Aquarium World vol 66 issue 1 2021

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Volume 66 Issue 1 2021



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Volume 66 Issue 1 2021

EDITOR Darren Stevens ASSISTANT EDITOR Mark Paterson COPY EDITOR Caryl Simpson ARTISTIC DIRECTOR Diane Wilkie Aquarium World Magazine is published biannually by the Federation of New Zealand Aquatic Societies Incorporated (FNZAS) ISSN 1173-8375 Copyright © FNZAS, no part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted in any form, or by means electronic, mechanical or otherwise without written permission FRONT COVER

leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius Photo: Matt Reinbold


by Michelle Galbraith

18 REPTILES and AMPHIBIANS - Amphibian enclosure for Frogs or Newts

by Mark Paterson

27 FISH MINI PROFILE - Emperor tetras Nematobrycon palmeri 28 A shy spotted Amazonian - Chilodus punctatus 30 MARINE FISH PROFILE - Cleaner Shrimp

by Darren Stevens

40 HABITAT - Volta River Biotope

by Melanie Newfield

44 HOW TO - Cultivate Whiteworms

by Mark Paterson

46 PLANT PROFILE - Umbrella palm Cyperus alternifolius

by Caryl Simpson


by the Editorial Team

52 SHOP TOUR - Lyall Bay Pet Centre

by Darren Stevens



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Welcome to another issue of Aquarium World. In this issue we feature Leopard geckos, one of the few exotic reptiles that can be kept as pets in New Zealand. They are small, attractive, relatively easy to care for, and a great option for a small vivarium. Michelle Galbraith provides an in depth look at these very cool little lizards. We also take a look at the often brightly coloured and strikingly patterned cleaner shrimps. Some species meticulously clean their tankmates while others such as the peppermint shrimps can be good at controlling unwanted Aiptasia. A few species are imported into New Zealand but we also have three local peppermint shrimps that would be a great in a temperate marine aquarium. If frogs or newts are more to your liking, Mark Paterson shows us how to set up a natural looking vivarium complete with a custom-made sculptured back drop. And finally, Melanie Newfield shares her journey in creating a Volta River biotope.


Darren Stevens FNZAS Editor

Skunk cleaner shrimp Lysmata amboinensis Photo: Robert Beke Aquarium World


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Melanie Newfield Melanie returned to fish keeping last year after a 25 year break. She originally studied botany and is as keen on plants as well as fish. Her tanks are mainly planted, aquascaped community tanks. She also has a lifelong interest in invasive species, especially invasive plants.

Darren Stevens

Michelle Galbraith

Darren is a marine biologist who has worked for NIWA for about 20 years. He regularly participates in research surveys and has been around much of New Zealand as well as Oman, UAE, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. In his spare time he enjoys fishing, and is a particularly passionate pleco keeper. Darren is an active participant in his local clubs and FNZAS Editor.

Michelle was born in South Africa and moved to New Zealand 12 years ago, she has always been passionate about animals of all kinds but particularly reptiles. In South Africa she had an extensive range of leopard geckos of different morphs (approximately 50). In NZ she continued working with leopard geckos for a few years. She has been out of the reptile world for some time now but plans to return to it in the future!

Mark Paterson

Caryl Simpson

Mark began fish keeping when he was a child, keeping live bearers and Siamese fighters. He has worked for circus and zoo parks in NZ and overseas. For the last 28 years he has kept many species of aquatic life but NZ local marine is his keenest interest. Mark loves to share this passion & knowledge with fellow hobbyists and is currently running the marine systems at a local university.

Caryl has held various offices in the Marlborough Aquarium Club over 24 years. She was involved with the FNZAS as editor for 16 years, and archivist for 8, and is a founding member and global moderator in the FNZAS Fishroom forum. She currently has one tropical community 4ft tank and a pond.

ADVERTISING Advertising for the Aquarium World magazine and the Aquarium World website is managed by the FNZAS and can be arranged by emailing: Sales: Mark Paterson Accounts: Michael Jones BACK ISSUES Caryl Simpson Aquarium World


the Leopard Gecko Eublepharis macularius by Michelle Galbraith

Leopard geckos are, without question, one of the easiest lizards to keep as a pet 8 ∙ Aquarium World

The reason being that they are very hardy and require little specialized care and equipment. They are relatively small and adapt well in little spaces (although the bigger the better). They are crespuscular twilight and dawn active as well which means that they are active in the evening (when you are most likely to be at home). Aquarium World


The leopard gecko is native to dry, rocky habitats in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. Leopard geckos can live for up to 20 years, some sources have reported up to 25 years! Adults can weigh anything from 50–100g. Generally, females are smaller, averaging 55g, 18–24 cm (but they can get bigger), while the males average 70–90g, 23–28 cm. Adult size (lengthwise) should be reached at around 1 year, by which time the leopard gecko should also be sexually mature. Once the adult size has been reached the leopard gecko may fill-out, continuing to gain weight for another year or so. Leopard geckos can be quite feisty when they are young. They have to get used to being handled! They often scream at you as hatchlings! This can be quite a shock but not to worry as they do settle and learn to trust you. Leopard geckos do not mind living together. You can have four or five 10 ∙ Aquarium World

Eublepharis macularius Photo: Mark Paterson

females together with one male. never have more than 1 male in a group as males will fight and can cause serious injuries. Also bear in mind the size of the geckos. They should be more or less the same size or bullying can occur. CAGING Since leopard geckos are small (compared to other lizards kept as pets) and not too active, their habitat/vivarium can be relatively small. They are nocturnal animals so you will not need to worry about adding any lighting. Just make sure that the temperatures are warm enough. THE VIVARIUM Leopard geckos can live in glass tanks or wooden vivariums, provided there is enough ventilation. The best size for one leopard gecko is a 2 ft vivarium and

a 3 ft vivarium would be ideal for 2 or 3 leopard geckos. Glass tanks are thought to be better as you can easily clean them with hot water. You will also need a vivarium style lid with glass tanks. HEATING You will need a source of heat but be careful what you use as you could end up burning your little friend! The best source of heat is a heating pad. Put a heating pad at one end under the vivarium and not on both ends. This way your gecko can choose if it would like to be in the warm end or the cooler end. This is very important as leopard geckos cannot regulate their own body temperatures. Geckos soak warmth up through their bellies which aids digestion and will often lie directly on top of the warm patch.

Leopard geckos need a daytime temperature of between 26 to 30 degrees and a night-time temperature of between 21 to 23 degrees. If you really want lighting in the vivarium so that you can see them better at night, a red bulb is the best. PLEASE DO NOT FORGET TO TURN THE LIGHT OFF AFTER WATCHING THEM! The vivarium could get too hot. Likewise, never place the vivarium where direct sunlight can shine on it. This too can push the temperatures up too high. UVB LiIGHTING A contentious subject as they are condsidered crepuscular animals but recent scientific studies have shown that Leopard gecko Photo: Alison Wilford

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short duration exposure to UVB light can lead to increased D3 concentrations in leopard geckos which helps with calcium absorption in their bodies, a natural level of UV exposure be provided by an Arcadia T5 7% UVB or 6% t8 fluorescent tube with no reflector placed 20 to 30cm above them. SUBSTRATE You have to be careful of the substrate you use as many of them can cause impaction (blockages!). Babies and juveniles are at most risk of impaction as their digestive tracts are much smaller. Kitchen paper towels – This is the best substrate to use for babies and juveniles. It’s great for adults too but you might prefer a more natural look. I find this to be the best as it is easy to clean up the “messes”. As soon as you notice a “mess” simply remove that piece of paper towel and replace it! Another pro is that it is relatively cheap. Sand – This must not be used for hatchlings as there is a risk of impaction. It looks natural. It cannot be washed and used again so can become expensive. Slate tiles – These are also a good option. These can be lifted and cleaned. Make sure they are secure so as not to cause any injuries. Astro-turf – This is safe to use and can be washed and re-used. Be sure to leave it in the sun to dry completely before returning to the vivarium, as it will rot if left moist. With all substrates you should consider the ease of removing waste and whether or not the feeder insects can hide away in 12 ∙ Aquarium World

it making it difficult to remove uneaten insects. WATER A shallow water bowl should be provided. Tap water is fine but if you can filter the water, even better. The water bowl should be cleaned and the water replaced every second day to avoid bacterial growth. HIDES Hide boxes are very important as geckos like to feel sheltered. They will spend most of their time in them. For a simple setup you can use a 2-litre ice cream container with a doorway cut out of it. Sphagnum moss or organic peat is great for bedding. There should be one at the warm end and the cool end of the vivarium. This way the gecko can choose to be warm or cool. The hide over the heating pad should be the moist hide. This aids the gecko with the shedding of skin. With a moist hide, simply ensure that you add a little water to dampen (not soak) the moss. Check it every second day. DÉCOR Many people like to add branches etc to make the vivarium look more realistic. This is fine. Just make sure that everything is secure so that nothing can fall on your gecko and cause injuries. FEEDING You can feed leopard geckos mealworms, superworms, silkworms, crickets, locusts and waxworms. They will only eat live (wiggly) food.

Mealworms and Superworms Mealworms and superworms are an excellent source of fat and energy so can often be used to get your reptiles weight up. It has been said that mealworms and superworms can eat their way through the belly of a leopard gecko. This is not true. Some would say that mealworms are not a good food source. I disagree. If your mealworms are well fed they are an excellent food source. I have raised many leopard geckos on mealworms and superworms without any health issues. Silkworms Silkworms are thought to be the best meal for leopard geckos. Their nutritional value is excellent. The problem is getting the leopard gecko to eat them as they are not very wiggly. Once they do try them they will happily continue to eat them. Crickets Crickets would often be described as the ideal food for leopard geckos. They are the closest things to the gecko’s natural food and the gecko tends to enjoy chasing down the crickets. You will need to remove any uneaten crickets as they are known to nibble on the geckos! Some breeders leave food in the vivarium for the crickets to eat so that they do not bite the geckos. Personally, I prefer to remove uneaten crickets. Better safe than sorry. Calcium and Multi Vitamins In addition to feeding, you will need to supplement your gecko with calcium and multi vitamins. This is very important as they need supplementation to maintain

healthy bones and for the formation of eggs. Geckos can develop a disease known as Metabolic Bone Disease if they do not get enough calcium. The first sign is bendy and flexible limbs. The jaw also becomes slack. Leave an upturned plastic lid in the vivarium with some calcium powder in. Leopard geckos will normally eat it straight out of the lid. If so, you won’t have to worry about dusting their food. If yours will not eat the calcium out of the lid, it is important to “dust” their food. The best way is to put the crickets or whatever you will be feeding them into a small packet bag or plastic Tupperware container. Pour a little calcium powder in and gently shake until the food is covered and then feed it to your gecko. Dust the feeder insects once a week with multi vitamins. Size of food The rule is that whatever you are feeding your gecko should not be bigger than the width of the gecko’s head. This prevents choking and impaction, which can happen when they have eaten food that is too big. Frequency of feeding Offer your gecko food every day when it’s still a juvenile and every other day when it is an adult. Bear in mind that every gecko is different. Some like to eat daily and others will eat every three days. You will soon learn what works for your gecko. As long as the tail is nice and plump, there is nothing to worry about. SHEDDING Every couple of weeks your leopard gecko will shed its skin. It is very important Aquarium World

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that all of the skin comes off. Most of the time the gecko will remove all the skin on its own. They eat the skin. They will need moisture to shed properly which is why the moist hide is so important. It is especially important that the skin comes off all the toes properly. If shed skin is left on the toes it can dry up and constrict the toes and they might fall off! If, for some reason, the gecko does not remove all the skin properly you will have to help it. Just place your gecko in a shallow bowl with warm water in it. Let it stand in there for a while. You can also spray some warm water on it with a spray bottle. Be careful not to let the gecko get too cold. Gently begin removing the skin that the 14 ∙ Aquarium World

Leopard gecko Photo: Michelle Galbraith

gecko could not get off. The gecko might not enjoy this but it is necessary. THE TAIL The leopard geckos tail can be “let go” just like any other gecko. It is important never to pick up your gecko by its tail. If your gecko does drop its tail, separate it from the others and keep the wound clean until it has recuperated. The tail will regenerate but will not look like it originally did. It normally grows back a slightly different colour and shape and will be shorter than before.

BREEDING Leopard geckos can be sexually mature as young as 7 to 8 months but it is not recommended to breed them before the age of 1 year. If the female is too small you run the risk of egg binding and can lose your leopard gecko. Leopard geckos will breed in the warm summer months. A healthy female will lay 2 eggs every 2 to 3 weeks. Incubation varies between 30 and 60 days depending on the temperature at which they are incubated. HATCHLINGS The hatchlings must be removed from the incubator and placed in a tub with

Leopard gecko hatchling Photo: Hirvenkürpa

a lid on. The tub must have moist paper towel in it and ventilation holes and placed in a warm vivarium. The hatchling must be kept moist until the first shed which usually happens around day 3. After the first shed you may begin feeding the hatchling on baby mealworms or pinhead to small crickets (remember a good guide to food size is that the length of the insect must not be longer than the width of the baby leopard gecko’s neck). The hatchling can then be moved into a tank that is identical to the adults’ setup. Do not keep adults and hatchlings in the same Aquarium World

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setup as the adults may try to eat them or bite their tails! Hatchlings must be fed every day. TREATING MBD Metabolic Bone Disease In a blender combine the following: 1 small can of Hill's Prescription Diet a/d (available at most vets) 1 teaspoon calcium powder with vitamin D3 ½ teaspoon herp vitamin powder 3 handfuls of mealworms Blend until completely smooth, pour into ice cube trays and freeze. Store in zip lock 16 ∙ Aquarium World

Eublepharis macularius Photo: Eduardo_Santos

bags until ready to use. Thaw one cube at a time for use. Using a medicine dropper, place a drop on the gecko’s nose (careful not to get any in the nostrils!). The gecko will lick it off of its nose. Do this twice a day. Only in extreme situations should you force feed a gecko. I have personally used this slurry recipe with great success to rehabilitate sick geckos which people have given up on and I have taken in. Michelle Galbraith

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How to create an

Amphibian enclosure for frogs or newts

article and photos by Mark Paterson

It is easiest to start with an all glass tank or prebuilt enclosure as it makes humidity and temperature control easier while creating a perfect viewing area. For this build I will start with a purposebuilt 60cmx 45cmx 45cm enclosure that can be found in your local pet supplier or second hand on market pages. This enclosure is the smallest I would recommend starting with. The 18 ∙ Aquarium World

larger the enclosure the more room for construction while at the same time allowing for a more natural environment to be replicated. Before starting you will need to decide what animal will live in there and design the setup accordingly as to amounts of land area or water and take into account lighting or heating requirements. It also helps to get everything together and ready to use in the construction.

Materials List: - Exo Terra Medium/Wide, 600 x 450 x 450mm (WxDxH) - Ceramic E27 Screw Fitting Holder for heating with Heat Mesh Guard - UVB Tube or bulb Fixture - Timer for lighting - Gravel or ceramic, plastic ball filter media - Egg crate, weed matting or coir fibre - Sponge Foam Sheets for drainage - Expanding Foam or polystyrene sheet -Grout or water based paints - Some tree roots or Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) branches

Ensure the enclosure is clean by washing with a 1-part white vinegar to 4 parts water solution to remove any factory assembly contaminants or residue from previous inhabitants if second hand. You may want to create a background for aesthetic purposes or for hiding mechanical equipment. This is best done prior to the substrate going into the enclosure. Commercially made 3D backgrounds are available or it is fairly simple to create your own natural looking one. This can be achieved by sticking either expanding or rigid foam to the back of the enclosure then carving it to look like a rock or wood formation.

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Holes can be made in the mesh top for lighting and heating if required

A small pump with a riser pipe is installed in the corner to form a waterfall

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Sponge is placed around the waterfall riser pipe and coarse sponge (200ppi) is placed at the bottom to form a drainage layer

Once the foam is applied it can be shaped to look more like rock or a dirt bank, I usually let the expanding foam harden for 24 hours before shaping the foam using a serrated edged knife or a rasp. You can be as creative as you like as the foam holds its structure relatively well. You can even create deep crevices and holes for plants. After you have the look you desire you can cover the cured/dry foam with wet silicone and press sand, peat and sphagnum moss onto the surface for a natural look or use water based house paints covered with a sealant from the hardware store. If you use natural materials and silicone, brush or shake the excess off before it becomes set in place. This will allow you to clean it later with a spray bottle or soft

brush. Use an aquarium grade silicon as other types have antifungal additives which can kill amphibians, like frogs and newts, as they can absorb chemicals through their skin. It can be bought from your local hardware store. Adding layers to the vivarium floor allows for a more natural bioactive setup so I start with a 2 - 3 cm drainage layer of 10 mm gravel or small lightweight plastic pellets or balls sold commercially as filter media. Alternatively, you can use a layer of the open pore sponge material that is usually available in small sheets from your local pet store. Cut the sponge with an angled edge so young newly morphed animals can easily climb out of the water. This base layer allows any excess water in the enclosure to drain Aquarium World

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With the back of the terrarium laid down on the work surface a sheet of plastic is placed so that the background can be removed. Expanding foam is applied and the wood furnishing positioned on what will be the back wall

Once the foam has lost its tackiness you can use a wet finger to compress and shape the background

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The background removed from the terrarium witht he plastic removed

down into it, preventing oversaturation of the substrate layers above. I then place a single layer of egg-crate, weed matting or coconut fibre (coir) on top of the base layer to prevent any soil dropping through and clogging the base layer and to allow any microfauna (the clean-up crew) to pass through. Your ‘dirt’ layer can be gathered from your garden or use a compost or potting mix style substrate. If you are using a commercially prepared product ensure there are no added fertilizers or minerals. You can also create your own mix using 2 parts soil, 1 part sand, 1 part peat or coconut fibre (coir), 1 part charcoal, 1 part sphagnum moss, and 2 parts orchid bark. The dirt layer will create the nutrient

diversity and varying textures that create a healthy and welcoming substrate for plant and animal life. The top or capping layer should be about 2 - 5 cm of Sphagnum moss or leaf litter scraped from under established plants. This helps keep your amphibians’ skin away from the dirt layer. You can use a mix of moss and leaf litter if desired. Having a clean-up crew of bioactive invertebrates established also helps as they can clean up debris and frogs’ excreta! You might want to add a humidity control system for your chosen species and enclosure setup as most amphibians require levels of at least 60%, and often over 75%. A lid on the enclosure that is Aquarium World

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The bottom of the back wall is carved out to create a depression and a piece of driftwood is added to the bottom section. Large stones are set into the expanding foam to create an edge to the pool

Acrylic paint and Aquamix sealer are applied

Left: waterfall pump

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75% glass and 25% screening will also help maintain the humidity inside. There are many commercially available units or you can mist the enclosure each day with a spray bottle of water. You can use heating lamps to maintain the proper air temperature or an undertank heating mat to create a higher surface temperature creating a basking area in one section of the tank. To ensure a stable temperature a thermostat should be installed as too high a temperature may cook the inhabitants. Use lighting to simulate day and night to create a natural photoperiod thus 26 ∙ Aquarium World

helping recreate the life they may have had before we put them in a box. Ambient light within a house is not suitable for frogs, and neither is sunlight through a window or glass tank as glass filters out UVB rays. UVB is vital as it enables frogs to produce vitamin D allowing them to properly absorb calcium from their food which they use for bone growth, reproduction, and healing. Tadpoles also need calcium to avoid spinal deformities which become really evident once they morph. Good lighting will also help with plant growth within your system so at least

5000–6500 Kelvin is needed. The bulb can be as inexpensive as the coiled florescent bulbs at 5% UVB up to specialist lighting units like the Arcadia forest dwellers units. The correct lighting, coupled with calcium D3 supplementation, will ensure the long-term health of your charges. Remember that you need areas of shade in the enclosure so the inhabitants can get away from the lighting if desired. A clean-up crew of microfauna can help to keep the vivarium naturally clean and a self-sustaining habitat. Springtails and slaters (woodlouse) love to eat things like droppings, decaying leaves, and moulds lessening the maintenance

you may have to do to the enclosure. These can be gathered from under vegetation in your garden or bought online through hobby groups or retailers and so long as the proper environmental conditions are maintained they will take care of themselves. Adding live plants will enhance the environment in your system and there is plenty of information available from specialist groups online. Some easy care plants are pothos, spider plants, bromeliads, sansevieria, ficus, ferns and mosses. Care needs to be taken that your plants do not have waterlogged roots and any dieback should be removed as soon as it is noticed. Mark Paterson

Emperor tetras (Nematobrycon palmeri) are attractive, peaceful, and a great addition to a larger community tank. In the wild they are found in slow moving waterways in the San Juan and Atrato river basins in Colombia, although most aquarium fish are commercially produced. Males are larger and more colourful than females, they have a blue iris (females have a green iris) and the top, middle, and bottom rays of the tail fin are much longer. Emperor tetras grow to about 5 cm, can live for 6 years, and are suited to temperatures of 23–27 °C and pH values of 5–7.5. They should be kept in groups of at least 6 fish and will do well on a varied diet of small dried and live foods. Photo Robert Beke


Emperor tetra

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a shy spotted amazonian The spotted headstander (Chilodus punctatus) is a shy and sensitive species that is found in slow flowing waterways and floodplain lakes throughout most of the Amazon drainage. Like other headstanders, the mouth is slightly upturned, and it swims in a head-down position. Spotted headstanders are best kept in a mature aquarium (they are sensitive to dissolved organic wastes) with a sandy substrate and plenty of cover (branches, roots, and floating plants). Along with good quality sinking food, they should be fed fresh vegetables, algal wafers, fruit, and small live or frozen invertebrates (e.g. brine shrimp, daphnia, bloodworms). Spotted headstanders grow to about 8 cm and are suited to temperatures of 24 to 28 °C and pH’s of 6.0 to 7.5. Photo Jörn 28 ∙ Aquarium World


Cleaner Shrimps Cleaner shrimps are attractive marine shrimps from the Families Hippolytidae, Palaemonidae, and the shrimp-like Stenopodidae. They are found in tropical and warm temperate waters worldwide and get their common name because they clean fish (and sometimes other animals such as lobsters) by removing parasites, debris, fungi, injured or dead tissue - which promotes healing, and food scraps from the mouth (Wicksten 2009). The relationship is thought to be mutually beneficial as the shrimps receive food and sometimes protection (for those species that share a crevice with a moray), and cleaning improves the fish’s health and reduces its stress levels (Vaughan et al. 2018). However not all cleaning shrimps are created equal. The strikingly patterned and boldly 30 ∙ Aquarium World

Above: Skunk cleaner shrimp - L. amboinensis Photo: Lonnie Huffman Top right: Banded coral shrimp - Stenopus hispidus Photo: Alexander Vasenin Bottom right: Fire shrimp - L. debelius Photo: Haplochromis

coloured cleaner shrimps that are popular in tropical marine aquaria (e.g., skunk cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, fire shrimp, L. debelius, redbacked cleaner shrimp, L. grabhami, banded coral ‘shrimp’, Stenopus hispidus) are specialised cleaners. They are territorial, found in pairs or solitary, display to attract clients, often have a cleaning station, are most active during the day, and cleaning makes up a large part of their diet (Rhyne and Lin 2006, Wicksten 2009).

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Peppermint shrimps have a semi-translucent body with red bands and comprise a number of very similar Lysmata species (e.g., L. wurdemanni species complex, L. californica). Peppermint shrimps often live in groups, are most active at night where they may move to more open areas to feed, and don’t display to fish. Some peppermint shrimp species do clean fish such as moray eels, e.g. L. californica, but they do it passively (Rhyne and Lin 2006, Wicksten 2009). Most ornamental cleaner shrimps are wild caught and there is concern as to the effect of their removal on tropical reef ecosystems. This has prompted numerous studies aimed at developing aquaculture protocols for the 32 ∙ Aquarium World

Redbacked cleaner shrimp - L. grabhami Photo: Fernando Herranz Martin

popular ornamental species (Wabnitz et al. 2003). However, most species have a relatively long larval period and poor larval survival. All Lysmata shrimps that have been studied, first mature as males (they also have undeveloped ovaries) and then become hermaphrodites and can reproduce as both males and females (Baeza et al. 2009). The global trade in ornamental cleaner shrimps is mainly comprised of twelve species (8 Lysmata and 4 Stenopus) which, excluding corals, make up about 23% of imported invertebrate specimens worldwide (Wabnitz et al. (2003). Six of these species

(the skunk cleaner shrimp, L. amboinensis; fire shrimp, L. debelius; redbacked cleaner shrimp, L. grabhami; peppermint shrimp, L. wurdemanni (now split into several closely related species, of which the most common ornamental species is L. boggessi, Baeza and Behringer 2017); and the banded coral shrimps, Stenopus hispidus and S. cyanoscelis) are approved for importation into New Zealand (MAF Biosecurity New Zealand 2011). A further temperate cleaner shrimp, the red rock shrimp, Lysmata californica is invasive. Three other tropical marine shrimps are also allowed to be imported (the anemone shrimp Periclimenes brevicarpalis, marbled shrimp, Saron marmoratus, and camel shrimp, Rhynchocinetes uritai). In New Zealand, cleaner

Anemone shrimp - Periclimenes brevicarpalis Photo: Robert Beke

shrimps are a popular addition to established marine tanks, but imports are intermittent. Cleaner shrimps are fairly hardy and relatively easy to keep provided aquarium conditions are stable (Wabnitz et al. 2003). Tank mates should be chosen with care as some species, such as wrasses, triggerfish, and hawkfish, may see them as a tasty snack. More than one species of Lysmata can be kept together in an aquarium but they are best not kept with banded coral ‘shrimps’ (Stenopus spp.) which may attack them. Banded coral shrimps can also be aggressive towards each other and are best kept singly or as mated pairs. Aquarium World

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Some peppermint shrimps can be effective at controlling pest anemones, in particular Aiptasia spp. However, some aquarists find they also like feeding on other anemones, brain corals, LPS corals, and coco worms. Cleaner shrimps often produce fertile eggs in captivity. However, raising the young is challenging as they have several delicate larval stages, a long larval period, and losses are often high. If you want to give it a go there is a great book (Kirkendoll, 2008) and several great online resources (e.g. Betts, 2004, Sällström, 2019). New Zealand has two tropical and three temperate cleaner shrimps. The tropical IndoPacific species, Lysmata trisetacea, is known from the Kermadec Islands and the banded coral shrimp, Stenopus hispidus, is sometimes found in northern New Zealand (Yaldwyn and Webber 2011). The three temperate

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‘peppermint’ shrimps (Lysmata californica, L. morelandi, L. vittata) are more widespread, and would be great subjects for a dedicated temperate marine aquarium. They all look similar with a semi-translucent body and red stripes. The red-striped shrimp, Lysmata vittata is a small species (to about 4 cm TL) found in northern New Zealand waters from the intertidal zone to about 50 metres. It is widespread in the Indo-West Pacific and was first identified in New Zealand waters (Auckland, Manukau, and Kaipara Harbours) in 2010. It has likely been previously overlooked or mistaken for L. morelandi (Ahyong, 2010). It has thinner and more uniform red lines than the other two species. Red striped shrimp - L. vittata Photo: Matthew Connors

Lysmata morelandi grows to about 5 cm and is known from northern New Zealand waters to the lower east coast North Island (Castlepoint). It is also found in southeast Australian waters. It can be found from the intertidal zone to 142 metres depths (Hanamura 2008). L. morelandi has broader and less uniform stripes than L. vittata.

L. morelandi Photo: Ian Skipworth

Lysmata californica and L. morelandi are very similar. They both have broad bands and accurate identification requires a microscope L. californica Photo: Peter Marriot, NIWA

The red rock shrimp, Lysmata californica is an eastern Pacific species that was first identified in New Zealand waters in 2009 and is likely to have arrived as larvae in ballast water. It is currently known from Whangarei, Gisborne, and Castlepoint but it is likely to be more widespread. L. californica grows to about 8 cm and is found from the intertidal zone to about 60 metres depth. Aquarium World

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(there are differences in small spines, hairs, and the number of segments on the second modified leg). Large L. morelandi are a brighter red than large L. californica which are much darker. L. californica also grows larger. In aquaria, L. morelandi are reclusive, rarely leaving their shelter in daylight while L. californica will leave their shelter for food and, with patience, can be hand fed. (Jeff Forman, NIWA, pers comm.). In California, red rock shrimp are often found in aggregations of several hundred individuals and there is a small but high value commercial trap fishery, mainly for fishing bait but also for the aquarium trade (Herbinson and Larson 2001). They often share crevices with, and clean California morays (Gymnothorax mordax), but most of their diet is thought to be from scavenging decaying tissue, including dead fish and invertebrates (Herbinson and Larson 2001). 36 ∙ Aquarium World

L. californica Photo: Robin Gwen Agarwal

In the USA, red rock shrimp are sometimes sold to aquarists as ‘peppermint’ shrimps, and they are mistakenly kept in tropical marine tanks (generally 25–26°C). Being a temperate species they seldom last long. They can be kept at water temperatures of 10 - 20°C (www. And finally, if you want to set up a native marine shrimp tank and are having trouble obtaining one of the local Lysmata shrimps, then painted shrimps, Alope spinifrons are well worth trying. They are covered in a network of red and blue lines, grow to about 6 cm, and are common in the intertidal zone throughout New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. As with the temperate Lysmata shrimps they are mainly nocturnal and hide in crevices, or under rocks, during the day.

The temperate Lysmata shrimps and the painted shrimp are peaceful and best kept in tanks of at least 100 litres. They are mainly nocturnal and are therefore best fed at night. They will accept a wide range of food including mussel flesh, mysids, prawns, fish and squid. As with the tropical cleaner shrimps, tank mates need to be chosen with care as some fish, such as wrasses, may eat them. Darren Stevens References. Ahyong, S.T. (2010). New species and new records of Caridea (Hippolytidae: Pasiphaeidae) from New Zealand. Zootaxa 2372: 341–357. Baeza, J.A., Behringer, D.C. (2017). Integrative taxonomy of the ornamental `peppermint' shrimp public market and population genetics of Lysmata boggessi, the most heavily traded species worldwide. PeerJ DOI 10.7717/peerj.3786. Baeza, J.A., Schubart, C.D., Zilner, P., Fuentes, S., Bauer, R.T. (2009). Molecular phylogeny of shrimps from the genus Lysmata (Caridea: Hippolytidae): the evolutionary origins of protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism and social monogamy. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 96: 415–424.

Painted shrimp - Alope spinifrons Photo: David Riddell Betts, P. (2004). Feature Article: Behavior and Breeding of Peppermint Shrimp. aafeature. Hanamura, Y. (2008). A new species of Eualus Thallwitz, 1891 and a new record of Lysmata morelandi (Yaldwyn, 1971) (Decapoda, Caridea, Hippolytidae) from south-eastern Australia. Crustaceana 81 (1): 87–97. Herbinson, K.; Mary Larson, M. (2001). Red Rock Shrimp. pp. 127-128 In: California’s Living Marine Resources: A Status Report. California Department of Fish and Game. FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=34329&inline. Kirkendoll, A. (2008). How to Raise & Train Your Peppermint Shrimp, 2nd Edition. Lysmata Publishing. 136 p. MAF Biosecurity NZ (2011). Import Health Standard for Ornamental Fish and Marine Invertebrates from All Countries. 20 April 2011. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Wellington. 72 pp. Rhyne A.L., Lin, J. (2006). A western Atlantic peppermint shrimp complex: redescription of Lysmata wurdemanni, description of four new species, and remarks on Lysmata rathbunae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Hippolytidae). Bulletin of Marine Science 79(1): 165– 204. Sällström, D. (2019). Breeding Peppermint Shrimp. https://www.

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Vaughan, D.B., Grutter, A.S., Ferguson, H.W., Jones, R., Hutson, K.S. (2018). Cleaner shrimp are true cleaners of injured fish. Marine Biology 165 (7): 118. Wabnitz, C., M. Taylor, E. Green, and T. Razak. (2003). From Ocean to Aquarium: the global trade in marine ornamental species. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre 2003, Cambridge, UK. Wicksten, M. K. (2009). Interactions with Fishes of Five Species of Lysmata (Decapoda, Caridea, Lysmatidae). Crustaceana 82 (9): 1213–1223. Yaldwyn, J. C.; Webber, W.R. (2011). Annotated checklist of New Zealand Decapoda (Arthropoda: Crustacea). Tuhinga 22: 171–272. 38 ∙ Aquarium World

Painted shrimp - Alope spinifrons Photo: tangatawhenua php?CritterID=2587.

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creating a

Volta River Biotope

For my first ‘biotope’ tank, which I wrote about in a previous issue, I confined myself only to species which were native to Thailand. But as I learned more about the different fish I had in that tank, I realised that, even though they were all found in one country, their distributions didn’t necessarily overlap. So, for my next attempt at a biotope, I decided to 40 ∙ Aquarium World

by Melanie Newfield

confine myself to species which all occurred in the same river catchment. I was, at the time, setting up my third Fluval flex tank for Norman’s lampeye killifish (Poropanchax normani). It was going to be a species tank – just the Norman’s lampeyes – so I didn’t need to worry about finding other fish that came from the same area. But the

plants were going to be a real challenge – the two plants that do best in my tanks are Java fern and ambulia – Asian species and definitely not native to West Africa. If I wanted to do a biotope for Norman’s lampeye, I was going to need to find something else to grow in their tank.

I vaguely remembered that one of the two species known as Indian fern or water sprite (Ceratopteris cornuta) was not, in fact, Indian, but African, so I started looking to see if that species was found within the range of Norman’s lampeye. To do this, I went to a website called the Global Biodiversity Information Facility – more commonly known simply as GBIF. This website collates information on species distributions from a number of different sources and allows you to look at them on a map. It’s not perfect – it doesn’t have good data for every species, and if you are using the site for serious research you need to do a fair bit of data checking – but the records for Norman’s lampeye were pretty good. Among the areas where their ranges overlapped, one particular area stood out as having the most records for both species. This was the lower part of Volta River catchment, which runs through Ghana. The large number of records didn’t necessarily mean there was more Indian fern or Norman’s lampeye there than anywhere else – just that people were noticing and reporting them there. Among the nations of West Africa, Ghana is particularly known for its democracy and political stability. It may be that this stability allows for more time and effort on activities like biodiversity surveys. I hoped that the good records of for those two species would mean that there were also good records for other species. If you know the name of the species you are interested in, GBIF is a good place to find out where it occurs. But if you are looking for something quite specific at a particular

site – in this case, aquatic plants which were available in New Zealand – it’s not useful. So to find other species, I searched for reports on aquatic plants in Ghana or the Volta River. One of the first sources that I found was a report on aquatic plants for the area around Lake Volta, a hydro-electric lake on the river. The focus of the report was introduced species, some of which can affect the production of hydro-electricity. However it did also mention some of the native species. The report confirmed that Ceratopteris cornuta was present in the catchment. It also mentioned another fern, Bolbitis heudelodtii, known as Congo fern. I already had a small amount of this in another tank. In addition, the report mentioned two genera I knew were present in New Zealand – Vallisneria and Anubias. However it didn’t say where species in their genera were present there. Vallisneria species are tricky things to identify at the best of times. They have separate male and female plants, and you need both to identify them. In New Zealand, most populations are one or the other, and only propagate by runners. Botanists have gone to some trouble to try and identify the species present in New Zealand, and various names have been used. What’s generally agreed is that there is a rampant, giant version of the plant choking the water’s edge in Lake Pupuke on Auckland’s North Shore, which is prohibited from sale. There is also a less aggressive version known as twisted vallisneria, or Vallisneria spiralis. This form is permitted. I was not going to be able to determine whether the form which we are allowed to keep in New Zealand was the same as in the Volta River, but I decided it didn’t matter. My only option, if I wanted Vallisneria, was the twisted val. I decided to use that. The Anubias was going to be a bit more tricky. There are a lot more Anubias species

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than there are Vallisneria. I could take the pragmatic approach that I used for Vallisneria, but I decided to see whether I could find the correct species. So I went back to GBIF and tried entering the name ‘Anubias’, then I looked at the records from the Volta River. There were a few different species, and one, Anubias afzelii, was listed on overseas aquarium plant sites and on the New Zealand Plant Biosecurity Index. The Plant Biosecurity Index gives the requirements for importing plant species in New Zealand, and if a species is listed it means that it is likely that it has been cultivated in New Zealand at some point. Here, I turned to social media to help me. I posted a request to the New Zealand Aquatic Plants facebook group explaining my plan for my tank and asking whether anyone had Anubias afzelii available. I also mentioned the other species I intended to plant in there. As a result, I was able to get the Anubias I wanted, as well as twisted val and more of the Bolbitis.

Both Congo fern and Anubias afzelii grow attached to wood and stones but they have slightly different requirements. Congo fern grows fully submerged, but the Anubias tends to grow near the waterline and I was told that it does best when it’s sometimes submerged and sometimes not. So I attached the Anubias on one end of the piece of bogwood I was putting in the tank with the Congo fern at the other. I placed the driftwood on an angle in the tank, where the Congo fern would stay submerged but where the Anubias would be out of the water every time I did a water change. For my tank substrate, I used Dalton’s aquatic mix with a fine gravel over the top. I usually use sand to cap the aquatic mix, but I used the gravel as I wasn’t planning to have any bottom-dwelling fish in the tank. The only species planted in the substrate was the Vallisneria. I added a couple of small plants of Indian fern as floating plants. Indian fern is far

too big for a 55 litre tank – in fact it regularly outgrows my 400 litre tank. As plants mature, they also change their emergent leaf form. My usual strategy with either species of Indian fern, either the African species or the species found throughout Asia (Ceratopteris thalictroides), is to pull out the plants which have got too big or grown into the emergent form and replace them with new plants. Both species propagate themselves easily in my tanks so it’s no effort at all.

When it comes to replicating the correct water quality for biotope tanks, I’m usually a bit stuck. I have odd tap water – it has a pH of 8.2 but both GH and KH are in the “moderately soft” range. I’ve repeated the tests many times with the same result. If I put a lot of new bogwood into a tank, I can get the pH down to just under 7, but then it gradually rises again as I change the water. I’ve heard various opinions on whether or not I should do anything with my water, but the balance of advice seemed to be not to worry. So, apart from adding a bit of wood and leaf litter to the tanks, I leave the water chemistry be. Once the tanks are well-established, they maintain a consistent pH of 7.8. Fortunately, Norman’s lampeye is generally described as a species with a wide tolerance of water conditions. They were reported to like a little hardness in the water, so I added a small amount of crushed shell. I periodically add dead leaves to the tank as well, since any stream running through forest will end up with leaves.

Once I had my Volta River tank up and running, it quickly became one of my favourites. Although Norman’s lampeye are often described as quite a shy, skittish fish, mine quickly became very confident. The plants grew well and I’ve spotted eggs in the tank, but so far I’ve made no effort to remove the eggs and raise the fry.

Melanie Newfield Aquarium World

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cultivate White Worms by Mark Paterson One of the most common live foods you can culture for fish, reptiles, invertebrates or small amphibians are white worms Enchytraeus albidus and they have been used since the early days of fishkeeping as they will live underwater for several hours, are eaten by most fish and are fairly easy to maintain. They are white in colour, 1 mm in diameter and grow to 30 mm long. Their nutritional value consists of 70% protein, 14.5% lipids, 5.5% minerals and 10% carbohydrates so they are excellent for conditioning fish for breeding but as they contain a lot of fats they should be fed as part of a varied diet. White worms are hermaphrodites, so each individual has both male and female reproductive organs. During copulation worms exchange sperm cells and can lay 44 ∙ Aquarium World

eggs 12 days later. In ideal conditions, white worms can reproduce very rapidly and increase their population exponentially. They need a cool dark environment with a temperature range of 12–21 °C. White worms mature faster at higher temperatures but they will slow down above 21 °C and die at temperatures lower than 5 °C. A watertight container (non-transparent containers are better as they don’t like light) with a tight-fitting lid, such as a large ice cream container, is suitable for a white worm culture. You will need to puncture several air holes in the lid. The holes should not exceed 2 mm in order to prevent contamination from insects such as ants, beetles, flies, and mites. If you use a plastic container you will need to routinely mix the culture media as plastic doesn’t ‘breathe’

well and the culture may sour. Wooden containers also work well and can ‘breathe’. Half fill the container with peat and/or compost for the culture to live in. Don’t use commercial compost with fertilisers in it. A good substrate consists of a 1:1 mixture of soil and peat moss as this creates a substrate that will remain loose under moist conditions and provide adequate air flow. You can use soil from the garden but you will need to bake the substrate in an oven or microwave at a high temperature for 20 minutes or so to kill any possible bugs or bacteria that may be in it, which may compete with the worms for food. Adding a small amount of aquarium charcoal may help reduce the smell of the culture. The substrate needs to be damp but not wet for the worms to do well, i.e. if you squeezed a handful of substrate just a few drops of water would come out. You will also need a small spray bottle for water so you can spray the soil and food so it is moist but not soaking wet. For food to sustain the worms a small amount of dry cat food, pond pellets, oatmeal, a quarter slice of bread or a thin slice of luncheon seem to work well. If the food goes mouldy take it out and replace with fresh food. Place a small piece of glass or Perspex® on top of the food that is about half the size of the container. This will help

when harvesting the worms. To harvest them, lift the glass or Perspex and remove the worms with a small paint brush or wash them into a glass with a spray bottle. Another very efficient method is to lay a mesh material on top of the substrate and place the food on top, the white worms will gather in a mound on the top of the mesh making it possible to collect a large amount of white worms without the soil. Remember white worms like it fairly dark and will start to dig back into the dirt once the lid is removed so don’t take too long harvesting them. It is advisable to feed white worms in a bare bottom tank. Otherwise, feed slowly through a pipette or a worm feeder. White worms will remain alive underwater for several hours. As with all foods, uneaten white worms should be removed to prevent water pollution. Lastly, don’t overfeed white worms since fish will greedily feed on them. Regular maintenance is crucial in order to maintain peak production in a white worm culture. Without regular maintenance, a culture can quickly crash. It is worth keeping two cultures going so you have a backup if one crashes. Mark Paterson References:



Umbrella palm article & photos by Caryl Simpson The umbrella palm (Cyperus alternifolius) is a tropical plant that can grow to almost 2 metres in height. It is also known as umbrella papyrus or umbrella sedge. A grass-like plant, in the very large genus Cyperus of the sedge family Cyperaceae, it is a native of Madagascar. Although tropical, I have had mine growing in my pond for over 10 years with temperatures dropping lower than -4°C for short periods of time. In the early days, before the surrounding shrubbery grew, it survived being encased in 2cm thick ice during the coldest winter temperatures, with no ill effects. There are dwarf (Cyperus alternifolius

‘Gracilis’) and medium (Cyperus spp.) varieties available for smaller ponds and container water gardens. The height, and interesting leaves, of an umbrella palm makes it an interesting addition to the pond and a nice backdrop for shorter aquatic plants like water lilies. Mine must be the standard variety as it is now 1.6m

above the water surface. Luckily, the pond itself is 3.5m x 8m so the palm suits its corner position well. The plant grows clumps of tall stems crowned with long, slender, dark green bracts that look like the framework on an umbrella, hence the name. Small, brown, fuzzy flowers often develop from the top of the stem.

If you are not careful, larger palms can become invasive. A small, single, stalk with roots will grow as a marginal plant and become difficult to remove if left alone too long. The roots will grow deeply into a gravel-based pond. This can be avoided by planting the palm in a plastic tub. Its roots will need trimming

from time to time, but the plant will be easy to maintain. Umbrella palms are easy to trim as you just cut the roots into smaller sizes. This does not destroy the original plant and it will grow again to fill the container. Use a small handsaw to cut through the root ball to halve the plant before repotting in a short, wide container, using rocks to hold the plant in place. Dirt or fertiliser are not required as umbrella palms get their nutrients directly from the pond water, which helps with filtration. As these plants are tall, 48 ∙ Aquarium World

they can get blown over by wind so the rocks help keep them upright. I found my palm blew over consistently for several years before becoming heavy enough, even with rocks added, as my container was too tall and narrow. Now it is so big it is no longer in any container, just sitting on the pond’s concrete base. References: The Aquarium Plant Handbook (Oriental Aquarium (S) Pte Ltd

Caryl Simpson

Reef Synergy is a family owned company based in sunny Tauranga. We aim to bring quality brands at affordable prices, direct to aquarists around New Zealand. Since entering the market in 2015, we have secured direct distributorship for iconic brands, such as Neptune Systems, Korallen-Zutch (ZEOvit), Aquaforest, Pacific Sun and are in the process of securing other lead brands. We operate from an online store, and have recently established ourselves as wholesalers to select stores nationwide. One of our key brands, Aquaforest, is an exciting range of aquarium products for both freshwater and marine systems. They have been tried, tested and used by some of the top aquariums internationally and have become a household name among aquarist here in New Zealand.

For more information about our products visit our website and like our Facebook page to stay up to date with our news.


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Marbled hatchet fish Photo: Robert Beke

Despite high demands on international freight and a more limited range of ornamental fish, the importers continue to offer an impressive selection of tropical fish. There is the usual great range of small community species (tetras, livebearers, rasboras, barbs, etc.), fighting fish, and discus. If you are a fan of gouramis there are 10 species and 20 varieties available including a few rarely imported species such as chocolate gourami, eyespot

50 ∙ Aquarium World

Chocolate gourami Photo:

gourami, and the greenish (wild type) form of kissing gourami. And if you are after something a little more unusual, dwarf/freshwater puffers (Carinotetraodon travancoricus), and marble and spotfin hatchet fish are on the importers’ lists. For catfish fans there are plenty to choose from including a few rarely seen Corydoras: black band (C. zygatus), gold lazer, and Venezuelan corys. If you are after a fancy pleco, why not try Colombian zebra pleco (L129) or a flash pleco (L204) And if

Wild type kissing gourami Photo: Amada44

Red and black panda whiptails Photo: HFF Albany

whiptails are more your style, panda or black panda whiptails (likely aquarium strains of Loricaria simillima), red whiptails, and royal whiptails are great options. If you have a good-sized tank and are after a challenge why not try an African river biotope? A dimly lit tank with a sandy substrate, plenty of bogwood, and Bolbitis and Anubias. There is a limited selection of African fish available, but they are impressive with species such as Pantodon butterflyfish, Congo tetras, Peter’s

Gold lazer corys Photo: HFF Albany

elephantnose, upside-down catfish, and leopard ctenomopoma. Senegal bichirs (in standard and albino colour morphs) are also a good option when small but larger specimens will likely eat any fish they can fit in their mouth. And for those with very large tanks, silver arowana, large (25 cm+) fire eels, Borneo tigers, clown knifefish, and flagtail prochilodus are all available. The editorial team

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Maximum Pet Supplies 87 Rata Street Naenae Lower Hutt 5011 Phone: 04 260 1464 Hours:

Monday 11am – 2 pm Tuesday 11am – 5 pm Wednesday 8am – 5pm Thursday 11am – 6.30pm Friday 11am – 4pm Saturday 8am – 4pm Sunday CLOSED

Cameron and Jenna Symonds have been importing and selling a range of aquarium supplies for many years (as Salmon19 on Trade Me) and about 8 months ago they opened a shop in Naenae, Lower Hutt. Maximum Pet Supplies is a great little pet store offering a good range of aquarium and other pet supplies and plenty of free parking. 52 ∙ Aquarium World

Most of the fish are housed in two racks of 22 tanks just inside the door. They also have a wellstocked betta barracks and four tanks devoted to tadpoles and frogs (brown/whistling tree frogs, and green and golden bell frogs). Their tanks are always clean and well maintained, and they keep a good selection of cold water and tropical fish, including a few more unusual species. When I was there they had Peter's elephantnose, samurai gouramis, rainbow badis, and longfin

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bronze corys. They also offer a good selection of aquatic plants for coldwater and tropical aquariums and outdoor ponds. If you are after something special just ask them as they may be able to order it in for you. Maximum Pet Supplies stock all the usual dry goods, including an impressive range of fish food and aquarium additives (medications, pH

test kits, liquid plant fertiliser, dechlorinators, etc.), and aquariums from nano tanks through to a 365 litre SunSun aquarium complete with stand, a 120 litre sump, LED lighting (with a built in timer), and a digital thermometer. They don’t stock tropical marine fish, but they do have a good selection of marine dry goods. They also offer financial FNZAS members a 10% discount on Aquarium Supplies.

Cameron has been keeping and breeding tropical fish for many years and has a wealth of knowledge that he is happy to share. If you are in the neighbourhood Maximum Pet supplies is well worth a visit.

Interesting species Bumblebee gobies $8 Forktail rainbows (blue-eyes) $11 Gold panchax $12 Rainbow badis $14 Longfin bronze corys $12 Samurai gourami $26 Siamese fighting fish $20–50 Peters elephantnose $90 Brown (whistling) tree frogs $10

Darren Stevens

Rank Tropical fish Catfish Cichlids Oddballs Coldwater fish Marine fish Marine inverts Marine corals Display tanks Pond plants Tropical plants Dry goods Pond supplies

✭✭✭✭ ✭✭✭ ✭✭✭ ✭✭✭ ✭✭✭ N/A N/A N/A N/A ✭✭✭ ✭✭✭✭ ✭✭✭✭ ✭✭✭✭ Aquarium World

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Pg Source 1

Eublepharis macularius - Photo by Matt Reinbold (CC BY 2.0)


Eublepharis macularius - Photo by Eduardo Santos (CC BY 2.0) Photo_by_Eduardo_Santos.jpg


Eublepharis macularius - Photo by Hirvenkürpa (CC BY-SA 3.0) Dreamsickle.JPG


Chilodus punctatus - Photo © Jörn (CC BY-SA 2.0)


Lysmata amboinensis - Photo by Lonnie Huffman (CC BY 3.0) Shrimp.jpg


Stenopus hispidus - Photo by Alexander Vasenin (CC BY 3.0) Moncho.JPG


Lysmata debelius - Photo by Haplochromis (CC BY 3.0)


Lysmata grabhami - Photo Fernando Herranz Martin CC BY-SA 2.5 ES jpg


Lysmata vittata - Photo Matthew Connors


Lysmata californica Photo - Robin Gwen Agarwal (CC BY-NC 4.0)


Alope spinifrons © David Riddell, some rights reserved (CC-BY-NC)


Alope spinifrons © tangatawhenua, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC)


Helostoma temminckii © Amanda44 (CC BY-SA 3.0) File:Helostoma_temminckii_-_9439.jpg

56 ∙ Aquarium World


The Federation of New Zealand Aquatic Societies is a group of aquarists dedicated to supporting and promoting fishkeeping as a hobby, both in our local communities and globally with regard to conservation of aquatic species and their environments. The organisation is dedicated to the improvement of the aquarium and fishkeeping hobby and it has a 60 year history of representing aquarium societies in New Zealand. There are currently 12 affiliated aquarium clubs around New Zealand: AUCKLAND FISHKEEPERS ASSOCIATION

Contact: Alex Fleming


Contact: James Butler


CONTACT: Nic Smith


Contact: Chris Drake


Contact: Caryl Simpson



Contact: Mitch Minchington & Debbie McKenzie, 21 Maire St. Inglewood 4330


Contact: Glen George


Contact: Maxine Lynch


Contact: Danielle Wall


Contact via:


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FNZAS DISCOUNT The following businesses offer discounts to our members, remember to ask politely, this is a privilege not a right. You must show your current FNZAS Membersip card at the time of purchase.

AUCKLAND Hollywood Fish Farm - 10% discount on selected non-sale items

36 Frost Rd. Mt. Roskill Ph 09 620 5249 10/2 Tawa Drive, Albany Ph 09 415 4157

The Bird Barn - 10% discount on fish and accessories

158 Lincoln Rd. Henderson. Ph 09 838 8748.

New Pupuke Aquarium Centre - 10% Discount

1 Lydia Ave, Birkenhead Ph 09 480 6846

GISBORNE Eastland Aquariums - 10% discount as well as great in-store specials.

Grey St, Gisborne Ph/Fax 06 868 6760

HAMILTON Pure Aquatics - 10% discount on everything.

966 Heaphy Tce. Hamilton. Ph: 07 855 2176

HAWERA Wholesale & Industrial Supplies - trade price, equating between 15 - 40% off retail prices

49 Glover Rd, Hawera Ph 06 278 7525

MORRINSVILLE Demitry Pet Supplies - 10% Discount

15 Thames Street, Morrinsville. Ph 07 8897789 Mobile 027 5526955

NAPIER Carevets N Pets - 10% discount on fish & fish related products

120 Taradale Rd, Onekawa, Napier Phone 06 842 2033

NELSON The Fishroom Email:

58 ∙ Aquarium World

ROTORUA Wonderworld Aquarium and Pet Centre - 10% discount

82 - 84 Clayton Road, Rotorua Ph: 07 348 0328 Email:

TAURANGA KiwiPetz - 10% discount

Shop T30, Fraser Cove Shopping Centre, Tauranga Ph 07 578 8623 email

Carine Garden Centre & Water World - 10% discount on fish, fish related products & aquatic plants

Cnr SH2 & Te Karaka Drive, Te Puna Ph. 07 552 4949

WELLINGTON (and Greater Wellington area) CareVets@Johnsonville Pet Centre - 10% discount

31 Johnsonville Rd. Johnsonville Ph 04 478 3709

CareVets ‘N’ Pets - 10% discount

Porirua Mega Centre, 2 - 10 Semple St. Porirua Ph 04 237 9600

Paws and Claws - 10% discount on all fish & fish keeping items

Logan Plaza, 207 Main St. Upper Hutt. (opp. McDonalds) Ph 04 528 5548

The Pet Centre - 10% discount on all fish and aquatic products

Lower Hutt - 28 Rutherford Street, Lower Hutt 5010, 04 569 8861 Upper Hutt - 82 Queen Street, Upper Hutt 5018, 04 9745473 Lyall Bay - 117 Tirangi Road, Rongotai 6022, 04 282 1242 Online @ Free shipping with orders over $30 + fish club discount still applie

The Pet House - 10% discount

Coastlands Mall, Paraparaumu Ph 04 296 1131

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