄ F¶n§s\ aq¶p Xcw kky \ncIÄ DÄvs¸«ncn¡p¶p. tIcf¯n hn`n¶§fmb ImemhØ¡pw IrjncoXnIÄ¡pw tbmPn¨ k¦cs\Âhn¯pIÄ Dcp¯ncn¨v FSp¡m\pÅ {ia§Ä tIcf ImÀjnI kÀÆIemimebn \S¶phcp¶p hnhn[ {]tZi§fnte¡p tbmPn¨ F \ncIfpw _n \ncIfpw hnIkn¸ns¨Sp¡phm\pw sshhn²yamÀ¶ \½psS P\nXI tiJc¯n \n¶pw AXypev]mZ\ tijnbpÅ BÀ \ncIÄ Is­¯n KpWta\vabpw Dev]mZ\tijnbpw IoStcmK{]Xntcm[tijnbpw H¯nW§nb k¦cs\Âhn¯pIÄ Dev]mZn¸n¡phm\papÅ KthjW {]hÀ¯\§fpsS ^eambn aq¶p k¦c s\Âhn¯pIÄ Dcp¯ncns¨Sp¯n«p­v. F¶m Chsbv¡Ãmw Xs¶ shÅ AcnbmWpÅXv. sa¨s¸« ]mNI KpWhpw Nph¶ AcnbpapÅ k¦c hn¯n\mbpÅ KthjWw XpSÀ¶p sIm­ncn¡p¶p

(tUm. Fkv. eo\m Ipamcn as¦m¼v s\Ãp Kth-jW tI{µ-¯n ¹mâ v {_oUnwKv hn`mKw s{]m^-kdpw Øm]\ ta[m-hn-bp-am-Wv)

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse


Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ

kmt¦-XnIhnZybpw KpW-tZm-j-§fpw Pn. FÂkn .kn.-BÀ.

t{Ima-tkm-ap-I-fmWv Po\p-Isf hln-¡p-¶-Xv. t{Ima-tkm-ap-IÄ¡p-Ånse Un.-F³.-F. \mS-Ifn ]än-t¨À¶n-cp¶v Pohn-bpsS kI-e-hn[ kz`m- h - k - h n- t i- j - X - I - s fbpw \nb- { ´n- ¡ p¶ Po\p-Isf Hcp Pohn-bnÂ\n-s¶-Sp¯v asämcp Pohn-bn-te¡v amän-sh-¡m³ P\-änIv F©n-\o-bdn-§n-eqsS a\p-jy-\n¶v km[y-am-Wv. Cu kmt¦Xn-I-hn-Zy-bn-eqsS kky-§-fnÂ\n¶v P´p¡-fn-te-¡pw, Xncn-¨pw, kq£vam-Wp-¡-fnÂ\n¶v kky-§-fn-te-¡pw, P´p-¡-fn-te-¡p-saÃmw Po\pIsf amän-Øm-]n-¡mw. Po\p-I-fpsS {]hÀ¯\s¯ Xzcn-X-s¸-Sp-¯p-I-tbm, aµo-`-hn-¸n-¡pItbm sN¿mw. C§ns\Po\p-Isf amän Øm-]n¨pw, H«n-¨p-tNÀ¯pw, sh«n-sbm-Xp-¡nbpw Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-sf krjvSn-s¨-Sp-¡p¶p. P\n-XI amä kmt¦-XnI hnZy-bn-eqsS ]nd-hnsb-Sp¯ "^vfmhÀ tkhÀ' F¶ X¡m-fn-bmWv It¼m-f-¯n-se-¯nb BZy Pn.-Fw. hnf. hnf-shSp-¸p-I-gn-ªm hfsc s]s«¶p ]gp¯v tISp-hcp¶ ^e-am-WtÃm X¡m-fn. F¶m ^vfmhÀ tkhÀ X¡m-fn-I-fn P\n-XI kmt¦-XnI hnZybp-]-tbm-Kn¨v ]gp-¡Â {]{Inb hfsc kmh-[m-\¯n-em¡n. A§ns\tISp-h-cmsX IqSp-XÂImew kq£n¨p sh¡m-hp¶ ^vfhÀtk-hÀ X¡m-fnIÄ 1996 It¼m-f-¯n-se-¯n. ^vfmhÀ tkhÀ X¡m-fn-¡p-tijw Ht«sd Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ temIsa-¼mSpw hb-ep-I-fn-se-¯n. C¶v Gähpw hym]I-ambn Irjn-sN-¿-s¸-Sp¶ Pn.-Fw. hnf tkmb-

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ kmt¦-XnIhnZybpw KpW-tZm-j-§fpw

Fw. AYhm "P\-än-¡en tamUnss^Uv' hnf-IÄ C¶v ]{X-Zr-iy-am-[y-a-§-fn hf-sc-b-[nIw hmÀ¯m-{]-[m\yw t\Sp-¶p. Pn.Fw. hnf-IÄ Irjn sN¿m³ IÀj-Isc A\p-h-Zn¡-W-sa¶ A`n-{]m-b-§-fpw, -A-Xn-s\-Xn-cmbn Ahsb Irjn-bn-S-§-fnÂ\n¶v ]qÀ®-ambn amän\nÀ¯-W-sa-¶p-apÅ A`n-{]m-b-§fpw ià-ambn DbÀ¶p-h-cp-t¼mÄ Cu Pn.-Fw. F´mWv F¶-dnbmsX Hcp henb hn`mKw P\-§Ä ImgvN-¡mcmbn amdn \n¡p-¶p. Nne-t¸m-sg-¦nepw Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ Fs´-¶-dn-bm-¯-hÀt]mepw Ah-sb¸än A`n-{]m-b-§Ä ]dªv P\-{i² t\Sp-¶Xp ImWp-­v. Cu kml-N-cy-¯n Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ F´m-sW¶pw temI-ImÀjn-I-cw-K¯v AhbpsS Øm\w Fs´¶pw ]cn-tim-[n-¨pt\m-¡mw. "P\-änIv F©n-\o-b-dnwMv' AYhm P\n-X-Iamä kmt¦-Xn-I-hn-Zy-bn-eqsS Pohn-I-fpsS P\n-XI-L-S-\sb \nb-{´n-¡p¶ Po\p-I-fn amäw hcp¯n krjvSn-s¨-Sp-¡p¶ hnf-I-sf-bmWv Pn.Fw. hnf-IÄ F¶p ]d-bp-¶-Xv. Po\p-IÄ, PohPm-e-§-fn {]Ir-Xn-sbm-fn-¸n-¨n-cn-¡p¶ \nKqV P\n-XI IWn-I-I-fm-Wv. Poh-Pm-e-§-fnse kz`mh-k-hn-ti-j-X-IÄ Xe-ap-d-I-fnÂ\n¶pw Xe-ap-dI-fn-te¡v ]I-cp-¶Xv Po\p-I-sf¶ AXn-kq£va ]mc-¼-cy-L-S-I-§Ä hgn-bm-Wv. GI-tIm-iambpw _lp- t Im- i - k - a p- ¨ b- a mbpw \ne\n¡p¶ Pohn-I-fnse tImi-§fen-tem-tcm¶nepw AXn-`-{Z-ambn AS¡w sNbvXn-cn-¡p¶

26


_o-\m-Wv. temI-sa-¼m-Sp-apÅ tkmb-_o³ ]mS§-fn 52 iX-am-\-¯nepw Pn.-Fw. tkmb-_o³ C\-§-fmWv Irjn-sN-¿p-¶Xv F¶-dn-bp-t¼mÄ Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS kzoIm-cyX \ap-¡q-ln-¡mw. Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS hnkvXr-Xn-bpsS Imcy-¯n tkmb-_o-\n\p sXm«p-]n-dsI Pn.-Fw. tNmf-hpw, AXn\pw ]nd-In ]cp-¯nbpw \n¡p-¶p. 2009se Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS hnkvXr-Xn-bpsS IW¡v ]«nI 1 sImSp-¯n-cn-¡p-¶p. ]«nI 1. 2009se Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS hnkvXrXn hnf

\¼À

1 2 3 4 5 6

hnkvXrXn (an. slIvSÀ)

tkmb-_o³ tNmfw ]cp¯n It\me (I-Sp-Ip-hÀ¤w) jpKÀ _oäv ]¸mb

sam¯w Irjn-bpsS iX-am\w

69.2 41.7 16.1 6.4

52 31 12 5

0.5 <0.1

<1 <1

Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ kmt¦-XnIhnZybpw KpW-tZm-j-§fpw

(A-h-ew_w þ ISAAA dnt¸mÀ«v, 2009)

27

hnhn[ ImÀjn-Im-h-iy-§Ä¡mbn Dcp-¯n-cns¨-Sp-¡p¶ hnf-I-fnÂ, If-\m-in-\n-I-f-Sn-¨mepw \in-¨p-t]m-Im¯ Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fmWv {]Y-a-Øm\¯p \n¡p-¶-Xv. tkmb-_o³ ]mS-§-fnse If-Isf \in-¸n-¡m³ If-\m-in\n {]tbm-Kn-¡pt¼mÄ If-IÄam{Xw \in-¡p-Ibpw Pn.-Fw. tkmb-_o³ sNSn-IÄ c£-s¸-Sp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. If-\n-b-{´-W-¯n\p IÀjIsc Gsd klm-bn¡p¶ Hcp kmt¦-Xn-I-hn-Zy-bm-Wn-Xv. Pn.-Fw. tkmb-_o-\n-s\-t¸mse If-\m-in-\n-Isf sNdp¡p¶ tNmfw, ISp-Iv, ]cp-¯n, jpKÀ_o-äv, BÂ^mÂ^m F¶n-h-bpsS Pn.-Fw. C\-§fpw e`y-am-Wv. temI¯v BsI Irjn-sN-¿-s¸-Sp¶ Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fn 62 iX-am-\-hpw If-\m-in-\nIsf sNdp-¡p¶ Irjn-bn-\-§-fmWv Irjn-sN-¿s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. C´y-bn hb-ep-I-fn Irjn-sN-¿m³ A\paXn e`n-¨n-«p-Å- H-tc-sbmcp hnf _n.-Sn. ]cp-¯nbm-Wv. _kn-Ãkv Xpdn³P-b³knkv (Bacillus thuringiensis) F¶ _mIvSo-cn-b-bn-epÅ Po\mWv _n.-Sn. Po³. "ss{I' Po\p-I-sf¶mWv Chsb imkv{Xo-b-ambn hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. _n.-Sn. Po\pIÄ Dev]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶ _n.-Sn. hnjw Nne {]tXyI IoS-§sf sImÃm³ {]m]vXn-bp-Å-Xm-Wv. _mIvSocn-b-bnÂ\n-¶pÅ _n.-Sn. Po\ns\ssPh-km-t¦XnI hnZy-bn-eqsS hnf-s¨-Sn-I-fn-te¡v amäp-t¼mÄ _n.-Sn. hnf-s¨-Sn-IÄ ]nd-hn-sb-Sp-¡p-¶p. _n.-Sn. sNSn-IÄ Ah-bpsS kky-`m-K-§-fn _n.-Sn. hnjw Dev]m-Zn-¸n¨v IoS-§-fpsS B{I-a-Ws¯ {]Xn-tcm-[n-¡p-¶p. alntIm F¶ I¼-\n-bmWv C´y-bn-emZyw _n.-Sn. ]cp-¯n-b-n\-§sf It¼m-f-¯n-se-¯n-¨Xv. C´y-bn-en-t¸mÄ At\Iw I¼-\n-IÄ _n.-Sn. ]cp-¯n-bpsS hn¯p-ev]m-Z\hnX-cW cwK-¯p­v. 2002-emWv C´y-bn _n.-Sn. ]cp-¯n-bn-\-§fpsS Irjn¡v BZy-ambn A\p-aXn \ÂIn-b-Xv. AXn-\p-tijw _n.-Sn. ]cp-¯n-b-n\-§Ä D]-tbmKn-¡p¶ IÀj-I-cpsS F®w hÀjw {]Xn Gdn-hsabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

cn-I-bm-Wv. C´y-bnse ]cp¯n Ir-jn-¸m-S-§fpsS 80 iX-am-\-¯nepw _n.-Sn. ]cp-¯n-bn-\-§Ä BWv hnf-bp-¶-Xv. 2002 shdpw 50,000 slIvSÀ Øe¯mbncp¶p _n.-Sn. ]cp¯n F¦n 2009 CXv 8.4 Zi-e£w. slIvSÀ Bbn DbÀ¶p. C´y-bn kzIm-cy-hn-¯p-I-¼-\n-IÄs¡m¸w kÀ¡mÀ Øm]-\-§fpw _n.-Sn. ]cp-¯n-b-\§sf Dcp-¯n-cn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn ]¦p hln-¡p¶p. If-\m-in-\n-I-sfbpw IoS-§-sfbpw sNdp¡p¶ hnf-I-tfm-sSm¸w Chsb c­n-s\bpw Htct]mse sNdp-¡p¶ C\-§-fp-ap-­v. sshdkv tcmK-§sf sNdp-¡p¶ Pn.-Fw. hnf-Ifpw [mcm-fambn Irjn- s N- ¿ - s ¸- S p- ¶ p. IoS- t cm- K §Ät]mse IÀj-Isc hnj-an-¸n-¡p¶ eh-Wm[nIyw, hcĨ, s]Å-s¡-«v, DbÀ¶ NqSv, aªv XpS-§nb {]Xn-Iq-e-L-S-I-§sf {]Xn-tcm-[n¡p¶ Pn.-Fw. C\-§-fpsS ]co-£-W-§fpw Ht«sd \S-¡p-¶p. tIm«-bs¯ C´y³ dºÀ Kth-jW-tI-{µ-¯n Dcp-¯n-cn-s¨-Sp¯ Pn.-Fw. dºÀ ]co-£-W-§Ä¡mbn X¿m-dm-bn-¡-gn-ªp. dº-dnsâ Dev]m-Z-\-£-a-Xsb _m[n-¡p¶ ]«-a-c¸v, hcĨ F¶n-hsb {]Xn-tcm-[n-¡m³ Pn.-Fw. dº-dn-\mIpw F¶mWv {]Xo-£. {]Xn-Iq-e-km-l-N-cy-§sf AXn-Po-hn-¡p¶ Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄs¡m¸w DbÀ¶ t]mj-I-aq-eyapÅ Pn.-Fw. hnf-Ifpw krjn-¡-s¸-«n-«p-­v. t]mj-I-¡p-d-hn-s\-Xn-sc-bpÅ Kth-j-W-^-eambn krjvSn-¡-s¸« kphÀ® s\Ãv (Golden rice) Gsd {i² ]nSn-¨p-]-äp-I-bp-­m-bn. _mIvSo-cn-bbnÂ\n- ¶ pw, Umt^m- U n F¶ ]qs¨- S nbnÂ\n¶pw "hnä-an³ F'bpsS \nÀ½n-Xn-¡m-h-iyamb Po\p-Isf amän-sb-Sp¯v s\Âs¨-Sn-bn-te¡v k¶n-th-in-¨-t¸mÄ hnä-an³ F kar-²-amb kphÀ® s\Ãp-­m-bn. Ct¦m t]m{Sn-¡-kv, ]oäÀ t_bÀ F¶o F¶o imkv{X-Ú-cm-bn-cp¶p tKmÄU³ s\Ãnsâ krjvSn-bn apJy-]¦p hln¨- h À. ]mh- s ¸- « - h - c psS apJy- ` - £ - W - a mb Acnbn "hnäm-an³ F' IqSn tNÀ¯v AÔ-Xbn \n¶v Ahsc tamNn-¸n-¡pI F¶-Xm-bncp¶p Cu imkv{X-Ú-cpsS e£yw. F¶m ]e-hn[ Imc-W-§-fm kphÀ® s\Ãv C¶pw IÀj-I-h-b-ep-I-fn-te-s¡-¯n-bn-«n-Ã. 2009 IW¡p{]Imcw Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ Gä-hp-a[nIw Irjn-sN-¿-s¸-Sp-¶Xv Ata-cn-¡-bn-em-Wv 64


Zi-e£w slIvSÀ Øe-¯v. c­mw Øm\w {_ko-en-\mWv, 21.4 Zi-e£w slIvSÀ. sXm«p]n- d sI AÀPâo- \ bpw \memw- Ø m- \ ¯v C´ybpw \n¡p-¶p. hnhn-[-cm-Py-§-fnse Pn.Fw. hnf-I-fpsS hnkvXrXn ]«nI 2 sImSp-¯ncn-¡p-¶p. ]«nI 2. 2009 hnhn[ cmPy-§-fnse Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS hnkvXrXn cmPyw

Ata-cn¡ {_ko AÀPâo\ C´y I\U ssN\ ]cmtKz sXt¡ B{^n¡ DdptKz s_mfo-hnb ^nen-ss¸³kv

hnkvXrXn (Zi-e£w slIvSÀ)

64.0 21.4 21.3 8.4 8.2 3.7 2.2 2.1 0.8 0.8 0.5

(A-h-ew_w þ ISAAA dnt¸mÀ«v, 2009)

(tUm. kn.-BÀ FÂkn shÅm-\n-¡c tlmÀ«n¡Ä¨-d tImtf-Pn kky {]P-\\ hn`mKw s{]m^k-dm-Wv.)

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ kmt¦-XnIhnZybpw KpW-tZm-j-§fpw

DbÀ¶ IoS-tcmK {]Xn-tcm-[-ti-jn,- I-f-\min\n {]Xn-tcm-[-ti-jn, DbÀ¶ `£y-aq-eyw, {]Xn-Iqe kml-N-cy-§sf sNdp-¡p-hm-\pÅ Ignhv F¶n- § s\hnh- n [- § - f mb Bh- i y§Ä¡p-th­n \nÀ½n¨ Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ temIsa-¼mSpw hym]n-¡p-t¼mÄXs¶ Ah-s¡-Xn-scbpÅ hmZ-§fpw Db-cp-I-bm-Wv. CXn P\n-X-Iam-ä-hn-Zy-bn-eqsS krjn-Sn-s¨-Sp-¡p¶ ]pXn-b-Xcw hnf-s¨-Sn-IÄ Poh-Pm-e-§-fpsS Btcm-Ky-¯n\pw {]Ir-Xn¡pw `oj-Wn-bp-bÀ¯p-¶p-sh¶ Btcm]Ww ià-am-Wv. ]co-£-W-im-e-bn _n.-Sn. tNmf-s¨-Sn-I-fpsS ]qs¼mSn ]pc-«nb Ce-IÄ `£n¨ \ncp-]-{Z-hn-I-fmb samWmÀ¡v ie-`-]p-gp¡-fn Nne-Xnsâ hfÀ¨ apc-Sn-¡p-¶-Xm-bpw, aäp NneXv N¯p-t]m-Ip-¶-Xmbpw Btcm-]-W-apbv¶p. XpSÀ¶v Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fp-bÀ¯p¶ BtcmKy ]mcn-Øn-XnI {]iv\-§-sf-]-än-bpÅ Ht«sd ]T-\-§Ä \S-¶p. Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fnÂ\n¶pÅ `£y-h-kvXp-¡Ä Ign¨ Fen-I-fn Ipsdsb®w N¯p-t]m-b-Xm-bpw, aäp Nne-Xnsâ Bami-b-`n-¯n-I-fn Ipcp-¡Ä {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp-¶XmbpapÅ hnhmZ ]T-\-dn-t¸mÀ«pw h¶p. Ch icn-bm-sW-¦nepw AsÃ-¦nepw Pn.-Fw. `£y-hkvXp-¡Ä IÀi-\-amb BtcmKy kpc£m ]cntim-[-\-IÄ¡v hnt[-b-v. Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ {]Ir-Xnbn-te-ev]n-¡p¶ {]Xym-Lm-X-§-sf-]-d-dnbpw hniZ-amb ]T-\-§Ä Bh-iy-amWv. AXn-\m IÀi\-amb ]co-£-W-\n-co-£-W-§Ä¡pw, ]T-\§Ä¡pw, hne- b n- c p- ¯ - e p- I Ä¡pw tijw \nÀt±mjIc-am-sW¶p sXfn-bp¶ Pn.-Fw.- hn-fIsf am{Xsa Irjn-bn-S-§-fn-te-s¡-¯n-¡p-I-bpffp F¶ \b-amWv Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS ]co-£-W¯n-teÀs¸-«n-cn-¡p¶ an¡ cmPy-§fpw ]n³Xp-Scp-¶-Xv. Hcn-¡Â Irjn-¡mbn A\p-aXn \ÂInsb-¦n-epw, ]n¶oSv {]Ir-Xn¡pw Poh-Pm-e-§-epsS Btcm-Ky-¯n\pw `oj-Wn-bp-s­¶p sXfn-ª-Xn\m A¯cw Pn.-Fw. hnf-Isf Irjn-bn-S-§-

fnÂ\n¶v \nbaw aqew ]n³h-en¨ Ncn-{Xhpw ]e cmPy-§-fn-ep-ap-­v. Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS ]co-£-W-¯n\pw Irjn¡papÅ A\p-a-Xn-¡p-ambn C´y-bnepw \nb-a§Ä D­v. 1986se ]cn-ØnXn kwc-£W BIvSn\p Iogn "Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fp-sSbpw kq£vam-Wp-¡-fp-sSbpw Dev]m-Z-\w, D]-tbm-Kw, Ib-äp-a-Xn, Cd-¡p-a-Xn, kw`-cWw F¶n-h¡v amÀ¤-\nÀt±iw' \ÂIp¶ {]am-W-tcJ 1989 \nehnÂh-¶p. tZio-b-X-e-¯n C´y-bn aq¶p hnZ-KvZ-k-an-Xn-I-fmWv Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS ]cn-£-W-§-fpw, Irjn-bpsS A\p-a-Xnbpw \nb{´n-¡p-¶-Xv. P\n-X-I-amä Un.-F³.-F. D]-tZ-iI kanXn Pn.-Fw.- hn-f-I-fpsS ]co-£-W-§-fn -{]tXy-In¨v Ah-bpsS kpc-£n-XXz {]iv\-§-fn \nÀt±iw \ÂIp¶ Hcp kan-Xn-bm-Wv. C´y-bn \nb-{´nX kml-N-cy-§-fn Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS ]co-£-W-§-fpw, P\n-X-I-amä ]co-£-W-§fpw \nb-{´n-¡p-¶Xv BÀ.-kn.-Pn.-Fw. (dnhyp I½nän Hm¬ P\-änIv am\n-¸p-te-j³) F¶ kan-XnbmWv. Cu kanXn {]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶Xv ]cn-Øn-Xnþ-h\a{´m-e-b-¯nsâ Iogn-em-Wv. Pn.-C.-F.-kn. (P-\-änIv F©n-\o-b-dnwMv A{]q-h I½n-än-bmWv P\n-X-I-hn-f-I-fpsS Btcm-Ky-]m-cn-Øn-XnI {]iv\-§-sf-]-ddn A´n-aambn hne-bn-cp-¶p¶ kan-Xn. kq£vam-Wp-¡-fp-sSbpw Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsSbpw hym]-I-amb coXn-bn-epÅ ]co-£-W-¯n\pw, Irjn¡pw A\p-aXn \ÂtI-­Xv Cu kanXn-bm-Wv. taev]-dª tZiob kan-Xn-IÄ¡p ]pdsa P\n-X-I-amä ]co-£-W-§Ä \S-¯p¶p Hmtcm Kth-j-W-tI-{µ-¯nepw Øm]-\-¯nepw ssPhkp-c-£n-XXz I½nän (Institutional Biosafety Committee) cq]o-I-cn¨p {]hÀ¯n-¡-Ww. CXn\p]p-dsa P\nX-I-amä ]co-£-W-§sf \nb-{´n-¡p-¶-Xn-\pw, \nco-£n-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-ambn FÃm PnÃ-I-fn-epw, kwØm-\-§-fnepw kan-Xn-IÄ D­m-I-W-sa¶pw \nbaw A\p-im-kn-¡p-¶p. C§s\taÂ]-dª kan-Xn-I-fpsS hni-Z-ambn ]cn-£W \nco-£-W§Ä¡pw, hne-bn-cp-¯-ep-IÄ¡pw tij-amWv Pn.Fw. hnf-Isf IÀj-I-h-b-ep-I-fn-te-s¡-¯n-¡Wtam th­tbm F¶v C´y Xocp-am-\n-¡p-¶-Xv. IoS-tcm-K-§-tfm-Spw, If-I-tfm-Spw,- {]-Xn-Iq-ekm-l-N-cy-§-tfmSpw aÃ-Sn¨p \S-¯p¶ Irjnbn IÀj-I\p XpW-tb-Im³ ]e-t¸mgpw Po.Fw. hnf-IÄ¡m-Ipw. Pn.-Fw. hnf-IÄ temI-sa¼mSpw hf-sc-th-Kw -{]-N-cn-¡p-¶Xpw C¡m-c-W¯mÂX-s¶. F¶m bmsXmcp \nb-{´-W-hp-anÃmsX Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fsS Irjn¡v A\p-aXn \ÂIp-¶Xpw A_-²-am-Wv. Ipä-a-ä-co-Xn-bn-epw, kp-Xm-cy-ambpw Pn.-Fw. hnf-I-fpsS ]co-£-W-\nco-£-W-§Ä \S-¯p-I-bpw, hne-bn-cp-¯p-Ibpw sNbvXv, BtcmKy ]mcn-Øn-XnI cwK-§-fn bmsXmcp tZmjhpw hcp-¯p-¶n-söv Dd-¸pÅ Pn.-Fw. hnf-Isf am{Xw Irjn-¡mbn AwKo-I-cn¡p¶ kao-]-\-am-bn-cn¡pw C¶s¯ kml-N - cy¯n Gsd A\p-tbm-Pyw.

28


Photo : JP

Imem-hØm amähpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\hpw

Imem-hØm amähpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\hpw

khnXm Bâ-Wn, kn. tPmÀÖv tXmak

29

hm-kn-I-fpsS \ne-\n-ev]n-\p-Xs¶ `ojWn ¯n\v hgn sh¡p-¶p-­v. lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I-§DbÀ¯n- s ¡m- ­ n- c n- ¡ p¶ alm- h n]- ¯ mWv fpsS krjvSn-bn GXm­v 90 iX-am-\-¯nImem-h-Ø-bn ASn-¡-Sn-bp-­m-Ip¶ amä-§Ä. tâbpw D¯-c-hm-ZnXzw a\p-jy-\p-X-s¶! A´-coImem-hØm hyXn-bm-\-§Ä A\p-`-h-s¸-Sp-¶- £-¯ - nse lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I-§-fpsS Afhv Xnsâ {]m[m\ImcWw “ BtKm-f-Xm-]\w” F¶ DbÀ¶p- X s¶ \n¶m BtKm- f - X m- ] - \ ne {]Xn-`mkw sIm­m-sW¶v 2007 ]pd-¯n-d-¡nb C\nbpw Db-cpw. 2100 -B-Ip-t¼m-tg¡pw BtKm-fsFIy-cmjv{S k`-bpsS CâÀ Kh¬saâ Xm-]-\ne 1.1°C apX 6.4°C hsc hÀ²n-¡m-\n-S-bp]m\ Hm¬ ss¢aäv tN©v” AYhm IPCCbpsS s­-¶mWv {]h-N-\w. ImÀ_¬ Utbm-Ivsskdnt¸mÀ«v Nq­n-¡m-«p-¶p. Db-cp¶ BtKmf Xm]- Un-tâbpw aäv lcn-X-Krl hmX-I-§-fp-sSbpw \ne Zpc-´-§-fpsS Hcp ]c-¼-c-Xs¶ krjvSn- Afhv \n{´n¨p \nÀt¯-­-Xnsâ Bh-iy-I-X¡m³ km²y- X - b p- ­ v . \nb- { ´- W - a n- à m¯ bmWv CXv kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. t^mkn CÔ-\hcĨbpw, Imew sXäp¶ agbpw, aªp-cp-Iepw, §-fpsS Pze\w hgn ]pd-t¯¡p hnSp¶ shÅ-s¸m-¡hpw, aÁp {]IrXn Zpc-´-§fpw, ImÀ_¬ Utbm-Ivssk-Uv BWv CXn apJyw. ImÀjnI XIÀ¨bpw, Ch -aq-e-apÅ A`-bmÀ°n `qan-bpsS Imem-hØ BXy-´n-I-ambn \nÀ®{]hm-l-§-fp-sams¡ bmYmÀ°y-am-bm \mw bn-¡p-¶Xv kutcmÀÖ-am-Wv. kqcy-{]-Imiw Ipg-ª-Xp-X-s¶. 1900\p tijw `qan-bpsS Xm]- `qan-bpsS D]-cn-X-es¯ NqSm-¡n-b-Xn-\p-tijw \ne 0.74° I­v hÀ²n-¨n«p­v. 1995-þ2010 Imew XncnsI A´-co-£-¯n-te¡v t]mhp-¶p. lcn-Xam{Xw ]cn-K-Wn-¨m 0.5°C hÀ²-\-hm-Wp-Å-Xv. Kr-l-hm-X-I-§Ä CXn Iqsd Xm]w BKn-cWw A´-co-£-¯nse ImÀ_¬ Utbm-Ivssk- sN¿p-¶p. -CXv Hcp ]cn-[n-hsc \ap¡v KpW-I-c-amUnsâ Af-hm-Is« Ignª 250 hÀj-¯n-\p- Wv. `qan XWp-¯p-dªp t]mIm-Xn-cn-¡p-¶Xv Ån km[m-cW A´-co-£-¯n-epÅ 280 Zi-e- lcn-X-Kr-l-§-fpsS C¯-c-samcp Bh-cWw DÅ£-¯n-sem-cwiw F¶ Af-hn \n¶pw 379 Zi-e- Xp-sIm-­m-Wv. ]t£, ]cn-[n-bn IqSp-X lcnX-Kr-l-hm-X-I-§Ä `qan Np«p-]-gp-¡p-¶-Xn-\n-S-bm£-¯n-sem-cwiw Bbn DbÀ¶p. lcn-X-Krlw” AYhm “ {Ko³lu-kn ImÀ_¬ Utbm-Ivssk-Un\p ]pdsa ss\{S- ¡pw. Hcp “ P³ HmIvssk-Up-IÄ, t¢mtdm-þ-^vfqtdm ImÀ_- se ]m\-ep-IÄ sN¿p¶ [À½-amWv Cu hmX-IWp-IÄ, sslt{Um-þ-^vfqtdm ImÀ_-Wp-IÄ, §Ä sN¿p-¶-Xv. AXp-sIm-­mWv Cu {]Xn-`maotY³, \ocmhn F¶n-hbpw BtKm-f-Xm-]-\- ks¯ lcn-X-Kr-l {]-`mhw AYhm {Ko³lukv sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse


Photo : JP

Imem-hØm amähpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\hpw

C^IvSväv” F¶pw AXn\p Imc-W-amb tIymt«m DS-¼Sn lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I-§-fpsS hmX-I-§sf lcn-X-Krl hmX-I-§Ä F¶pw ]d- A´-co-£- KmVX Ipd¡phm\pÅ temI cmbp-¶-Xv. jv{S-§fpsS XmXv]-cy-¯n \n¶p-­m-b-XmW¶v I­phtÃm? hyh-km-bnI cmPy-§Ä ]pd¯p-hn-Sp¶ lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I-§-fpsS {]XntIymt«m DS-¼-Sn-bpsS {]m[m\yw ioÀj Afhv hnIkzc Ahn-I-knX cmPy-§-fp-tSlcn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I-§-fpsS A´-cn-£-Km-VX Xn-t\-¡mÄ ]Xn³a-S§v IqSp-X-em-Wv. DZm-l-cWa\p-jy³ hnNm-cn-¨m Ipd-¡m³ Ign-bp-sa¶ ¯n-\v, Hc-ta-cn-¡³ ]uc³ icm-icn 20 S¬ Nn´ D­m-bn«v A[nIw Ime-am-bn-«n-Ã. 1988- ImÀ_¬ Utbm-IvsskUv DÕÀÖ\w \S-¯pemWv sFIy-cmjv{S k`bpw temI Imem-hØm t¼mÄ C´y-¡m-c-tâXv shdpw 1.67 S¬ am{X-amkwL-S-\bpw tNÀ¶v IPCC (CâÀ\m-j-W-\ Wv. tIymt«m DS-¼Sn {]Imcw hyh-km-bnI cmPy]m\ Hm¬ ss¢aäv tN©v) Øm]n-¡p-¶-Xv. §Ä¡p lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I-§-fpsS A´-co-£1992 \S¶ `ua D¨-tIm-Sn-bn sFIy-cm-jv{S- ¯nse Afhp Ipd-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ {][m\ D¯-chm-ZnXzw Npa-¯p-Ibpw Ahsb ]«nI I cmPy-§k` Imem-hØm hyXnbm\IqSnbmtemN\IÄ” (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, fm-bpw, aäp cmPy-§sf ]«n-I-bn-Xc cmPy-§fmbpw Xncn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶p. 2005  \ne-hn h¶ UNFCC) \S¯pIpbp­mbn. Zqc-hym-]I {]XymCu DS-¼-Sn-bpsS H¶mw L«w 2012 Ah-km-\nLm-X-§Ä Df-hm-¡p¶ Nne [mc-W-IÄ¡v Cu ¡pw. {]kvXpX DS-¼Sn {]-Imcw ]«nI I bnepÅ I¬sh³j³ cq]w \ÂIn. 1994 50 cmPy-§Ä cmPy§ Ä Ah-cpsS sam¯w lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-XI Cu [mc-W-IÄ AwKo-I-cn-¨-tXmsS Ch \nehn h¶p. 1997 P¸m-\nse tIymt«m-\-K-c- DÕÀÖ\w Gähpw IpdªXv 1990 D­m-bn-cp¯n _Ô-s¸« cmPy-§-fpsS aq¶m-as¯ IqSn- ¶- X nsâ 5.2 iX- a m\w I­v 2008- þ 2012 bn-cp¸v \S-¶p. UNFCCsb \nb-a-]-c-ambn km[y-X- Imebfhn Ipd-bv¡p-hm³ _m[y-Ø-cm-Wv. bpÅ Hcp DS-¼-Sn-bm-¡pI F¶-Xm-bn-cp¶p Dt±- F¶m ]«n- I - b n- e n- à m¯ cmPy- § - f psS iw. Cu kt½-f\w Imem-hØm amä-hp-ambn DÕÀÖ\w XmcXtay\Ipd-hm-b-Xn-\mepw Ah _Ô-s¸« hnj-b-§fn Hcp \mgn-I-¡-Ãm- hnI-k-\-¯nsâ ]mX-bn-em-b-Xn-\mepw Ahsb Cu am\-Z-Þ-¯n \n¶pw Hgn-hm-¡n-bn-«p-­v. sW¶v ]d-bmw. tIymt«m DS-¼Sn {][m-\-ambpw aq¶p {]hÀ¯UNFCC F¶ [mc-Wm-]{Xw BZy-ambn X¿m-dm- \-§-fmWv hn`-mh\w sNbvX-Xv. bXv 1992epw AwKo-I-cn-¡-s¸-«Xv 1994epw 1. t^mkn DuÀÖw {Iam-Xo-X-ambn D]BsW¶v kqNn-¸n-¨p-htÃm? CXv FÃm temI-cmtbm-Kn-t¡-­n-h-cp¶ kmt¦-XnI hnZyjv{S-§fpw AwKo-I-cn-t¡-­ Hcp Icm-dnsâ cq]I-fnse k_-vkn-Un-IÄ {ItaW Ipd-¨p¯n-em-b-Xv 1997 BWv. XpSÀ¶v CXv {]m_-eysIm-­p-h-cn-I. ¯n hcm³ ho­pw ka-b-sa-Sp-¯p. 2005 emWv 2. ImÀ_¬ _lnÀK-a\w Gä-hp-a-[nIw IpdtIymt«m IcmÀ \ne-hn hcp-¶-Xv. F¶m an¡ ¡p¶ Xc-¯n-epÅ _Z kmt¦-XnIhnZytemI-cm-Py-§fpw AwKo-I-cn¨ Cu temI-I-cmÀ IÄ (Green technologies) kzoI-cn-¡p-I. Ata-cn-¡³ sFIy-\m-Sp-IÄ- C-tX-hsc AwKo-Icn-¨n-«n-Ã! Btfm-lcn DÕÀÖ-\-¯nepw BsI 3. ImÀ_¬ DÕÀÖ- \ - ¯ n\v \nIpXn DÕÀÖ-\-¯nepw Gähpw ap¼n \nev¡p-¶Xv GÀs¸-Sp-¯p-I. Ata-cn-¡-bm-W-t¶mÀ¡-Ww. BsI DÕÀÖ-\Npcp-¡-¯nÂ, tIymt«m DS-¼-Sn-bnse e£y¯nsâ 20 iX-am\w kw`m-h-\bpw Ah-cp-tS-Xm- §Ä ssIh-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v H¶mw-]-«nI cmPy§Ä Wv. apS´³ \ymb§Ä ]dªv sIm­v h³ _m²yX Gsä-Sp-¡-Ww. CXnsâ Nnehp amdn\n¶ Ata-cn¡ H¸p-sh-¨n-«n-sÃ-¦nepw A´m- am{X-aà {]iv\w; CXp-f-hm-¡p¶ cmjv{Sob cmjv{S k½À±s¯ XpSÀ¶v Ct¸mÄ \S-¡p¶ {]Xym- L m- X - § fpw IW- ¡ n- s e- S p- ¡ - W w. Imem-hØm NÀ¨-I-fn kPo-h-ambn CS-s¸-Sp- tIymt«m DS-¼Sn C¯cw hnI-knX cmPy-§Ä¡v ¶p-­v. henb km¼¯nI cmjv{Sob {]Xym-Lm-X-

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

30


§fnÃmsX Ah-cpsS ImÀ-_¬ \yq\o-I-cW e£yw ssIh-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v klm-b-I-c-ambn aq¶p {]hÀ¯\ X{´-§-Ä Bhnjvv-I-cn-¨n-«p-­v. 4A´m-cmjv{S ImÀ-_¬ DÕÀP-\-hym-]mcw (International Emission Trading,IET) 4kwbpà \nÀh-lWw (Joint Implementation, JI) 4kwip² hnI-k\X{´w (Clean Development Mechanism, CDM) taÂ]dª {]hÀ¯\ X{´-§Ä \nb-{´nX ImÀ_¬ It¼mf {]hÀ¯\ X{´-§-fmbn Dcp¯n-cn-bp-Ibpw sNbvXp. ImÀ_¬ It¼m-f-¯nse hn]-W-\-¯n\v Hcp s]mXp GIIw ImWp-¶-Xn-\mbn FÃm lcn-X-Krl-hm-X-I-§-tfbpw ImÀ_¬ Utbm-IvsskUn\p kam-\-ambn (CO2 Xpey-X) ]cn-K-Wn-¡p-¶p. lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-X-I-§-fpsS Xmc-Xßy ]T-\-¯n\mbn BtKmf Xm]\tijn (Global Warming Potential, GWP) F¶ Af-hp-tIm D]-tbm-Kn¨v ImÀ_¬U-tbm-IvsskUv Xpey-X-I-fmbn amäp¶p.- D-Zm-l-c-W-¯n\v ImÀ_¬ Utbm-IvsskUnsâ Pn.-U-»n-bp.-]n. 1 F¶pw antY-sâXp 21 F¶pw ]d-ªm AÀ°w, antYsâ 1 X·m{X sIm­pÅ ImÀ-_¬ aen\oIcWw ImÀ_¬ UtbmIvssk-Unsâ 21 X·m-{X-IÄ sIm­pÅ ImÀ-_¬ aen\oIcW¯n\v kam-\amWv F¶m-Wv.

Imem-hØm amähpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\hpw

A´m-cmjv{S DÕÀP-\-hym-]mcw (IET)

31

A´m-cmjv{S DÕÀÖ\ hym]m-c-¯n D]tbm-Kn-¡p¶ ImÀ_¬ s{IUn-äp-Isf \o¡n-sh¡-s¸« bqWn-äp-IÄ (Assigned Amount Units) F¶p ]d-bp-¶p. Hcp cmPy-¯nsâ DÕÀÖ\ \yq\o-IcW e£y-§sf \o¡n-sh-bv¡-s¸« bqWn-äp-Ifmbn ]cn-K-Wn-¡p¶p. IET bpsS ASn-Øm-\¯n Hcp hnI-knX cmPy-¯n\v Ah-cpsS ImÀ_¬ DÕÀÖ\ \yq\o-I-cW e£yw ssIh-cn-¡p¶Xn\mbn asämcp hnI-knX cmPy¯nsâ \o¡n-h-bv¡-s¸« bqWn-äp-IÄ hm§m-hp¶-Xm-Wv.

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

kwbpà \nÀÆ-lWw (JI) H¶mw ]«n-I-bnÂs¸« Hcp hnI-knX cmPy¯n\v asämcp H¶mw ]«n-I-bnÂs¸« hnI-knX cmPy-¯n Nne-hp-Ip-dª DÕÀÖ\ \yq\o-IcW ]²-Xn-IÄ Bhn-jv¡-cn-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. CXn \n¶p-ap-­m-Ip¶ DÕÀÖ\ \yq\o-IcW bqWn-äp-IÄ (Emission Reduction Units) Asæn ImÀ_¬ s{IUn-äp-IÄ ]²Xn Bhn-jv¡cn- ¨ cmPy- ¯ n\p hm§p- I bpw Ah- c psS DÕÀÖ\ \yq\o-I-cW e£yw ssIh-cn-¡pIbpw sN¿mw. ta ]dª c­p {]hÀ¯\ X{´-§Ä hnI-knX cmPy-§Ä¡p am{Xta _m[-I-am-hp-Ibp-Åq.

kwip² hnI-k\X{´w (CDM) hnI-kn-X-cm-Py-§Ä hnI-kz-c-þ-A-hn-I-knX cmPy-§fpambn _Ôs¸«p \S¸nem¡p¶ Hcp ]²XnbWnXv. lcnXKrl-hm-X-I-§-fpsS A´co-£-¯nse Afhp Ipd-bv¡p-¶-Xn-\mbn c­p amÀ¤-§-fmWv kzoIcn¡mhp¶X.v H¶v,v lcn-X-Krl-hm-X-I-§sf kky-§-fp-]-tbm-Kn¨v BKn-cWw sN¿p-I (Carbon sequestration), c­v, lcn-X-Kr-lhm-X-I-§-fpsS DÕÀÖ\w Ipd-¡p-I. kn.-Un.-Fw.]²XnbneqsS hnI-kn-X-cm-Py-§Ä hnI-kz-c-þ-A-hn-I-knX cmPy-§Ä¡p {]kvXpX amÀ¤-§-fpsS ]²Xn Bhn-jvI-c-W-¯n\v km¼¯nI kmt¦-XnI klmbw \ÂIp-¶p. {]Xn^e-ambn hnI-kzc Ahn-I-knX cmPy-§Ä hnIknX-cm-Py-§Ä¡p ImÀ_¬ DÕÀÖ\ \yq\o-IcW s{IUn-äp-IÄ \evIp-¶p. XXv^-e-ambn hnIknX cmPy- § Ä¡p Ah- c psS tIymt«m DÕÀÖ\ \yq\o-I-cW e£yw X«n-¡n-gn-¡phm³ km[n-¡pw. kn.-Un.-Fw.- ]²XnbneqsS DXv]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶ ImÀ_¬ s{IUn-äp-Isf kÀ«nss^Uv Fan-j³ bqWnäp-IÄ (CER) F¶mWp ]d-bp-I. Hcp S¬ ImÀ_¬ Utbm-IvsskUv A´-co-£-¯n-te¡p ]pdw XÅp-¶Xp Ipd-¡pItbm AYhm BKn-cWw sN¿p-Itbm BsW¦n AXn\p Hcp km£y-]{Xw \evIp-¶p. AXn-


Imem-hØm amähpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\hpw

s\-bmWv kÀ«n-ss^Uv Fan-j³ dnU-£³ bqWn-äp-IÄ F¶p ]d-bp-¶Xv. kn.-Un.-Fw ]²- X n- I Ä kn.- U n.- F w FIvkn- I yq- « ohv t_mÀUnse A[n-Im-cn-I-fpsS taÂt\m«-¯n\p hnt[-b-am-Wv. ]²Xn \nÀÆ-l-W-¯n\p aq¶p \n_-Ô-\-I-fp-­v. 4A\p-_-ÔX (additionality) : lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-XI-§-fpsS \yq\o-I-cWw AsÃ-¦n BKn-cW ]²Xn hgn XS-b-s¸-Sp¶ ImÀ_¬ ssU-tbmIvsskUv, ]²-Xn-bpsS Akm-\n-²y-¯n XSb-s¸-Sp¶ ImÀ_¬ Utbm-Ivssk-Un\p ]pdsa-bm-bn-cn-¡-Ww. 4ØncXzw (permananence) : h\-h-Xv¡-cW ]²Xn-IÄ¡p Aán-_m[ IS-¶p-I-bäw XpS-§nb {]Xn- k - Ô n- I Ä t\cn- t S- ­ n- h - c n- I - b m A¯cw ]²-Xn-I-fpsS Imem-h[n 5þ30 hÀj¯n-\p-Ån-em-Wv. AXn-\m Ah-bpsS tcJIÄ ]pXp-t¡-­-Xp-­v. 4 tNmÀ¨ (leakage) : s{]mPIvSv \S¸nem¡p- \nb-{´W hnt[b It¼mfw t¼mÄ AdnbmX kw`hn¡mhp¶ lcn-X-Kr-l\nb-{´W hnt[b It¼m-f-§-fpsS hn]hm-X-I tNmÀ¨bmWv ChsS ]cnKWn¡p¶Xv. W\X{´-§Ä tIymt«m t{]mt«m-tIm-fnsâ DZmlcW¯n\v, Hcp {]tZiw h\hev¡ t\cs¯ ]dª aq¶p {]hÀ¯\ X{´-§-fpsS cn¡p¶psh¶p IcpXI. ChnsS \n¶pw ASnØm\-¯n-em-Wv. {]kvXpX It¼m-f-¯n Hgnªp t]mhp¶hÀ asÁmcnS¯v h\w A´m-cmjv{S Xe-¯n-epÅ I¼-\n-Ifpw kÀ¡m\in¸n¨v Irjnbnd¡nbm {]tbP\anÃm- cp-amWv ImÀ_¬ s{IUnäv hn]-W-\-¯n Xmhpw. GÀs¸Sp-¶Xv. DuÀÖ £aXm ]²-Xn-IÄ, Imcy£aamb KXm-KXw, aossY³ hnapà ]²-Xn-IÄ, A\p_Ô DXv]m-Z\ ]²-Xn-IÄ XpS§n Ht«sd hnhn- ImÀ_¬ hn]-W\ FIvkvtN-©p-IÄ [-X-cw lcn-X-Kr-l-hm-XI \yq\o-I-cW AsÃHml-cn-hn-]-Wn-I-fn I¼-\n-I-fp-sS Hmlcn ¦n BKn- c W ]²- X n- I Ä kn.- U n.- F w. {Ibhn-{Ibw sN¿p-¶-Xp-t]mse ImÀ_¬ hn]]²XnbneqsS \S¸nem¡m\mhpw. W\ FIvkvtN-©p-I-fn ImÀ_¬ s{IUn-äp-IfpsS hn]-W\w \S-¡p-¶p. Xmsg ]d-bp-¶phbmWp {][m-\-s¸« A´m-cmjv{S ImÀ_¬ ImÀ_¬ It¼mfw hn]-W\ FIvkvtN-©p-I-Ä. 4Hmtcm cmPy¯n\pw tIymt«m t{]mt«m-t¡mÄ 4Nn¡mtKm ss¢aäv FIvk-vtNbv©v {]Im- c - a pÅ e£yw ssIh- c n- ¡ p- ¶ - X n\v ImÀ_¬ t{SUnwKv \S-¯m³ B\p-hm-Z-ap-­v. 4bqtdm-]y³ ss¢aäv FIvkvtNbv©v ImÀ_¬ It¼m-f-¯n C O 2 XpeyX 4\mkvtSIv OMX Itam-Unän FIvkvtNbv©v ASn- Ø m- \ - ¯ n hn]- W \w \S- ¯ mw. 4]hÀ s\IvÌv ImÀ_¬ It¼m-f-¯n D]-tbm-Kn-¡p¶ \mW- b - a mWv ImÀ_¬ s{IUn- ä v . Hcp 4Itam-Unän FIvkvtNbv©v (_m-«n-Ém-hnb) ImÀ_¬ s{IUnäv Hcp S¬ ImÀ_¬U-tbm- 4bqtdm-]y³ F\ÀPn FIvkvtNbv©v (PÀa\n) Ivssk-Unsâ DÕÀÖ-\-¯n\p kam-\-am-Wv. thÄUv _m¦v dnt¸mÀ«v {]Imcw ImÀ_¬ c­pXcw ImÀ_¬ It¼m-f-§-fmWv C¶v s{IUn-äp-IÄ Gähpw IqSp-X hm§p¶ cmPyw \ne-hn-ep-Å-Xv. bp.-sI-bpw, hnev¡p¶ cmPyw ssN\-bp-am-Wv. 4kzbw t{]cnX It¼mfw (Voluntary Market) C´ybpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\hpw 4\nb-{´W hnt[b It¼mfw (Regulatory Market) C´y-bpsS Imem-hØm hyXn-bm\hpambn _Ôs¸«v \b-cq-]o-I-cWw \S¶Xpw \S-¸n-emkzbw t{]cnX It¼mfw ¡p-¶Xpw h\w-þ-]-cn-ØnXn a{´m-e-b-am-Wv. kn.kzbw t{]cn-Xm-Sn-Øm-\-¯n-emWv C¯cw Un.-Fw. ]²-Xn-IÄ AKoIcn¡p¶Xv h\w-þ-]-cnIt¼m-f-§-fn ImÀ_¬ s{IUn-äp-I-fpsS hn]- ØnXn a{´m-e-b sk{I«dn Xeh\mbpÅ W\w \S-¡p-¶-Xv. {]kvXpX It¼m-f-¯nse \mj\ kn.-Un.-Fw. FIvknIyq«ohv BWv. ImÀ_¬ s{IUn-äp-Isf ]cn-tim-[n-¡-s¸« hnI-kn¨psIm-­n-cn¡p¶ cmPy-am-b-Xn-\m Cu DÕÀP\\yq\o- I - c Ww ( V e r i f i e d E m i s s i o n taJ-e-bn C´y¡p hf-sc-tbsd km²y-X-IÄ Reductions)F¶mWv ]d-b-p-¶-Xv. kzIm-cy-ta-J-e-I- \ne-hn-ep-­v. C´y³ Kh¬saânsâ IW¡p fmWv Cu ImÀ_¬ hn]-W\ It¼m-f-¯n {]Imcw cmPy¯v 2000-þ A[nIw kn.-Un.-Fw. ]²-Xn-IÄ \S-¸n-em-bn-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-¶p. 2012 {][m-\-ambpw GÀs¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv. BIp-t¼m-tgbv¡pw C¯cw ]²-Xn-I-fnÂ\n¶pw sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse

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\sÃmcp hcp-am\w cmPy-¯n\p {]Xo-£n-¡mw. C´y-bpsS ià-amb hyh-km-bnI ASn-¯-dbpw, AXn-hn-kvXr-X-amb kmt¦-XnI a\p-jy-hn-`hhpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\-¯n km²y-X-IÄ hÀ²n-¸n-¡p-¶p. cmPy¯p ImÀ_¬ hn]W\w \S-¯p-¶Xp Gjy-bnse BZys¯ ImÀ_¬ hn]-W\ FIvtN-bv©mb apss_ BØm-\-amb aÄ«n-I-tam-Unän FIvtN-bv©n-em-Wv.

ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\-¯nsâ KpW-h-i§fpw tZmj-§fpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\-¯n\v AXn-tâ-Xmb KpWtZm-j-h-i-§-fp-­v. Hcp {][m\ sa¨-ambn ]d-bp¶Xv Imem-h-Øm-hy-Xn-bm\ D¨-tIm-Sn-bpsS AXy-´nI e£y-§Ä kzmb-¯-am-¡p-¶-Xn\v CXv klm-bn-¡p-¶p-sh-¶-Xm-Wv. kwip² hnIk\w (kn.-Un.-Fw) \S-¸n-em-¡m³ C¯-c-samcp hn]Wn thWw. hntZ-i-aq-e-[\\nt£-]-¯nsâ km²y-X-bmWv asäm-¶v. hnI-kzc Ahn-I-knX cmPy-§-fnse kpØnc km¼-¯nI hfÀ¨¡v ImÀ_¬ hn]Wn klm-b-I-amIpw F¶ {]Xo£-bmWv asäm-¶v. sXmgn km²y-X-IÄ hÀ²n¡p-¶-Xn\pw km²y-X-bp-­v. kn.-Un.-Fw. ]²-XnI-fpsS Bhn-jv¡-c-W-¯n-eqsS hyh-km-bnI Imcy-£-a-Xbpw hÀ²n-¡pw. Npcp-¡-¯n hnIkzc cmPy-§Ä¡v ]cn-Øn-Xn-¡n-W-§p¶ ]²Xn-IÄ¡mbn hntZi aqe-[\w BIÀjn-¡m³ Ign-bp-¶p. hnI-knX cmPy-§Ä¡v Ah-cpsS C¶s¯ hnIk\ IpXn-¸n\v XS-bn-SmsX Xs¶ apt¼m«v t]mIm³ Ign-bpw. kn.-Un.-Fw.s\ FXnÀ¡p-¶-hcpw [mcm-f-ap-­v. hnI-knX cmPy-§-fnse h³ Ip¯-I-Isf Xr]vXn-s¸-Sp-¯m-\mWv CXv F¶v ]d-bp-¶-hÀ [cmfap­v. hnI-kzc Ahn-I-knX cmPy-§-fnse A\n-b-{´nX h\-h-XvI-cW ]²-Xn-IÄ hyh-kmbnI hfÀ¨sb apc-Sn-¸n-¡p¶p F¶Xv bmYmÀ°y-am-Wv. kky Ft®m¸m-Z\ ]²-Xn-I-fpsS \nÀÆ-lWw `£y kpc-£¡p `oj-Wn-bp-bÀ¯p¶p. ]²-Xn-I-fpsS \nÀÆ-l-W-Im-e-L-«-¯n D­m-Im-hp¶ A\n-b-{´nX ImÀ_¬ Utbm-

IvsskUv DÕÀÖ\w Hcp `oj-Wn-bm-Wv. X§fpsS I¼-\n-Isf ImÀ_¬ cln-X-am-¡m-\pÅ kq{X-¸-Wn-bmbn ImÀ_¬ It¼m-fs¯ ImWp¶-hcpw D­v. AXn-\m¯s¶ \nc-h[n Øm]\-§-fpw I¼\n-Ifpw BtKm-f-Xm-]-\-¯n X§Ä¡pÅ D¯-c-hm-Zn-Xz-¯n Hgn-bm³ In«nb kphÀ®m-h-kcw Bbn ImÀ_¬ It¼mfs¯ I­p. ImÀ_¬ It¼m-f-¯nsâ hfÀ¨ AXp-sIm­v Xs¶ s]s«-¶m-bn-cp-¶p. 2005 1000 tImSn tUmf-dnsâ I¨-h-S-am-bn-cp-¶psh-¦n 2006 Ign-ª-t¸m-tg¡pw hn]-Wn 3000 tImSn tUmf-dn-e-[n-I-am-bn. C\nbpw CXv hÀ²n¨p hcn-Itb DÅq. C´y³ Ip¯-I-Ifpw CsXmcp em`- I - c - a mb Ah- k - c - a m- b n- ¡ ­v ImÀ_¬ hym]m-c-¯n-te¡v Imse-Sp¯v sh¨pI-gn-ªp. C´y-bn 460 e£w tUmf-dnsâ hn¡m¯ ImÀ_¬ {IUn-äp-I-fp-s­¶v Hcp dnt¸mÀ«p ]d-bp-¶p. tImSm-\p-tImSn hÀj-§ÄsIm­p {]IrXn A[nIw hcp¶ ImÀ_-Wns\ t^mkn CÔ-\§-fmbn kq£n-¨p-sh-¨p-sh-¦nepw a\p-jy³ Cu ]cn-]m-Sn¡p `wKw hcp-¯n. ImÀ_¬ UtbmIvssk-Unsâ hÀ²\hv ]nSn¨m In«m¯ Xc¯nembn. Cu ]ß-hyq-l-¯nÂ\n¶v ]pd¯p htc-­n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. Imem-hØm amäw FÃm temI cmjv{S-§-sfbpw Hcp Xc-¯n-e-sÃ-¦n asämcp Xc-¯n _m[n-¡p-sa¶ Imcyw Ghcpw k½Xn-¡p-¶p-­v. BtKmf Xm]-\-¯n\p ImcW-amb ImÀ_¬ Utbm-Ivssk-Uns\ Xf-¡pIbpw hÀ²n-¨p-h-cp¶ amä-§sf {]Xn-tcm-[n¡p¶ Xc-¯n Irjnbpw Pohn-X-co-Xnbpw amÁpItb Xc-ap-Åq. ImÀ_¬ hn]-W\w t]mepÅ {]h-W-X-Isf `qan-bpsS A´-co-£-¯n \n¶pw ImÀ_¬ Utbm-IvsskUv Ipd-¨p-sIm-­p-h-cnI F¶ hnime ZuXy-¯nsâ `mK-ambn am{Xw ImtW-­n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. kz´w cmPy¯nsâ ImÀ-_¬ DÕÀP-\w Ipd¨p sIm­phcnI F¶ D¯chmZnXz¯n \n¶v hnInknX cmjv{S§sf Hgn¨p\nÀ¯m\mhnÃ. CXpÄs¸- s S- b pÅ hnhn[ X{´- § - f n- e qsS am{Xta Imem-h-Øm-amäw F¶ h³ hn]-¯ns\ sNdp¯p tXm¸n-¡p-hm³ Ign-bq.

ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\hpw dºdpw

Imem-hØm amähpw ImÀ_¬ hn]-W-\hpw

Hcp slIvSÀ dºÀ 21 hÀjw sIm­v 165 S¬ ImÀ_¬ - BKn-cWw sN¿p¶p F¶p dºÀ t_mÀUv hnebncp¯p¶p. CXv 605 S¬ ImÀ_¬ Utbm- I v s sk- U n\p kaamWv . AXmbXv 605 S¬ ImÀ_¬ {IUnÁv. Hcp S¬ ImÀ_¬ {IUnÁn\v 28 bqtdmbpsS IW-¡n e`n-¡m-hp¶ aqeyw 16,940 bqtdm BWv (Hcp bqtdm¡v 52 cq] {]Imcw 8.47 e£w cq]!). ]t£, 1989 Unkw_À 31 ë ap¼p­mbncp¶ tXm«§Ä¡v ImÀ_¬ {IUnÁv e`n¡pIbnÃ. Ch BhÀ¯\Irjn sNbvXmepw XssYh!

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(k-hnXm BâWn shÅm-\n-¡c tlmÀ«n-¡Ä¨-d tImtf- P n At{Km- W an _ncp- Z m- \ - ´ c _ncpZ hnZymÀ°nbpw tUm. kn. tPmÀPv tXmakv At{Km-Wan hn`mKw s{]m^-k-dp-am-Wv)

sabv-þ-Pq¬-þ-Pqsse


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