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Fairness

Do not blame someone else for your mistakes.

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When playing with other children, try to be a good sport. Win or lose, it is all for exercise, friendship and fun!

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16. 17. 18. TOTAL PAGES READ THIS WEEK

19. GW: Good Work • EA: Excellent Attitude • GA: Good Attendance • GP: Good Participation GS: Good Social Skills • MT: Manages Time Well • IN: Improvement Necessary • PA: Poor Attitude TA: Tardy/Absent • DC: Disrupts Class • RW: Relationships Need Work • LA: Late Assignments

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and longitude. Longitude lines run north and south; Latitude lines run east and west. The lines measure distances in degrees.

BUT WHERE DO YOU START? WHERE IS 0 DEGREES?

Well, that depends on whether you're looking for 0 degrees latitude or 0 degrees longitude. They are different things. The equator is 0 degree latitude. This imaginary line, which runs through parts of South America, Africa, and Asia, is officially the halfway point between the North Pole and the South Pole.

29,637,900 SQUARE MILE AREA

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The prime meridian is 0 degrees longitude. This imaginary line runs through the United Kingdom, France, Spain, western Africa, and Antarctica. By using the equator and prime meridian, we can divide the world into four hemispheres, north, south, east, and west. For instance, the United States is in the Western Hemisphere (because it is west of the prime meridian) and also in the Northern Hemisphere (because it is north of the equator).

SOUTH AMERICA

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Argentina...............Buenos Aires Bolivia............................Sucre Brazil.............................Brasilia Chile ................................Santiago Colombia ...........................Bogota Ecuador ................................Quito French Guiana ....................Cayenne Guyana ......................Georgetown Paraguay........................Asuncion Peru ......................................Lima Suriname....................Paramaribo Uruguay .....................Montevideo Venezuela ........................Caracas

NORTH AMERICA

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Antigua & Barbuda....................St. John’s Bahamas.........................................Nassau Barbados ...................................Bridgetown Belize .....................................................Belmopan Bermuda..................................................Hamilton Canada .......................................................Ottawa Costa Rica ...............................................San Jose Cuba...........................................................Havana Dominica ....................................................Roseau Dominican Republic ......................Santa Domingo El Salvador........................................San Salvador Grenada ..............................................St. George’s

ASIA

Afghanistan ..................................Kabul Armenia .....................................Yerevan Azerbaijan .......................................Baku Bahrain.................................................Manama Bangladesh..............................................Dhaka Bhutan ..................................................Thimphu Brunei................................Bandar Seri Begawan Cambodia .......................................Phnom Penh China........................................................Beijing Cyprus.....................................................Nicosia East Timor....................................................Dili Georgia .....................................................Tbilisi India ...................................................New Delhi Indonesia ...............................................Jakarta Iran ..........................................................Tehran Iraq .......................................................Baghdad Israel ..................................................Jerusalem

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Japan ........................................................Tokyo Jordan ....................................................Amman Kazakstan ..............................................Almaty Korea North.....................................Pyongyang Korea South..............................................Seoul Kuwait.....................................................Kuwait Kyrgyzstan ...........................................Bishkek Laos .....................................................Vientiane Lebanon....................................................Beirut Malaysia ......................................Kuala Lumpur Maldives ....................................................Male Mongolia ...........................................Ulan Bator Myanmar................................................Yangon Nepal................................................Kathmandu Oman.......................................................Muscat Pakistan.............................................Islamabad Philippines ..............................................Manila

Guatemala.....................................Guatemala City Haiti .................................................Port-au-Prince Hondurus.............................................Tegucigalpa Jamaica ....................................................Kingston Mexico .................................................Mexico City Nicaragua ...............................................Managua Panama..............................................Panama City St. Kitt’s & Nevis ................................Basseterre St. Lucia.....................................................Castries St. Vincent & the Grenadines.............Kingstown Trinidad & Tobago............................Port-of-Spain U.S.A. ............................................Washington, DC

Qatar .........................................................Doha Russia ....................................................Moscow Saudi Arabia...........................................Riyadh Singapore ...........................................Singapore Sri Lanka ..............................................Colombo Syria ...................................................Damascus Taiwan ......................................................Taipei Tajikistan ............................................Dushanbe Thailand ...............................................Bangkok Turkey.....................................................Ankara Turkmenistan....................................Ashkhabad United Arab Emir..............................Abu Dhabi Uzbekistan...........................................Tashkent Vietnam....................................................Hanoi Yemen.......................................................Sanaa

ANTARCTICA

WESTERN HEMISPHERE • WESTERN HEMISPHERE • WESTERN HEMISPHERE • WESTERN HEMISPHERE • WESTERN

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60,060,700 SQUARE MILE AREA

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AUSTRALIA

Australia.......................Canberra

OCEANIA

Fiji .........................................Suva Kiribati........................................Tarawa Marshall Islands........................Majura Micronesia...................................Palikir Nauru............................................Yaren New Zealand........................Wellington Palau.............................................Koror Pap. N. Guinea.................Port Moresby Solomon Islands.......................Honiara Tonga .....................................Nukúalofa Tuvalu .......................................Funafuti Vanuatu...........................................Vila Western Samoa.............................Apia

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EASTERN HEMISPHERE • EASTERN HEMISPHERE • EASTERN HEMISPHERE • EASTERN HEMISPHERE • EASTERN

NOTE: Maps always show a distorted view of the earth and its continents because they are not curved in three dimensions.

AFRICA

Algeria .............................Algiers Angola ...........................Luanda Benin ..........................Porto-Novo Botswana ...............................Gaborone Burkina Faso....................Ouagadougou Burundi .................................Bujumbura Cameroon .................................Yaounde Cape Verde ...................................Praia Central African Rep. .................Bangui Chad......................................N’Djamena Comoros......................................Moroni

EUROPE

Albania .............................Tirana Andorra .............Andorra la Vella Austria..............................Vienna Belarus .........................................Minsk Belgium .....................................Brussels Bosnia & Herzegovina ...........Sarajevo Bulgaria .........................................Sofia Croatia........................................Zagreb Czech Republic...........................Prague Denmark .............................Copenhagen Estonia.........................................Tallinn

Congo ....................................Brazzaville Dem. Rep. of Congo...............Kinshasa Djibouti ......................................Djibouti Egypt..............................................Cairo Equatorial Guinea .....................Malabo Eritrea ........................................Asmara Ethiopia...............................Addis Ababa Gabon ......................................Libreville Gambia .......................................Banjul Ghana ............................................Accra Guinea.......................................Conakry

Finland.......................................Helsinki France.............................................Paris Germany.......................................Berlin Greece .........................................Athens Hungary...................................Budapest Iceland ....................................Reykjavik Ireland .........................................Dublin Italy...............................................Rome Latvia..............................................Riga Liechtenstein................................Vaduz Lithuania......................................Vilnius

Guinea-Bissau.............................Bissau Ivory Coast ...............................Abidjan Kenya .........................................Nairobi Lesotho.......................................Maseru Liberia .....................................Monrovia Libya.............................................Tripoli Madagascar......................Antananarivo Malawi.....................................Lilongwe Mali ...........................................Bamako Mauritania ...........................Nouakchott Mauritius................................Port Louis

Luxembourg.......................Luxembourg Macedonia...................................Skopje Malta..........................................Valletta Moldova ...................................Kishinev Monaco ......................................Monaco Netherlands .........................Amsterdam Norway ..........................................Oslo Poland........................................Warsaw Portugal.......................................Lisbon Romania .................................Bucharest Russia ........................................Moscow

Morocco........................................Rabat Mozambique..............................Maputo Namibia..................................Windhoek Niger ..........................................Niamey Nigeria..........................................Abuja Rwanda ........................................Kigali Sao Tome & Principe .............Sao Tome Senegal ........................................Dakar Seychelles ..................................Victoria Sierra Leone............................Freetown Somalia .................................Mogadishu

San Marino ..........................San Marino Slovakia .................................Bratislava Slovenia...................................Ljubljana Spain ...........................................Madrid Sweden..................................Stockholm Switzerland ...................................Bern Ukraine ...........................................Kiev United Kingdom ........................London Vatican City.........................Vatican City Serbia/Montenegro ...............Belgrade

South Africa..............................Pretoria Sudan......................................Khartoum Swaziland ...............................Mbabane Tanzania ...................................Dodoma Togo ...............................................Lome Tunisia............................................Tunis Uganda.....................................Kampala Zambia........................................Lusaka Zimbabwe ..................................Harare

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Sa MEXICO Mexico City

State Capital 1 Aguascalientes.....................Aguascalientes 2 Baja California Norte.....................Mexicali 3 Baja California Sur ..........................La Paz 4 Campeche..................................Campeche 5 Chiapas.............................Tuxtla Gutiérrez 6 Chihuahua.................................Chihuahua 7 Coahuila .........................................Saltillo 8 Colima ............................................Colima 9 Durango ......................................Durango 10 Guanajuato..............................Guanajuato 11 Guerrero................................Chilpancingo 12 Hidalgo.........................................Pachuca

UNITED STATES Washington, DC

State Capital AL Alabama .............................Montgomery AK Alaska.........................................Juneau AZ Arizona ......................................Phoenix AR Arkansas ................................Little Rock CA California..............................Sacramento CO Colorado......................................Denver CT Connecticut................................Hartford

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Jalisco...................................Guadalajara Mexico ...........................................Toluca Michoacan....................................Morelia Morelos..................................Cuernavaca Nayarit ............................................Tepic Nuevo León .............................Monterrey Oaxaca ........................................Oaxaca Puebla ..........................................Puebla Querétaro ................................Querétaro Quintana Roo ............................Chetumal San Luis Potosi ..................San Luis Potosí Sinaloa .......................................Culiacán Sonora ....................................Hermosillo

DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA

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Delaware.......................................Dover Florida ..................................Tallahassee Georgia .......................................Atlanta Hawaii......................................Honolulu Idaho .............................................Boise Illinois....................................Springfield Indiana ................................Indianapolis Iowa .....................................Des Moines Kansas.........................................Topeka Kentucky..................................Frankfort Louisiana ............................Baton Rouge

Tabasco................................Villahermosa Tamaulipas........................Ciudad Victoria Tlaxcala ......................................Tlaxcala Veracruz........................................Jalapa Yucatán ........................................Mérida Zacatecas..................................Zacatecas Federal District .......................Mexico City ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH

Maine ........................................Augusta Maryland.................................Annapolis Massachusetts...............................Boston Michigan.....................................Lansing Minnesota...................................St. Paul Mississippi ..................................Jackson Missouri.............................Jefferson City Montana......................................Helena Nebraska.....................................Lincoln Nevada .................................Carson City New Hampshire ..........................Concord

NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC

New Jersey .................................Trenton New Mexico...............................Santa Fe New York.....................................Albany North Carolina.............................Raleigh North Dakota............................Bismarck Ohio ........................................Columbus Oklahoma........................Oklahoma City Oregon .........................................Salem Pennsylvania..........................Harrisburg Rhode Island..........................Providence South Carolina..........................Columbia

SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY PR

South Dakota ................................Pierre Tennessee .................................Nashville Texas ............................................Austin Utah..................................Salt Lake City Vermont.................................Montpelier Virginia ...................................Richmond Washington................................Olympia West Virginia ..........................Charleston Wisconsin...................................Madison Wyoming.................................Cheyenne Puerto Rico...............................San Juan

UNITED STATES MAP • UNITED STATES MAP • UNITED STATES MAP • UNITED STATES MAP • UNITED STATES MAP

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CANADA Ottawa

Province/Territory Capital AB Alberta ............................................Edmonton BC British Columbia ..................................Victoria MB Manitoba..........................................Winnipeg NB New Brunswick...............................Fredericton NF New Foundland ................................St. John’s NT Northwest Territories......................Yellowknife NU Nunavut................................................Iqaluit NS Nova Scotia .........................................Halifax ON Ontario ...............................................Toronto PEI Prince Edward Island..................Charlottetown QC Quebec .........................................Quebec City SK Saskatchewan.......................................Regina YT Yukon Territory ..............................Whitehorse


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UNITED STATES TRIVIA • UNITED STATES TRIVIA • UNITED STATES TRIVIA • UNITED STATES TRIVIA • UNITED STATES TRIVIA

1. Which state has the Star Blue Quartz as its official gemstone? 2. What state's name means "colored red" and is known as the "Centennial State"? 3. Which state can fit Rhode Island into it 425 times? 4. Which state has the highest average temperature in the United States? 2. Which state was the last of the original thirteen colonies to become a state? 6. Which state has the world's largest library with more than 2 million books? 7. Which state has the oldest U.S. newspaper still being published? 8. What state was the first state to ratify the United States constitution? 9. In which state is Hell's Canyon, the deepest gorge in America? 10. Which state is home to Rip Van Winkle and the Catskill Mountains? 11. What state has the motto "Eureka," a Greek word translated "I have found it"? 12. What state has 90,000 miles of shoreline, more than California, Florida and Hawaii combined?

SEE BOTTOM OF PAGE 120 FOR THE ANSWERS TO THESE TRIVIA QUESTIONS...

For more trivia on the 50 states: www.50states.com/facts

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GOVERNMENT BRANCHES and GOVERNING BODIES: There are three branches of government: the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. The Legislative Branch is Congress, which consists of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Executive Branch is represented by the President, Vice President, the President’s Cabinet, and the heads of independent agencies. The executive branch of Government makes sure that the laws of the United States are obeyed. The Judicial Branch of government is made up of our court system. The Supreme Court is considered the highest court of all.

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Outside of our basic branches of government, we have local governing bodies. People such as principals, counselors, and teachers can all serve as our mentors. Police officers, firemen, city mayors, and even our court system can also serve as governing bodies through our local cities and towns.

• American Flag • Bald Eagle • Figures of Justice • Great Seal • Liberty Bell • Uncle Sam • National Flower – Rose

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• U.S. Capitol • White House • Supreme Court

STATUES AND MEMORIALS:

• Arlington National Cemetery • Independence Hall • Jefferson Memorial • Korean War Veterans Memorial • Lincoln Memorial • Marine Corps War Memorial • Mount Rushmore • Statue of Liberty • Tomb of the Unknowns • Vietnam Veterans Memorial • Washington Monument

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SONGS AND OATHS: • America (My Country ‘Tis of Thee) • America the Beautiful • Hail to the Chief • Oath of Office • Pledge of Allegiance • Yankee Doodle • Star-Spangled Banner (National Anthem) • Taps

THE PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

• GOVERNMENT

RULES: Rules are established to maintain order, whether it is a school or the whole country. People who enforce the rules are principals, counselors, police officers, and judges.

GOVERNMENT • GOVERNMENT • GOVERNMENT • GOVERNMENT • GOVERNMENT

CITIZENSHIP: Being a member of our country and having rights to vote on decisions for our country.


HOMONYMS Homonyms are words that have the same form or sound but different meanings. They can also be very confusing.

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Brainstorming is the activity of generating ideas or arguments for a piece of writing. It involves writing down any ideas which come to mind. You would then normally go on to select those ideas that fit the theme of your paper.

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LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS

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• all ready, already • buy, by • complement, compliment • for, four • hole, whole • it's, its • miner, minor • past, passed • principal, principle • stationary, stationery • their, there, they're • threw, through • to, too, two • weather, whether • your, you're

Freewriting is a simple process that allows you to write nonstop for a set period of time (10-20 minutes). There is no need to make corrections while writing, just continue writing words and/or sentences even if you have to write random words to fill space. Basically, write whatever comes into your mind. Do not judge or correct what you are writing. It may look like a jumbled mess, but it is used to open your mind and be creative.

ANTONYMS

A word with the opposite meaning of another word.

Example: hot or cold, long or short, big or small, light and dark.

SYNONYMS

Words used which are closely related in meaning.

Example: student or pupil, baby or infant, smart and intelligent.

ACRONYMS

Words or names formed by combining the first letters of words in a phrase.

Example: NBA is an acronym of National Basketball Association.

Drafting is when you create an entire paper with the main components of the essay. Revising is the process of changing words or adding ideas that help clarify the theme throughout a paper. Editing your paper consists of checking for correct punctuation. The Final Draft allows you one last read through to check spelling and punctuation. When it comes to submitting your work, Presentation is very important. Whether it is a paper to turn in or an oral presentation, the information needs to be clear with demonstrations.

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PUNCTUATION RULES

Noun (names)

Pronoun (replaces)

A person, place, thing, or idea. Example: girl, car, trophy, freedom

Used in place of a noun, or more than one noun. Example: him, her, it, they

Comma,

Colon: The colon is used to show that a list of items follows it. Example: He studied four subjects: Reading, English, Math, and Science.

Semicolon; Use a semicolon to join two closely related clauses if they are not joined by the words and, or, but, for, or nor. Example: Don't open the window; the screen isn't in.

Verb (asserts)

Adjective (describes)

Describes an action or a state of being. Example: He dunked the ball.

Describes a noun or pronoun in one of three ways: 1. By telling "which one" - that car 2. By telling "what kind" - blue eyes 3. By telling "how many" - five players Example: smart boy

Adverb (modifies)

Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs always answer the questions: when, where, how, and why (or to what extent). Example: marched slowly, writes very quickly

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There are many comma rules. The most common rule is using a comma to separate items in a list. Example: She played softball, basketball, and volleyball.

Preposition (links)

Shows the relationship of one noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence. Example: across the field

Period. Use a period at the end of a sentence. Example: The dog ran away.

Conjunction (joins) Joins words or sentences. Example: blue or red

Interjection (exclaims)

A word that shows great feeling. Example: Wow! What a great game.

Question Mark?

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A question mark is used at the end of a direct question. Example: Where is your locker?

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PARTS OF A SENTENCE Subject

"Quotation Marks"

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Quotation marks are used around the exact words of a speaker. Example: She said, "The answer is one."

Apostrophe'

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The apostrophe is used in place of omitted letters in a contraction. Example: He can't go until later.

The apostrophe is also used to show possession. Example: Here comes Mike's dog.

Exclamation Point!

An exclamation point is used at the end of a sentence to show emotion or excitement. Example: Don’t ever do that again!

The subject of a sentence is the person, place, thing, or idea that is doing or being something. Example: The light bulb needs to be replaced.

Predicate The predicate of a sentence is the completer of a sentence. Example: Benita is going biking.

Declarative vs. Interrogative statements.

Declarative A declarative sentence states an idea. Example: I am going outside.

Interrogative An interrogative sentence asks a direct question. Example: Are you going outside?

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LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS

PARTS OF SPEECH


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VOWELS – CONSONANTS

CONSONANT: ‘Sounding together’ or ‘sounding with’ a vowel. A consonant is a letter or speech sound that is not a vowel.

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VOWELS: Represent the open sounds made in speech – as (mainly) distinct from consonants. In English, the vowels are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y.

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READING TIPS • Choose from a variety books.

• Have your parents take you to the library and get your own library card.

• If you are unfamiliar with a word, look it up in the dictionary or ask your parents.

• Pick a special reading time everyday.

• Try other forms of reading like magazines or newspapers.

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• Choose topics that you are interested in.

• A comfortable location is important to enjoy reading on a regular basis.

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LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS • LANGUAGE ARTS

THE ALPHABET

• Have fun and don’t be afraid to try more challenging books to read!

44 COMMONLY MISSPELLED WORDS

acquire among argument arguing believe benefited coming courageous

definitely description environment exaggerate existent explanation fascinate government

height interest lose necessary occurring opinion opportunity paid

possession possible practical prejudice prepare privilege probably profession

pursue quiet receiving recommend referring rhythm sense separate

similar studying surprise thorough

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11.

9.

10.

110

7.

3.

4.

5.

6.

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16.

17.

1. 18.

2. 19.

20.

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22.

23.

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25.

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12.

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33.

SPELLING PRACTICE • SPELLING PRACTICE • SPELLING PRACTICE • SPELLING PRACTICE • SPELLING

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8.

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35.

54.

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46. 47.

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64.

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62.

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SPELLING PRACTICE • SPELLING PRACTICE • SPELLING PRACTICE • SPELLING PRACTICE • SPELLING

34.

65. 66.

48.

67.

49.

68.

50.

69.

51.

70.

52.

71. 111


ROCKY CRUST MOLTEN OUTER CORE

MANTLE

EARTH’S COMPOSITION The earth's composition consists of several layers. There are three main layers: the core, mantle and crust. The core is the center of the earth, the crust is the outer layer and between them is the mantle.

INNER CORE IRON/NICKEL

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MOLTEN OUTER CORE

EARTH'S STRUCTURE Above, sections of the Earth have been removed to show its internal structure.

SOLAR SYSTEM

Diameter, 864,000 miles; maximum distance from the earth, 94.5 million miles; interior temperature, 14,000,000ºK; rotates in 25 days (equator) or 34 days (poles).

Diameter, 3,100 miles; distance from the sun, 36 million miles; orbits the sun every 88 days; rotates on its axis in 58.7 days.

Venus

Mars

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Diameter, 7,700 miles; distance from the sun, 67 million miles; orbits the sun every 225 days; rotates on its axis in 243 days in a direction that is opposite to its orbital motion (retrograde).

Diameter, 7,920 miles; distance from the sun, 93 million miles; orbits the sun every 365 days; rotates on its axis in 24 hours.

Diameter, 4,200 miles; distance from the sun, 141 million miles; orbits the sun every 687 days; rotates on its axis in 24.62 hours.

In order according to distance from the sun.

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

Neptune

Diameter, 88,640 miles; distance from the sun, 483 million miles; orbits the sun every 11.9 years; rotates on its axis in 9.8 hours.

Diameter, 71,000 miles (diameter of rings, 170,000 miles); distance from the sun, 886 million miles; orbits the sun every 29.5 years; rotates on its axis in 10.2 hours.

Diameter, 32,000 miles; distance from the sun, 1.8 billion miles; orbits the sun every 84 years; rotates on its axis in 17.2 hours.

Diameter, 31,000 miles; distance from the sun, 2.8 billion miles; orbits the sun every 165 years; rotates on its axis in 17.8 days.

Neptune

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Ear th

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Mercur y

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Sun

Uranus

Saturn

Jupiter

Mars

Earth

Venus Mercury

Image by: Colin Rose, Dorling Kindersley

The inner core of the earth is very hot. It heats to about 13,000 degrees F and consists of the elements iron/nickel. The outer core is composed of iron and nickel as well but in a liquid state. The next layer is the mantle, then the crust. The crust could be considered land or water. Finally, the earth is completely surrounded by the planet’s atmosphere.

SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE

ATMOSPHERE


THE Chemistry: The study of the elements, the compounds they form, and the reactions they undergo. Chemists try to PHYSICAL discover new and useful compounds. They do their work by using the results of experiments to prove their theories, based SCIENCES on what they are made of and how they work. Chemistry is divided into three main branches; physical chemistry, inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry.

Astronomy: Astronomy is the scientific study of the planets, stars, galaxies and the universe.

Geology: The study of the planet earth – the materials it is made of, the processes that act on those materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin.

THE EARTH EARTH SCIENCES

Oceanography: The exploration and the study of the oceans. Paleontology: A branch of science that deals with extinct and fossil animals and plants.

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Science is broken into three Categories: The Physical Sciences that deal with energy, gravity, light and time; The Earth Sciences that deal with oceans, atmosphere, weather, climate, and geological periods (fossils); The Life Sciences that study plants, animal life, heredity, and medicine.

Physics: The science that deals with matter and energy and their interactions in the fields that would include optics, heat, electricity, magnetism, atomic structure, and others.

Meteorology: The science that deals with the phenomena of the atmosphere, climate, especially weather and weather conditions.

Botany: The study of plant life, its structure and functions.

THE LIFE SCIENCES (Biology)

Zoology: The study of animals including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects, spiders, and mollusks. Genetics: The study of heredity and how traits are passed on through generations.

Medicine: The science of diagnosing, treating, or preventing disease and other damage to the body or mind.

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PROPERTIES OF OBJECTS AND MATERIALS

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The three classifications are solid, liquid, and gas. Solids, liquids and gases are the three states of matter. All matter is made from small particles. These particles are called atoms and molecules.

SOLIDS: Solids are made of a combination of elements and they do not change

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shape. They keep their shape unless they are broken, they do not flow, and cannot be compressed (keeping the same volume).

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Example: (Rocks, Glass, etc.) Imagine a chair, and try to imagine what it would be like if it were made from a liquid. Would it keep shape? Could you sit on it? What would happen?

LIQUIDS: Liquids are not a solid, but not yet a gas. They do not keep their shape,

TRIVIA QUESTION: How long will an astronaut's footprints stay on the moon? Millions of years (Because there is no wind to blow them away.)

SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE • SCIENCE

THE THREE BRANCHES OF SCIENCE

but they take the shape of and/or fill the container they are in. Liquids do flow and cannot be compressed (keeping the same volume).

Example: (Water, Blood, etc.) Liquids are used where we need something to flow, for making a drink, or when we need something to take up the shape of a container such as a glass. An example of this would be making jelly. Jelly (solid) is first turned into a liquid (dissolving) so that it can fill up a jar. It is then left to set up or change back to solid, so that it keeps its shape to become jelly.

GASES: Gases are spread out atoms. They do not keep their shape, and they completely fill the container shape or size that they are in. Gases flow, spreading out quickly from where they are to start with (diffusion). Gases can also be compressed and/or squashed into a much smaller volume. Example: The atmosphere around the earth is filled with gases.

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2.54 30.48 0.9144 1.609 4.9289 14.787 0.2366 0.4732 0.9464 3.7854 0.4536 0.9072 0.3937 1.0936 0.6214 0.0338 1.057 0.2642 0.0353 2.2046 1.1023

centimeters centimeters meters kilometers milliliters milliliters liters liters liters liters kilograms metric tons inches yards miles fluid ounces quarts gallons ounces pounds ton

PERCENTAGES 100% 50% 33.3% 25% 20% 16.6% 12.5% 11.1% 10% 8.3% 66.6% 75%

DECIMALS 1 = 1.0 1/2 = 0.5 1/3 = 0.3 1/4 = 0.25 1/5 = 0.2 1/6 = 0.16 1/8 = 0.125 1/9 = 0.1 1/10 = 0.1 1/12 = 0.083 2/3 = 0.6 3/4 = 0.75

4

5

6

7

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9

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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3

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7

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9

10

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3

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5

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9

10

11

12

13

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

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14

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16

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8

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10

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9

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12

13

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17

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10

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12

13

14

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16

17

18

19

20

MEASUREMENT CONVERSION METRIC Basic Unit x 10 x 100 x 1000 ÷ 10 ÷ 100 ÷ 1000

LENGTH meter (m) decameter (dam) hectometer (hm) kilometer (km) decimeter (dm) centimeter (cm) millimeter (mm)

VOLUME liter (l) decaliter (dal) hectoliter (hl) kiloliter (kl) deciliter (dl) centiliter (cl) milliliter (ml)

WEIGHT gram (g) decagram (dag) hectogram (hg) kilogram (kg)* decigram (dg) centigram (cg) milligram (mg)

*metric ton is 1000 kilograms

ENGLISH

m

Sa GRAPHS Pie Graph

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inches feet yards miles teaspoons tablespoons cups pints quarts gallons pounds tons centimeters meters kilometers milliliters liters liters grams kilograms metric ton

2

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MULTIPLY BY TO FIND

PERCENTAGES AND DECIMALS

WHEN YOU KNOW

1

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CONVERSION TABLE

+

LENGTH 1 foot (ft. or ')...........................equals 12 inches (in. or ") 1 yard (yd.)...................................................equals 3 feet 1 mile (mi.).........................equals 1760 yards/5280 feet 1 nautical mile........................................equals 1.15 miles 1 league ......................................................equals 3 miles

VOLUME 1 tablespoon (tbl. or T)... equals 3 teaspoons (tsp. or t) 1 cup (c.) ...................................equals 16 tablespoons 1 pint (pt.)...............................................equals 2 cups 1 quart (qt.)............................................equals 2 pints 1 gallon (gal.).......................................equals 4 quarts

WEIGHT 1 pound (lb.)..............................equals 16 ounces (oz.) 1 ton..............................................equals 2000 pounds

AREA 1 acre..........equals 4840 sq. yards/43,560 sq. feet 1 square mile.................................equals 640 acres

Billions

Millions

Thousands PLACE VALUES

Line Graph

123 , 456 , 789 , 101 . 112 hs ndt usa s Tho redth nd Hu ths Ten

es On s Ten eds ndr Hu

es On s Ten eds ndr Hu

es On s Ten eds ndr Hu

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es On s Ten eds ndr Hu

Bar Graph

MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH

ADDITION TABLE


1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

2

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

3

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

27

30

33

36

4

4

8

12

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

44

48

5

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

6

6

12

18

24

30

36

42

48

54

60

66

72

7

7

14

21

28

35

42

49

56

63

70

77

84

8

8

16

24

32

40

48

56

64

72

80

88

96

9

9

18

27

36

45

54

63

72

81

90

99

108

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

11

11

22

33

44

55

66

77

88

99

110

121

132

12

12

24

26

48

60

72

84

96

108 120

132

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HOUR HAND

1:30

1:45

2:00

A DIME = 10 cents = 10¢ = $0.10

A QUARTER = 25 cents = 5 nickels = 25¢ = $0.25

A DOLLAR = 100 cents = 20 nickels = 10 dimes = 4 quarters = 100¢ = $1.00

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MINUTE HAND

TELLING TIME

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• 15 Minutes = One Quarter Of An Hour • 30 Minutes = One Half Of An Hour • 45 Minutes = Three Quarters Of An Hour • 60 Minutes = One Hour

TIME VALUES

1 MINUTE (min.) = 60 seconds (sec.) 1 HOUR (hr.) = 60 minutes = 3,600 sec. 1 DAY = 24 hours 1 WEEK = 7 days 1 MONTH = Approximately 30 days (for ordinary accounting) 1 YEAR (yr.) = 12 months = 52 weeks = 365 days 1 LEAP YEAR = 366 days 1 DECADE = 10 years 1 CENTURY = 10 decades = 100 years

FRACTIONS _5 numerator 8 denominator To multiply: 1 x 2 = 1x2 = 2 3 5 3x5 15 To add or subtract different fractions, first obtain a common denominator: 1 + 2 = 5 + 6 = 11 3 5 15 15 15 To divide, multiply the first with the reciprocal of the second fraction: 2 1 = 2 x 6 =4 3 6 3 1

GREATEST COMMON FACTOR The greatest number that is a factor of two or more numbers. G.C.F. of 8 and 12 is 4.

SYMBOLS

< Less Than > Greater Than = Equal To ~ Approximate <_ Less Than or Equal To >_ Greater Than or Equal To

miles x 1.6 = km

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Any integer greater than 1 that is divisible only by 1 and itself. The first twelve primes are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, and 37.

1:15

A NICKEL = 5 cents = 5¢ = $0.05

feet x 30 = cm • yards x 0.9 = m

PRIME NUMBERS

A PENNY = 1 cent = 1¢ = $0.01

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x

inches x 2.54 = cm

MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH

MONEY

MULTIPLICATION TABLE

cm inches

LEAST COMMON FACTOR The smallest number that is a multiple of two or more numbers. L.C.F. of 3, 6, and 10 is 30.

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Octagon

Hexagon

Star

FORMULAS Square

Cube

Triangle

Pentagon

SOLID SHAPES

Parallelogram

Rectangle

Oval

Pyramid

Rectangular Solid

Sphere

e

Cylinder

TRIANGLES Equilateral

Isosceles

Obtuse

m

Circle

Right

Sca len e

Straight

Rig ht

Pyramid

Cone

Complementary Angles

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Sphere

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Acute

Tria ngl e

Cube

Cone

ANGLES

Trapezoid

Rectangle

Supplementary Angles

Congruency

COMMON FRACTIONS TO DECIMAL CONVERSIONS 1/2 ........0.5000 1/3 ........0.3333 1/4 ........0.2500 1/5 ........0.2000 1/6 ........0.1667 1/7 ........0.1429

1/8 ........0.1250 1/9 ........0.1111 1/10 ......0.1000 1/11 ......0.0909 1/12 ......0.0833 1/16 ......0.0625

1/32 ......0.0313 1/64 ......0.0156 2/3 ........0.6667 2/5 ........0.4000 2/7 ........0.2857 2/9 ........0.2222

PERCENTS CHART

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2/11 ......0.1818 3/4 ........0.7500 3/5 ........0.6000 3/7 ........0.4286 3/8 ........0.3750 3/10 ......0.3000

100% = 1 95% = .95 90% = .90

3/11 ......0.2727 4/5 ........0.8000 4/7 ........0.5714 4/9 ........0.4444 4/11 ......0.3636 5/6 ........0.8333

85% = .85 80% = .80 75% = .75

70% = .70 65% = .65 60% = .60

5/7 ........0.7143 5/8 ........0.6250 5/9 ........0.5556 5/11 ......0.4545 5/12 ......0.4167 6/7 ........0.8571

55% = .55 50% = .50 45% = .45

6/11 ......0.5455 7/8 ........0.8750 7/9 ........0.7778 7/10 ......0.7000 7/11 ......0.6364 7/12 ......0.5833

40% = .40 35% = .35 30% = .30

8/9 ........0.8889 8/11 ......0.7273 9/10 ......0.9000 9/11 ......0.8182 10/11 ....0.9091 11/12 ....0.9167

25% = .25 20% = .20 15% = .15

10% = .10 05% = .05

MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH • MATH

Circle

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Diamond

BASIC SHAPES


MONTHLY READING MINUTES AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

Week 1 = __________

Week 1 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Total Minutes = __________

Total Minutes = __________

Total Minutes = __________

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

JANUARY

Week 1 = __________ Week 2 = __________ Week 3 = __________ Week 4 = __________

FEBRUARY

Week 1 = __________

Week 1 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Total Minutes = __________

Total Minutes = __________

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Total Minutes = __________

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Week 1 = __________

MARCH

APRIL

Week 1 = __________

Week 1 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Total Minutes = __________

Total Minutes = __________

Total Minutes = __________

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Week 1 = __________

Sa

SUMMER READING MINUTES

MAY

JUNE

JULY

Week 1 = __________

Week 1 = __________

Week 1 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 2 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 3 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Week 4 = __________

Total Minutes = __________

Total Minutes = __________

Total Minutes = __________

GRAND TOTAL FOR YEAR:

__________________ 117


EAT BREAKFAST!

Go nuts everyday! Different kinds of nuts, such as peanuts or almonds, are easy to eat on the run. They are high in fat, but some of the fat is actually good for you! Get stronger! Getting a daily dose of calcium can help you do that. Milk is a great source of calcium. Other sources of calcium are cheese, yogurt and orange juice.

FOOD PYRAMID!

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STOP THE POP! Drink less soda. Soda is full of sugar and has no nutritional value. It lacks calcium and vitamins, which is what your body needs. If you drink more than a can of soda a day, try drinking flavored water or a sport drink instead.

Washing your hands is the best way to prevent germs from spreading. This means less colds and flu for you.

STRETCH!

Remember to stretch before and Choose your meals, snacks and after doing any strenuous exercise. treats according to the food This will help keep your body pyramid on page 117. Eat from flexible, and also improve your each of the food groups of the ability to play hard. food pyramid everyday – develop a good foundation for healthy STAY ACTIVE! Be physically active everyday eating. through sports and basic exercise.

MAKE IT FUN!

Encourage friends and family members to join in physical activities with you.

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Fast food means fast fat! Most fast food is very fattening. If you eat at a fast-food place, it's best not to load up on the greasy stuff. Try to order a salad or frozen yogurt instead of french fries or onion rings. Avoid the supersize, and try to order the smallest burger. This will help you get less fat, while still having a good lunch.

Practice your cartwheels, jumping jacks, somersaults or sports skills. Improve your skills and exercise at the same time.

WASH UP!

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Eating smart means eating healthy! Get everyone involved by encouraging your family members to keep dried fruits and fresh vegetables on hand. Fruits and vegetables such as baby carrots, dried apricots and apples make great snacks. Not only are they great snacks, they’re loaded with vitamins, too!

PRACTICE!

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SMART EATING!

PRACTICE GOOD HEALTHY HABITS!

Breathing hard during exercise is Make sure you eat breakfast a good thing. Get your heart everyday. It is the most important pumping, you will get more energy meal of the day. and feel awesome.

EAT HEALTHY!

EAT FRUITS AND VEGETABLES!

Don’t let the size or color fool you. Fruits and vegetables are not only delicious, but a very important part of a well-balanced diet.

Be sure to follow the food pyramid BE ADVENTUROUS! for healthy eating Try new foods, sports, games or habits. Don’t forget activities. You won’t know what to exercise. you like until you try it!

EXERCISE YOUR BODY — FEEL GREAT!

Exercise is a lot of fun and helps keep your mind and body feeling great. Kids who exercise regularly often do better in school, sleep better, are less likely to be overweight, and are stronger than less-active kids. Regular exercise can help improve your mood and relieve stress. Get moving – limit your TV, electronic game and computer time to only one or two hours a day. For a strong and healthy body, you need to exercise at least one hour every day. Try different types of physical activities to work all of your muscles. 1) Stretching: Before and after you start any exercises, take a few minutes to stretch your muscles. This will warm them up and get them ready to start working harder. Ask your teachers or parents to show you some good stretches. 2) Aerobic (means “with air”): By doing these types of exercises, your heart will beat faster and you will breathe harder, which will make your heart and other muscles stronger: basketball, riding a bike, skating, soccer, swimming, dancing, playing tag, walking and running. 3) Strengthening: These exercises will make your arm, leg and stomach muscles stronger: push-ups, pull-ups, stomach crunches (sit-ups), wrestling, climbing and playing on the monkey bars.

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HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH • HEALTH

WORK HARD!


Grain Group:

Vegetable Group:

Fruit Group:

Milk Group:

Meat & Bean Group:

MAKE HALF YOUR GRAINS WHOLE

VARY YOUR VEGGIES

FOCUS ON FRUITS

GET YOUR CALCIUM-RICH FOODS

GO LEAN WITH PROTEIN

Eat at least 3 oz. of whole-grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day.

Eat more dark green veggies like broccoli, spinach,and other dark leafy greens.

Go low-fat or fat-free when you choose milk, yogurt, and other milk products.

Choose low-fat or lean meats and poultry.

1 oz. is about 1 slice of bread, about cup of breakfast cereal, or 1/2 cup of cooked rice, cereal, or pasta.

Eat more orange vegetables like carrots and sweet potatoes.

Eat a variety of fruit.

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Choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit.

Go easy on fruit juices.

Bake it, broil it, or grill it.

Vary your protein routine — choose more fish, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds.

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Eat more dry beans and peas like pinto beans, kidney beans, and lentils.

If you don’t or can’t consume milk, choose lactose-free products or other calcium sources such as fortified foods and beverages.

1 Advance and promote dietary

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guidance for all Americans, and

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

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Information according to the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

2 Conduct applied research and analyses in nutrition and consumer economics. The Center's core products to support its objectives are the following:

April 2005 - CNPP-15

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The Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, an organization of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, was established in 1994 to improve the nutrition and well-being of Americans. Toward this goal, the Center focuses its efforts on two primary objectives—

• Dietary Guidelines for Americans • MyPyramid Food Guidance System • Healthy Eating Index • U.S. Food Plans • Nutrient Content of the U.S. Food Supply • Expenditures on Children by Families

For more information on CNPP, or to get more information on these products, please visit www.cnpp.usda.gov.

F I N D Y O U R B A L A N C E B E T W E E N F O O D A N D P H Y S I C A L A C T I V IT Y !

Be sure to stay within your daily calorie needs. • Be physically active for at least 30 minutes most days of the week. • About 60 minutes a day may be needed to prevent weight gain. • For sustaining weight loss, at least 60 to 90 minutes a day may be required. • Children and teenagers should be physically active for 60 minutes every day, or most days.

KNOW THE LIMITS ON FATS, SUGARS, AND SALT (SODIUM)

Make most of your fat sources from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. • Limit solid fats like butter, stick margarine, shortening, and lard, as well as foods that contain these. • Check the Nutrition Facts label to keep saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium low. • Choose food and beverages low in added sugars. Added sugars contribute calories with few, if any, nutrients.

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120 PAGE 105 UNITED STATES TRIVIA ANSWERS: 1. Alabama, 2. Colorado, 3. Alaska, 4. Florida, 5. Rhode Island, 6. Illinois (Chicago Public Library), 7. Connecticut (The Hartford Courant, Est. 1764), 8. Delaware (signed on December 7, 1787), 9. Idaho, 10. New York, 11. California (Adopted in 1849 during the Gold Rush of the Sierra Nevada), 12. Minnesota (The land of 10,000 lakes)

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