Panorama | EFA22

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August 2022 Interviews with and articles by contributors to the European Forum Alpbach 2022: Rana Adib | Franz Eder and Martin Senn | Nebojša Nakićenović | Rolf Strauch | Stefanie Wöhl | and others A Magazine of the European Forum Alpbach

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OUR STATE OF MIND

TabLE of conTEnT

INTRO 6 Statement Alexander Van der Bellen 7 Editorial Andreas Treichl and Feri Thierry ALPBACH SEMINARS 10 Interview with Howard Williamson 12 Foreign by Robert Prosser 13 Humanity at the Crossroad by Jana Ganzmann ALPBACH IDEAS 16 Interview with Winfried Kneip 18 Alpbach Ideas: How to Figuring an ideation process THE WESTERN BALKANS AND CROATIA 21 Interview with Caroline Hornstein-Tomić SECURING EUROPE'S FUTURE IN A GLOBALISED WORLD 24 Interview with Irene Giner-Reichl 26 A European Awakening in Foreign and Security Policy? by Franz Eder and Martin Senn ARTS & CULTURE 30 Sounds of Europe Alpbach Choirs 32 Interview with Theresa Hattinger and Clemens Wenger AUSTRIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 36 Technologies as the Key to Overcoming Crises by Martin Kugler THE FINANCING OF EUROPE’S FUTURE 40 Interview with Andreas Treichl 42 Terms of Trade Shock and the Loss of Wealth - are We Heading Back to the 1970s? by Rolf Strauch THE CLIMATE OPPORTUNITY 46 Interview with Marie Ringler 49 Energy Transformation is a Herculean ­Challenge with Multiple Benefits for All by Nebojša Nakićenović 51 A New Energy Order Rana Adib THE FUTURE OF DEMOCRACY AND THE RULE OF LAW IN EUROPE 54 Interview with Katja Gentinetta 56 Who Cares for the EU ? A Feminist Edge on Less Visible Challenges Ahead Stefanie Wöhl TabLE of conTEnT

»The desire for community, unity and peace has brought people to Alpbach for more than 75 years. Especially now, it is essential that we keep on working on this idea in order to ensure a strong Europe for generations to come.

«

Europe has changed overnight. Russia’s war of aggression in Ukraine has shaken our continent and inevitably led to an uncomfortable awakening of Europe’s society. Confronted with yet another crisis people struggle to hold on future perspectives and start doubting their former beliefs. For many decades, Europe was a guarantee for peace and prosperity. This dream ended abruptly, and we have woken up in a New Europe. That‘s why we have chosen »The New Europe« as our annual theme. A clear signal that we are now, more than ever, the place where we have to talk about Europe’s future. But what we need now are ideas and action! Action, as seen many decades ago when young people found the European Forum Alpbach. Action, as experienced in an enormous sense of solidarity among the people of Europe as a response the war in Ukraine. Action, as demanded from the participants of this year’s EFA22 event. For this year‘s magazine, we have invited international experts to give us a better impression of the themes that the European Forum Alpbach will be addressing this year. Especially what is required to make a sustainable contribution to strengthen Europe.

Andreas Treichl EFA President Feri Thierry EFA Secretary General

Let’s build The New Europe. Join us!

Once again, the EFA awarded scholarships to hundreds of outstanding young talents from around the world to participate at this year’s event. Students, young professionals and changemakers come to Alpbach and attend not only a high­level conference programme but also seminars and a variety of social and cultural activities. Howard Williamson, himself an insider of the Alpbach Seminars (former Seminar Week), explains what is new about this year’s programme. Jana Ganzmann and Robert Prosser both give insights into the seminars that they will be hosting during EFA22.

AP What is new about the Alpbach Seminars 2022?

HW A late colleague of mine once suggested that the European learning agenda was akin to cooking »eggs in a pan« – once they had fused together, it would be impossible to separate them again. Clearly, the war in Ukraine and the withdrawal of Russia from the Council of Europe has put this theory

HW Quite a lot is new, in fact. After a decade of steady evolu tion, during which Efa established a combination of scientific and creative seminars within one rather generic overarching theme, and by taking place in the morning and afternoon re spectively over one week, we now have the Alpbach Seminars. These will take place over two weeks and only in the mornings, thus integrating them more with other dimensions of the Efa programme. They will be anchored within the four thematic tracks of the overall programme: Climate, Finance, Security and Democracy. For each track there will be not only scientific (ac ademic and intellectual) and creative (personal and experiential) seminars, but also what might be called »skill-focused« seminars, in which more practical and applied competencies will be explored and developed.

Interview with

AP How will the Alpbach Seminars contribute to building »The New Europe« ?

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The geopolitical global landscape is in flux. On all four tracks, balances of power and spheres of influence are shifting. As with generations, interdependency, mutuality and reciprocity need to be the watchwords. Efa has already germinated an Africa Alpbach Network, through the participation of a rela tively small number of scholarship holders from Africa. There have also been participants from Asia and Latin America. Their presence strengthens intercultural dialogue and provides ideas as well as more concrete examples drawn from very dif ferent political, economic and social contexts. This enriches the debate. The four tracks that inform the Alpbach Seminars this year may be related explicitly to Europe, but they cannot be meaningfully interrogated and unravelled without reference to other parts of the world.

FoundationAlpbachForumEuropeantheofMemberBoardWilliamson,Howard

AP Why is exchange between European and non-European scholarship holders particularly important this year?

AP  HW

AP Why is it important that all generations engage in discussions on the four thematic tracks?

11IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

short bio Howard Williamson is Professor of European Youth Policy at the University of South Wales in the United Kingdom. Previously he worked at the Universities of Oxford, Cardiff and Copenhagen and has held visiting positions in Hong Kong, Malta, Zagreb, Beijing, Rennes and Tehran.

PanoramaAlpbach

HW The Alpbach Seminars provide a distinctive opportunity for an intensive, intellectual exchange of views and call to action among established individuals and talented young peo ple with diverse but invariably impressive backgrounds. There is not only intergenerational but also interdisciplinary and in tercultural cross-fertilisation of knowledge and perspectives. One might describe this as deep immersive learning, usually led and facilitated by (typically older) experts in their field, but critiqued and challenged by a younger generation who also often have expert knowledge arising from many different cul tural and intellectual roots.

and philosophy to the test. Once more, Efa22 — through its overall programme in general and through the Alpbach Seminars in particular — is a context in which the values that have hitherto shaped Europe have to be revisited, refreshed and reasserted. The four tracks frame that reassertion and endeavour to strengthen their current fragility. coP26 and the recent Un report propel the climate emergency to the forefront of many minds, knowing the urgency of the »green transition« . This has to be supported, however, with a reappraisal and reconstruction of finance arrangements and market relationships within and beyond Europe. And though the concept of security is, currently, inevitably directed towards matters of peace and security in central and eastern Europe, the idea of securing Europe’s future has much broader implications concerned with economic, political and diplomatic relations with other parts of the world. Democracy, human rights and the rule of law provided the underpinning of the » old « Europe since 1945 and now demand their own defence and renewal. Drilling into these four tracks — through expert lectures, dialogue and debate, practical exercises, experiment and experience, performance and participation during the Alpbach Seminars — will equip a cohort of scholarship holders to advocate for a »New Europe« with renewed rigour, vigour, competence and confidence.

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For a long time now, I have felt that the Forum has given me the chance to experience a variety of encounters, even unexpected ones. The fact that I received the opportunity to conduct a work shop — together with Diemut Schilling — to create a kind of exchange between locals and schol arship holders makes me very happy, especially due to the fact that I grew up in Alpbach, and that dialogue with others is at the core of my literary work. No different from many other villages in Tyrol, Alpbach is heavily characterised by tourism. Holidaymakers were part of growing up when I was young. To earn a little more income, my par ents‘ house functioned as a bed and breakfast. Birthdays, Christmas and New Year‘s Eve, all of the events throughout the yearly calendar, were shared with the tourists. This made them very close to me, and at the same time — hard to ex press in words, but inferred from the adults‘ be haviour — I sensed that my own family acted as a service provider. The foreigners paid for their holiday and expected to have a good time, in oth er words a fulfilment of Tyrol’s promises. The magic of the slopes, unspoilt nature, cosiness, après-ski, seemingly incompatible opposites which increasingly disgusted me the older I be came. The feeling grew and evolved into a neces sity for me to get away. Getting Away The classic biographical escape, a desire to get out of the alpine narrowness, make kilo metres, no, devour kilometres. To Asia and into the Caucasus for example, whatever could be accomplished as a student backpacker living on money saved up from part-time jobs. It is my belief that if you catapult yourself into the world, you land in stories. In early April, for example, I happened to be in Lviv in western Ukraine. It was cold and windy, snow fell during the nights, and a thin layer of ice covered the roofs and the mead ows in the park. Sometimes the war was very far short bio Robert Prosser is an author, performer and cu rator from Alpbach, Tyrol, where he still resides. His work reflects on his findings through his travels across the world — ranging from rap to recitation, curatorship and writing. away. But then you turned a corner and stumbled upon a funeral procession, a soldier was being buried, air-raid sirens sounded from the rooftops. With the help of a friend of mine, a journalist re porting from the border area, I intended to do some research on the refugee situation in Prze myśl, the Polish border town 80 km away from Lviv; I was interested in the network set up by non-governmental aid organisations, volunteers and idealists. At short notice, three ambulances, which were donated by Swedish hospitals, had to be brought to Lviv, and I got a chance to accompany the vehicle transfer. Weeks previously when the war broke out, there was a discussion among authors as to ways in which the art community in Western Europe could take a stand. Fundraising readings were organised, statements of support were posted on social media, efforts were made, yes, but they also seemed helpless. I told myself that it was a reliable fact that literature did not take effect until afterwards. Writing tends to have a very peculiar way of handling time: It takes time for a text to become readable, literature acts by focusing on the past, as a response to a mo ment in which pausing might not have been an option; it is a kind of memory store.

Foreign

Robert Prosser

Unheard Voices That, I thought, may also be the purpose of literature with regard to the war in Ukraine: in the hopefully not too distant future, to try to talk with the displaced people and the survivors, the vic tims and the offenders, and to write down the stories; all of the voices that would remain un heard, if it were not for means such as literature to make them audible. But maybe, I thought then, this belief in the power of art is just lulling me into a cosy sense of complacency. My acquaintance’s suggestion that I come to Przemyśl forced me, in a manner of speaking, to become more active. I was happy about this opportunity; at least I would be able to see with my own eyes what was hap pening in the border area, it would be a leap across the abyss, which the geographical dis tance and the stereotypical images were creating, which help us in our attempts to banish everything foreign.

»It takes time for a text to become readable, literature acts by focusing on the past, as a response to a moment in which pausing might not have been an option; it is a kind of memory store.«

our future — and with that I do not mean to use it as a business opportunity. For real hope to emerge, we need systemic change, we need a business and economic system which serves people and the planet, and we need to truly democratise market forces. We need to reframe entrepreneurship as a tool to solve social and/or environmental challenges instead of just maxim ising profits.Luckily, this shift is already happening. Innovation and entrepreneurship in its very essence have the purpose to bring about solutions for real problems. However, we need to go deeper and change underlying power structures to result in a more just wealth distribution, to counter the accu mulation of power, and to go beyond the need for growth in terms of physical resources. In our seminar »Humanity at the Crossroad« — which I have the privilege to co-host with Charly Kleissner – we dive into a systemic vision for the new impact economy as a solution for the 21st century chal lenges. The European Forum Alpbach provides an amazing backdrop for discussing these questions with young minds with different backgrounds and perspectives from all over the world. Before co-hosting this year’s seminar on »Humanity at the Crossroad«, I had the great privilege to be em powered by the Forum’s unique setting of spaces, formats and people in an interdisciplinary and am bitious environment to become an impact entre preneur. We need systematic change Of course, we need to go further than aca demic and philosophical discussions. We need to engage and make hard decisions to accelerate the necessary change. When people in power are asked what gives them hope, I often hear the an swer »It is the young people with a new mindset and consciousness who are the new future« . At first, this may seem and is even meant to be a compliment. But outsourcing all hope and re sponsibility to a generation that is not even al lowed to vote and mostly nowhere close to the power brokers and decision-makers of our times, seems frightening at best. What we need is systemic change pursued by all actors, whilst empowering underrepresent ed groups to be part of decision-making process es. Like most people in Alpbach, I myself am an embodiment of privilege: As a European, I grew up in one of the most prosperous places on earth with plenty of opportunities in education and freedom — none of which I created on my own. It is my privilege that drives me into action. As en trepreneurs we need to become true explorers again and take courage in bringing about a more purposeful and impact-driven economy. And it is about acknowledging our own privilege — and harnessing it is a power for positive and system ic change.

With global warming, rising inequality and over use of the limited resources of our home, planet Earth, the current trajectory of humanity is chal lenging at best. Design flaws in our economic and financial systems prohibit a healthy and prosper ing future for humanity and the planet. Many see capitalism as the root cause for unsustainable extraction and power abuse. Ever since the be ginning of capitalism, economists and sociologists have debated the challenges, benefits and opportunities of this system — from inequality and the concentration of power to the principles of freedom and autonomy. Capitalism has con tributed to growth and prosperity for many, while also exploiting nature and driving generations of people into poverty. The times have ended, when we needed this type of economy as an instrument to bring about progress in terms of wealth. It is time to be bold We are transitioning into a new era, where we need the system to solve new challenges: how to enable all people to live a meaningful and pur poseful life, how to drastically reduce our global emissions, and how to ethically deal with powerful new technologies. It is time to be bold and reframe and fun damentally change our market economy to a purpose it has originally been given. To see the market economy as a positive power to improve short bio Jana Ganzmann has studied non-profit, social and health care management spe cialising in innovation and entrepreneurship. She has been an Efa scholarship holder in 2019 and will be a seminar chair at Efa22. She is a co-founder of the Impact Hub Tirol.

Crossroad—Timefor

Jana Ganzmann

Humanity at the a New Economic System and a UnderstandingNewofCourage

13ExpErt opinionEuropEan Forum alpbach panorama

Generating ideas for The New Europe — this is what the Alpbach Ideas are aiming for. Winfried Kneip, member of the EFA Board, explains what the new format is all about, which project phases are included, what results are expected and how the Alpbach Ideas will contribute to the future of Europe.

WK In Alpbach, there will be an Ideas Camp every afternoon during the Lab Week, in which concrete approaches to solu tions are to emerge from previously collected ideas. Ideas, in turn, will be shaped in different ways: on the one hand, mod erators will identify topics that received special attention during their own sessions, and on the other hand, scholarship holders and alumni from the Forum Alpbach Network will collect concrete problems in advance. Thirdly, ideas can also be contributed individually and spontaneously at a central location during the event in Alpbach by each and every participant. with

AP What is the concrete approach?

AP What are the Alpbach Ideas about?

WK The Alpbach Ideas is a format that generates ideas for the future of Europe and thus concerns the core of the European Forum Alpbach. There is now a place to weigh and eval uate ideas that are formulated by different groups of people and come up in different formats. From there, concrete ap proaches to current challenges are developed: climate change, the future of democracy, the security and financing of Europe, etc. In all these areas there are extraordinarily many ideas. But pointed solutions that are supported by different people and groups in an interdisciplinary way are few and far. We want to change that with the Alpbach Ideas.

Interview

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WK Alpbach has always been a place of ideas. On the one hand, many things have emerged here informally, but on the other hand, there have also been formats that actively promoted the generation of ideas. The concept of Alpbach Ideas and the Ideas Camp is new in that it creates space to concre tise these ideas, to record them and to develop them further for the future. It is a kind of memory of ideas that does not pose problems once but reflects and develops them year after year. The Alpbach Ideas do not end after this year’s event. They will continue to be developed, evaluated by a jury, supported and ideally re-examined, questioned and sharpened during Efa23 — until a solution is not only on the table, but also implemented.

short bio Winfried Kneip, Board Member of the European Forum Alpbach Foundation is Founder and Programme Director of Love Politics in Germany. He also works as a consultant and project devel oper in the fields of democracy, culture and education. He is board member of the PWc Foundation and was Managing Director of Stiftung Mercator.

17IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

AP What could be the concrete results of the Ideas Camp?

AP Why are ideas relating to the annual theme » The New Europe« particularly important?

AP  PanoramaAlpbach WK  KneipWinfried

WK One result could be a start-up idea. But it could also be an app, for example, or an idea that will take place as an event during the Efa next year. It could be a social movement that acts as a multiplier to get even more people on board. Of course, it is not yet clear what will happen, but we see enormous potential in the cooperation of visionary young people and experts from different fields. We expect a dynamic and motivation that will carry on from Alpbach. »Alpbach all year«, so to speak.

WK New Europe is an aspiration. This claim is undefined at first, in the sense that we don’t know what the new Europe will look like: Will it be a Europe that grows closer together and has a stronger union? Or will it be a Europe that remains en dangered, where democracy is even more at risk than it is at the moment? For me, the topic of »The New Europe« is very closely linked to the Alpbach Ideas, because it helps us to concretise the goals of the Forum, which have been identical for over 70 years, especially in difficult times. For me, the question is: Will we manage to find plausible concepts, solutions and ideas for Europe that actually carry the essence of shaping a new Europe and that contribute to strengthening cohesion and democracy in Europe?

From all the ideas and problems, clusters will be formed and condensed. The results will form the basis for the Ideas Camp, which will then focus on the development of concrete solutions. The idea is that there will be real cooperation between experts and scholarship holders, between scientists and artists, between decision-makers and activists. As a result, teams will form to work together on a specific issue until the next Forum or even beyond. To speed up the process, our team in Alpbach will be composed of different experts, especially trained in generating ideas, defining processes and accompanying projects.

AP What distinguishes Alpbach Ideas from previous formats?

➊ Until EFA22 Collecting Ideas 1

➍ 2 to 31 September Project Submission Period After Efa22, project teams will be built and projects will be drafted, describing partici pants and possible outcomes, and identify nec essary partners and mentors.

➑ EFA23: Project Presentation and Follow Up The European Forum Alpbach 2023 will give room to Alpbach Ideas project teams to let them both present their outcome and continue working on their solutions. SEP OCTJUN NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY

➋ During EFA22 Event Collecting Ideas 2: All Participants - Participants draw their ideas and challenges on a publicly open black board.

The project team, together with its men tors, will elaborate the project and work on deliv erables and outcomes to be presented and/or further discussed at the European Forum Alpbach 2023.

AUG

➌ As of 27 August Ideas Camp and Project Development

➋ During EFA22 Collecting Ideas 2 ➌ As of 27 August Ideas Camp and Project Development

➐ 31 October to 31 June Work in Progress

➍ 2 to 31 September Project Submission Period

➎ 31 September to 15 October Announcement of Winners A jury, consisting of Efa and fan members as well as partner representatives, will choose projects according to thematic tracks with prior ity on innovation. ➏ 15 October to 31 October Elaborating an Agreement The winning project teams and represent atives of th European Forum Alpbach will hold talks to thoroughly discuss each project, includ ing milestones, deliverables, financing and processes.

While new ideas can still be handed in also during Lab Week, already identified core topics will be summarised during the Ideas Camp and, under the guidance of process experts, trans formed into projects.

➎ 31 September to 15 October Announcement of Winners ➏ 15 October to 31 October Elaborating an Agreement ➊ Until EFA22 Event Collecting Ideas 1: Scholarships | FAN Scholarship holders and members of the fan are invited to identify specific challenges in their fields of action and formulate ideas on pos sible solutions.

- Hosts condense ideas and challenges dis cussed during their sessions and bring them to the Ideas Camp during Lab Week.

➑ EFA23 Presentation and Follow Up 19EuropEan Forum alpbach panorama

➐ 31 October to 31 June Work in Progress

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HT The Forum should be the natural place where you can speak to partners in Europe about the re gion’s development and integration. Unfortunately, this doesn’t occur automatically, we need to put in an effort to make that happen. And the Efa offers the perfect conditions for it: Austria has something of a pivotal function for Central Europe. Its very close historical ties to the Western Balkans addi tionally put Austria at a competitive advantage. It can draw on a tremendous wealth of knowledge and continuosly grown connections in the region. Even if possible accessions to the EU have come to a halt: the group of countries has great potential and could make very valuable contributions to the Union.

AP Why is particularly this geographic region so important for the European Forum Alpbach?

AP What objectives is the European Forum Alp bach pursuing with its current focus on the West ern Balkans and Croatia?

Focus Topic: The Western Balkans and Croatia short bio Efa Board member and Senior Researcher at the Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar in Zagreb, co-founder and managing partner of THE cIVIcS Innovation Hub and the Foundation Znanje na djelu 2016-2018 Deputy Head of the German Federal Agency for Civic Education.

HT Our aim is to establish a long-term collabo ration with the region. And, the Western Balkans should be perceived as an entirely natural part of Europe and not as problem areas. To this end, we are planning the integration of a variety of players across all disciplines: the focus will no longer be limited to politics; instead we want to team up with scientists, artists and businesspersons; and espe cially with people who were abroad and are now –back in their home coun try — pressing ahead with developments and standing up for a strong Europe for all of us. This will be reflected during the Efa22, when more people from the Western Balkans than ever before will be taking part in the chats, workshops and stage events. This inten sified link to the region will also leave a more lasting mark on the Euro pean Forum Alpbach and will be reflected through out the year — particular ly due to the collabora tion with the clubs and IGs on site.

HT The countries in the Balkans have always played a major role for the European Forum Alp bach, especially during the time Erhard Busek was president of the Forum. His strong commitment to the region was significant in the European arena. Over the last 10 to 15 years, it led to the establish ment of a very lively network of clubs in the coun tries of Southeast Europe. The clubs not only col laborated very actively with each other, individual ones also implemented their own projects, such as the Summer School in Belgrade. In recent years, the activities lessened somewhat in frequency for a variety of reasons, the main one being the pandem ic, but the generational change within the clubs posed particular challenges too. In late 2021, the Efa Executive Board finally resolved to resume its support for the clubs and step up activities in the region. Of course this is not something that can be achieved in a matter of a few months or even a year; it needs to be looked at from a long-term perspective. What we are aiming at with this current focus is to secure the clubs’ activities for the long term, so that young people from the region, who are committed to strength ening their countries in a European context, receive support.

the first time. Building strategic alliances is critical, now especially.

AP What does the collaboration with the region specifically look like?

HT After the board resolution, there were first several online meetings with the region’s club rep resentatives. An initial major meeting took place in Zagreb. In the run-up to and during the meeting there were talks with Advantage Austria, the Aus trian Ambassador and ERSTE Bank in order to es tablish links to businesses and find sponsors for scholarships. For this year this means that more than 40 young people from the region can partici pate in the European Forum Alpbach. Meanwhile, another meeting between the Efa and the clubs was held at the end of May in Skopje. Representatives of all clubs of the Western Balkans and Croatia as well as Feri Thierry and oth er Efa board members attended the fan Spring Conference. The team from North Macedonia was an excellent host and created the perfect condi tions for fostering exchange: exchange among each of the clubs, and also among former scholar ship holders, the Efa and those participating for AP

21IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

AP How is this focus going to be reflected in the European Forum Alpbach?

PanoramaAlpbach HT Hornstein-TomićCaroline withInterview theofMemberBoard FoundationAlpbachForumEuropean

Irene Giner­Reichl, EFA board member, emphasises that in order to meet Europe’s current security challenges, it is essential to consider a broad range of views, standpoints, professional and life experiences as well as to involve civil society, artists, scientists and politicians likewise. In this Panorama issue, Franz Eder and Martin Senn focus on the EU’s options to secure the future of Europe.

AP What will the track »Securing Europe's Future in a Globalised World« contribute to the general theme » The New Europe« ? IG We will focus on security in its multiple dimensions — and given the war of aggression against Ukraine, there is a height ened urgency to our deliberations. Many people feel that we are at a turning point and that the European — and indeed the post-World War II world order — has been shaken very badly, if it has not been obliterated altogether. Europe — first and fore most the European Union — and European citizens need to take part in the quest for a new peaceful order in Europe and globally. That includes scrutinising the adequacy of European defence policy, looking at the situation in neighbourhoods, ex amining the quality of partnerships, confronting perceptions of self with perceptions by others, and hopefully opening up new avenues of international cooperation. Security — in the human security lens that I prefer to adopt — is not only about military security, integrity of terri tory and upholding a state’s sovereignty as clearly important as that is. There are many interlinkages with the other three thematic strands — there is no human security if climate change makes our earth inhospitable for humans; if lawless ness undermines the functioning of communities; if discrimination excludes from the legitimate enjoyments of rights and with Interview 24

25IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

short bio Irene Giner-Reichl is an Austrian diplomate with thematic priority in global development, environment and multilateral cooperation. Among others, she worked as Austrian Ambassador in Chi na and Brazil. For years she has published and educated people in women rights and sustainable energy.

AlpbachForumEuropeantheofMemberBoardGiner-Reichl,Irene

IG Topics will include the war in Ukraine and the future of Russia; the European vision for a re-ordering of peaceful inter national relations, European military and defence capacities and strategies, including cyber resilience and food security. Special scrutiny will apply to regions that are of special rele vance to the EU , such as the Western Balkans or Asia, and the transatlantic relationship.

It is about transmitting to the next generation a Europe where people prosper in freedom and diversity, in a vibrant natural environment, enjoying and practicing solidarity with each oth er and humanity at large.

IG The future of Europe belongs to all generations, to all social strata, to all ethnic backgrounds, to women and men alike.The questions we are going to raise have no »right/false« answers; there is no black and white. It is more important to bring a broad range of views, standpoints, professional and life experiences to Alpbach, to hear from civil society, maver icks and artists just as much as we hear from holders of pub lic office and the »usual suspects« … Alpbach has a long tradition of offering »seminars« to young people from many parts of the world. In 2022, we will continue this tradition in a modified version. We also want to empower representatives of the younger generation to engage in all program elements and to bring their particular approaches to the questions under debate.

fundamental freedoms; if the lack of public resources perpet uates inherited disadvantages and social exclusion. Human security is about freedom from fear and freedom from want.

PanoramaAlpbach

AP What do you personally expect from the Efa22 sessions within the track? IG I hope that we are serious and honest with one another. That we neither fall prey to self-flattering nor to self-flagella tion. Europe faces major problems, in particular in the secu rity area. Europe also commands tremendous potential. I expect E fa 22 to shine a light on dimensions of Europe’s resilience, international standing, and its capacity to project a positive vision of a future for all.

AP Which topics will the track focus on?

AP Why is it important that all generations engage in discussions on these topics?

AP  IG

A SecurityAwakeningEuropeaninForeignandPolicy? of its foreign policy with its strategy doc ument »A Strategic Compass for Security and Defence « . In contrast to the 2003 EU Security Strategy and the 2016 Global Strategy, this Council document envisions a fundamental change of the Union’s strategic thinking. As Josep Bor rell, the High Representative and Vice-President of the Commission, ar gues in the foreword, the world is now »shaped by raw power politics«, and the »very principles upon which internation al relations are built« are at stake. According to this Strategic Com pass, the EU has » to make a quantum leap forward and increase [the] capacity and willingness to act, strengthen [the] resilience and ensure solidarity and mu tual assistance«. In this ambitious for eign and security policy agenda, the Un ion has to reinforce civilian and military capabilities, build and strengthen com mon command and control structures, and foster its relationship with naTo, the transatlantic partnership, and selected partners all over the world. At the same time, it has to ensure this transformation Franz Eder Martin Senn

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When the Treaty of Maastricht estab lished the Common Foreign and Security Policy (cfSP), the European Union start ed promoting itself as a »civilian power«. This was a deliberate counter-concept to raw power politics in international affairs. In the view of Europe, hard power had lost its relevance in a world of economic glo balisation. Against the background of this world view, promoting international trade, strengthening the rule-based internation al order, securing energy supplies, and preventing migration became the top priorities of EU foreign policy. At the same time, however, questions of military power and questions of how to strengthen the European security architecture be cameRussia’smarginalised.invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022 was therefore a harsh re ality check for the European Union. After a short period of shock, in which single members states such as Poland and the Baltic States but also the United States of America took the lead in reacting to Russia’s aggression, Brussels retook the initiative and set out a bold re-orientation

short bio Martin Senn is associ ate professor of international relations at the Department of Political Science of the Uni versity of Innsbruck and guest lecturer at the Vienna School of International Studies. short bio Franz Eder is an as sociate professor for foreign and security policy at the De partment of Political Science, University of Innsbruck.

Finally, even if the Union achieves to address these challenges, it has to avoid the mistake of letting the pendu lum swing too far into the direction of power politics. Other pressing challeng es such as climate change, migration or poverty that cannot be solved by military means will continue to affect Europe in the near and distant future. Thus, the EU has to manage both — it has to adapt to the future of power politics without abandoning its past as a civilian power.

»in a collaborative way and not in a frag mented, national manner«. It is still too early to tell whether Russia’s war against Ukraine is the beginning of Europe’s awakening in foreign and security policy or yet another missed op portunity. Yet it would not be surprising if the current crisis would have a cathartic effect on the European integration process. An urgently needed and sustainable re-orientation in the area of foreign, security and defence policy, and especially a deeper integration in this policy field, has to address at least five challenges.

First, the EU needs a common foreign and security policy that is in sync with the member states and their nation al interests. The EU must not be seen as a convenient vehicle to further certain national economic interests (first and foremost Germany), whereas others re frain from taking foreign- and defencepolicy positions at all (e.g., Austria). Mem ber states have to make up their minds about their visions for a future European security architecture before they bring together these visions at the Union level and search for a common strategy on how to achieve it. Second, the member states and the Union have to clarify what role military instruments play in foreign and security policy. How can member states contribute and pool their resources to a com mon defence? A Europe with 27 separate military organisations that fail to coordi nate military investments, that lack common command and control structures, and that put national organisational pol itics over common European interests, will never achieve the necessary military capabilities needed. Third, in this context, member states also have to think about their understanding of and commitment to the mutual assistance clause (Art. 42/7 of the Treaty on the European Union). In particular, this is true for the neutral states in the Union. They have to think hard about how to resolve the tension between neutrality and (European)Fourth,solidarity.intheprocess of thinking about the future of the European secu rity architecture, the EU and its member states have to address the question of how to shape their relations with the United States, Russia, and China in the long term. As far as the United States is concerned, Europe has to grapple with uncertainties of its commitment to European security. In view of the domestic polarisation and isolationist tendencies in the United States, strategic autonomy should become real policy rather than a mere catchword. Vis-à-vis Russia, Europe has to address the difficult question of how to integrate it into a new security architecture. Even though this may seem counter-intuitive at a moment when Russian troops commit atrocities in Ukraine and when Western policies are directed towards the containment of Russian aggression, leaving Russia completely outside this architecture would be a source of constant tensions and military conflict. Concerning the People’s Republic, the EU has to reconsider whether its policy of change via trade (that failed miserably in the case of Rus sia) is the right answer in confronting China on its way to the next economic and military superpower.

27ExpErt opinionEuropEan Forum alpbach panorama

International cultural institutions, artists, and local scholarship holders conceive and realise experimental and interdisciplinary works that are specifically tailored to the EFA. At this year’s event, designer and artist Theresa Hattinger presents an artistic intervention in public space, while musician Clemens Wenger provides a sound collage with Alpbach inhabitants and scholarship holders. Concerts amidst the Alps will be further artistic highlights during the EFA22.

with

On Sunday, 28 August 2022, several regional choirs will be giving a public performance together in Alpbach. A piece of music (compo sition and words) will be commissioned especially for the choirs. Ahead of the event, asked the choir members to get in the mood for their joint performance and confronted them the following questions.

If Alpbach village were a sound, what sound do you think it would be? If you want to let your thoughts run free, what music and what sounds inspire you? What sound do you miss in Alpbach?

we

What would the future sound like to you if you compared it to a sound? How would you describe your choir with just one word? 31

Clemens, you’re in the process of developing a soundscape and are pondering the question of how to transform Alpbach village into a sound instrument. Theresa, your installation for public spaces in Alpbach is all about ways in which we can return to making decisions by including our senses. In our interview, I would like to invite you both to reflect on the prevailing mood you are currently in with regard to your artistic process. You developed your ideas independently, yet they react to each other and will be presented together. CW I was inspired by something I found in an old Forum Alpbach pro gramme from the sixties: It was called ‘record concerts’. They would set up a record player somewhere, curate a programme and play rare record ings. I can picture it quite well, how everyone sat spellbound around the record player and listened to some recordings that might have been very hard to find back then. I imagine that people used to listen to music and its sounds more closely than we do today. After all, we’re exposed to background music and sounds all day long. I loved the idea of transferring such a nice old-fashioned format, where you play something to others, to the present day. And that’s how we got talking about these ‘listening stations’ and about a mixture of sound installation, collage and lots of recordings from all over the world.

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ES Right now each of you is developing an art project for the Europe an Forum Alpbach 2022. What we find important is that people who are once again meeting face to face in Alpbach get a chance to start feeling things again, that we appeal to their senses!

CW Well, something I’d really find beautiful would be if peoES

ES Clemens, with your soundscapes you don’t immediately have to show your true colours, but you gave some thought to the two expressions which also seem to be opposites: listening and hearing. In English (other than in German) there are two totally different words! CW In fact, the conceptual duality of listening and hearing occurred to me after I saw a draft of your installation, Theresa. In German we might refer to hören versus zuhören. Actually this is quite an important factor for a forum that is intended to enable dialogue, the fact that you listen actively. This listen ing is an essential democratic tool in society, and not only where music and our senses are concerned. There are plenty of courses where you can practise your rhetoric and learn how to convince others of your opinion. But far too little consider ation is given to active listening, to understanding something without instantly having to react to it. Allowing yourself to be impressed by an opinion or a sound — that’s something which naturally interests me as a musician and a composer. And that’s exactly what we want to offer in our sound installation. Just 30-second to two-minute slots, not a continuous installation. Pieces of music from soundscapes that are somehow dreamed up and mixed together to form a collage. We want to invite people to actively listen and then to keep calm, or calm down.

TH When you think about the Forum, a lot of charged content comes to mind, much of it is about opinions and forming opinions fast. You hear something and you must join in the discussion straight away, and if you’re too slow you’re stupid. Compared to that, the music and the sphere in general which you’re plan ning are things of beauty, because they immediately draw your attention but remain so informal.

CW You know, I’ve already seen drafts of your ‘decision trees’. That immediately reminded me of the airport: Of pri ority class and other classes. A kind of categorisation for which you first pay a price. But it’s good to be able to make decisions without having to pay for it.

TH I want to take advantage of this perceived unambigu ousness. Normally you know where you have to go.

CW Having to commit yourself to some sort of groups is an interesting subject. People are always being manoeuvred into such situations where they are asked very clearly to show their true colours, but very often it’s not that easy.

theatCuratorCulture&ArtsSchack,ElisabethEfa CW WengerClemens TH HattingerTheresa

short bio Wenger lives and works in Vienna as a musician and composer for contempo rary jazz, pop, and electronic music. He initiated the Jaz zWerkstatt Wien and acts as head of the Viennese soul band 5/8erl in Ehr’n for 18 years. short bio Hattinger is an in terdisciplinary artist and designer who works with typography, textiles, space, and drawings. Primarily, her work takes place in public spaces. She displayed her works in Vienna, St. Pölten, Leipzig, and Havana and col laboratively worked on stage design for experimental, per formative theatre and urban exploration projects. She also published a children’s book and lives and works in Vienna.

33IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

TH As for me, I was inspired by two things: one of them was when you told Elisabeth that there was once a visitor of the Efa who kept passing through a huge art installation at the entrance of the Congress Centre Alpbach (cca) over several days without noticing it once. I realised then that it would have to be something I would not simply be able to walk past. And the second inspiration was something funny that happened to me when I was about to buy two tickets at the museum, just after the ticket office had opened. After a queue had already formed, the ticket seller tried to herd the line of people into a guide rail system. He started setting up those posts, fixing the belts and so on. In the end, of course, the first were the last and vice versa. It was just very amusing. I thought to myself then that I wanted to create something where people had to voice their opinion on a subject in public. On the other hand, it isn’t really the voicing of an opinion as the question itself is unspecific. What I want to do is to bring about a discourse.

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TH It would really be cool if the participants of the Efa22 entered discussions and encounters differ ently on account of our projects. But that is one very optimistic wish. Nevertheless, people are sure to benefit from actively withdrawing for a moment.

»The idea is to collect sound recordings from the scholarship holders, mix them into a collage and incorporate them into the scenery at two places in Alpbach — in front of the CCA and on the village square.«

CW Organising public art in places such as Alpbach is pretty important. No one will be able to pass by Theresa’s installation and that’s a good thing.

TH It’s going to be a total experiment, and I imagine that half the people will probably stroll right through it quickly without wanting to look around, because they’re not keen on being distracted. And then again, there might be this other group which is open to discourse and starts considering: Now how did I interpret this word yester day? Why did I walk through on this side? I like this moment, because even the people who ignore it have to walk through and think about it, if only for a short time. And yes, it only appears to be a decision. That’s how it can be understood.

ES Theresa, do you think that your intervention in a could change the fundamental energy and the encounter culture of the people in Alpbach?

TH It has something to do with our habit of only reading the headlines. To me as an individual, a particular word may bring to mind a whole bunch of associations, but the person right next to me might think of something completely different. Actually, everyone ought to give much more thought to decisions like these. Every decision is more a question of socialisation than an opinion that I have actually made an effort to form. So how do I really interpret this word? In this respect, your decision and my decision are not the same, even if we walked through on the same side.

TH There is a selection I made spontaneously; additions will be made to it in coordination with the team and in accordance with the E fa 22 themes.

There are always such a lot of topics and too many interests swirling around in Alpbach, that’s why it’s a good thing to steer them somewhere, in an artistic way.

ES Just now, we have a situation in the world where Europe must decide, and also many people must decide, always individually, on which side they are on. How appealing is it to you to design an installation where you put people in a situation that provokes what appears to be a decision.

ES How do you approach your project, who is involved in it and what do you expect from it at the European Forum Alpbach 2022?

»It has something to do with our habit of only reading the headlines. To me as an individual, a particular word may bring to mind a whole bunch of associations, but the person right next to me might think of something completely different.«

35IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

ple who enjoy doing a lot of talking and are good at it stayed silent for five minutes and put on the headphones. And if you could just watch them doing it, watch them listening. I’ve been to the Forum twice and there were some brilliant talkers there. Once I saw Richard David Precht. No wonder he, as a philosopher, is such a public figure: it’s because he’s so good at talking. But I’d love to see him listening and not just constantly talking.

CW The idea is to collect sound recordings from the scholarship holders, mix them into a collage and incorporate them into the scenery at two places in Alpbach — in front of the cca and on the village square. It’s going to be a collage of sounds from all over the world, but also music which I will improvise, inspired by the collected sounds. It takes a rhythm, an arch and dynamics, which — combined with the material — give time a shape. I don’t do this on the drawing board, I like to play with it. And then I reflect on it, rearrange it and carry on playing.

A recent report by the Stockholm-based International Peace Research Institute SIPRI details that we are living in a new era of complex and often unpredictable risks. Multiple crises overlap and reinforce one another: the Corona crisis, cli mate change, biodiversity loss, energy crisis, the war in Ukraine. These and many other geopolitical tensions are increasingly affecting the lives of more and moreThepeople.multiple crises have massive economic and social impacts. These range from a shift in the terms of trade and thus prosperity in different regions to social tensions that can be a threat to democracy. Technologies offer an impor tant key to overcoming these crisis phenomena — this is the firm conviction of

The technology community is meeting at this year’s European Forum Alpbach to consider possible solutions to the multiple crises facing us today — from energy transition and more resilient supply chains to modern medical and communications technologies.

CrisestoasTechnologiestheKeyOvercoming

The traditional meeting of the technology community in Alpbach is curated by the aIT Austrian Institute of Technology and oRf Radio Ö1 in cooperation with the Eu ropean Forum Alpbach. The programme of these talks — along the four thematic tracks of the European Forum Alpbach 2022 — follows the major challenges fac ing humanity.

Hannes Androsch, doyen of the technol ogy symposium from the very beginning.

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Global supply chains Starting with the corona crisis and now massively intensified by the war in Ukraine, energy security has become a top issue of our days. What is needed is a comprehensive transformation of our energy system toward a system that si Martin Kugler, Austrian Institute of Technology

Integrative power of the arts

» Discussing Technology« will be pub lished again this year; it is dedicated to the topic »Applying Artificial Intelligence« multaneously ensures security of supply and climate protection. An international panel of top researchers and industry representatives is looking for ways to completely rethink our energy system.

The panel will discuss fundamental requirements for the future energy supply and for ways to make our use of resources more resilient, sustainable and secure. The energy crisis is embedded in the tur moil facing international supply chains. These lifelines of the global economy have been running anything but smoothly since the outbreak of the pandemic: closed ports and slaughterhouses, shortages of containers, lack of truck drivers, etc. Thus, supply routes for both the industry and global food supply have be come uncertain. Top-class experts will analyse the underlying common mechanisms for seemingly unrelated develop ments from the perspective of complexity research and practice. This will provide a solid ba sis for conceptualising a more resilient and climate-friendly global economic system. RNA-based medicine Just how crucial technology can be in shaping the future has recently be come clear, particularly in biotechnolo gy: innovative Rna-based vaccines have proved to be rapidly available and effec tive weapons in the fight against the Covid-19 pandemic. In recent years, it has become clear in laboratories around the world that this technology can do much more: numerous areas of medi cine, especially the treatment of cancer, but also, for example, the regeneration of damaged tissue, can benefit greatly from Rna-based therapeutics. In coop eration with the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, the oppor tunities as well as the risks and hurdles for this medical field of hope will be discussed.Of course, technology is always a coin with two sides: Knives or automo

At the meeting of the technology community in Alpbach, the role of the arts in the necessary transformations facing our social and economic system will also be intensively discussed. An interdisciplinary debate in cooperation with the University of Applied Arts Vienna will outline new ways to encourage people to rethink, to act, and to creatively prepare society for future upheavals.

37ExpErt opinionEuropEan Forum alpbach panorama

biles are very useful things, but they can also be misused as lethal weapons. The same applies to information and com munication technologies. Not least in the war in Ukraine, the internet has be come a war zone — an infowar and a cyberwar are raging. On the one hand, the real fighting in Ukraine is accompanied on social media by videos of battles, fleeing people and bombed buildings. In the fight for narratives, heroic stories seamlessly line up with disinformation. On the other hand, hacktivists are engaged in an exchange of blows using all digital means at their disposal: from the shadows of the internet, warlike hacker groups attempt to damage the other side and to paralyse infrastructures, among other things.

RTI talk: Debate on future solutions

»New Europe« is facing great chal lenges, and it is urgent that new answers are given from Europe itself. In the open ing RTI talk, which has become a valued tradition, top representatives of politics and industry will be on hand to answer questions.Finally, this year again the personal exchange and intensive further process ing of the four thematic tracks of the Fo rum are possible. Highly attractive and solid content sessions deepen these top ics, far from marketing and advertising purposes. In preparation for reading and further input before the talks, the yearbook

In the activist spirit of Alpbach, we will examine opportunities to revive the European story with-in the digital economy of the 21st century. In intergenerational dialogues, Andreas Treichl will discuss how to further develop the continent into a vibrant capital market. Featuring in this chapter is also economist Rolf Strauch, who puts emphasis on financial challenges that families and firms are currently facing.

AT Certainly a lot! The war in Ukraine has resulted in severe disruptions of trade and financial flows as well as in a collapse in asset values. These developments will lead to a re-orienta tion of economic interlinkages, not only in Europe but also globally, in a way we have not witnessed in decades. While debt levels have already been increasing steadily over the last years, these disruptions will pose additional challenges, not only to the growth but also to the financial underpinning of numerous companies. Eventually, those who will have to bear the con sequences of these developments are numerous industries as well as private individuals — especially the ones who are financially non-resilient. I strongly believe that it is Europe’s obligation not to leave anyone behind in this context. Consequently, the track »The Financing of Europe’s Fu ture« will address the major financial drivers and consequenc es of these developments. Looking back, Europe had an im pressive post-world war development by providing growth, jobs, social security, and stability in an unprecedented manner.

AP What will the track »The Financing of Europe’s Future« contribute to the general theme »The New Europe« ?

Recent events though, like the health crisis and Russia’s war in Ukraine, have shown us that Europe has become more and more vulnerable. In Alpbach we want to examine how Europe can flourish even in times of volatility.

The Financing of Europe’s Future

Interview with 40

PanoramaAlpbach

AP Why is it important that all generations engage in discussions on these topics?

AT The track focuses on the major economic and financial consequences of Russia’s war in Ukraine. If we want to rise to these challenges, we require additional finance. Without well-functioning financial markets and a better developed Eu ropean capital market, our efforts to master these consequences will not bear fruit. Now more than ever, we need to ensure that European citizens have fair access to financial instruments. We need to highlight the importance of econom ic and financial education across all walks of life to be able to secure Europe’s future and the financial independence of its citizens. At the same time, we look at fundamental digital de velopments, from crypto to decentralised finance, which are about to change our traditional financial system for good. Eu rope must not fall behind in the global competition for digital innovation in comparison to Asia and the USa . Therefore, we need to take the right steps towards more integrated financial markets and a more positive view on entrepreneurship. Final ly, to revive the European success story, we must have a close look at the impact of rising social imbalances as well.

AP  AT

AP What do you personally expect from the Efa22 sessions within the track? AT As a father of three sons, I want to envision a prosperous European future — not only for the current generation but also for those to follow. To succeed in that, we need to see the opportunities and also the challenges which lie ahead of us: Europe is not yet a data union, a network union, a transport union, an education union, a capital markets union and only to a limited extent a fiscal union. Obviously, we need to address these challenges while interlinking it with the Security, De mocracy and Climate Tracks. Various formats such as a threeday retreat, stage discussions, workshops and hikes will foster interdisciplinary and interactive exchange between speakers, experts, and participants. Right now, it is essential to turn this momentum into an opportunity for a strong and peaceful Europe — for the New Europe!

AT Cross-generational dialogue is a core element of the Eu ropean Forum Alpbach. It is our clear mission to bring togeth er people from all parts of society and invite them to an inter disciplinary exchange of ideas. Young scholarship holders from all over Europe — and beyond — have the opportunity to engage with people from academia, politics, and business. By doing so, we want to spark ideas and actions for a strong and dem ocratic Europe. For this, we need to include the youth at all costs, as they are the ones who are affected by the rising ine quality or the current monetary policy. For many of them, it will hardly be possible to build up assets from their own in come alone. Clearly, there is a lot of work ahead of us. It is precisely this mindset of sharing and challenging ideas be tween different generations which have inspired so many to come to Alpbach ever since its founding in 1945.

short bio Andreas Treichl, the president of the Efa, served for more than 23 years as cEo of Erste Group, one of the leading retails banks in cEE. In 2003 he founded ERTSE Foundation, which is the bank’s main owner and acts as an nGo, utilising dividends for social and cultural projects in the region.

AlpbachForumEuropeantheofPresidentTreichl,Andreas

41IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

AP On which topics will the track focus?

Terms of Trade Shock and the Loss of Wealth — Are We Heading Back to 1970s?the

short bio

Rolf Strauch

The Russian invasion of Ukraine is undoubtedly a humanitarian and geopolitical tragedy that is also stifling economic recovery from the pandemic and introducing renewed uncertainties. House holds and companies are facing supply disrup tions and higher prices. The rise in energy prices and in a broad range of products has reached an unprecedented pace not seen in the Economic Monetary Union so far, raising questions about how families and firms can address these costs.

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Targeted fiscal support can help cushion the blow to vulnerable households. Governments can help by pushing the energy transition forward and by reducing or diversifying energy import depend encies.

Over the past year, the price of energy and other commodities imported into the euro area in creased faster than the price of its exports, dis advantaging its economy. The rebound of global demand following the pandemic crisis initially drove this change. Initially, euro area economies suffered from the higher costs of imports, but higher demands for its exports partially balanced this out. Renewed supply shortages emerging from the war now drive up prices in goods export ed by Ukraine and Russia (and imported by Eu rope), such as energy, food, and metals. Real income loss — from deteriorating terms of trade — has reached magnitudes com parable to the big oil price shock of the 1970s. The terms of trade deterioration will add to infla tionary pressures in the euro area and put a dent

on growth. First, the inflationary pressure will hinge on how commodity prices will affect the cost of living, which may only be fully apparent in a year. Later, the inflationary effect will depend on how they affect wage- and price-setting. The precise impact will differ across euro area coun tries, depending on each country’s energy de pendency, trade structure and wage-bargaining system.While there are fears that the euro area may end up in an extended period of » stagfla tion « (combination of higher prices and low growth) like in the 1970s and 1980s, several ar guments point to Europe’s higher resilience to energy price shocks than in the past. Higher resilience First, lower energy dependency has made the euro area economies less vulnerable to ener gy price hikes. Energy consumption per person has been declining over the past decades. Simi larly, the energy intensity — i.e., energy used to produce a given level of output — has decreased, weakening the impact of fuel price increases.

The current increase in oil, gas, grain, and metal prices translates into major changes in terms of trade for countries around the world (i.e., the relative price of their imports and exports).

Also, the share of energy in European countries’ foreign trade has declined overall. This has a lot to do with the energy mix within euro area countries, which have increased their pro duction of nuclear and renewable energy (see Figure 1). There are substantive differences in the specific structure of the energy sector across countries.Second, labour markets function differently than in the past and generate less persistent inflationary pressures. Today, labour unions are less powerful than in the 1970s as they rally a lower share of workers behind them. In addition, there is less wage indexation wage setting, which

Rolf Strauch is Chief Economist and Management Board Member in charge of Economic and Market Analysis, Economic Risk Analysis and Financial Sector and Market Analysis of the European Sta bility Mechanism (ESM) and the European Financial Stabi lity Facility (EfSf).

Consequences of a multiple crises

1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2020 65707580 2005 2010 2015 60

Total generation automatically links wages to price increases. In earlier crises, especially after the second oil price shock, many workers would also retire early or otherwise drop out of the labour market entirely (see Figure 2). This increased wage pressure and is much less visible now due to past reforms. Third, the European Central Bank can build on its strong reputation, as inflation expectations have remained aligned with the objective of price sta bility over the medium-term. Once inflation ex pectations become de-anchored (i.e., consumers and businesses do not believe the central bank will meet its price stability objective), tighter than expected monetary policy may be required to re-anchor them. This is more costly for growth, as higher interest rates push up the cost of bor rowing and weaken consumption and investment.

Figure 2 Labour force participation rate in the euro area with the 12 member countries until 2021 (15—64 years) Note: Grey bars refer to the Centre for Economic Policy Research recession defini tion. Source: European Com mission (aMEco database), Centre for Economic Policy Research

Uncertainty remains Deteriorating terms of trade lead to a loss of income and wealth, but the euro area economy is overall better prepared to weather commodity price hikes than in the past. This should make its impact less persistent, but one just must be mindful that it is unknown how the war will evolve and that me dium- to long-term repercussions are uncertain.

43ExpErt opinionEuropEan Forum alpbach panorama

Nuclear Hydro Other renewable 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2.5002.0001.5001.00050003.0003.500

Figure 1 Electricity generation in the EU (in terawatt hours) Source: British Petroleum

Policy measures In terms of policy response, the loss of wealth cannot be entirely avoided or corrected. The increases in energy and food prices will affect the poorest most, as they consume a large part of their earnings. Governments can aim to cushion the im pact for the most vulnerable with targeted policies. For firms, the need for policy support depends on how energy-intensive the sector is and on whether access to financing from banks and markets re mains possible. From a longer-term perspective, a rapid and effective deployment of the Next Gener ation EU fund seems increasingly vital. Enforcing the green transformation and strengthening ener gy diversity was already a key objective for the fu ture, but a crisis has made the urgency to act more acute.

In the light of current geopolitical realities, interdependencies between the climate crises and geopolitics have become apparent. Consequently, Rana Adib, Executive Director of REN21 and Nebojša Nakićenović , author and former Deputy Director General of IIASA, urge for energy transformation and a new energy order. These developments also require social change. Marie Ringler, EFA vice president, is convinced that Alpbach provides the perfect environment for individuals who give themselves permission to act, to think big and hence to promote this needed social change.

AP What will the track »The Climate Opportunity« contribute to the general theme »The New Europe« ? MR In light of the current geopolitical realities on the ground, the inter dependencies between the climate crisis and geopolitics have become apparent. The connection has always existed, yet we have had the tenden cy to push climate change and its all-encompassing effects to the back of our minds. In order to challenge this perspective, »The Climate Opportu nity« track will let us have a close look at the levels at which climate crisis issues are connected to other global questions and crises. We will seek to understand how we can get better at addressing and solving crises that show their consequences in the long run and whose implications for the future may be too complex to comprehend at their onset. In the energy debate, we wish to make it a point in Alpbach that we with

Interview

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short bio Marie Ringler is the european head of the world’s largest network of social entrepreneurs, Ashoka. She is a politics and innovation expert and contributes her broad knowledge particularly to the track The Climate Opportunity.

cannot allow ourselves to let our insatiable demand for energy torpedo our global and European climate action goals. We must see this situation of insecure energy supply as an opportunity to focus our actions on enabling a sustainable, just and inclusive (energy) transition that really deserves this name.Europe has the opportunity to become a real leader when it comes to tackling not only the threats but also opportunities of the ongoing cli mate crisis. The European Green Deal serves well as a blueprint that guides policies and action in the coming years. If we are able to mobilise everyone behind its core principles and to take action, we could bring about a Euro pean response that inspires and goes beyond political pragmatism.

AP Which topics will the track focus on?

MR

47IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

MR We chose the framing of the Climate Opportunity Track to not only add to the discussion by reframing our current situation but to specifical ly surface untapped potential and ideas, low hanging fruits and missed opportunities.Somany questions related to the provision of our energy sources have been with us since the Russian war of aggression in Ukraine. The topics of sustainable energy generation and energy security will thus play a key role within the programme.

MR Social change has always come from individuals, like you and me, who gave themselves permission to act, to think big. When every one of us takes action in our different roles in society, we can truly unleash the creativity needed to overcome the greatest challenge humanity has every Infaced.Alpbach, we want to show that by working together, focusing on the opportunities and taking action rather than continuing to delay or work with temporary fixes, with creativity and ingenuity we can use this climate crisis to achieve solutions that mitigate climate change, but, notably, also to »multi-solve« the many other inequalities and challeng es we are facing. We hope that after 2 September, everyone who has been to Alpbach will see perspectives rather than obstacles, holistic interconnections and solutions rather than dispersed questions.

MR There is a huge momentum among the young generation demand ing truly sustainable action and responsible decision-making. We should be grateful for how much they press for urgency in their demands and how uncomfortable their requests may feel for some parts of the polit ical and corporate elite. The young generation is more thorough ly in formed than ever, and it knows that its demands are based on scientific findings. Instead of leaving young people out in the cold, let’s have them guide us in shaping where the journey of our future needs to go. At the same time, we also need to radically rethink how we think of representation and what we conceive as democratic processes. It is a lost potential for change if voters above 70 years of age have four times more voting power than voters below 20, as is currently the case in Austria, for example. We need to go beyond mere discussions with the youth – if we really want to induce systemic transformation, it is crucial that young people’s voices have a weight in decision-making processes.

How to mobilise people and resources for purposeful climate action has been the sparking question with which we launched »The Climate Oppor tunity« track last year. We want to build on this, as I firmly believe that all of us have a role in solving the climate crisis. Equally, I daresay that the urgency for action has become mainstream thinking by now, and we wish to leverage this emerging mindset by sparking action towards renewal, systemic change, and transformative solutions.

If Europe were to show the way, others will follow.

AlpbachForumEuropeantheofPresidentViceRingler,Marie

PanoramaAlpbach

AP What do you personally expect from the sessions within the track?

AP Why is it important that all generations engage in discussions on these topics?

AP

Das Schöne an Meinungen ist, dass jeder Mensch eine hat. Das Komplizierte ist: Viele haben eine andere als wir. Wir können jetzt einfach versuchen, lauter zu schreien. Oder Haltung zeigen und zuhören. Und vielleicht draufkommen, dass wir falsch liegen. Oder alle ein wenig richtig. derStandard.at

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Transformation

The transformation should be catalysed by support of a coordinated combination of policies, measures and instruments, including carbon pric ing as a driving force, to shape an effective, con sistent and just regulatory system. It is essential, however, that the revenues from auctions of trad able permits or from carbon tax are used to sup port those at the risk of energy poverty as well as to support energy innovation and investments toward efficiency and decarbonisation.

Nebojša Nakićenović

is a Herculean Challenge with Multiple Benefits for All

other challenges facing humanity and especially for those without access to affordable and clean energy services. But the transformation is not a merely technical and economic issue. It is about people, about societies and about values and be haviours. This means that new inclusive govern ance approaches would need to be integrated in energy policies to make the transition successful and just. Support for households at risk Of highest importance in the wake of es calating energy prices is to initiate an immediate support for households at risk of energy poverty. Some 30 million Europeans have been facing this risk even before the enormous increase of ener gy prices so that now the number must be sub stantially larger. In addition, upfront investments to increase the share of low-carbon, less import-dependent and more affordable and reliable energy should be supported because this would reduce energy costs and import dependence in the long term. In Europe, revenues from carbon trading permits and carbon tax could be used to achieve these two important financing goals in a revenue-neutral way.

Policies, measures and instruments

Humanity is facing formidable challenges, from war and food insecurity to the pandemic and ever-increasing pressure on the Earth systems including climate change. Important commit ments have been made since the adoption of the United Nations 2030 Agenda with its 17 Sustain able Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015, but not nearly enough given the Herculean task ahead. To achieve the Paris Agreement, greenhouse gas emissions need to follow the »carbon law« , namely be halved every de-cade and approach net zero by mid-century — and yet the global emissions have increased at an unprecedented rate last year. Ambitious com mitments have been made by many nations dur ing the Glasgow Climate Conference last year. Importantly, Europe is poised to become the first fully decarbonised continent by 2050 (Fit for 55 legislature) while Austria has committed to achieve this ambitious climate target a decade earlier and complete electricity decarbonisation in merely eight years. The key are renewables Energy is central to the challenge of achieving climate neutrality of the world. The priority is to invest in decarbonisation and effi ciency. The key are renewables because they are often the cheapest source of energy and would catalyse the pervasive transformation toward efficiency and zero-carbon electricity. Major chal lenges are mobility, transport, heating, and cool ing. Electric and hydrogen vehicles and heat pumps would lead to decarbonisation and sub stantially higher efficiencies. This should be com plemented by investments in other essential components of the energy system such as hydro gen and other zero-carbon energy carriers. Of special importance is the carbon capture and removal from sustainable biomass and na ture-based solutions such as reafforestation and sustainable agricultural practices that would all result in net negative emissions that would be needed especially in case the world does not achieve climate neutrality by mid-century. This fundamental transformation would bring multiple co-benefits for health, climate and Energy

In its 2021 Scientific Opinion on the ener gy transition in Europe, the Group of Chief Scien tific Advisors to the European Commission puts people at the centre. It recognises the essential roles of all actors and stakeholders in creating an inclusive and participatory environment so that decarbonisation and efficiency are the preferred and most natural choice of all to achieve a sus tainable, safe and just future.

short bio The author is Emeritus Scholar and the former Dep uty Director General of IIaSa , former tenured Professor of Energy Economics at Vienna University of Technology and is a Member of the Group of Seven Chief Scientific Advi sors to the European Com mission.

49ExpErt opinionEuropEan Forum alpbach panorama

creative heartwork Great ideas are fun. That’s why we’re extra motivated to create and realize them for you. We are a digital creative agency based in Vienna with a drive towards forward. Always standing for the good cause and the brandingexperience.betterFromtoUI/UX,fromcontenttocommerce,fromtexttodesign,fromtheheart.

ed States, and more than 1,500 cities had re newable energy targets and/or policies in 2021, up from 1,300 in 2020.

Moving away from fossil fuel also results in reducing import dependence and in strength ening energy security and sovereignty. Some countries heavily rely on energy imports to cov er demand. The EU imports 97 % of its oil and petroleum needs and 84 % of its natural gas needs. Developing renewable generation reduc es and could even replace fossil fuel imports and limit the vulnerability to geopolitical threats and the fluctuating and rising fossil fuel prices.

Renewables’ further potential Renewables also carry the potential to transforming value chains and stimulating local economic development. They create jobs throughout the energy value chain, from man ufacturing to installation to maintenance. More than 12 million people work in renewable ener gy jobs, and (re)skilling engineers, installers and workers as drivers of the energy transition of fers massive economic and human development opportunities. The urgency of collective action The current energy crisis must be a turn ing point to replace fossil fuels with renewables, and we must seize this historic moment to ush er in a systemic transformation of the global economy and society as we know it. Renewable energy needs to become the backbone not only of our energy system, but our economy and so ciety. This requires courage and collaboration among governments, industry and citizens. Col lectively, we can and must transform ambition into action and results — now!

short bio Rana Adib is the Exe cutive Director of REn21. Prior to REn21, she worked in private industry and ap plied research in the areas of renewable energy, energy access and waste manage ment, gathering over 20 years of experience in the energy sector.

51ExpErt opinionEuropEan Forum alpbach panorama

2021 was supposed a new, greener beginning. While the year offered bright spots of hope, the historical chance for a green recovery has been lost. The spike in energy prices in the second half of the year, followed by the Russian Feder ation’s invasion of Ukraine in early 2022, con tributed to an unprecedented global energy crisis to which governments responded with short-term measures to keep energy under con trol. This situation has exposed the world to evermore pressing climate disasters and the rising threat of energy poverty for billions of people.It doesn’t have to be this way. The deploy ment of renewable energy associated with en ergy saving and energy efficiency measures can address our energy vulnerability and drive a global and local socio-economic development that is resilient, inclusive, fair and equitable.

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Rana Adib

A

Renewable energy systems build on local renewable resources — wind, solar, water/hydro, biomass, geothermal — and, with the appropri ate technologies, allow for decentralised gen eration. This is the building block of a local and decentralised, interconnected and more resil ient energy system. A growing diversity of energy producers With the right regulatory framework, the decentralised nature of renewable energy also enables a diversity of players – including city governments, companies and citizens – to be come energy producers. In 2021, across the world, corporate power purchase agreements increased by 24 % to more than 31 GW (com pared to an 18 % increase to 24.7 GW in 2020). Community energy projects also have emerged from Japan and Germany to Nigeria and the Unit

EnergyNewOrder

With Russia’s war in Ukraine, we are finding ourselves at a historical turning point. EFA vice president and political philosopher Katja Gentinetta is convinced that at this stage, building »The New Europe« means to rethink strategies for coping with the spread of authoritarianism and citizens’ loss of trust in democracies as well as to develop creative ideas for building resilient democracies. Within this context, Stefanie Wöhl, professor of political science, emphasises the urgency to consider the organisation of care on a wellinterconnected European continent.

AP What will the track » The Future of Democracy and the Rule of Law in Europe « contribute to the general theme » The New Europe « ? KG We are presently finding ourselves at a historical turn ing point. Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine is a war that concerns all of Europe — not only because it rep resents one of the most pressing security threats in recent European history, but also because this aggression is tar geting the core values of European democracies and Eu rope’sMoreover,self-understanding.thetrending global crisis of democracies is also a big concern in Europe: building the New Europe means to rethink strategies for coping with the spread of authoritarianism and citizens’ loss of trust in democracies as well as to develop creative ideas for building resilient democracies.Weneed new concepts and solutions, and we urgent Interview with 54

AlpbachForumEuropeantheofPresidentViceGentinetta,Katja

»I look forward to an inspiring learning experience and new connections, which is a fundamental element of Alpbach’s magic.«

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KG E fa has a unique history of involving youth since its founding moment, and we believe youth is an important voice in shaping our future. The involvement of all gener ations and cross-sectoral dialogue are necessary to learn from each other’s perspectives and to become aware of the complexities of societal issues to which we respond differently depending on our situatedness. Especially for the younger generation it is important to learn the lesson of trade-offs and strategic compromises, as reality is only the second best world we can live in.

KG I look forward to an inspiring learning experience and new connections, which is a fundamental element of Alp bach’s magic. And I sincerely hope that we will find a com mon and concrete starting point to move Europe forward.

55IntervIeweuropean Forum alpbach panorama

AP On which topics will the track focus?

short bio Katja Gentinetta is a political philosopher, busi ness columnist and university lecturer. In her works she draws on her broad back ground of experience and indepth knowledge of the logic of policits, the needs and perceptions in society and the demands of the corporate world. ly need to listen and learn from each other because this change needs to be founded upon a broad social consensus that should be supported across all sectors and genera tions of society. The track » The Future of Democracy and the Rule of Law in Europe « offers engaging spaces for de bating these issues and for moving this important project forward.

KG The Russian war of aggression against Ukraine has been a catalyst for intensified cooperation in key areas amongst European states. But the question is: Is this enough? We are finding ourselves at a critical juncture, which bears potential for setting a new normative compass for Europe’s future. The track will focus on this opportunity.Another focus will be on how to tackle democratic backslides. The curbing of civic spaces which are fun damental to democratic participation, disinformation and the struggle to maintain rule of law are some of the main challenges we need to address for securing Europe’s dem ocratic future. We need to regain citizens’ trust and to forge a more active engagement in our future political sys tems.Ultimately, this also requires us to rethink more gen erally our very concept of democracy and of political leadership.

E fa aims to move issues forward and demands that we take the value of decision-making seriously. And for making good choices, we need inclusive spaces that help becoming aware of each other’s dreams and hopes as well as to navigate different interests and create collective re sponses.

AP What do you personally expect from the European Forum Alpbach 2022 sessions within the track?

PanoramaAlpbach

AP Why is it important that all generations engage in discussions on these topics?

AP  KG

Who Cares for the EU?StefanieWöhl

bility and Growth Pact, which resulted in most member states in austerity policies after the fi nancial and economic crisis, were at least tem porarily dismissed. This departure from austerity measures was an urgently needed shift as debt containment essentially considers national com petitiveness, and this strategy proved unsuitable to react to the complexity of multiple crises and the pandemic.

The pandemic has not only provoked a ma jor economic shock, but it also painfully revealed systemic lacunae in the domain of care. Care re sponsibilities were overburdening private individ uals and their families. The hospital sector was also badly hit. The lack of material and hospital beds in the beginning and chronically exhausted and overworked staff are tangible revelations of

Rethinking the EU’s care system

The Russian attack on Ukraine has certainly ad vanced a more unitary picture of the EU . Howev er, there are still member states that refuse to fully adhere to EU law, and there are ongoing dis putes that need to be overcome. One central dispute concerns the EU’s future engagement with social policy and the organisation of care, which deeply affects the tissue of European societies.

A Feminist Edge on Less ChallengesVisibleAhead

The multiple crises, which we are experi encing not only in the EU but globally, made Eu ropean leaders reconsider some of their former strategies. Particularly the premise of debt con tainment within the Single Market and the Sta

If the European community was »born out of cri sis« , 2022 surely marks a year of multiple crises: the ongoing war in Ukraine, the pandemic, the refugee crisis, the climate crisis and the care crisis are major challenges that need to be tackled by the European Union and its member states.

short bio Stefanie Wöhl holds the EUStefanie Wöhl holds the EU Jean Monnet Chair on »Diversity and Social Cohe sion in the European Union« and is professor of political science at the University of Applied Sciences bfI Vienna, Austria.

Action must be taken now Even though the pandemic has made the importance of care and the pressing issues in this societal domain highly visible, it has so far not been a priority on the EU agenda. The Conference on the Future of Europe has already high lighted, which policies would need to be ad dressed more coherently, such as social cohesion and digitalisation. For social policies which are not harmonised so far, minimum standards should encourage member states to ameliorate their social systems without downgrading what already works; more binding directives are nec essary here. Also, the institutional alignment and unanimity principle have shown that decisions can be blocked within the Council. In view of fu ture EU enlargement and the ongoing deadlocks in crucial domains, this procedure needs read justment. Another effective instrument would be a more equal involvement of the European Par liament in the procedures of the European Semester. Since the last financial and economic crisis post 2008, this coordinating mechanism surveys national budget recovery strategies. A stronger parliamentary involvement would lead to a more transparent process of how funding is spent and to which sectors it is allocated. Involv ing the social partners and other civil society organisations in the evaluation is much needed to assure democratic accountability. Rethinking which political influence certain actors have and others do not, is also necessary to assure that not only money and political influence count. Sus taining livelihoods should be a parameter applied to all political and economic decisions, because living conditions might erode sooner than we think due to climate change. These dimensions and challenges need to be reconsidered to the EU’s future viability as a political project.

»Even though the pandemic has made the importance of care and the pressing issues in this societal domain highly visible, it has so far not been a priority on the EU agenda.«

57ExpErt opinionEuropEan Forum alpbach panorama

the premise of debt containment which the EU pursued over decades. An EU-wide Resilience Fa cility was set up to rebuild economies of member states and to mitigate the effects of the pandem ic with European funding or loans. The Facility committed itself to provide funding for viable so cieties and for laying the groundwork for forth coming generations. It is structured around a range of pillars, encompassing green transition and digital transformation, as well as economic and social cohesion. Whilst the Resilience Facility demonstrates growing awareness of the longterm challenges ahead of us, significant aspects of socially unjust and heavily gender-biased care economies remain hardly acknowledged. More coordinated political and financial efforts must be devised to address the enormous invisible and unpaid amount of care work provided in private households, which has peaked during the pandem ic. With an ageing demography and the ongoing strains from the pandemic, the EU urgently needs to rethink how its care system can transition into a viable and just future that does not succumb to austerity measures, and how it can safeguard that this system works beyond national borders and in the interest of citizens. A global perspective is needed In our highly connected world, questions concerning the standard of living as well as how to organise democracy and political representa tion do not stop at national doorsteps nor at the EU’s borders. Therefore, questions considering the future of the EU need to encompass a more global perspective and require inputs from all ac tors, socially and politically. How can these become more integrated into one another? Neither can energy supply be solved nationally nor can care and commodity chains be tackled in isola tion of each other. The care chain is heavily reliant on EU mobility and labour force from outside the EU . »24 hours«-care workers from EU countries bordering to Austria were flown in at the height of the pandemic in 2020 to uphold elderly-caring capacities at the brink of collapse. This example is not a singular event but illustrates that global care and commodity chains pose severe challenges in times of crisis, as much as they are needed and intertwined. Therefore, we urgently need a EU-wide approach to reorganise the care sector and safeguard the provision of care work under fair employment conditions, just as much as we need to rethink global supply chains and the energy sector.

IF WE HAVE THE RIGHT GOALS TODAY, TOGETHER EVERYTHING CAN BE ACHIEVED FOR TOMORROW. unsereoebb.at OFFICIAL MOBILITY PARTNER OF THE EUROPEAN FORUM ALPBACHTODAY. TOMORROW. TOGETHER.

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The European ideals of democracy, peace and prosperity are inseparable – and nonnegotiable. With Europe’s future under pressure more than ever, there is a need to reflect on and design innovative and sustainable solutions for the continent. The European Forum Alpbach is the platform where visionary minds meet to discuss and develop the ideas for a stronger and better Europe. As Main Partner, we are ready to shape the future of Europe and are proud to support this collaborative exchange.

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