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Biofuels: from the 1st to the 2nd generation Bruno P. Jarry

Académie des technologies, Grand Palais des Champs -Élysées, Porte C, avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt, 75008 Paris http://www.academie-technologies.fr


Plan 1. 1st generation Biofuels 2. Biofuels production: the Energy vs Food debate 3. 2nd generation Biofuels: All options still open 4. Still an R&D business but moving fast 5. Conclusion: Will it be a single winner?

11/9/2010

Tel-Aviv Novembre 10th & 11th 2010

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Why Biofuels? • Fossil fuels responsible for > 55% greenhouse-gaz emissions (GIEC, 2007). •Transportation contributes for 15%, which equals to 60% of the whole Energy sector. •Between 1990 and 2004 CO2 emissions declined in EU, except for transport which increased by 25%.

•Biofuels , produced with renewable plant raw materials which have fixed CO2, could play a substantial role in diminishing the overall emissions.

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IEA Energy Technology Perspectives (2008) • Baseline ETP 2050: « Business as usual » Biomass: 2150 Mtep (9% primary energy ) Biofuels: 70 Mtep (1 – 2% of transport energy) • Act Map scenario: greenhouse-gaz emissions from Energy sector stabilized at 2005 levels Biomass: 2900 Mtep Biofuels: 15% of transport energy • Blue map scenario: GHG from energy sector divided by 2 Biomass: 3605 Mtep Biofuels: 26% 11/9/2010

Tel-Aviv Novembre 10th & 11th 2010

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1st generation Biofuels feedstocks • Ethanol and ETBE: Corn in USA Sugar cane in Brazil Wheat and sugar beet in EU Cassava in Asia

• Biodiesel and EMVH Rape and sunflower in EU Soya in USA, Brazil and Argentina Palm and jatropha oil in Asia

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Biofuels: locally produced but slowly becoming a global market • •

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Brazilian ethanol not accepted in USA (> 100% tariffs) Biodiesel in EU: 5,7 M tons used in 2009 650.000 tons imported in 2007 1,4 M tons in 2008; 2,0 M tons in 2009 from Brazil, Argentina, USA Anti-dumping claims at WTO quite succesful in 2010 with strong decrease of imports < 1% palm oil imports from Asia used for Biofuels Ethanol in Europe: 25 M hl used in 2009 40% imported, mostly from Brazil

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The 1st generation Biofuels plan in France

% PCI Target

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

1,2%

1,75%

3,5%

5,75%

6,25%

7%

% volume equivalent

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EMHV

1,3

1,9

3,8

6,3

6,8

7,6

ETBE

3,1

4,5

9,0

14,8

16,1

18,0

Ethanol

1,9

2,7

5,3

8,8

9,5

10,7

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A 2 Billions â&#x201A;Ź investment

Biodiesel 11/9/2010

Ethanol Tel-Aviv Novembre 10th & 11th 2010

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The Energy vs Food debate • Controversy initiated by World Bank report in 2008 after simultaneous worldwide high raise of food and energy prices. •Little substantiation as of to-day as food cost have shown little correlation with energy cost over a longer term period. •Still, EU enacted regulation in 2009 requiring 10% renewable energy in transport by 2020 all over EU. Biofuels production also framed with tight environmental and durable conditions. 2nd generation production to be operable by 2020. 11/9/2010

Tel-Aviv Novembre 10th & 11th 2010

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Renewable Biomass Resources • Farming By-products : straw; corn stover; beet pulp

•Perrenual cultivated cultures: switchgrass, Miscanthus •Short rotation shrubs ( poplar; willow): can use nonagricultural places

•Forest plaquettes and by-products •Organic wastes ( used oil; fat; home wastes)

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2nd generation Biofuels feedstocks OVERALL IN FRANCE = 4 Mtep/year (10% national energy use); BUT… •Biomass production remains to be optimized: • Forest already exploited by paper and building materials industries

• Farm crops residues usable but expensive to collect • Energy crops remain to be implemented large scale 11/9/2010

Tel-Aviv Novembre 10th & 11th 2010

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2nd generation Biofuels technologies

From ADEME 2010 11/9/2010

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Not all technologies at same developement level 1. Cellulosic ethanol: ready to go industrial in US; many pilots and demonstration plants in EU, including France (Futurol) 2. Thermochemical route: Demonstration projects in US and EU, including France (Gaya; BioTfuel) 3. Algae Already used small scale for high value molecules production (DHA) or/and depollution processes Process yield still low for economical Biofuel production. Pilots in sunny countries including France (Albius; Salinalgue)

4. ÂŤ Drop-in Âť Alcanes by sugar fermentation Ready to go industrial with cheap Brazilian sugar (Codexis-Shell11/9/2010 Tel-Aviv Novembre 10th & 11th 2010 Cosan / Amyris-Santelisa Vale-Total partnerships)

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From IEA, Task 39, 2010 11/9/2010

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From IEA, Task 39, 2010 11/9/2010

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Microalgae

Courtesy: IGV Gmb 11/9/2010

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Comparaison rendements bruts D2n222222d generation yi22elses 1ère et 2ème générations

2nd generation biofuels yields (Tep/ha) EMHV rape

EMHV sunflower Ethanol beet

Ethanol wheat Ethanol corn

Ethanol sugar cane Biogaz corn based

Biogaz corn based * Ethanol cellulose * BTL authotherm * BTL allotherm * BTL allotherm + H2 *

* at 12 tdm/ha 09/11/2010

0

1

2

3

4

Toulouse, 30 Mars 2010

5

6

Tep/ha


Conclusion: will it be a winner? • 1st generation Biofuels will stay for a long time Technical standards have been built and cannot change fast. Regulations are in place worldwide Feedstocks are well defined, locally produced for most and production cannot be easily delocalized

• Several promising options for 2nd generation Biofuels Some with improved specs over 1st generation ones. Many are being busily tested in industrial sized demonstrators in US, EU and South America Feedstocks collection remain an issue and it will take time to get organized. Best options will be produced in new plants to be built on purpose, close from the feedstock collection. •In view of the scale required for matching 1st generation ones it is likely that 2nd generation Biofuels w’ont be readily available before 2020 11/9/2010

Tel-Aviv Novembre 10th & 11th 2010

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Thank you

bruno.jarry@academie-technologies.fr

11/9/2010

Académie des technologies, Grand Palais des Champs -Élysées, Porte C, avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt, 75008 Paris Tel-Aviv Novembre 10th & 11th 2010 http://www.academie-technologies.fr

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Bruno Jarry