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Vol. 18 No. 3

Paintings on Old Bottles

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Tavern Life

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May-June 2007

The official publication of the Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors

Bottles and Extras


Berkeley Citizens, Inc. Presents

The First Annual Berkeley Antique Bottle Show & Sale

Friday, October 12, 2007 2 PM - 6 PM Saturday, October 13, 2007 9 AM - 3 PM 132 Citizens Ln., Moncks Corner, South Carolina EARLY REGISTRATION, APPLICATION & $40 FEE IN BY AUGUST 1, 2007 LATE REGISTRATION APPLICATION & $60 FEE IN BY OCTOBER 1, 2007 25,000 SQ. FT. BUILDING MONITORED FOR FIRE & SECURITY 24 HOURS A DAY, 7 DAYS A WEEK AMPLE PARKING AVAILABLE & OVERFLOW PARKING IN A NEARBY SHOPPING CENTER FOR DEALERS NATIONAL & LOCAL ADVERTISING - NEWSPAPERS, WEB SITES, TRADE SHOW MAGAZINES, ETC.

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Bottles and Extras

May-June 2007

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The Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors

Bottles and Extras Vol. 18 No. 3

May-June 2007

No. 171

Table of Contents Bottle Buzz................................................2

Paintings on Old Bottles Gary Eichhorn...............................26

Recent Finds..............................................5 FOHBC Officer Listing 2006-2008............6

The Peruna Story: Strumming That Old Catarrh Jack Sullivan............................28

President’s Message...................................7 Regional Reports........................................8

Piazzoli Designs from Capstan Glass Barry L. Bernas...............................32

Sacramento Shot Glasses Steve Abbott...............................14

Beginning Tavern History Don Yates......................................38

Arizona’s Gallery in Glass Michael Miller............................18

SPAM Ads Steve Ketcham................................42

Flecks of Color, Hues of Spring Joe Terry....................................21

Haskell’s Dairy Operated With A Rhyme For A Reason Bill Baab...................................44

The Origin and Life of the Export Beer Bottle Bill Lockhart............................49 “Often a bridesmaid, but never a bride,” Listerine Cecil Munsey...............................58 David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread Cecil Munsey............................60 Membership Information.........................65 Classified Ads and Ad Rate Information...66 FOHBC Show-Biz Show Calendar Listings............70

WHO DO I CONTACT ABOUT THE MAGAZINE? CHANGE OF ADDRESS, MISSING ISSUES, etc., contact the business manager: June Lowry, 401 Johnston Ct., Raymore, MO 64083; Ph: (816) 318-0160 or E-mail: osubuckeyes71@aol.com To ADVERTISE, SUBSCRIBE or RENEW a subscription, see PAGES 65-66 for DETAILS. To SUBMIT A STORY, send a LETTER TO THE EDITOR or have COMMENTS and concerns, Contact: Kathy Hopson-Sathe, Bottles and Extras Editor, 341 Yellowstone Drive, Fletcher, NC 28732 Phone: (423) 737-6710 or E-mail: kathy@thesodafizz.com BOTTLES AND EXTRAS (ISSN 1050-5598) is published bi-monthly (6 Issues per year) by the Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors, Inc. (a nonprofit IRS C3 educational organization) at 401 Johnston Court, Raymore, MO 64083; Ph: (816) 318-0160; Website: http://www.fohbc.com. Periodicals Postage Paid at Kansas City, MO 64121, Pub. #005062. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bottles and Extras, FOHBC, 401 Johnston Court, Raymore, MO 64083; Ph: (816) 318-0160. Annual subscription rate is: $30 or $45 for First Class, $50 Canada and other foreign, $65 in U.S. funds. The Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors, Inc. assumes no responsibility for products and services advertised in this publication. The names: Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors, Inc., and Bottles and Extras, are registered ® names of the Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors, Inc., and no use of either, other than as references, may be used without expressed written consent from the Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors, Inc. Certain material contained in this publication is copyrighted by, and remains the sole property of, the Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors, Inc., while others remain property of the submitting authors. Detailed information concerning a particular article may be obtained from the Editor. Printed by J-2 Printing, North Kansas City, MO 64116.


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May-June 2007

Bottle Buzz News, Notes, Letters, etc. Send Buzz Notes to: Kathy Hopson-Sathe at: kathy@thesodafizz.com or write: Buzz Notes, 341 Yellowstone Drive, Fletcher, NC 28732

From Bill Bogynska, Oregon Bottle Collectors Association: On behalf of the Oregon Bottle Collectors Association, I would like to thank the Federation for its free club insurance program. I recently became aware of this benefit shortly before our last club bottle show. As a result, our club saved the $143 premium that we paid the year before. And, we have just used it again for our summer show. This makes the Federation’s $75 club membership fee one of the best bargains in the hobby! I would also like to personally thank Director Sheldon Baugh for setting up this Federation benefit and his last minute beyond the call of duty help to me with the above show. Happy collecting, Bill Bogynska Sec.-Treas., OBCA Correction: The section about the TCI and B Co. Tracy City, Tenn. bottle in the last issue’s “Recent Finds” was from Charles Head. It was an oversight to give credit to Charles for this information. Any comments about the article can be directed to him at: Charles D. Head, 23549-001, P.O. Box 150160, Atlanta, GA 30315. Dear Cecil Munsey, Your name was referred to me from a man named Jack Sullivan. I am hoping you can help me with I bottle I found. I think the bottle is extremely old. The glass has the little bubbles within like the old antique windows do and is wrapped with what I think is sterling silver. I have attached some pictures for you. The bottle is beautiful and I am wondering what it could be worth. I had an antique dealer try to buy it from me for $2700 and I turned her down. I have a feeling the bottle could be worth more? Any help would be appreciated. Thank you, Gregg Gregg, The bottle is a not-so-old Haig & Haig

pinch bottle that originally contained Scotch. It was the world’s first bottle to be registered as a trademark in 1958. (The second trademarked bottle was a Coke bottle in 1960.) The bottle was used by some craftsman as a foundation for some hand-wrought/ hammered silver. I have seen such items a number of times. If your conscience will allow it, perhaps you should let the antiques dealer have it for $2700. The most I have ever seen one of those bottles sell for is $20-30. Your “funny feeling” about the bottle’s worth could be summed up with, “If it seems to good to be true, it usually is.” I hope this has been helpful. Cecil Munsey From Peter Jablonski: I would like to let everyone know that my long time hobby friend, Gary Guckert, from Killbuck, N.Y. who booths at Salamanca Mall and has been treated for heart problems the last several years, died of a heart attack before he could get to the hospital. Gary had heart surgery 2-3 years ago and was recovering, watching his diet, excercising, etc. He was a custodian in that area for probably 30 years. Anyone who knew Gary remembers him as an enthusiastic person, a great story teller, one who played drums in a rock group and was a strong supporter of the hobby, attending shows all over the east coast. He is a dear friend who will be missed by many. Peter

Bottles and Extras

COLLECTING NEWS Decorated Stoneware Crock Fetches $89,100. The top decorated stoneware lot in the sale sold for $89,100 and featured a standing fox in a forest design. The second decorated stoneware open crock fetched $72,600 and featured a detailed and rare phoenix bird design. Both were created in Rochester, N.Y. potteries in the 1850s. Other rare early American pottery also did well. A diminutive open handled small crock attributed to James Morgan pottery sold for $19,800. A stoneware inkwell signed by the potter, M. Tyler from Albany, N.Y., sold for $4,070. Many other stoneware pieces were bid competitively. Finest Known 1920-S Eagle of Dr. Duckor R e a l i z e s $1,725,000 in Charlotte ANA Signature Auction Prices realized from the Charlotte 2007 Signature Auction (March 15-16, 2007) climbed above $11,009,718, with the final prices expected to exceed $12 million after results are posted from Post Auction Buys and the Final Session (formerly OnLine Session). The catalog was prepared by Heritage Auction Galleries, and the auction was conducted by Robert Korver. ”Clearly the star of the auction was the astonishingly beautiful 1920-S Indian Eagle consigned by Dr. Steven Duckor,” noted Bob Korver. “This came as no surprise to anyone...opened at $600,000 after Internet bidding, and quickly passed the million dollar mark with six active bidders – two on the phones and four in the room. The final three bids involved two floor bidders, both standing in the back of the room, and who were, according to the underbidder, “VERY MUCH aware of each other!” but unable to see other. The hammer price was $1.5 million, and the 15% Buyer’s Premium brought the final price to $1,725,000, which is the second highest price ever paid for a regular issue U.S. coin – second only to the $1.897 million


Bottles and Extras paid for the finest known 1927-D $20 Saint in Heritage’s Morse Sale in 2005.” Rare Steinbeck, books auctioned In Los Angeles a rare edition of “The Grapes of Wrath” John Steinbeck’s epic 1939 book that tells a tale of Depression era poverty, recently sold at auction for $47,800. A number of other first-edition copies of Steinbeck works were sold at the same auction. A copy of “Of Mice and Men” sold for $7,768, “East of Eden” for $8,365 and “Dubious Battle” for $11,353 and “Cup of Gold,” for $21,510. The author’s sister, Elizabeth Steinbeck Ainsworth, who died in 1992, owned the books. Dinosaur eggs sold at auction seized Custom agents took possession of fossilized dinosaur eggs that apparently were smuggled out of China and auctioned for $420,000. The fossils were seized from Bonhams & Butterfields auction house in Los Angeles. The 22 eggs, each 65 million years old, are so well preserved that curled-up embryonic raptors are visible inside 19 of them. The eggs were auctioned to an undisclosed buyer, but the transaction was scrubbed before any money changed hands after concerns about the legality of their export were raised. Rembrandt painting fetches $25.8 million A rare late work by Rembrandt depicting the Apostle James in prayer sold at auction recently for $25.8 million. Sotheby’s described “Saint James the Greater,” as one of the most important Rembrandt works ever handled. Over the past 20 years the vast majority of pictures by the artist that have appeared on the market have dated to the 1630s and 1640s. It was rare to have one that dates to the 1660s. Artifacts from 1840s unearthed Renovators working at a Beacon Hill town house in Boston uncovered what archaeologist believe are the remnants of a 19th century free black household. The shoes, doll fragments, hat pins, children’s marbles and an empty sarsaparilla bottle, among other items, were found beneath the flooring of what once was thought to be a privy and could provide insight into the lifestyle of free black families in Boston during that time.

May-June 2007 The house was built about 1840 by Robert Roberts, a free black man who was an active abolitionist, and worked as a butler for the governor. Despite the national influence of Boston’s black families in the abolitionist movement, there is almost no record of their daily lives. Elvis is king among stamp collectors This year’s Wonders of America set of stamps climbed to second place in the most popular stamps, but Elvis is still the King, the Postal Service reported recently. Some 124.1 million of the 1993 Elvis Presley stamps were saved by Americans, according to the post office, which conducts an annual survey of 10,000 households to determine which stamps are most popular. Salvation Army finds Aside from jewelry and other interesting things, The Army found a 1978 South African Krugerrand (worth about $670) in a collection bucket in Iowa. In a collection bucket in Berlin, Vt., a rare 1908 gold coin in a plastic collectors’ casing. The rare coin was thought to be worth anywhere from $250 to $14,000. Gold is the most durable collectible Gold is the most malleable, ductile metal known. A single ounce can be beaten into a thin sheet covering 300 square feet (more than two boxing rings) or drawn into a wire 50 miles long. It’s generally impervious to its environment. Air, heat, moisture, oxygen and most corrosive agents have little effect. It’s a good reflector of both visible and infrared light, which makes is useful as protective coating on satellites and astronaut visors. People have been mining gold since 2600 B.C. Egyptian king Tushratta of the Mitanni claimed it was “common as dust,” but its value became apparent soon enough. The first coin containing gold was struck in the eighth century B.C.; the first pure gold 200 years later by King Croesus of Lydia. More that 155,500 tons of gold have been mined in history, according to the World Gold Council, 75 percent of it since 1910. It is estimated that if all of the refined gold were combined together, it would form a cube 66 feet on each side. Big, but not so much when you think about it. Collector nearly loses $1.1M in art A collector in Sydney, Australia who

3 recently bought two paintings for $1.1 million might want to invest in a better way of getting his purchases home. Gordon Syron bought the two contemporary art works from a downtown Sydney Gallery and put them on his car’s roof rack. But he forgot to tie them down and was driving to his nearby home before he realized his mistake. Both paintings fell off. One painting was picked up from the street and handed to police and the second was returned after the finder saw a television news report about the loss. The only damage was scratched frames. Family is “in shock” after selling painting for $600K In Oakland, Calif. a woman who auctioned an old painting hoping to get a few thousand dollars toward her daughter’s college tuition was stunned when the picture fetched $600,000. The picture sold by Clars Auction Gallery in Oakland to an unnamed New York dealer has no title or signatures and staff of the gallery couldn’t determine its origins. Rare nickel doesn’t get offer A rare nickel, thought to be worth about $5 million, didn’t fetch a single cent at auction. The coin is one of five known 1913 Liberty Head nickels. New York-based Stack’s Rare Coin Galleries put the nickel on the block. Bidding started at $4.5 million, but no one made an offer. Vintage Velvet Underground recording nets $155,401 Forty years after it was made, the Velvet Underground’s first recording – purchased for pennies at a Manhattan flea market – became a financial success in Cyberspace. Selling price: $155,401, on eBay. The recording is ”in-studio” acetate made during Velvet Underground’s first recording over four days in April 1966 at New York’s Scepter Studios. The record reportedly is only one of two in existence. “Rare” stamp judged to be counterfeit A stamp that at first appeared to be a rare 1918 “Inverted Jenny,” used by a Florida voter to mail an absentee ballot, is a counterfeit, experts said. The blue and red stamp, which took its name from an image of a biplane accidentally printed upside down, was spotted by a county commissioner in Fort Lauderdale,


4 Fla.., on an envelope that contained a ballot for the recent election. Only 100 of the misprinted stamps have ever been found, each estimated to be worth $300,000. Mercer Bristow, an expert with the American Philatelic Society who examined the stamp, said both the printing method and the perforations on the edge of the stamp gave it away as a fake. Custer’s life insurance policy now on display A copy of Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer’s life insurance policy is on display at Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park in Mandan, N.D. The $50,000 New York Life Insurance policy was issued on June 4, 1874, about two years before he died at the battle of the Little Bighorn. The face value of the policy would be worth around $500,000 today. In case you are not very familiar with what transpired, on June 25, 1876, the Ogala Sioux war chief Crazy Horse led the attack by hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne warriors against Custer’s 7th Calvary, killing more than 200 of his soldiers. World’s largest wine bottle The largest bottle of wine in the world was auctioned recently at a weekend auction, containing 173 standard bottles of Beringer Cabernet Sauvignon. The bottle was auctioned at Sotheby’s in New York and fetched the substantial price of $55,812. The full hammer price of $47,500 was donated to charity. The bottle, which was certified by the Guinness Book of Records, stands 4.5 feet tall, with a similar circumference. The bottle is filled with 130 liters of Beringer Private Reserve Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon 2001. Well off the scale of normal bottle sizes, the bottle was named ‘Maximus.’ The largest traditional bottle size is a Nebuchadnezzar, which holds just 20 bottles. The Maximus was specially made in the Czech Republic, with a Portuguese cork measuring 130mm by 75mm. Morton’s Steakhouse, a U.S.-based chain of restaurants, commissioned the bottle to celebrate its 25th anniversary. The proceeds from the sale will go to the antihunger charity Share Our Strength. World’s largest published book “Bhutan: A Visual Odyssey Across the Last Himalayan Kingdom” was recently acquired by the Smithsonian Institution

May-June 2007 Library. What makes the acquisition noteworthy is that the book is 5 feet by 7 feet and weights 133 pounds. It’s the world’s largest published book and at $15,000 per copy is a bit pricier that most other books. The country Bhutan is one of the world’s smallest countries; it’s 16,000-square-mile area contains some of the most beautiful geography on Earth, including part of the Himalaya Mountains. Nobel Prize medal stolen from campus and then returned A thief stole a Nobel Prize from the University of California Berkeley. The prize was awarded to the late physicist Ernest O. Lawrence in 1939 for invention of the cyclotron (the atom smasher) and was the first-ever won by the university. The 23-karat gold medal had been stored in a locked display case at the Lawrence Hall of Science. Museum officials offered $2,500 as a reward for its return. And campus police got a tip that led them to a UC Berkeley student who worked in the building where the medal was stolen. Police said, “The student took the medal, valued at $4,200 on a whim.” Experts Warn of Fake “Godless” Dollars Online Rare coin experts are warning that 2007-dated Presidential dollar coins, deliberately altered after leaving the United States Mint to remove the edge lettering including the motto, “In God We Trust,” are being offered to unsuspecting buyers in online auctions and at swap meets. The Professional Numismatists Guild (PNG), a nonprofit organization composed of the country’s top rare coin dealers, has issued a consumer advisory about the altered coins being sold as genuine errors. The Mint mistakenly released for circulation thousands of genuine coins without the edge lettering, but the PNG cautions that worthless, fake versions now are appearing in the marketplace, especially Internet auctions. ”The edge lettering on some perfectlymade coins is being intentionally removed in machine shops to fraudulently make the coins appear to have a plain edge without the date, without the mintmark and without the mottos, In God We Trust and E Pluribus Unum. It’s the wild, wild West out there online, and it’s probably going to get worse

Bottles and Extras before it gets better,” said Fred Weinberg of Encino, California, a former President of the Professional Numismatists Guild and an internationally known expert on mis-struck coins. ”You run the risk of paying $100 or more for an altered coin that’s only worth one dollar. Unless you know how to determine authenticity, the coin should be certified by a nationally-recognized authentication company or you should know the reputation of the professional dealer you’re buying it from.” The normal weight of the George Washington dollar coins is 8.1 grams (125 grains) and the diameter is 26.5 millimeters. Any plain-edge coins that weigh less than 8 grams (123 grains) or with a diameter of 26 millimeters or less should be viewed with skepticism. They may have been deliberately trimmed to remove the edge lettering, according to the PNG. db’s Antiques, Weston, Mo., Closing db’s Antiques, the premier Depression Glass Store located at 416 Main St. in Weston, Missouri, will be closing its doors for good on June 1, 2007. For more than 30 years, the store has catered to all those with an interest in beautiful historic colored glass. Debbie Buckholz, the store’s owner, had taken over the business from Jerry Termini eight and some half years ago. Ms. Termini started her first shop (JP’s Antiques) in Weston featuring Depression glass in 1976. “Everything must go!” emphasized Ms. Buckholz. “I am cleaning house which means that the 10,000 or more glassware items, and approximately 20 China Cabinets, Display Cases and ‘What Not Stands,’ are being discounted 10 to 50%. ” You can contact Ms. Buckholz at db’s Antiques, 416 Main St., Weston, MO 64098, or by phone at 816-386-2828, or at her web site: www.dbantiques.com. Original comics by Charles Schulz gross over $150,000 Seven original comic strips by the renowned cartoonist Charles Schulz sold for a combined $152,550 at a three-session, weekend multi-estate sale held March 24-25 by Philip Weiss Auctions. The strips included a Sunday “Peanuts” page from 1963 that alone realized $37,000; three “Li’l Folks” strips; and four “Peanuts” dailies. Prices quoted include a 13% buyer’s premium.


Bottles and Extras

May-June 2007

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Recent Finds The bottle here depicted is a W.H. Ware Patented 1866 / The Fish Bitters. It is 11-inches tall by 4-inches wide. I know that many of you are acquainted with the bottle as it is a pretty common bitters bottle. However, this bottle is different. I’m sure that you have all run across repaired bottles but probably not to the extent that this one has been repaired. I know that the repair on this bottle was accomplished at least 25 years ago. At that time a mint specimen was worth about $100. The lip, neck and head of the fish are original glass. From just behind the eye through the tail is epoxy. Can you imagine the time involved to make a mold of an intact bottle (both sides), color the epoxy to match the bottle, pour the epoxy

in the mold, remove it and fit the two sides together? Then the sides had to be epoxied together at the base and the sides and top of the repair carefully cut and fitted to attach it to the glass part of the broken bottle. When sitting on a shelf it is hard to tell that the bottle has been repaired. It is a different story when holding the bottle. The feel is not right and if you tap on it with a fingernail the epoxied part sounds like you are tapping plastic instead of glass. The craftsman who accomplished this repair was an artist, but, one wonders why he spent so much time and effort on a bottle as common as this one. The reason for putting this repaired bottle on view here is to initiate our newer members in the fact that very extensive

repairs can be made. So remember, feel the bottle, tap the bottle or better yet shine a black light on it. If it has been epoxied it will show up. There’s nothing wrong with having repaired bottles in your collection as long as you bought them as repaired and did not pay the price of a mint specimen. Most repairs are not nearly as extensive as this one as they are mostly done on on chipped lips and corner holes. Many soda type bottles have complete top replacement, which can be hard to spot without a black light. Be wary and check the bottles you are thinking of buying carefully. In some cases the seller does not know the bottle he has for sale has been repaired.

The raw material was discovered in 1859 in Titusville, Pa. where it was stuck to some of the first oil rigs in the U.S. The workers hated the paraffin like material because it caused the rigs to seize up, but they used it on cuts and burns because it hastened healing. Robert Chesebrough, a young chemist, went to Titusville to see what new materials had commercial potential. Chesebrough took the unrefined black “rod wax,” as the drillers called it, back to his laboratory to refine it and explore potential uses. Chesebrough discovered that by distilling the lighter, thinner oil products from the rod wax, he could create a light-colored gel. Chesebrough patented the process of making petroleum jelly (U.S. Patent 127,568 ) in 1872. The process involved vacuum distillation of the crude material followed by filtration of the still residue through bone char. Chesebrough traveled around New York State demonstrating the product to encourage sales by burning his skin with acid or an open flame, then spreading the ointment on his injuries and showing his past injuries healed, he claimed, by his miracle product. Chesebrough opened his first factory in 1870 in Brooklyn. The brand name “Vaseline” stems from the German word for water, wasser (pronounced vahser), and the Greek word for oil, elaion. [Tradecard courtesy of J. Carl Sturm.]


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May-June 2007

Bottles and Extras

Federation of Historicial Bottle Collectors

Business & News The Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors is a non-profit organization for collectors of historical bottles and related collectible items. Our primary goal is educational as it relates to the history and manufacture of historical bottles and related artifacts.

FOHBC Officers 2006-2008 President : Carl Sturm, 88 Sweetbriar Branch, Longwood, FL 32750-2783; Phone: (407) 332-7689; E-mail: glassmancarl@sprintmail.com First Vice-President : Fred Capozzela, 1108 Ritger St., Utica, NY 13501; Phone: (315) 724-1026; E-mail: fcapozzella@hotmail.com Second Vice-President : Richard Siri, P.O. Box 3818, Santa Rosa, CA 95402; Phone: (707) 542-6438; E-mail: rtsiri@sbcglobal.net Secretary : Ed Provine, 401 Fawn Lake Dr., Millington, TN 38053; Phone: (901) 876-3296; E-mail: ed.provine@thyssenkruppelevator.com Treasurer : Alan DeMaison, 1605 Clipper Cove, Painesville, OH 44077; Phone: (440) 358-1223; E-mail: a.demaison@sbcglobal.net Historian : Richard Watson, 10 S.Wendover Rd., Medford, NJ 08055; Phone: (856) 983-1364; E-mail: crwatsonnj@comcast.net Editor : Kathy Hopson-Sathe, 341 Yellowstone Dr., Fletcher, NC 28732; Phone: (423) 737-6710; E-mail: kathy@thesodafizz.com Merchandising Director : Kent Williams, 1835 Oak Terr., Newcastle, CA 95658; Phone: (916) 663-1265; E-mail: kent@altarfire.com Membership Director : Gene Bradberry, P.O. Box 341062, Memphis, TN 38184; Phone: (901) 372-8428; E-mail: genebsa@midsouth.rr.com Conventions Director : Wayne Lowry, 401 Johnston Ct., Raymore, MO 64083; Phone: (816) 318-0161; E-mail: JarDoctor@aol.com

Business Manager / Subscriptions: June Lowry, 401 Johnston Ct., Raymore, MO 64083; Phone: (816) 318-0160; E-mail: osubuckeyes71@aol.com Director-At-Large : John Pastor, 7288 Thorncrest Dr. SE, Ada, MI 49301; Phone: (616) 285-7604; E-mail: jpastor2000@sbcglobal.net Director-At-Large : Sheldon Baugh, 252 W. Valley Dr., Russelville, KY 42276; Phone: (270) 726-2712; Fax: (270) 726-7618; E-mail: shel6943@bellsouth.net Director-At-Large: Cecil Munsey, 13541 Willow Run Road, Poway, CA 92064-1733; Phone: (858) 487-7036; E-mail: cecilmunsey@cox.net Midwest Region Director : Ron Hands, 386 Spring Grove Dr., Tallmadge, OH 44278, E-mail: rshands225@yahoo.com Northeast Region Director : Larry Fox, 5478 Route 21, Canandaigua, NY 14424; Phone: (585) 394-8958; E-mail: brerfox@frontiernet.net Southern Region Director : Edwin Herrold, 65 Laurel Loop, Maggie Valley, NC 28571; Phone: (941) 923-6550; E-mail: rbitters@mindspring.com Western Region Director : Bob Ferraro, 515 Northridge Dr., Boulder City, NV 89005; Phone: (702) 293-3114; E-mail: mayorferraro@aol.com Public Relations Director : James Berry, 200 Ft. Watershed Rd., St. Johnsville, NY 13452; Phone: (518) 568-5683, E-mail: max@klink.net


Bottles and Extras

May-June 2007

Federation of Historic Bottle Collectors

President’s Message

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President : J. Carl Sturm 88 Sweetbriar Branch Longwood, FL 32750 (407) 332-7689 glassmancarl@sprintmail.com

Minutes of Board of Directors Meeting of the Federations of Historical Bottle Collectors March 3, 2007, Holiday Inn, Towson, Md. There has been an increase in Meeting was called to order at 12:05 p.m. parameters was tabled in the absence of Mr. by President Carl Sturm. In absence of the Munsey, because no copy of the original membership in the past month which was Secretary, Ed Herrold was asked to take was on hand to determine changes. Mr. probably due in part to letters and cards to Pastor made the tabling motion and Mr. members who had not renewed their expiring minutes of the meeting. membership. This requires work from board Wayne Lowry reported on the National Watson seconded it. Ms. Hopson-Sathe spoke on the status members who physically do the typing, Antique Bottle Show sponsored by the FOHBC at Reno, Nev., in August of 2006, as of the publication of the magazine, reporting envelope stuffing and mailing, plus the cost follows: Final show counts included 266 that since experiencing cost over-runs in of the stamps. I believe another reason is dealer tables, 284 Early Admissions, 315 both issues the new printer had published because of the bi-monthly publishing and general admissions, and 121 persons it would be necessary to consider going back the quality of our publication. If you have attending the Federation banquet. The show to the original printer. There was collector friends who do not belong to the netted a profit of $895.49 with the auction considerable discussion concerning Federation, show them your copy of Bottles making $869.45. The Reno club was paid membership, and the possible use of back and Extras, and let them know how they $223.87 or one-fourth of the profits per issues to entice new members to join. It can subscribe and our membership will climb agreement. Mr. Lowry explained that there was suggested that it would be possible to still higher. Bottles and Extras is a slick, well had been a problem recording late bids in put several years’ back issues—perhaps put together magazine which should sell the silent auction because of “a glitch” in four years—on a single CD or DVD. Mr. memberships, which in turn can establish the auctioneer’s software. The problem Pastor moved that back issues be made advertising to the point where it will cut our should not be repeated as future shows will available on disc for approximately $20 each publishing costs. Your Board of Directors is constantly each have different auction arrangements. Mr. Siri seconded the motion and it was looking for ways to help grow membership. The 2007 show will be hosted by the passed unanimously. If you have a gripe or suggestion to This was followed by discussion of the St. Louis area bottle clubs and held in Gateway Center, Collinsville, Ill., August 17- updating of the membership directory which improve the Federation let one of your Board 19. The Holiday Inn will be the host hotel will soon be forthcoming. The meeting was members know what your problem is. He or she will get it to the proper person on the with special room rates. Greg Hawley—one then adjourned at 3:05 p.m. Respectfully submitted, Board and we will take action if we feel it is of the excavators of the Steamboat Arabia G. Edwin Herrold warranted. Once in awhile someone has a sunk in the Missouri River in 1856—will be complaint that really has no merit for a the banquet speaker. Inductees to the Honor Roll and Hall of radical change in our operation. But, you Mr. Lowry next presented some site options for the 2008 show. In keeping with Fame determined at the meeting will be can be sure that all of your complaints will the Board’s previously expressed desire to promulgated at the National Show in be brought before the Board for discussion. try to find a site in New England, or at least Collinsville, Ill. in keeping with past The Board will not act on problems arising the Northeast, he reported that he had practices and have been deleted from the from differences of opinions or personality traits between members. investigated Boston, Mass., and above minutes. The Honor Roll and Hall of Fame This is the time of years when many areas Providence, R.I., but dismissed them as being both too expensive and congested. Guidelines are currently being rewritten. have shows. It’s a great time to fill up your He did find a possible location in Burlington, When they have Board approval they will car with friends (split the gas costs) and Vt., but recommended against it as being a be printed in Bottles and Extras and added take in a bottle show. The shows can use the input at the gate and just maybe you bit too remote and difficult to get to. Mr. to the By-Laws of the Federation. This issue is being printed by a new will find a treasure for your collection. At Lowry then presented a proposal to use the Toyota Convention Center in York, Pa., on printer in Kansas City, Mo. through the any rate, you will be able to walk among and August 8-10, 2008. After considerable diligence and hard work of our Business talk to a lot of friends that you might not discussion, Mr. Watson made a motion to Manager, June Lowry. What will this have gotten to see. This great hobby of ours accept the York proposal. It was seconded accomplish? She has found a printer who is a little bit about bottles and a whole lot by Mr. Ferraro and passed unanimously. Mr. can give us the same or better quality with about friendships. Bottle shows draw Pastor said that while he supported the York more pages and more color than before at a collectors from all over the country and it’s recommendation, he urged Mr. Lowry not lower price. Our magazine starting with this nice to have friends from all over. Remember, dig hard or buy wisely and to give up his search for possibilities in the issue will be 72 pages with 8 pages of color. Your Board members constantly strive to watch your collection grow. Northeast and especially New England. J. Carl Sturm A written proposal by Cecil Munsey for improve the magazine, the Federation and President FOHBC possible revisions to FOHBC Hall of Fame through education the hobby as a whole.


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May-June 2007

Northeast Regional News Larry Fox 5478 Route 21 Canandaigua, NY 14424 (585) 394-8958 brerfox@frontiernet.net

No report this issue. Many clubs do not meet during the winter months, so... Keep sending the newsletters in to Larry- and hopefully there’ll be something to report for this region in the next issue.

led to the eventual closing of the brewery and it became Rockford Storage Warehouses. “In 1934, John G. Petritz reopened his father’s brewery with the Petritz Beer label. By 1936 the business floundered and was purchased by Edward M. Fox who subsequently sold it to Samuel Hirsch who changed the name to Rock River Brewing Company. Rock River Brewing Company ceased production in 1939. Jeff showed bottles from the numerous brewery operations.”

Midwest Regional News Joe Coulson 10515 Collingswood Lane Fishers, Indiana 46038 (317) 915-0665 jcoulson@leaderjar.com

Hi, everyone! Happy spring and best wishes for another year of wonderful finds and fellowship! Looks like folks are having a good time during their winter club meetings. Let’s see what has been going on lately in the Midwest clubs… Antique Bottle Club of Northern Illinois Dorothy Furman (newsletter editor) of the ABCNI tells us that the dues notice in their last newsletter (Jan.) is incorrect and that membership is actually $15/year. If you are interested in joining this club, you can contact Greg Schueneman (treasurer), 270 Stanley Avenue, Waukegan, IL 60085. According to the February ABCNI newsletter, Jeff Dahlberg gave a talk on the Peacock Bottling Works of East Rockford, Ill. “He noted that Jonathan Peacock emigrated from England at the age of 28 and settled in Rockford. Known for the purity of his brew, it became much in demand. One of the popular beers was Nikolob whose slogan was ‘You’ll find good cheer in Nikolob, the beer that made Milwaukee jealous.’ What a great campaign slogan for the 1860s. “When Peacock died in 1895, his sons Edwin and Frank took over the business but both died within four years and the brewery was sold to John Petritz. “The new owner improved the business and by 1909 was producing 75,000 barrels of beer a year. However, by 1917 with the advent of the Woman’s Christian Temperance movement a law was passed in Winnebago County to ban sales of intoxicating beverages. A scheme to circumvent the law eventually led to Petritz’s jailing. A settlement with the city and county

Bottles and Extras

Findlay Antique Bottle Club Tom Brown (newsletter editor) of the FABC reprinted several interesting articles in their January newsletter (Whittle Marks). The first was “More Fakes / Reproductions” (from the Jan. 2007 “Milk Route”), and it mentioned several fake creamers and milk bottles being put up for sale on eBay. The second article was “The Picture Perfect Drugstore” by Joe Terry (Fall 2006 “Bottles and Extras”), and it had many pictures of early independently owned pharmacies, now largely things of the past. The March issue of “Whittle Marks” contained detailed historical information about the Krantz Brewing Co. “The last building associated with the Krantz Brewing Co. is now just a memory as this building was demolished last week to make a new parking lot. This building was on the corner of Taylor St. and Clinton Court. For many years it was used as one of many places in Findlay, Ohio that provided help with food, clothing, and many small household items for those who needed it. With the recent renovation of the former Food Town store on Blanchard Ave., all of the many organizations are now in this building. Many people don’t really remember the Krantz Brewery as it closed in 1966.” The March newsletter included reprints of newspaper articles: “90-Ton Krantz Office Building Moved to New Location,” The Republican-Courier, Findlay, Ohio, April 21, 1950; “Tap Runs Dry on Old Dutch Beer,”

The Courier, Findlay, Ohio, November 11, 1996; “Old Dutch Adopts 12-oz. One-Way Bottle – New Package Goes on Market This Month, The Republican-Courier, Findlay, Ohio, May 1953. There was also a reprint of a brief history of the Old Dutch Brewery in Findlay from the special July 21, 1962 Sesquicentennial edition of The Republican-Courier. To find out more about its monthly newsletter, send a note to: Findlay Antique Bottle Club, P.O. Box 1329, Findlay, OH 45839. Iowa Antique Bottleers Mark Wiseman (newsletter editor) does a very nice job each month reporting the IAB happenings. The club meets at the Grundy County Heritage Center located at 204 Fourth Street in Morrison, Iowa. New IAB officers for 2007 were selected. Kevin Williams is president, Mike Magee will be vice president and recording secretary, Tom Southard will continue as treasurer. The 2007 IAB Show and Sale will be the last week of July on the Iowa State Fairgrounds in conjunction with the breweriana collectors group. Jack La Baume brought some really special bottles for Show and Tell at the IAB February meeting. “Last fall, Jack made a trip to California and put up a display of some of his digging adventures there with bottles found and photographs of the dig. The dig was in Marysville, California along with three others and a rented backhoe. Lou Lambert was the leader of this group of intrepid diggers. Lou had dug a pit next to this one on the lot about 8 years previously but had to wait for the property to change hands to get permission to dig this huge 10foot round pit, 22 feet deep from an 1850s hotel. There were some very valuable California bottles found in this pit including a ‘Dr. Renz’s Bitters, San Francisco,’ a ‘Bitterwich’ flask type bottle, and a red cylinder whisky ‘Jesse Moore Sole Agent San Francisco’.” The newsletter goes on to tell of all the other wonderful finds that were made.


Bottles and Extras The IAB newsletters always contain wonderful digging stories by Mark Wiseman. He has a regular column, “The Digger’s Scoop,” that tells of his local digging adventures with Elsie (the pup), the old brown truck and various digging friends who join him. You can find out more about IAB membership or info on sales tables for the July show from Tom Southard, 2815 Druid Hill, Des Moines, IA 50315. Jelly Jammers The Jelly Jammers had their semi-annual meeting in Muncie, Indiana in January in conjunction with the local bottle show. Pat Van Dyke, club president, shared the following message: “Phyllis Pahlmann did the display for the Jelly Jammers at the bottle show and it was lovely as she did the stemmed jellies. She had the backdrop with the Jelly Jammers logo made and it is very eye-catching. Each of us is taking a show, which makes the responsibility so much easier. Oh, how I wish you could have seen the wonderful jellies for sale at this gathering. Several Jelly Jammers brought in their duplicates to share with us. It was great shopping! I have been trying to find everything in Barbara Bowditch’s book. “At the bottle show on Sunday morning, I bought three books about glass houses in Pennsylvania from Barry Bernas. I was just lamenting the lack of materials to be found and there he stood. I am especially glad to have the Capstan book with its illustrations. But, my best find at the bottle show was Marilyn Hoyt. Marilyn is our newest member and from Wisconsin!” The winter issue of the Jelly Jammers Journal contained many color pictures and descriptions of all the items that members brought to the Show and Tell session at their January club meeting. There was also a nice article about King Son & Co. (1870 – 1904) and the jelly glasses that they produced. If you are interested in joining this club, you may contact: Phyllis Pahlmann (Treasurer of Jelly Jammers), 219 Cedar Dr., Chapin, IL 62628. Membership is $15/yr. Kalamazoo Antique Bottle Club The KABC’s January meeting theme was “Favorite Antique Bottle Night.” Allan Holden tells us the following: “Brent Heighton and Mike Hade are two of the club’s newer members who recently got started in digging. Both are off to a great start. Brent had an assortment of early medicines, wines and beers, as well as some hand-blown utility bottles and a nice

May-June 2007

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stoneware ginger beer bottle. Mike Hade brought some of his nice finds to the meeting, but his A.R. Thayer’s Iron Bitters, “The Great Tonic,” was a real distraction and had many of the members drooling! Like Brent, Mike has the bottle digging bug and he has it bad! You just watch, friends, this guy will be finding many more great bottles at the rate he is going! One of the newest members, Karen Schneider, brought in some of her favorite bottles. Many of Karen’s bottles were very interesting and colorful, but to the advanced collector, there was nothing to get excited about. Well, at least not until she pulled the last one from her bottle box! Now picture this: a beautiful 1860s, apple green, one pint, iron pontiled, sheared lip, scroll flask! Now, as we have all come to expect, John Pastor had some super nice bottles to display. John displayed a rare F.H. Boos, P.H. Best’s Milwaukee Beer bottle. Another rare bottle was John’s one pint Le Leetch tin top milk bottle from Duran, Michigan. One of John’s favorite bottles is also one of the first bottles to go into his collection and it is not all that rare. This bottle is a half-pint Pittsburgh double eagle flask. How do you put a value on sentiment?! Allan Holden displayed one of his first bottle finds as his favorite bottle. It is a 1820 to 1830s, sheared lip, paneled (eight-sided), open pontiled umbrella ink in deep olive green. It still sparkles like the day it was blown and it has never been cleaned!” Later in the same newsletter Allan told the wonderful story about his recovery of the bottle and his personal involvement with the property where it was found.

1858 Hero Cross jars to share. Almost every color of the jar rainbow was represented between these folks – quite an amazing sight to see! Joe Merkel mentioned that work is continuing on the Mason jar book (limited in scope to ground lip jars; collaborating with Jim Sears). Don Frazier told an interesting story about a house fire that destroyed his multithousand dollar fruit jar collection. Don said that his insurance coverage with the Collectibles Insurance Agency fully paid for the loss. Don brought two plastic baggies full of jar closures that he rescued from the burnt remains. These were put in the auction! Jeff Harper and Michael Rutledge made an announcement about a new Internet website for Ball jar collectors: The Ball Jar Collector’s Community Center, http://p067.ezboard.com/ bballjarcollectorscommunitycenter. The goal of the website is to get a photo of one of every Ball jar known! Please consider contributing your own photos for this effort. Paul Hass teased everyone in attendance with his first jar to show, which was a one gallon jar (rare size) recovered from a circa 1870 pit in Lancaster, Pa. As he pulled it very slowly out of the carrying box, he told everyone that the jar was only missing three things: the lid, the band, and… the bottom! (which you could see was broken off once he finally pulled the jar all the way out of the carrying box). The MAFJBC has a website: http:// www.fruitjar.org. Meeting and membership details as well as lots of pictures from their semi-annual shows can be found there.

Midwest Antique Fruit Jar & Bottle Club The January issue of the Midwest Glass Chatter (the newsletter of the MAFJBC) contained detailed coverage of their January show and sale held in Muncie, Indiana. It’s the only show like it where the focus is primarily fruit jars (although many wonderful bottles find their way there too). Members from across the U.S. and Canada participated in the Saturday Show and Tell Session. Many rare jars were brought and discussed (examples: pint The Brelle Jar, quart Mason’s “U.S. Flag” Standard, quart Calypso Mason, pint J.C. Baker’s Patent Aug. 14 1860, pint The Chief, quart olive green Buckeye, half-gallon The Mason Trademark Pat’d Improved, pint Woodbury with original product label). Jim Sears, Joe Merkel, Randy Hoffman and Mike Jordan all brought Mason’s Patent Nov. 30th

Minnesota’s First Antique Bottle Club Gwen Seeley (newsletter editor) and Barbara Robertus (co-editor) do a very nice job each month with their newsletter, “The Bottle Digger’s Dope.” There are always some nice pictures. The January newsletter showed a picture of a Jumbo (elephant) soda bottle from the era of the 1930s and 1940s. There was an article about “Drip Collectors” (early ink pens). This issue of the newsletter also showed many pictures of collectible advertising signs. There was also a picture of an F.H. Metzger’s Pain Eradicator jar and request for more information on the history of the company. The club’s February newsletter reported on their Show and Tell session. “Doug Shilson had a very interesting bottle. An amber elephant bottle, circa 1934 titled OLD SOL, which contained bleach. There had


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May-June 2007

been some report earlier that a label had been reported on this bottle, stating it to be a bitters. Not so… it did fit in well with our planned program on Elephants by Dick McChesney. Steve showed a photo of his newest find… a label under glass half-pint showing two men, one a soldier, the other a navy man. The colors were just so bright, circa 1898 Spanish-American War. Barb Robertus had four print plates of Redi Kilowat, and a perfume shaped like a bow, cobalt with gold overlay. Dick had a wonderful program on Elephant bottles and an article on this subject will appear in a future issue of the newsletter.” Ohio Bottle Club The February issue of The Ohio Swirl reports that the OBC has a new president, Louis Fifer. Louis volunteered and was

elected unanimously. The program for the club’s January meeting was “Houghton pottery,” presented by Dr. James Houdeshell. Dr. Houdeshell is a retired professor from Findlay College; he is still active at the college, working part time as assistant to the President. He is the author of Houghton and Dalton Pottery, published in 1983. Dr. Houdeshell brought many Houghton pieces, in various sizes and natural colors, from approximately 3” to 14” in height. He showed items such as Indian vases, rustic pattern vases, several Old Dutch pitchers, birdhouses, a frog, jugs, a dog, hanging pieces and more. Brad Booth of Mansfield also brought in samples of the early pottery. Years ago, he thought all of this was “Dalton Pottery,” but Houghton and Dalton were actually the same family. He presented utilitarian pieces

such as crocks, jugs, pots and feeders; most early pieces are unmarked; however, the chicken waterer, commonly found, is imprinted with the misspelled ‘Dalton Potery.’ He showed a birdhouse with the same imprint, a little canner with C. Houghton stamped in the shoulder, a small, very rare pelican and more. Many later pieces are marked; some have paper labels. Visit the Dalton Museum, which has a very good display of Houghton and Dalton pottery. The February issue of The Ohio Swirl also contained a detailed article, “From Pillaging in Ohio to Distilling in Missouri: The George Shawhan Story,” written by Jack Sullivan. There was another nice article, “Excavating the Refuse Pits of a 1,000+ Year Old Indian Village Site,” by Ralph Bowman.

the show. He found a labeled Columbia Club dispensary along with some other prizes to add to his outstanding collection of South Carolina bottles. Harvey Teal of Columbia was able to pick up a D.H. Goble (Columbia, S.C.) mini jug in perfect condition for less than $100 and Vollmer found “a cross between a Hutchinson and a blobtop. It has Julius A. Krentzlin / Columbia, S.C., in a center slug plate and an unusual twist of glass from the top of the shoulder to the top.” Vollmer was asked if he and his club had ever considered putting on a fall show. “We probably will not, but the Berkeley Antique Bottle & Collectible Show is coming Oct. 12-13 in Moncks Corner, S.C. It’s the first show and may be a good one.” He said there were no negative incidents and no complaints and, while the final numbers haven’t been tallied, “I think we will write a check to the Boys and Girls Club for about $4,000.” The only thing this editor bought was a copy of the 2006 issue of Ceramics in America containing, among other things, fascinating stories about Dave the slave potter, the origin of the jug and AfricanAmerican face jug production in South Carolina. The latter was written by Dr. Mark Newell of North Augusta, S.C., and the jug origins story came from the educated pen of Dr. John A. Burrison of Atlanta, author of Brothers in Clay – The Story of Georgia Folk Pottery, both friends of this editor. Johnnie Fletcher, president of the

Oklahoma Territory Bottle & Relic Club, reports another Harm’s Bar / El Reno / Okla. Terr., jug has sold on eBay. “Bidders must be getting suspicious of the origin of these jugs as the selling price keeps decreasing,” he wrote in the February issue of Oklahoma Territory News. “The first sold in August 2006 for an amazing $1,740.69, the second in October 2006 for $182.25 and the third sold in January 2007 for only $77.” Fletcher, an authority on Oklahoma Territory items, feels the jugs may be old, but the markings new. Are there any El Reno archives that can be checked to confirm the existence of “Harm’s Bar?” Fletcher featured a digging story by Ed Stewart, who had been joined by Fletcher, Richard Carr, Jerry Callison and Mark Wiseman (with Elsie the Pup). That gang traveled to Atchison, Kan. Receiving permission to dig in a lot adjacent to a big house, Stewart probed out a pit, the probe sinking to the handle crunching glass all the way down. After waiting out a severe thunder storm embedded with tornado warnings, they proceeded to excavate the pit. The early bottles dated to the 19-teens and the hope was the later bottles would be older the deeper they got. Two chalk skulls marked Wellaugh Missouri emerged, but the bottles that followed were all 20th century. Included in the finds were 14 jars, mostly varieties of Mason’s Patent, Nov. 30th, 1858, 13 Atchison drug store bottles with varieties from the M. Noll drug store, a J.W. Allen & Co., a Kaffer & Benning, an S.F. Stoll and a

Southern Regional News Bill Baab 2352 Devere Street Augusta, GA 30904 (706) 736-8097 riverswamper@comcast.net The South Carolina Bottle Club’s 34th annual show was a rip-roaring event that prompted veteran collector and federation member Tom Hicks of Eatonton, Ga., to declare: “This show has got to be the No. 3 East Coast show behind Baltimore and Keene (N.H.).” “On Friday, the roar of bottle show commerce was deafening in the early afternoon,” said Marty Vollmer, president of the club . “It was standing room only in the aisles” of the huge Meadowlake Park Center in Columbia. It was just about as crowded on Saturday as eager buyers were waited upon by no less eager sellers who offered sodas from Charleston, S.C., and Savannah, South Carolina Dispensary bottles by the bushel, and a good selection of historical flasks. South Carolina pottery was plentiful, including an Edgefield District pot with master potter Lewis Miles’ initials on it. Asking price was $8,500 and had Miles’ slave, Dave (who more than likely made the pot), signed it, just multiply that figure by nine or 10. Robert Williams, a former Atlantan living in Seattle, flew in for the Friday portion of

Bottles and Extras


Bottles and Extras W.B. Vanvlit from Johnstown, N.Y. Other bottles included three crown-tops with the tongue-twisting name Hekelnkaemper Bros., Atchison, Kan., a trio of amber Lightning jar lids, a butter crock with Minnesota Stoneware Co., Red Wing, Minn., on the base, a flower pot with Redwing Stoneware on the base and 30 clay marbles. In the March issue, Fletcher authored a digging story entitled “The First Dig of Fall,” which took place last September in St. Joseph, Mo. No fewer than nine pits were uncovered by Fletcher and friends Kenny Burbrink and his son, Casey, Ed Stewart, and Dan Moser. The latter uncovered a prize – an amber cigar jar embossed MERCANTILE / (AIR TIGHT) / HAVANA / CIGARS / ST. LOUIS with 18941895 patent dates. It was undamaged. Other finds included a trio of patent medicines embossed Dr. Galen E. Bishop / Therapeia / Biothrepteira / St. Joseph, Mo., with applied tops; teal Webb’s / Drug / Store / 10th & Pacific from St. Joseph; a baseembossed Huber & Sexton / Leavenworth / Kans., Hutchinson Fletcher nearly discarded because there was nothing on the sides, and numerous other St. Joseph drug store bottles. Kenny’s son, Casey, had been begging to be allowed to dig, but had been denied because of the depth of the pits, some exceeding seven feet. Kenny finally gave in, but “salted” the hole with a couple of St. Joseph Hutchinsons so his son would find something. It didn’t take long for Casey to dig THREE Hutchinsons, surprising everyone since only two had been planted. The extra one was embossed Dumke & Hund / St. Joseph / Mo., and is fairly rare, Fletcher said. Marshall Clements of the Raleigh (N.C.) Bottle Club, who took over editorship of the club newsletter, Bottle Talk, has published another fine issue. In the February issue, he talks about his

May-June 2007 84-year-old friend, John Dennis, whose main non-bottle claim to fame is that he once rode his bicycle on top of the rock wall around the east campus of Duke University. That was some 70 years ago. The name “Dennis” might ring bell with milk bottle collectors, Clements said, because an uncle, W.R. “Pete” Dennis, and grandfather, William J. Dennis, operated dairies in West Durham, N.C., during the early 1900s. “Finding a complete set of ‘Dennis’ dairy bottles would be quite a challenge,” Clements said, “nearly as difficult as riding your bike around the Duke east campus wall!” The editor downloaded color photos of John Dennis and milk bottles, plus part of member George Poniros’ antique tobacco jar collection which will be featured in the club’s April issue. Clements’ feature photo entitled “Blast from the Past” was an antique Pepsi-Cola delivery truck from the 1920-30 era. He took the photo while vacationing in the Great Northwest. I never know what I’m going to read when club newsletters come in the mail. Melissa Milner, editor of The Groundhog Gazette, newsletter of The State of Franklin (Tenn.) Antique Bottle & Collectibles Association, said member Geff Moore brought some “interesting items” to the January meeting. He brought a can of “Tennessee Smuggled Redneck Coffee, Road Kill Genuine BBQ Sauce, White Trash Well Water from the Trailer Park, and Road Kill (like Hamburger) Helper.” These are real novelty foods, she said. Thanks, but no thanks. Harold Carlton brought 20 Pepsi-Cola bottles, some rare, and most from before 1910. At the time he dug them, he did not perceive them as having a value. What he really wanted to collect were Hutchinsons.

He has them from all but three states – New Mexico, Rhode Island and Alaska. Now he knows his Pepsis are worth a few dollars. In the show-and-tell session, Sam Crowder brought an unusual Coca-Cola Price Guide for Cigars, Candy and Chewing Gum from the 1940s. The February issue’s feature story was on USA Hospital Bottles. The Horse Creek Antique Bottle Club of Warrenville, S.C., featured this editor at its January meeting. I talked about Augusta drug store bottles, with two amber LAND bottles the only known colored ones. R.H. Land Jr., was in business from just after the turn of the 20th century until his death in the 1930s. All of his bottles were marked LAND / AUGUSTA, GA., in capital letters. The April issue of Probe & Plunder, the club newsletter I publish quarterly, noted Harvey Teal’s talk on South Carolina drug store bottles at the February meeting. The Columbia historian illustrated it with many examples of bottles and ephemera from his vast collection. Upcountry South Carolina has no pontiled drug store bottles, save one example from Darlington, while Charleston has many, he pointed out. Drug store bottles don’t command the respect that glamor bottles like sodas and bitters do, he said, and hoped his talk would raise awareness of their value to collectors. Elliott Levy, executive director of the Aiken County Historical Museum, was to be the club speaker at its March meeting. His topics included “Moses Bottles” from Maine’s Poland Spring. A new club and prospective FOHBC member has been organized in Lincoln County, N.C. In fact, the Piedmont Bottle Club held its first show and sale in Lincolnton in April. A report will be forthcoming in the July-August B&E.

We are the new stuckees, or, your new Western Region Editor. We come as a package and are recognized as “Ken and Dar.” Our intent will be to select interesting pieces of information from your newsletters to share within our Bottles and Extras column for the Western Region. We are currently active members of the Los Angeles Historical Bottle Club (LAHBC) – Check out our website at

www.lahbc.org ). Pardon the plug, but as editor, this is one of the perks. Maybe the only one too. We are also somewhat sedate members of the Federation (FOHBC), and some other clubs scattered across the USA. We have been writing articles for the LAHBC Newsletter (the Whittlemark) for a few years now. Hope some of you have had the pleasure of reading some of the issues (toot-toot). In 2002, the Federation voted the Whittlemark first place in the annual newsletter competition. I firmly believe that

Western Regional News Ken Lawler & “Dar” 6677 Oak Forest Drive Oak Park, CA 91377 (818) 889-5451 kenlawler@roadrunner.com

Hi There Ya’ll We would like to introduce ourselves. We are Ken Lawler and Darlene “Dar” Furda.

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12 Scott Grandstaff had a hand in this, but he repeatedly takes the 5th. He probably takes a little branch water with his 5th too. Thanks Scott. In 2006, we came in at second place. We will try harder. We have been digging for bottles since approximately 2000. Our first digging experience was at the Aliso Gardens Urban Development Project in Los Angeles. It was 45 acres of dirt, where turn-of-the-century poor neighborhoods once stood. There were lots of privies, and trash pits galore, to be dug. Boy, were we spoiled. At that time, we didn’t know bottle clubs existed. Some bottle diggers (competitors to us at the time) that frequented the Aliso dig site put us on to the LAHBC. They invited us to their next meeting, and we were hooked. Ken served as President of the Club in 2003, and has been Secretary since 2004 to present. Dar is our unofficial social director and sets up functions such as the Club’s 40th Anniversary Brunch that was held last October, 2006. At first we collected everything. If we dug it, we kept it. Now, after running out of room to store stuff, we have become a little bit more selective. Dar has settled on inks, and Ken is split between poisons, and Owl Drug Store bottles. Our job, as the Western Editor, will be to extract interesting bits of information, stories, scandals, scuttlebutt, dig stories, recent finds, and so forth, from your newsletters. We will then boil them down into a format that will appear in the Bottles and Extras magazine. We will not extract whole articles from your newsletters, as our introduction letter seemed to imply, unless permission has been secured prior to inclusion in our column. If your club does not presently have a newsletter, we will gladly accept bits of news to put into our Western Regional News column. You can submit your information either via email or snail mail, or just give us a call. We will be happy to hear from you. BUT, if you think you have a great story, the FOHBC has an annual contest for best articles appearing in your newsletter. I do not have the space to list all the details of how to do this. Please go to the FOHBC.com website for all the details. In an effort to get a jump on the publishing cut-off date, Dar sent letters of introduction to all 12 of the active clubs comprising the Western Region. This excludes our own, as we would be expected to have information on our own club. Dar has spoken to a couple of enthusiastic

May-June 2007 members of clubs, but plans to initiate a larger campaign. Her efforts will be focused on establishing a contact person, per club, and finding out the frequency of newsletters. With the Bottles and Extras magazine now being issued on a bi-monthly basis, we will be submitting a mid-month column to magazine editor, Kathy Hopson-Sathe, every other month. For example: this month we have a deadline of getting our column in by mid-March. Our next submittal will be due mid-May, etc. We ask your cooperation in this effort by having us on your newsletter mailing lists. In closing our introduction, just know that we are here for your club. Do not hesitate to give us a call, write us, or email us. If there is something we need to know, or something that we can do for you, just let us know and we will try to help. Also remember that we are here to toot your horn, but we have to have some information in order to do that. Thanks. Now read on and enjoy! San Jose Antique Bottle Collectors Club We received an enthusiastic congratulations letter from Kathie Craig, Club President and Newsletter Editor. She filled us in on her background with the club, and told us how she got interested in collecting. A rundown followed on the fact that there is a mix of members from “used to be” diggers to “zealous” diggers of today. From the sounds of Kathie’s letter she is one ambitious and energetic gal. She said that the club would love to be listed and acknowledged in our column. She ended with, “I will send you the newsletters, and look forward to reading all about our shared interest from people that share it all over the world”. Thanks for writing us, Kathie. We look forward to receiving our first newsletter from your club! (Their Club Website is: http:/ /members.tripod.com/WaipahuHaole1/ sjabca.html.) Montana Bottle Collector’s Association A telephone conversation with club member Tom Brackman was very informative. He volunteered that their club was established in October 2006. They currently have 24 members, and more are showing interest. No newsletter yet, but give them a couple more meetings and I bet they will get one underway. He commented that most of their members are in their 60s, and had previously belonged to other clubs. Life doesn’t get any better than this. This means that by the time you reach your 60s, you

Bottles and Extras have had lots of exposure to the digging/ collecting world. It also helps, as Tom commented further, that members have had club experience. He said, in closing, “Now it seems nice to have other people involved who will help.” Things sound like they are starting to take shape for their club. That’s the kind of news we like to report! New Mexico Historical Bottle Society Dr. Jerry Simmons relates that their club members organize a meeting three to four times a year. He said they are a state-wide organization, and that he believes they are the only bottle club in New Mexico. Then he added that their meetings are held in different places around the state. Better yet, he said, “they might even throw in a dig or two at times.” Where do we sign up? He mentioned that they do have a bottle and insulator show either at the end of September or October. Some 25 families are currently members, and most probably participate in this event. We discussed their club newsletter. The newsletter coincides with the meetings, and is issued three to four times a year. He did say that there will be a meeting in March. Dr. Simmons, we look forward to receiving your newsletter as soon as it is, “hot off your press.” Los Angeles Historical Bottle Club - The Whittlemark It’s that time of year again for a new President to take the helm of the ship (club). We’d like to introduce Pam Selenak. She is an RN, by trade, and an eager president of the club. Actually, it was Pam’s husband Randy, who wanted to join our club. She reluctantly came along, but soon took off on her own pursuits and has developed her own collecting addiction. Ask her about her growing collection of medicines and go-with items. I think we’re out for a wild ride this year. Keep up the momentum, Pam. Something new has been added to the announcement section of their newsletter. Monthly birthdays are once again being celebrated. Pam and hubby are bringing in birthday cakes to help celebrate the aging process. Good idea! Co-founder, Don Mullally contributed an article that appeared in the February Newsletter, “Conditions, Activities, and Interests During the Early Years of our Bottle Club.” The group of “old timers” who attended the club’s 40th anniversary brunch have substantiated the “good old days” that he has written about. These older members are worth their weight in early club history.


Bottles and Extras Much appreciated article, Don! The Las Vegas Antique Bottles and Collectables Club – The Punkin Seed A curious chain of events has taken place. Scott Grandstaff had to give up the position of Western Region Editor. Then Dick and Dottie Daugherty stepped in to take over. I expected to see them writing about the LAHBC. Then the unexpected happened, Dottie injured herself. Hope you are doing better these days, Dottie. It was good to see you selling early bird tickets at the show, sling and all. Anyway, the pressure of meeting publishing deadlines, putting on their show, and the painful injury was just too much. Dick and Dottie had to give up the Western Editorship in order to save themselves. This left the position open again. Dar and I attended the Vegas show again this year, as we always do. It was another good show, and for awhile it was unknown if there would be a show. The Union Plaza is under new management, and they doubled the rent on the hall, and the show date was forced to be changed. Unfortunately, the new date was in conflict with a couple of major antique shows, and swap meets in Southern, California. A few dealers opted to skip Vegas, and set up shop at the ones in SOCAL. While taking in the show, we met Bob Ferraro and Ralph Van Brocklin at Bob’s table. While making small talk about bottles, Bob and Ralph approached us about taking over for Dick and Dottie. Dar and I went out to see Bob’s collection after the show closed Friday night, where the gentle persuasion continued. If Bob ever tries to sell you a used car, you better split quick, or you will be driving that turkey down the street before you can blink. Bob’s a cool dude, and he is a good persuader. Bob and his wife Connie are also the most gracious of hosts. Anyway, here we are, the new Western Region Editor writing about the Las Vegas Club again. De je vu all over again as Yogi used to say. Somewhere along the line, a file folder full of Las Vegas Club Members badges has mysteriously turned up missing. Hope this

May-June 2007 was just a filing error, and not some form of identity theft. I must be getting paranoid. These days the newspapers are full of all kinds of scams that are going down. New name badges have been designed for all the club members. Roxella Williams will be custodian of the new badges. Go get’em Roxella. Reno Antique Bottle Club - digger’s dirt The Ken and Dar duo have been to several of the Reno Bottle Shows, and previously didn’t know anyone in the club. Next time we get up that way, we know who to look for. We will have our sights set to find Willy Young as number one. Right off the bat, Willy, your Duane and Mary Warth and Ken and I have something in common; we have all seen Bob Ferraro’s incredible collection. It made their transmission problem a little easier to take. Even under the most stressful conditions, our bottle hobby just seems to kick in a winner for us. Glad to hear that they had an opportunity to take Bob up on his invitation. It sounds like persevering Ken Jeter, from Carson City, has finally gotten his reward for keeping his eyes peeled for trash heaps. That seven year trek hiking about Virginia City finally paid off big with his find of a Reno Kane’s Café, amber pocket flask. That was a nice little background write-up in your recent newsletter on the Kane’s Café and Saloon. A little added history is always a compliment to a good find. Willy, have you guys considered asking Jean Pouliot if he needs any help up there in cold Montana? Maybe you should ask him to let you know when the snow melts. All kidding aside, news of a decent dig is always music to the ears, and it is nice that he shares his story with his former club. We will be looking forward to hearing more stories like this in the future. Antique Bottle Collectors of Colorado – Dump Diggers Gazette Did we get a response from Dar’s letter she sent out? YEP. The Ken and Dar duo feel a kinship brewing here, because we attended the Leadville Show for the first time in July 2006. We also dug in the famous

13 Leadville Dump following the show. YEP, again, we dug with bugs, altitude and humidity and loved every minute of it. We were there for the experience. We were happy to get a response from ABCC Vice President Rick Sinner. He emailed us his club newsletter dated February 2007. Club Treasurer, Don Hunt, was close on Sinner’s heels. He emailed us back issues covering November and December 2006 and January 2007. From the recap of your January meeting, we would have liked to have been in the audience to have heard Doug Rhoades’ experience of finding many rare paper label tin cans in a crawl space of an old house. We will get busy and read the newsletters you’ve sent and cover more in our next writing. Rick and Don, you guys are going to be great to work with. The Ken and Dar duo look forward to keeping up with all of your news. San Diego Antique Bottle and Collectibles Club – The Bottleneck Hey, Green Shirts, it is Ken and Dar writing about you guys. We sure noticed a good showing of “green shirted shoppers” (lifted from Mike Bryant’s Viva Las Vegas write up in your Feb. 2007 Newsletter). Our club recently changed to Beige Shirts. We always look for you in the “green” at the shows. Now you can look for LA members in their “beige” at future shows. Sure enjoyed your Programs guy, Tom Knapik’s article “Graphic Art History in a Bottle.” According to Tom it is not so much about the age of the bottle, but the design on the bottle. There isn’t a day that goes by that all of us can’t learn something new in this bottle business. It is the club member’s efforts of writing a short or long article that really puts some snap into a newsletter. Hey, Mike Bryant we are sorry that we missed seeing you on TV. What an opportunity for you to be a guest on the new “About San Diego” show to talk about some of your San Diego bottles. I hope you put in a plug about your club. We betcha did. Nice going, Mike! Until next time, Ken and Dar


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May-June 2007

Sacramento Shot Glasses By Steve Abbott Slugging whiskey down the hatch straight out of the bottle was uncouth even at the turn of the 19th Century. Except for emergencies (i.e. no corkscrew was available or the patient needed a drink pronto), it was extremely not de rigueur to smash the top of a whiskey bottle against a granite outcropping and begin to gulp from the jagged neck of the bottle, especially if one had not wiped his lips on his shirt sleeve. No, our Victorian ancestors had developed a sensibility for the finer points of etiquette, particularly table manners, and had developed tableware and barware to suit that refined sensibility: for example, the asparagus fork, the celery dish, the salt cellar, the butter pat, the cocktail stirrer and shakers, and, yes, the shot glass. No longer would table etiquette consist of (1) Do not wear your hat, or (2) Do not whistle, (3) Do not eat your peas with a knife. The introduction of the shot glass made it possible to pour just enough hooch down the hatch (about an ounce and a half, in most cases) without causing the sputtering and gagging attendant on the long draws with the bottle tilted upwards about ninety degrees. And the introduction of the shot glass did not go unnoticed by the burgeoning advertising industry, which had linked up with the increasingly sophisticated and automated manufacturing sector, a connection which made mass produced items available at a nominal cost to the spirits’ distillers and distributor clients of the advertising companies. So it was inevitable that the advertising shot glass was born of this unholy alliance, and the war for consumer brand allegiance was on. As a result, the distillers and distributors could keep their brand names about four inches from the eyes of the guzzling masses, whether they were at home or at their favorite watering holes. These advertising shot glasses, while often graphically artistic, were cheaply made (about 1 mm thick) and extremely vulnerable to breakage, especially if smashed against the forehead of fellow saloon patron. The glasses usually took the form of a single shot glass, though double shot glasses are known, and the high ball glass, which for

Bottles and Extras collect glasses related to a certain brand (i.e., J.H.CUTTER), this writer finds himself in pursuit of glasses from that hub of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento. So far that effort has proven rewarding, though there are a few glasses, some known and undoubtedly some unknown, yet to find their ways into my collection. Barbara Edmonds, who produced the books on shot glasses with enormous effort and resourcefulness, was able to list and illustrate most of the known glasses in the West. Nevertheless she wasn’t able to find them all, many surfacing after her last edition. And, I suspect that a small amount of information she received was incorrect or misinterpreted by her. Or it is possible that a few glasses she described are so hidden in private collections that the rest of us doubt their existence until we actually see these glasses. In the case of Sacramento, I refer to three glasses in Edmonds’ HISTORIC SHOT GLASSES: THE PREPROHIBITION ERA (Revised Edition, 1992). California A FAVORITE (second from top), p.32; Sunny Brook/THE PURE FOOD/ whiskey/HALL LUHRS & CO./Brassy & Co. San Jose/sold most in West. (third from bottom, p.172); COVINGTON GROVE/ James Woodburn Co./ SACRAMENTO/Fred Raschen. p. 47 bottom. The photographs that appear in this article are limited by this writer’s knowledge of which brands of whiskey sold in Sacramento can be documented by the writing on the glass or by advertising on the distributor’s billhead. There is no doubt that many major brands not shown here were sold in Sacramento, J.H. Cutter, Old Kirk, or Old Castle, for example. But I limit myself to

some strange reason isn’t valued as highly as the single shot. Contrary to the almost certain belief of many saloon collectors, almost all general line antique dealers, and absolutely all antique mall employees, very few of these glasses were “etched;” that is, to cut into the glass by acid or grinding wheel. This writer estimates that of all glasses known, less than one percent were etched by acid or grinding wheel. Most were decorated by a process which laid down an adhesive in the shape of the advertisement, then a pigmented white powder was sprinkled or lightly blown on the adhesive, and perhaps a little heat applied to bond the adhesive and powder. And then, miracle of miracles, the ADVERTISING SHOT GLASS! Of course, there were a few other types of advertising shot glasses, the fired-on enamel glasses and the label-under-glass glasses, both of which are extremely beautiful, rare and expensive. And as for doubters of the “etched” glass theory I described, I encourage these doubters to take their best glass and see if they can remove the “etching” with a sharp blade or paint remover. It the advertising comes off, they are not holding an etched glass. I guess one could say they are holding a “ruined” glass. Then for those who insist on calling an unetched glass an etched glass because people have been calling unetched glasses etched glasses for a hundred years or so, I can only suggest they might be interested in joining THE FLAT EARTH SOCIETY, if they do not already belong. While there are a few collectors who specialize in only the most beautiful glasses, a Fine Old / Ky Taylor / Whiskey few who collect / THE PERFECT BLEND glasses on the national level (their Adams-Booth Co. sole criteria being 1125 Front, 1894-1903 that the glass is 1125-1131 Front, 1904-1909 cheap), some who

Ky. Taylor / High Ball


Bottles and Extras

May-June 2007

California Winery 21St Bet R&S, 1891-1914

Shadow Brook / WHISKEY

Casey-Kavanaugh 216-218 K, 1905-1910 401 J, 1911-1913

C&K / BOURBON / CASEY & KAVANAUGH / SACRAMENTO, CAL.

GOLDEN GRAIN / BOURBON / M.CRONAN & CO. / SACRAMENTO

C&K / BOURBON / Casey & Kavanaugh / SACRAMENTO George E. Dierssen & Co. Cor 9th & L, 1891 828-830 L, 1892-1893 719 J, 1894-1907 619 J, 1908-1909

M. Cronan Co. 323 K, 1901-1911

Golden Grain / BOURBON / M.Cronan Co. / SACRAMENTO, CAL.

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Calif. Favorite

Jockey Club / AND / BUFFALO OLD BOURBON / THE FINEST GRADES / WHISKIES

John C. Donnelly Co. NE Cor 8th & J, 1906 314 K, 1907-1912 311 K, 1913-1915

the Sacramento brands, though this method of cataloging is not without fault. And I will appreciate any comments from collectors who may have more knowledge than I. These pages illustrate the shot glasses from Sacramento.

DONNELLY / WHISKEY

DONNELLY / WHISKEY

DONNELLY

Special thanks to Helen Simmons for the Cronan photograph.

...continued on next page.


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May-June 2007 Ebner Brothers 41-43 4th, 1866-1879 1011 4th, 1880 116-118, 1881-1919

Bottles and Extras Hall, Luhrs & Company 228-230 K, 1880-1883 914-918 2nd, 1884-1891 908-916 2nd, 1892-1914 1301-1307 Front, 1915-1919

Right: EBNER BROS CO. / COLONIAL WHISKEY / (monogram) / SACRAMENTO, CAL.

SNOW / FLAKE / WHISKEY

EBNER BROS. CO. / FINE QUALITY GOODS / (monogram) / SACRAMENTO, CAL.

OLD BUCK / (monogram) / J. HARBINSON / SACRAMENTO, CAL (black enamel)

EBNER BROS. CO / OLD COLONIAL WHISKEY / (monogram) / SACRAMENTO, CAL.

OLD BUCK / (monogram) / J. HARBINSON / SACRAMENTO, CAL. (white)

E.C. Kavanaugh 401 J, 1913-1917 Left: E.C. KAVANAUGH / SACRAMENTO, CAL.

Sacramento Valley Winery Cor R & 21Stm 1910-1919 Right: VESTAL VINTAGES (silver overlay)

SUNNY BROOK / THE PURE FOOD / WHISKEY / HALL, LUHRS & CO. / SACRAMENTO

Josiah Harbinson 1017 6th, 1903-1904 915 2nd , 1905-1914

B.W. HOUCHIN

Houchin / Highball


Bottles and Extras

May-June 2007

17

Fred Raschen, 514 J, 1900-1918

GOLDEN STATE / (monogram of H, Weinreich) / BOURBON / FRED RASCHEN / SACRAMENTO, CAL.

SILVER SHEAF / (monogram) / Fred Raschen

Silver Sheaf / WHISKEY

TIPPECANOE / DOUBLE / FIRE COPPER / TRADE / TIPPECANOE / MARK / Fred Raschen

George Wissemann, 230 K, 1901-1918

H. Weinreich 514 J, 1881-1899

CALIF. FAVORITE / A / GEO. WISSEMANN / SACRAMENTO

CALIF. FAVORITE / AA / GEO. WISSEMANN / SACRAMENTO

CALIF. / FAVORITE / AA

CALIF. FAVORITE / AAA / GEO. WISSEMANN / SACRAMENTO

KENTUCKY STANDARD / SELECT/ GEO. WISSEMANN

KENTUCKY STANDARD / OK / GEO. WISSEMANN

KENTUCKY STANDARD / No. 1 / GEO. WISSEMANN / SACRAMENTO

O.K. KENTUCKY / GW / STANDARD

Cafe Royal (wheel cut)

SILVER SHEAF / TRADE (monogram) MARK / BOURBON / H.WEINREICH & Co. / Sacramento, Ca (double shot glass)

CALIF. FAVORITE / C / GEO. WISSEMANN

James Woodburn, 417 K, 1887-1912

Left: COVINGTON GROVE / James Woodburn Co. / SACRAMENTO (2 sizes) Right: James Woodburn / Sacramento


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May-June 2007

Bottles and Extras

manager so that Boyd could concentrate on his other concerns. Later that year, Boyd Collecting Picture Pharmacy Bottles From The Grand Canyon State sold his store to Mitchell and the business became the Mitchell Drug Company. Two By Mike Miller of these very rare bottles were dug a couple of years ago but no small sizes have been Several years ago I had the pleasure of Arizona picture pharmacy bottles are, for found. traveling to Tucson to spend the day the most part, fairly difficult to find. Other Mesa’s Crescent Drug Company started digging a privy with a friend Hillard Frey. I than the Wolpe Drug Company bottle and a in 1909 at 117 W. Main. Frank Cluff founded had previously dug in the same few of the Eschman variants, these picture the company and operated the business neighborhood and had hopes of repeating bottles are rare and are in demand by until 1916. It was during the later portion of the luck of that dig which produced several collectors of Arizona pharmacy bottles. his tenure that the bottle was used. J.D. and Tucson pharmacy bottles including a scarce Presently, 23 different variants of picture Lorana Robertson purchased the store from Bell’s Pharmacy. The pick of another digger bottles from 14 drug stores have been Cluff in 1916 and in turn sold the store in the that day, the Bell’s had always been high on documented. The towns of Flagstaff, middle twenties. D.C. Henson became the my list of desired bottles. Jerome, Mesa, Nogales, Phoenix, Prescott, new owner and in 1927 he transferred Since that dig I had acquired one variant Tempe and Tucson all have representative ownership to Ralph F. Palmer who modified of the Bell’s from Hillard in a trade, but the picture pharmacies, and pictures include a the name to Crescent Drug Store Inc. Finally, smaller and rarer, 1-ounce style was yet to measuring scale, moon and star, AMA in 1930, the pharmacy was bought by the be added to my collection. Arriving in symbol, bear with mortar and pestle, phoenix Buy-Right Drug Store chain and became part Tucson with my wife Karen at about 9 a.m., bird, eagle, mortar and pestle with or without of Arizona Drug Stores Incorporated. No we met Hillard at the dig site and proceeded a wreath, setting sun, cross, ribbon, small sizes of this bottle have been verified to excavate. After several hours of training branches and a bell. Some of these bottles so it is unknown if they have a picture. Karen how to dig and remove broken debris also have small size equivalents with no Holladay’s Drug Store began in Mesa and digging several uninspiring bottles, picture. as the partnership of Holladay and Cooley. our first real prize arrived in the form of a John E. Ruffin utilized the Pioneer Drug Originally an ice cream store, the business 16-ounce Arcadian Drug Store bottle. Soon Store bottle at the turn of the century. Ruffin opened at 131 W. Main in 1905 and by 1907 to follow was a second Arcadian of the same had purchased the store in 1898 from Dr. had expanded into a drug store and roller size, a pumpkinseed flask from Gilroy, Dennis J. Brannen who had founded the rink. In 1908 Cooley left the partnership and California and in a shovel full of discarded pharmacy in 1884. By the end of 1901, Ruffin Maroni P. Holladay continued as sole dirt the little Bell’s Pharmacy I had been closed the Pioneer Drug Store, but reopened proprietor of the renamed Holladay’s Drug looking for. Wiping the bottle free of dirt, I it in 1903. Later in 1906, the business became store. inspected it for potential damage. Much to known as the Ruffin Drug Company and in In 1916, Holladay briefly took a partner my pleasure the Bell’s was mint with only a 1910, the Hunter Drug Co. upon its sale to in J. Ed Strecker but by the following year small amount of haze. W.Y. Hunter. Smaller variants of this bottle the partnership was over. The store closed After the dig, we bid Hillard goodbye do not have the picture. in late 1917 and by the early twenties and headed back on the long drive The Boyd Drug Store opened in 1899 in Holladay owned a ranch in Gilbert. The to Phoenix hot, tired, dirty and smiling the mining town of Jerome. Lynn E. Boyd bottle from this store is from the early to ear to ear knowing that this time the Bell’s was the original proprietor but by 1903 he middle teens and no small sizes have been was included in my picks. I had acquired had added P. S. Boyd as a partner. By 1908, documented. one more picture bottle for my Arizona Lynn Boyd was again sole owner and in the In 1890 H. K. Chenoweth and Jasper B. gallery. following year E. C. Mitchell was added as Mix started the International Drug Store in Nogales. Located at 201 Morley Avenue, the pharmacy operated under this partnership until 1898 when Chenoweth left to operate a sanitarium in Mexico. In December of 1898, L.W. Mix took over ownership and the company name became L.W. Mix & Company. Sole proprietor of the International Drug Store until 1906, Mix took H.C. Fleishman as a partner for a time but by late 1907 Fleishman had left to return to Tucson. Mix continued to operate the store along with several different managers until 1917 when he sold it to L. Henry Scherb, who operated the International Drug Store for many years and was still there in the 1940s. L.W. Mix used the picture bottle from this pharmacy around 1903-1904. The smaller sizes do not have the picture.

Arizona’s Gallery in Glass


Bottles and Extras

The Bear Drug Store of Phoenix opened as the Keystone Pharmacy in 1897. Located at 118-120 E. Washington Street and originally operated by Mont P. Chubb, the pharmacy was sold to Ben L. Bear in 1898. The store was listed in 1903 as Bear’s Keystone Pharmacy and in January of 1904 it became Bear’s Drug Store. Joseph W. Wilson and Robert P. Roziene purchased the store from Ben L. Bear in February 1905. In May of that year, Roziene left the partnership and C.S. Clopton replaced him. The pharmacy was renamed The Bear Drug Store since the sale to Wilson and Roziene. In December 1905, Wilson left the store and Clopton became sole owner. A scandal involving allegations of fraudulent claims involving medicines ensued soon afterwards and in April of 1906, Clopton sold the store back to Ben L. Bear. The latter had been operating a pharmacy in Los Angeles for the past year and returned only long enough to resell the store in June to Robert Roziene and his new partner, E.W. Potter. In 1912, Potter left the partnership and Rozienne continued alone. In 1923, the store was moved to 200 W. Washington and two years later Rozienne sold the store to Henry B. Cate. By 1934, Vernon C. Anderson was owner of the Bear Drug Store and in 1936 changed the name to Anderson Drug Store. Bottles from this pharmacy are from the tenure of Wilson and Clopton who ran the store from May to December 1905, and smaller sizes do not have the picture. Clarence Eschman had worked as a pharmacist for E.T. Kearny & Company in Tombstone from 1883 to 1884. In August 1884, Eschman moved to Phoenix and went to work for Robert B. Todd at the Garden City Drug Store. Todd’s pharmacy had

May-June 2007

started as the Osbourne & Company Drug Store in 1883. Locating his store in the Goodrich Building on Washington Street, R.T. Osbourne sold the pharmacy later that year to Sam M. Huston who changed the name to Garden City Drug Store. By August of 1884, Robert Todd had bought the store and Huston remained as manager until the following month when Eschman was hired for the position. Upon purchasing the store, Todd had modified the name to Todd’s Garden City Drug Store and in 1886 renamed it Todd’s Pharmacy. Eschman purchased the drugstore from Todd in March 1887 and the title reverted to the Garden City Drug Store. Operating under the company name of C.L. Eschman & Company, things remained constant until 1892 when briefly E.J. Bennitt was brought in as a partner. By the following year the partnership was over and Eschman continued until 1898 as sole proprietor. Towards the end of Eschman’s ownership the store was moved to 2 W. Washington Street. In 1898, the pharmacy was sold to Herbert Goodman who changed its name to Goodman’s Pharmacy in 1899. Five variants exist of the Eschman & Co. bottles with pictures on them. Four of these have phoenix birds rising from flames. The last has an eagle holding arrows and an olive branch. Small sizes of the variant base marked W.T. & CO. still retain the picture. The plain-based phoenix bird variant has no verified small bottles. The others bottles do not have pictures on the smaller sizes. The phoenix bird bottles were utilized from 1892 to 1896. The eagle variant was used in 1897. Opening in 1890 in the Patten Opera House Building on Center Street, the Opera

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House Drug Store was operated by E.E. Prowell. Prowell had come to Phoenix from Portland, Oregon where he had also run a pharmacy. In October of the following year Prowell sold his store to J.D. Thorley who, in turn, sold out to Dr. George H. Keefer in 1892. Dr. Keefer continued operations from the Opera House Building until 1899 when he moved his store to 5-7 E. Washington Street and ran his business as Keefer’s Pharmacy. Prowell’s bottle was utilized in 1890 and holds the distinction of being the only territorial-marked picture bottle from Arizona. The Sun Drug Company started operation in 1914 at 140 N. 1st Avenue in Phoenix. Owned by William F. Neail for the first seven years of operation, the pharmacy was sold to Fred W. Ritter in 1921. Upon his death in late 1936, Ritter’s wife, Mrs. Grace Ritter, took over the operation. In 1940 Sam J. Reich bought the store and in 1942 took G. Melvin Reese as a partner. By the late 1940s, Reese was sole proprietor of the pharmacy, which was still in operation in the 1950’s. Two variants of picture bottles exist from William Neail’s time of ownership. These both retain the picture on all sizes. Isidor Francis Wolpe opened the Wolpe Drug Company in 1916 after closing his previous business, the Arizona Mercantile Company. With locations at 46 N. Central Avenue and the corner of 3rd Avenue and Indian School Road, these pharmacies were short-lived. By 1918, the Central Avenue location had become the Corner Drug Store when George P. Batchelder purchased it. Louis S. Chambers purchased the other store in 1917. Bottles date from 1916-1917 and variants may be found with and without the words quality purity embossed on the


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back. The smallest size of both variants omits the picture. The Mountain City Drug Store started in 1887 as a pharmacy on Montezuma Street owned by Dr. R.K. Robinson. In 1890, Dr. Robinson took Harry Brisley as a partner and the Mountain City name came in to use. By 1893, Brisley became sole owner and in 1895 moved the store into the Hotel Burke Building. From 1895 to 1897 the store’s name was changed to the Hotel Burke Pharmacy but in late 1897, Brisley started to use the Mountain City name in ads again. By late 1898, Brisley was arranging to purchase a new store at the corner of Cortez and Gurley Streets. In February of 1899, the move occurred and Brisley sold the Mountain City Drug Store to John M. Hay. Brisley’s new store, the Corner Drug Store and the Mountain City Drug store, both burned in the citywide fire of July 15th, 1900. Harry Brisley rebuilt his pharmacy and called it the Brisley Drug Company, which he

May-June 2007 operated until 1925. The Mountain City Drug Store was rebuilt as Hildreth’s Drug Store and opened in 1901. Several variants exist of the Mountain City Drug Store bottles. The first has the initials R & B in the center of the ribbon and was utilized by Robinson & Brisley from 1890 to 1892. The second is the same style bottle with the monogram HB in the center of the ribbon and was used in 1893. The third variant has no base markings and was utilized around 1899. All of these variants have no picture on the smaller sizes. Dr. Benjamin B. Moeur moved to Tempe via Tombstone and Bisbee in 1897. Initially starting his medical practice, Moeur took Noah Broadway as a partner in a pharmacy in 1899. The partnership of Broadway & Moeur lasted until 1901 when Broadway left. Moeur continued with both of his businesses for another year, but the demands of being a doctor in a small western town forced the pharmacy to close by late 1902. Benjamin Moeur continued his medical practice in Tempe until the late 1920s. By that time he had become an important political figure in the area and in 1933 he became governor of Arizona. The Broadway & Moeur bottle dates from 1899 to 1901 and no small bottles have been documented. Laird & Dines Drug Company opened in 1898 under the partnership of Hilary E. Laird and Dr. James A. Dines. Laird, who had come to Arizona on a cattle drive from Cotulla, Texas in 1888, had purchased the pharmacy at 431 Mill Avenue from T.F. Hudson who had operated it since 1893 and was leaving Tempe to concentrate on his other drugstore in the nearby town of

Bottles and Extras Phoenix. The store was moved to larger quarters at 501 Mill Avenue in 1900. Hilary’s son, William E. Laird, was added as a partner in 1915 and the three men ran the operation together until 1930 when Dines departed. The store remained as Laird & Dines until the early 1950s when it became Laird Pharmacy. It was still in operation in the 1960s. Two picture bottle variants exist for this pharmacy. The first was used just after the turn of the century and has no graduated markings. Smaller sizes of this bottle have no picture. The second has graduated markings and was utilized in the middle teens. One-ounce sizes of this bottle retain the picture but lose the embossing in the circle. I have seen no ½-ounce bottles. It is also interesting to note that a third variant of this bottle exists but so far only one broken non-pictured smaller bottle has surfaced. Since no bottles of 2-ounce or larger have been found, it cannot be determined if they were pictured. And this brings us back to that Bell’s Pharmacy first mentioned at the beginning of this article. Charles E. and Mrs. S.D. Bell opened their pharmacy in 1900 at 22 N. Church Street in Tucson. 1906 moved the drugstore to 52 W. Alameda and in 1909 the store was moved again to 74 Stone Avenue. Bell hired J.C. Caperton in 1911 to manage the store and by the middle of 1910 he sold out to J.B. Ryland. Bell’s Pharmacy was no longer operating by 1920. The two variants of the Bell’s Pharmacy bottles were used from 1900 to 1902. They are all picture bottles and there are no reported smaller sizes of the non-based marked variant, and the other has only been found in 1-ounce size.


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Flecks of Color, Hues of Spring By Joe Terry

Every spring, people all over the world begin dyeing. No, no; not dying, dyeing. The Christian holiday of Easter actually dates back even farther to pagan traditions of giving colored eggs representing birth and life. As the centuries have passed, the concept of gift-giving has changed. It has, like so many of our religious and historic holidays, evolved into a commercial opportunity devoid of meaning. Today we make major purchases of toys, candy, eggs and boxes of pill-shaped dyes. Store shelves are filled with chintzy, garish facsimiles of products from years gone by. I am old enough now to look wistfully back to my childhood days, when my siblings and I dipped eggs until our hands resembled Impressionist paintings. We did it with one brand of dye, the brand our parents used, and their parents used. That brand was Fleck’s. But who was Mr. Fleck and how did he come to make a business out of Easter? His full name was Jacob J. Fleck. Born in Findlay, Ohio to German natives Joseph and Barbara Fleck, he first saw the light of day on May 6, 1853. He attended the local schools, and in off hours helped out around his parents’ grocery store. When a teenager, he took an interest in pharmacy, acquiring a job in one of the local drugstores. He was a quick learner, and his mastery of both English and German made him a valuable member of the staff. At age twenty, he had saved enough money to take lessons in his chosen profession. He lived in Philadelphia for over a year, taking classes at that city’s School of Pharmacy. He left in 1874 and returned home to Findlay, where he resumed his former position. The store’s owner, William Haven, was ecstatic to have him back. In 1877, William accepted Jacob as a fullfledged partner. Haven and Fleck, 305 N. Main St., Findlay, There was more Ohio circa 1879 than enough

business for them, but Jacob was not satisfied. He invested his money in other drugstores, in small area towns like Gilboa, Dunkirk and McComb. He played the role of silent partner in these stores, unable to be in all places at once. One drugstore could be enough for any one man. Not only were there prescriptions to Jacob J. Fleck fill, but shelves needed stock and Photo taken circa 1874-1875 drugs and chemicals needed to be purchased. Everything from morphine to shaving soap; tobacco, flavoring, pens, remedies, ammonia and aniline dyes — all needed constant attention. Some were constant sellers, others saw more seasonal demand. Despite the strenuous schedule, Jacob was dissatisfied. Being a partner in four stores was, to Jacob, a bit like being a bridesmaid but never the bride. Thus, in 1883, when an opportunity opened, Jacob was quick to latch onto it. He sold his investments, shook hands with his various partners, particularly Mr. Haven, and boarded a train headed east. It was an uneventful trip – all of nearly thirty miles of it. He embarked the next county over, in the city of Tiffin. Not far from the station was the imposing brownstone edifice known as the Shawhan Hotel. A stop at the desk inside the well-appointed lobby obtained a room overlooking the intersection of Washington and Perry streets. There, on a corner across the street, sat a store emblazed with “Ullrich and Son.” In a few days, it would be his. The late summer heat was oppressive, but fans kept the hotel dining room cool. Jacob met up with Lewis Ullrich, the owner. In no time at all, the deal was hammered out. Lewis gave up pharmacy for horticulture, and Jacob owned his own store. He knew a great deal about the business, and set about cleaning out old stock and updating the store from its decade-old accumulation of goods. He spent 12 hours a day there, taking his meals and sleeping nights

Mr. Witschner took over in 1890, but his ownership was short lived. He died in 1900.


22 at the Shawhan. In the process, he met another local druggist, the eccentric Isaac L. St. John. The two spent many an evening discussing the town, business and the economy. It was from Isaac that Jacob learned that there was more money to be made in making your own medicines than in compounding prescriptions. Jacob took over the store with little pomp and ceremony. He changed signs, but kept the existing staff. Many of the medicines lining the shelves were removed, as Jacob knew they had little or no curative properties. Instead, he began manufacturing a few under his own name. These at first were those medications most often asked for by his clientele. As trust in his name grew, so too did his business. All this while Jacob remained a bachelor. He was not unattractive, but spared little time for a social life. It wasn’t until he was in Pennsylvania a few years later, visiting old friends in Philadelphia, that a lady caught his eye. Her name was Clara Houck, part of a successful manufacturing family. They owned a large factory that manufactured paper (cardboard) boxes. The couple married in 1888, first living on Ohio Avenue, and later moving to a custom-built residence on Sycamore Street. Jacob poured his heart and soul into both his business and his marriage. The drugstore was doing well, especially since the hiring of a promising young man named Martin. Jacob spent a great deal of time

Jacob’s first store in Tiffin, at 51 S. Washington Street, across from the Shawhan Hotel, which was later sold to his drug clerk. Note the banner flapping in the breeze for H.G.O. Cary’s remedies from Zamesville, Ohio.

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Bottles and Extras

mixing and compounding his remedies, particularly his own brand of veterinary medicines. He could not manufacture them fast enough, as they left the shelves just as quickly as they were stocked. Realizing that he was on the edge of a financial windfall, Mr. Fleck opted to turn almost exclusively to his fledgling business. In 1890, he sold his drugstore to his up and coming clerk, Martin G. Witschner. The 24-year-old was thrilled to have the store, though Jacob remained as a partner until the young man earned enough to purchase all of the interest. Mr. Fleck moved up the street, to 5 S. Washington, overlooking the Sandusky River. From here, he had much more room and fewer responsibilities, and so manufacturing was greatly increased. He listed J.J. Fleck’s store and manufactory at 187-189 S. himself variously as a wholesale Washington Street. Photo circa 1900. Note the left hand druggist and a medicine store belongs to A.L. Flack, not J.J. Fleck. manufacturer. A dozen men were eventually hired, mixing powders, filling effective manufacture. Up the street, boxes and buckets, labeling, packing and approaching the German Catholic Church, shipping Fleck’s remedies all over the were two buildings side by side with suitable country. Gall powders, condition powders, space available. Jacob moved into 161 S. stock food, lice exterminators, heave Washington Street, next door to a grocer remedies and others comprised the basis for named A.L. Flack. Jacob eventually bought a booming business. So well did they sell, out his neighbor, taking over both locations. and so proud of them was Jacob, that he In 1913, due to the destruction caused by even had a display of them photographed that year’s great flood, street numbers were shifted, changing Fleck’s to 187-189 S. for posterity. A few years into his successful Washington. This remained unchanged operations, the business building he had until the end. Animal medicines provided a steady moved to no longer was sufficient for income, but they were not the only products bearing the Fleck name. Jacob marketed laundry bluing, witch hazel ointment and chewing gum. Chewing gum had been around for years, but had seen a surge in popularity in the 1890s. While many frowned on it as uncouth, the rest enjoyed the many brands and flavors flooding the market. Woodcuts from “Fleck’s Facts,” a turn of the century veterinary Aficionados were guide for farmers, teamsters, horse and cattle owners and delighted with his gum, poultry raisers. Jacob himself was a poultry fancier and the but perhaps overchickens illustrated on the title page were some of his prize indulgence led to his winners.


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Workmen upstairs at Fleck’s, packing up various products. Note the wooden buckets full of powders.

Rightfully proud? Not everyone had photographs taken of their products. toothache gum, a product made for and sold to dentists up into the 1960s. As the business expanded, so too did the Fleck family. Clara was some 13 years Jacob’s junior. The couple’s first child, Walter, was born in 1891, followed by Philip, Lila, Genevieve, Charles, Vincent and lastly twins Beatrice and Hildegarde. The youngsters became fixtures at the store, to the delight of customers and workers alike.

If the gum wasn’t a mouthful, the name certainly was - Fleck’s Wild Cherry Phosphate Chewing Gum.

As they got older, some of them were given Depression. Still, overall, the Flecks did jobs at the store; cleaning, selling, packing not suffer as did many. Jacob was a shrewd and office work. businessman, and always kept plenty Going into the Roaring Twenties, of money saved in case of emergencies. business was good. But the decade was His products were still popular, as to pose problems heretofore not dealt with many customers had found them to be by the Fleck family. In March of 1920, worth the money paid for them, even one fire destroyed a warehouse, reducing to whose name contained a bit of off-color ash the building and its contents. The humor. loss amounted to several thousand Back in the mid 1890s, Jacob dollars. Within that decade two family compounded a treatment for corns. It was members died. In 1926, Charles, Vincent nothing special, just a recipe from a and a neighbor boy were enjoying druggist’s formulary. It was the same thing an autumn boat ride on the Sandusky River. he would have made if someone had asked The motor on their craft quit running, him personally for a remedy. What he and Vincent jumped out to try to tow the boat to shore. It got away from him, and the remaining two stayed in hopes of restarting the engine. But the boat went over the dam and both drowned. Vincent suffered nothing more than pneumonia. However, this weakened his health and in 1929 he died in Colorado while under treatment for Jim Crow, a derogatory name for southern Negroes, had been tuberculosis. These hardships around for decades before Jacob decided to play off of the name. were just a preparation Perhaps inspired by his egg dyes, Jacob sold Jim Crow in bright for the upcoming yellow tins trimmed in black. Here you can see Martin G. 1930s, with the Witschner’s drug store window filled with nearly a hundred Jim devastating Great Crow advertisements.


24 needed for it to sell was a gimmick. The one he chose was risky, as it was already a well known term. He called his concoction Jim Crow Corn Salve. This being “the North” and all, the term didn’t generate the negative sentiment it would have in the South. It also helped that Jacob used a black crow on the tin instead of the stereotypical slave depiction. Turning a racial slur into a marketing success was unlikely, but it worked. Jim Crow, in its 10-cent tin, was an immediate hit. Martin Witschner, from his new store at 25 S. Washington Street, promoted his mentor ’s product with unabashed brown-nosing. He filled the front windows with hundreds of ad cards, pamphlets and tins. Impressed, Jacob had the display immortalized by a local photographer. Equally popular was his seasonal specialty of Easter Egg Dyes. While they had originally cost only five cents, the passage of time had raised them to a whopping dime. But they almost came to a complete halt. For years, the dyes had come from Germany. Problems with importing them during World War I had shown the troubles with an unsteady supply, but World War II proved it outright. Nothing came into this country, and materials and supplies were desperately needed for the war effort, diverting dye production to other uses. At Easter, many were left using onion skins, red beet juice, and other natural dyes for their eggs. After the war, dyes were once again available for the springtime holiday. Jacob bought large batches of the dyes and in the confines of his Washington Street buildings, workers would scoop tiny portions of them into small wax paper envelopes. As the years went by, the old aniline dyes were deemed unsafe for culinary use, and the Food and Drug Administration forbid their utilization as egg dyes. Thus began a new series of headaches for the Flecks: keeping up with federal regulations concerning the agents they used. Jacob had no worries in these matters. During the height of World War II, he succumbed to old age. He died on April 13, 1942. As a business leader, his obituary made front page news, but the Nazis stole his glory. In years gone by, his obituary would have been several columns in length. But on that date, a few hurried lines about his life was all that could be spared. His beloved Clara followed him to the grave two years later, leaving the firm in the hands of the second generation. The development of antibiotics during

May-June 2007 the war lessened the need for veterinary preventatives and remedies. These were discontinued, and more effort was made to promote the Easter egg dyes. Making a sole business out of egg dyes was no easy project. It was a niche market, and seasonal to boot. The number one brand was Paas, the brainchild of an East Coast druggist. The second slot was filled by Chick Chick brand, sold by Fred Fear and Company of New York. Both of these dealers had location and size to their advantage. How many people even knew where Tiffin, Ohio was? Well, actually, quite a few folks did. It was known for its college, its glass and the rest of its manufacturing interests. There was a grind wheel factory, a pottery, an art metal shop – so why not an egg dye manufacturer? Into the 1950s, Fleck’s could be found on store shelves all over the country. It was in particular the Midwest brand of choice. Still, Fleck’s remained No. 3, unable to challenge its competitors. That is, until 1971. Unexpectedly, the Chick Chick brand was placed on the market. In a stroke of luck, and with a bit of money, the No. 3 dye maker became No. 2. New boxes carried a combination of the name - “Fleck’s Chick Chick” for the duration of their existence. They never made it to No. 1 in sales, but they were first in other categories. In 1956, the federal government loosened restrictions on the sale of 700 products to “Red nations.” Fleck’s were the first to export egg dyes to China, and maintained a friendly

Bottles and Extras relationship with the communist country for several decades. Sadly, today most egg dyes are made there, and imported to America. For decades, the business was headed by Hildegarde “Becky” Fleck, the youngest daughter of the originator. The author was lucky enough to be granted an interview with this remarkable lady in 1981. She was a bright, witty woman, quick with an answer, even if it was “I don’t know!” The photographs shown here were courtesy of her. She even gave me several of her father’s pharmaceutical books, which I still have. One of her favorite stories was how the late winter snow that accumulated around the store would be tinted a rainbow of colors from powder escaping out of open windows. The workers, too, would often go home bearing evidence of the profession. This didn’t deter their loyalty, for some employees, mostly women, stayed on 30 years or more. When the company closed in 1997, its effects were sold at auction. I was not aware of this until after the sale. I do not feel that I am the loser for it. I have Becky’s stories, copies of the photographs, a few mementoes, and by and large, a happy childhood, thanks to Fleck’s. Yet there is an emptiness, an unfulfilled longing; a mournful shade of blue. Fleck’s is no more. Becky died a year after the sale, succumbing to old age on February 21, 1998.

Salesman’s price book sheet from the 1930s.


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Left: More color to please the eye, a multi-hued cardboard container for Fleck’s Heave Remedy. All of Fleck’s veterinary remedies came in such eye-catching colors. While the costs of such packaging was more expensive, the difference was made up in increased sales. Above: Fleck’s Toothache Gum was sold to dentists. This one was a gift from my dentist back in the 1970s (and yes, it was old even then!). Right: Jim Crow Corn Salve tin.

1

5

A timeline of Fleck’s dyes (clockwise from top): Number 1 is from the 1930s. Numbers 2 and 3 marked solely as “Fleck’s” are from the 1950s and 1960s. The Chick Chick box (number 4) is also from the 1950s, made by the Fred Fear and Company. The Fleck’s Chick Chick box (number 5) is one of many styles used from 1971 to 1996. Some were “Psyco-colors,” others proclaimed “space fun with astro easter eggs.” The kit shown may be one of the last, as the others in the author’s collection are price-marked with 79-cents, 89cents and 98-cents. Those with no price left it up to the retailer.

2

3

4


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May-June 2007

Bottles and Extras Figure 2

Paintings On Old Bottles By Gary Eichhorn With Photography by Gordon Laridon & John Sarsfield INTRODUCTION: Recently while cleaning out some old files I came across a 1972 article written by Gary Eichhorn with photographs by Gordon Laridon and John Sarsfield. Interestingly enough the small manuscript had been submitted on Thermofax paper. [Remember 3M’s photocopying technology that was introduced in 1950? It was a form of thermography – a dry silver process. It was a significant advance as no chemicals were required, other than what was contained in the copy paper. A thin sheet of heat sensitive copy paper was placed on the original document to be copied, and exposed to infrared energy.] The article was certainly readable but the paper had turned brown with age and the copied images – words in this case – faded. The article had to be read with a magnifying glass. My records indicate that article had been submitted to me when I was editor of the old Western Collector magazine (1968-1972). Since in 1972 the magazine was sold and merged with another and was about to cease publication, I kept a copy of Gary’s fine article for future consideration in another magazine. Then, over time, I forgot about it until I recently stumbled across the old file. I queried Bottles and Extras about publishing the article and received a positive response. So printed below is that 34 year-old article – “PAINTINGS ON OLD BOTTLES.” Cecil Munsey Many artists became famous for painting masterpieces on canvas, wood or wall plaster. Painting on glass is also a timetested means of artistic self-expression. Such paintings are primarily decorative and the paints used are mostly enamel and glazes. Use of oils in paintings on old bottles and related vessels became most popular during the 19th century although one can find contemporary paintings on old bottles. Don’t be fooled by thinking that a bottle painting hurts the value of and interest in the bottle. And do not scrub off a painted picture on an old or new bottle. Pastoral and sea scenes were prevalent but simple floral designs were popular as well. The technique used by the artist varied from a few bold brush strokes to very fine detail. Seldom did the bottle artists sign their work. Paintings made on bottles during the 1820 to 1830 period show good composition and detail. The Bristol [England] glass wine bottle [Figure l] is a good example of some of this early Figure l art work. The featured bottle, in this case, is deep green in color. Artists used a great variety of bottles and occasionally painted a set of bottles for

use as liquor decanters [Figure 2]. These three hock wine bottles were used for a national theme – Scotland, Ireland, and England. The artist used oil and gold leaf paints for a colorful contrast to the amber bottles. This particular set of bottle paintings has been authenticated 1850. The artist often selected a glass color that would enhance the particular subject of his painting. Milk glass was excellent for

bright colors such as the bird motif on the flasks in Figure #3. These flasks date from the 1870s and were unearthed in Boise, Idaho. They were once fitted with pewter screw caps. The bottles most commonly used by Figure 3


Bottles and Extras Figure 4

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artists were ceramic mineral water bottles as Figure 5 shown in Figure 4 [photo courtesy of John Sarsfield]. Another very popular type of bottle upon which to paint was Chinese rice wine jugs, sometimes referred to as “Chinese Tiger Whiskey Jugs.” Most of these bottles were painted while still filled with the contents, and given as gifts. They were most popular during the 1890s. Charles M. Russell, noted western artist, is known to have painted scenes on mineral water jugs (“gin jugs”). Miniature bottles did not escape the artist’s brush. With just a few simple brush strokes of bright color the artist made some of the common miniatures worth displaying. A bottle that must have been a real pleasure to paint on was the pumpkin seed flask [Figure 5]. Its flat sides and oval shape allowed the artist a fine surface upon which to work. The particular example shown here is dated 1910. Art lovers and bottle collectors could find painted bottles a worthwhile collecting specialty. It’s possible that someday a masterpiece signed by a world renowned artist will be discovered on one of them.

ADDENDUM: Bottles featured in this article were painted in America during the 1820-1910 period. Older and newer bottles are very much a part of this collecting category – paintings on bottles. Newer painted bottles are seen occasionally in antiques shops and at bottle shows. Older painted bottles are found in museums and art galleries; and some of the finest examples can be seen on 20 plates (Numbers 92-112) in the 2001 book, “ANTIQUE GLASS BOTTLES THEIR HISTORY AND EVOLUTION (1500-1850),” by Willy Van den Bossche of The Netherlands. The Antique Collectors’ Club of Suffolk, UK published the 439-page book – in full color. Willy Van Den Bossche is a recent inductee to the Federation of Historical Bottle Cecil Munsey Collectors’ Honor Roll. Editor’s Note: The photos at the bottom of page 27 and 28 did not accompany the original article submitted to Cecil Munsey in 1972. They were added when the article was submitted to Bottles and Extras by Cecil. The remaining illustrations were scanned from 34+ year old slides that did not reproduce well after hours of attempts. I would also like to mention that the slides looked great holding them up to a light but the scanner saw things the eye didn’t. Even after PhotoShop did all it could do, their age, scratches, etc., affected the overall look of the photos and several had to be completely ommitted due to their poor quality. This brings an opportunity to mention to those of you who have archived photographs of your bottles on slides to share some information I gathered in my efforts to get better scans. Many “experts” are transferring slides and negatives to DVD (or at least CD) as high definition digital images and have special equipment to do so. Their suggestion for home scanning was using the highest settings your scanner will support. Good luck!


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Bottles and Extras

The Peruna Story: Strumming That Old Catarrh By Jack Sullivan Catarrh. Today it is defined Brubaker Hartman [Figure 1]. His cure sometimes as bronchitis, sometimes was called “Peruna” (he preferred PEas an excess of mucus. There once RU-NA) and bottle diggers all over was an Ohio physician who defined America have unearthed catarrh any way he wanted, thousands of them. propounded a cure for it, made Dr. Hartman was born in Lancaster millions in sales, and then County, Pennsylvania, to Germanoccasioned a law to regulate quack Swiss farmers. He left home at 15 to medicines. The doctor was Samuel Figure 1 go to school in Cincinnati, then

apprenticed in medicine to a Dr. Shackelford of Medway, Ohio. Hartman subsequently entered the Medical School of Cleveland from which he was graduated. He began a medical practice, first in Tipp City, Ohio, and then in Pennsylvania. In 1859 he married Sallie Martzell and eventually they had a son and daughter. About 1890, after many years as a practicing and apparently respected physician and surgeon, Dr. Hartman moved to Columbus, Ohio. Giving up his profession, he began to concoct and sell a series of remedies. Among them were “La-cu-pia,” a selfdescribed blood thinner, and “Ma-na-lin” for biliousness. But Dr. Hartman stuck it

Figure 2

Figure 4

Figure 3

Figure 12

Figure 7

Figure 2: Hall’s Catarrh Cure bottle. Figure 3: Ely’s Cream Balm box and bottle Figure 4: Early Peruna ad Figure 7: Peruna blob top bottle Figure 12: Peruna crate Figure 15: Boxed set of Peruna

Figure 15


Bottles and Extras rich when he redefined catarrh. Catarrh — Source of Disease When the doctor began his campaign against catarrh, a number of remedies already were being sold, among them Dr. Sykes Sure Cure for Catarrh, Hall’s Cure for Catarrh [Figure 2], and Ely’s Cream Balm Universal Cure for Catarrh [Figure 3]. Hartman’s particular genius was in defining catarrh as the root cause of virtually all known diseases. For Hartman — and his advertising — pneumonia was catarrh of the lungs, so was tuberculosis. Cancer sores were catarrh of the mouth; appendicitis, catarrh of the appendix; chronic indigestion, catarrh of the stomach; mumps, catarrh of the glands; Bright’s disease, catarrh of the kidneys. Peruna, he said, would cure them all, even yellow fever, another form of catarrh. The good doctor’s confidence in his product appeared to be boundless. He wrote a 32-page booklet entitled: “Peruna Cures Catarrh the World Over.” Shown here is an ad showing two comely ladies presenting the Peruna bottle. The paper wrapping cites the many and sundry catarrhs conquered by Peruna [Figure 4]. At a time when many politicians found it prudent to be born in a log cabin, Dr. Hartman claimed that his remedy had first been invented in such a rustic structure. His almanacs of later years featured his “laboratories.” [Figure 5] As shown here, the first is captioned “Where Peruna First Was Made.” The second scene shows a modest two-story frame building with the simple sign, “Peruna” over the front entrance and is designated the “Second Peruna Laboratory.” Scene 3 shows significant growth. The structure now is three stories and brick, with three chimneys, all belching smoke. Things might have stalled right there. It was the early 1990s and Dr. Hartman is reported to have been struggling to get enough orders to keep his small staff busy.

Figure 5: First three Hartman “Laboratories”

May-June 2007 The Super Salesman Arrives Then an order landed on Dr. Hartman’s desk for a train carload of Peruna from a patent medicine wholesaler in Waco, Texas. His name was Frederick W. Schumacher. Hartman put his staff on overtime to fill the request and then hopped the same train with the goods to meet this benefactor in Texas. It was an historic ride for both Hartman and Peruna. Born in 1863, Schumacher had emigrated to the U.S. from Germany when he was about nine years old, settling in Waco. A bright and industrious youth, he got an education, spending some time at Baylor University in Waco. Soon he was earning a comfortable living as a druggist before changing careers to become a nostrum salesman. Hartman immediately recognized the younger man as a marketing genius, hired him on the spot to run Peruna’s advertising, and eventually made him vice president of the firm. Schumacher courted the doctor’s daughter, Maribel, and in 1895 married her in a splashy Columbus wedding. Under Schumacher’s guidance, Peruna advertising exploded, appearing in magazines and newspapers from coast to coast and even overseas. In time the company was spending in excess of $1 million annually on ads. Testimonials became a major element in merchandising the quack medicine. Politicians, Army and Navy brass, and members of the clergy all seemed eager to attest to the wonders of Peruna. At one point the company ran an ad listing 50 members of Congress who were “voting its anti-catarrhal ticket.” The firm also took pains to gather favorable comments from common folk. A Mrs. Halleck of Antwerp, Ohio, was quoted in the Dec. 13, 1902, Mansfield News saying: “My daughter, Allie, after taking three bottles of your Peruna is entirely cured of catarrh of the head of two years.” A testimonial from the Newark, O., Advocate of Feb. 8, 1907, declared: “About three months ago I commenced to take Peruna...and I am now entirely cured of that troublesome disease. Your medicine is surely a blessing.” Peruna - America’s Best Seller Within a fairly short time, Peruna became the largest selling proprietary medicine in the United States. Costing $1 a bottle at a time when 25 cents bought a full lunch, the nostrum brought millions to Dr. Hartman. He built an enormous facility for his Peruna

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Figure 6: The Peruna Administration Bldg.

Drug Manufacturing Company, covering two blocks adjacent to downtown Columbus and featuring a spacious administration building [Figure 6]. The doctor moved into a mansion in Columbus and purchased a huge tract of land south of the city for an experimental farm. It employed dozens of workers, many of whom lived on site. He built a fancy combined hotel and sanitarium in downtown Columbus, where the Peruna flowed copiously to residents. His hotel featured a Grand Ballroom where the elite of Columbus regularly came to dine and dance. Despite being common fare from bottle digs, Peruna bottles of any era are not highly collected since they tend to be clear glass with little embossing except the designation “Dr. S. B. H. & Co.” on the base [Figure 7]. The containers came with paper wraps that described the “medicine” and the wonders it could perform, but those labels were highly vulnerable to destruction and fully complete specimens are rare. With intact labels they continue to be sought by collectors of cures. Dr. Hartman’s success in “curing” catarrh spawned a host of Peruna imitators, many in his home state of Ohio. In Cleveland, Horace Bowen marketed his Bowen Catarrh Cure. Toledo had its Echo Catarrh Cure, Piqua its Rose Catarrh Cure [Figure 8], and Columbus, Dr. Beebe’s Catarrh and Asthma Cure. But these outfits were mainly local in their sales; in the first half of the 1900s Peruna continued to be the national best seller.

Figure 8: Rose Catarrh bottle


30 A Shocking Admission! But the catarrh curing business was about to experience a major setback. Enter Samuel Hopkins Adams [Figure 9]. Adams was born in Dunkirk, New York, and graduated from Hamilton College in 1891. From 1891 to 1900, he was a reporter for the New York Sun and then joined McClure’s Magazine, where he gained a reputation as a muckraker for his articles on the conditions of public health in the United States. In 1904, when he was only 34, he was commissioned by the editors Figure 9 of Colliers Magazine to write a series of 11 expose articles on the patent medicine industry called “The Great American Fraud” [Figure 10]. Adams was a highly skilled, thorough and energetic reporter. Instead of assembling material from what others had written, he set out to do original research. He wrote Hartman asking if the Peruna Doctor would grant him an interview. To his amazement, Hartman agreed and Hopkins hopped a train to Columbus. Despite describing Hartman as a “renegade physician,” the writer found the doctor to be genial and welcoming, even though Hopkins had warned him that any information he provided might be used in a critical way. During their extended discussion Hartman freely admitted to Adams that Peruna did not cure anything. There are no such things as cures, he told a flabbergasted Adams. Rather, he said of his clientele: “They see my advertising. They read the testimonials. They are convinced. They have faith in Peruna. It gives them a gentle stimulant, and so they get well.” It was an astounding admission and Hopkins made the most of it, devoting virtually all of one article to debunking Peruna. Adams also subjected the nostrum to a chemical test. He found that a bottle contained 1/2 pint of 90% proof spirits, 1.5 pints of water, a flavor cube and a little burned sugar for color. The cost to Dr.

Figure 10: “Great American Fraud” logo

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Hartman was at most 18 cents. Adams also reported that the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs already had banned the sale of Peruna on Native American reservations because the tonic was 28% alcohol. Congress Takes Action That Colliers article, perhaps more than any of the others, spurred Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. Dr. Hartman’s startling admissions were cited by proponents on the Floor of the House of Representatives and U.S. Senate, and quoted widely in newspapers of the day. The new law created the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a watchdog for the public health. It also radically changed what the patent medicine industry could do and say. Some firms went out of business; others survived by changing the name of their potion from “cure” to “remedy.” Peruna was among the survivors. It modified its claims. Faced with being taxed as a purely alcoholic beverage, Dr. Hartman accepted a U.S. Government mandate in 1906 that something with a detectable medicinal effect be an ingredient in Peruna. As Adams later put it: “The Internal Revenue authorities bade Old Doc Hartman to put some real medicine in his drink or to open a bar.” The doctor chose to add substantial amounts of senna and blackthorn bark, both of them cathartics. He also reduced the alcoholic content of Peruna from 28 to 18 percent. To warn his several million customers of the change, the doctor published a booklet in which he purported to be “shocked beyond all measure” to be accused of trafficking in liquor and claimed that he was acceding to customer requests to give Peruna “slight laxative effects.” He recommended it even for children. Many Peruna addicts failed to get the message and there ensued great rumblings of intestines all across America. Sales plummeted. One patent medicine wholesaler told Adams, “Peruna is nowhere. We used to get a carload, even two carloads a month. Now we hardly handle a carload in a year.”

Figure 11: Ad for Ka-Tar-No

Faced with disaster, Hartman and Schumacher decided to revive the old Peruna formula, call it Ka-Tar-No, merchandise it as a alcoholic beverage and sell it over the bar. [Figure 11] Never popular with the saloon crowd, Ka-Tar-No Tonic quickly faded from view. Dr. Hartman Succumbs Acclaimed in contemporary accounts as one of the leading citizens and employers of Columbus, Dr. Hartman became known for his civic-minded and philanthropic activities. In 1911, at the behest of daughter Maribel, he built an elegant theater in downtown Columbus and called it “The Hartman.” His huge farm became a tourist destination. The millionaire quack was tramping over his fields during a snowstorm in 1912 when, at the age of 82, he caught pneumonia and shortly thereafter died. There is no evidence he was doctored with his own medicine, despite his earlier claim that PE-RU-NA cured pneumonia as “catarrh of the lungs.” Moreover, he died without ever disclosing why he was so open about his medical fakery to Hopkins, revelations that helped change his industry forever. Two years after Hartman’s death, Samuel Hopkins Adams published “The Clarion,’ a novel in which a principal character, an outand-out charlatan called Dr. Andre Surtaine, is patterned after the Columbus doctor. The fictional Surtaine has made millions from a “sure cure” for most diseases called “Certina.” At one point in the novel, Surtaine confesses, “Most diseases cure themselves. Medicine isn’t much good. Doctors don’t know a great deal. Now, if a patent medicine braces a patient up and gives him courage, that is all that can be done.” Although these comments are similar to those Hartman made to Adams in 1905, the book offers no further clue to the motive behind the real doctor’s candor to a reporter.


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Meanwhile at the Peruna factory, his son-in-law succeeded Hartman. Well known in Columbus as an energetic and canny businessman, Fred Schumacher in 1904 had been elected president of the city’s Board of Trade. Clearly he was an ideal candidate to take the helm of the Peruna Drug Manufacturing Company during this difficult period. Under his leadership the fortunes of Peruna revived although the nostrum never regained its status as the nation’s top seller. The quack medicine got boosts from two sources: Prohibition and radio. Peruna: “Prohibition Tonic” As states went “dry,” Peruna continued to be sold over the counter. In Maine, for example, which early (1851) prohibited liquor, Peruna was a popular tonic. People named their children after it. The company made no real effort to disguise Peruna’s spirituous nature. Shown here is a shipping crate that clearly states the contents at 18% alcohol — twice the alcoholic content of a glass of wine and, by any count, a stiff drink [Figure 12]. During National Prohibition, Peruna came to be known generally as “Prohibition Tonic.” Nevertheless the company continued to gain endorsements from clergymen, including an Episcopal bishop of Baltimore. It also placed ads in church bulletins that claimed Peruna was recommended by: “An Indefatigable and Lifelong Worker in the Temperance Cause.” Radio gave another boost to Peruna. The medium provided regional and even national exposure to dozens of country music groups and an opportunity for Peruna to advertise over the airwaves. It appears that at least 24 groups at 18 stations nationwide and from Mexican “border radio” daily were broadcasting Peruna’s message to rural and urban Americans alike. Shown here [Figure 13] is the first Peruna Family Song Book, issued in 1937. On the cover (from top) are Pappy Cheshire and His Gang from KMOX in St. Louis, the Cumberland Ridge Runners from WJJD in Chicago and The Pickard Family from XERA, Villa Acuna, Mexico. So potent was this form of merchandising that the American Medical Association formally, but unsuccessfully, asked that the broadcast industry ban Peruna ads. The AMA claimed that the nostrum was keeping sick people from seeing their doctor. By this time, however, Peruna had toned down its claims. Gone was any reference to catarrh. Now the tonic was “The Great New Cold-Fighter,” with ingredients that

Figure 14: Southern Methodist University “Peruna” mascot

purported to build up resistance to the sniffles. Underlining Peruna’s identity with radio and Prohibition, students at Southern Methodist University early in the 1930s adopted as their fight song a ditty to the tune of “Comin’ ‘Round the Mountain” that went like this: She’ll be loaded with Peruna when she comes, She’ll be loaded with Peruna when she comes, She’ll be loaded with Peruna, Yes, loaded with Peruna, She’ll be loaded with Peruna when she comes!” Even today the school mascot, a black mustang, is named “Peruna.” [Figure 14]

31 The End of the Story With Repeal, Peruna’s appeal to the drinking public faded. Its formula was changed once again to bolster sales. No longer devoted to the plague of catarrh or just fighting colds, now the nostrum boasted of “three way action.” It claimed to combine an iron tonic, an expectorant and a stomach soother. [Figure 15] Nevertheless, other patent medicines eventually supplanted it in popularity. Peruna was withdrawn from the market sometime during the 1940s. Schumacher and Dr. Hartman’s daughter divorced, but he continued to live in their Columbus mansion along with a butler and a cook. Ever the entrepreneur, Schumacher made another fortune in Canadian gold, and at his death in 1957, left an estate of $50 million to the Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts. A town is named for him in Ontario, Canada. Samuel Hopkins Adams became a wellknown and highly popular American writer and novelist. But his fame today rests largely on his expose of the patent medicine industry and its role in the creation of the FDA. Adams died in 1958 at the advanced age of 87, benefited, one suspects, by never having medicated with Peruna. ************* Note: This article was compiled from a variety of sources, including the Internet. Most important was Samuel Hopkins Adams’ 1905 series of articles, later a book, called The Great American Fraud. Others were The Golden Age of Quackery by Stewart H. Holbrook (1959) and The Toadstool Millionaires by James Harvey Young (1961). Figures 6 and 15 are courtesy of the Ohio Exploration Society. Portions of this article have previously appeared in The Ohio Swirl, the newsletter of the Ohio Bottle Club.

Jack Sullivan 4300 Ivanhoe Place Alexandria, VA 22304 jack.sullivan9@verizon.net

Figure 13: Peruna Song Book


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Piazzoli Designs from Capstan Glass By Barry L. Bernas The Capstan Glass Company was chartered as a corporation on April 12th, 1918. Throughout its existence, the home office and factory were located in South Connellsville, Pennsylvania. After extensive refurbishment to the former Ripley Glass plant, operations in the Capstan works began on April 17th, 1919. The first shipment of mostly tumblers was sent off on June 9th, 1919. From its opening until September 1928, this Corporation functioned as a subsidiary of the Anchor Cap & Closure Corporation of Long Island City, New York. After this date, Capstan became a part of the Anchor Cap Corporation and remained such until December 31st, 1937. There was a unique element to the history of this company. It occurred in July 1934, when another glass producer joined the Anchor Cap team - the Salem Glass Works of Salem, New Jersey. From this point until January 1938, operations there were commingled with Capstan’s under the singular leadership of South Connellsville officers. New Year’s Day 1938 saw the merger become effective between the Anchor Cap Corporation of Long Island City, New York and the Hocking Glass Company of Lancaster, Ohio. The consolidated organization was known as the Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation. As a result, the combined Capstan and Salem glass factories became two separate units within the nascent Anchor Hocking concern. On February 18th, 1938, the name – Capstan Glass Company – was officially changed in the Company’s original charter to the Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation of Pa. Glass production continued on a reduced basis in Anchor Hocking’s South Connellsville factory until September 1938. It was in this month that officials in Lancaster, Ohio decided to close the former Capstan site.1

Throughout its lifetime, the Capstan Glass trademark (capstan) was affixed to the base of each piece manufactured in the Company’s factory. A picture of this logo can be seen in Figure 1.2 A Capstan Success Trait One stellar thread that ran throughout Capstan Glass was the use of employee ideas for the overall betterment of the Corporation. Management started this program early in the firm’s existence and continued it right through until the merger. In my opinion, this policy was just one of many others within this glass container maker that underpinned its success for almost two decades. Theodore J. Piazzoli stands out as just one shinning example of this theme. Between April 30th, 1931, when his first request for a design patent was filed, and December 1st, 1936, the date he was issued his final one, the United States Patent Office granted protection to no less than seventeen of his ideas. Of this total, eleven were for outer patterns to jars, three for tumbler designs and three for bottle motifs. Pursuant to the aforementioned success trait, he signed over the rights for all but one to his employer – Capstan Glass.3 In this article, I want to introduce you to the seventeen designs Mr. Piazzoli conceived. In doing so, a sketch of each specimen will be shown along side a picture of a production model, if one has been identified. Accompanying the pertinent data about the design patent will be information about when this example was marketed by

Figure 1

Figure 2

the Capstan Glass Company. This assembly will provide more facts to those interested in the so-called “art deco” era for glass containers. Design Patent – 84,593 On April 30th, 1931, the United States Patent Office started to process a request from Mr. Piazzoli for a design patent on the left-hand sketch in Figure 2. Less than three months later, his submission was approved on July 7th, 1931.4 The example on the right in Figure 2 was promoted in four sizes, ranging in capacities from ten to forty-five ounces. Oddly, jars in this motif have been verified with mold numbers 5710, 5712, 5734, 5746 and 5791 on the base. This fact may mean more jars with different capacities were added to the 57XX line due to demand. As near as I can determine, this Piazzoli concept was initially advertised in June 1932 by Capstan’s sales personnel. The last marketing pitch for it I ran across was in the March 1934 issue of The Glass Packer.5 Design Patent 85,712 Less than three months after his initial application was approved, Theodore J. Piazzoli requested issuance of a second design patent for the outer motif on a jar. The Patent Office started the paperwork trail for it on October 14th, 1931. On the left side in Figure 3 is an extract of this innovation. December 8th of the same year brought Federal registration of his idea. I believe that I’ve identified an example of this vessel. It is shown on the right in Figure 3. This specimen carries the number-letter combination of 8M on its base. Also, it has a paper label on the front for the Ann Page brand of prepared mustard packaged for the distributor - The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company of New York City. This 9-ounce container is the only size I’ve run across so far. Equally regrettable is the fact that after a review of all of the Capstan Glass marketing endorsements I have I’ve failed to turn-up a picture of this container. It appears it was never


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Figure 3 Figure 5

advertised for general sale. Design Patent – 86,408 Shortly before Christmas in 1931, Mr. Piazzoli sent off a third application to the United States Patent Office. Personnel there started to process this submission on December 26th. Processors concluded their work when they granted Theodore J. Piazzoli a design patent for it on March 1st, 1932.6

Figure 4 The profile of the eight-sided jar on the left in Figure 4 encapsulated his new idea. A picture of an actual production model can be seen beside on the right. Two specimens of this packers’ container have been reported. The taller and larger capacity version came with the number 5972 on its base. Its smaller mate had only the script letters ASCO. This abbreviation stood for the American Stores Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As was the case with Design Patent 85,712, there are no sales promotions available for this Piazzoli jar. Design Patent – 86,470 The next jar pattern from Theodore J. Piazzoli was granted a design patent on March 8th, 1932. Seen on the left in Figure 5, the application to register this outer pattern commenced its journey through the United States Patent Office on the same day as the request for Design Patent 86,408. Even though this submission was initially processed ahead of its companion, it took another week for this motif to be approved. 7 The picture on the right side in Figure 5 depicts an actual example of this container. It carries a paper label for the

Lady Betty brand of relish spread from the Wheatley Mayonnaise Company, Incorporated of Louisville, Kentucky and Jacksonville, Florida. On the underneath of it are four digits – 4406 - identifying the mold. To date, only two other sizes have been found. The numerical identifiers for these are 4412 and 4416. The latter example I have also carries a paper label. It shows the distributor to be Sprague, Warner & Company of Chicago, Illinois. The former content of this jar was pickled boneless pigs feet cutlets packed under the Richelieu brand name. There is the possibility that other larger capacity jars in this series were made. However, if they were, none have surfaced as of yet. First offered for sale in June 1932, this attractive Piazzoli design last appeared in a Capstan ad in June 1935.8 Design Patent – 86,540 Six weeks after personnel from the Patent Office started to process Theodore J. Piazzoli’s fifth application for a design patent on a jar, the process was completed on March 15th, 1932.9 The final step issued to him Design Patent 86,540. An extract of this design can be seen in Figure 6. It stands alone because I haven’t been able to locate an example nor has one been reported to me. The only Capstan Glass advertisement for this container that I could find appeared in the February 1938 edition of The Glass Packer.10 The single promotion of this item certainly creates the impression that the outer motif wasn’t popular with either packers or consumers. Also, since this advertisement appeared a mere month after Capstan Glass was absorbed into the Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation and just before the Figure 6 Company’s name was changed, this model may not have been manufactured with a capstan logo for a long period, if at all. Design Patent – 88,106 This entry is the first of three tumblers with a distinctive outer or inner pattern by Mr. Piazzoli. Also, it was his sixth request for


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Figure 9 Figure 7

Figure 8

a design patent. The application to patent the container profiled in Figure 7 was forwarded to the Patent Office on March 7th, 1932. Eleven days later, government personnel started to process the submission. Over six and one-half months later, registration for this Piazzoli motif was issued to him on October 25th.11 No model has yet been founded. This fact may suggest Design Patent 88,106 was never manufactured. Design Patent – 90,082 Theodore J. Piazzoli forwarded another idea for an outer design on a tumbler. Filed with the United States Patent Office on April 14th, 1933, this concept earned a design patent on June 6th, 1933 under the identifier. 12 A sketch of this vessel can be seen in Figure 8. I’ve been unable to locate an advertisement or sample of this container. Design Patent – 91,083 The third and last tumbler motif was in the shape of a mug. An outline of it can be seen in on the left in Figure 9. On May 3rd, 1933 or about six months after a picture of the item initially appeared in a Capstan Glass ad, Theodore J. Piazzoli forwarded a request to the United States Patent Office to patent its outer saw-tooth pattern. Officials there approved his concept on November 21st, 1933.13 Unfortunately, I haven’t found a specimen of this container with a capstan trademark or mold number 555 on its base. Nevertheless, I do possess one without a logo and the three digits. Since a picture of this vessel appeared in both Capstan and Anchor Hocking ads without a trademark or mold identifier, I’m assuming that my version parallels the one with the Capstan Glass nautical symbol on it.14 A photograph of it can be seen on the right in Figure 9. The November 1932 edition of The Glass Packer carried the first marketing pitch for this container. This announcement and others about it stated the handled vessel had a capacity of 11 3/4thounces. This made it suitable for jellies, preserves, mustard, nut meats, peanut butter and chocolate syrup among other foods. After the Volstead Act was modified, this example was also touted as an ideal 3.2 beer mug in Company ads. By September 1933, Capstan officials were promoting this design patented model in both clear

and amber glass. Sales personnel from this South Connellsville firm illustrated this item for the final time in December 1935. The last advertisement I encountered for Design Patent 91,083 was in April 1938. It was sponsored by the Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation. Based on this informational lineage, this style of Piazzoli mug was probably manufactured for at least five years and perhaps longer.15 Design Patent – 91,366 Theodore J. Piazzoli’s ninth ornamental design appeared on a jar. The application for it was submitted in the midst of the Great Depression on November 16th, 1933. Two months to the day later, the United States Patent Office approved his request.16 The outer motif on this distinctive packers’ vessel can be seen on the left in Figure 10. To its right is a specimen of the manufactured vessel. To date, I’ve only encountered one size of container in this style. This example carries the number 5913 below the Capstan trademark on its base. Above the Company’s nautical insignia is the embossed phrase - PAT. APPLIED FOR - in a curved alignment. To the best of my knowledge, this model was advertised only twice by Capstan Glass. Its first appearance was in December 1933 or six weeks before the design patent was issued. The other showed up in the August 1935 issue of The Glass Packer.17

Figure 10


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35 first ornate pattern on a bottle. This concept commenced its journey through the United States Patent Office on June 4th, 1934. A little over two months later, the approval was returned on August 7th.21 The outer motif on this container can be viewed in Figure 13. Regrettably, I couldn’t locate this container in any Capstan Glass Company promotion. It may have never been produced.

Figure 11 Design Patent – 92,423 The drawing on the left and picture adjoining it to the right in Figure 11 depict another creation by Theodore J. Piazzoli. April 10th, 1934 was the date employees at the United States Patent Office started to process his request to patent this motif. The paperwork process took less than two months to complete. As a result, issuance of a design patent occurred on June 5th, 1934. 18 I’ve found only one example of this container. Its base carries the mold number 4730 and phrase PAT. APPLIED FOR. Nonetheless, there are most likely other sizes yet to be discovered. I make this statement because the Capstan announcements about it indicated it came in three sizes: seven and three-fourths, fifteen and threeeighths and thirty and three-eighths ounces. First promoted in November 1934, the Anchor-Capstan sales force continued to advertise this model on two other occasions. The last one was in April 1936.19 Design Patent – 92,424 Government personnel in the Patent Office started to work on Mr. Piazzoli’s eleventh request for a design patent on the same day as number 92,423. Not surprisingly, the approval trail ended on the same date as well June 5th, 1934.20 The profile of this container can be seen in Figure 12. To my chagrin, I’ve not been able to locate an example of this jar. Additionally, a review of the Capstan Glass Company advertisements I hold failed to turn up a picture of this pattern in a promotion. Thus, it appears this Figure 12 jar might not have been manufactured. Design Patent – 92,975 The twelfth design patent by Theodore J. Piazzoli was for his

Design Patent – 94,095 The ninth unique exterior motif on a jar was also Theodore J. Figure 13 Piazzoli’s thirteenth design patent. The sketch on the left in Figure 14 shows this style of container. The request to register this profile started to work its way through the United States Patent Office on September 7th, 1934. Three months and eleven days later, the process ended in approval.22 The container on the right in Figure 14 is a production example of this style. As you can see, it has four groups of horizontal bars along either side seam. There is another version as well. On this model, the jar has only three groups of horizontal bars on either side of the vessel’s body. Figure 14

Up to this point in time, I’ve come across three different sizes of this type of jar. These samples were embossed with the following mold numbers 4823, 4830 and 4850. The first two series of digits were placed on the base of a four group vessel. The latter numerals appeared in the same location on a three group specimen. There are probably more four group versions with other volumetric capacities. I make this statement with certitude because a May 1937 ad pictured seven distinct models of the 4823/4830 motif. As for their three group mate, the 4850 example is the only size I’ve identified. Six months after the Patent Office issued Mr. Piazzoli a design


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patent for this jar, the glass trade journal - The Glass Packer carried the first promotion of it. This sales pitch and others that followed showcased either both varieties or one of the two styles. A three group version was last illustrated by Capstan Glass in February 1938.23 This set of facts suggests that Design Patent 94,095 was manufactured in South Connellsville for about four years. Design Patent – 94,357 The request for a design patent for the screw top bottle outlined in Figure 15 (on the left) was forwarded on October 22nd, 1934. It was filed by Patent Office workers five days later. January 15th, 1935 saw approval of this pattern being granted to Theodore J. Piazzoli.24 Unfortunately, no example has yet been discovered. Likewise, a Capstan Glass Company advertisement hasn’t surfaced showing it. Design Patent – 98,958 On July 20th, 1935, Mr. Piazzoli signed his fifteenth patent application. This request asked for the bottle, depicted on the left in Figure 16, to be granted protection for its exterior profile. Nine days hence, hands at the United States Patent Office started to process his package of paperwork. Seven months and eighteen days later, Mr. Piazzoli was issued a design patent for his work. By mesne assignments, he forwarded the rights for it to the L. E. Waterman Company of New York City.25 The actual blown version of this familiar ink container is pictured on the right in Figure 16. In addition to Capstan turning out this bottle, several other glass manufacturers did so as well. Undoubtedly, this vessel was designed specifically for the L. E. Waterman Company. As such, I could find no advertisement for it sponsored by the Capstan Glass Company.

Figure 17 subsequent sales promotions, the 35XX marked vessels were pitched by Capstan Glass through April 1937.27

Figure 18 Figure 16 Design Patent – 99,304 A formatted submission seeking a design patent for the tenth or penultimate jar pattern by Theodore J. Piazzoli was sent forward on March 7th, 1935. Workers at the Patent Office received this request and began working it on March 12th. A bit over a year later, a design patent was granted on April 14th, 1936.26 Figure 17 has a sketch of this distinctive container on the left. Beside it on the right is an actual example that was manufactured in Capstan’s factory. Known as the Styleline series, this group was sold in seven sizes. To date, I’ve identified four of the seven models. These have the trailing mold identifiers inscribed on the base 3514, 3518, 3523 and 3547. It didn’t take long for this set to be marketed. Less than three months after Mr. Piazzoli signed the patent request, a Styleline jar appeared for the first time in a June 1935 advertisement. In

Design Patent – 102,171 The last jar motif and seventeenth design patent application by Mr. Piazzoli was dated October 9th, 1936. This request garnered approval less than two months later.28 A drawing of this container can be seen in Figure 18. As was the case with other Piazzoli designs, neither an example of his creation nor an advertisement for it has been located. This fact calls into question whether this model was ever produced for sale by the Capstan Glass Company.

Wrap Up By my count, records at the United States Patent and Trademark Office document twenty-four patents or design patents being issued for tumblers, jars and bottles to personnel associated with Capstan Glass. Of this total, the rights to twenty-three were signed back over to their employer in South Connellsville. The other was assigned to the L. E. Waterman Company of New York City. Five Company men participated in the Federal process to patent their glass container innovations. By far and away, Theodore J. Piazzoli was the leader in getting approval for his concepts. As I’ve just shown, seventeen of his designs were approved. Unique Piazzoli conceived motifs for eleven jars, three tumblers and three bottles have been detailed in this article. Of this total, eight jars, one tumbler (mug) and one bottle (ink) were manufactured by hands at the Capstan Glass factory. For the others, I’m still searching for an example, if one exists.


Bottles and Extras If you can help me document any missing style of container that matches a design patent granted to Theodore J. Piazzoli, please don’t hesitate to contact me directly. BLB Endnotes: 1

State of Delaware, Secretary of State, Division of Corporations, file 0073117;

Connellsville and Uniontown Directory 1918-1919, J. H. Lant, pg. 153; The Daily Courier, November 22, 1920, pg. 1; Ibid, September 17, 1928, pg. 1; Ibid, July 12, 1934, pg. 1; Ibid, September 21, 1938, pg. 1; The Greensburg Tribune Review, Focus Magazine, September 3, 1989, pg. 10; The Glass Packer, October 1928, pg. 25 and Living Glass - The Story of the AnchorHocking Glass Corporation, John L. Gushman, The Newcomen Society, 1965, pg. 20. 2 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE – CAPSTAN GLASS COMPANY, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA. ACT OF FEBRUARY 20, 1905. Application filed November 11, 1926, Serial No. 239, 918. Registered May 31, 1927. Trademark 228, 353. The drawing came from the reference paperwork. 3 Tumblers, Jars and Bottles, A Product Identification Guide For the Capstan Glass Company, South Connellsville, Pennsylvania, Barry L. Bernas, 239 Ridge Avenue, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 2007, pgs. VII-IX. The rights to design patent 98,958 were signed over to the L. E. Waterman Company of New York City. 4 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE THEODORE J. PIAZZOLI, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO CAPSTAN GLASS COMPANY, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE. DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Application filed April 30, 1931. Serial No. 39,665. Term of patent 14 years. Patented July 7, 1931. Des. 84,593. 5 The Glass Packer, June 1932, pg. 381 and Ibid, March 1934, pg. 197. 6 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE THEODORE J. PIAZZOLI, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO CAPSTAN GLASS COMPANY, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE - DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Application filed December 26, 1931. Serial No. 42,220. Term of patent 14 years. Patented March 1, 1932. Des. 86,408. 7 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE THEODORE J. PIAZZOLI, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO CAPSTAN GLASS COMPANY, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE. DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Application filed December 26, 1931. Serial No. 42,219. Term of patent 14 years. Patented March 8, 1932. Des. 86,470.

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The Glass Packer, June 1932, pg. 381; Ibid, March 1934, pg. 197; Ibid, May 1935, pg. 319 and Ibid, June 1935, pg. 383. 9 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE THEODORE J. PIAZZOLI, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO CAPSTAN GLASS COMPANY, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE. DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Application filed January 21, 1932. Serial No. 42,581. Term of patent 14 years. Patented Mar. 15, 1932. Des. 86,540. 10 The Glass Packer, February 1938, pg. 125. 11 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE – THEODORE J. PIAZZOLI, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO CAPSTAN GLASS COMPANY, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE. DESIGN FOR A TUMBLER OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Application filed March 18, 1932. Serial No. 43,235. Term of patent 14 years. Patented Oct. 25, 1932. Des. 88,106. 12 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE THEODORE J. PIAZZOLI, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO CAPSTAN GLASS COMPANY, OF CONNELLSVILLE, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE - DESIGN FOR A TUMBLER OR SIMILAR ARTICLE - Application filed April 14, 1933. Serial No. 47,789. Term of patent 14 years. Patented June 6, 1933. Des. 90,082. 13 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE – 91,083 DESIGN FOR TUMBLER OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application May 3, 1933. Serial No. 47,976. Term of patent 14 years. Patented Nov. 21, 1933. Des. 91,083 and The Glass Packer, November 1932, pg. 701. 14 The Glass Packer, December 1935, pg. 789 and Ibid, April 1938. 15 The Spice Mill, March 1933, pg. 289; The Glass Packer, November 1932, pg. 701; September 1933, pg. 583; Ibid, November 1933, pg. 709; Ibid, January 1935, pg. 53; Ibid, December 1935, pg. 789 and Ibid, April 1938. 16 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 91,366 DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application November 16, 1933. Serial No. 49,762. Term of patent 14 years. Patented Jan. 16, 1934. Des. 91,366. 17 The Glass Packer, December 1933, pg. 775; Ibid, August 1935, pg. 517 and THE SPICE MILL, December 1933, pg. 1151. 18 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 92,423 DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application filed April 10, 1934,

37 Serial No. 51,370. Term of patent 14 years. Patented June 5, 1934. Des. 92,423. 19 The Glass Packer, November 1934, pg. 731; Ibid, March 1935, pg. 187 and Ibid, April 1936, pg. 217. 20 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE – 92,424 DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application April 10, 1934, Serial No. 51,371. Term of patent 14 years. Patented June 5, 1934. Des. 92,424. 21 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE – 92,975 DESIGN FOR A BOTTLE OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application June 4, 1934, Serial No. 52,050. Term of patent 14 years. Patented August 7, 1934. Des. 92,975. 22 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 94,095 DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application filed September 7, 1934, Serial No. 53,220. Term of patent 14 years. Patented December 18, 1934. Des. 94,095. 23 The Glass Packer, June 1935, pg. 383; Ibid, August 1935, pg. 517; Ibid, March 1936, pg. 143; Ibid, July 1936, pg. 413; Ibid, March 1937, pg. 193; Ibid, May 1937, pg. 283 and Ibid, February 1938, pg. 125. 24 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE – 94,357 DESIGN FOR A BOTTLE OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application October 27, 1934, Serial No. 53,791. Term of patent 14 years. Patented Jan. 15, 1935. Des. 94,375. 25 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 98,958 DESIGN FOR A BOTTLE OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor, by mesne assignments, to L. E. Waterman Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York. Application July 29, 1935, Serial No. 57,838. Term of patent 14 years. Patented Mar. 17, 1936. Des 98,958. 26 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 99,304 DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application filed March 12, 1935, Serial No. 55,842. Term of patent 14 years. Patented Apr. 14, 1936. Des. 99,304. 27 The Glass Packer, June 1935, pg. 383; Ibid, July 1935, pg. 451; Ibid, August 1935, pg. 517; Ibid, June 1936, pg. 351; Ibid, March 1937, pg. 193 and Ibid, April 1937, pg. 217. 28 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 102,171 DESIGN FOR A JAR OR SIMILAR ARTICLE. Theodore J. Piazzoli, Connellsville, Pa., assignor to Capstan Glass Company, Connellsville, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. Application filed October 9, 1936, Serial No. 65,224. Term of patent 14 years. Patented Dec. 1, 1936. Des 102,171.


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Bottles and Extras

Beginning Tavern History By Donald Yates Tavern Life 1699 Let’s step back in time for a moment to 1699, but don’t worry, you may return to reality shortly. My first question is going to be: Could you get a glass bottle of beer? Sorry! Not for another 150 years! At that time, you could get a hotel or tavern room for three cents per night and a quart pitcher of flip was six cents. Today, that would be like spending $60 for one night at the Marriott Inn, and paying $120 for rum eggnog!!! In New England, flip was a very popular drink and was apparently quite tasty, since it retained its popularity for 150 years. Flip was made by filling a large stoneware crock two thirds full of strong beer, then adding molasses, and a gill of rum, a pint of cream, and a few eggs. Then a redhot poker was taken from the hearth and plunged into the flip, causing it to boil and foam. That gave it a unique, pleasant burnt flavor. Metheglin was a simple fermented beverage made from honey, yeast and water. It can be traced back to 1625 in New England, and was quite popular for many years in the East. In New Jersey, it was given the special title “PERFECT LOVE” because of its wide appeal. In Southern taverns, ale was very popular because it was a favorite of their British Colonists. Wine was very popular in regions settled by the French and Spanish colonists. Apple cider was popular throughout New England in taverns as well as in households. It was easy to make, and was consumed freely in large quantities. Sweet, fresh apple cider often went through its own metamorphosis and became hard cider. This was accomplished with the fermentation process, and we now had an alcoholic beverage. Early taverns were often single room log cabins. Furniture was sparse and well worn. One corner of the tavern often served as living quarters for the owner’s family. Family members and guests often crowded as close to the fire as possible. Lighting was quite primitive from whale oil lamps and lanterns and bees wax candles and homemade tallow

candles. It is very hard to imagine how harsh Colonial life was. Serious diseases included cholera and pulmonary tuberculosis. These were rampant at times and often spread by unsanitary living conditions and contaminated drinking water. Life expectancy in 1699 was only 33 years. The other disease of note was scurvy, which was really a preventable disease. As later discovered, scurvy was a deficiency of Vitamin C and many millions of people and sailors died from this terrible disease. James Lind was an officer in the British Navy and did a scientific research on scurvy in which he proved that it could be cured and prevented with citrus fruit, or Vitamin C. Ascorbic acid, its scientific name, was actually synthesized in 1932. The growth rate and popularity of taverns were tremendous. There was a huge influx of immigrants who settled throughout the territory, especially in New York and Pennsylvania. By 1650, one fourth of New Amsterdam’s (New York City’s) commercial buildings were taverns and tobacco shops. Innkeepers in New England had to be of respectable character and licensed by the Court of Common Pleas. They also had to meet with the approval of selectmen, civil authorities, constables, and grand jurors of the town of residence. Another reason for the short life span

was lead poisoning from pewter. Pewter ware was cast from 60 percent tin and 40 percent lead. The lead would leach into the beverage in the tankard and be consumed. But the worst case was that the pilgrims would ingest lead from their silverware and pewter plates. They would scrape the plates, actually wearing holes in them, after which they could then be sent to the pewter shop for recycling. Their early rectangular dishes were made out of hard maple or oak and were called trenchers. These were shared with each other and the children shared their trenchers as well. Beverages were often consumed from a common punch type bowl, also helping to spread diseases. The working class in Virginia spent a large amount of time in taverns, drinking, gambling and fighting. Virginia enacted legislation limiting the number of taverns in each town and some taverns were restricted to only selling beer and cider.


Bottles and Extras

Early taverns served an important purpose in providing a meeting place, where people could relax, discuss their problems, and take a break from the drudgery of colonial days. How about antiques? Were there any good antiques around back then? Well, not very many. Most items were very primitive and utilitarian, not ornate as they would become during the next century. Some early simple glass bottles were just starting to be made in the colonial glass houses. Most bottles of that time, were either stoneware, or if glass, were probably imported from Europe. Tavern Life 1799 Once again, let’s step back in time and see what it was like in 1799. We had a very young twenty three year old nation. It was an exciting time; It was a dangerous time. Things were not quite settled with the British, who still considered us to be one of their colonies. The Industrial Revolution was in its infancy, but progress could be seen in many aspects of life. Still driven by curiosity, my first question is again: Could you get a glass bottle of beer? Sorry! Not for another 50 years. What drinks were available? Spend an evening in a New England tavern and take a look around. It is crowded with patrons drinking drams of flip and other assorted alcoholic beverages, including barrels of beer, barrels of rum, and barrels of hard cider. Many new drinks were being introduced at that time, but only a few would survive the next hundred years. Hot toddy gained appeal in the mid1700s. It was a mixture of West Indian rum, sugar and hot water. Hot toddy was especially popular in New York State. In regions that were settled by the Irish and Scotch, whiskey was a favorite; it was distilled from grain, like rye, corn, and wheat.

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Brewed beers available in 1799 included regular malted barley beer, ale, ginger beer, spruce beer and molasses beer. Their popularity remained quite regional. Metheglin, a spiced mead, remained popular throughout New England, Kentucky and Virginia. Many types of wine were available, including cherry wine, and currant wine, but grape wine was the most popular, due to the excellent growing conditions in New York State. Living conditions had improved somewhat during the previous century but health care and disease prevention were still a major problem. To address this, there was an explosion in the patent medicine market; but life expectancy for those born in 1799 was still only 37 years. Not too promising. By this time, however, tavern conditions were improving. Main heating was still provided by the large friendly fireplace. Numerous tables and chairs and a bar were in place along one side. Both meals and drinks were served to the patrons. Lighting still remained primitive. Mineral or coal oil

39 had largely replaced whale oil for use in the lamps and lanterns. It was common practice in Puritan New England on Sunday for parishioners to attend service in their church or meeting house. These were usually poorly heated, especially in winter, and afterward, many parishioners would leave church and head for the cheerful tavern. Some taverns were also inns to serve travelers. Small inns had two bedrooms, with a single bed in each; one bedroom for men and one for women. Many taverns also served as post offices, and some had attached ball rooms for night time dancing. Other entertainment included live plays, turkey shoots, fox chasing, sing-alongs and cock fights. None of these fun activities would ever have been permitted during the very strict Puritan Law of the previous century. Every teenager knew what the term bundling meant. It meant sleeping together before getting married using the excuse to share body heat to keep warm. Most parents did not approve of the practice and would require a physical barrier between the two parties. A lot of babies were born as a result of this practice, which meant more farm hands. During the Revolutionary War, taverns were used as court rooms, prisons, officers’ headquarters and for secret meetings of patriots. How about antiques? Were there any good antiques available at that time? Most of the bottles of this period were still free-blown; this was the beginning of the figural flask and historical flask eras, and all of the bottles were made with open pontil marks. Early spirits bottles were often


40 made with black glass. Wine bottles were made squat and bulbous, with flattened front and back sides. Some cylindrical wine bottles were also made at that time. Quart stoneware bottles were very popular at that time and were used for small beer and ale. Saratoga Spring water was bottled locally and they used local glass houses to blow the bottles. Tavern Life 1899 This is the third section of this series. You have read the first two sections, and I am sure that you can remember the inane question: Can you get a glass bottle of beer yet? Well……yes! Approximately 100 years after the American Revolution, you can now get a glass bottle of beer. Even chilled with ice perhaps, not refrigerated but from preservation in the ice box. At this time, most beer bottles had hand finished blob tops, were amber in color, and had lightning stopper closures. Some crown top bottles had been regionally introduced during this period. The crown tops, or caps, could hold the pressure, which preserved the beverage. Many of the popular beverages of colonial times were no longer available in taverns.. Beer was probably the principal drink, which was usually produced in local breweries, using malted barley and hops. Many different types of bitters (medicinal alcohol) were available and often came in attractive colored or figural Bottles. Bitters could also be purchased in the apothecary or drug store. By this time, the period of ornate, colorful historical flasks had started to decline. Whiskey now came in simple

May-June 2007 flasks, with minimum embossing, or with paper labels. Wine and gin were also popular at this time, but their bottles usually had printed paper labels. Ginger beer was very popular in Western New York State. The reasons drinking was so popular were many, including entertainment, social contact, a salty diet from food preservation; also a wide belief that cold spring water was dangerous to drink. For the first time, the Industrial Revolution had created some leisure time. The citizens had experienced constant improvement in farm machinery and techniques. In 1799, the U.S.A. urban population was five percent, and by 1899, it had reached 39 percent. The spinning and weaving industry also experienced some remarkable clever, inventions. In some urban regions, the taverns were next door to beer gardens that catered to capacity crowds of German immigrants on Sundays. The lager beer served was delivered in oak casks, directly from the breweries by four-horse teams. Tavern lighting had made some progress by this time. Rural lighting was predominantly with coal oil lamps. The best solution to the problem of artificial illumination, concluded Benjamin Franklin, was to do without it. Daylight Saving Time, he urged, offered the only answer for sensible people who must live by the clock. Baltimore became the first American city to organize a company for the distribution of lighting gas on 1819. Boston and New York followed suit and adapted gas for street lighting. Some taverns in these cities in 1870 had outdoor lighting with cast iron gas lamp posts. Most other regions still used oil

Bottles and Extras burning lamp posts. In 1899, some eastern taverns began using electric lighting for the first time. The incandescent lamp was invented by Thomas Edison in 1880, and within twenty years it was being mass-produced for use in major cities. During this period, some of the metropolitan taverns were richly decorated with marble floors, cut glass mirrors, and mahogany bars and woodwork. This formal atmosphere created a warm place for meeting friends, conducting business, or simply drinking away the leisure hours. In the upscale taverns, the patrons wore fancy clothing to indicate their success. Industrious folks could earn a good living with the many new businesses and factories. Both men and women wore hats and other accessories of bright colors. Banks were being created to lend money and encourage new businesses. Diseases were still prevalent at the end of the 19th Century and contagious diseases were particularly devastating. Life expectancy had increased to 49 years, but hardly a respectable life! The cause of tuberculosis was discovered in 1882, but unfortunately anti-biotic treatment would not be available until 1950. Women were subjected to high mortality during childbirth; children were exceptionally vulnerable to childhood diseases such as small pox, polio and diphtheria. All of the beneficial attributes of tavern life were continuously overshadowed by a strange, strong, enigmatic force known as the temperance movement. The movement started shortly after the Civil War and was promoted by several influential individuals, many women’s organizations and the Methodist church. In 1885, Kansas State voted in its own prohibition laws. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union was founded in Cleveland, Ohio in 1874. The first Temperance Education Law was passed in 1882, originating in Washington D.C., and by 1900, all of the states had similar laws. The ultimate effect of the movement would manifest itself as the Prohibition Volstead Act of 1920, which lasted until its repeal in 1933. Our young nation had some degree of resilience; however, it was not fully prepared for the devastating effects of Prohibition. Millions of people immediately lost their jobs, with unpredicted subsequent job losses. Prohibition was a major precursor to the stock market crash of 1929, and also the Great Depression. It was estimated that


Bottles and Extras in New York City in 1933, there were 67,000 children without homes. The devastation was even felt in the sugar mills and the rum distilleries of the Caribbean islands. Summary: 1899 was a period of exciting growth in the beverage industry, providing millions of jobs in building and operating breweries, taverns, and supporting industries. The breweries built at that time were usually of ornate architectural character, constructed of quarried stone and brick. They were built to last 100 years, not just until Prohibition. Taverns experienced a dramatic change in atmosphere from that of 1699. The beverage evolution had quite stabilized by then, leaving the most popular, mass produced favorites. Taverns were no longer used as post offices, town meetings or church services. The next article in this series will be titled: Tavern Life – 1999! Williamsburg Taverns Marot’s Ordinary John Marot was born in Germany in 1862 and sailed to Virginia in 1696. Around 1700, he began his activities as a respectable servant. He purchased his ordinary in 1708 in Williamsburg. It was a very popular place serving the upper class. For several years, John Marot was a Williamsburg constable. He got into trouble twice for selling liquors at rates higher that set by law. He pleaded guilty and was excused. He purchased a good-sized farm in 1718. John Marot’s luck ran out and he was violently murdered by fellow ordinary keeper Francis Sharp. John’s widow continued to operate the ordinary until 1738, when she leased it to John Taylor. Around 1745, it was being operated by John Marot’s daughter, Anne, and her husband, James Shields. They named their ordinary The English Coffee House. Burdett’s Ordinary Today, this tavern can be identified with its swinging sign depicting Edinburgh Castle. John Burdett was the original owner. It was similar to most of the other Williamsburg taverns, used mainly for drinking and gambling and meals. When open to the public for travelers, the rooms were pressed into service for group sleeping.

May-June 2007 Red Lion Tavern In 1717, the trustees of Williamsburg granted this lot to Francis Sharp. In 1718, he built his tavern and obtained a liquor license. He provided food and liquor to travelers. Francis Sharp murdered John Marot in 1718. John was the owner of Marot’s Ordinary. King’s Arms Tavern Jane Vobe was the original proprietor of the tavern. They served food and drink to the upper class, including William Byrd, George Washington, and Sir Peyton Skipwith. Its ornate decorations included wooden paneling and an extensive wine cellar. During the Revolution, Jane Vobe served food and drink to the American troops, including Virginia ham, fried chicken, and scalloped oysters. The Raleigh Tavern The Raleigh Tavern is located on the north side of the Duke of Gloucester Street at the center of the busiest block in Williamsburg. It was dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh, who promoted sending colonists to America and promoted the use of tobacco in England. The Raleigh was the center of social events. Elegant balls were held in its Apollo Room. Both farmers and merchants gathered at its bar. Substantial wooden tables were scarred by dice boxes as wealth changed hands during the course of an evening.

Don Yates 8300 River Corners Road Homerville, Ohio 44235

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Spam Ads By Steve Ketcham Somewhere, P.T. Barnum must be smiling. He of the statement, “There’s a sucker born every minute” must be taking great pride in the charlatans now trolling on the Internet and the television, seeking to hook a sucker of two for themselves. If the sheer volume of Internet ads is any indicator of their success, these sucker seekers must have full stringers. Some ads arrive as SPAM, those unwelcome Internet messages which daily clutter our e-mail boxes. So bothersome are these intrusive ads that Congress is seeking means to stop them. The ads offer us opportunities to get out of debt, refinance a home, or buy all manner of products. Some ads are simply incredible; others would make a sailor blush. Somewhere very near the smiling P. T. Barnum, the likes of Kickapoo Indian Medicine Company’s John Healy, Texas Charlie Bigelow, and Nevada Ned Oliver are no doubt also engaged in a good, backslapping guffaw. Their delight is found in the many television infomercials which, for

all intents and purposes, are the TwentyFirst Century rebirth of the traveling medicine shows which the Kickapoo Indian Medicine Company once sent across the hills and plains of America. SPAM ads boldly promise that male recipients can “become the man that women desire.” Others promise to enhance body parts, both male and female, which are somehow too small. Meanwhile, television infomercials push diet drugs and exercise machines. Lewis Carroll foresaw it all when he had Alice take doses of potions which made her grow and then shrink. What are the Internet and the television if not electronic Wonderlands? Another SPAM ad suggests, “Eat the foods you love while losing weight.” Remarkably, a fellow named Henry C. Bradford used nearly identical words to promote his weight loss product on the pages of a 1903 issue of “The New Metropolitan” magazine. His was one of five weight-loss-product ads which appeared in the magazine. It promised that

Right: Healy and Bigelow would be right at home advertising on the Internet. This ad for their Kickapoo Indian products, as found in an 1892 drug supply catalog, sound a good deal like Internet ads of today.

Bottles and Extras while using this product, “You make no radical change in your food, but eat as much or as often as you please.” If 100 years didn’t separate these two ads, one could easily believe they were written by the same copy writer. Weight-loss humbugs have been around for over 100 years, but their pain-killer counterparts are equally long lived. Back in 1876, as our nation celebrated its first 100 years by staging an exposition in Philadelphia, large-scale brand advertising was a young idea. There were no electronic media, but within the pages of the “Official Catalogue of the U. S. International Exhibition 1876,” many companies boasted proudly of their products. One such product was Dr. Tobias’ Celebrated Venetian Liniment. The ad claimed that the product was for both internal and external use. When used externally, it was “warranted to cure…croup, chronic rheumatism, cuts, bruises, insect stings, core throats, toothache, old sores, and pains in the back, chest, and limbs…” The Dr Tobias promises of 1876 sound incredible, but remarkably similar claims drew the attention of the Federal Trade Commission in 2002. The product, known as Blue Stuff, was advertised on a web site and on television infomercials. A summary


Bottles and Extras of the FTC case against the company can be found in the American Bar Association’s Fall 2002 Consumer Protection Update, available on line. Prior to a $3 million FTC penalty, the $59.95 product advertised nearly instant relief for all manner of pain. Sounding much like the old Dr. Tobias ads, the product said it would relieve knee, hip, shoulder, hand, foot and lower back pain, and pains resulting from automobile and sports injuries, in five to fifteen minutes. One especially questionable consumer testimonial even spoke of Blue Stuff saving a fellow from a leg amputation. According to the ABA report, the happy consumer said the product relived his symptoms, “…before I could get the cap back on the jar…” The current Blue Stuff web site ads are far tamer. The product, which comes in rubon, roll-on, and spray-on forms, is now advertised as being for “…temporary relief of minor aches and pains associated with arthritis, simple backache, strains, bruises, or sprains.” It is the fantastic claims of old, made by quacks of all kinds, which make our old bottles and advertising so interesting to collect. We delight in the curative claims of products like Dr. Kilmer’s Swamp Root Kidney, Liver and Bladder Cure. We laugh at the shaky promises of quacks like William Radam and his Microbe Killer We roll our eyes at the ads at the back of old magazines which promised readers they could be cured of baldness, obesity, hearing loss, drunkenness, freckles, and even cancer. We ought to take time to pause and give thanks that the Federal Trade Commission and the Food and Drug Administration have cleaned up the market and rid it of the fakes. But it hasn’t happened yet, despite the nearly 100 years that have passed since the first pure food and drug law was enacted in 1906. The questionable products and advertising of yesterday live on. Dozens of products hyped today are simply modern versions of scams perpetrated years ago. Perhaps the greatest difference is in the delivery of the pitch. Whereas folks used to gather around the medicine wagon to be entertained and cajoled, today the pitchmen come straight into our homes via television and the Internet. While the Internet SPAM is generally unwelcome and intrusive, many consumers actually tune into the infomercials. We are drawn to the bright lights and the magic of the medicine show like fish to a flashy lure. Barnum was right.

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Lacking the Internet, those offering questionable medical help in the Nineteenth Century could catch suckers with ads like these placed in the pages of 1897 and 1898 issues of “The Puritan” magazine.

Editor’s note: The ad below for The Jar Doctor does not go with this article. It was just a coincidence that it was placed on the same page.

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Haskell’s Dairy Operated With A Rhyme For A Reason By Bill Baab Pale and skinny – it’s a crime the way some girls are wasting time. Drink Haskell’s milk and he’ll not falter to lead you blushing to the altar! When the applied color label process, which originated in the 1920s, was perfected during the 1930s, Alexander Cheves Haskell Sr., found it was a great way to tout the benefits of his dairy’s milk to the public. Haskell had moved from Laurens, South Carolina to the North Augusta, South Carolina area in 1912 where he bought about 250 acres of what was called the Woodlawn tract on the old Aiken Road. There was a two-story antebellum house and some outbuildings on the property. He bought a small herd of cows and started the A.C. Haskell Dairy, according to a family history work in progress by his grandson, Alexander C. (Sandy) Haskell III. “One of the ways my grandfather promoted the sales of his milk was to contact all the pediatricians in Augusta, Georgia across the Savannah River from North Augusta,” he wrote. “My grandfather’s herd consisted mostly of Guernsey cows whose milk had a good butterfat content of 3.8 to 4.2 percent. Mothers asked their pediatricians what milk they should use and the doctors would recommend Haskell’s because the high butterfat was more nutritious.” During the mid-1930s, A.C. Haskell Sr., came up with the idea of adding a poem to the glass milk bottles. Each new shipment of bottles required a new poem. The “poets” were A.C. Haskell Sr., A.C. Jr., A.C. III and the latter’s mother, Elizabeth Jones Haskell. Eventually, more than 30 poems were composed, but not all of them made it onto the bottles. “My grandfather had a little notebook in which he recorded his poems. After he had semi-retired, my mother, who had been a schoolteacher, also contributed poems, usually on the spur-of-the-moment. My dad would come running through the office where she worked as a part-time bookkeeper and demand an instant poem,” Sandy Haskell recalled. “I have had people in their 70s tell me that as children, they had learned to read from the Haskell’s milk bottles on their

breakfast tables.” According to the obituary of his grandfather, who died in January 1964, the dairy was “the first in the Augusta area to produce milk considered by doctors to be safe enough for babies, the first to deliver milk by automobile and was certified by the federal government long before any other milk concern in or near Augusta.” The first Haskell bottles were round quarts and pints and embossed “A.C. Haskell / Nursery Milk / Augusta, Ga.,” even though the dairy was located near North Augusta. The latter had been incorporated in 1906 and was still tiny, while Augusta was the well-known big city across the Savannah River. Many of Haskell’s early customers lived in the Augusta area. The first poems were added in green applied color labels to round quarts and

pints and later to “square” quarts, pints and even half-pints. During its 60 years of existence, Haskell’s missed delivery on just one day including Sundays. That was in 1929 when the river overflowed its banks as well as the Augusta levee and authorities were forced to close the Thirteenth and Fifth street bridges. Boats were obtained by the following day and the milk was off-loaded crate by crate into the boats, rowed across the river to be reloaded onto the waiting delivery truck and sent on its way. “Sometimes it would take many crossings to get the milk over and the empty bottles back,” Sandy Haskell said. “But from that point on, grandfather made sure there was always one delivery truck on the Georgia side of the river.” During the 1930s and ‘40s, Haskell’s


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further advertised its products with a series of calendars featuring appealing infants. Collector Tony Riley of Belvedere, South Carolina owns several of the calendars, most of which measure 30 inches wide by 42 inches tall. In 1965, Haskell’s Dairies consolidated with Better Maid Dairy Products Inc., of Athens, Georgia. Seven years later, Sandy Haskell said, Haskell’s went out of business. “It had become difficult to find good help, the cost of bottles was rising and we had to pay for grocery store shelf space and keep it clean, too,” he explained. Here are some of the better poetic examples: The one best food for young and old Whose merits have not half been told. Haskell’s milk builds strength and pep, Makes sparkling eye and springy step. Girls, let’s talk just heart to heart Your diet plays an important part And if you’d glamorize your “pan,” Drink Haskell’s milk And get your man!

Standardized, homogenized Surely does confuse. But Haskell’s milk is real rich milk Like Grandma used to use. When the Good Lord first made babies To feed them the best way. He made milk just like Haskell’s and found it was OK. Men analyze and theorize and change it all about, But they can’t improve a perfect food By taking something out. Many dairies used patriotic themes like “Keep ‘em Flying” during World War II, but none has been found on Haskell’s bottles. However, there exists a poem geared to those times: With the youngsters at the front, At home the oldsters bear the brunt, And when they feel all tuckered out, They drink Haskell’s milk and it makes ‘em shout! No Haskell’s bottle has been found with that inscription.

Is your milk right up to date Boxed the modern way? Can’t see in, sure tastes thin, hope it is OK.

A sleeping tot was featured on Haskell’s 1939 calendar.

Tony Riley of Belvedere, S.C., shows off a Haskell’s 1932 calendar from his collection. Note the baby inside the bottle.

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More Haskell’s Dairy Rhymes Weddings daily, by the score Babies coming – more and more ! Haskell’s Milk in great Demand Keeps “Mom” and Baby looking Grand. Safety First! Let these two precepts Be your guides, Whatever you may do besides, For health, long life and Full of Pep Drink Haskell’s Milk, – And watch your step. If you are quite lank And lean Like the proverbial “String Bean” You can get help – Don’t Give up hope. Drink Haskell’s milk. It’s Your best “DOPE” Girls, drink milk, but don’t be dumb. Drink Haskell’s milk. It’s best – by gum! To give you glamor – it’s the trick, And boys fall for a real slick chick. Milk is the best food when it’s all there. Haskell’s milk you don’t take on faith with a prayer. You see what you get – and just a suggestion – It can’t fool your eyes and won’t “gyp” your digestion. What is so appealing as the bloom of youth? Haskell’s milk, used daily, puts it there forsooth! Until one day some nosey dame says, “You’re getting fat!” Out goes the milk, off goes the bloom And, alas, that is that!

All photos by Bill Baab.

Bill Baab 2352 Devere Street Augusta, GA 30904 (706) 736-8097 riverswamper@comcast.net

A couple of ‘pets” were featured on Haskell’s 1941 calendar. >

Take your pick of these photogenic babies, all on the 1937 calendar.


Bottles and Extras

Part II, Coming This Summer!

May-June 2007

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The Origins and Life of the Export Beer Bottle By Bill Lockhart Virtually everyone is familiar with the export beer bottle, although most people who are not a part of either the collecting world or historical archaeologists may not know it by name. The familiar bottle is cylindrical, usually amber in color (although it may come in aqua or colorless forms), with straight sides and a “swelled” neck. The style has become so pervasive in American culture that even many of the non-returnable bottle styles are in export shape. But beer bottles have followed a long and varied path from their early development. The Earliest Beer Bottles British merchants shipped bottled beers, porters and ales to India (and certainly other colonies including those in North America) by the late 17th century. These companies also routinely exported the same items to the United States in the 18 th and 19 th centuries, a shown by American advertisements (Jones 1986a:18-19). Ales, porters and non-carbonated beer were all probably bottled as soon as a good stopper (the cork) was discovered. The bubbles that we equate with beer were conspicuously absent in these brews, so they could be bottled and stored in thin-walled containers without the danger of gas leakage, explosion or breakage from internal pressure, or spoilage. In the earliest bottles, there was no specialization of shapes, so virtually any liquid may have been bottled in virtually any adequately sized container. English “wine” bottles developed distinctive characteristics ca. 1740, and both “beer” and “wine” bottles were virtually identical, “squat” with a “square” body when viewed from the side. It is important to note, however, that these bottles could have contained practically any form of liquid that was inert (i.e., did not create a great deal of pressure, like carbonation), both alcoholic and non-alcoholic. These bottles were thin-walled and not made to withstand internal pressure. Beer and wine bottles began to assume distinctive individual shapes during the 1760s. Wine bottles became taller and more narrow, while beer bottles retained their squat, wide bodies (Jones 1986b: 13-14). The initial size for beer bottles was the quart, but smaller sizes soon began to

emerge. By the 1790s, the bottles became taller, but they were still noticeably shorter and squatter than contemporary wine bottles [Figure 1]. During this period, ales and porters were the standard in North America (Jones 1896a:74-79). Although many of these bottles were free blown, more and more were made with the dip mold process, where an open wooden mold was used to form the body shape, but the shoulder, neck and finish were completed by hand. This was followed by the Rickett’s mold that added two hinged sections at the top to form the shoulders and some of the neck (Jones 1986a:87-89). Jones (1986:131) also observes that “bottles were getting progressively taller and narrower; the necks shorter and wider.” By the 1835-1855 period, the type of finish used on later beer bottles was developing (cf. Jones 1986:69-71). But three more developments were necessary before the stage could be set for the invention of the export beer bottle. Two-Piece Molds The earliest two-piece mold was hinged at the base to allow the preformed shape on the end of the gaffer’s blowpipe to fit within the two halves [Figure 2]. The bottle was then blown into the mold, the mold opened and the bottle, complete except for the finish, was removed. Although the process was used in the U.S. by about 1810, by the mid-19th century, post bottoms were inserted at the base of the mold to make a third piece. The molds became hinged at the sides for easier working, and bottle-makers’ initials or entire names could easily be embossed on the post bottom (Jones & Sullivan 1989:26-28). A cup bottom was also developed but was used much earlier in small bottles. Large bottles, such as beer bottles were usually blown into post-bottom molds until the last decade of the 19th century.

Figure 2: Two-Piece Mold (Lindsey 2006)

Figure 1: English “Beer” Bottle (Lindsey 2006) Turn-Molds or Paste-Molds In this process, a twopiece mold, usually with a post or cup bottom, was smeared with a special “paste” that coated the entire inside. A bottle was blown into the mold and turned around to eliminate all mold lines. According to Jones and Sullivan (1989:31) and Toulouse (1969:532), the technique was introduced to the U.S. “in the 1880s,” although patents were made in the 1870s. French champagne bottles, however, were made by the turn-mold method at least as early as 1865 (Switzer 1974:23-25). Although this process was not commonly used on beer bottles (much more common on wine, champagne, and some whiskey bottles), some were made with turn-molds. Some turn-mold bottles, however, have embossed bases. Toulouse (1971:153) and Ayres and his associates (1980:47) note that this was apparently accomplished by blowing the glass into the


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mold, turning the mold to remove the lines, then re-inserting the bottle into a mold (possibly a dip mold) to create the embossing. The Bottle Research Group recorded a single turn-mold bottle made by the Hermann Heye Glasfabrik in the collection excavated at Fort Bowie, Arizona. Champagne Bottles Jones (1986a:11-13) demonstrated that “champagne” bottles were made by at least 1762 (and almost certainly earlier), but she cautioned that “there is absolutely no evidence to suggest that the ‘champagne’ bottles were intended exclusively for champagne or that they had the long sloping shoulder and high bell-shaped pushups so characteristic of the 19th century champagne-type bottles” [Figure 3]. Ceramic Ale and Porter Bottles Ale and Porter were bottled in the United States from at least 1844, usually in cork-stoppered, ceramic bottles. These bottles were generally discontinued after 1895 (Graci 1995:14), but some were still in use as soft drink bottles until at least the mid-1920s (cf. Lockhart 2000). For practical purposes, however, the ceramic containers became a dead end before the turn of the century. Early Effervescent Beer Bottles

Bottles and Extras

But that was about to change. Pasteurization and Bottling Louis Pasteur discovered that a sufficient amount of heat could destroy harmful bacteria in liquids. He applied his discovery to beer in 1870. Although he did not publish his findings until 1877, some brewers learned of his method and began to utilize it (Plavchan 1969:67-69). The most important of those brewers in the United States was Anheuser-Busch. Anheuser-Busch was successful in part because of a willingness to innovate. One of the company’s most important innovations was the adaptation of the pasteurization process to beer in 1872, when the company shipped bottled beer to several Texas towns (Hernon & Ganey 1991:30-31; Plavchan 1969:70; Wilson 1981:1).1 Once beer was pasteurized, it could be stored for a long time and shipped in bottles for a great distance. This meant that the local brewery with its reliance on keg-contained, draught beer was to become less important. Of more interest in bottle dating, this marks the beginning of available, nation-wide bottled beer. The Year Book (1882:92) noted that Anheuser-Busch was: the first . . . to introduce bottled beer into the United States, and which, unknown a dozen years ago, is now kept in every grocery store, hotel and liquor house, and in nearly every family in the country. The creation of the trade has practically destroyed the importation of English and German bottled beer and ales, it has certainly reduced it by fully seventy-five per cent.

The Advent of Lager Beer In the 1840s, John Wagner introduced lager beer to the U.S. in Philadelphia. Unlike the earlier brews, lager beer was “an effervescent malt beverage...brewed by using bottomfermentation.” The beer is characterized by such terms as Anheuser-Busch’s First Beer Bottle Adolphus Busch, the driving force behind Anheuser“light” and “sparkling” (Downard 1980:106). By 1860, half the Busch by 1872, had a problem. He had successfully adapted beer made in America was lager, and it had become the the Pasteurization process to brewing and he could now ship country’s unsurpassed favorite by the Civil War (Yenne 1995:27-28). Unfortunately, this lighter, sparkling beer had his beer virtually anywhere. For the first time in history, negative side – unlike its darker and heavier predecessors, bottled lager beer, with it effervescence, could be bottled. But what container could he use? it quickly turned sour and spoiled (Wilson 1881:1). The older, English beer bottles described above were As a result, prior to the application of pasteurization, too thin-walled to withstand the pressure of the the production of carbonated beer in the U.S. was a local carbonation in lager beer. The ceramic bottles used for industry. Beer could be shipped in kegs and barrels, but bottled beer tended to spoil in short order. Locally, centuries to contain ale and porter were too porous – most people just took their beer home in a bucket. the gas would leak through the walls of the container. Glass was the obvious answer, but there was no time This bucket eventually was called a “growler,” to create a new bottle. Busch need a source of cheap, although the reason for that name seems to be lost to history. The act of taking the beer home in this available containers. Only three types of bottles were made in 1872 manner was called “rushing the growler” (Quinion that would withstand the pressure of carbonation. 2003). Shipping beer for long distances remained impractical. Bottles for carbonated soda had been used for Plavchan (1969:71) captured the essence of the decades, and these could certainly have contained situation: beer. A variety of glass factories in the U.S. made the bottles, but they were relatively small, holding Selling beer in bottles was not a novelty of the six or seven ounces. Although we may never know nineteenth century. Bottles were in use by brewers as far back as the eighteenth century, for sure, we can guess that Busch, a heavy beer drinker himself, wanted a larger size. but their bottled beers and ales either were nonAnother possibility was champagne bottles. sparkling as well as possessing a thick consistency or were prepared for immediate Made to contain sparkling wine, the bottles had consumption. Prior to 1872 no one had ever thick walls and a deep kick-up to withstand strong internal pressure. There is no evidence that Busch successfully bottled a sparkling lager beer that could keep its full quality through different climatic Figure 3: Champagne Bottle ever used champagne bottles, although they were Showing Kick-Up changes and the hazards of long-distant eventually used by other breweries [Figure 4]. One (Berge 1980:91) shipment. final possibility existed: bottles made for naturally


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carbonated spring water. Since most mineral water was inert, choices within this realm were also few. Apollinaris Bottles Unfortunately, we have no documentary evidence for Busch’s choice. However, a great deal of empirical data (see below) indicate that he selected Apollinaris bottles for his earliest bottling. These bottles were usually a light green (champagne green) in color, had steeply sloping shoulders, and were topped with “blob” finishes. These were generally made with the turn-mold process and, although they came in numerous sizes, the ones used for beer had a capacity of ca. 26 ounces [Figure 5]. As their name implies, they were developed to contain the naturally sparkling water from the Apollinaris Spring in Germany. The bottles were originally made in Germany, but American companies soon carried their own Figure 5: version of the style. Apollinaris Because of their size, color and gently sloping bottle shoulders, these are easily mistaken for champagne (Lindsey 2006) bottles. The manufacture of both styles by the turn-mold method adds to the confusion. Two characteristics, however, clearly define the two styles. First is the finish. The finish of a champagne bottle is made by rounding the lip (i.e., the very top of the finish), often with a distinct chamfer, then wrapping a bead of glass around the neck slightly below the top and squaring the bead. The Apollinaris bottle, on the other hand, has a “blob” of glass applied to the top [Figure 6]. The remaining characteristic is on the other end. Champagne bottles have a very deep kick-up in the center of the base. Originally, these may have been produced to create a level resting point when the bottles were free blown. Kick-ups also serve to reduce the internal capacity of the bottle – while giving the appearance that the bottle holds considerably more. The base of an Apollinaris bottle, however, is flat with a small “dot” in the center. The dot is created by the turning of the bottle within the mold [Figure 7]. We can speculate that Busch found a cheap, available source for Apollinaris bottles in 1872. As was common during that era, they may have arrived in one of the Eastern ports as ballast on a ship. Transportation via railroad would have brought them easily into St. Louis, where Anheuser-Busch bottled beer in them and shipped them to remote sites such as the Southwest, South America, and other distant locations. Wilson (1981:2), unfortunately, called the bottles “lager beer bottles” almost certainly because of labels he found on the bottles [Figure 8]. Wilson (1981:3) noted that “no labels other than ST. LOUIS LAGER BEER, made by the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association and dating between 1879 and 1883, were found on bottles of this style at either Fort Union or Fort Laramie.” When the Bottle Research Group examined the bottles excavated at Fort Bowie, we also found Apollinaris bottles with partial labels for St. Louis Beer – but no other labels on that style bottle. Wilson’s choice of terminology was unfortunate and misleading. According to Lindsey (2006), “lager,” “champagne,” and “select” were all names used by various manufacturers for essentially the same style of beer bottles. However, there was an extremely wide range of variation within each style. Lindsey dates the bottles “from at least the late 1870s continuously up to the present day.” Ayers et al (1980:25) noted that the “‘champagne beer’ form”

Figure 4: Champagne bottle used in a beer ad. (Bill Lindsey Collection)

Figure 6: Champagne (a) and Apollinaris (b) finishes.

Figure 7: Champagne (a) and Apollinaris (b) bases. is similar to soda and Apollinaris-style bottles pictured in glass house catalogs and thus could have held soda or mineral water instead of beer. They also measured the capacity of “champagne beer” bottles as ranging from 16 to 26 ounces. The Lindsey and Ayres discussions, however, do not refer to the same style named by Wilson [Figure 9]. In addition to the presence of St. Louis beer labels on Apollinaris bottles, the bottles, themselves, are typically found in association with export beer bottles in the Southwest. Lockhart and Olszewski(1994) found fragments with Figure 8: Apollinaris export bottles in San Elizario, Texas, in bottle with circa 1881-1886 contexts; the Bottle Anheuser-Busch St. Research Group observed complete Louis Apollinaris bottles, ones with St. Louis beer label (Wilson 1981:3) Beer labels, and fragments in both


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Figure 9: “Champagne� Beer Bottles (Illinois Glass Co. 1906:253) the collection from Fort Bowie and at the main dump at the fort, itself, (1862-1894); Wilson (1981) reported and illustrated Apollinaris bottles with St. Louis beer labels at Fort Union and Fort Laramie (1863-1891); Lockhart (2007) discovered fragments at the beer dumps at Fort Stanton, almost all in early 1880s contexts; and Dello-Ruso (1998) excavated fragments in the area around the Illinois Brewery in Socorro, New Mexico (ca. 1882-1918). Normally, Apollinaris bottles comprise a tiny percentage of the identified beer bottles in these assemblages. For example, the San Elizario beer bottle pit only contained 2.7% of Apollinaris finishes (6 of 225 finishes). As a final piece of evidence, the Illinois Glass Co (1906:250-251) listed Apollinaris bottles in its beer bottle section – not in the section for soda and mineral waters [Figure 10]. The above evidence suggests two conclusions. First, Apollinaris bottles were used by Anheuser-Busch for St. Louis Lager Beer, and these were the initial bottles used for beer after the initiation of the Pasteruization process in 1872. It should also be noted in this connection that no champagne or soda bottles or fragments from those bottles were found at Socorro, San Eizario or the beer bottle dumps at Fort Stanton, although Apollinaris bottle fragments were found alongside export beer bottle fragments in all three places. Second, the very small percentages of Apollinaris bottles found on these sites indicate that Anheuser-Busch was phasing

Bottles and Extras

Figure 10: Apollinaris Bottles Advertised in Beer Section (Illinois Glass Co. 1906:250-251) out the use of that style. It is clear from labeled bottles in collections and those offered on eBay that Anheuser-Busch adopted the export beer bottle very early, probably soon after its invention in 1873. Busch probably continued to use the supply (see returnable bottle section below) until all the Apollinaris bottles were broken or worn beyond reuse. Returnable Beer Bottles and Transportation In general, beer bottle development followed two different regional patterns in the United States. The Midwest, South and East Coast states tended toward three major beer bottle styles: Weiss Beer, Champagne Beer, and Select. Although these styles received some use in the West, the typical styles west of the Mississippi were export and Apollinaris bottles, mostly the export style. Another major difference between the two regions was the method of labeling. The eastern region maintained a heavy reliance on embossed bottles, while the West preferred paper labels. There were, of course, notable exceptions in both areas. This regional split developed, in part, as a result of the need for returnable bottles. Paul & Parmalee (1973:25) demonstrated the importance of returnable bottles for the soda bottling industry. The same situation applied with beer bottles. Because thick-walled bottles were so expensive to produce, returnable bottles were the

best answer. A bottle could now be reused at least a dozen times, often many more. The problem, of course, was collecting the bottles, and the process that led to the adoption of the deposit system has already been addressed. The majority of the differences in labeling (and style to a certain extent) were caused by transportation difficulties (or lack thereof). The Eastern half of the country was generally easy to reach via the railroad and various forms of transportation connected with water (canals, lakes, rivers, and the ocean). Much of the West, however, was remote with no rail connection. Even though local breweries continued to supply the West, Anheuser-Busch and other central brewers exported their products to the Western territories as much as was practical. Essentially, however, returnable bottles in remote areas became one-way containers. The sheer quantity of beer bottles excavated at Western military posts, for example, clearly shows that the bottles were not returned (e.g, Wilson 1981) although this segment of history (at least in connection with beer bottles) is virtually unexplored in print. Because of the vast distances involved, remoteness of both towns and mining camps, and a general lack of understanding among beer drinkers, many (possibly most) beer bottles were discarded (or sometimes returned to local breweries) rather than returned to the St. Louis and Milwaukee brewers. Breweries were more inclined to


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risk the more-or-less certain loss of generic bottles with paper labels than the more expensive embossed bottles. The export beer bottle became ubiquitous in the West. The Export Beer Bottle The export beer bottle was designed by Valentine Blatz, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1873. The William McCully factory2 produced six gross (72-dozen) bottles the first year for Blatz. The bottles were made from “green glass” (i.e., aqua) with “Valentine Blatz Brewery, Milwaukee, Wis.” embossed diagonally across the body. Two gaffers, John Nolan and Sebastian “Bostie” Urban, actually blew all of the first order of bottles (National Glass Budget 1909:4). In “less than three years” (i.e., by 1875 or 1876), export-style bottles were popular in the West. The bottles were next adopted by the Philip Best brewery and then by Anheuser Busch. Schlitz and Lemp soon joined the trend, followed by virtually every major brewery. By 1874, the Lindell Glass Co. and the Mississippi Glass Co. (both in St. Louis) had been built and were exclusively making export-style beer bottles. The DeSteiger Glass Co., La Salle, Illinois, followed suit in 1878, and the Streator Bottle & Glass Co., Streator, Illinois, began in 1881. All initially only made beer bottles (National Glass Budget 1909:4). The bottle style continued to gain popularity, and the export beer remains the most popular style in the 21st century. The name, export, probably derived from the major exporting business conducted by the St. Louis breweries after the Pasteurization process was perfected for brewery use by Anheuser Busch in 1872. According to the Year Book (1882:90), “the product was shipped for consumption all over the West and South, from Northern Colorado through Kansas, Texas, Arkansas, and the South generally.” The Year Book (1882:91) further noted: there is a large export bottling business done...St. Louis bottled beer of the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association, W. J. Lemp, and others, going to all the Eastern States, to Brazil, Chili, Peru, Mexico, the Cape of Good Hope, China, Japan, Sandwich Islands, Australia, Spain, France, England, Canada, and the West Indies.” In discussing the bottling department of the Western Brewery (W. J. Lemp), the Year Book (1882:93) noted that “the amount they ship to the West and Southwest is enormous.” Since most of the Western states were still territories at that time, they were probably included as “exports.” That would explain the propensity toward the export-style bottles in the West and the selection of the name for the bottle style. The original exports were the classic quart beer bottles (actually measuring a surprisingly consistent 26 ounces). Although the bottles were available in other sizes, the “quart” is by far the most common size found in the West. The base of the bottle was flat (or slightly concave) and the body had vertical sides and a rounded shoulder topped by a swelled neck (often claimed as a way to deal with foam). Finishes varied and are described below. This was the most common beer bottle style in the West from the mid-1870s until 8- and 12-ounce bottles became popular about 1910 [Figure 11]. The 26-ounce size was gradually discontinued, but such bottles were used until at least 1913. These bottles were usually amber in color, although some were made in green or a light blue. The earliest ones were produced in a post-bottom, two-piece mold, but some were made by the turnmold process. By the mid-1870s, a few companies had begun embossing manufacturer’s marks on the bases of the export bottles,

Figure 11: Examples of classic export beer bottles.

Figure 12: Wine bottle evolution (McKearin & McKearin 1941:423-425) but the practice did not become common until ca. 1880. Although we have found no documentary evidence, the export beer bottles were probably the stylistic descendant of both the English beer bottle described above and the classic wine bottle. George and Helen McKearin (1941:423-425) traced the evolution of “Wine or Spirit Bottles Showing Gradual Developments in Form or Shape From About 1650 to About 1865-1875, When Form Became Almost Identical With That of Modern Bottles” [Figure 12]. Their final style is remarkably similar to the exportstyle beer bottle even to the two-part “brandy” finish (although the swelled neck is absent). Ivor Noël Hume (1970:63-68) presented a similar study based on bottles excavated at Williamsburg, Virginia. His study extended


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from 1652 to 1834 and did not include date ranges as did the McKearins. His final bottle again showed a close resemblance to the export-style container (again including the finish) but had a higher kick-up and lacked the swelling of the neck [Figure 13]. In both studies, the finish developed into a close resemblance of the early export beer finish. The swelled neck was an expanded variation on a slightly swelled neck of the old English beer bottle, but the overall shape of the export bottles more closely resembled the thinner, taller wine container. Datable Changes As with all things made by humans, the export beer bottle evolved over time. In more recent times, the evolution has been more refined to include such things as improved glass formulas (e.g., the Duraglas process developed by the Owens-Illinois Glass Co. and first used on returnable bottles in 1940). The style even intruded into the development of the non-returnable beer bottle. Early changes, however, took fairly notable forms. Manufacturing Techniques Although not specifically noted above, the first export beer bottles were made by the two-piece mold technique (described earlier) in 1873. Bottles continued to be produced this way until Prohibition, when most manufacture of bottles for alcohol ceased. By ca. 1913, however, virtually all the major glass factories had adopted either semiautomatic or fully automatic machines. The turn-mold technology was only used by American factories for a short time – on export bottles. However, Hermann Heye, the Germany manufacturer, made turn-mold export bottles at least into the 1880s. Another infrequent style was the dip mold (discussed above). Like the turn mold, the few dip-mold bottles were probably only made during the first few years of export beer bottle manufacture. The final stage of manufacture was the machine-made bottle. These fall into roughly two categories: the Owens Automatic Bottle Machine and the semiautomatic. The Owens story had been told many times, but the important date for beer bottles is 1905, when the American Bottle Co. began production using the Owens machine. American had the exclusive license from the Owens Bottle Machine Co. and dominated the market (Lockhart et al., 2007:47, 49). However, other companies were developing semiautomatic machines to make small-mouth bottles, and most beer bottle manufacturers had made the switch by ca. 1913. By 1917, gob feeders had made virtually all semiautomatic machines fully automatic. All beer bottles made after the repeal of Prohibition (1933) were manufactured by fully automatic machines. Stoppers and Finishes The export beer bottle went through a varied evolution from its invention in 1872, mostly revolving around finishes. Two relatively datable characteristics about finishes were the types of finishes and the manufacturing techniques required to make them. The finish types, of course, were designated by the type of stopper used to seal the bottles. Cork Stoppers Initially, virtually all beer bottles were stoppered with corks. Corks were chosen because they were pliable and sealed effectively. However, there were two problems with using cork stoppers for carbonated beverages such as beer. First, corks only sealed reliably

Figure 13: Wine bottle evolution (NoĂŤl Hume 1970:63-68) when they were damp. Dry corks would allow carbonation to escape, creating flat beer. Because beer was not generally aged in the bottle, however, this did not usually present a major problem. Second, corks had a tendency to work loose under pressure. Because carbonation created fairly extreme pressure, corks used in beer bottles had to by firmly held in place (Paul & Parmalee 1973:10; von Meechow 2002). Several finishes were devised as foundations to tie in the corks. In contrast to soda bottle finishes, usually one part, these were two part finishes, generally with an applied (or tooled) ring below an upwardly-tapered section. The one-part beer finish was actually devised and intended for the Lightning Stopper (see below). Corks, of course, could be applied to virtually any finish type, including crowns and similar finishes (e.g., see Jones & Sullivan 1989:149). Two-part finishes designed for corks went through two datable stages, although there was a great deal of non-datable variety. The important differences were sharp lower rings and rounded lower rings. Although sharp lower rings could either be downwardly flared or wedge shaped, the Bottle Research Group has found no


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temporal distinctions between them. However, all bottles with sharp lower rings appear to have been made during the first decade that the export beer bottle existed [Figure 14]. Manufacturers seem to have rather sharply dropped the sharp lower ring ca. 1880, although some were made and used for a few years afterward. Although we are less certain about a starting date for the use of rounded lower rings [Figure 15], the date is probably not earlier than ca. 1878. The end date is equally unsure, but they were almost entirely replaced by crown finishes by 1913. Lightning Stoppers One of the earliest alternatives to the cork, the Putnam Stopper, was patented by Henry W. Putnam on March 15, 1859, and was mostly used on fruit and other jars prior to the need for a good beer closure. Sometimes referred to as “swing� stoppers, these use a plug to seal the bore of the bottle (or jar). The plug is held in place by a wire device that swings the stopper up and to one side when the wire triggering device is pushed upward. Charles De Quillfeldt’s Lightning Stopper [Figure 16], patented on January 5, 1875, adapted the principle to beer bottles (Graci 2003:58-59; Paul & Parmalee 1973:14; von Meechow 2002). Another aspect of the Lightning stopper that has been generally ignored in the literature is the shape of the finish. Although a few finishes were made with holes for the insertion of wire ends, most used a circular wire arrangement under the finish to hold the entire device in place. An examination of ads and photos of bottles still containing the stoppers shows the finishes were one part, either rounded [Figure 17] or upwardly tapered in shape (e.g., see Graci 2003:56, 59, plates following p. 61; Martin & Martin 1973). Although they did not specifically illustrate the difference, the 1903 Illinois Glass Co. catalog made a clear distinction between Lightning and cork finishes. Lightning stoppers would work on the two-part cork finishes and even crown finishes (see below), but the finish actually designed for the Lightning stopper was one part. These finishes appeared on beer bottles from 1875 to ca. 1913, although some are still used.

Figure 14: Two-Part cork finish, sharp lower ring (eBay)

Figure 15: Two-part cork finish, rounded lower ring

Figure 16: Lightning stopper (Lief 1965:16)

Porcelain Stoppers Known as the Hutter Stopper, after its inventor, Karl Hutter (patented February 7, 1893), the porcelain adaptation of the original Lightning Stopper became fairly popular with beer bottlers [Figure 18]. Along with the same advantages of the Lightning Stopper, the porcelain stopper allowed for printed advertising appearing on the very top of the bottle (von Meechow 2002). Hutter stoppers were used on the same one-part finishes made for Lightning stoppers. Hutchinson Stoppers Although Hutchinson stoppers [Figure 19] were more popular when applied to soft drinks than with beer, they were used by brewers from about 1880 to the early 20th century. Patented by William H. Hutchinson on April 4, 1879, they were not in use until the following year. They were generally replaced by crown-capped bottles ca. 1903, although they continued to appear in glass house catalogs until at least 1920. It is doubtful, however, that many brewers continued to use Hutchinson stoppers for long after crown caps became popular. The main disadvantage to these and all internal stoppers was difficulty in washing the bottles since a brush could not be inserted. The main advantage was that the bottle could easily be re-sealed and re-opened as often as necessary. (Lief

Figure 17: One-part finish for Lightning stopper Figure 18: Hutter stopper (Graci 2003) 1965:14; Paul & Parmalee 1973:12-13, 16-17; von Meechow) Other Stoppers Although a bewildering variety of stoppers were patented in the late 19th century, few others became popular among either brewers or soda bottlers. For more information on these alternatives, see Graci (2003:11-47), Lief (1965:15-16), Paul & Parmalee (1973:1012), and von Meechow (2002).


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May-June 2007 drink industry began using the new form as early as 1895, and most had switched by 1905. Some brewers switched before the 20th century, but most of the beer industry did not generally adopt the crown as the standard until the early 1900s, and many of the largest only made the switch about 1910 (the date of the earliest Budwieser ad that I have found that offered both cork and crown bottles).3 The transition continued until at least 1913 (Ayers et al 1980:53; Berge 1980:115; Graci 2003:50-54).

Figure 19: Hutchinson stopper (Lynn Loomis Collection)

Figure 20: Crown finish Crown Cap Patented by William Painter on February 2,1892, the crown cap and accompanying finish [Figure 20] was to revolutionize the returnable bottle industry. Both soda bottlers and breweries adopted the crown as the major stopper, although the soft

Finish Technology4 Applied finishes were created by applying a separate gob of glass to the bottle’s neck and shaping it into the desired form. This technique was used from the early 1800s until about 1895, although most glass houses had stopped using the process by ca. 1885. Glass makers switched to the newer technique (see below) at different times for different bottle types. Glass houses making export beer bottles tended to retain the technique until sometime between 1896 and 1900 (Lindsey 2006; Lockhart 2007). Often, it is easy to recognize these finishes because some of the added glass is not completely used in the form and is not blended into the rest of the bottle (see Figure 15). Often, however, a visual determination is inadequate, but you can perform a simple test. Simply insert one of your smaller fingers inside the bore and feel. Usually, there is a noticeable separation where the finish and neck are joined [Figure 21]. Warning: feel carefully, tiny bits of jagged glass that dropped off as a result of the procedure often adhere to the inner surfaces of the neck. Later, tools were designed to create the finish from the glass already present in the bottleneck. Called tooled or “wiped” finishes, often, these can be recognized by striations where the tool was turned or, in some cases, a “bending” of the vertical mold line where it ends at or near the base of the finish (see striations in Figure 20). Use of tooled finishes began during the mid-1870s and was still practiced until the mid-1920s, although its use on beer and soda bottles declined sharply with the increased popularity and availability of semiautomatic machines for making small-mouth bottles about 1910. With the introduction of semiautomatic and fully automatic machines for the manufacture of smallmouth bottles, finishes were the first part of the operation. These are recognizable by horizontal seams encircling the base of the finish and usually the rim, as well as side seams that extend to and usually over the top of the lip [Figure 22]. These became more common after 1905 when the process was applied to beer and soda bottles made on the Owens Automatic Bottle Machine. As semiautomatic machines became more readily

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Figure 21: Applied finish – inside view

Figure 22: Machine-made finish available between 1910 and 1913, machinemade finishes dominated the beer and soft drink bottle industry. Post-Prohibition Export Bottles Although other beer bottle styles continued to be produced, export bottles completely dominated the brewing industry after the repeal of Prohibition in 1933. The most common size became the 12-ounce bottle, although some were made as small as seven ounces, and quart sizes became common. Export beers made and used on the West Coast, however, were mostly 11-ounces. The dominant color remained amber. Even when non-returnable bottles were introduced, the second configuration, the Steinie, retained the swelled neck to remind drinkers of the export bottle [Figure 23]. Eventually, some forms of non-returnable bottles returned to a shape almost identical to the exports. A trip to the grocery store, today, will reveal the export beer bottle, now 134 years old, still sitting on the shelf.


Bottles and Extras

May-June 2007 Graci, David 1995 American Stoneware Bottles: A History and Study. Calem Publishing, South Hadley, Massachusetts. 2003 Soda and Beer Bottle Closures, 18501910. Privately published. Hernon, Peter and Terry Ganey 1991 Under the Influence: The Unauthorized Story of the Anheuser-Busch Dynasty. Simon & Schuster, New York. Illinois Glass Company 1906 Illustrated Catalogue and Price List Illinois Glass Company: Manufacturers of Bottles and Glass Containers of Every Kind. Illinois Glass Company, St. Louis. {Bill Lindsey Collection} Jones, Olive R. 1986a Cylindrical English Wine & Beer Bottles, 1735-1850. National Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Figure 23: The Steinie – patterned after the export beer bottle (eBay) Please send any comments to: Bill Lockhart 1313 14th St., Apt. 21 Alamogordo, NM 88310 (505) 439-8158 bottlebill@tularosa.net Acknowledgments I wish to express my thanks to the other members of the Bottle Research Group: Bill Lindsey, Carol Serr, and Pete Schulz. Without their help, none of my research would be meaningful. Special thanks to Bill Lindsey for allowing me the free use of photos and drawings from his “Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website.” References: Ayres, James E., William Liesenbien, Lee Fratt, and Linda Eure 1980 “Beer Bottles from the Tucson Urban Renewal Project, Tucson, AZ.” Unpublished manuscript, Arizona State Museum Archives, RG5, Sg3, Series 2, Subseries 1, Folder 220. Berge, Dale L. 1980 Simpson Springs Station: Historical Archaeology in Western Utah. Cultural Resource Series No. 6. Bureau of Land Management, Utah. Dello-Russo, Robert D. 1998 Limited Testing and Artifact Analysis at Archaeological Site LA 118235 a Bottle Dump Associated with the Historic Illinois Brewery, Socorro, NM. Escondida Research Group Report No, 1998-4. Socorro, New Mexico. Downard, William L. 1980 Dictionary of the History of the American Brewing and Distilling Industries. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

1986b Glass of the British Military, ca. 17551820. National Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Jones, Olive and Catherine Sullivan 1989 The Parks Canada Glass Glossary for the Description of Containers, Tableware, Flat Glass, and Closures. Parks Canada, Ottawa. Lief, Alfred 1965 A Close-Up of Closures: History and Progress. Glass Container Manufacturers Institute, New York. Lindsey, Bill 2006 “Bottle Typing/Diagnostic Shapes: Beer www.blm.gov/ & Ale Bottles.” historic_bottles/beer.htm Lockhart, Bill 2000 Bottles on the Border: The History and Bottles of the Soft Drink Industry in El Paso, Texas, 1881-2000. Townsend Library, New Mexico State University at Alamogordo. http:/ /alamo.nmsu.edu/~lockhart/EPSodas/ 2007 “The Bottles of Fort Stanton.” In Fort Stanton report; in press. Lockhart, Bill and Wanda Olszewski 1994 “Excavation and Analysis of a Nineteenth Century Bottle Pit in San Elizario, Texas.” The Artifact 32(1):29-49. Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Bill Lindsey, Carol Serr, and David Whitten 2007 “The Dating Game: The American Bottle Co., A Study in Contracts and Contradictions.” Bottles and Extras 18(1):47-56. Martin, Byron and Vicky Martin 1973 Here’s to Beers: Blob Top Beer Bottles 1880-1910. Privately printed, Northridge, California.

57 McKearin, Helen and George McKearin 1941 American Glass. Crown Publishers, New York. National Glass Budget 1909 “The Export Beer Bottle.” National Glass Budget 25(7):4. Noël Hume, Ivor 1970 A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America. Knopf, New York. Paul, John R. and Paul W. Parmalee 1973 Soft Drink Bottling: A History with Special Reference to Illinois. Illinois State Museum Society, Springfield, Illinois. Plavchan, Ronald J. 1969 “A History of Anheuser-Busch, 18521933.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Louis University. Quinion, Michael 2003 “World Wide Words: Rushing the Growler.” www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qarus1.htm Switzer, Ronald R. 1974 The Bertrand Bottles: A Study of 19thCentury Glass and Ceramic Containers. U. S. Dept. of Interior, National Park Service, Washington. Toulouse, Julian Harrison 1969 Fruit Jars. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Camden, New Jersey. 1971 Bottle Makers and Their Marks. Thomas Nelson, New York. von Meechow, Tod 2002 “Antique Soda & Beer Bottles: Bottle www.worldlynx.net/ Closures.” sodasandbeers/closures.htm Wilson, Rex 1981 Bottles on the Western Frontier. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Year Book of the Commercial, Banking, and Manufacturing Interests of St. Louis 1882 Year Book of the Commercial, Banking, and Manufacturing Interests of St. Louis, with a General Review of its Transportation Facilities and Business Progress. S. Ferd. Howe & Co., St. Louis. Yenne, Bill 1995 Beers of North America. Cartwell Books, Greenwich, Connicticut.

Endnotes: 1 Hernon and Ganey (1991) are a bit unclear about the date. On p. 31, they state, “Four years before Pasteur’s book came out [in 1877], Adolphus had already become the first brewer in the United States to pasteurize his bottled beer.” That would make the year ...Continued on page 59.


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“Often a bridesmaid but never a bride” LISTERINE® Copyright © 2006 By Cecil Munsey Not many bottle diggers can say they have been messing around in a middle-aged dump and have not discovered a LISTERINE bottle. For sure I can’t say that! I frequently said something to the effect of “… another #%*&*# Listerine bottle!” Those bottles never did and still don’t have much monetary value. But like so many other common bottles we take for granted, they have at least historical value. I guess that is one reason why we named our national organization the Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors. The common Listerine bottle and the product it contained are steeped in historic value and are, therefore, of a good deal of interest. Listerine® is a brand name for antiseptic mouthwash [Figure 1]. It was named after Dr. Joseph Lister (1827-1912) – father of Fig. 1 modern antiseptics [Figure 2] – who, in 1865, performed the first ever antiseptic surgery. 1879 – The original amber-colored Listerine Antiseptic was formulated by Dr. Joseph Lawrence and Jordan Wheat Lambert. But it wasn’t designed Figure 2 as a mouthwash; it was actually intended to be a disinfectant for surgical procedures. It was also sold during its early years as a floor cleaner and a cure for gonorrhea – good luck with that latter claim. 1881 – Listerine® Antiseptic was licensed by Jordan Wheat Lambert and registered as a trademark of his newly formed Lambert and Co. 1895 – While the product was first used as a multi-purpose antiseptic, soon it was discovered to be excellent for killing germs commonly found in the mouth. So, the Lambert Company marketed Listerine® to the dental profession as a “… new powerful antiseptic for the mouth.” As a mouthwash it wasn’t a runaway success until the 1920s, when it was pitched as a solution for “chronic halitosis.” As the

advertising scholar James Twitchell wrote about the coining of the word halitosis by the Lambert Company, “Listerine did not make mouthwash as much as it made halitosis.” In just seven years, because of its supposed “triumph” over bad breath, the company’s revenues rose from $115,000 to more than $8 million. 1914 –Prescription Listerine® Antiseptic was so effective and popular it became one of the first prescription products [Figure 3] to be made available over-thecounter, thereby founding the mouthwash category. Advertising has a long history in the U.S., but professional “ad agencies” didn’t appear till the late nineteenth century. The first agencies concentrated heavily on Figure 3 patent medicines, an unregulated field before the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Legislation, where manufacturers made elaborate claims. Listerine was no exception. Besides capitalizing on worries about health, ad agencies early on recognized that people were anxious about social status – about appearing prosperous or comfortable, wealthy, and “up-to-date.” 1921 – It was Gerard Lambert, one of the two sons of founder Jordan Wheat Lambert (? – 1917), who coined the term “Halitosis” for what we now call bad breath. It’s a derivative of the Latin word Halitus meaning “breath” and the Greek ending “osis” often used to describe a medical condition. [Records mentioning bad breath have been discovered that date to more than 3,000 years ago – all the way back to 1550 B.C.] The 1920s were years advertising agents most focused their attention on identifying – often inventing – personal anxieties that could be resolved by the purchase of specific products. Listerine used their coined word, halitosis. The Lambert Brothers launched an ad campaign that played heavily on fears about how others would react to a halitosis sufferer. The most famous of their ads concerned the “pathetic” case of “Edna” who was “often

a bridesmaid but never a bride” – [Figure 4]. She was approaching the “tragic” thirtieth birthday unmarried because she suffered from halitosis – “a disorder you, yourself, rarely know when you have it. And even your Figure 4 closest friends won’t tell you.” The answer to halitosis was supposedly Listerine® mouthwash, an amber liquid packaged in a glass bottle [Figure 5]. The bottles were packed inside a paper-wrapped,

Figure 5 disposable cardboard tube for 80 years (1912-1992). The ad pictured indicates how the product looked in 1925 with its art deco design by the famous graphic designer Maximilian Fyscher. And it points out that Lambert Pharmacal Company of St. Louis had offices in Toronto, London, Melbourne, Paris, Madrid, and Mexico City. Plastic bottles were introduced in 1994 and glass bottles were retired. Bottle collectors mostly find clear glass bottles [Figure 6] embossed LISTERINE around the shoulder and LAMBERT PHARMACAL COMPANY around the base [Figure 7]. Between the two embossments a paper label like the one shown as Figure 8


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May-June 2007 Figure 6

was placed. The circa 1900 bottles pictured are examples of the first bottles to contain Listerine. They were made by the Obear-Nester Glass Company, as indicated on the bottle’s bottom [Figure 9], of East St. Louis, Illinois. The bottles pictured as Figure 6 are from left to right are 6 7/8,” 5 ½,” and 4 ¼” tall. The active ingredients of Listerine® are menthol, Fig. 7 thymol, methyl salicylate, and eucalyptol. Perhaps of more interest, Fig. 9 ethanol or grain alcohol is present in concentrations between 21 and 26 percent – 42° and 52° (proof) and “… serves to dissolve the active ingredients and to facilitate the penetration of the active ingredients into dental plaque.” (That’s probably more honest than turn-of-thetwentieth-century patent medicine vendors who claimed their highly alcoholic nostrums contained lots of alcohol “… to preserve the active ingredients.) William R. Warner & Company, manufacturer of various sugar-coated pill-

making equipment, acquired many companies over the years. In 1956 Warner purchased Lambert Pharmacal [sic] Company (and Listerine®). The new firm became Warner-Lambert. Pfizer purchased Warner-Lambert in 2000 and in 2001 the Pfizer Consumer Healthcare division – its mouthwash division – saw a 4 percent increase in sales to $2.4 billion. Listerine is its largest product line. In 2006 Pfizer was sold (with Listerine®) to Johnson & Johnson. Regarding advertising slogans, by 1983 the term “halitosis” had been somewhat sidelined by “Listerine fights plaque.” In 1970, the ad agencies were promoting Listerine® with, “The taste you hate twice a day.” Today, Listerine “Kills germs that cause bad breath.” All in all for bottle collectors the history of Listerine and its bottles, it is suggested, leaves a good taste in your mouth (pun intended). References Books: Fox, Stephen. The Mirror Makers: A History of American Advertising and Its Creators. New York: Random House, 1984. Lears, Jackson. Fables of Abundance: A Cultural History of Advertising in America. New York: Harper Collins, 1995. Marchand, Roland. Advertising The American Dream: Making Way for Modernity, 1920-1940. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Levitt, Steven D. and Dubner, Stephen J. FREAKONOMICS A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. New York: William Morrow, 2005. Munsey, Cecil. The Illustrated Guide to COLLECTING BOTTLES. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1970. Twitchell, James B. Twenty Ads That Shook the World. New York: Random House, Inc. 2001. Periodicals: Elmore, J. G. and Horowitz, R. I. “Oral Cancer and Mouthwash Use: Evaluation of the epidemiologic evidence.” Otolaryngol Head Neck Surgery, 1995;1(113):253-261. Mashburg et al. “A Study of the relationship between mouthwash use and oral and pharyngeal cancer.” Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA). 1985.

Figure 8

Internet: http://www.pfizer.com http://chnm.edu/exploring/ 20thcentiury/understaqndingadvertising http://www.nzgirl.co.nz/articles/2052

59 The Origins and Life of the Export Beer Bottle Continued from page 57. 1873. However, on p. 31, they note that “Anheuser’s was the first to reach a national market. He started by shipping his bottled beer to Texas in 1872.” The beer had to have been pasteurized in order to ship it that far. Wilson (1981:1) supports the latter date (1873). Plavchan (1969:70) supports 1872, citing a letter written by Adolphus Busch to W. C. Merry, September 3, 1894. 2 This was the McCully plant at 16th & Liberty in Pittsburgh. 3 This is similar to the transition from Hutchinson to crown finishes in the soft drink industry. Many companies offered both types of closures for several years, often with bottles containing identical markings. Budweiser (and probably other breweries) advertised both cork and crown finishes from at least 1910 to 1913. 4 For a more through discussion about all the technological changes, see the “Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website” (Lindsey 2006).

“You have to give them fellers credit for being persistent.”


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David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread® About the well known circa 1890-1915 cobalt-blue export-shape beer bottle, beginning with a short summary of the history of “liquid bread” - beer. Copyright © 2006 by Cecil Munsey With research assistance from archaeologists: Carol Serr, San Diego, Calif. & Bill Lockhart, N.M. Antiquity? “With hekt (beer) the Ka (spirit) is kept in balance with the liver and blood… Hekt is the liquid of happy blood and body. –– Ancient Egyptian physician We don’t know when, where or by whom the first beer (or “liquid bread” as it is often called) was brewed. Although an exact date for the discovery of that first brew is not known, some historians believe it occurred 10,000 years or more ago in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), when a jar containing bread became soaked with water and the resulting “slop” began to ferment. Someone then most likely had the curiosity to sample the resulting liquid and found it not only tasty but that it imparted a slightly euphoric feeling akin to that experienced by drinking their fruit and honey wines. Whenever that first beer may have been sipped, Sumerian cuneiform tablets and Egyptian hieroglyphics dating back more than 5,000 years allude to beer’s production. And it is known that Egyptian pharaohs provided their laborers with “…a daily ration of four loaves of bread and two jugs of beer.” “I have reached this grave out of my own possession, without taking anything away from anyone. Every man who worked for me was paid. They did it for beer and bread.” –– Engraving on Ancient Egyptian tomb While no one can say for certain who made the first beer, we do know that many ancient civilizations, including the Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Hebrews, Chinese, Africans, Incas, Teutons and Saxons, had discovered the secret of brewing. The preparation of beer in ancient times was similar to brewing procedures used today. “First a grain was malted. Different grains were used by different cultures to brew beer. In Africa, beers were made

from millet, maize and cassava. In North America, persimmon was used. Corn was the preferred grain among most indigenous South American peoples, though sweet potatoes were used in Brazil, and agaves in Mexico. Rice was predominantly used in Japan; even sake is sometimes considered a type of beer. In other parts of Asia, sorghum was used, while wheat was commonly used to brew beer in China.” –David M. Kiefer (Chemistry Chronicles) After being malted, the grain was dampened with water and allowed to germinate. Natural enzymes converted some of the starches into fermentable sugars and the resulting malt was heated to dry it. Frequently, the dried malt was formed into small, lightly baked loaves. When a batch of fresh beer was to be brewed, these beer breads would be crumbled, mixed with cereals, and soaked in water. This mash was allowed to ferment. After fermentation, a liquid containing between 6 and 12% alcohol was filtered from the mash. (The Sumerians and Egyptians made at least twodozen different types of beers. Ancient texts reveal the lyrical names given to the beers” “joy-bringer,” “heavenly,” and “beautifulgood.”) “I lived from beer of black wheat, and drank from beer of white wheat.” –– Engraving on Ancient Egyptian tomb For thousands of years, brewing was originally seen as the domain of women. As an example, Egyptian men were strictly prohibited from brewing beer, and the female brewer-priestesses enjoyed a very exalted status in Egyptian society. Also, in ancient Egypt beer played an important part in marriages. If a young man offered a lady a sip of beer, they were considered engaged to be married. Dark Ages Throughout history beer has been thought of and brewed both as a food

product (“liquid bread”) and as a beverage. As Roman control over Europe faded and Europe entered the Dark Ages, Christian monasteries became the primary centers of knowledge and learning. Advancements in agriculture, science and technology made the monasteries places of advancements in brewing as well. After the fall of Rome, brewing continued for some years as a household task during the early years of the Dark Ages. Then the traditions of brewing were carried on and thrived under the Catholic Church during the latter years of the Dark Ages. Beer was a very important product for Europe’s medieval monasteries. Nearly every monastery in medieval Europe contained a brewery that served not only the monks but also pilgrims and the surrounding villages (perhaps as an inducement for attending mass). The monks brewed beer – which is little more than “liquid bread” – primarily as a source of sustenance during their religious fasting periods. One large monastery in Switzerland had three breweries, each adjacent to a bakery. Brewing and baking, in fact, were closely related activities in ancient and medieval times. The monasteries did much to advance cleanliness as a necessity for preparing good beer and to generally improve the brewing process. Middle Ages When brewing began to take hold in Europe during the 11th century, hops was used in brewing because it improved the flavor of beer. Before hops beer there was gruit beer and many different herbs were used in the historic brewing of gruit. There are three that were most commonly used: Sweet Gale (Bog Myrtle), Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and Wild or Marsh Rosemary (ledum palustre) – they made gruit beer taste variable and not very pleasant. By the 13th century, beer making was an important commercial enterprise and component of trade in Germany, Austria and England. Hops were first widely


Bottles and Extras used both for flavor and as a preservative. Hops made beer a more tasty drink, with a flavor closer to that of contemporary beer. It is possible that hops, the dried flowers of a vine-like plant, were added to the brew mix even before the birth of Christ, but the record is not clear. By the 9th century at least, hops were probably a common part of the fermenting mixture, although the earliest definite reference dates to 12th century Germany. By the 13th century, mention of their use is widespread in German reports. Use spread south into France and, more slowly, into England during the 15th century. Later in the Middle Ages, relatively large, independent breweries began to spring up in bigger towns. (The Bayerische Staatsbrauerei Weihenstehan, still in operation today in Freising, Germany, dates to about 1040.) Renaissance It is suggested that religion played a key role in the rise of hops as a dominant ingredient of beer beginning in the 16 th century along with the Protestant Movement against the Catholic Church: “One of the key reasons the Protestants rejected the Catholic Church was because of the un-Christlike, selfindulgent, occasionally hedonistic lifestyle of the Catholic clergy. The highly inebriating and aphrodisiacal gruit ales were seen as one cause of this malady. Hops, on the other hand, (allegedly) diminish sex drive and cause the drinker to become drowsy.” –Michael Jackson As Protestantism swept through Europe, so did the use of hops in the production of beer. The “Reinheitsgebot” – the Bavarian beer purity law – was enacted in 1516 prohibiting the brewing of beer with any ingredients other than barley, hops, yeast and water. Although no longer enforced, many German brewers still hold to this principle. Religion is not the only suggested cause of the “hop revolution.” Experts also agree that merchants of hopped beer also aided the cause to gain an economic advantage against gruit merchants. By the 18th century, the (hops) revolution was complete and hops had effectively replaced gruit as the primary herb in beer. Brewers used a top-fermentation process in which the yeast would rise to the top of the vat. In the 15th century, German

May-June 2007 brewers developed a process in which fermentation occurred at the bottom of the vat. Beer made by the bottom fermentation method was usually aged to give it a milder taste and clearer appearance. It was named “lager” – a derivative of the German word largen, which means, “to store.” Lager beers soon reigned supreme in continental Europe (and later in North America). But the British remained partial to traditional, heavier-flavored topfermented brews such as ale, stout, and porter. “Englishmen are like their own beer” Frothy on top, dregs on the bottom, the middle excellent.” –– Voltaire Beer in Early Colonial America When the Pilgrims set forth for America in 1620, they planned to settle somewhere near the Hudson River but because of uncertain navigation and autumn storms, they made their first landfall at Cape Cod. Rather than proceeding farther down the coast, they decided to remain at nearby Plymouth Rock, “…our victuals being much spent, especially our Beere.” Not long after the Puritans, who came next, settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, and enacted laws regulating the price to be charged for beer in taverns or inns and requiring brewers to be licensed by the court. Brewing arrived early to Britain’s American colonies. The first settlers in Virginia complained repeatedly about being forced to drink the local water that they considered unsanitary and diseaseinducing. “If barley be wanted to make into malt, we must be content and think it no fault, for we can make liquor to sweeten our lips, of pumpkins and parsnips and walnut tree chips.” –– Popular song from the 17th century, Colonial America When the Dutch settled along the Hudson River in the 1620s, they were also quick to establish beer-making facilities. A 1660 map of New Amsterdam shows at least six brew houses in the town, which had only about 1,500 inhabitants. At least a couple of the breweries also contained distilleries. In Pennsylvania, William Penn established a brewery at his manor house near Philadelphia in 1683, shortly after the colony was established.

61 “What event is more awfully important to an English Colony than the erection of its first brewhouse?” –– Rev. Sidney Smith (1771-1844) Pre-Revolutionary America enjoyed one of the highest beer consumption rates in American history, because beer played no small part in the evolution of America from a widely dispersed group of small settlements dependent upon England for survival into a network of self-reliant and independent colonies. As the population increased, so did the need for “liquid bread” (beer) as a key source of nutrition and refreshment – the colonists continued to avoid water at all costs. Americans still drank great quantities of English beer during colonial times. However, as buying imported beer became increasingly cost-prohibitive for most Americans, the demand for locally brewed beer grew stronger. This meant the need for new breweries, which required equipment and raw materials to produce their beer. America’s burgeoning brewing industry in turn fostered the growth of local agriculture and industry and further economic growth. “In wine there is wisdom. In beer is strength. In water bacteria.”–Anon. After Independence By the time of the Revolution, brewing was a thriving business in the American colonies, especially in New England and the Middle Atlantic colonies. These areas, in fact, had a prosperous trade in malt beverages with the southern colonies. Many of the founding fathers had ties to brewing. Samuel Adams’ family fortune was based on making malt, George Washington had a brew house at Mount Vernon, and Thomas Jefferson made beer at Monticello. Until well into the 19th century, most malt beverages consumed in the United States were ales, porters, or stouts brewed in the British top-fermented tradition. By midcentury, however, increased immigration from Germany brought bottom-fermenting yeasts that produced lager beer. Among brewers with German origins who became highly successful in the United States were Jacob Ruppert and the brothers Frederick and Maximilian Schaefer in New York City; Valentin Blatz, Joseph Schlitz, and Frederick Miller in Milwaukee; Eberhard Anheuser and Adolphus Busch in St. Louis; and Adolph Coors in Colorado.


62 By the Civil War, German-inspired lager output exceeded that of ale and porter. Anheuser-Busch In the mid-1800s, Eberhard Anheuser [Figure 1] was a successful manufacturer of soap and candles in St. Louis, Missouri. In 1859, he financed a loan to a struggling neighborhood brewery called The Bavarian Brewery, which was started by George Figure 1 Schneider in 1852. When the brewery faltered in 1860, Anheuser and a partner, William O’Dench, bought the interests of minority creditors rather than see the brewery go under. They reorganized the company and resumed production under the name E. Anheuser & Company. In 1857, eighteen-year old Adolphus Busch [Figure 2], the second youngest of 22 children, immigrated to the United States from Germany to join his three brothers in St. Louis. Although his brother had started the John B. Busch Brewing Company in Washington, Missouri, Adolphus opted to enter into a Figure 2 partnership with Ernst Wattenberg to sell brewing supplies. It was through that business that Adolphus met his wife, whose father would be his future partner. Adolphus Busch and Lily Anheuser married in 1861. In 1865, the two beer companies merged, with Adolphus as equal partner with Eberhard Anheuser. In 1876, Busch and his friend Carl Conrad, a liquor importer, developed a “Bohemian-style” lager, inspired after a trip to the Bohemia region of Europe (Czech Republic). Brewers in that region generally named a beer after their town with the suffix “er.” Beers produced in the town of Pizen, for example, were called pizners, or pilsners. Busch and Conrad had visited another town, only 65 miles south of Pizen, also known for its breweries – Bomische Budweis, which became Ceske Budejovice in 1918. Beer has been brewed in Ceske Budejovice since King Premys II Otakar founded it as Budiwoyz in 1245. The German name of the town is Budweis. The name “Budweiser” is a locative, meaning “of Budweis.” Many people – including Busch and Conrad – carried the beer recipes from

May-June 2007 Budweis around the world and in the late 1800s there were several breweries producing beers called Budweiser. Miller and Schlitz both produced Budweisers but, as the name became so strongly associated with Anheuser-Busch, they stopped it. In the U.S. the last other Budweiser producer was DuBois Brewing of Pittsburg, Pa., which stopped making the brand only in the late 1970s. Busch and Conrad introduced “Budweiser Lager Bier” in St. Louis, brewed by E. Anheuser Co.’s Brewing Association, and bottled and distributed by Carl Conrad. The Figure 3 first bottles were paper labeled [Figure 3]. The Anheuser company was renamed Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association in 1879 [Figure 4], and Adolphus became president the following year, a position he was to hold for 33 years.

Figure 4 During the Civil War, Adolphus Busch briefly served at the rank of colonel in the Union Army. In addition to running the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company, he was president of the South Side Bank, The Manufacturers’ Railroad Company, and the St. Louis Refrigeration Company. He was a director also in many banking institutions in the Merchant’s Bridge Company and the Terminal Railroad Company. He founded the Adolphus Busch Glass Company of St. Louis and Belleville, Ill., and the Streator Bottle and Glass Company of Streator, Ill.

Bottles and Extras “You can only drink 30 or 40 glasses of beer a day, no matter how rich you are.” –– Colonel Adolphus Busch Malt-Nutrine Anheuser-Busch was involved in varied pharmaceutical activities in the late 1800s and early 1900s. One of the most famous of its pharmaceutical products was Malt-Nutrine in a stubby brown bottle [Figure 5, right]. It was “liquid bread” – a form of beer that had as its principal ingredients barley malt and hops. The original product contained 1.9% of alcohol and 14.5% solids. According to its maker: “Malt-Nutrine was highly esteemed by the medical profession and its popularity resulted mainly from the fact that doctors prescribed it for patients in need of building up their health, such as new mothers, convalescents, the anemic and aged.” – Anheuser Busch Anheuser-Busch was so confident of Malt-Nutrine’s success that it established a separate sales department for the wholesale drug field. Numerous collectibles resulted in the years that this product was produced and sold (1890-1942). Around the turn of the 20th century a match safe was produced [Figure 6, right]; in 1905 a Vienna Art plate was issued to advertise the product [Figures 7-8]; in 1915 a “Name this picture” contest was held for doctors. The 12 ½” x 7 ½” sign shows a doctor walking briskly towards a lighted house. His shadow is a stork, suggesting the delivery of a baby is in order [Figure 9]. The back of the card has the following text: “This Little Picture, which we hope you will find suitable for hanging in your office or reception room, is one of a series that we will from time to time send the medical profession of the United States. You will observe that the picture has no name. ‘Coming Events Cast Their


Bottles and Extras

Figure 7, above; Figure 8, below.

Figure 9 Shadows Before’ has been suggested as a title, what would you suggest? To the doctor who first gives the most appropriate title we will pay two hundred and fifty dollars ($250) in gold. Prize will be awarded Sept. 1915. Answers will be duly acknowledged and the name of winner of the contest as well as the title selected will be mailed to each contestant. Address, Dr. Stork, MaltNutrine Department, Anheuser-Busch, St. Louis, Mo.” David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread® The preceding historical account lays the groundwork for the container featured in this article. The bottle has been a favorite of beer bottle collectors for 100 years. The circa-1890-1915 cobalt-blue export-shape pint (approximately 12-ounce) beer bottle

May-June 2007 used to contain David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread®. This bottle came in both “turn-mold” bottles with no vertical seam marks and “two-piece mold” bottles with horizontal turning ring marks [Figure 10]. Figure 11 shows the embossment on the bottom of the bottle that identifies the Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company – Belleville, Ill. (A.B.M. Co – Belleville, Ill.). Recent and improved research has added to the little known history of David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread. Collectors have known the unmarked cobalt blue bottle for many years. We now know for sure that it was used for the malt beverage made, under contract by Anheuser-Busch, for Dr. Nicholson. Like MaltNutrine, Liquid Bread was a “Pure Extract of malt and a delicious, effervescing table beverage.” It is collector/ historian consensus that they were one and the same product. The best available history of the product suggests that Anheuser-Busch sold generic Malt-Nutrine to St. Louis physician, Dr. David Nicholson, (who was listed at 13 & 15 North 6th Street in 1905) for use as Figure 11 his trademarked proprietary product, “David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread”®. Anheuser-Busch bottled Nicholson’s malt beverage using a deep cobalt blue export-style beer bottle that was manufactured, according to the embossment (“A.B.G.M. Co.”) on the bottle’s bottom, by the Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company (1885 to 1928) of Belleville, Illinois. Figure 12 on the right features a rare specimen of the bottle with a complete label, from which a great deal of information, presented here, was gleamed. Dr. Nicholson had a number of distributors for his Anheuser-Busch-bottled “Liquid Bread.” There was one

63 in Boston as evidenced by an envelope from S. Pierce & Co. The envelope was cancelled “BOSTON MASS 1893” and features a lithograph of a fully labeled cobalt-blue bottle of David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread [Figure 13]. Another distributor listed on the reverse of the trade card was in New York City. And, of course, there was David Nicholson himself in St. Louis. A trade card from around 1900 [Figure 14] pictures David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread and indicates that: “…it came in cobalt blue export style beer bottles – a distinctly blue example is shown in the right hand of the nurse (or nun?) who is pouring the contents into a glass for consumption by the injured potentate with his arm apparently in a sling. Liquid Bread was a name for malt beverages which were purported to have health restoring qualities, though it was likely just plain old beer.” –Bill Lockhart: http:// www.blm.gov/historic_bottles/ beer.htm The reverse of the tradecard [Figure 15] touts liquid bread by David Nicholson as: “A Pure Extract of Malt…ripened by time and extracted from the finest selected materials within reach of purchase. It is a wholesome and delicious effervescing table beverage. In addition it is a remedial agent, of wide applicability and of sterling merit. It is especially rich in Dianthus, a substance which is of the utmost service in converting the starch of the food into sugar and dextrin, and thus rendering it easily assimilable; it is therefore invaluable to Dyspeptics. It is also an unsurpassed tonic; a promoter of appetite, a source of muscular strength, an augmenter of nervous energy and a fat-producing hydrocarbon. To nursing mothers, to children naturally feeble and with vitality impaired by disease, to many troubled with nervous exhalation and insomnia, to convalescents suffering from malnutrition, to those threatened with


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Figure 13 pulmonary trouble, and to those already affected with wasting diseases, such as cancer and consumption, it will be found indispensable. In every other respect it fully equals if it does not surpass the various similar preparations of Malt now before the public; but in especially two characteristics: the remarkably small quantity of Alcohol in its composition (less than 3 per cent) [6 proof] and its extreme palatability, the ‘Liquid Bread’ far excels them all. It is grateful to invalids with the most delicate stomachs, and taken with relish by ladies of the most fastidious palates.” David Nicholson’s enterprise can be tracked historically to 1916 at which time it was sold to the Theo. Noel Company of Chicago, Illinois. “Fill with mingled cream and amber, I will drain that glass again. Such hilarious visions clamber through the chambers of my brain. Quaintest thoughts– queerest fancies, come to life and fade away. What care I how times advances? I am drinking liquid bread today.” –Edgar Allan Poe The Modern Era of Brewing The modern era of brewing evolved by the end of the 19th century with the advent of commercial refrigeration, automatic bottling, pasteurization and improved distribution. Brewers like Adolphus Busch and others were able to market and sell their beers nationally by the turn of the century, giving rise to America’s great brewing dynasties. The invention of mechanical refrigeration equipment allowed beer to be made during the hottest weather and stored without spoiling. Breweries were among the first plants to install industrial ice-making equipment in the 1870s and 1880s, and many brewers set up a lucrative side business selling ice to the public. Louis Pasteur’s (1822-1895) studies of the nature of yeast

Figure 14

Figure 15

and the deleterious effect of bacteria, coupled with Emile Hansen’s pioneering work, in 1883, on isolating pure strains of yeast, opened the door to brewing beer of consistent quality. Pasteurization of bottled beers permitted them to be stored longer and shipped farther. A long era of consolidation and concentration began, broken only by the years of Prohibition: 1920-1933. By 1950, with production at a little under 80 million barrels, the number of breweries in the U. S. had fallen to about 400. Five large companies controlled about a quarter of the nation’s sales, led by Anheuser-Busch with an annual capacity of 5.5 million barrels from its single brewery and followed by Schlitz, Pabst, Falstaff, and P. Ballentine. Three goliath firms – Anheuser-Busch, Miller Brewing, and Adolph Coors – now share about 80% of the U. S. market. Anheuser-Busch alone with 12 breweries across the country holds nearly a 50% market share – one of their largest side businesses is Metal Container Corporation that makes more than 26 billion aluminum cans per year. They also produce aluminum cans for PepsiCola and Coca-Cola. (Aluminum cans for beer, by the way, were first produced in 1935 by The American Can Company of Richmond, Virginia for the Krueger Brewing of Newark, New Jersey.) It is good to note that with the advent of a multitude of microbreweries in recent years the beer industry maintains a healthy diversity.

References Books: Anderson, Sonja & Will. Andersons’ Turn-of-the-Century Brewery Directory. Carmel, New York. Privately Published by the Authors, 1969. One Hundred Years of Brewing – A complete History of the Progress made in the Art, Science and Industry of Brewing in the World, particularly during the Nineteenth Century (A Supplement to The Western Brewer, 1903.) Chicago and New York: H. S. Rich & Co., Publishers, 1903. Jackson, Michael. Ultimate Beer. New York: DK Publishing, Inc. 1998. Munsey, Cecil. The Illustrated Guide to the COLLECTIBLES OF COCA-COLA. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1972. Munsey, Cecil. The Illustrated Guide to COLLECTING BOTTLES. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1970. Noel, Theophilus. Autobiography and Reminiscences of Theophilus Noel. Chicago: Theo. Noel Company Printer, 1914. Van Wieren, Dale P. American Breweries II. West Point, PA: Eastern Coast Brewiana Association, 1995. Internet: http://www.geocities.com/xxi1933/ history.html http://www.beveragenet.net/bd/1999/0699/ 699beer.asp http://www.blm.gov/historic_bottles/ beer.htm http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/ tcaw/10.i12/html/12chemchro h t t p : / / w w w. l i q u i d b r e a d . c o m / w h a y oxyn.html http://www.blm.gov/historic_bottles/ beer.htm


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Classified Ads FOR SALE For Sale: Dutch onion in perfect mint condition, $135. Nice case gins, some pontils. Also, other early black glass in good to mint condition. Group lot of nice bottles priced for dealer purchase - very reasonable. Several beautiful cobalt decorated salt-glazed 19 th century stoneware. Contact: CARY ADELMAN, Ph: (773) 327-6075. For Sale: South Carolina bottles for sale. Also, antiques and pottery. Call for directions. Contact: JOHN T. BRAY, 1960 Mt. Lebanon Rd., Donalds, SC 29638, Ph: (864) 379-3479 or E-mail: BottleTree@WCTel.net.

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For Sale: Nevada bottles/ash tray/licquor $200 $80 $50 $20 $15 $10 1 TIME $150 license: “Yerington Ice and Soda Factory, $380 $150 $90 $35 $25 $15 2 TIMES $260 Yerington, Nevada,” circa 1917 crown top, $540 $215 $130 $50 $35 $20 3 TIMES $360 extremely rare, some ground wear/dings - $75. $700 $280 $170 $65 $45 $25 4 TIMES $460 Rare ash tray, circa 1950, “El-Capitan Club, $55 Sportsmans Headquarters, Home of Big Slots, $860 $345 $210 $80 $30 5 TIMES $560 $65 Hawthorne, Nevada.” White on red lettering, $1020 $410 $250 $95 $35 6 TIMES $660 four lobes, round, scallop pattern, perfect condition - $65. Unique “Zanzibar Casino Next Stop Deadlines: May 15th for July-August 2007 issue, Reno” gaming, liquor license 1950. Perfect July 15th for September-October 2007 issue. condition - $250. “Vic’s Beverages, 7-Up Bottling Co., Winnemucca, Nevada.” Crown top, circa 1950. Perfect condition. $10 each. Extremely rare Each or both together if you buy both. Contact: JIM BENDER, “Winnemucca Dairy, Joseph Scott, Prop.” 20% s.c.a., circa 1910. P.O. Box 162, Sprankers, NY 12166, Ph: (518) 673-8833. About perfect condition - $275. Extremely rare “Valley Dairy: RenoYerington-Hawthorne,” 1 quart, amber glass, circa 1950. Perfect For Sale: Fruit jars, Flowan Frogs, Roseville Pottery, various types condition - $165. Please add $10 postage per each item. Insurance in each listing. Contact: PERRY D. DRIVER, 9029 129th Dr., Live included. Contact: LOREN LOVE, P.O. Box 412, Dayton, NV 89403, Oak, FL 32060; Ph: (386) 364-3203 or E-mail: perry.driver@navy.mil. Ph: (775) 246-0142. For Sale: Henry Busch Minnemucca, Nev. aqua Hutch soda. $1250. Very nice condition, small base potstone. Bremen Kampf & Regli, Eureka, Nev., lime green! $750; pale green, $225. G.B. Co., Goldfield crown, purple, exc., $1000. Xerington Ice, crown, clear, $275. Santa Barbara Bottling Co., S.B., Col. Hutch, aqua, 4 lines printing, base chip, bubble burst, light wear, $100. J.N. Gerdes, S.F. Mineral Water, 8-sided blob, nice, aqua, lip inner flake, $60. S.D. State Sanatorium for Tuberculosis, half-pint, embossed milk, $20 exc. Please add postage. E-mail with questions or for a photo. Contact: JAMES CAMPIGLIA, 554 Litchfield Ln., Santa Barbara, CA 93109, Ph: (805) 962-2413 or E-mail: jvcinsb@cox.net. For Sale: Books! The Bottles of Jackson County 2007 Edition. 156 pages covering southern Oregon’s Jackson County from 18601979, including Breyer’s distillers, dairies, pharmacies and soda bottlers. Many photographs, advertisements and directory listings. Price $25 postage paid. Contact: DAVID SCAFANI, 416 Greenbrae Dr., Medford, OR 97504, Ph: (541) 773-6503 or E-mail: scafanind@charter.net. For Sale: Jackson, Tenn., amber Bimal Coca-Cola bottle. No mold marks. Clockwise arms, near mint (9 out of 10). $250 postpaid inside USA. An outstanding example. Contact: MICHAEL ELLING, 4042 Sidonia Rd., Sharon, TN 38255, Ph: (731) 973-4995 or E-mail: cheromike@citlink.net. For Sale: Drakes Plantation Bitters, 4-log, medium amber - mint.$95. 6-log medium amber mint, $110. Both bottles nice. Shipping $15.

Remember “For Sale” ads are a benefit of membership. If you haven’t already, send yours today. If your ad has been sent and doesn’t appear in this issue, it will be in the next issue.

BOOKS / PERIODICALS FOR SALE: Can you tell the “Real” from the “Repro”? Now you can with Tippecanoe & E. G. Booz Too! A book about cabin bottles, by Thomas C. Haunton. Detailed info on 57 different bottles, with new “McKearin” numbers, over 140 photos, and new information on E. G. Booz - the man! A price guide and free CD with 200 color photos are also included. Send $32.95 postpaid to: TOM HAUNTON, 48 Hancock Ave. #1, Medford, MA 021555621. E-mail: tchaunton@comcast.net FOR SALE: GEORGIA CROWN TOP BOTTLE BOOK. 260 pages with over 1400 bottles. Includes Georgia Bottling Works, 263 different Script straight-sided Coca-Cola bottles from Georgia, 236 different Georgia Chero-Cola bottles. Many others also listed. All Color! $39.95 + $3.95 Shipping. Send to: Georgia Soda Bottle Book, 1211 St. Andrews Drive, Douglas, GA 31533. FOR SALE: 5th Edition BOTTLES: IDENTIFICATION & PRICE GUIDE - THE “BOTTLE BIBLE FOR ALL COLLECTORS! All in color - 600 stunning photographs- Two New Chapters: “Patriotic/Political Bottles” and “Perfume Bottles.” Comprehensive Price Guide: 51 Chapters; Comprehensive


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Classified Ads Research Guide: History & Origin, Age Identification, Digging Methods, Determining Bottle Values, Trademark Identification, Dealer & Club Guide, Glossary of Terms, Bibliography, Auction Houses, and much more. Send Check or Money Order To: MIKE POLAK, P.O. Box 30328, Long Beach, CA 90853, Ph: 562-4389209, E-mail: bottleking@earthlink.net. FOR SALE: BIG BOB BEST BITTERS is a comprehensive price guide for collectors of bitters bottles reporting auction prices realized for the last 17 years. This printing contains nearly 4000 accurately described bitters in a convenient, easy to read format. Listing bottle description and condition, Ring/Ham number, sale date and realized auction prices, this reference is a must-have for the collector or dealer of bitters bottles. To encourage your attendence at bottle shows, the price is an affordable $10. Price postage paid is $15. Send check or money order with your mailing instructions to: BOB STRICKHART, 3 Harvest Drive, Pennington, New Jersey 08534. FOR SALE: A limited number of 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006 Federation Auction catalogues with prices-realized lists are available at $5.00 each plus $2.00 postage. Full color and beautifully photographed they make a handy reference! Contact JUNE LOWRY, 401 Johnston Court, Raymore, MO 64083; Ph: (806) 318-0160; E-mail: osubuckeyes71@aol.com. FOR SALE: CD-rom for computer users. Contents: almost 200 pages of inventory / research for Dr. Hatchett’s Drug Store Museum of Lumpkin, Georgia. Patent medicines & other drug store products 1870s to 1950s. Research on products, history, composition of medicines, company histories, medical uses, costs of products, etc. Products can be searched by their names or manufacturers. Price: $12 for mailing to U.S. addresses. Order from Stewart County Historical Commission, P.O. Box 818, Lumpkin, GA 31515 or contact: ALLEN VEGOTSKY, 2215 Greencrest Dr., Atlanta, GA 30346-2629; PH: (770) 270-1034; E-mail: Vegotsky@earthlink.net. FOR SALE: A COLLECTOR'S GUIDE TO ARIZONA BOTTLES & STONEWARE A HISTORY OF MERCHANT CONTAINERS IN ARIZONA 124 pages of very detailed sketches of bottles and stoneware from the state of Arizona (1999) Spiral bound, $25. Contact: MICHAEL MILLER, Miller Antiques, 9214 W. Gary Road, Peoria, AZ 85345, PH: (623) 486-3123 or by Email: gramike@earthlink.net. FOR SALE: THE PILL ROLLERS, Third

Edition, C.G. & L.C. Richardson. This is the only comprehensive book on apothecary antiques available to collectors with a serious interest in pharmaceutical antiques and collectibles. The book has 185 pages with 800 items illustrated. A separate price guide is included with the book price. The glossary includes information to help identify pharmaceutical artifacts including an extensive listing of names to help identify drug jar and apothecary bottle inscriptions. The price is $37.50, including shipping, and can be ordered from: CHARLES RICHARDSON, 1176 South Dogwood Drive, Harrisonburg, VA 22801. FOR SALE: Two books on whiskey jugs by Bottles and Extras writer Jack Sullivan. THE AMERICAN WHISKEY JUG features 200 richly illustrated pages

with index. $20 plus $5 postage. THE WHISKEY CERAMICS OF SCOTLAND, IRELAND and ENGLAND features 100 pages with index. $10 plus $3 postage. Or buy both for $25 plus $5 postage. Contact: JACK SULLIVAN, 4300 Ivanhoe Pl., Alexandria, VA 22304; PH: (703) 370-3039; E-mail: jack.sullivan9@verizon.net. FOR SALE: The American Poison Bottle Book, presented by the Antique Poison Bottle Collectors Association, full-color poison bottle work book. Updated information on sizes, colors and new listings. Contains the Kuhn ID system and is dedicated to him. $50 + $4.95 s/h. Printing limited so get yours now! Check to: JOAN CABANISS, 312 Summer Lane, Huddleston, VA 24104.

WANTED Wanted: Embossed (not etched) advertising medicine DOSE (shot) glasses that advertise drug stores or pharmacies. My goal is to collect one from each U.S. state, but I am not even halfway there. Please contact: TRACY GERKEN, 1131 Kings Cross, Brunswick, GA 31525; Ph: (912) 269-2074 or E-mail: lgerken@bellsouth.net. Wanted: Embossed South Carolina bottles, especially crown top slug plate soda bottles. Contact: ERIC WARREN, 238 Farmdale Dr., Lexington, SC 29073; Ph: (803) 951-8860; E-mail: scbottles@aol.com. Any South Carolina bottle questions, drop me a line. Wanted: Top shelf bitters. rare molds, colors and unique or special examples. Particularly at the moment looking for Seaworth bitters, green Dingens Napoleon cocktail bitters and Corn for the World quart historical flasks. Contact: FERDINAND MEYER V, Ph: (713) 222-7979, FMG Design, Inc., 101 Crawford St., Stuido 1A, Houston, TX 77002. Wanted: Western Glass!! I am agressively seeking better quality western bottles in all categories. Overall quality is more important to me than rarity. Top prices paid for: N. Grange flask, Wonsers bitters, applied top medicines, pontiled sodas, western bitters. Contact: DALE MLASKO, Ph: (541)601-0245, E-mail: Dalemlasko@charter.net. Wanted: Sealfast Sold By jars, unusual pint jars and old bottle magazines (any title), especially looking for May 1984 Antique Bottle & Glass Collector. Contact: R. WAYNE or JUNE LOWRY, Ph: (816) 318-0160, E-mail: JAL121053@aol.com.

Wanted: Hutch soda, Kessler & Son, Carlstadt NJ (picture of a deer head) in nice condition. Also Colorado bottles. Contact: MIKE WATRAL, (303) 823-0315, E-mail: MGWatral@aol.com. Wanted: Quart Conrad Budweiser in amber and citron; pint Conrad in amber. Figural: pistols and billy clubs in odd colors; bust of Napoleon in milk glass, cigars in odd colors. Contact: PAUL R. CONNER, P.O. Box 27, Loch Loosa, FL 32662-0027; Ph: (352) 481-4892. Wanted: Minnesota Hutch, (Hutchinson) blob sodas, and tooled top crowns collected. Looking for Minnesota small towns in Hutchinson, blob sodas from various bottling works and companies. Looking for following towns: ADA, BOVEY, BRAINERD, CROOKSTON, DETROIT (lakes), DELANO, EAST GRAND FORKS, LITCHFIELD, LUVERNE, MELROSE, MONTIVIDEO, NEW PRAUGE, ST JAMES, TOWER, WASCEA, ZUMBROTA, and also looking for information on many of the unknown sodas from various towns for my book. Contact: AUSTIN: austinsodaworks@yahoo.com. Wanted: Philadelphia, Pa. strap-sided unseamed whiskey flasks and THD Mineral Waters. Contact: ART MIRON, Ph: (215) 248-4612 or E-mail: jestar484@verizon.net. Wanted to Purchase! Antique bottle, fruit jar and insulator collections. Willing to travel anywhere. No collection is too large. Thank you for your consideration.


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Classified Ads Contact: JAMIE HOUDESHELL, 7839 Royal Hampton Lane, Waterville, OH 43566; Ph: (419) 878-2809; E-mail: JHbottle@hotmail.com. Wanted: St. Louis colored pontil sodas; top dollar paid for the following colored sodas - cobalt blue Sinnott & Smyth, cobalt J. Cairns, cobalt R.J. Adams, cobalt McCloud & Wheat, cobalt Smith & Fotheringham in slug plate, yellow or green Brandon & Feasby Camp Spring, cobalt or green or black glass C. Abel, yellow or green P. Bermingham, E. Evans teal ale, J.D. Vail Ale quart. Contact: THEO ADAMS, 3728 Fair Oaks Dr., Granite City, IL 62040, Ph: (618) 451-5622. Wanted: Embossed pharmacy/drug store bottles and embossed whiskey flasks/ bottles from Arcata, Eureka, Ferndale, or Fortuna, CA. Paying top dollar for blue, green or amber embossed pharmacy/drug store bottles from these towns. Contact: BOB HANSEN, 175 Terra Vista Pl., McKinleyville, CA 95519, Ph: (707) 8409624 E-mail: Bobarhansen@aol.com. Wanted: KT&K whiskey jugs, Minnehaha jugs, unusual stoneware bottles with odd names, double or odd stamping, errors & also blue shoulder bottles I don't have. Please email or call JOHN DEGRAFFT, Ph: (480) 895-2470, E-mail: tonto521@wbhsi.net. Wanted: Tin top and early bowling pin milk bottles, photographs, collectibles or information related to dairies or milk dealers that operated in San Francisco, California prior to 1910. I will buy or trade collectibles and share information with anyone interested in, or having items related to, this field. Please contact: KEN MORRILL at (831) 722-4740 or E-mail: arrowheadfarms@juno.com. Wanted: Koca Nola soda bottles and gowiths and antique bottles from: Belfonte, Bridgeport, Scottsboro and Stevenson, Alabama. Battlecreek, Copenhagen, Deptford, Jasper, Ketchall, Monteagle, New River, South Pittsburg, Tracy City and Whitwell, Tennessee. Top prices paid! Contact: CHARLES HEAD, 23549-001, P.O. Box 150160, Atlanta, GA 30315. Wanted: Paying top dollar for bottles from Danville, Ridyfarm, Paris, Georgetown, and Indianaola Illinois. Phone: (217) 463-2938 or E-mail: ERP3@tigerpaw.com. Wanted: INDIAN BOTTLES! Looking for the Indian Bitters, Sarsaparillas, Cures and rare Medicines, but will settle for good Sagwa every now and then!

E-mail photo and price to: Mike@WeLoveOldBottles.com. MIKE SMITH, P.O. Box 2347, Yucca Valley, CA 92286-2347, Ph: (760) 228-9640, Website: www.WeLoveOldBottles.com.

dgravesmeyer@yahoo.com.

Wanted: Still looking for #143 in Burnett’s #4. Bottle embossed “The Chevalier Co” (castle) “Castle Whiskey, San Francisco, Cal” Bottle may or may not have inside screw stopper. Contact: BEN KUTZKEY, 163 Shepard Ln., Bishop, CA 93514, Ph: (760) 8736635 or E-mail: bkutzkey@aol.com.

Wanted: Union clasp hands flasks and JIEM turtle flasks. Contact: JIM BENDER, Ph: (518) 673-8833 or E-mail: Jim1@frontiernet.net.

Wanted: Railroad and Fred Harvey related bottles and seltzers. Also Calif., Nev., Utah, Co., Ariz. and New Mexico railroad lanterns. Bottles mentioning depots in location. Central Pacific Railroad related telegraph / insulator items (marked). Interested in other Western railroad memorabilia. Contact: MIKE MUNSON, P.O. Box 1429, Dayton, NV 89403, Ph: (775) 246-8434. E-mail: ttcrrc@charter.net. Wanted: Colorado pint & 1/2-pint milk bottles. Glass top canning jars. Colorado postcards. Contact: GEORGE VANTRUMP, JR., P.O. Box 1537, Wheat Ridge, CO 800341537, Ph: (303) 232-3542, E-mail: JoGeorge@qwest.net. Wanted: Labeled bottles from Michigan, including medicines, whiskey & bitters. Contact: DAN ARGENTATI, 60695 Trebor Dr., South Lyon, MI 48178-8978, Ph: (248) 437-6104, E-mail: dargentati@comcast.net.

Wanted: Always looking for better fruit jars. Contact: PHIL MURPHY, Ph: (618) 3453511 or E-mail: pmurfe@sbcglobal.net.

Wanted: Delaware milk bottles. University and college milk bottles. Contact: ROLAND HEARN, 10 Wordsworth Dr., Wilmington, DE 19808, Ph: (302) 994-2036 or E-mail: rlhearn@msn.com. Wanted: Old Indiana milk bottles: W.D. Willson, Osgood, Ind.; Aurora Creamery; Willowlawn Dairy; Dierring Dairy, Aurora; Doll Farm Dairy, Batesville; Wessel, Borcheit; Gluesen Kamp; Huyoll & Thurmer, Guilferd; Zoellner Bakery Dairy, Greensburg; B.D. Rice Pure Milk, Rising Sun & any other from southeast Indiana. Also, “NO Aurora, Ind.” iron pontil liquor bottle. Contact: ED PROBST, 1920 Franklin St., Columbus, IN 47201-5152, Ph: (812) 3794081 or probst64@yahoo.com. Wanted: Mendocino County c. pre-1940 postcards, ephemera, advertisements, artifacts, ashtrays, photos, jars, bottles, etc. Wells Fargo covers. Contact: GARY W. INGLE, 124 Giorno Ave., Ukaih, CA 95482, Ph: (707) 621-3377 or E-mail: kat@saber.net.

Wanted: Schnapps in rare colors and molds. Also California citrus packing crate labels and any thing relating to the California citrus industry. Top dollar paid. Also have labels to trade. Contact: TOM SPELLMAN, 689 W. 24th St., Upland, CA 91784, Ph: (909) 9815171, E-mail: trspellman@prodigy.net.

Wanted: HELP PLEASE! I am looking for a fruit jar marked PATENT APPL’D FOR on the side of the jar, no other markings. Red Book #9 listed as #2293. I’ll take one with or without the closure. Will pay a good price, for I need it to complete part of my collection. Contact: BILL DUDLEY, 1947 Tahoe Dr., Xenia, OH 45385, Ph: (937) 3728567.

Wanted: MONTANA, MONTANA, MONTANA bottles, crocks, jugs, plates, advertising, whatever, etc. Also OWL DRUG bottles, western drug store bottles, GILLETT’S EXTRACT bottles, tins, etc. Also looking for small “MARSDEN’S MOUNTAIN CITY COUGH CURE, KALISPELL MONT.” and “MEYER’S SARSAPARILLA, HELENA, MONT.” Contact: MARC LUTSKO, P.O. Box 590, Libby, MT 59923, Ph: (406) 293-4048, E-mail: letsgo@montanasky.net.

Wanted: Minnesota Hutchinson sodas, Kummel bottles, embossed black glass case bottles and cylinders, Tippecanoe, can be damaged. B&B milk glass bitters, damaged Cheyenne, Wyo. Hutchinson sodas. Red Jacket bitters, can be damaged. Chinese Opium pipes, can be damaged. Damaged threadless insulators. Dug marked clay pipes. Contact: ELDON PLATCEK, 327 3rd Ave., Two Harbors, MN 55616, Ph: (218) 834-6093, E-mail: furtrade@hotmail.com.

Wanted: Western whiskey bottles and shot glasses for Jno. H. Graves of San Jose, Calif. Any items related to Old Kentucky Distillers of Louisville, Ky. Also interested in SchaeferMeyer Brewery of Louisville, Ky. Contact: DON MEYER, 2918 Lexham Rd., Louisville, KY 40220, Ph: (502) 491-2704, E-mail:

Wanted: South Carolina bottles. Contact: JOHN T. BRAY, c/o Bottletree Antiques, 1962 Mt. Lebanon Rd., Donalds, SC 29638, Ph: (864) 379-3479 or E-mail: bottletree@wctel.net. Wanted: California Gold Rush belt buckles.


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Classified Ads I need your buckle parts for tongue and wreath buckles. Also short stem face pipes, Lewis Cass, Washington Henry Clay, etc., etc. Every contribution to my collection is appreciated. Top $ paid. Contact: MAX BELL, 852 Holly Hills Dr., Auburn, CA 95603, Ph: (530) 823-3315. Wanted: To buy any item related to Paducah, Ky., especially paper label whiskey and medicine bottles, photos, souvenir spoons & plates, banks, mirrors, souvenir books, post cards, etc. Contact: B.J. SUMMERS, 233 Darnell Rd., Benton, KY 42025 or E-mail: bjsummers@mchsi.com. Wanted: Tennessee Chero-Cola bottles: Clarksville, Copper Hill, Dickson, Harrimon. Jackson Chero Soda Water, Jacksonville

(sic) Chero Cola, LaFollette and Springfield. Have some duplicates to trade. Contact: MIKE ELLING, 4042 Sidonia Rd., Sharon, TN 38255 or E-mail: cheromike@citlink.net. Wanted: Bottles in the shape of a frog or with a frog embossed on it. Highest prices paid. Send pictures and prices. Contact: JUDGE DAVID SCHEPPS, 19195 Mystic Point Dr., Apt. 2206, Tower100, Aventura, FL 33180-4509, Ph: (305) 937-7437. Wanted: Michigan beer bottles. 1) Torch Lake Brewery, Jos. Bosch & Co., base embossed E Son & H, amber quart. 2) Foley & Smith, Eagle Harbor, base marked Clyde Glass Works, NY, amber quart. Contact: RICHARD KELLEY, Ph: (315) 946-6316 or Email: kelleye@redsuspenders.com.

KETCHUP, PICKLES, SAUCES 19th Century Food in Glass 498 pages of pictures & research of glass containers the early food industry utilized. Smyth Bound - $25.00 to: MARK WEST PUBLISHERS PO BOX 1914 SANDPOINT, ID 83864

Wanted: Hutch soda, Kessler & Son, Carlstadt, N.J. (picture of a deer head) in nice condition. Also Colorado bottles. Contact: MIKE WATRAL, Ph: (303) 8230315, E-mail: MGWatral@aol.com.

SERVICES SPRING STEEL PROBES

Montana Sodas - Embossed - ACL - Paper Label -

Poison Bottles Joan C. Cabaniss jjcab@b2xonline.com (540) 297-4498 312 Summer Lane Huddleston, VA 24104 est. 1979

Especially Cleo Cola Billings, Mont. R.J. Reid 1102 East Babcock St. Bozeman, MT 59715 (406) 587-9602 rjkreid@msn.com

Full Colour BBR

The world’s first full color bottle magazine simply got BETTER and BIGGER PACKED FULL of all the information you need on the UK & worldwide scene Well-researched articles & All the latest finds Upcoming sales & Full show calendar “the classified ads alone make a subscription worthwhile, but the color pictures make it absolutely ESSENTIAL.

1 year Air Mail subscription still just $20 - 2 years $40 Personal Check, MasterCard/Visa, even $ bills!

BBR, Elsecar Heritage Centre, Barnsley, 2, Yorkshire, S74 8HJ, England Tel: 011-44-1226-745156; Fax: 011-44-1226-361561

Length 36” to 48” Diameter 1/4” to 5/16” “T” Handle 1” Dia. x 12” and Ring 4” above tip, both welded. $37.50 includes S/H $3 Extra for Rush Shipping Cashier Check or M.O. R. L. Wilcox 7422 Park Drive Mechanicsville, VA 23111 Phone: (804) 746-9854 or E-mail: Wilcox7422@aol.com

Churchill’s Antique Bottle Cleaning Service Introductory Offer: Will clean one bottle at no charge ! (minus postage) Try me fee free! Less than 10 bottles: $15 each. 10-14: $12.50 each. More than 15: $10.00 each.

MARK CHURCHILL PO Box 7023 Grand Rapids, MI 49510

(616) 248-3808 E-mail: mdiscoidalis@netzero.net


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FOHBC SHO-BIZ FOHBC Sho-Biz is published in the interest of the hobby. Federation affiliated clubs are noted. Information on up-coming collecting events is welcome, but space is limited. Please send at least four months in advance, including telephone number, to: FOHBC Sho-Biz, c/o Kathy Hopson-Sathe, 341 Yellowstone Dr., Fletcher, NC 28732, or E-mail: kathy@thesodafizz.com. Show schedules are subject to change. Please call ahead before traveling long distances. All listings published here will also be published on the web site at http://www.fohbc.com.

MAY 4-5 - GRAY, TENNESSEE The State of Franklin Antique Bottle & Collectibles Association’s 9th Annual Show & Sale (Sat. 8 AM - 2 PM, Free Adm.; Early Buyers & Set-up, Fri. 9 AM - 6 PM, Adm. $10 ) at the Appalachian Fairgrounds in Gray, Tennessee (Johnson City - Bristol, Tennessee area). 150 Tables Available. INFO: MELISSA MILNER, PH: (423) 928-4445 or E-mail: mmilner12@chartertn.net. MAY 5 - MERRITT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA The Insulator Ranch’s Insulator Show at 3046 Spanish Creek Pl., Merritt, British Columbia, Canada (Exit 286 at Merritt-Spences Bridge). (Sat. Chili & Rolls lunch, Sun. Coffee, Bacon & Eggs breakfast, prepared by Bev.- no charge) INFO: BOB SCAFE, PH: (250) 378-2787 or E-mail: bobscafe@telus.net. MAY 5 - BEDFORD, TEXAS The Metroplex Insulator Show (Sat. 8:30 AM 3:30 PM) at the American Legion Post # 379, 1245 North Industrial Blvd., Bedford, Texas. INFO: WADE HOWARD, 6200 Pool Rd., Grapevine, TX 76051; PH: (817) 481-5068, E-mail: hemi19@ticnet.com or ROSS BAIRD, 8617 Crosswind Dr., Ft. Worth, TX 76179, PH: (817) 236-5580, E-mail: nsulator@aol.com. MAY 6 - UTICA , NEW YORK The Mohawk Valley Antique Bottle Club’s 13th Annual Bottle Show & Sale (Sun. 9 AM - 2:30 PM) NEW LOCATION) at the Utica Curling Club, 8300 Clark Mills Road, Whitesboro, New York. INFO: PETER BLEIBERG, 7 White Pine Road , New Hartford , NY 13492, PH: (315) 735-5430 , E-mail: PMBleiberg@aol.com. MAY 6 - DUBLIN, IRELAND Ireland’s 4th Antique Bottle & Collectors Fair, (11 AM - 4 PM, Early Buyers 10 AM) at the Lucan Spa Hotel, on the N4, Co. Dublin, Ireland. INFO: DAVE McKEON, PH: 353 1 840 2802.

ROBIN, PH; (206) 522-2135, E-mail: robin3250@comcast.net. MAY 18 - CAYUCOS, CALIFORNIA The 15th Annual Great Insulator Show & Barbecue hosted by the Central & Southern Counties Insulator Club (Fri. 2 - 8 PM, Sat. 9 AM - 3 PM; Barbecue Sat. afternoon) at the Lions Veteran’s Hall, 10 Cayucos Dr. (Right at the pier & inches from the beach), Cayucos, California. Free admission, RV park, motel & restaurants nearby. INFO: PAUL ALLEESON, PH: (805) 527-1770 or DWAYNE ANTHONY, E-mail: insulators@open-wire.com. MAY 18-19 - COLUMBIA CITY, INDIANA The reactivation of the Hoosier Insulator & Collectibles Show & Sale (8 AM - 4 PM; Fri. Set-up Noon - 8 PM & Sat. 6 - 8 AM) at the Whitley County 4-H Fairgrounds, 4-H Center (South of US-30 - Lincoln Highway), Columbia City, Indiana. $25 for 1st 8-foot table, $18 additional. INFO: GENE HAWKINS, E-mail: gene.hawkins@mchsi.com or CHUCK DITMAR, PH: (260) 485-7669. MAY 19 - COVENTRY, CONNECTICUT The Museum of Connecticut Glass’s 3rd Annual Bottle & Glass Show & Sale (8 AM - 1 PM) at the the historic Coventry Museum grounds, Route 44 & North River Road, Coventry Connecticut. INFO: JAN A. RATUSHNY, P.O. Box 242, Eastford, CT 06242, PH: (860) 4284585 or E-mail: janratushny@aol.com. MAY 19 - TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA Tallahassee Antique Bottle Show & Sale (9 AM - 3 PM, Early Buyers Fri. 3 PM) at the Tallahassee Elks Lodge, 276 N. Magnolia Dr., Tallahassee, Florida. INFO: BRITT KEEN, 1144 Azalea Dr., Tallahassee, FL 32301, PH: (850) 294-5537; or E-mail: britt_keen@hotmail.com, Website: www.floridabottles.com.

MAY 12 - MANSFIELD, OHIO The Ohio Bottle Club’s 29th Mansfield Antique Bottle & Advertising Show & Sale (8 AM 2 PM, Early Buyers Friday 2 - 6 PM) at the Richland County Fairgrounds, Trimble Rd., Exit U.S. Rt. 30, Mansfield, Ohio. INFO: BILL KOSTER, PH: (330) 690-2794 or write O.B.C., P.O. Box 585, Barberton, OH 44203.

MAY 19 - CANTON, GEORGIA The Dixie Jewels Insulator Club’s Spring Swap Meet (Sat. 9:30 AM - 3 PM) at the home of Mike Santos & Linda Snavely, 601 Wexan Way, Canton, Georgia. Bring your own tables to show/ sell/trade insulators. Please call or E-mail ahead if you are coming & bring a lunch item. INFO: MIKE SANTOS or LINDA SNAVELY, PH: (770) 0547 (home) or (770) 883-2922 (Mike’s cell) or E-mail: snasan@alltel.net.

MAY 12 - CHEHALIS, WASHINGTON The Washington Bottle Collectors Association’s Spring Show (Sat. 9 AM - 4 PM) at the Southwest Washington Fairgrounds, Chehalis, Washington. INFO: WARREN LHOTKA, PH: (206) 3298412, E-mail: wlbottleguy@yahoo.com or

MAY 20 - BRICK, NEW JERSEY The Jersey Shore Bottle Club’s 35th Annual Antique Bottle & Post Card Show (Sun. 9 AM 2 PM) at the Brick Elks, 2491 Hooper Ave., Brick, New Jersey. Limited amount of tables. INFO: RICHARD PEAL, PH: (732) 267-2528

or E-mail: manodirt@msn.com. MAY 20 - WASHINGTON, PENNSYLVANIA The Washington County Antique Bottle Club’s 33rd Annual Show & Sale (9 AM - 2 PM) at the Apline Star Lodge, 735 Jefferson Ave., Washington, Pennsylvania. INFO: RUSS CRUPE, 52 Cherry Road, Avella, PA 15312, PH: (724) 345-3653 or (412) 298-7831. MAY 25 - SPOKANE, WASHINGTON The Spokane Insulator Swap (Fri., informal gettogether; Sat. Show & Swap 9 AM - ??) at Grumpy’s Famous Texas Spud. Lunch will be served on Sat. The location will be the home of The Grumpy Old Man & DLI, address to be announced. INFO: GOM, PH: (509) 953-4150 for particulars. JUNE 1- 2 - LUMBERTON, NORTH CAROLINA The Robeson Antique Bottle Club Annual Bottle, Coin & Collectible Show & Sale (Fri. 3 - 9 PM; Sat. 9 AM - 1 PM) at the Expo and Farmer’s Market, 1027 US 74 East, Lumberton North Carolina. INFO: MITCHELL McCORMICK, PH: (910) 628-6245 or BRET LEE, E-mail: dex@intrstar.net. JUNE 1-2 - KNOXVILLE, TENNESSEE The East Tennessee Antique Bottle & Collectibles Society Bottle Show & Sale (Fri. 10 AM - 5 PM, Sat. 9 AM - 5 PM, Adm, free) at the Kerbela Shrine Temple, 215 Mimosa St., Knoxville, Tennessee. INFO: CINDY PROTEAU, PH: (865) 974-9753 or Information available on the Website: www.ETABCS.org. JUNE 2 - MOUNT BRYDGES, ONTARIO, CANADA The 4th Annual Southwestern Ontario Spring Insulator Meet (Sat. Set-up at 10:30 AM with trading and dealing beginning at Noon, BBQ at 2 PM, $10 for table to cover cost of food and beverages for those who RSVP only. Bring your own table if possible. Please reply by May 20th) at the home of Hilary Nicpon located southeast of Mount Brydges and southwest of London, Ontario. INFO: TOM JANNELLI, PH: (519) 641-0098, E-mail: tiannelli0098@rogers.com or BARRETT NICPON, PH: (519) 264-2572, E-mail: nopcin_tterrab@hotmail.com. JUNE 9-10 - PORT ADELAIDE, AUSTRALIA The 36th National Bottle Show & Collectibles Fair (Sat. 10 AM - 5 PM; Sun. 10 AM - 4 PM, Early Buyers Sat. 8 AM) at the Portside Recreation Center, 50 St. Vincent St, Port Adelaide, Australia. INFO: REX BILLINGER, PH: 88356 7689.


Bottles and Extras JUNE 16 - BALLSTON SPA, NEW YORK The National Bottle Museum Annual Show & Sale (9:30 AM - 2:30 PM) at the Ballston Spa High School, Ballston Spa, New York, INFO: NATIONAL BOTTLE MUSEUM, 76 Milton Ave., Ballston Spa, NY 12020, PH: (518) 8857589, E-mail: nbm@crisny.org. JUNE 22-23 - AURORA, OREGON The Oregon Bottle Collectors Association’s Summer Show & Sale (Fri. 1 - 6 PM & Sat. 8 - 9 AM Early Adm., Sat. 9 AM - 3 PM) at the American Legion Hall, 3rd & Main St., Aurora, Oregon. INFO: SCOTT SLOWTER, PH (503)645-0560 or MARK JUNKER, PH (503)231-1235 or BILL BOGYNSKA, PH (503)657-1726, Email: billb@easystreet.com. JUNE 22-24 - ORLANDO, FLORIDA The 38th Annual Show of the National Insulator Association (NIA) (Fri. - Sun.) at the Holiday Inn International Drive Resort & Convention Center, Orlando, Florida. Hotel Reservations: http://hi-idrive.com with the code “NIA” or call the hotel at 866-253-2183. For table reservations or other INFO: JACQUELINE LINSCOTT BARNES, PH: (321) 480-1800 or E-mail: bluebellwt@aol.com. JUNE 30-JULY 1 - ELSECAR, ENGLAND BBR’s 17th Annual ‘Summer National’ Show (Sat 9 AM - 5 PM, Early Buyers 9 AM & Sun 9 AM - 3 PM) at the Elsecar Heritage Center, Elsecar, England. INFO: ALAN BLAKEMAN, BBR Elsecar Heritage Center, Nr. Barnsley, S. Yorks, S74 8HJ, England, PH: 011-44 1226 745156, E-mail: sales@onlinebbr.com. JULY 14 - DRUMHELLER, AB, CANADA The Western Canadian Insulator Club’s 2007 Swap & Sale (Sat. 10 AM - 5 PM) at the Homestead Antique Museum (If possible, bring your own table.) INFO: LENA, PH: (403) 8233045 or E-mail: lbraman@teluplanet.net. JULY 21 - RENO, NEVADA Reno Antique Bottle & Collectables Club’s 44th Annual Show & Sale (9 AM - 3 PM, Early Buyers Fri. Noon - 6 PM) at the Reno/Sparks Convention Center, 4590 South Virginia Street, North Entrance, Reno, Nevada. INFO: WILLY YOUNG, PH: (775) 746-0922 or HELENE WALKER, PH: (775) 345-0171. JULY 21-22 ADAMSTOWN, PENNSYLVANIA The 6th Annual Shupp’s Grove Bottle Festival (Sat. & Sun. 6 AM to dark, Fri. Dealer Set-up 3 PM followed by Early Buyers 5 PM) at Shupp’s Grove in Adamstown, Pennsylvania. INFO: STEVE GUION, E-mail: sguion124@comcast.net or JERE HAMBLETON, E-mail: jshdetector@webtv.net or PH: (717) 393-5175. JULY 28 - LEADVILLE, COLORADO The 3rd Annual Antique Bottle Collectors of Colorado’s Leadville Show (Sat. 9 AM - 4 PM,

May-June 2007 $2 Adm., Set-up, 6 AM) at the National Mining Hall of Fame and Museum Convention Center, 117 10th St., Leadville, Colorado. Great educational displays. Free parking. Vacation in Colorado’s High Country! Accommodations information available from co-chairman. INFO: JIM and BARBARA SUNDQUIST, Show Co-Chairman, 2861 Olympia Ln., Evergreen, CO 80439; PH: (303) 674-4658; E-mail: barbsund@msn.com. AUGUST 3-4 - ARCANUM, OHIO The 13th Annual Hog Roast & Pool Party (Fri. 5 PM) at 8784 Grubbs Rex Rd., Arcanum, Ohio. Insulator swap, lightning rod collectibles, milk bottle & other vintage collectibles Sat. 8 AM 2 PM. INFO: ALAN STASTNY, PH: (937) 8847379. AUGUST 10-11 - HELENA, MONTANA The Montana Bottle Collector’s Association’s 5th Annual Bottle, Insulator, Advertising & Collectible Show & Sale (Sat. 9 AM - 4 PM; Fri. Early Bird, 5 PM - 8 PM, $5 Adm.) at the Lewis & Clark County Fairgrounds, 98 W. Custer Ave., Helena, Montana. $40 for first, $35 for second+ Dealer Tables for bottles, advertising, insulators, western memorabilia. See You There! INFO: TOM BRACKMAN, Show Reservation Chairman, 2575 Winchester Dr., East Helena, MT 59635; PH: (406) 227-5301; E-mail: abrackman@earthlink.net or RAY THOMPSON, MBCA Vice-Pres., P.O. Box 9003, Missoula, MT 59807; PH: (406) 2737780; E-mail: KCthomp@aol.com. AUGUST 11 - MARTINSBURG, WEST VIRGINIA The Chesapeake Bay Insulator Club’s 8th Annual Shenandoah Valley Insulator Show & Sale (Sat.9 AM - 2 PM, Dealer Set-up, 7 - 9 AM) at the Calvary United Methodist Church, 220 W. Burke St., Martinsburg, West Virginia. INFO: JEFF HOLLIS, 56 Corning Way, Martinsburg, WV 25405, PH: (304) 263-6140, or E-mail: wvacampfire@verizon.net. AUGUST 11 - ZIG ZAG, OREGON The 11th Annual Greater Portland Insulator Swap (Sat.) at the home of Ernie & Mary Carlson, an hour’s drive East of Portland in the foothills of Mt. Hood. A BBQ lunch will be provided, so please RSVP. Bring insulators and railroad items to sell, swap or show. Ernie’s 16' x 42' HO scale railroad will be in operation. Come early and stay the weekend. Room for smaller RVs and tent camping. Restaurants, Forestry Service campgrounds, a resort & RV park are all within 5 miles of home. Located in the village of Zig Zag, 2 miles off Hwy 26 at 21199 E. Briarwood Road. For more INFO and driving directions: PH: (503) 622-3573 or E-mail: ecarlson@xprt.net. AUGUST 17-19 - COLLINSVILLE, ILLINOIS The FOHBC’s 2007 National Bottle Show (Fri. - Sun.) at The Gateway Center, Great Rivers Ballroom & Center Hall, One Gateway Drive,

71 Collinsville, Illinois. Host hotel: Holiday Inn, 1000 Eastport Plaza Drive, Collinsville, Illinois, PH: (800) 551-6133, Website: www.hicollinsville.com. INFO: R. WAYNE LOWRY, 401 Johnston Court, Raymore, MO 64083, PH: (816) 318-0161, E-mail: JarDoctor@aol.com. SEPTEMBER 8 - ARCADIA, CALIFORNIA The Los Angeles Historical Bottle Club’s Antique Bottle, Fruit Jar, Antiques & Collectibles Show & Sale (Sat. 9 AM - 4 PM, Adm. $2.50; Early Bird 8 AM, Adm. $5) at the Arcadia Masonic Temple, 50 West Duarte Rd., Arcadia, California. INFO: DON WIPPERT, PH: (818) 346-9833 or DICK HOMME, PH: (818) 8623368, Website: www.lahbc.org. SEPTEMBER 8-9 - MERRITT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA Welcome to the Insulator Ranch at 3045 Spanish Creek Place, Merritt, British Columbia, Canada. Take exit 286 [Merritt- Spences Bridge] from the Coquihalla Hwy # 5. Head to Merritt, and turn left on Coldwater Road. Proceed 4 blocks to 3045 Spanish Creek Place. Less than 5 minutes from the Coquihalla exit, just follow our “new” Insulator Show signs. Lots of parking space for RV’s, trailers, motorhomes, and a separate area for tenters. Early arrivals, late departures, no problem. As usual, Bev will provide a “Chili and Rolls” lunch on Saturday, and a “Coffee, Bacon and Eggs” breakfast on Sunday morning. There’s no charge, and nothing to bring. It’s our way of putting something back into a great hobby. More info, call BOB SCAFE, PH: (250) 378-2787 or E-mail bobscafe@telus.net. Always something new to see. SEPTEMBER 22 - JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA The Antique Bottle Collectors of North Florida’s 40th Annual Show & Sale (Sat. 8 AM - 3 PM; Early Buyers, Fri. 5 - 8 PM) at the Fraternal Order of Police Bldg., 5530 Beach Blvd., Jacksonville, Florida. INFO: MIKE SKIE, PH: (904) 710-0422 or JACKIE MCRAE, PH: (904) 3696. SEPTEMBER 22 - GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA The 3rd Annual Floridiana Show (Sat. 9 AM 3 PM) at the Matheson Museum, 513 East University Ave., Gainesville, Florida. INFO: MATHESON MUSEUM, E-mail: communityrelations@mathesonmuseum.org or PH: (352) 378-2280. SEPTEMBER 30 - CHELSEA, MICHIGAN The Huron Valley Bottle & Insulator Club’s 31st Annual Show & Sale (Sun. Adm. $2, Set-up 6 AM) at the Village Conference Center, Comfort Inn, I-94 & M-52, Exit 159, Chelsea, Michigan Food on site, well lit room, plenty of space, easy-to-find location, 8-foot tables $25, large parking area.. INFO: MICHELE, Box 210-145, Auburn Hills, MI 48321-0145; PH: (248) 6731650, E-mail: michelek@mac.com or PAT YOUNG, Club President, PH: (517) 223-3461;


72 Website: www.insulators.com/clubs/hvbic. SEPTEMBER 30 - DEPEW, NEW YORK The Greater Buffalo Bottle Collectors Association Annual Bottles, Antiques, Postcards Show (Sun. 10 AM - 3 PM, Adm. $2) at NEW LOCATION: Polish Falcons Hall, 445 Columbia Ave. (off Transit Rd.), Depew, New York. Sales Tables $20. INFO: ED POTTER, Dealer Chairman, PH: (716) 674-8890 or PETER JABLONSKI, PH: (716) 440-7985, E-mail: PeterJablonski@adelphia.net. SEPTEMBER 30 LOWELL, MASSACHUSETTS The Merrimack Valley Antique Bottle Club’s 33rd Annual Show & Sale (9 AM - 2 PM, Early Buyers 8 AM) at the Lowell Elks Club Hall, 40 Old Ferry Road, (take Exit 32 off US Rt. 3 and follow signs). INFO: CLIFF HOYT: (978) 4586575 or GARY KOLTOOKIAN, PH: (978) 2569561. Additional information, maps, dealer contracts, and discount coupons available at: choyt48.home.comcast.net/mvbc.htm. OCTOBER 5-6 - SALINA, KANSAS The Antique Telephone & Insulator Show (Sat. 9 AM - ?: Fri. Set-up: 5 - 10 PM & Sat. 7 - 9 AM) at the Holiday Inn Holidome & Convention Center, 1616 W. Crawford, Salina, Kansas. (Motel #785-823-1793, rooms will be $86 when the show is mentioned. Registration is $25 with the first table free & $20 each additional table.)

May-June 2007

Bottles and Extras

INFO: JERRY WILLIAMS, 104 N. Chicago, Salina, KS 67401-2534; PH: (785) 825-0578, Email: jrwllm@sbcglobal.net. OCTOBER 6 - POINT PLEASANT, WEST VIRGINIA The West Virginia State Farm Museum Bottle Show (9 AM - 3 PM) at the West Virginia State Farm Museum (Rt, 62, 4 mi. North of Point Pleasant, turn Right onto Fairgrounds Road, Museum is 1 mi. on the Right), Point Pleasant, West Virginia. Bottle show is held in conjunction with the Fall Festival, featuring live music, homecooked meals, apple butter & cider, quilt show, tractor pull, corn meal, sorghum, steam engine show, etc. INFO: CHARLIE PERRY, 39304 Bradbury Rd., Middleport, OH 45760, PH: (740) 992-5088, E-mail: perrycola@suddenlink.net. OCTOBER 12-13 - MONCKS CORNER, SOUTH CAROLINA The Berkeley Citizens, Inc.’s First Annual Berkeley Antique Bottle & Collectible Show & Sale (Fri. 2 - 6 PM; Sat. 9 AM - 3 PM, Adm. $3; Set-up, Fri. 11 AM - 1:45 PM) at Berkeley Industries, 132 Citizens Lane, Moncks Corner, South Carolina. 25,000 sq. ft. bldg. Live Auction at 2 PM on Saturday. Free parking. Holiday Inn Express in MC & Econo Lodge in Goose Creek - more hotel info in dealer packet. Mention show. Show endorsed by the Berkeley Chamber of Commerce. INFO: LIBBY KILGALLEN, Dev.

Cord., or KATE SINGLETARY, Adm. Asst., P.O. Drawer 429, Moncks Corner, SC 29461; PH: (843) 761-0316, E-mail: 2007BottleShow@BCIServices.org. Complete dealer packet available at the Website: www.berkeleycitizens.org. OCTOBER 20 - CANYONVILLE, OREGON Jefferson State Antique Bottle & Collectible Show & Sale (9 AM - 3 PM; Dealer Setup & Early Buyers Oct. 19th Noon – 7PM). We’re Back! Seven Feathers Hotel & Casino Resort, 146 Chief Miwaleta Ln. (I 5 - Exit 99), Canyonville, Oregon 97417. INFO: BRUCE SILVA, PO Box 1565, Jacksonville, OR 97530, PH: 541-899-8411, E-mail: jsglass@intergate.com, Show website: http:// www.ecandm.com/canyonville/.

Send your show information to: Show Biz, 341 Yellowstone Dr. Fletcher, NC 28732 kathy@thesodafizz.com or use the online form at: www.fohbc.com

~ RENO ~ Antique Bottle & Collectibles Club 44th Annual Show & Sale

Saturday July 21, 2007 Reno/Sparks Convention Center 4590 South Virginia Street Saturday Show: 9:00 A.M - 3:00 P.M. Admission $3.00 Friday Dealer Setup; 10:00 A.M. to 4:00 P.M. Friday Early Bird: 12:00 P.M. - $10 Show Info: Willy Young (775) 746-0922 Show Reservations: Helen Walker (775) 345-0171

Over 100 Tables ! BOTTLES - COINS - TOKENS ADVERTISING - INSULATORS ANTIQUES - AND MORE!


Wanted: Colored Hutchinsons Have Penn. Colored Hutches in trade for ones I need

Buy or Trade Highest Prices Paid California • Eastern Cider Co. (Amber) • Paul Jeenicke, San Jose (Emerald Green) Colorado • C.A. Montag, Buena Vista (Amber & Green) Connecticut • Perkins Root Beer, Bristol (Amber) • W.H. McEnroe, New Britain (Amber) • Moriarity & Carbross, Waterbury (Amber) Georgia • Augusta Brewing Co., Augusta (Amber) Illinois • Independent Bottling Works, Chicago (Green) • Miller & Kluetsch, Chicago (Amber) • Chicago Consolidation Bottling Co., Chicago (Amber) • Peoria Seltzer Water (Cobalt) • Chas. Singer, Peoria (Amber) • Lohrberg Bros, Red Bud (Green) Indiana • K&C (Cobalt) • Wyeth & Wyeth, Terre Haute (Amber) Kansas • H.E. Dean, Great Bend (Amber) Kentucky • The City Bottling Works, Louisville (Cobalt) • Geo. Stang, Louisville (Cobalt) Michigan • M Jos De Guise, Detroit (Amber) • Michigan Bottling Works J.W. Koch, Detroit (Amber) • Quackenbush Bros., Grand Rapids (Green) • C.O.D. Bottling Works, Jackson (Cobalt) • Property of Sprudel Water Co., Mt. Clements (Amber) • The Twin City Bottling Works, Chas. Klein, Prop. (Cobalt) Nebraska • Pomy & Segelke, Omaha (Amber) New Jersey • N. Masington, Camden (Amber) New York • F.H. Berghoefer, Binghamton (Amber)

• F.A. Jennings, Hudson (Cobalt) • Manor Bottling Works, New York (Lime Yellow) • Sand Altamont, N.Y. (Cobalt) • Thompson & Stebbins, Rochester (Amber) • D.J. Whelan, Troy (Cobalt) • Lavender & Co., Pennyan, N.Y. (Green) Ohio • A. Dalin Ashtabula, Harbor (Amber & Cobalt) • J.I. Marsh, Portsmouth (Amber) • Jos X Laube, Akron (Amber & Cobalt) • M.J. Tyrer, Newark (Apple Green) • The Consolidated Bottling Co., Lima (Cobalt) • Lake Erie Bottling Works, Toledo (Amber & Cobalt) • Miller Becker & Co., Cleveland (Olive Green) • Voelker Bros., Cleveland (Cornflower & Cobalt) Oklahoma • O.K. City Bottling Works, C.G. Frost (Amber) Pennsylvania • Jno. J. Bahl., Allentown (Green) • Goudie Mol & Co., Allentown (Green) • P.H. Reasbeck, Braddock (E. Green) • Johnson & Bros., Delta (Green) • J.C. Buffum & Co. City Bottling House, Pittsburgh (Cobalt) • Royal Bottling House, J Ungler, Pittsburgh (Amber) • J.W. Reis Ginger Ale, Laurel Street, Pottsville (Cobalt) • Ridgeway Bottling Works, R. Power (Cobalt) • F.J. Brennan, Shenandoah (Yellow) • Ashland Bottling Works, Ashland (Amber) • Johnson & Bros., Delta (Amber) • Phil Fisher, Pittsburgh (Citron) • Eagle Bottling Works, York (Amber) • Seeters Vighy & Carbonated Beverages, L. Cohen & Sons Pittsburgh (Amber & Citron) • Laffey & Harrigan, Johnstown (Cobalt) • Turchi Bros., Philadelphia (Citron) • J.F. Deegan, Pottsville (Various colors) • Union Bottling Works, Pittsburgh (Citron) South Carolina • Claussen Bottling Works, Charleston (Amber) • P.J. Serwazi, Manayunk (Olive Green) Texas • Kennedy Bottling Works, Kennedy (Amber) Wisconsin • Jos. Wolf, Milwaukee (Amber & Cobalt) • M. Gondrezick, Tomah (Green)

R.J. BROWN 4119 CROSSWATER DRIVE TAMPA, FL 33615 (813) 888-7007 RBROWN4134@AOL.COM


David Nicholson’s Liquid Bread Page 60

Strumming That Old Catarrh

FOHBC c/o June Lowry 401 Johnston Court Raymore, MO 64083

Bottles andExtras

Page 28

Periodicals

US POSTAGE PAID Kansas City, MO

Profile for Ferdinand  Meyer

03 may june 2007  

Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors (FOHBC) May June 2007 Issue of Bottles and Extras

03 may june 2007  

Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors (FOHBC) May June 2007 Issue of Bottles and Extras

Profile for fohbc