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Volume 3. Issue 7. January - February 2017 D A R ME R S




Alienarmyworms invadecornin drought-hit southernAfrica -p8 SA’S POULTRY INDUSTRY ON THE VERGE OF COLLAPSE. P6



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Contents 16




Business ProďŹ les

6 Sa’s poultry industry on the verge of collapse

37 Case IH celebrates 175 years of agricultural equipment production

Market Information

New Product & Services

13 Can organic farming improve food security for SA

61 Rolls Royce to supply engines for Claas agricultural vehicles

Machinery Preview


54 New Quantum tractors bring better performance

38 Jatropha: Gold plant catalysing Nigeria's biofuel resolution

Livestock 47 How do farmers keep animals healthy?

50 January - February 2017



Volume 3. Issue 7. January - February 2017 D A R ME R S




Editors note

Alienarmyworms invadecornin drought-hit southernAfrica -p8


farmersreviewafric .com


the year 2017




Greetings and warm welcome to our 1st issue of Framers Review Africa for

Please visit the website


We are excited to bring you yet another edition where we strive to give you

Front cover : Army worm

informative, yet exciting content so that you can be glued in the magazine. Africa is projected to have a population of about 2.7 billion by 2060, providing policymakers, Governments and the public with a tough task:

Execu ve Editor

feeding a population that will nearly triple in 50 years, and which has been

Lee Daniels

struggling to produce enough to feed its current population.

Low agricultural productivity, hunger, malnutrition and food wastage are


some of the challenges that confront the continent's agribusiness industry.

Bertha M.

e continent also lacks adequate capability to add value to its produce,

Maxin Fourie

exporting most of this in raw form, only to export it back at much higher

Adver sing Execu ve


Russou Billiard

African countries are required to boost agricultural productivity and

enhance value addition of their produce to achieve economic and social

Cleopas M.

stability. It is sad that a majority of these countries are grappling with how to

achieve these goals.

Mkhululi K.

Our edition of Farmers Review Africa has taken that into consideration,

hence we seek to help farmers in addressing some of the challenges

Project Manager

bedevilling the industry, bring in new innovations and ways to make

Victor Ndlovu

agriculture a sustainable industry.

Some of the articles include Livestock weighing and identi cation systems,


milking machines, animal husbandry, green manuring and irrigation

Deward Sitali

farming. +260 96 187 4888 Himanot Kelemu

cucumbers and has made game-changing improvements in cucumber

genetics, thus we give a detail on this development.

Hazera, the vegetable seed company, has had a long history of breeding

Graphic Design & Layout

Scientists from Kenya's Meru University of Science and Technology have

Que Gibson

come up with one way to deal with the problem: a mobile app that monitors

the need for water in elds and controls irrigation equipment to deliver just

Published by

what is needed.

Mailing Times Media

Looking ahead, Farmers Review Africa will continue to serve our readers.

+27 11 044 8986

Information about the farmer is just as important as the relationship with the

farmer. We will continue to strive for balanced reporting and earning the highest respect from our readers. We feel strongly that if our product is right for readers, then it is right for advertisers.

Bertha M.


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Mailing Times Media (Pty) Ltd makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of the contents of its publications, but no warranty is made as to such accuracy and no responsibility will be borne by the publisher for the consequences of actions based on information so published. Further, opinions expressed are not necessarily shared by Mailing Times Media (Pty) Ltd



January - February 2017


Sa’s poultry industry

on the verge of collapse e poultry industry says it's on the verge of collapse as it battles with an in ux of cheap chicken imports being dumped by European Union countries and the United States. Chicken producers, including Rainbow


of imports of frozen bone-in chicken pieces

Also represented is the sector industry association, Poultry South Africa, and

from the EU and this investigation is far advanced.

representatives of the poultry producers,

e DTI said that it is working with DAFF on

representing business. Labour is represented

opening new markets for poultry exports.

Chicken, are set to retrench more than 3,500

by the leadership of the Food and Allied

Recently new markets in the Middle East have

workers in one of the largest industry jobs

Workers Union (FAWU).

been opened and present a further opportunity

bloodbaths as they struggle under heavy

In 2013, the import duty on a number of

for export to the domestic poultry industry in

competition from cheap imported chickens

poultry products was increased signi cantly.

South Africa. Furthermore, the dti is in the

from European Union countries. About 1,350

erefore, the current import duties for

process of considering the designation of

workers will be laid off by February.

chicken imports from countries like Brazil and

domestic poultry products for purposes of

e Department of Trade and Industry (the dti)

the United States are as follows: whole bird: 82

public procurement.

has said that it has secured signi cant progress

per cent, carcasses: 31 per cent, boneless cuts:

across a number of work-streams to develop a

12 per cent, offal: 30 per cent, bone-in

common response to the complex challenges

portions: 37 per cent.

facing the industry. Authorities and other industry players will meet at a summit in the coming weeks - in a

e work-streams established by government's task team to process a range of possible short and longer-term interventions include trade

e above import duties are not applicable

measures, health and quality issues,

to imports from the European Union (EU)

competitiveness, industry growth and

since South Africa has a preferential trade

transformation, among others.

last-ditch bid to save the South African chicken

agreement with the EU. However, in 2015 anti-

e dti said the task team would submit a set of

industry. Government recently established a

dumping measures ranging from 3.86 per cent

short-term and shared interventions for nal

poultry sector task team to deal with the crisis

to 73.33 per cent were imposed on frozen

rati cation as soon as the necessary technical

in the domestic poultry industry.

bone-in chicken pieces from Germany, the

work has been completed for the short-term

e Task Team is comprised of representatives

Netherlands and the United Kingdom. e


of the dti, the departments of economic

International Trade Administration

Meanwhile, government appealed to the

development, agriculture, forestry and sheries,

Commission of South Africa has also initiated

industry to do everything possible to prevent

as well as the Industrial Development

a safeguard investigation in regard to the surge

any plant closures and retrenchments.

January - February 2017




Addressing smallholder farmers’ needs with green manure cover crops and agroforestry in Zambia In Africa, mineral fertilizer remains a scarce, expensive, and risky resource for most

Ms Phiri

diversi cation through rotation and

arrangements. “We mostly like cowpea,

intercropping) hinges on the ability of farmers

pigeonpea, and lablab, because they provide

smallholder farmers. On average, farmers use

to retain sufficient surface crop residues to

grain and soil improvement at the same time.

less than 10 kg/ha of NPK fertilizer; and many

protect the soil from erosion, runoff,

We are not sure yet about jack bean although we

do not apply it at all. e price of fertilizer is 3-

evaporation, and excessive temperatures.

have seen that maize that is grown aer jack

5 times higher in Africa than in Europe due to

However, farmers in mixed crop-livestock

bean has higher yields,” Mr Paul Mbau from

the lack of infrastructure and production

systems face competing demands for these

Chiparamba said. To increase adoption, the

facilities, oen making it unaffordable and

residues because they also feed them to their

project is using an intensive participatory

sometimes inaccessible to farmers. Fertilizer is

animals. Green manure and selected

process to adapt the green manure to the needs

primarily applied to higher value and

agroforestry species are therefore grown to

and conditions of smallholder farmers.

horticulture crops that, unlike maize, give

improve the soil, generate biomass for ground

On project sites managed and implemented

farmers a greater return on their investment.

cover, and provide fodder; some also produce

by our project partner CRS, farmers discovered

Farmers in southern Africa plant maize

high protein grain for food, feed, or for sale on

that maize intercropped with green manure has

extensively on large areas, harvest less than 2 t/ha on average, extracting already depleted

the market.

other bene ts. Mr Shadreck Sakala from Samuel

For the past six cropping seasons, CIMMYT

Camp in Chipata highlighted: “Both of the plots

nutrients from the soil while trying to become

and its partners have tested a range of species.

where maize was intercropped with cowpea and

food secure and escape from poverty an

Crops such as velvet bean, lablab, cowpea,

lablab did much better in the dry spell and they

impossible task!

sunnhemp, jack bean, pigeonpea, and

only needed one weeding as compared with two

In Eastern Province of Zambia, farmers are

Gliricidia, have been identi ed as viable

or three on other plots”.

being offered a range of solutions by Africa

options with great potential for smallholders.

COMACO, another partner under Africa

RISING that provide a way out of this poverty

In some cases, they can provide 5-50 t/ha of

RISING has gained long-term experience of up

trap. ese technologies, options, and

extra biomass for groundcover and/or fodder,

to 5 years with a maize-Gliricidia intercropping

approaches include drought- and stress-

leave up to 350 kg/ha of residual nitrogen in

system, which is now being tested to better

tolerant maize germplasm, conservation

the soil and in most cases, do not need extra

understand the dynamics and yield effects of

agriculture (CA), improved rotation and

fertilizer to grow.

intercropping with grain legumes, agroforestry, and green manure cover crops. e use of CA principles (minimum soil disturbance, crop residue retention, and

this promising intercropping system on maize.

e Africa RISING project is testing these species, in full rotation or intercropped with

CIMMYT and its partners CRS, TLC, COMACO, and Grassroots Trust will further

maize, on farmers' elds and on-station to

explore new ways of integrating green manure

identify the best possible options and

into smallholder farming systems so it becomes the status quo, not just an option!



January - February 2017


Alien army worms invade corn in drought-hit southern Africa Aer southern Africa's worst drought in more

will have devastating effects not only in those

than 35 years ravaged crops and sent food

countries, but neighboring countries too,

Provinces Invaded Regardless of how the pests got to the

prices soaring, farmers are battling a new crisis:

because the spread capacity of this pest is very

continent, their destructive capacity is clear for

alien armyworms.

high,” said David Phiri, who co-ordinates the

growers like Mwiya. His farm is part of the more

Godwin Mukenani Mwiya rst noticed caterpillars chewing through his corn eld

FAO's operations in southern Africa, where

than 10 percent of Zambia's cultivated land

corn is a staple food.

that's so far been attacked.

south of Lusaka, Zambia's capital, near the end

African armyworms, a close relative, are

of December. Two weeks later, he'd lost half his

common on the continent. Malawi fought off

In Zimbabwe, the caterpillars had already invaded seven of the eight provinces where corn

crop to the pest that's already invaded more

an invasion a year ago, while an outbreak in

is grown. It's yet to be detected in South Africa,

than 10 percent of farms in the country and

late 2012 contributed to an 11 percent

the continent's biggest producer of the grain,

spread to Zimbabwe and Malawi.

reduction in Zambia's corn production the

with the government raising an alert and

e fall armyworm that's native to the Americas has arrived in southern Africa for the rst time, wiping out tens of thousands of acres of corn elds. For a region trying to recover

following year. e fall armyworm grows to a

preparing contingency plans in case of an

similar size of about 4 centimeters (1.6 inches).

outbreak, said Jan Hendrik Venter at the

Besides preying on crops, fall armyworms can

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and

become cannibalistic, eating competitors such

Fisheries' Plant Health Early Warnings unit.

from drought, the pest brings renewed fears of

as the African variety, according to a study by

Zimbabwe and Zambia are trying to contain the

food shortages and in ation. e United

scientists including Goergen published in

outbreak, with the latter declaring it a national

Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization


crisis and deploying the air force to help

says the effects could be devastating for the area

Severe outbreaks usually arrive with the start

distribute pesticide.

if its spread isn't controlled.

of the rains, especially aer a long period of

“It's really a national disaster because as you

drought, according to the study.

can see, half of my crop is gone,” Mwiya, a 56-

How did the pest arrive in Africa? e

“ere is no doubt that the introduction of this new pest will have lasting consequences for the farmer and food security in tropical Africa,”

year-old retired teacher who's been farming for

answer isn't yet clear, though Goergen says

said Goergen. “ere is de nitively an urgent

a decade, said as he scanned his ravaged eld.

there is evidence that there were at least two

need to develop local solutions building on the

“is has hit me below the belt.” About 32 million people in the region with a

separate introductions. One of the theories

experience in the Western Hemisphere and

he's investigating is that the moths ew over

adapting them.”

population of 236 million will be food insecure

the Atlantic ocean. at would mean a journey

e drought is easing in some areas, and

from June 2016 to March this year, the Regional

of at least 3,000 kilometers between the closest

“generally good rainfall” is forecast for the

Interagency Standing Committee for southern

points of South America and Africa.

southern and central parts of the region,

Africa, which includes the United Nations, said

“Among the speculations, climate change-

increasing chances for better production, the

in a report. Prices for white corn, a staple, are

induced variations in high-altitude wind

U.S. Agency for International Development's

about 50 percent above the ve-year average in

streams may have favored the shi from one

Famine early Warning Systems Network and the

July, it said.

continent to another,” he said in reply to e-

Southern African Development Community

mailed questions.

said in December. “However, the armyworm

Cannibal Caterpillars

outbreak threatens some reversals of these

“If not controlled in the countries affected, it

January - February 2017





Waging war on the Armyworm Fall Armyworm concerns demys fied Aer con rmation by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) that the recent pest infestation is in-fact the Fall Armyworm, concerns have been raised around what the impact could be on the South African economy. Paul Makube, Senior Agricultural Economist at FNB Business believes we are in a good

Paul Makube-FNB

position to deal with the Fall Armyworm due to early detection. He answers questions that

Emergency Plant Pest Response Plan and is


have been asked about this recent invader in

fast tracking certi cation of pesticides,

the sector.

monitoring and dissemination of technical

What are the knock-on effects given South

information on control options.

Africa is starting to edge out of a drought?

In which provinces is the armyworm present?


ere is an immediate cost to the

At the moment it is in Limpopo and the North

How will this affect maize reserves?

affected farmers due to the need to

West provinces.

e outbreak, if not contained, has potential to

source registered and effective

reduce production. However, almost 80% of


What crops have been affected?

the country's maize is Bt maize and

Presently it is in maize, potentially in tomatoes

susceptibility is minimal. e large maize


Farmers who experience another lost crop (from the drought) and income

and potatoes. e pest infestation may not be

producing areas of SA are still relatively pest

could nd themselves in the red; it

limited to these crops only.


may take them years to fully recover.

Does it have an impact on what we export,

Will this have any impact on the pricing of

could South Africa face import restrictions?


e pest is airborne, it does not need to be

Although we should monitor the situation, it is

carried in harvested products to enter the

still way too early to conclude what the overall

country and therefore restrictions of exports

impact could be on price and broader market

will be ineffective. It is a pest that has travelled

factors. is can however quickly change as it

from the Americas through North Africa and

is a pest that is airborne and can spread easily.

has found its way in Southern Africa. What should farmers do to ensure minimal What is being done to contain the spread of


the fall armyworm?

Be alert - Scout for the pest and notify the

DAFF has implemented the South African

authorities for technical information and



“It is still early days, we need to have a measured approach as the pest is new to South Africa. ere are no proven remedies available for maize in the country, however, there are other chemicals that can be recommended, DAFF has already set in motion that new remedies be registered and certi ed for use. e commercial sector has the capacity to control the pest when the pesticides become available. We just have to minimise the infestation to ensure that the Fall Armyworm does not have extensive impact on a recovering sector,” concludes Makube.

January - February 2017


Zimbabwe’s smallholder irrigation receives international funding Zimbabwe's smallholder irrigation sector has received a US$25.5mn grant from the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). According to Patrick Chinamasa, Minister of Finance and Economic Development, the grant signed in Rome on 18 November, 2016 will support the Zimbabwe Smallholder Irrigation Revitalisation programme (SIRP). It is also reported that IFAD approved the grant in September 2016. e SIRP is targeting 4,000 ha of smallholder irrigation schemes in communal and old resettlement areas in the country's four provinces namely Manicaland, Matebeleland South, Masvingo and Midlands. Chinamasa said that the objective of the programme is to sustainably increase diversi ed production, productivity, income and improve

the case. In 2014, the long rains barely came at all in Kenya, triggering a huge drought, incomes and livelihoods took a massive hit with widespread crop failures and livestock deaths. Again in 2015 the long rains were poor and, surprise surprise, in 2016 too. And, it doesn't seem to be getting better any time soon, the United Nations is warning that Kenyans should brace themselves: “ere is serious drought looming in 2017” (Reuters). In summary, those previously reliable rainfall patterns are seriously messed up. ere is generally less rain, and when it does come, it's erratic (IPCC, 2014). Smallholder farmers especially are at the mercy of the climate; crops, incomes and livelihoods are all on the line – and they can do little more than try again and pray. In our small way, we hope that our solar irrigation pump will help farmers adapt to the erratic climate patterns, since the rains can no longer be relied upon. At least if there is a nearby water source farmers can guarantee a harvest in the dry season. And unlike increasingly common petrol pumps, our solar pumps won't contribute to the rapidly rising carbon emissions which are the cause of this instability. But for oods, all we can do is offer our sympathy and some sand bags to these inundated farmers. As for the new US administration, comfortable in their climate controlled buildings, blissfully ignorant to the daily battles of smallholder farmers, history will not look kindly upon them. It is each of our jobs to ensure that science, and climate friendly innovations prevail.

Agriculture resilience of households in the selected mostly dry and arid regions of

the country.

e programme also seeks to provide support to improve market access

and capacity building measures to boost food security, enhance

management capacities within government and farmers institutions and

to ensure the sustainability of the investment.

African climate goes haywire while Trump gags climate researchers

Dam Linings and Tarps Reservoir linings

Earth dam linings

Mid-dry season – Western Kenya A couple of days ago, something strange and awful happened in one of the farming communities we work with in Western Kenya: a ash ood. e strange thing about this? It's meant to be the dry season. Two huge rainstorms hit Kisumu county and a river burst its banks. e carefully planted and irrigated crops were obliterated in an instant, now they sit waterlogged and rotting. is season there will be no harvest for the farmers. Meanwhile, far away on the other side of the world, one of the rst actions by the new US President was to remove all references to climate change from the White House website, ll his cabinet with oil barons, and to instigate an apparent clampdown on climate scientists speaking to the media. To anyone paying the slightest bit of attention, it's clear to see the climate is changing. irty years ago, the rainy and dry seasons in Kenya were as reliable as clockwork. For generations, smallholder farmers planted seeds in anticipation of the rains, growing two crop cycles each year to exploit the rainy periods. However, in the ve years I've been involved in smallholder irrigation, every single African farmer I've spoken with has told me this is no longer

January - February 2017

Trailer Tarpaulins

Truck tarpaulins

Welded mesh reservoirs

For more informa on contact

+27 72 279 3294 Or visit



East Africa recognises AFGRI’s contribution to food security AFGRI Uganda was recognised by the East

food security and to prevent post-harvest

African people as the largest contributor

losses on grain commodities.”

towards food security at the annual East Africa

Across the African continent, AFGRI assists

the winners. Companies in East Africa have been enthusiastic about the possibilities in harnessing the unique appeal of being a record

Book of Records (EABR) awards.

farmers to develop subsistence farms into

breaker. Previous winners of the East African

At the handover ceremony recently held in

semi-commercial farms in its efforts to ensure

Award include the President of Uganda Yoweri

Uganda, attended by members of AFGRI's

food security. AFGRI Grain Management in

Museveni and other distinguished individuals

management team, EABR honoured AFGRI

Uganda incorporates Farmer assistance and

and companies.

with the award for Responsible Consumption

mentoring services, grain handling, grain

and Production in recognition of its sustainable

storage and grain marketing.

contribution to agriculture in the region.

e EABR aims to inspire ordinary people

Jacob de Villiers, Managing Director, Grain

into doing extraordinary things in line with

Management at AFGRI, says the award proves

the United Nations Sustainable Development

At the 2017 ceremony, the awards were handed over by the Burundi Ambassador to Uganda standing in for the Speaker of Parliament, Honourable Rebecca Kadaga. De Villiers concluded by saying that this is a

that AFGRI's initiatives to assist small scale

Goals. At the annual awards ceremony, the

tremendous accolade for AFGRI in support of

farmers in the region are paying off. “AFGRI's

EABR recognises ground breaking

its vision of being an enabler to food security

Grain Management business in Uganda began

achievements in various categories and records

across the continent.

in 2013 with the purpose of managing grain for

such achievement by awarding certi cates to


January - February 2017

Market Information

Can organic farming improve food

security for Sa’s poor communities? 14 million South Africans do not have access to

University of Pretoria and the University of

than did chemically-treated soils,” Auerbach

regular food supply, and seven million are

Limpopo, Professor Auerbach, who is based at


chronically hungry despite South Africa

the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University,

Although there are clear bene ts to organic

producing enough food to feed its 53 million

wanted to nd out whether smallholder

farming, initial low yields due to low soil

citizens. Produce crop yields that can provide

farmers could use organic practices to improve

phosphate pose a major hurdle for organic

food and income to families, require soils

yield and nutritional quality of their crops.

farmers. Putting grain or vegetables on the table

While chemical fertilisers increased the

or the market is ultimately all that matters to the

containing plenty of minerals and water. While commercial farmers use chemical fertilisers to

amount of phosphorus available to the plants,

farmer. Yet, organically treated crops provided

add nutrients to the soil, these fertilisers are

they also made the soil more acidic. Organic

20-40% less yield than their chemically treated

unaffordable for small-scale farmers.

treatments, meanwhile, increased phosphorus

counterparts in the rst two years. However,

Organic matter such as compost, manure, and

and potassium slightly, but also reduced soil

input costs were also signi cantly lower; usually

bone meal offers a cheaper source of both

acidity and increased soil organic matter.

by the fourth year, the soil biology has improved

nutrients and carbon, which improve the soil's

ese ndings suggest that less acidity and

enough to help with soil phosphate availability.

ability to hold precious water. is is what

greater organic matter in the organically-

“If organic farming methods are to improve

prompted Professor Raymond Auerbach, a

treated soils made more potassium available to

the wellbeing of South Africa's poorest

senior researcher affiliated to the DST-NRF

the plants.

communities, the yield-gap between organic and

Centre of Excellence in Food Security to undertake research comparing crops grown using organic and chemical fertilisers. Collaborating with researchers from the

“Importantly, for drought-prone areas like

chemical treatments will have to be closed. is

Mpumalanga, North West, Limpopo and the

is a priority for future research,” says Professor

Free State, the organically-treated soils held


more moisture aer a three-week dry spell


January - February 2017

Market Information

Global African agribusiness accelerator program launched at AGCO future farm in Lusaka, ZAmbia Global Africa Agribusiness Accelerator

young agribusiness entrepreneurs discussing

Program (GAAAP) officially launched on

the importance of technology adoption in

Wednesday, December 14, 2016, at the AGCO

modern farming and agribusiness and how

entrepreneurs in this area. Michael Sudarkasa, the founder of GAAAP, outlined the objectives of the initiative:

Future Farm in Lusaka by the Vice President of

best they can develop strategies to acquire

“We want to promote intra-African, intra-youth,

Zambia, Her Excellency Inonge Mutukwa Wina

technology they deem bene cial to the growth

knowledge and success model sharing, trade and

in the company of Gary Collar, Senior Vice

of their businesses.

investment in agriculture and agribusiness

President and General Manager for AGCO

And speaking at the same launch, Gary Collar

among platform members,” said Michael.

Asia-Paci c and Africa; Nuradin Osman,

reiterated AGCO's Future Farm vision as being

Michael added, “We further want to promote

AGCO Vice President and General Manager

a leading edge agricultural mechanization and

youth in agriculture and agribusiness by

for Africa; and Michael Sudarkasa, Chief

technology centre committed to developing

showcasing and promoting platform members,

Executive officer of the Africa Business Group-

the next generation of farmers, farm workers

creating mutually bene cial linkages between

Pioneers of GAAAP.

and agricultural entrepreneurs in Africa.

youth-owned enterprises and the growing

e Global African Agribusiness Accelerator

“e Future Farm brings the best practical

Platform identi es and works with Africa-

knowledge and services from AGCO and a

active agribusiness/agriculture enterprise

broad range of partners from across the

number of smallholder farmer transformation 'projects' on the continent.” During the event, delegates were treated to a

owners aged 40 or below who have been in

agricultural value chain to transform Africa's

tour of the AGCO Future Farm showcasing the

business at least two to three years or more, and

agricultural development. is form of

current projects and trends in technology, from

who seek to grow their enterprises by 20

collaboration builds a sustainable food

the agronomical demonstration plots that

percent year-on-year over the next three years.

production system,” Gary said.

AGCO is managing with the help of its partners

And speaking at the launch, the Vice President of Zambia encouraged young women to take up agriculture. “I am delighted to see young women taking

e two-day event equally saw delegates not involved with primary production able to

in the agribusiness value chain to the Fully Fused Future Farm operations centre which

discuss the importance of technology, beyond

showcases the current technology in machinery

the farm, in processing, packaging and

and farm management. Delegates were also

up leadership roles in agriculture and breaking

retailing. To ensure maximum exposure,

shown the GSI poultry production unit and

stereotypes that agriculture is a man's eld,”

delegates were introduced to professionals

grain storage systems and had a crash course on

said Vice President Inonge Wina.

representing various programs/projects that

tractor operations and how best mechanization

e rst session of the GAAAP was aimed at

exist across Africa who are supporting young

can bene t and upscale their businesses.

From left to right: Louisa Parker, External Affairs, AGCO; Gary Collar, Senior Vice President Asia-Pacific and Africa, AGCO; Michael Sudarkasa, CEO, Africa Business Group; Elly Mwale, CEO, Glymo Enterprises; Jason Burbidge, Director of Sales and Distribution Southern and East Africa and General Manager, AGCO Zambia.

January - February 2017


Market Information Mr. Yoav Levy, Hazera's Regional Product Manager for Cucurbits

Hazera display new cucumber developments Hazera, the vegetable seed company, has had

started specialising in the long type for non-

“is is a winter variety with excellent color,

a long history of breeding cucumbers and has

heated greenhouses, mostly in the

lenghth and shelf life and resistance to viruses.

made game-changing improvements in

Mediterranean region. Here we introduced

e developments in long cucumber breeding in

cucumber genetics.

similar innovations, including extended shelf

Spain will certainly have a positive consolidation

Hazera's Global Cucurbits product manager Mark van der Zouwen released a statement

life (many remember the Suprami variety) and

in other regions with similar growing

lately we came up with varieties combining

conditions, such as Greece, Mexico, Oceania and

outlining the company's improvements in

resistances to both powdery mildew and virus

South Africa.”

cucumber genetics, as well as embracing other

diseases such as CVYV and CYSDV.

What will the cucumber future look like for

types of cucumber, conquering new markets,

In the mini types, Hazera is now in the top 3 of

Hazera? Mark:”We will further extend our

and exploring new marketing possibilities.

breeding companies worldwide, with varieties

breeding activities to all important regions for

Mark van der Zouwen: “Hazera's heritage

that are very well adapted to the

this worldwide crop. Our rich gene pool will be

started in mini cucumber, that are mostly

Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Central

used to create genetic diversity netuned to the

grown in non-heated greenhouses in the

American markets. Mark: “Our market shares

major production areas. Disease resistances,

Mediterranean region, in the Middle East,

in mini are growing steadily, and we have

especially to root and viral diseases will be

Central Asia and in the

extended our breeding activities, locating them

crucial, and could be a way to avoid costly

Americas as well.

Today mini cucumbers are grown as well in

in the very middle of these regions. Beside

graing. We'll adapt our varieties to effective

heated greenhouses in North America and

successful varieties for spring-summer like the

high yield growing techniques. And last but not

northern Europe. Hazera now covers the

Bereket and Dennis, we now launch new

least we will develop products responding to the

complete range. We introduced many

varieties also for the more stressful cool season

needs of the entire fresh produce chain. e aim

breakthrough innovations since the nineteen

as successors to Cohiba. A very interesting

is to look for possible innovations to turn bulk

eighties. For example strong improvements in

development is the midi cucumber for heated

products into products that offer better

fruit quality (uniform shape and colour),

greenhouses like our spring-autumn variety

convenience and superior added value to

drastic yield improvement, adaptability to

Nikifor that is giving high yield and fruit

consumers. Aer all they are the ones who

different growing conditions and more recently

quality, for example in Poland where high-tech

consume the nal product and for whom we are

long shelf life. In the early eighties we also

growers are using it.”

working every day.”


January - February 2017

Market Information

Indorama powers Nigeria with petrochemicals and fertilisers As the world's population increases and the diets of the developing world continue to improve, demand for meat and crops means food production could need to increase by up to 70% by 2050. Fertilizers will undoubtedly play a major role in this production upli. Fertilisers, undoubtedly are at the forefront of modern day agricultural revolutions. ey are also key to securing the food need of a country as no country in modern times have been able to increase agricultural productivity without expanding the use of chemical industry. e emergence of Indorama Eleme Petrochemicals Limited (IEPL), Port Harcourt through the nation's privatisation programme in 2006 and the commissioning of its world-class fertilizer plant in 2016 have fueled tremendous socio-economic activities January - February 2017

in Nigeria, especially in the industrial and agricultural sectors. Indorama's fertilizer plant in Port Harcourt with capacity for 1.5 million metric tons of granular Urea is the world's largest single-line Urea facility. Right from August 2006, IEPL has been supplying highly needed petrochemicals – polyethylene, polypropylene and PET (also called polymer resins), of different grades and variants to over 450 Nigerian companies spread all over the country. ese companies use Indorama resins to manufacture items such as water tanks; automobile dashboards, bumpers and fenders; helmets, waste disposal bins, carpets, arti cial hairs, containers for healthcare products, bottles for water and beverages, plastic chairs and tables, sacks, shopping bags, industrial pipes, bread wrappers and other packaging products [16] FARMERS REVIEW AFRICA

used in the beverage, bottling, pharmaceuticals, paints, textiles and allied industries. In the area of fertilizers, Indorama Eleme Fertilizer and Chemicals Limited (IEFCL) has become Nigeria's prime fertilizer solutions provider through supplies of its granular Urea to over 20 million farmers across all the states and Abuja, as well as giving free agronomy extension services and training to the farmers. Aer satisfying all local demands for fertilizer, surplus production will be exported to earn foreign exchange for the country. Users of Indorama's Urea fertilizer and its petrochemical products as raw materials create huge employment opportunities for Nigerians --- directly and indirectly. e multiplier effect on the economy is formidable. It is not surprising why experts

Market Information

believe strongly that, indeed, Indorama is fueling socio-economic growth in Nigeria! Improved crop management practices for sustainable production Economically, a well-managed farm is one that consistently makes greater pro ts than similarly structured, neighboring farms. Because random, localized events such as weather oen mask differences or similarities in management, it is important to observe differences in pro ts that persist over time—those which statistically differ. Indorama Agronomic Services make things grow, with fertilizers and highefficiency plant nutrient technology advisories grounded in science. By examining and understanding the science that affects crops, they create technologies that can optimize our customers/farmers' fertilizer investments, portal is a one-stop crop management information resource for the farmers. Agronomic Services provides detailed content on crops, crop management techniques, fertilizers & pesticides and a host of other agriculture related material. Generic information enriches Farmers with common topics on agriculture like Soils, Seeds, Nutrients, Fertilizers, and best

management practices for optimum crop production and pro ts. Our team of expert agronomists, working together with universities and government researchers, are committed to developing and delivering Agronomic services our customers can trust, help in problem solving mechanisms in the farmer's own situation based on the reality that considerable number of farmers has limited Agronomic information eg Knowledge in the form of crop management, pest management, water management, soil management, implements, agricultural advancement etc. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) In IEFCL. e era of corporate organizations paying lip service to social responsibility is fast coming to an end. e recent past has seen corporate social responsibility becoming a process from a concept and also organizations deriving value from this initiative. Alongside of the Group Company Indorama Eleme Petrochemicals Limited, IEFCL has implemented several CSR projects and has also signed an MOU with the hose communities on the investments in such projects.

Indorama has contributed remarkably to the wellbeing of its host communities in Rivers State through numerous community development projects and corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives including enjoying the dividends of their 7.5% shares of the company. Indorama's achievements and milestones In 2012, the company built and commissioned a new PET plant, the only one in sub-Saharan Africa. ey also commenced construction of a new fertilizer plant in 2013; alongside two other complementary projects – an 84-kilometre gas pipeline and a port terminal at Onne Port in Port Harcourt. ese three projects were all completed on schedule. Indorama Corporation has invested about $3.5 billion in Nigeria since they became core investors in Eleme Petrochemicals in 2006. In the near future, we will also be investing in Methanol and NGL plants, and by 2019, they would have invested about a total of $4.7 billion to realize their vision of building the largest petrochemicals hub of Africa in Nigeria. e company has positioned itself as one of the leading suppliers of Polyole n in African continent and in US, Europe and Asia as well.

Indorama and KNARDA Team


January - February 2017

Market Information

Recognizing its outstanding contribution to the exports, the company was awarded, the prestigious Presidential Award for Exports by the Nigerian Export Promotion Council (NEPC) for the year 2011. One amongst the key factors that have enabled IEPL in its strategic positioning has been its continuous efforts at ensuring total customer satisfaction by supplying highquality products consistently. Besides, the company's competitive pricing and technological capabilities to produce more than 35 customized grades of PE and PP, suiting to the speci c requirements of the customers have given a competitive edge to IEPL. Fertiliser and methonal plant design e project is constructed in the 400-acre Eleme industrial complex, which already includes ole ns, butene, polyethylene and polypropylene plants. It is well-equipped with facilities such as a captive power plant, an effluent treatment plant, storage facilities, bagging systems and warehouses. e complex also has a PET plant, which was commissioned in July 2012. “Construction of the fertiliser methanol plants is part of Indorama's aim to create the largest petrochemicals hub in the country."

Indorama's new facility at the complex is a gas-to-urea-based plant. It produces urea from natural gas feedstock using KBR's puri er technology. e project included the construction of a 2,300 metric tonnes per day (mtpd) ammonia plant and a 4,000mtpd urea plant. Feedstock is supplied by the Nigerian Azienda Generale Italiana Petroli (Agip) pipeline company through an 84km-long pipeline with a diameter of 35cm. e project also included the construction of a multipurpose jetty at Onne Port, which is located 16km away from the project site. Up to 70% of the fertilisers produced at the plant are transported to the jetty for export markets, while the remaining are lled in 50kg bags and sold within the domestic market. Technology at IEFCL's Nigerian facility KBR's puri er process system includes a feed / effluent exchanger and a column, including a condenser and an expander. e technology has very low-energy consumption and produces high-purity synthesis gas, from which ammonia can be extracted. Impurities from the synthesis gas are separated by washing it with excess nitrogen.

Project bene ts and contractors involved e new facility provides urea at an affordable price to the domestic market in Nigeria. It employs approximately 3,800 people during the construction period. It also generates 250 direct and 348 indirect jobs aer completion. Production from the new plant allows the country to reduce its reliance on urea imports and helps Nigeria become self-sufficient. e plant also exports the surplus to various countries, including Brazil, Ghana, India, South Africa, the UK and the US. Financing Nigeria's fertiliser plant e total estimated investment on the project was $1.2bn. In February 2013, IEFCL signed a long-term nancing agreement for $800m with commercial banks and 16 global developmental nancial organisations to construct the plant. International Finance Corporation (IFC) provided $375m in nancing to support the project. IEFCL received a $100m loan from the African Development Bank (AfDB) in January 2013 for the construction and operation of the new plants.

Indorama University trials

January - February 2017


Market Information

Renewable Energy and Agriculture:

A Natural Fit

Agriculture is the sole provider of human food. Most farm machines are driven by fossil fuels, which contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and, in turn, accelerate climate change. Such environmental damage can be mitigated by the promotion of renewable resources such as solar, wind, biomass, tidal, geo-thermal, small-scale hydro, biofuels and wave-generated power. ese renewable resources have a huge potential for the agriculture industry. e farmers should be encouraged by subsidies to use renewable energy technology. e concept of sustainable agriculture lies on a delicate balance of maximizing crop productivity and maintaining economic stability, while minimizing the utilization of nite natural resources and detrimental environmental impacts. Sustainable agriculture also depends on replenishing the soil while minimizing the use of non-renewable resources, such as

January - February 2017

natural gas, which is used in converting atmospheric nitrogen into synthetic fertilizer, and mineral ores, e.g. phosphate or fossil fuel used in diesel generators for water pumping for irrigation. Hence, there is a need for promoting use of renewable energy systems for sustainable agriculture, e.g. solar photovoltaic water pumps and electricity, greenhouse technologies, solar dryers for post-harvest processing, and solar hot water heaters. In remote agricultural lands, the underground submersible solar photovoltaic water pump is economically viable and also an environmentally-friendly option as compared with a diesel generator set. If there are adverse climatic conditions for the growth of particular plants in cold climatic zones then there is need for renewable energy technology such as greenhouses for maintaining the optimum plant ambient temperature conditions for


the growth of plants and vegetables. Wind Power Wind technologies provide mechanical and electrical energy. Wind turbines operate on a simple principle: Wind turns rotor blades, which drive an electric generator, turning the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Farms have long used wind power to pump water and generate electricity. Recently, wind developers have installed large wind turbines on farms and ranches in a number of states to provide power to electric companies and consumers. Small wind systems can serve agriculture in traditional ways, such as using mechanical energy to pump water or grind grain. As costs decrease, small systems used to generate electricity may also become economically efficient by avoiding the expense of installing transmission wires, especially in more remote applications. Where connected to the electricity distribution grid, small windmills can generate revenue through electricity sales when generation exceeds internal

Market Information

requirements. Biomass Energy Biomass energy is produced from plants and organic wastes—everything from crops, trees, and crop residues to manure. Crops grown for energy could be produced in large quantities, just as food crops are. While corn is currently the most widely used energy crop, native prairie grasses such as switchgrass or fast-growing trees such as poplar and willow are likely to become the most popular in the future. ese perennial crops require less maintenance and fewer inputs than do annual row crops such as corn, so they are cheaper and more sustainable to produce. Crops and biomass wastes can be converted to energy on the farm or sold to energy companies that produce fuel for cars and

tractors and heat and power for homes and businesses. Solar Energy e amount of energy from the sun that reaches Earth each day is enormous. All the energy stored in Earth's reserves of coal, oil, and natural gas is equal to the energy from only 20 days of sunshine. Solar energy can be used in agriculture in a number of ways, saving money, increasing self-reliance, and reducing pollution. Solar energy can cut a farm's electricity and heating bills. Solar heat collectors can be used to dry crops and warm homes, livestock buildings, and greenhouses. Solar water heaters can provide hot water for dairy operations, pen cleaning, and homes. Photovoltaics (solar electric panels) can power farm operations and remote

water pumps, lights, and electric fences. Buildings and barns can be renovated to capture natural daylight, instead of using electric lights. Solar power is oen less expensive than extending power lines. Expanding the Potential of Renewable Energy Renewable energy technologies are being used in a variety of applications on farms and ranches and there are many opportunities to expand their use in the future. For example, renewable, farm-based biomass and other renewable energy sources may be able to fuel hydrogen production; agricultural vehicles running on hydrogen could have the same efficiency and environmental bene ts planned for light-duty cars and trucks; and hydrogen fuel cell technology could provide power for remote locations and communities.

Biomass plant


January - February 2017

Market Information

The pumps are used in the dairy industry breweries and wineries and a lot of other food applications

Significant growth forecast for the food and beverage industry Growth prospects for the food and beverage

A signi cant increase in demand for

Kobus Fourie, pump specialist at Verder

industry in South Africa remain positive,

convenience products, and a growing health

South Africa, explains that Packo multi-purpose

according to Verder South Africa, which

awareness, reveals that the South African food

pumps not only optimise production process in

supplies Packo pumps to applications from

and beverage industry is in the midst of a

the food and beverage industry, but also increase

breweries and wineries to dairies.

transition. However, the industry is faced with

factory capacity, drive cost reduction, ensure

e Food Processing Machinery and

certain challenges, especially the fact that the

hygiene standards are complied with, comply

Packaging Machinery Association of the

production processes used are both energy-

with all relevant legislation, and are

German Engineering Federation (VDMA)

and water-intensive. Not only do the processes

environment-friendly and energy-efficient.

reports a 13% growth rate in the beverage

themselves require a great deal of water, but

Verder Packo pumps are available in capacities

sector over the next few years. In the case of

water is also needed to clean the plants and

of up to 40 m3/hour, with the latest addition to

non-alcoholic beverages, growth could be as


the range boasting an astonishing ow rate of 1

high as 19%, and 29% for juices, 25% for

Water shortages, electricity constraints, and

200 m3/hour, driven by a 200 kW motor. is

bottled water, 51% for concentrates, and 35%

the mooted carbon and sugar taxes will result

1.6 t pump represents an extension of the

for sport and energy drinks. e alcoholic

in increased costs for manufacturers, who are

current MCP3 and MFP3 range.

beverage market is anticipated to grow by 6%

looking increasingly to innovative

over the same period.

technological solutions to help mitigate these

Prospects for the food and beverage industry remain positive due to rapid urbanisation and a

rising costs.

“Increasing production efficiencies, more efficient processes and ever-larger food factories are the main drivers for producing bigger food-

Verder recently acquired distribution rights

grade pumps at high efficiency,” comments

growing middle class. In addition, consumer

for the Packo pump range for the food and

Fourie. is also forms part of the ongoing

behaviour is changing, with baked goods and

beverage industry. ese perfectly cleanable

development of an ideal solution to handle

confectionery gaining popularity. is points to

process pumps are used in the most

shear-sensitive products such as mash, while

a double-digit increase in per capita

demanding hygienic applications, including

reducing electricity consumption.

consumption over the next few years, according to the VDMA.

January - February 2017

ltration, pasteurisation, yeast propagation and CIP (Clean-In-Place) cleaning systems.


Market Information

Market Information

The liquid versus dry debate Striking a balance between consistency and

fertility program and potentially improve crop

through the leaves and are more readily available

cost can be difficult when choosing and

production efficiency. If all goes well, this can

for plant use than if ground applied.

applying fertilizers. Your crop will take up

result in more pro table crop production.

nutrients in either liquid or granular form.

With granular fertilizer application, the

How you decide to provide those nutrients is up to you. e liquid versus granular fertilizer debate, if there is one, is, at its core, a question of science, nances, tradition and geography. Crops need speci c nutrients during speci c stages of growth. And those nutrients need to

phosphate granules, or any other nutrient

However, the availability of foliar applied nutrients is short-lived and not continuous for the rest of the growing season. Foliar

granule, may be too far away from the plant

applications are a good way to correct mid-

when it needs it most, a problem does not exist

season de ciencies or supplement soil applied

when using liquid blends.


Granular and liquid both contain and

Unlike granular, liquid fertilizer is a

provide for the crop the needed nutrients to

homogeneous blend — every drop contains the

survive and thrive, but one main difference

desired mixture. e granular market knows

be available, whether they exist in granular or

between the two has less to do with form than

and understands the bene ts of coverage

liquid form. e bigger focus is the four Rs of

placement and coverage.

consistency and is steering research and

fertilizer: right form, right place, right time, right rate. Granular fertilizer Dry fertilizers are generally incorporated into

Banded, nitrogen and potassium granular

development dollars towards homogeneous

fertilizers may burn your seed due to a higher


salt content. And, in other cases, the growing

Many agricultural sources say liquid fertilizers

plant will steer its roots away from the

contain less salt and, as a result, are the better

nitrogen-banded granules of fertilizer. In

choice for putting down directly with the seed.

granules. Fertilizer blends can be created by

starter blends, the nitrogen component may be

e lower salt content limits potential seed burn

mixing individual granular fertilizer of known

“too hot” for the plant to access the phosphate

and tissue damage.

analysis (e.g., 46-0-0, 18-46-0 and 0-0-60) in

granules in the band.

Corn growers oen prefer liquid to start their

the proper ratio to create the desired blend. Dry fertilizers can be ground applied as a

crop, citing reasons of placement, consistency Liquid fertilisers

and “pop-up effect” giving corn a better start

broadcast; applied at planting as a band, oen

Liquid fertilizers have greatly increased in

than any form of fertilizer. Also, corn growers

placed 2 inches to the side and 2 inches below

popularity in recent years. ey can be either

oen nd alternative, more affordable means

the seed (2-by-2 placement); or applied as

ground applied or foliar applied. Liquids can

(oen manure) to top-up nitrogen levels in their

sidedress and cultivated shallowly into the soil.

be broadcast, used in a band application at

elds, making the cost of a simpler liquid

When farmers have access to custom blended

planting and as mid-season sidedress. When

formula worth the tank, pump and hose

granular fertilizer, they can ne-tune their crop

foliar applied, the plant nutrients are absorbed

infrastructure worth it.

January - February 2017


Ideas & Innovation

Kenyan irrigation app aims to cut water waste, crop losses Dressed in brown overalls, gumboots and a

placed throughout a eld to determine if soil is

employed by the university will then help the

hat, John Njeru kneels and scoops up a handful

moist enough. If it's too dry, a control unit uses

farmer remotely with instructions, or physically

of soil at his small farm in central Kenya, where

solar panels to open the valve of a water tank,

come to the farm if needed." Depending on the

he grows tomatoes, spinach, and carrots. "Not

then close it again when the soil is damp

severity of the problem, a consultation with a

only has there not been enough rain in the past


few months, it's also been unevenly

technician can cost the farmer up to 500 Kenyan

Initially tested at the university's own farm,

shillings (about $5).

distributed," he said, picking through the earth

the irrigation system is now being rolled out to

Njeru, who paid 75,000 Kenyan shillings

in his hand. "is destroys our crops."

the public - including farmers like Njeru. "We

($721) to install the app and irrigation system

Dealing with more unpredictable and irregular

can't yet quantify how many farmers are using

on his 1.5-acre farm, said that "although the app

rainfall associated with climate change is a

the app, but hope to expand it to thousands

is expensive, it's a cost worth paying when I

challenge for many farmers, and one made

across Meru County - and potentially the rest

compare my current harvest to previous years."

worse by water-wasting, inefficient irrigation

of the country if the system proves successful,"

systems, experts say.

Maitethia said.

But scientists from Kenya's Meru University of Science and Technology have come up with

"I used to lose up to 70 percent of my produce as a result of dry weather and inefficient

e combined app and irrigation system cost 50,000 Kenyan shillings ($480) per

irrigation, compared to only 10 percent now," he said.

one way to deal with the problem: a mobile app

quarter of an acre, including solar panels and

that monitors the need for water in elds and

two drip irrigation lines. e system can be

to help water his farm on a day-to-day basis.

controls irrigation equipment to deliver just

expanded to an additional quarter acre for

Now he no longer needs to do so, he said. "at

what is needed.

5,000 Kenyan shillings ($48).

"Farmers in the region traditionally water crops with cans or buckets," an inefficient way of getting water to plants, said Daniel

Njeru used to occasionally hire other farmers

saves me 20,000 Kenyan shillings ($192) per month," he said. Maitethia thinks that as more people buy the

Cost and bene ts While Maitethia acknowledges the upfront

app, its cost could reduce by more than half.

Maitethia, an electronics lecturer at Meru

cost of the system is high, he believes it will

e project was awarded 1 million Kenyan

University. "e lack of measuring also means

not only curb water waste but save labour costs

shillings ($9,600) by the Water Services Trust

they water crops unevenly - so some may get

as it does not require farmers to physically

Fund in November as the best innovation in

too much water, and others not enough," he

monitor it.

water management, he said. "is prize - and

said. e "sensor-based automatic irrigation system" app, launched last year, uses senors

"If there is a glitch in the system, the farmer

hopefully partnerships with other organisations

receives a text message notifying him of the

- should make the technology available to small

problem," he explained. "A technician

as well as large-scale farmers."


January - February 2017

Paris, 13 January 2017



SIMA World



INNOVATIVE FARMING START-UPS OUT IN FORCE AT SIMA 2017! At its upcoming 2017 edi on, SIMA (26 February – 2 March 2017 at Paris-Nord Villepinte Exhibi on Centre) will be bringing together French and interna onal start-ups. Reflec ng the 2017 theme "Being a Farmer in 10 years", around fi een of them will congregate in the Start-up Village, organised in associa on with La Ferme Digitale*, a forum offering a pla orm for social networking sites, on-line comparators, management so ware, service providers, applica ons, and more. Other start -ups will have their own stands in the surrounding exhibi on aisles. Their common denominator is that they all develop innova ve solu ons in step with a profoundly-changing farming sector.

ON-BOARD ELECTRONICS, NEW TECHNOLOGY Airinov: a pioneer in farm drones offering the first measurement sensor for crop growth, developed in partnership with the French research agency INRA. Carbon Bee: a tool to assess plant health, enabling treatments to be op mised and diseases to be tracked by capturing data using a drone, a robot or a tractor. a connected device aimed at agricultural equipment sharing clubs, which automa cally calculates the use of each machine to enable simple cost-alloca on. Exo c Systems: supplies vehicles, buildings and fields with connected solu ons to help achieve higher efficiency on farms and be er yield from all farm processes. Naïo Technologies: farm robots and electric tools to help farmers in their tasks by lightening their workload, improving farm profitability and reducing environmental impact. Sunibrain: an ar ficial intelligence robot which improves the precision of solar panel management in order to achieve the highest return. Visio-Green Agriculture: connected solu ons (sensors, data analysis, apps, etc.) to contribute to the improvement of opera onal efficiency on farms. Weenat: solu ons including connected sensors which supply real- me farm and weather informa on on the parcel, linking up with an app and with decision-making tools.

SERVICES AND ADVICE the first online marketplace en rely dedicated to farmers’ supplies (seeds, parts, equipment, fer lisers, etc.). Agrifind: a social networking pla orm allowing members to offer the benefit of their exper se to other farmers in search of tangible solu ons. the first online farm comparator on which farmers can sell their harvest or buy their fer liser. a supplier of a full range of services for the global resale of used farm machinery. Ekylibre: farm management so ware for the agriculture of the future, with the aim of freeing up farmers from their administra ve burdens (500 hours per year on average) . decision making informa on pla orm enabling the modelling of individual commercial strategies (buying and selling) from a proprietary algorithm.

SOCIAL PLATFORMS, MANAGEMENT ASSISTANCE a social pla orm which connects up knowledge, informa on and resources allowing the farmer to manage their farm and work with their partners using a single so ware solu on. first social pla orm developed for distributors of farm tyres (specialist wholesalers and farm equipment dealers).

January - February 2017

[26] FARMERS REVIEW AFRICA a website to help with farm supplies (fer lisers, spare parts, livestock equipment, etc.), provides informa on and encourages interac on between professionals. Sencrop: an agro-meteorological social pla orm connected to weather sta ons and sensors and linked up with decision-making tools the first farm machinery rental website allowing farmers to hire machinery that they cannot afford or do not need to own. a pioneering website for peer-to-peer equipment rental in the farming world which today boasts 2,900 WeFarmers and 1,850 available machines.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Enerbioflex: an engineering consultancy specialising in energy overconsump on which analyses and helps to reduce direct energy consump on (electricity, hea ng fuel, gas and biomass) in farms. Diimo on: a direct injec on system, for more efficient and eco -friendly spraying, capable of working with all products, both powders and liquids, with a reac on me of barely one second.

In parallel, the Start-up Village will be hos ng several workshops organised by La Ferme Digitale* offering exchange and debate around the most topical subjects: · Green Trend, sustainable agriculture: new words have sprung up in recent years (AMAPs, local consumerism, organic, responsible consumerism, etc.). This workshop will examine their meaning and offer dialogue between consumers and producers. · Farm distribu on of tomorrow: how will it create value for the farmer, the sector’s businesses and the end consumer? · Internet of Things: new gadgets or the farmer’s best friend? · Financing in the farming sector: tradi onal players are now inves ng in intangible assets (so ware, ar ficial intelligence, innova ve ecosystems, start-ups, etc.). Why has farming remained such a long-standing investment? Start-up Village - Hall 4 - Stand H 012 and J 011 * La Ferme Digitale is an associa on made up of 12 start-ups whose aim is to promote innova on and digital technology to achieve high-performance, sustainable agriculture.


January - February 2017

Market Information

Stainless steel in the dairy industry: A sustainable solution for human diet Every dairy farmer appreciates the service of a good milking machine. In fact, every farmer NEEDS only the best portable milking machine at the farm. Milk is an emulsion containing about 87% water. e remaining 13% is made up of fatty acids, inorganic compounds, vitamins, and enzymes which do not dissolve in milk. Fresh milk is an ideal culture medium for microbial ora that can spoil the end product. us, the manufacture of milk and milk products is subject to very stringent rules. ese rules cover the way in which the livestock are kept and milked, preparation methods, additives, processing equipment, and the transport tanks that move the milk from the farm to the processing plant. On its journey from the farm to the consumer, milk comes into contact with the walls of the equipment in which it is being processed or transported. e nal product must reach the consumer meticulously clean and free from all germs. It is for this reason that the dairy industry has employed

January - February 2017

stainless steel for more than sixty years. e compact and smooth surface of stainless steel prevents bacterial contamination and facilitates cleaning and disinfection. e development of stainless steel in the food industry is explained by the fact that it corresponds exactly to the requirements expected of materials in contact with food. e requirements fall into one of the following three categories: · Chemical, bacteriological and organoleptic neutrality with regard to the food product. · Ability to be cleaned so the hygiene and appearance of the product is guaranteed. · Durability, including resistance to corrosion and aging. Other factors also contribute towards making stainless steel the preferred material for the entire food processing industry. ese include its mechanical characteristics, expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and ease of use.


What makes stainless steel a sustainable material? People e material, in its use or in its production process, respects the human being, especially in terms of health and safety. A sustainable material does not harm the people working to produce it, or the people who handle it during its use, recycling and ultimate disposal. Stainless steel is not harmful to people during either its production or use. A protective layer forms naturally on all stainless steels because of the inclusion of chromium. e passive layer protects the steel from corrosion – ensuring a long life. As long as the correct grade of stainless is selected for an application, the steel remains inert and harmless to the people who handle it and the environment. ese characteristics have made stainless steel the primary material in medical, food processing, household and catering applications. Planet e emission footprints of the material,

especially those related to carbon, water and air, are minimised. Reuse and recyclability are at high levels. e material has low maintenance costs and a long life, both key indicators that the impact of the material on the planet is at the lowest levels possible. e electric arc furnace (EAF), the main process used to make stainless steels, is extremely efficient. An EAF has a low impact on the environment in terms of both CO2 and other emissions. e EAF is also extremely efficient at processing scrap stainless, ensuring that new stainless steel has an average recycled content of more than 60%. Stainless steels are easily recycled to produce more stainless steels and this process can be carried on inde nitely. It is estimated that about 80% of stainless steels are recycled at the end of their life. As stainless steel has a high intrinsic value, it is collected and recycled without any economic incentives from the public purse.

Pro t e industries producing the material show long-term sustainability and growth, provide excellent reliability and quality for their customers, and ensure a solid and reliable supply-chain to the end consumer. Choosing stainless steel for an application ensures that it will have low maintenance costs, a long life and be easy to recycle at the end of that life. is makes stainless an economical choice in consumer durables (such as refrigerators and washing machines) and in capital goods applications (such as transportation, chemical and process applications). Stainless steels also have better mechanical properties than most metals. Its re and corrosion resistance make stainless a good choice in transportation, building or public works such as railways, subways, tunnels and bridges. ese properties, together with stainless steels' mechanical behaviour, are of prime importance in these

applications to ensure human beings are protected and maintenance costs are kept low. Stainless also has an aesthetically pleasing appearance, making it the material of choice in demanding architectural and design projects. Taking into account its recyclability, reuse, long life, low maintenance and product safety, the emissions from the production and use of stainless steels are minimal when compared to any other alternative material. For decades, stainless steel has helped dairy farmers keep the quality of their milk at the highest level. is ensures safety in the food chain and pro tability for the dairy farmer. Stainless steels have a smooth, neutral surface which does not pick up tastes or smells. Stainless steels are extremely strong so they can withstand tough industrial environments. Today dairy equipment is made of stainless steels because it is easy to clean, disinfect and does not react with the lactic acids formed by fermenting milk.

Website: Tel: +27 11 876 3740 Email: 22 Makriel Road , Wadeville Germiston.

How safe are your liners? Most people would not drive their car or tractor once the tread on the tyres becomes worn. ey

swollen when the cup is removed. Discoloration of

risk of mastitis. As a general rule of thumb, if you

teats aer milking is a sign of inaccurate vacuum or

notice an improvement in milking performance aer replacing liners, the old ones were used for too long!

know that worn tyres are dangerous, increase the

pulsation settings, or poor liner function. A liner

likelihood of having an accident and reduce the

that does not correctly compress on the teat will not

handling performance and efficiency of their vehicle.

reduce uids that accumulate near the teat end

However, there is another piece of rubber on a dairy

during the milking phase.

farm that is oen not treated with such respect. e

is can lead to congestion of the teat canal,

Choosing a liner Choosing a liner is a complex and difficult task – and an extremely important one. Liners have a huge

milking liner, which is ultimately the nal point of

restricting the downward ow of milk. When liners

impact on teat-end health as well as parlor efficiency.

contact between the sensitive teat tissues of the cow

are not changed on proper intervals, the mouthpiece

Oen a particular liner is settled on by a trial-and-

and the milking machine is frequently not changed

and barrel become distorted, causing poor

error process. With so many liner designs and choices,

when worn and remains un-changed as the

massaging of the teat, which is oen combined with

this process can be quite lengthy. I will attempt to

an increase in liner slips. is, overall, results in an

describe the most popular types of liners available.

performance of the liner starts to decline. e liner is the only component of the milking

inefficient and ineffective milking performance on

Getting the best use from your milking equipment

machine that comes into direct contact with the cow's

your herd.

begins with selecting the right liner that is matched for

teat. erefore, it is one of the key components in the

Efficient milking is desired, and essential, for the

your operation, system settings and your cows. Both

process of milking cows quickly, gently and

dairy operation. ere are key performance

rubber and silicone liners have advantages.

completely. Although many people try to squeeze a

indicators in uenced by liners which can be

Rubber liners are less expensive up-front compared to

few more weeks or months from the liners in a dairy,

monitored to determine performance. Here are a few

the silicone variety, although the cost per milking

this is almost always a poor option for the most

to keep an eye on:

important component of the milking machine.


As liners age, their shape, tension and surface

calculated over time may not be signi cant. Rubber is

Peak milk ow should be 8 to 12 pounds

a more durable material, with greater resistance to

per minute within the rst two minutes


on 80 percent of the cows.

condition changes gradually. is gradual

Average milk ow of 6.5 to 8.5 pounds

dairies in need of a robust compound. Silicone liners

on their milking characteristics. Both the internal

per minute is desired on more than 80

have a longer life and improved surfaces. ey are less

surface and the milking performance of liners tend to

percent of the cows.

prone to deterioration and cracking, as they hold up

deterioration can have subtle but signi cant effects


ey deteriorate faster but can be a viable option for

Teat color change, red or blue, should

better against butterfat in the milk. But even high-

designated use-by date.

occur on less than 10 percent of the teats.

quality silicone will eventually succumb to cleaning

Quarters should milk out evenly within

chemicals and hot water. e key is a product that will

Replacing liners

1.5 minutes of each other on 90 percent

maintain consistent milkability throughout its use life.

deteriorate more quickly soon aer they reach their


If there is an improvement in milking performance when the liners are changed, it is a sign they are being


of the cows.

In summary, a reluctance to change milking liners at

Teat-end scores of 1 and 2 (healthy teat

the appropriate interval can be false economy. It can

changed too late. Visual signs of deterioration should

ends) are desired on at least 80 percent of

lead to slower milking, longer milking sessions and

lead to immediate liner replacement. If a liner is


increased liner slippage. e internal surface of the

cracked or torn, it is long past its usefulness. However, oentimes, liner deterioration signs are invisible to the naked eye, making them difficult to


Liner slips should be less than 2 percent

liner becomes harder to clean, increasing the risk of

of the quarters milked.

the transmission of mastitis pathogens and cleaning

As tempting as it may be to eke out extra milkings

related quality problems. Most sensible people would

detect and, as a result, we have to look at other cues.

from the liners, you never want to sacri ce

not put their family at risk by driving with worn tyres

Liners should milk the cow with minimal discomfort

performance or cow health.

– perhaps we should give the dairy herd the same

to the teats.

Any effect on teat end condition or any increased


Adequately massaged teats should feel so and not

liner slips are particularly signi cant for increased


January - February 2017

Choosing the right dairy liners Making an informed choice and looking at some of the latest developments in liner technology could have a dramatic and positive impact on herd health and milk quality. Milkrite | InterPuls has been introducing new technology liners over the last years that

improve milking efficiency and teat health. e triangular liner is well known to give a gentler milking action – and more recently the mouthpiece vented version that is giving efficiency and teat health improvements. Triangular liners have a much gentler milking action due to the way the liner

collapses under vacuum – see gure 1. e three-way collapse of a triangular liner exerts less pressure on the teat and can help reduce the incidence of teat-end damage - see graph 1. Triangular liners also have a greater area in contact with the teat so are less prone to slipping/squawking.

Graph 1 Test end score comparison Milkrite Impulse triangular range combines the bene ts of triangular liners with a triangular shell pro le - to give a faster response from the liner to the pulsation signals. is further improves milking efficiency. Triangular mouthpiece vented liners are revolutionary (lot less slippage on the teat, excellent speed of milking, excellent teat health). “It is the biggest improvement in milking the cow in a generation”. You can nd out more by visiting the milkrite|InterPuls website – – Figure 1 – round versus triangular

January - February 2017


Machine milking and milking machines Machine milking is gradually being adopted in

that with time cows that are not completely

Bucket milking machines

many large farms, because it reduces labour and

milked gradually reduce milk production

ese are the simplest and least expensive to

performs a better quality milking job than hand

whereas those that are completely milked

install. is type of system is suitable for small

milking. However, because most dairy farms

increases milk yield. e importance of

and medium size herds. Cows are milked on a

have small herds sizes and cheap labour farmers

complete milking therefore cannot be over-

level oor of a stable or milking shed. e milking

do not see the need to install milking machines.

emphasized. Also note that cows cannot endure

machine is mounted on a trolley with one or two

is is also because milking machines require

delays in scheduled milking without serious

buckets at the base. About 8-10 cows per hour are

power and are more expensive to install

reductions in milk yield.

milked with one bucket type and 16-20 cows per

compared to the few equipment needed for hand milking. But milking machines have many advantages over hand milking. For high yielding dairy cows

Although the cost of installing milking machines is high, investing in a good milking

hour with 2 buckets. Simple hand driven mobile low cost milking

machine is a good decision if conditions allow.

machines powered by combustion engine are

Many types and sizes of milking machines

available in the market.

it is normally difficult to ensure all milk is

suitable for different categories of farmers are

removed from the udder within the required

available in the market. Small scale farmers with

Pipeline milking plants

time. A cow should be milked within 7 minutes.

small herds between 5 to 10 cows can invest on

Milking beyond this time is not productive

simple milking machines to replace the

which milk is transported direct from the cow's

because the hormone oxytocin that stimulates

inefficient and labor intensive method of manual

udder to a common milk reservoir. ey are

milk production will have long ceased to be


suitable for large dairy farms where the work load

effective. Machine milking on the other hand is very fast such that all the milk will have been removed by the end of this time.

is usually heavy. Types of milking machines ere are several types which can be broadly

Effective milking has a direct bearing on the long

categorized as bucket machines and pipeline

term milk yield of the cow. It has been proved

milking plants.

January - February 2017

is set up has continuous pipeline through

Parlour milking systems Parlour milking systems are usually installed in milking parlourssuch as tandem and herring


borne. All the equipment is centralized and the

the calf, in a way machine milking is different

stimulate higher milk yields it is not justi able to

cows come to the parlour for milking.

from hand milking or calf suckling. A constant

install them for a low yielding herd. Manual

vacuum is applied on the teat to create a

milking for cows that produce more than 10 litres

Basic components of milking machines

pressure difference across the teat canal and

per session is oen ineffective and milking

Vacuum system

keep the machine attached to the cow. e

machines should be considered.

is comprises of a vacuum pump and reserve tank, vacuum regulator, pipelines and long pulse tube(s) forming an enclosed space.

vacuum congests the teats and squeezes milk from the teat. Atmospheric air is allowed once per second to collapse and relieve congestion around the end of the teats creating a pulsation.

Pulsators ese alter the vacuum level around the teat so

Milking units or cluster e assembly of four teat cups connected to a

e cost of labour throughout Kenya is not high and this may not be a major consideration. Where

is pulsation is important as it massages,

the labour costs are high such as in developed

relieves and prevents damage to the teats.

countries, automation is necessary so as to cut

Factors to consider when installing milking

employed to milk do not do a good job, oen


leaving milk in the udder. Farmers can solve this

Number of cows

problem by going for the milking machines.

that milking occurs without uid congestion and edema of the teat tissues.

e cost and quality of manual labour

costs. But skilled milkers are scarce. ose

Although you can install a milking machine

claw and mounted with a valve that admits and

for just one cow, it is not an economical

cuts off the vacuum to the unit.

undertaking. If the size of the herd ranges between 5 to 10 milking cows then the single

electricity so a source of power is important. But

Milk removal system

cow milking machine is suitable. A herd size

where there is no power other alternatives are

Infrastructure Most milking machines are powered by

above 10 animals will require bigger sized

available in which simple combustion engines or

milking unit toward a storage unit.


solar energy is used to drive the vacuum and milk

How milking machines work

e level of milk production

is transports the milk away from the

pumps. Although milking machines copy suckling by

Although milking machines can be used to

Bucket milking machine


January - February 2017

Business Profile

Case IH celebrates 175 years of agricultural equipment production Global agricultural equipment manufacturer,

steam engines quickly replaced horses for

160hp to 240hp, was introduced in 1987 and

Case IH, is beginning a year of celebrations to

threshing, the JI Case reshing Machine

became the rst tractor to win the Industrial

commemorate its 175th anniversary at the

Company became the world's largest producer

Design Excellence Award. Now producing up to

brand's global headquarters in Racine,

of steam engines by 1886.

380hp, the Magnum continues to be one of the


In 1902, ve companies merged to form the

most recognizable Case IH products and more

e Brand President Andreas Klauser said that

International Harvester Company in Chicago,

than 150,000 have been sold.

the anniversary was a testament to many years

the deal being brokered, personally, by JP

“When I look at the enormous transformation

of quality, perseverance and progress.

Morgan, the American banker who dominated

which has taken place in agriculture over the last

“I nd it amazing to see just how far the

corporate nance and industrial consolidation

175 years, it is very exciting to think about what

farming industry and our company have come

at the time. Case IH was formed in 1985 when

might be achieved during the next 175 years. I

during the last 175 years especially given the

J I Case acquired the agricultural division of

am sure that will be discussed during our

fact that we are stronger than ever before

International Harvester, uniting the legacies of

celebrations with customers, dealers and

today,” Klauser stated. “e common theme

Case and IH in a single brand.

employees,” Klauser added.

which has always guided our innovative

Its rst product, the Magnum tractor from

approach is to provide customers with everimproving technologies that enable them to farm more efficiently and pro tably.” e company's beginnings were closely linked with those of the American economy, as American pioneers moved west and new farms were established there to feed the growing population centres in the East. In 1869, Case went on to manufacture the rst steam engine tractor, which though wheeledmounted was drawn by horses and used only to power other machines, then in 1876 built the rst self-propelled traction steam engine. As


January - February 2017


Jatropha: Gold plant catalysing Nigeria’s biofuel resolution Farming in Nigeria has become a serious business,

biodiesel, bio-kerosene, bio-petrol, glycerol and even

said the N500 billion fund, which should be accessed

but there are some cash crops that are still being

organic fertiliser from the cake. e cake could also

at 5 per cent interest rate, could help the country in

neglected, though they can generate huge foreign

be used to generate electricity, animal feeds, and

meeting its pledge to reduce the consumption of fossil-

exchange for both government and farmers.

poultry feeds. It can be used to produce insecticide

based diesel by blending 20 per cent of bio-diesel into

One of such cash crops is Jatropha, which farmers

and also produce candle from the latex.

every litre of fossil diesel.

call gold plant because of its value-chain which has

Farmers who want to venture into farming of

Omosebi said the fund would help in the

potential to generating about N1.5 trillion from both

Jatropha have no reason to fear because the plant can

development of Jatropha in the country and assist in

local and international market and solves the

survive anywhere and does not require any

blending 10 per cent of ethanol into every litre of

problem of poverty in Nigeria. Jatropha may sound new to some people but the

particular soil type for growth. In Nigeria, farmers

petrol consumed in the country by 2020, adding that

intercrop Jatropha with other plants like maize and

Jatropha is a plant that can grow in any part of Nigeria,

crop has been around for years although its huge

cassava in between the Jatropha trees, so farmers do

which can be used for bio-diesel production, bio-fuel,

potential is yet to be discovered and have remained

not have to look for another land to plant.

insecticides and medicines.

untapped in the country. One beautiful thing about

e market for bio-diesel and organic fertiliser is

He said since about 12 million litres of diesel are

the plant is that it could reduce importation of

growing but there are not enough raw materials to

consumed daily in Nigeria, to blend 20 per cent bio-

kerosene and diesel which could save foreign

feed the growth, which creates emerging market for

diesel, the country would need 2.4 million litres of bio-

exchange and payment of petroleum subsidy, as the

Nigeria, as there are currently commercial

diesel daily and for 365 days, it would require 876

Jatropha diesel is now a healthy source of aviation

plantations of Jatropha plants in Ghana, Mali,

million litres.

fuel in the world. e plant can survive for eight

Zambia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and South Africa.

Also speaking the Managing Director of Boluwa

months without water and has a life lifespan of 50

Jatropha plant is widely found in Nigeria and the

Golden Solutions, Mr. Boluwajoko Gbenga, said that

years. Farmers who are committed to the cultivation of Jatropha plant are abandoning their farms for other crops because they are not getting support aer

local names are botuje pupa, lapalapa pupa,

Jatropha farming could be used to solve the

okpokporu, sherigun, among others.

unemployment problem in Nigeria because the bio-

Jatropha plant has been identi ed as a very important source of bio-fuels aer palm oil. It had

diesel from its seeds as well as other by-products are now hot cakes in the international market.

investing heavily in the plantation, following

been used as bio-diesel and organic fertiliser in

“Presently, one big telecom company uses bio-fuel to

government abandonment of initiative so far there

several European, Asian and African countries.

run its base stations all over the country. In this

has been no support or incentives to those farmers.

at explains why Stakeholders in Jatropha oil and

business, there is no waste because both oil and chaff

Farmers said the movement for the production of

bio-diesel production in Nigeria have called on the

are marketable. Besides, there are people who plant

biofuel as an alternative source of power was initiated

Federal Government to institute a N500 billion fund

and use the bio-fuel to run their generators in Oyo

during the Goodluck Jonathan administration but

for the development of all the value chains of the

State. More so, we have foreigners waiting to buy the

was abandoned along the line.


cake. Jatropha plant and seeds can last for up to 50

However, the gold plant has potential to create wealth

Speaking in Abuja the National President of Jatropha

years and the seed is ready for harvest when the plant

through the establishment of small scale industries.

Growers, Processors and Exporters Association of

is less than a year,” added.

For instance, from the seed alone one can get

Nigeria (JaGPEAN), retired Maj-Gen. J. A. Omosebi,

January - February 2017


Market Information

Agricultural technology can’t be ignored Kenya is on the brink of embracing biotechnology in agriculture. e MIT Technology Review made the claim in October: 'Kenya is thought to be on the brink of reversing its ban on GM imports.' e news and commentary website Grist said it in June: 'Kenya is on the brink of approving GMOs.' I've been saying it myself for years: On the brink. On the brink. On the brink. Now I'm ready to say something new: We've been on the brink for too long. Many Kenyan farmers, like me, had hoped that 2016 nally would be the year that the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) allows open eld trials of Bt maize - a variety of genetically modi ed crop that has become common around the world. It protects plants from certain insect pests, giving us a natural way to defend our harvests from a major threat. I've seen farmers grow it in other countries and I'd like to grow it on my farm too. It would allow me to produce more food for my family and country. And yet our Government dilly-dallies, as it has for years. On November 30, the Kenyan National Assembly slowed us down even more when they “upheld the ban imposed on importation of GMO food by the then Minister for Public Health, Beth Mugo in 2012”. Our delay comes with a consequence. It means we're choosing to

squander a promising opportunity, are still plagued with scienti c ignorance and that once again, an African nation continues to lag behind the world in everything. Of even greater concern is the reality that our university students are threatening to stop taking biotechnology classes because they fear the ongoing Government ban on the import of GMO food crops and recently upheld by the Kenyan National Assembly would render them unemployable in their own country. My hope is that we'll turn this around - and that within ve years, Kenya will become a leader among African nations in the adoption of biotechnology. e planting of GM maize and cotton should become commonplace, leading to increased production, more economic activity, and better food security. ree SubSaharan African countries already permit the planting of GMO crops: Burkina Faso, South Africa, and Sudan. ey've gone over the brink. Tanzania and Uganda appear ready to join them. On GMOs, we're poised to show the way. We know the science. We've issued the basic regulatory approvals through our National Biosafety Authority. We've set up collaborative partnerships with the Africa Agricultural Technology Foundation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research

Organization. Our population now numbers 46 million and it's growing. We can barely feed ourselves, as subsistence farming employs about three-quarters of the population in labourintensive, low-mechanisation, and lowproductivity farming. Famine is currently afflicting at least 2 million of our countrymen and the emerging threat of climate change suggests that our challenges will only grow. We need GMOs. ey won't make our problems vanish, but they'll help us confront the difficulties that lie ahead. We'll do better with them than without them. e African continent missed the Green Revolution - the adoption of seed technologies and other inputs that spurred large increases in food production in India, Mexico, and elsewhere in the 1960s and 1970s. Ever since, Kenya and its neighbours have suffered. Today, Africa is the only continent with more malnourished people compared with three decades ago. We cannot afford to miss the Gene Revolution as well. If we do, we'll never produce enough food and ber for our people. We won't industrialize as we should. We won't break the cycle of African desperation. We'll be doomed to our sad fate. ere is an obvious solution. It's simple and sensible. Say it with me: Let's get off the brink. By Gilbert arap Bor


Irrigation Farming

‘Only Way to Food Security' As Tanzania grapples with delayed rains that are certain to adversely affect agriculture, new analyses tout increased investment in irrigation as a solution to food insecurity. Tanzania generates its food mostly through rain-fed agriculture which is currently being threatened by drought facing East African countries. Agriculture accounts for about 25 per cent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the sector employs nearly 70 per cent of the working population. Most parts of the country received rains below average between October and December last year and there are signs there will be insufficient harvests this agricultural season. As experts advise the government to evaluate the drought in order to have a clear picture of what the food situation will be in the next few months and take the necessary precautionary measures, irrigation farming is being suggested as the

January - February 2017

long-term intervention needed to save agriculture. Tanzania is one of the countries which have a huge potential for irrigation farming--a potential that hasn't been well exploited. e National Irrigation Master Plan (NIMP) 2002 prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, Security and Cooperatives in collaboration with the government of Japan through its International Cooperation Agency (Jica) indicated that the total irrigation development potential in Tanzania Mainland stands at 29.4 million hectares. Out of those, 2.3 million hectares are classi ed as high potential, 4.8 million hectares medium potential and 22.3 million hectares as low potential. However, presently only 460,000 hectares are under irrigation. However, the government says it targets to expand irrigation farming to cover at least one million hectares come 2020. e director general of the National


Irrigation Commission, Mr Seth Luswema, says there is political will to develop irrigation in the country but more investment focus is needed from both the public and the private sector. "We are now reviewing the irrigation masterplan as part of our effort to reach the targets," he said over the phone, adding: "Funding is still a challenge and as you know, it depends on the revenue collection. Some projects are integrated to have water resources and generate power. is kind of investment is not a joke. It needs collective efforts from public and private sectors," he added. He said Tanzania needs between Sh2 trillion and Sh5 trillion to complete irrigation projects that will increase the coverage to one million hectares as planned. According to him, Tanzania has 2,800 irrigation schemes countrywide. e minister for Water and Irrigation, Mr Gerson Lwenge, was quoted by the media


last year as saying that more than Sh39 billion was allocated to the Irrigation Commission for the current budget year. Tanzania enacted the National Irrigation Act 2013 in a bid to protect farmers from the growing stresses of extreme weather and climate change, by promoting better use of irrigation. e National Irrigation Act strengthens the National Irrigation Policy of 2010. Among other things, the law establishes the Irrigation Commission, a national body with the mandate to coordinate, promote and regulate irrigation activities across the country. Researchers and experts are rooting for more investment in the irrigation farming as solution for the farmers to manage drought caused by climate change and reduce hunger. "e development of irrigated agriculture has boosted agricultural yields

and increased the number of cropping seasons to two or more in many parts of the world, thereby conserving important forest resources, contributing to price stability under climate variability, and helping to feed the world's growing population," says the deputy director of the Environment and Production Technology Division of the Washingtonbased International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Claudia Ringler in a summary of new analyses. For instance, rice production in irrigation schemes with developed infrastructure is estimated to be over 5.0 tonnes per hectare while under rain-fed agriculture the yield is less than 2 tonnes per hectare. Last October, the 2016 Global Hunger Index (GHI) of the IFPRI ranked Tanzania 96 out of 118 countries, with a "serious" level of hunger. e country has made signi cant progress in reducing

hunger, according to the report though, down from a high of 42.4 score in the "alarming" category in 2000 to 28.4 in 2016. e GHI is a tool designed for the IFPRI to comprehensively measure and track hunger globally, regionally, and by country. Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda were in the same group of "serious" level of hunger but with different scores. e analyses indicate that a combination of accelerated irrigation development with increased investments in water use efficiency at the basin scale would reduce prices of rice, wheat, and maize by 7.4 per cent, 3.6 per cent, and 1.5 per cent, respectively by 2030. "Although some of these investments might seem expensive, they would provide huge bene ts to communities in the developing world and have the potential to help millions leave poverty and hunger behind," adds Ms Ringler.


January - February 2017


Quality of grain,

Handling and Storage Grain storage allows for exibility in your grain marketing program and the proper use of storage can have a positive impact on your overall pro tability. Even if you have grain storage built, there is still other criteria that should be evaluated before storing your grain. First, evaluate your interest cost on the grain inventory. If you have a loan, the proceeds from the sale of grain can repay that loan, so your interest expense is reduced if the grain is sold at harvest; however, that interest expense remains if the grain is stored. Even if there is no money borrowed, there

January - February 2017

is still a potential opportunity cost to storing your grain. î ˘e rest of the costs associated with storing grain revolve around conditioning grain and maintaining its quality. Any time grain is put into storage, growers need to manage the grain properly to keep it from spoiling. Proper management includes drying grain to safe moisture levels and then correctly, cleaning, loading, aerating and monitoring it. î ˘is can be especially challenging in a year like this year with variability in test weights and moisture as


the storage life of this stressed corn is typically shorter than normal, thus requires the grower to be more diligent in its drying and storage management. One of the most signi cant costs related to storing grain is drying grain to safe storage levels and incurring additional fuel and power costs. While storing grain in the short-term may require drying it to a15% moisture level, storing it until next summer may require drying it to closer to 13%. With the higher moisture content grain this year; growers are likely to incur greater expenses than typical in this area.


ere is also about a penny per bushel cost in aerating dried grain stored on the farm in order to keep it in good condition. Aeration is needed to cool the temperature of the grain in the winter and warm it up in the spring so the moisture remains balanced with the outside air temperature. Operating an aeration fan may also help move moisture from wet to drier kernels. Knowing the moisture content requirements of your end user is an important factor in delivering optimum moisture content and to managing your pro tability. When storing grain, there are also potential extra costs related to extra shrinkage and grain handling. When grain is dried and the moisture is removed, the number of bushels in the bin will decline. e shrinkage for farm-stored grain is about 1.25% and will be slightly higher

than that for commercially stored grain. Another related cost that should be included in the storage cost is the electricity and labor required to move grain into and out of bins. Estimates for this cost range from 2-3 cents per bushel. e last cost to consider while storing your grain is quality deterioration. is cost can be quite variable depending on the quality of the grain that was put into storage and how well the grain is managed. Problems may erupt from moisture, hot spots, insects, or even mold in the grain that was not detected. ere are many pieces of technology available to monitor the grain quality and all elevators use these tools. For the best success in storing grain, here are recommendations: · Clean grain to remove chaff, weed seeds, and broken kernels.


Handle grain gently to minimize cracked and broken kernels. · Store grain at the recommended moisture. · Aerate stored grain to maintain a cool, uniform, recommended temperature. · Check stored grain frequently and take immediate action to eliminate problems. It is also important to note, that many of the risks associated with additional handling and loss of condition can be shied to an elevator by using commercial storage, however these costs will be covered in the elevators storage charges. Like with all areas of production and management, grain drying and storage management can be an important aspect of overall pro tability.


January - February 2017

Soils & Pastures

Green manuring Soil health degradation is one of the most important problem faced by the farmers. Due to it

of trees, shrubs and herbs collected from plants

nutrients are taken up by the green manure and

grown in wastelands, eld bunds, degraded lands

held inside the plant. When the nutrients are

the land is becoming barren. e uncontrolled use

and nearby forest. ey are turned down or

needed for the next crop the plants are dug into the

of chemical fertilizers is deteriorating the soil

mixed into the soil 15-30 days before sowing of

soil or used as a mulch on top of the soil. is helps

physical, chemical and biological properties.

the crops depending on the tenderness of the

to increase crop yields. Legumes and other

erefore, to overcome this problems the concept

foliage or plant parts is known as green leaf

nitrogen xing plants which take nitrogen from the

of organic farming came into existence. e


air to the soil are particularly bene cial.

In situ green manuring

Green manures improve soil structure, letting more

organic farming depends on organic manures like farm yard manure, compost, green manuring etc. erefore, green manuring is one of the most important type of manure used in organic

Improved soil structure In situ green manuring is also called as On–farm green manure or legume green

air into the soil and improving drainage. Green manures help sandy soil hold more water and not

farming. Green manures are fertility building

manuring. In this system, the short duration

drain so quickly.

crops and may be broadly de ned as crops grown

legume crops are grown and buried in the same

Prevention of soil erosion

for the bene t of the soil. e green manuring

site when they attain the age of 60-80 days aer

Green manures help to stop the soil being carried

crops improve the humus, organic carbon,

sowing. is system of on-site nutrient resource

away by wind and rain. e roots penetrate the soil

nitrogen and soil microbial growth. Green

generation is most prevalent in northern and

and hold it in place.

manuring can bring a number of advantages to

southern parts of India, where rice is the major

the grower. Green manuring leads to the addition

crop in the existing cropping systems. Almost any

of organic matter to the soil. Green manuring

crop can be used for green manuring, but

crops increase the biological activity in the soil.

legumes are preferred because of their ability to

ese crops improve soil structure. Green manure crops helps in reducing soil

x nitrogen from the air. Green manuring with legumes (peas, clovers, lentils, etc.) is called

Weed control Green manures help to control weeds. Bare soil can become quickly overgrown with weeds which can be difficult to remove. Green manures cover the ground well and stop weeds growing beneath

erosion. ey help to increase the supply of

legume green manuring. ese crops should be

them, by competing for nutrients, space and light.

nutrients available to plants. ese crops help in

turned into the soil before setting of seeds.

erefore, it can be concluded that green manures

reducing leaching losses. It is also reported that

Legume green manuring could be pro tably used

improve soil structure, letting more air into the soil

green manuring crops help to suppress weeds,

on lands where, it was not possible to add animal

and improving drainage. Organic matter helps

reducing pest and disease problems, providing


sandy soil hold more water and not drain so

study indicates the type and importance of green

Here are some of the bene ts of Green Manure

and porosity. Also organic matter reduces rate of

manuring on plant growth.

Greater soil fertility

supplementary animal forage. us, the present

quickly as a result of increased aggregate stability runoff and soil erosion. Change in chemical

Green manures recycle nutrients and add Green leaf manuring Where the application of green leaves and twigs

January - February 2017

property of soil could be clearly observed.

organic matter to the soil. ey help prevent

Leguminous green manure crop in soil increases

nutrients being washed out of the soil. e

nitrogen level by xation.



How do farmers keep animals healthy? Everyone gets sick from time to time, and

rubber mats at feed alleys, where animals

fans to keep air moving through barns, not only

animals are no different. But how do farmers

stand to eat their food. e grooved oors will

to provide fresh air for livestock but to keep

keep animals healthy and when they are sick,

prevent the animals from falling or slipping.

them cool. Sprinklers in barns also come in

make them better?

e rubber mats act as a cushion when the

handy when it is very hot and animals need to

e most important things a farmer can

animal is eating and causes less wear.

cool off.

provide animals are lots of clean water, feed and

Deworming is a method of protection that

Farms also work with a nutritionist and

a healthy environment. ese simple, yet

helps to prevent animals, especially those on

veterinarian, who come out to the farm to make

crucial, items allow the animals to behave

pasture, from getting parasites. Farmers can

decisions on how best to care for the animals. A

naturally and go through natural processes

give dewormers by mouth, injection or pour

nutritionist is someone who formulates the diets

such as eating, resting, growing and, for some

them onto the animal's back.

for the animals to ensure proper growth and

animals, making milk. ere are many different ways that farmers help

Some farmers may choose to dehorn their cattle, sheep or goats. Dehorning is a process

development. A veterinarian is an animal doctor who checks for illnesses and treats sick animals.

to prevent sickness and injury on their farms.

where the horn bud of the animal is removed.

Veterinarians also help to set vaccination

One way is for farmers to vaccinate their

is means that the horn is not able to grow

schedules and administer shots. When animals do have a health problem,

animals against diseases, very similar to the

back. Dehorning can protect other animals

way humans are vaccinated. Farmers work with

from being injured and farmers from being

veterinarians to develop vaccination programs


treat illnesses

that outline which vaccinations to give and at

Tail docking is when part or all of the tail is

Farmers oen buy new animals and bring them

farmers use antibiotics and other medications to

what age each is to be given.

removed from the animal. is practice most

on to the farm, but they can take preventative

Animals need their “toe nails” clipped just like

commonly occurs in sheep and pigs. Sheep

measures to avoid unwanted diseases that the

we do. But instead of using a clipper, animals

may have their tails docked because it prevents

new animal may have from entering the herd by

like cattle, horses, pigs, goats and sheep need something a bit different. ey get their hooves

ies from infesting the hind wool. Sheep may get manure on their hind wool, and it can

placing the animal in quarantine. Quarantine is the separation of newly received animals from

trimmed. It is important that livestock get their

become matted. Flies may lay their eggs here

those already in the facility until the health of

feet trimmed because it can prevent lameness.

and the maggots could infest the animal. Pigs

the new animals has been checked by a

Trimming feet also gives the producer a chance

have their tails docked because some pigs may

veterinarian and found to be disease- free.

to inspect his animals' hooves and catch

bite other pigs' tails. is is a health concern

Farmers work hard to take care of their animals

infections. Farmers can protect their animals' feet through grooving the barn oor and installing

because open wounds on the pigs could

and ensure that illness is reduced as much as

become infected.


Farmers might use a ventilation system and


January - February 2017


The role of animal nutrition in sustainable and healthy food systems e requirement of humans for protein

Although meat produced via beef cattle is the

represents on average 10–35% of the daily caloric

least efficient of all animal protein types, it is

intake. According to the Dietary Reference

ecologically important, as it utilizes a vegetable

Aquaculture Since levels of wild shing are stagnating, aquaculture has developed exponentially in order

Intakes (DRIs) issued by the Institute of

biomass which otherwise would be wasted to

to satisfy the growing demand for this type of

Medicine of the US Food and Nutrition Board,1

yield high-quality protein for human

food. Farming of aquatic species represents the

adults need to eat about 60 grams of protein per

consumption. Ruminants can digest ligno-

most diverse food-producing industry, ranging


cellulosic material in their rumen; this process

from invertebrates such as mollusks and

Protein is mainly found in meats from poultry,

results in protein (bacterial biomass) and volatile

crustaceans and a large variety of sh to reptiles

pork and beef, in sh, eggs and dairy products

fatty acids (energy) for the host animal. In most

such as crocodiles. e animals belong either to

(cheese and milk), but also in vegetable sources

countries, the dairy industry uses cattle breeds

freshwater or marine species, and rearing takes

such as legumes (soya, beans), grains, nuts and

which were genetically selected for high milk

place in tanks, ponds, rivers, lakes and the ocean.

seeds, and also in certain vegetables.

production over many generations. Dairy cows

A special requirement of carnivorous sh species

Protein that comes from animal sources is in

in highly developed production systems deliver

such as salmonids is that they need shmeal for

general nutritionally more complete, because it

on average only 2.5 lactation cycles, which is

fast growth, which is produced in enormous

contains the essential amino acids in a more

seen as a dissipation of resources, considering

quantities via the processing of wildcaught sh. As

adequate pattern than is the case with plant

the long investment required to bring a

such farming conditions might not be sustainable


calf/heifer to sexual maturity. Frequent health

in the future, research efforts are directed towards

issues in dairy cattle, which result in the culling

diet compositions which allow using more

of cows, are fertility problems, lameness due to

vegetable protein, e.g. soya. Moreover, there are

Poultry meat and eggs Several avian species have been domesticated

serious claw disorders, and chronic mastitis

for the production of food, the most important being broiler chickens and laying hens, which are currently kept all over the globe for the

indications that aquaculture could use insect protein, whose amino acid composition is largely

Pork production

similar to that of shmeal.

Today's swine industry is still less

production of high-quality meat and eggs.

concentrated and less integrated than the

Poultry meat is relatively cheap, is considered to

poultry industry, and the production of growing

be a healthy food, and is well accepted, as there

and fattening pigs is less efficient than that of

a sustainable way represents an enormous

are no restrictions on its consumption by major

broilers. Pig meat is not accepted by certain

challenge for this industry. It means nding the

religions or local traditions. Poultry meat

religious communities such as Muslims, and

land for placing the farms for the additional

production is therefore constantly on the

accordingly this industry is not present in

animals, but also increasing the production of raw

increase, and will soon become the most popular

several large countries of the Middle East and

materials for feed, particularly the main

animal-derived food worldwide. Ruminants: Beef cattle and dairy cows

January - February 2017

Opportunities to increase meat production Doubling animal-derived protein production in

Asia. Nevertheless, pork is the most widely

ingredients such as corn, cereals and soybean. For

consumed meat in the world.

the transport of both feed and animals, adequate


Livestock carriage capacity and infrastructure will be

(P) from plant-bound phytate, which could not

been banned in Europe, but is still allowed in the

needed, and new processing plants will have to

be utilized by monogastric animals in former

rest of the world. As alternatives to AGPs so-called

be constructed. Furthermore, the additional

times. By using such products, less non-digested

“Eubiotics” – which have the ability to bene cially

waste (manure, slurry, gases, slaughter offal) will

potentially pollutant P is excreted by the animal.

protects the environment (soil, water, air).

modulate the gut micro ora – are being developed. Pre- and probiotics, organic acids and

need to be handled in a way that optimally Alternative feed ingredients Another necessity for keeping a higher

essential oils have the potential to foster adequate gut health. Yet the therapeutic use of antibiotics

production rate sustainable is to nd alternative

for treating animal diseases is currently not under

feed ingredients, since the production of

scrutiny, although the approval for certain

accompany the overall rise in livestock

common crops might not be increased to the

products from human medicine has been revoked.

production. In poultry, growth and feed

necessary extent, and as the main feedstuffs

conversion rates – being the ratio of amount of

(corn, cereals, soybean) compete directly with

Breeding Increased efficiency in meat production must

feed in kg per kg live weight (typically 1.5 to 1.8)

human consumption. ere are tropical raw

– have already been massively improved, and this

materials available which could serve this

Environmental considerations Facing the massive increase in demand for animal-derived food and consequently the

development must be pursued. For swine, there

purpose. Besides vegetable sources of protein,

enormous expansion of animal husbandry, the

seems to be considerable potential for better

insects have recently been considered as

environmental emissions from this industry must

performance, but progress is slower on this front.

potential feed ingredients for livestock and

be given special attention.

Efforts to increase productivity are ongoing in

aquaculture production. e larvae of insects

e rst concern should be the sustainable

beef cattle and in dairy cows as well. Although

contain up to 60% of high-quality protein and

disposal of manure. Although animal excreta and

already rather efficient, aquaculture could still

the content of indigestible chitin is lower than in

slurry are convenient fertilizers, grasslands and

increase overall performance levels by improving

the adult stage. Insects can be grown on bio-

croplands should not be oversupplied with

the esh yield in sh. Nutrition For maximum production efficiency nutrition,

waste from the food processing industry or from

nutrients which cannot be bound by the soil

households, and certain species could even

matrix and therefore would leak out into rivers

utilize ligno-cellulosic biomass. Insects have a

and lakes, causing eutrophication of the water

more efficient feed conversion capacity than any


both in terms of macronutrients and of

other farmed animal, and the requirements for

Furthermore, trace elements such as zinc, copper

micronutrients such as vitamins, meat

management and husbandry are rather low.

and cobalt, which are essential for animal

Longevity of high-yielding livestock animals

thereby create damage to the growing crops.

performance, can accumulate in the soil and

production needs to be optimized. High-yielding breeds are delicate hybrids, and their nutrition must be carefully balanced inorder to exploit

Under production conditions, farm animals

Making animal-derived protein production more

their full genetic potential.

are prone to fatal diseases of various origins.

efficient should result in less excreta per unit of

Since supplemental vitamins, which are not

Furthermore, high productivity is rapidly

edible product. But considering the expected

instantly utilized by the metabolism, are

exhausting the metabolic resources of long-lived

expansion of production, novel concepts for

deposited in meat, eggs or transferred into the

animal categories (laying/breeder hens, breeding

processing the manure and potentially extracting

milk, they eventually improve the nutritional

sows, dairy cows) and reduces their life

valuable fractions from this material for re-use are

value of these end-products for the consumer.

expectancy. A prolongation of their lifespan

urgently required.

Feed utilization

improvement of the production efficacy, with

would contribute substantially to an To improve the sustainability of animalderived protein production, the limited resources

more eggs or day-old chicks, more piglets, and

effect and thus aggravate the global warming

more milk.

problem, should not be allowed to increase. For this environmental issue, a few feed additives are

of feedstocks must be exploited to the maximum. For this reason, feed enzymes are commonly used in monogastric animals (poultry, swine) to

Gas emissions of carbon dioxide, ammonia and methane, which contribute to the greenhouse

e elimination of antibiotics A special challenge of meat production is the

available on the market, but none of them currently seems sufficiently efficacious to allow

improve the digestibility of nutrients.

elimination of antibiotics from animal farming.

anticipated levels of production growth in poultry

Carbohydrases with different speci c activities

For a long time, antibiotic growth promotors

and swine with neutral or shrinking emissions.

can degrade brous material in cereals and

(AGPs) were added to the feed of livestock for

Methane from enteric fermentation in ruminants

thereby make energy available to the host which

the prevention of infectious diseases. Since

represents the single largest source of

otherwise would be wasted. Proteases improve

certain of these products are structurally related

anthropogenic origin. For this segment, a feed

the digestibility of protein, which is the most

to antibiotics used in human medicine, the

additive is under development which has the

expensive feed ingredient and of which the

considerable risk of inducing cross-resistance in

potential to reduce methane emissions by at least

supply might become limited in the future.

life-threatening pathogens has been recognized.


Finally, phytases release inorganic phosphorous

Consequently the prophylactic use of AGPs has


January - February 2017


Livestock weighing & animal identification systems Today's top livestock farmers state that

3. Measure feed conversion

Zealand based Gallagher livestock weighing

weighing livestock regularly is an integral part of

When you correctly monitor the weight gain,

systems in South Africa offers a fully functional

proper animal farming; procedures are simple

you will know the feed conversion rates. is

workshop, excellent sales and aer sales service.

and the modern equipment is user friendly. e

helps in determining the right feed portions.

Gallagher offers farmers a complete animal

bene ts include better livestock management

is way, you avoid overfeeding the animal

management system to help you monitor and

and increased pro ts.

when the feed is unnecessary. Actually, you can

maximize the performance of your animals and

e data collected aer weighing animals can be

set and achieve certain growth rates at certain

extract more pro t from your farm. e

used in making accurate management decisions.


Gallagher range of readers, weigh scales, loadbars

4. Decide proper weaning time

wide range of capability and a system that will

For example, you will know what animal breeds are best for rearing. At the same time, you can

and accessories are fully compatible offering a

modify your feeding patterns and approaches to

Calves should be included in proper animal

match your farm's requirements. Gallagher

improve productivity.

weighing. You can predict the future growth of

weighing and EID products are distinguished in

e following are advantages of proper

the calf by looking at the graph of its past

the market by their advanced features and tough,


performance. is information helps determine

farm ready design.

the right time to wean calves of the same breed. 1. Monitor animal health

According to Lisa Williams, Manager at Rudd, “e Gallagher range of Livestock Equipment is a

As unhealthy animals usually have decreased

5. Evaluate breeding performance

result of years of research and development into

weight gain, you can easily detect a sick animal

By weighing all animals regularly, you can easily

the changing needs of the farmer as well as the

by monitoring its weight. When you note a slight

tell those breeds that gain weight faster. Your

Feedlot and Stud industry. Gallagher offers a

change in its weight, you can have it treated early

future genetic selection relies on this data. For

range of equipment from basic easy to operate to

and avert a dangerous disease. When it is cured,

example, you can produce a cross breed of 2

a full database, electronic ID and weigh system.”

you eliminate the risk of having the disease

animals that you know grow fast.

spread to other animals. is effectively reduces losses.

“e Gallagher Livestock Management system is tough, robust equipment, designed and

6. Maximise bene ts

manufactured for on farm conditions. e best

Since each livestock scale is automatic, less

quality you can invest in”, she adds.

2. Know weights before breeding

labour is needed in the handling of the animals.

e system is made up of a weigh scale indicator

Animals should be bred at certain optimal

In addition, traditional scales may not re ect

and a set of two weight sensing loadbars or four

weights and conditions. You will make decisions

the actual animal weights. Take advantage of

weigh feet, which are usually positioned under a

that are more accurate through the regular

the modern scales, as they are error-free.

weighing of the animals. Otherwise, you may

platform or handler. ey are waterproof, dustproof, shockproof. ey have heavy duty

not be able to identify the right time to breed an

e Ghallagher Livestock Management

cables with spring wire protection, as well as

animal just by observing it.


robust waterproof plugs.

Rudd Products, sole distributor of the New

January - February 2017



order to the market hiding the rest. Instead of placing a large order on the market, an Iceberg algorithm instead breaks it into various smaller orders, to avoid telegraphing the trader's true intention. Sniper – An algorithm that never shows buy or sell orders, but instead trades against online orders in the market, taking advantage of its faster speed to find better deals than a trader can react to on their own. Sao Paulo Stock Exchange

Sniffer Dog - The algorithm that looks


for other algorithms! Also known as a “sniffer”, this algorithm rapidly fires orders into the market to “sniff-out” trading patterns and responses that would indicate not only the presence of other algorithms, but also the terms under which they operate. It is estimated that 75% of the dayto-day trading volume in today's

algorithm reacts faster to emerging

global markets is driven by

everything (and sometimes,

information than the human eye can

algorithms. Yet in the African

everyone) is being replaced by

blink – often in a timespan

commodity markets that figure hovers

electronics and computers. The

measured in microseconds - putting

at an estimated 15%. While

relentless march of automation and

the advantage square in the hands

algorithms are frequently becoming

advances in the technological realm

of the brokers and traders that craft

more common (as more and more

continue to make their presence felt

specialised execution algorithms.

brokers and traders wake up to the

in all spheres of life.

Algorithms have become increasingly

benefits of these trading tools), they

The financial industry is no

complex, requiring more and more

remain sorely under-utilised… and


effort to be devoted to

sometimes misunderstood.

Algorithms have changed the way

understanding and properly

Taking that into account, why not take

investors are trading on the stock

implementing them.

advantage of a team that not only

market and it has made the process

An algorithm is not a magical

understands the importance of

incredibly efficient… and made

incantation, an esoteric knowledge

algorithms in the modern trading

navigating the markets increasingly

hidden from mortal men. It is merely

space, but has years of experience in

difficult for even an experienced

a set of rules. Written by a human,

both their design, and their use?


an algorithm can only be as good as

Russellstone International is a

In terms of trading, what is an

the team that designs it. And in the

member of the Johannesburg Stock

algorithm? In the simplest terms, it is

modern world and in the fiercely

Exchange, a commodity broking firm,

a set of rules that a computer will

competitive environment present in

and a leader in the field of developing


today's market, this is a moving

execution algorithms, particularly in

Trading algorithms can be very

target as you constantly have to be

African markets.

simple. For example – the price of

ahead of the curve.

Our aim is to continue to improve on

maize is R 3500 for buyers, and R

Owing to their nature, algorithms

our existing knowledge, design and

3600 for sellers. You can write a set

can be as generalised or a

implementation of algorithms, and to

of rules that will tell the computer to

specialised as the trader requires,

offer you the opportunity to take

buy maize if the selling price is R

often being able to be tailored to

advantage of them yourselves.

3550. The computer will then

meet a specific need. The following

monitor the price and execute the

are very basic algorithms that

Craig Robinson

buying order if the seller price is

showcase the endless possibility that



they offer:

Russellstone International (PTY) Ltd

In these modern times, it feels as if

The main advantage of execution

Iceberg – An order-based Algorithm

algorithms is their speed. The

that only “shows” the tip of the

January - February 2017


Established in 2010, Russellstone International has since risen to become one of the leading broking firms in the South African Derivatives market.

As a registered member of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, Russellstone International is the market leader in algorithmic trade execution technology in the Agricultural, Equity and Currency Derivative markets on the JSE.

Utilising the latest in trading software, we also take advantage of advances in the field, making use of drone technology to conduct crop surveys and provide you a detailed assessment of the current conditions on (and in!) the ground.

Whether you're a miller or farmer looking to diversify your portfolio, or a large corporate that requires knowledgeable trading expertise to support your business, Russellstone International has an experienced team that is ready to offer you the advice and support that you require.

If you are interested in finding out more, visit our website at You can also drop us a line at or +27 12 743 5390 and we will be more than happy to assist you! Russellstone Interna onal (PTY) td is a registered member of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Reg No 2001/023483/07 A member of the Russellstone Group.

Machinery Preview

New Quantum tractors bring better performance to orchard, vineyard and vegetable sectors Distinctive Case IH family styling / New Midmount hydraulic coupler possibilities and high ow pump options / Level 4 cab ltration system

becoming damaged during work, and enable

only) to prolong Level 4 lter life when spraying is

the wheels to tuck in closely to the chassis for

not taking place.

improved turning and manoeuvrability.

maximises operator safety / Enhanced cab and

ease operation and improve operator space, and

controls / Integrated front hitch and PTO option /

Hydraulic system options enhance versatility

Stage IIIB FPT 3.4-litre CEGR engines cut fuel

and performance


Hydraulic remote levers have been redesigned to there is a new tilt/telescope steering column to enable a comfortable working position to be easily

For mid-mounted hydraulically-driven

found, plus a new analogue/electronic dashboard

implements such as pruning equipment, new

to make essential engine information easier to

Case IH has unveiled a new generation of its

Quantum options include a revised, more

read. At

Quantum specialty tractor range. In addition to

compact mid-mount valve block which is better

transmission tunnel size helps to improve operator

oor level, a signi cantly reduced

new styling, the new models offer features

integrated and provide easier and faster


including new mid-mount hydraulic coupler

coupling. Users who wish to expand the

Engine updates create cleaner, more responsive

ow pump options, a

versatility of their tractors can now specify an

power units

switchable cab ltration system from Level 2 to

integrated front linkage and PTO option,

possibilities and high

e latest 3.4-litre engines from Case IH

Level 4, improved cab interior and controls, and

offering 2600kg li capacity. ere is also a 80

partner rm FPT Industrial power the new

an integrated front hitch and PTO option. Like

litres/minute hydraulic pump option on new

Quantum models, meeting Stage IIIB emissions

their predecessors, the new Quantum models are

Quantum models, to cater for implements with a

regulations via the use of cooled exhaust gas

available in V (vineyard), N (narrow) and F

high oil ow requirement.

(fruit) versions. e minimum overall width of

recirculation (CEGR) and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Oil change interval is 600 hours.

the tractor is 1,063mm for the V, 1,228mm for the

C ab c omfor t b o oste d by c ontrol and

A new Electronic Engine Speed Control provides

N and 1,382mm for the F.

ventilation enhancements

two engine speed settings and improved engine

New styling offers practical bene ts In addition to giving the tractors a fresh new

Upgrades to the operator environment include

rpm response, for an instant reaction when the

an optional unique new switchable air ltration

tractor is required to maintain power, speed

look re ecting the lines of their larger

system on cabbed models. Where optional Level

and/or PTO output when on uphill slopes, for

counterparts, the distinctive new front-end

4 ltration is speci ed to remove crop protection

example. Transmission options comprise a

Case IH family styling on new Quantum

spray particles from the incoming air, the system

16F/16R synchro shuttle, a 16F/16R power shuttle,

models has practical bene ts. Smooth lines help

can be switched between Level 4 and Level 2

and a 32F/16R power shuttle with two-speed

minimise the risk of either trees or bodywork

January - February 2017

ltration (which is designed for dust extraction


power shi.

Machinery Preview

Samart Kasetyon unveils new sugar cane harvesting machine

A development of the current SM-200, the new machine exhibits several new features, including an operator cabin that is European in

the cane hopper which maximises traction and

design. Unlike many Asian OEM companies,

carrying capacity while optimising ground

Samart has recognised the advantage of

pressure and reducing the need for extensive

providing the operator with an air conditioned

ground preparation for future cropping.

and comfortable workspace. e European

e high capacity hopper with fast

sourced cabin reduces operator noise levels

automatic unloading system means extended

substantially along with vibration. e operator

operation cycles and rapid discharge of cut

also bene ts from more ergonomic seating and

cane to transport. Ful lling its own “in eld”

adaptive controls.

transport means that road trucks do not need

“We are committed to this concept,” said

to enter the eld or follow the machine to

Samart international manager Srinaul

unload, thus minimising plant (ratoon)

Leethiranon, “Internationally customers expect


a high degree of comfort and as we are

Daily maintenance is also simpli ed by the

competing more and more on the international

integrated lubrication system which allows a

stage we will be providing European standard

single button operation to ensure that all

operating stations to ensure we ful l their

critical lubrication points receive the correct


dosage of lubricant, protecting the machine,

e SM-200 Giant is based on a half-track and the steering is via the front drive/steer

wheels with a differential track system driving from the rear. e track is positioned under


ensuring efficient operation and safeguarding the customer's investment.

January - February 2017

Machinery Preview

Husqvarna's pioneering approach to chainsaws and lawnmowers Husqvarna boasts the market's

X-Torq® engine technology

TrioBrake ®

widest, most innovative and powerful

This revolutionary technology

This chainsaw safety system allows

range of machinery and tools for the

developed for two-stroke engines

the chain break to be activated

forest, garden, park, construction

delivers more power while cutting

automatically by the inertia release

and stone industries.

fuel consumption by up to 20% and

mechanism or mechanically by the

For over 327 years Husqvarna has

emissions by up to 75% (compared

operator's right hand.

applied 'out of the box' thinking,

to similar, traditional engine

which is well exemplified by the

technology). Good for the

AutoTune TM

development of Husqvarna's first

environment as well as the user.

A technological and environmental

chainsaw. Existing chainsaws at the time caused problems with noise

breakthrough in professional LowVib®

chainsaws, which minimises exhaust

pollution. By using motorcycle

Husqvarna's anti-vibration

emissions and optimises engine

muffler technology, which was

technology is designed to make the

performance, by compensating for

developed in-house, the noise level

operator's experience a more

different fuels, altitudes, humidity and

of the Husqvarna 90 was cut down to

comfortable and ergonomic one.

temperatures and omitting the need

half that of the contemporary

to spend time on carburettor

competition. Throughout the years,

Air Injection TM

Husqvarna has proved its

Husqvarna's centrifugal air cleaning

technological leadership by

system results in reduced wear and

adjustments. Husqvarna Battery Series

introducing ground-breaking and

longer operating time between filter

We have recently added a new

award-winning solutions and


chapter to our pioneering history –

products for the forestry industry,

the Husqvarna Battery Series, which

such as:

includes chainsaws and top handle

January - February 2017


Machinery Preview

saws and offers all the power,

and slopes up to 45% and offering

cutting deck and the ability to turn on

performance and intuitive design you

immaculate results.

its own axis, the Husqvarna Zero Turn

Lawn Tractors

and speedily dispatches of large

quiet, clean, convenient operation

Husqvarna lawn tractors offer the

mowing areas.

using long-lasting lithium-ion

versatility of three cutting systems –


collecting, mulching (BioClip® ) and

P525D Front Mowers

Husqvarna's diverse range of mowing

ejection and thanks to a wide range

Husqvarna's front mowers have the

solutions further illustrates the

of attachments, your lawn tractor

smallest uncut circle in the industry.

company's commitment to

will serve as a powerful and versatile

That means you'll spend less time

technological advancement:

garden partner all year round.

trying to get out of complex areas or

Mower makes short work of tall grass

expect from Husqvarna – without the need for petrol and refuelling. Just

going back and forth to mow in tight Riders

spaces. A wide range of attachments

Our versatile cutting system allows

The front-mounted cutting deck

make this mower even more versatile,

you to collect, mulch (BioClip® ) or

reaches almost everywhere and the

all year around.

eject grass clippings.

unique articulated steering provides

Push Lawnmowers

Robotic Mowers

unsurpassed manoeuvrability and a

For more information, visit

small turning radius.

Husqvarna Automower ® silently tackles even the most complex

Zero Turn Mowers

lawns, navigating narrow passages

With an extremely high capacity

Husqvarna P525 Front Mower

Husqvarna 450X Automower ®


January - February 2017

Rapid PLUS Deboner: Now suitable for front halves up to 1.7 kilo e Meyn Rapid PLUS breast deboner is widely installed as a means of achieving precise deboning and signi cant labor savings. is capability is now signi cantly enhanced with the Rapid PLUS 4.0 version, designed and updated for the processing of bigger front halves up to 1.7 kilo wings off. “e Rapid Plus was rst introduced 10 years ago and has been hugely successful”, says Jeroen Bohm, Line of Business Product Manager for Meyn Deboning Systems. “e larger weight capability will add more exibility and productivity for poultry producers worldwide.”

Over 200 Rapid Plus systems have been sold worldwide. It is the only solution available that can harvest all let and tender products automatically at the highest capacity, resulting in a signi cant reduction of labor costs and a minimized dependency on labor skills and availability. e next generation Rapid Plus chicken breast deboner is introduced to the market during IPPE 2017 in Atlanta where also a live demonstration of the system will be held. Meyn celebrates the 10 Year Jubilee of the Rapid system technology in 2017.

Stories from the field: Geoffrey Kitale, Kenya Geoffrey's main reason for purchasing the Sf1 Solar Pump was to help

Because of this expense, he was limited to only irrigating ¼ of an acre

him irrigate his farm during the dry season (December to March).

where he grew kales, local vegetables and tomatoes for commercial

Irrigating through the droughts will allow him to continue growing

reasons. But now, with free energy from the solar pump he has been able

produce and help him increase his income during those periods. Two

to expand his cultivated area. He's already planted cabbages, kales,

months on from the pump being installed he is already seeing great

onions and is growing tomatoes in a small greenhouse.

progress on his farm.

He uses the solar pump daily, from eight in the morning till noon. e

Before purchasing the solar pump, Geoffrey hired a petrol pump for

River Kiminini that passes next to his farm is his water source. e river

irrigating his crops. e cost of hiring the pump, plus the fuel cost,

never dries out so Geoffrey knows he will have good harvest during the

would amount to 700 shillings ($7) each time. Irrigating twice a week in

droughts, especially as the amount that was being used in hiring of petrol

the dry season was therefore having a signi cant impact on his potential

pump will be diverted in other farming activities.

pro ts!

By Collins Oluoch, M&E Assistant


January - February 2017

New Products & Services

Case IH marks 175th anniversary of founding firm with unveiling of autonomous tractor at SIMA show Driverless Magnum concept makes

already helping to improve

issues and enable farmers and farm staff

Europe debut / Tractor offers potential to

circumstances for operators on

to enjoy more sociable working hours,

relieve operators of need for long hours

currently-available machines, long

thereby helping support the industry

in the eld / Latest Quantum models plus

hours in the eld are oen still

and its existing labour force. It does this

new precision technology also on display

essential, while sourcing staff

through a design which allows

/ 2017 marks 175 years since 1842

sufficiently quali ed and prepared to

programming, control and monitoring

foundation of JI Case reshing Machine

work them is becoming difficult.

of the tractor to be carried out remotely

Company in Racine, Wisconsin, today's

Designed to relieve drivers from long

via a tablet or PC. Safety is assured

home of Magnum

hours in the tractor seat and allow

through the use of in-built sensor, radar

farm businesses to make better use of

and laser-based lidar technology,

labour, while making possible

integrated into the restyled cabless

e rst major international show of its 175th anniversary year will see Case IH unveil to farmers the very latest

unmanned work around the clock, the

design. Where elds are interlinked by

from the brand's innovation team, in

Autonomous Concept Vehicle (ACV)

private tracks, the ACV can even be

the form of the autonomous Magnum

even offers the potential to

programmed to move between them,

tractor revealed at the US Farm

automatically adapt to weather events,

and has the potential to use weather data

Progress Show last autumn. While the

and can work alongside existing

to stop work if weather dictates, and

machine is currently a concept, it will

machines. e ACV has been awarded

even use that data to move to a eld with

be complemented on the Case IH stand

a silver medal in the SIMA Innovation

drier conditions. Currently, the ACV is a

at the SIMA show in Paris, France by


concept, but its technologies are suited

recent product introductions including

Retaining its conventional engine,

to integration into new conventional

the updated Quantum plus uprated

transmission, chassis and implement

tractors in the future, and are as

round and square balers and new

couplings, and using RTK GPS to

applicable to smaller tractors – those for

precision farming technology.

provide sub-2.5cm steering

orchard work, for example – as they are

While auto-steering and other

repeatability, the ACV development

to machines of the size of Magnum.

automated machine functions are

offers the potential to address these

January - February 2017


is is re ected in the more

New Products & Services imminently-available new precision

Year, the 270/300hp Optum CVX.

in Racine, Wisconsin, USA. In 1984 the

farming technology being revealed by

New are revised 65-105hp Quantum V

business was merged with the

Case IH at SIMA, including AccuTurn,

(vineyard) and F (fruit) tractors. ey

agricultural equipment division of

a new tractor option which automates

gain new styling, a revised cab interior

International Harvester to form Case

the process of turning on the headland

and controls, and options including a

IH, before JI Case became a publicly-

and entering the next chosen swath.

new mid-mount hydraulic coupler, a

owned entity, Case Corporation, in

Also on show will be the bene ts of the

high- ow hydraulic pump, switchable

1994. Fiat acquired Case Corporation

Case IH RTK+ network, designed to

cab ltration for use when spraying,

and the Case IH brand in 1999 and

provide seamless correction signal

and an integral front linkage/PTO.

formed CNH, which later became

coverage with RTK accuracy and maximum uptime. A number of new tractor models and

Meanwhile, SIMA will also see Case IH marking the rst celebrations of its

today's CNH Industrial. e coming year also marks the thirtieth anniversary

175th anniversary year. Jerome

of the introduction of the rst Magnum

updates also make their debut at the

Increase Case founded the JI Case

tractors, the latest generation of which

show, alongside the 2017 Tractor of the

reshing Machine Company in 1842

are still built in Racine today.

Rolls Royce to supply engines for Claas agricultural vehicles Rolls-Royce and Claas have signed a project agreement to supply MTU engines to be used

of the MTU Series 1000 to 1500, which will be tted into its Lexion and Tucano combine-

“With an eye, among other things, to the EU Stage V Emissions Directive, we have decided in

in its agricultural vehicles from 2019.

harvesters, its Jaguar forage harvester and its

favour of these tried-and-trusted engines from

Luxury car and aviation engine manufacturers

4x4 high-horsepower tractor Xerion. MTU's

MTU to power a large proportion of our

Rolls-Royce have signed a project agreement

Series 1000 to 1500 are based on Daimler OM

vehicles. We already have over 10 eld-trial

with agricultural vehicle experts Claas to

93x and OM 47x commercial vehicle engines

vehicles tted with EU Stage V MTU engines

supply MTU series 1000 to 1500 engines for

and cover a broad power range from 100 to

and are very satis ed with them.”

use in its combine harvesters, forage harvesters

480 kW. From 2019, 4,000 to 5,000 engines are

Bernd Krüper, Vice President Industrial

and 4x4, high horsepower tractors from 2019.

to be supplied per year across all series and

Business including Construction and

ese engines will comply with the European

emissions levels. e MTU brand is part of

Agriculture at MTU, said, “We are delighted at

Union's Stage V emissions standards which will

Rolls-Royce Power Systems.

winning one of the most renowned agricultural

come into force in 2019.

Bernd Kleffmann, Head of Systems

machinery manufacturers for the EU Stage V

e new engines to be tted into the new Claas

Engineering Development at Claas

engines we've introduced. is is a continuation

agricultural vehicles are the improved versions

Selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen GmbH, said,

of our long-standing success story with Claas.”


January - February 2017



January - February 2017



Farmers Review Africa Jan/Feb