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Volume 4. Issue 13. January - February 2018

Is there a way forward for Africa's Agriculture? Page 16

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scan code for website

Contents 14





08 Struggling Potato Growers in Kenya turn to Contract Farming

46 How to start your own poultry business

10 Better year ahead for Eastern Cape farmers

47 Poultry Hatchery and Incubators

Country Focus


14 Uganda

19 Device for drying cassava peels to make animal feed


20 France makes efforts to better market its maize seeds

29 Omex Calmax gets calcium into coffee beans

Tech & Innovation

30 Micronutrients for Crop Production

35 "Méchoto"- An innovative device that reduces agricultural losses

32 Monitoring CO2 in stored grain and food

New Product & Services


43 PÖTTINGER presents new flexible mulch drilling technology

24 Magnets in food processing 36 Innovative Food Packaging Solutions

43 New Holland's new concept tractor


28 January - February 2018








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Volume 4. Issue 13. January - February 2017

Editor’s note Is there a way forward for Africa's Agriculture? Page 16

Farmers love watching seeds germinating, they enjoy watching the trees blossoming and blooming and they enjoy watching the newborn of an animal, a calf, colt or lamb. It is these small, subtle things, and a desire to have a connection, to be a steward and nourish this process that keeps

Please visit the website





them going.


Cover: Young female tea picker in Rwanda

I hope everyone is feeling a bit rejuvenated this January: A new year, new

Executive Editor

adventures! It's always good to start strong. We, at Farmers Review

Lee Daniels

Africa, are feeling particularly proud to present you the 1st edition of


Writers Bertha M.

Despite the expenditure of billions of dollars on agricultural

Contributers Silimina Derick

tonne of grain per hectare, consigning them to an impoverished,

development, most of Africa's farmers continue to harvest one metric subsistence existence.

Project Manager Victor Ndlovu

To remedy these issues, a new report suggests governments should

Advertising Executive

change their outlook on agriculture from subsistence, daily activity into a

Russou Billiard

commercial enterprise. e African C entre for Economic

Transformation (ACET) says focusing on the entire value chain of the

Cleopas M.

process—land tenure, farming technology, markets, and pricing—would

help transform food systems around the continent.

Mkhululi K.

While agriculture has become increasingly automated over the last 200


years, the process is only accelerating. New technologies and drones, in

Isabel Banda +260 97 740 4388

particular, are allowing farmers to improve the efficiency of their crops and livestock production, as well as quickly neutralize threats such as

Sales Mthokozisi M

disease or drought. Maintaining stored grain quality requires a combination of multiple tools and practices to ensure that the quality and quantity of grain entering the

Marketing Mandla M.

storage facility does not deteriorate over time. Read more on how this can be averted by monitoring CO2 in stored grain and food.

East African Liaison Arobia Creative Consultancy P.O. Box 2922-00200, Nairobi Odyssey Plaza, Mkoma Road Nairobi Kenya Tel: +254 772 187334, +254 790 153505

In our news, we look at how potato farmers in Kenya are using contract farming to earn more money and get a better seed. Breathe in the aroma of cautious optimism and carry it with you throughout the year. Stay charged up with energy and vitality. Let's keep

Graphic Design & Layout Que Gibson

the conversation going! Here's to a productive 2018! Cheers!

Bertha M.

Published by Mailing Times Media


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January - February 2018




African countries unite against chicken dumping

Armyworms threaten Tanzania's northern maize farms

Ghanaian and South African poultry industries have joined a Memorandum At least 400 hectares of maize eld in Tanzania's northern district of Arusha of Understanding (MoU) opposing chicken dumping, the import of cheap are on the brink of destruction aer an invasion of fall armyworms, chicken from the European Union destructive pests that are threatening food security in some parts of the e Ghanaian and South African poultry associations, the anti-dumping country, an expert said ursday. campaign, FairPlay Movement, and the Food and Allied Workers' Union (FAWU) have signed a memorandum of understanding on the topic. Bahati Ndillahomba, a plant protection officer in Arusha district, said the e signatories included Victor Oppong Adjei, chairman of the Ghana armyworms have invaded farms in the district, causing extensive damage in National Poultry Association, Charlotte Nkuna, interim CEO of the South most maize elds. African Poultry Association, Katishi Masemola, general secretary of the Food and Allied Workers Union, and Francois Baird, founder of the FairPlay "is is a serious problem, which could get out of control if not well anti-dumping movement.

handled," warned Ndillahomba. Dumping happens when exports are sold below the cost of production, or Erwin Kinsey, Director of ECHO East Africa Impact Center, appealed to the below the selling price in the producing country. Huge volumes of dumped experts in the agricultural sector to come up with ways to put an end to the chicken portions, mainly from the European Union, have put the South threat of the pests. African industry in crisis, forcing production cutbacks and job losses. e industry estimates that 4,000 to 6,000 jobs have been lost in recent years.

Kinsey said the invasion should serve as a wake-up call on the farmers' preparedness on averting the invasion.

e MoU asks for a level playing eld, requiring governments to apply more appropriate tariffs against dumped products and to apply the same strict Unlike the African armyworm, the fall armyworm originates from the rules of health, food safety, labelling, halal certi cation and product origin Americas. ey are difficult to detect and can cause rapid and full that the EU and other producing areas apply to imports into their regions. In destruction of the crops. addition, the leaders are also demanding the equal application of the rule of law by enforcing current rules, to take the ght international to unite civil Last year, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization entered into two society, business, trade unions, politicians, governments and multi-lateral agreements worth 2 million U.S. dollars with Tanzanian government to organisations on the need to outlaw dumping and predatory pricing. boost surveillance of fall armyworms. Adjei who visited South Africa at the invitation of the local industry explained how dumping had devastated the chicken industry in Ghana and discussed measures that could be taken to stop dumping. He said that a once-thriving industry had been reduced by dumped imports to one that produced only ve per cent of the chicken consumed in Ghana. Adjei said exporters in the EU, Brazil and the United States had targeted other African countries, and industries were struggling in Cameroon, Senegal and South Africa as a result. January - February 2018





e National Cane Pricing Committee that consists of representatives from the Ministry of Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Authority (AFA) and farmers this week announced the price review that is expected to take effect immediately. AFA Director General Alfred Busolo said the price change was caused by an avalanche of cheap imports into the local market. Farmers interviewed termed the changes in cane prices, unfortunate and a major setback. Wycliffe Barasa Ng'ong'a, a farmer from Busia County, said news of price drop had hit him hard. “We thought the cane pricing committee would ensure the prices continue to increase for the good of farmers who incur huge production costs,” said Mr Ng'ong'a, who has been growing sugarcane

Burundi launches green tea production to diversify export products

since 1999. Mr Ng'ong'a said he had been spending slightly above Sh100,000 on developing sugarcane on his farm. “I have over 10 acres under the crop. It will be difficult to recover the money I invested in the crop following the drop in price,” he said.

Burundian Second Vice-President Joseph Butore recently launched the

State censured And Kenya National Federation of Sugarcane Farmers

east African country's rst-ever green tea production at a tea factory in

Deputy Secretary General Simon Wesechere has censured the State for

the Cibitoke province, northwestern Burundi.

allowing traders to import sugar at the expense of the local sugar sub-sector and particularly farmers.

e launch at Buhoro tea factory coincided with the launch of the third edition of the week dedicated to tea in Burundi.

Traders and millers imported 300,000 tonnes of the commodity in August

alone ahead of the August 31 expiry of the duty-free window for importing “is is the rst time that Burundi will produce green tea. We will be able sugar. to produce green tea for export and consumers of green tea at the local Busolo had indicated that imports were not supposed to have gone beyond level will have better health,” said Butore.

last November, arguing that importers who shipped in the commodity past

According to him, tea is very important in Burundi as it is the second

published in the Kenya Gazette and AFA had no authority to have it

cash crop bringing foreign currencies to the east African nation aer


that date did it against the law. He said deadline for importation of sugar was

coffee. “Sugar factories were given the green light to import sugar by Agriculture CS e tea sector generates a lot of employment, said Butore, adding that

Willy Bett and they took advantage of the window to ship in over 900 metric

over 60,000 households in Burundi live on tea farming and production

tons of the sweetener, ooding local market with cheap imports,” said Mr

whereas the Burundi Tea Company alone hired 1,000 fulltime employees,


with over 4,000 part-time employees. According to Wesechere, imported sugar is retailing at the same price as Butore said the Burundian government through the agriculture ministry

locally produced sugar, makes it hard for local sugar factories to offload their

committed to boost the tea avor and production by rehabilitating tea

stocks. He said importers were making a killing by selling a kilogramme of


the imported sugar at Sh150.

He added that the government has also committed to produce both the

“It is not only exploitative but a disaster in the sugar sub-sector. e

black and green tea varieties in order to diversify products for export.

Government is eecing its own farmers and indirectly killing the domestic

Burundi has ve tea factories located in ve different provinces, according industry by decreeing cheap imports,” said Wesechere. A drop in the price of to Burundi Tea Company.

Kenya Kenyan Farmers to earn less as sugarcane prices drop again

the cash crop only adds to the sufferings sugarcane growers have had to go through. Worsen things Wesechere said it could make things worse for the millers in terms of availability of raw materials as most farmers may abandon the crop. “Something must be done before the industry is plunged into unending crisis once again. Players in the sub-sector must approach the issue of cheap imports, punitive taxes and high production costs with a sober

Sugarcane farmers have suffered a huge blow following a drop in prices from mind,” he said. Sh4, 200 to Sh3,700 per tonne.



January - February 2018


Kenya can produce a lot of what it consumes at home. But for that to happen, there

Struggling Potato Growers in Kenya turn to Contract Farming

needs to be a wholesale revival of its industrial sector. Can it be done? is used to be a very familiar sound throughout most of Mali's territory. From Gao to Sikasso, factories produced a wide range of consumer goods.

To deal with climate pressures, farmers are turning to growing contracts

But a lot of that is gone.

to earn more money and get better seed. Recurring drought and sudden cold spells have affected the quality of

“We are,” said industry representative Cyril Achcar, “now essentially a

potatoes and other staples across Kenya.

nation of traders. ere used to be industry, mostly run by the state. Eighty per cent of that has disappeared between 1970 and 1995.”

Peris Mukami, a farmer from Timau village, in Meru County, said her potato yields had declined by over 10 percent in the past two years

Achcar comes from a family that began developing industry in the late

because "it is either too cold or too hot".

1950s. He is not only one of Mali's few remaining manufacturers – he also

To try to ght back, Kenyan potato farmers are increasingly turning to

lobbies relentlessly for its interests.

production contracts with food processors - a system known as contract farming - through the East African Potato Consortium.

Not all is gone. Some factories still work in and around the capital, Bamako, and in urban centers like Kayes, Sikasso and Koulikoro; but, the

By working with the consortium, they get access to seeds that better stand list of products is short: dairy, some meat products, dried herbs and up to harsher conditions, as well as better fertilisers. spices, one textile company, a packaging rm, the inevitable cement factory and some hardware. ey also get a guaranteed price for their crop, as long as they produce good-quality potatoes on time, said Wachira Kaguongo, head of the

No longer under the protective umbrella of the state, there is little Mali's

National Potato Council.

manufacturers can do against mass-produced goods, mainly from Asia. e picture is repeated across the African continent.

Fair Deals e consortium, which was set up in 2016 by the National Potato Council, Can Malian factories, the engines of an emerging economy, be brought the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa and the Grow Africa back to life? partnership, aims to increase private investment in agriculture by linking potato farmers with food processors across the country, Kaguongo said.

Any decent industrial policy will have to tackle a long list of problems.

Each production agreement is reviewed and approved by the National

discourages investment, and, competition from mass producers like

ey include: expensive electricity. Poor infrastructure. A tax regime that Potato Council, which ensures it is fair to both parties, said Willy Bett,

China and neighboring countries like Senegal that can produce goods

cabinet secretary of the Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and

more cheaply.

Fisheries. Contract farming has allowed farmers to sell produce to food giants such

Where to begin? e answer: on the land.

as the fast-food chain KFC, formerly known as Kentucky Fried Chicken. Fatoumata Haidara Bah leads a government agency that helps Mali's Supply Shortage?

agro-industry to become more competitive. Her agency concentrates on

Felix Matheri, a researcher at the International Centre of Insect

mangos and maize. e mangos are for export and the maize produces

Physiology and Ecology, said that while contract farming provides

high-quality feed for cattle and poultry.

farmers with a steady income, it risks depriving poor families of their food supply.

e real goal is to produce more jobs for Malians, especially the young.

Others have concerns about contract farming as well. Louise Wangari, a

Cyril Achcar thinks it can be done but says it's a long road back to Mali's

roadside seller of potatoes in Nyandarua County, said she is worried it

industrial recovery.

might affect the supply she gets from farmers. It may help to join forces with Burkina Faso and Niger, landlocked like Mali and in similar circumstances. e markets are there, the ideas and


plans are there; what's needed now is more government action to ensure that investments come in, budding industries are protected and unfair

Mali hopes to revive industry and increase exports

competition is eliminated. Made in Mali? As far as the country's industry leaders are concerned, all

e shops in Mali are full of imported goods from Europe, the Middle East

one has to do is believe in it.

and Asia. is, Mali's captains of industry maintain, is not necessary. Mali January - February 2018





water for Maputo and the neighbouring city of Matola.

New Agribusiness course open to students throughout Africa About 25 African students aged 20-30 will bene t from a new agribusiness course known as the AGCO Agribusiness Program (AAP) and thereaer get job opportunities at AGCO, a worldwide manufacturer and distributor of agricultural equipment) the program will be conducted in partnership with a select business institutions in Africa.

e Bananalandia director of production, Manuel Maluana, says that since the restrictions came into effect production has fallen by over 50%, and the quality of the bananas produced has also suffered. e company has been forced to stop all production of the XL type of banana. e average weight of a bunch of bananas, Maluana added, has fallen from 60 to 50 kilos.

e company is exporting 1,200 tonnes of bananas a month to South Africa, Botswana and Swaziland, but before the Business School (SBS) in Kenya, Harper Adams University in the UK and water crisis, Bananalandia exported twice as much. “e Kenya-based e Bridge Africa which runs programs to prepare graduates company's seven production units also used to distribute 50 for employment. tonnes of bananas a day to the domestic market, but that has Scheduled to commence in March 2018, the AAP will deliver an accredited now fallen to 25 tonnes a day,” Maluana said. AGCO, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with partners Strathmore

two-year agribusiness program through SBS in Nairobi, Zambia and South

All the company's expansion projects are on hold. It had planned to export bananas to the Middle East, and also set forward, the aim is to extend the program and offer the course using remote up new plantations in Moamba and Namaacha districts and blended learning techniques. but without water for irrigation, none of this can be done. Africa, leading to potential job opportunities within AGCO Africa. Going

“is is a strong business-oriented program that will provide training in critical skills and develop leadership and strategic expertise to drive African agricultural prosperity, It underlines our approach to ensure Africa is run from Africa. Upon completion of the course, students will have the opportunity to be placed within the AGCO Africa organisation, thus providing excellent job prospects. It's a win-win situation for all those involved.” Says Nuradin Osman, AGCO Vice President and General

No alternative water sources He admitted that Bananalandia has not been investigated alternative sources, such as drilling boreholes to tap into groundwater. Instead, it is hoping that the abnormally dry conditions will end and that the current rainy season will be the company's saviour.

Manager Africa.

Although current levels of production are far from ideal, Commenting Dr George Njenga, Dean, Strathmore Business School said: they are enough to keep the company operating and to pay “rough this partnership, we are con dent that we have the capacity to its running costs - including its workers' wages, and basic meet the needs of the agricultural sector. e program will integrate both inputs such as fertiliser. theoretical and industrial relevance to address the current trends in the

“We have to wait for more rainfall to improve production,” said Maluana. “Irrigation depends on the Umbeluzi river, which is fed from the Pequenos Libombos dam. Filling the dam reservoir depends on rainfall further upstream”.


Mozambique Water shortage cuts commercial banana production

Currently, according to the Boane district government, the reservoir is only 20.14% full.

Mozambique's major commercial banana producer, Bananalandia, in the Boane district, about 30 kilometres west of Maputo, has seen production levels fall by half due to a lack of water for irrigation. e banana plantations depend on water from the Umbeluzi river, which in turn depends on the level of water stored behind the Pequenos Libombos dam. Since December 2016, the authorities have banned the use of Pequenos Libombos water for irrigation: the top priority is the Umbeluzi water treatment and pumping station, which provides drinking



January - February 2018


South Africa

the 2016/2017 season,” Stern said. As Eastern Cape farmers grappled with one of the worst, if not the worst, droughts recorded over the past 100 years, Stern said that it was important for producers to bear in mind that prices for commodities produced primarily in the province had reached extraordinarily high levels as result of a national and international short supply. “As a province, we produce most of the country's ultra high quality wool and the wool price has risen to record highs. Mohair also remains a very pro table commodity.

Better year ahead for Eastern Cape farmers

“Similarly, meat prices have also escalated as a result of stock losses experienced throughout the province because of the drought, res and cold weather, resulting in demand outstripping supply. “A region which is of great concern is the irrigation area below the Kouga

Winning a landmark land expropriation court case, expanding an already thriving wool market to include communal farmers, and the prospect of rain are just some of the reasons that Eastern Cape farmers can head into the new year with con dence. is is according to Agri Eastern Cape president, Doug Stern, aer another tough year for the province's farmers, who have been battling the worst drought in a century for the past three years. “It's extremely important to remain upbeat,” said Stern, adding that food producers would always have a vital role to play in the South African economy. “While it's easy to focus on the negatives, there's a lot that came out of 2017 to be positive about.

Dam around Hankey and Patensie. As a result of the low level of water in the dam, farmers there are being faced with the reality of not being able to plant any vegetables, which could result in the price of vegetables increasing signi cantly within our province. “ose farmers have decided to rather use any available water to keep their highly productive citrus trees alive, while the citrus industry in the Sundays River Valley has also enjoyed a reasonable season.” Stern said all of the above should motivate farmers to ght for survival, as it highlighted the vital role they played in providing a stable food security programme for the country. “While agriculture in the Eastern Cape may not have had a very good 2017,

“One of the major triumphs for Agri SA, which impacts on farmers throughout the country, was the moral victory in a landmark expropriation case where the agreed price for a piece of land in Mpumalanga was adjusted

mainly as a consequence of the drought, I am fairly con dent that 2018 will be a better year for all farmers in the province, because the probability of getting normal to above average rainfall looks promising.”

downwards. “We took it to the Supreme Court of Appeal, because we believe that market value is the point of departure for just and equitable compensation for land being expropriated.” Stern said the judge at the Land Claims Court had reduced the agreed price by nearly 17%, citing it being in the interest of land reform as the reason for his action. “If Agri SA had not won this speci c case, it would have allowed the state to put expropriation without compensation uppermost in their sights. is is what made this case such an important victory for land owners.” Another “win” of speci c interest to Eastern Cape farmers is the phenomenal growth the wool industry has enjoyed in recent times, with the National Wool Growers Association laying the groundwork among the ranks of communal farmers. “With their assistance, they have managed to increase the wool production from communal areas from 220 000kg, which yielded R1.5-million in 1997/1998, to 5,8 million kilograms, which yielded nearly R300 million in January - February 2018





has caused uncertainty. is in turn has affected growth and investment. Many western countries have refused to undertake work in these areas, linked to a wider sanctions regime. Resolving the compensation question is vital for seeking a way forward for Zimbabwe's agricultural sector. Of course offering compensation is not a new policy. Compensation for “improvements” on the land has been on offer for years. It was recon rmed by the 2013 Constitution, negotiated by all political parties. To date around half of all farms acquired during land reform have been valued by the government. In parallel, others have been valued by private surveyors and ValCon, an organisation backed by former large-scale

Settling the land compensation issue is vital for Zimbabwe's economy

farmers. So far around 250 compensation settlements have been reached, amounting to a payment of around $100-million. For farms where land was acquired under bilateral investment treaties, compensation for both land and improvements must be paid, adding to

In his inaugural address the new President of Zimbabwe, Emmerson

the costs.

Mnangagwa, con rmed that land reform was both historically necessary

What's been missing has been the capacity to undertake valuations of the

and irreversible. He also made a commitment to compensate farmers who remaining farms; the funds to pay compensation; as well as the political were forced off their land during the fast track land reform programme of will to see it through. the 2000s.

is may now have changed under Mnangagwa. A commitment has been

Many international commentators read this as a sign of a more inclusive

made to a process of auditing, valuing and paying compensation, linked

stance that could bene t economic recovery. Indeed, the recent

in turn to the issuing of 99-year leases and permits to use the land.

reinstatement of an evicted white farmer is perhaps an indication that things are changing.

Who will pay and how?

Mnangagwa has no option but to tackle land reform if he's serious about

e total compensation bill is likely to run into several billion dollars.

getting Zimbabwe's economy back on track. is is because agriculture

Who will pay — and how — are the big questions.

continues to play a signi cant role.

A mix of payments across different liabilities will be required.

Zimbabwe's major land reform, starting in the year 2000, resulted in

ere will be private components, such as equipment that a new farmer is

around 6 000 farms owned by about 4 500 farmers and companies being

using, that will have to be paid off by larger-scale farmers. is payment

taken over. Former owners, most of them white commercial farmers, were can be done over many years through mortgaging arrangements, with evicted, sometimes violently.

upfront payments by the state to former owners.

Today around 145 000 households occupy 4.1-million hectares under

For smallholder farmers, the “improvements” designed for large-scale

smallholder resettlement schemes. Another 3.5-million hectares are used

farming have been less useful. And their ability to pay is much less. Here

by about 23 000 medium-scale farmers.

state or aid funding of compensation will be required.

One of the new government's major policy priorities has to be to get

Other public assets – such as a dam, a road, a building now being used as

agriculture moving as a motor of growth. e long-running issue of

school or as an extension workers' house – are more appropriately paid off

outstanding compensation payments has meant that international donors by the state, or as part of a donor- nanced or debt-rescheduling scheme. and nanciers have not engaged with land reform areas, missing out on supporting major development opportunities.

Quick resolution is essential

Agriculture remains a mainstay of Zimbabwe's economy. People on the

Nearly 18 years aer the land reform most evicted farmers want a quick,

resettlement farms are producing signi cant quantities of food and other

pragmatic solution. is has dragged on for too long. Former white

agricultural products. For example, in the last season over half of the 2.2-

farmers are ageing and are in urgent need of pension support. Others

million tonnes of maize produced in the country, as well as 60% of total

have moved on to different businesses or le the country. is is about

tobacco output worth nearly $350-million, came from land reform areas.

acknowledgement, reconciliation and justice.

ese numbers make it clear how vital they are to Zimbabwe's struggling

In a period when there have been currency changes, hyperin ation and


dramatic shis in the economy, valuation will always be an approximate science. While some will continue to contest the land reform in whatever

Fixing the system

court or tribunal that will hear them, most want resolution – and soon.

Former commercial farmers held land under freehold title. In some cases

Resolving the compensation issue is essential not only to provide redress

bilateral investment agreements, mostly with European countries, also

for those who lost their farms, but also to reduce uncertainty, encourage

governed ownership. Yet, as part of the reform, land was expropriated by

investment and unlock potential for growth and development.

the state and allocated to new users. Initially this was done without regard to these rights.

Mnangagwa's commitment is a good sign. But it now needs to be seen

e lack of redress, and the ongoing contestation over ownership of land,

through, and urgently.



January - February 2018



When they do dip, adhering to proper procedures was a major challenge, hence the outbreak of the disease, Dr Nyika is quoted saying. “e major challenges are irregular dipping. Most dip tanks are not on the recommended weekly dipping due to lack of dipping chemicals” Dr Nyika told the local media. “ere is also low turnout at dip tanks. Most farmers are not willing to take their cattle for dipping at the communal dip tanks. “Some prefer conducting the operation themselves, but may do it in the wrong way and this is not effective in controlling ticks”. Dr Nyika acknowledged that there is also shortage of drugs to treat the disease especially Burparvaquione. Fake chemicals on the market also worsen the situation. According to Dr Nyika, “dealers are packaging tea and selling it as dip” to unsuspecting farmers.

Theileriosis outbreak: Farmers not keen on dipping

“e other challenge is that there are fake chemicals on the market and some farmers cannot tell the difference as the packaging and labelling is the same.”

CATTLE farmers in Zimbabwe have been partially blamed for the

However, farmers have always said dipping fee pegged at $2 per animal

outbreak of eileriosis, a tick-borne disease that has killed an estimated

per year was too high.

2 000 cattle.

An animal requires at least three to ve litres of dip wash.

e livestock sector is on high alert due to the outbreak of the disease that Agriculture analysts say it is not proper for government to blame villagers is common between December and March.

whenever there is an outbreak because some of the dip tanks have actually

e gure, according to officials in the agriculture ministry could be

been condemned because of their poor state.

higher as some cases were not reported.

In some areas, villagers have to fork out signi cant amounts of money to

Most affected areas are Chegutu, Bindura, Goromonzi, and Chivhu.

buy vaccines and treat their animals.

eileriosis is a disease caused by a species of theileria, a blood-borne

Some of the vaccines, such as burpavaquine and butalex orivermectin go

parasite that only affects cattle and is primarily transmitted by ticks that

for anything between $60 and $70, an amount out of reach of many of the

feed on cattle.


A single infected tick can pass the disease to another animal through its

ere is also a signi cant shortage of veterinary officers in the country

saliva when it feeds on it.

due to government's job recruitment freeze that has made it difficult for

Symptoms of the disease include drop in milk production, depression,

villagers to get professional information regarding their livestock.

weakness and difficulty in breathing for the animal with rapid and shallow breaths.

e country, which lost thousands of cattle in the past following

Affected animals also experience an increased heart rate.

consecutive droughts, has been struggling to restock due to the country's

Infected cattle eventually die aer two or three weeks.

precarious nancial situation.

Dr Josphat Nyika, who is the Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and Rural

e national cattle herd is about 5,5 million.

Resettlement's Department of Livestock and Veterinary Services director

e southern parts of the country are predominantly livestock areas.

blamed farmers for not regularly dipping their cattle. Farmers opt to spray cattle on their own citing 'high' dipping costs, said

By Nqobile Bhebhe

Dr Nyika.

January - February 2018



Country focus

Country Focus- Uganda Uganda is a landlocked and fertile country with

Agriculture is a core sector of Uganda's economy fact that vanilla production is the third largest in

many lakes and rivers. Some 84% of the

and the largest employer. Over 80 per cent of Africa, providing US$930,000 in export receipts

population live in rural areas and rely on

women are employed in the sector and contribute in 1998, is a success in itself.

subsistence agriculture.

about 75 per cent of agricultural production.

More than half live in poverty without reliable

Uganda's key agricultural products can be While some steps are being taken to provide

access to food, as despite Uganda's good soil

divided into cash crops, food crops, and insurance against crop failures, access to nance

and favourable weather, there are many barriers

horticultural produce. e most important cash for small scale farmers is limited. e high cost

preventing poor farmers making the most of

crops are coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, and cocoa.

and limited availability of improved farm inputs, including hybrid seeds and post-harvest

the country's growing economy.

e primary food crops, mainly for domestic technology, over-stretched extension services, Once known as 'the pearl of Africa', due to its

consumption, include plantains, cassava, maize, poor transport networks, a lack of market

substantial natural resources, Uganda has seen

millet, and sorghum. Total cereal production was information, inadequate production and post-

exploitation of its agricultural potential

1.76 million metric tons in 1998, which provided harvest facilities, and weak value chain linkages

impeded by dictators and civil war. More

US$17.82 million of exports in 1998.

all hinder and frustrate subsistence farmers.

recently, Uganda has made signi cant progress, becoming increasingly peaceful, stable and

e more recent development of cultivating Livestock are an important element of the

prosperous. However, ongoing con ict in the

horticultural produce includes fresh

north of the country has resulted in poverty

chilies, vanilla, asparagus, and medicinal plants. despite increasing livestock numbers of cattle,

owers, livelihoods of many Ugandan households. But

levels remaining nearly twice that compared to

At the beginning of 2001 it is unclear how well sheep, goats, pigs and poultr y, livestock

the rest of Uganda.

horticultural production will prosper but it does productivity has declined due to cattle rustling, indicate the economy's potential diversity. e disease outbreaks and lack of pasture. e dairy

January - February 2018




Country focus

sector has also been hampered by low prices for participation in the global carbon credit market.

Rising temperatures have also been linked to the

milk, high costs for veterinary drugs and

spread of coffee pests and diseases. In Eastern

transportation problems. e potential for Uganda is one of the world's major Robusta coffee Uganda, for example, coffee leaf rust, a fungus increased exports exists, particularly to South producers but some Arabica is also grown, previously only found at lower altitudes, is Sudan, but inadequate disease control and the primarily on the slopes of Mount Elgon and moving up Uganda's mountainsides. absence of processing infrastructure limit Mount Rwenzori, and coffee contributes between opportunities to export beef and dairy products.

20-30 per cent of the country's foreign exchange Ac c ord i ng to Ug and a ' s l ate st Nat i on a l

Having attained high quality and safety standards earnings. e sector is also almost entirely Development Plan, sustainable economic and for production and export, sh exports are the dependent on smallholder farmers, who s o cial de velopment largely dep ends on second largest export earner for Uganda. But generally intercrop coffee with food crops such as exploitation of the country's environmental and catches are declining due to destructive shing bananas and beans. Old trees coupled with natural resources. But increasing degradation of methods, over- shing, non-compliance of poorly managed and leached soils result in low these resources, coupled with climate change, is regulations and weed infestation due to yields and quality. Since the 1990s the industry seriously impacting Uganda's development and pollution. Government statistics indicate that has also suffered from coffee wilt disease (CWD). the livelihoods of millions of people. e while catches from Lake Victoria are dwindling, According to the Uganda Coffee Development government has therefore concluded that sh populations in Lake Edward and George are Agency, 50 per cent of the overall Robusta coffee investing in agriculture to achieve higher growth almost extinct.

tree population has been infected by the disease rates is the most effective way of reducing poverty. and has died. e industry has also suffered from

Poor management of natural resources has also unstable coffee prices on the world market, which To tackle these challenges, the government is affected forests, soils and wetlands, resulting in has caused farmers to abandon or uproot their working to strengthen the national agricultural declining agricultural yields. Dwindling forest trees. A rise in farmgate prices in the last ve research system, provide farmers with quality cover has been attributed to increasing demand years has, however, stimulated demand for coffee advice, improve detection and control of pests for agricultural land and fuel wood from a rapidly plantlets.

and diseases and encourage more sustainable

growing population and weak enforcement of

land use and better management of soil and water

land use policy. But forestry also supports the Increasingly volatile weather, blamed on climate resources. Plans are also underway to rehabilitate economy through the sale of timber, ecotourism, change, has also begun to impact coffee growers and establish irrigation schemes, rehabilitate honey, herbal medicines and rattan-cane. In and prolonged drought and unpredictable rural infrastructure, improve access to markets, addition to promoting re-forestation and rainfall are beginning to cause problems. In 2010, strengthen farmers' organisations, and improve afforestation, the government is also attempting major

ooding near Mount Elgon destroyed regulation and enforcement of food and safety

to enforce forest and environmental laws and 60,000 coffee trees and killed almost 400 people. standards to enable greater levels of export. regulations, and strengthen networks to enable


January - February 2018

Cover story

Is there a way forward for Africa's Agriculture? Africa is a farm lover's dream: abundant Yet, African countries are yet to harness these commercial enterprise. e African Center for uncultivated arable land, roughly over half the opportunities to ensure sustainable food security Economic Transformation (ACET) says focusing global total; tropical climates that permit long and food production. e average age of farmers on the entire value chain of the process—land growing seasons; a young labor force; and an is about 60 years—in a continent where 60% of tenure, farming technology, markets, and expanding population that provides a readily the population is under 24 years of age. Farmers pricing—would help transform food systems available market for produce consumption.

are also less educated, with younger, more around the continent. educated Africans are leaving rural areas, where

Agriculture remains key to achieving the poverty farms are located, and moving to cities.

Positioning farming “as a business and entrepreneurial endeavor” would also help draw

targets of the MDGs in Africa. Nearly 80% of the

population in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural Transforming agriculture, the sector that younger people into the practice, and make them areas and 70% of this rural population are employs the majority of Africans and holds the see it as less of a “cool idea” and more as a “career dependent on food production through farming greatest promise for economic prosperity, will be option.” or livestock keeping for most of their livelihood. critical in this pursuit. Yet despite expenditure of Small-scale farming provides most of the food billions of dollars on agricultural development, Experience from the frontlines of agricultural produced in Africa, as well as employment for most of Africa's farmers continue to harvest one development in Africa reveals that another factor 60% of working people. metric tonne of grain per hectare, consigning is the lack of access to quality seeds. them to an impoverished, subsistence existence. Breeding and supply of seed of higher-yielding

Agriculture constitutes the backbone of most

African economies; is the largest contributor to But to remedy these issues, a new report suggests crop varieties has been the starting point of GNI, the biggest source of foreign exchange, and governments should change their outlook on virtually every green revolution experienced the main generator of savings and tax revenues. agriculture from subsistence, daily activity into a around the globe. Yet the critical challenge of seed January - February 2018



Is there a way forward for Africa's Agriculture?

scarcity among Africa's farmers became evident adoption of mechanisation in replacing human

Cover story

elds without using fertilisers, they literally mine

in the early part of this century almost by labour. Most of Africa is still far behind this stage. the soil: an estimated eight million tonnes of accident.

I n s u b - S a h a r a n A f r i c a , a g r i c u l t u r a l nutrients are depleted annually in Africa.

Equally important, every country possessed its me chanis at ion has eit her st ag nate d or Pesticides are another element that, if correctly share of seed entrepreneurs and vendors eager to retrogressed in recent years. Over 60% of farm u s e d , c a n i mprov e c ro p y i e l d w it h o ut create businesses from the supply of new planting power is still provided by human muscle, mostly environmental damage. is method has been material. In 2006, the Bill and Melinda Gates from women, the elderly and children. Only 25% increasingly adopted in the past decade across Foundation and e Rockefeller Foundation of farm power is provided by animals, while less Africa in an indiscriminate fashion. e lack of came together to establish the Program for than 20% of mechanisation services are provided education on which types and quantity of Africa's Seed Systems (PASS) within the Alliance by engine power.

pesticide are the best for each crop, and the

for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) to A study conducted by the International Journal absence of government control, have led to its address the challenges associated with supplying of Agriculture Innovations and Research (IJAIR) excessive use and consequent environmental growers with seed.

in Nigeria, showed that mechanisation contamination and human health problems.

A decade later, crop breeders working in public signi cantly increased the productivity of Agriculture subsidies make an important factor institutes around the continent have developed cassava

elds, and that farmers who adopt of imbalance in the international market.

over 600 new crop varieties. Over 500 plant mechanisation, have an increased income in Although Africa has one of the lowest cost of breeders have been trained at MSc and PhD levels comparison to those that only use human labour.

production of agricultural commodities in the

through the programme.

w or l d , it l o s e s c omp e t it i v e n e s s i n t h e And just like in the modern workplace, women international market as wealthier countries

ousands of smallholder farmers have shown should be put on an equal footing with men in subsidise their famers, sometimes to the extent that they can double and triple their harvests, order to drive agricultural transformation in that the selling price of crops is lower than the provided they have access to the right seed, Africa. Many countries still have laws governing production cost. fertiliser and expertise.

marriage, divorce, and inheritance, which still e legacy of the agricultural policy environment

In Rwanda, the One Acre Fund charity provides p u t a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t w o m e n l a n d is evident in global and domestic markets. its clients with high yield seeds, fertiliser, know- ownership—and hinder them from using their Africa's farmers have a limited presence in global how and credit, which in many times is the deal- plots as collateral for loans.

markets. e region as a whole exports less than

break point. e increased productivity of high- ere is also need for investments in small-scale ailand. West Africa now accounts for around yield seeds usually comes with a down point: the irrigation and post-harvest infrastructure as one h of world rice imports. Nigeria's food plants grown from them do not produce seeds of means of direct support to small-scale farmers.

import bill for rice currently exceeds $2bn a year.

the same sort. Hence, small farmers frequently struggle to nd nancing to buy seeds for the next Agricultural productivity is related to a range of Africa has the land, water and people needed to be crop.

factors. e lack of irrigation is an obvious an efficient agricultural producer – and to feed an

e importance of establishing functional, example. Only 5% of the cultivated land in Africa expanding urban population. e Guinea responsive seed supply systems in every African makes use of irrigation, with most of the farmers Savannah, a vast area that spreads across 25 country is now well past the proof-of-concept depending on rainfall. In comparison in Asia, countries, has the potential to turn several stage, and represents an imperative for Africa's 38% of the arable land is under irrigation. prosperity.

African nations into global players in bulk

Furthermore, soil health is a challenge. e commodity production. In addition, countries

Technology and mobile phones should also be average farmer in Ghana uses only 7.4kg of such as Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Mozambique and increasingly adopted as a way to not only to reach fertiliser per hectare, while in South Asia Tanzania, have large breadbasket areas that could farmers, but also as a mechanism for data fertiliser use averages more than 100kg per feed regional populations, displace imports and collection and analysis on soil conditions, hectare. Unsurprisingly, output per hectare in generate exports. fertilizer application, and climate change.

Africa falls far below the levels registered in other To reduce poverty and boost economic growth, parts of the world. When farmers plant the same Africa will have to develop a vibrant and prosperous agricultural sector.

A critical step into modernising agriculture is the


January - February 2018


Danish company converts methane into environmentally friendly animal feed Imagine a future where the world´s protein Uniprotein ® addresses the world's growing however, lie within animal feed but within sale supply is partly covered by a technology enabling demand for animal protein which will continue and licensing of the technology optimizing the methane to be turned into a highly concentrated to increase in line with population growth and processes, allowing the customers to build and sustainable protein for animal feed by the emergence of a large middle class with strong protein production plants. bacterial fermentation. is can help ensure food purchasing power. e world population is security globally and to decouple protein estimated to surpass 9 billion by 2050. »In the future, there will be places with abundant production from farming and shing.

Consequently, the demand for livestock and quantities of biogas, so instead of just aring it to livestock feed has grown. Soybean, a key protein produce electricity one option may be to use wind

Unibio is the developer of an innovative Single ingredient in animal feed, has seen its production power and use the gas to produce protein for feed Cell Protein production technology called the U- increase by almost 400% over the past 40 years. or food”, Unibio CEO Henrik Busch-Larsen says. Loop® technology, converting natural gas into a is has been detrimental to the environment as highly concentrated protein (Uniprotein®) for rainforests and other vital biomes have been Recently, Unibio has been evaluating a joint sustainable food production targeting the animal converted to agricultural land.

venture (JV) with the Nigerian National

compound feed markets. Uniprotein® bene ts

Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) on a potential

from superior nutritional content and product

project related to its technology. Nigeria is said to

characteristics. With a protein content of 72.9% Unibio's vision is to decouple protein production have abundant natural gas resources and the Uniprotein® is a close substitute to high-quality from farming and shing, crop land can thus be protein generated would be used in the Nigeria's shmeal (LT Fishmeal), but it can also substitute used to produce food for humans rather than feed burgeoning poultry and aquaculture production soybean meal, both being two increasingly scarce for animals. sectors. Unibio's greatest opportunities does not, resources January - February 2018




Device for drying cassava peels to make high value animal feed An interesting innovation which produces rapidly de-watering cassava peels, is key to without lowering the performance. For growing livestock feed from cassava peels is available in jumpstarting the cassava business.

pigs it can provide as far as 75 per cent

the market.

replacement of maize without lowering

With this technology, you can cut the drying of ere are two varieties of cassava. e sweet performance,” he said. cassava peels from three days to one. Cassava variety contains zero cyanide, meaning it can be peels are said to contain about 8 to 10 per cent dry consumed directly. e bitter variety, which is Traditionally, drying the peels with all its liquid matter and 62 per cent soluble carbohydrates. It is higher in cyanide content, must be processed to content that makes up 70 per cent of the peels when wet, takes longer. What the scientist and his low in bre, at 16 per cent, with 6.5 per cent crude lower this before consumption. “Grating, de-watering and drying are key colleagues have developed has reduced the drying


When processed, the peels contain 2,200 kilo processes in breaking up cyanide in cassava and of cassava peels from three days to one. e calories per kilogramme of dry matter compared ensuring it is safe for consumption. And those resulting dry cake is sun-dried. to 3,000 kilo calories per kilogramme dry matter same processes have been followed in pushing If you put 100 kilos of grated material into the of maize.

this technology to the livestock sector for animal press, by the time you have pressed to about ve

minutes you will only have 50 kilos le,” the “Cassava peels have been found to be a suitable feeds,” the researcher said. substitute in animal feeds. It is two thirds the With livestock production expected to more than researcher said. energy value of maize but lower in protein double in the next 40 years, transforming cassava “Traditionally, drying cassava peels takes about content,” he said. Yet, researchers report that 50 peels into high quality feed holds huge potential three to four days during the dry season and million tonnes of cassava peels are being wasted for African economies, especially Kenya, become more complicated during wet seasons,” and treated as an environmental nuisance.

struggling to meet the rapidly rising demand for he said. e innovation has also solved the

However, the peels contain poison and have to be animal-source products.

problem of drying the cassava peels that usually

dried gradually to reduce toxicity. Dr Okike's “In poultry keeping, for example, processed affects the energy content when used in feed drying technology, which involves crushing and cassava peels can substitute 25 per cent of maize manufacturing industry.


France makes efforts to better market its maize seeds e National French Federation of Maize and e c u r re nt pro du c t i on ye ar has b e e n various communication tools. To give these Sorghum Seed Production (FNPSMS), states that characterised by early (mid-April) plantings and activities a strong pro le and overall coherence, France is the biggest European producer and a good progress of crops, due to weather the actors in the industry have set out to develop a major exporter of maize seeds. To be able to conditions that have favoured very early speci c brand that would characterise the 'maize remain in this position, efforts are being made to step up branding the French corn seeds.

owering. e progress enabled growers to let the seed produced in France' and symbolise the crop dry on the stalk and thus save their drying excellence of the industry. e 'Maize in France' brand and the related logo

About 128,500 hectares of maize seed have been costs.

harvested this year in the EU-28. Of this total, 58 e good 2017 yields were made possible by the w i l l re pre s e nt t h e i d e a of qu a l it y an d 000 hectares came from France. e share of genetic progress achieved especially in terms of performance. Also, a website promoting the France is around 45% in the EU which makes it the new varieties' drought tolerance and early- French maize seed industry and its assets is the biggest producer of maize seeds.

planting characteristics, allowing for better light currently under development.

Hungary and Romania account for 21,000 interception during the longer spring days. hectares each. ese yields were a bit higher than On an increasingly competitive market such as France is one of the world's most important grain the earlier forecasts for both France and the EU, maize seed, France cannot therefore take its exporters and the driving force in the E.U.'s grain despite a few local accidents in Central and position for granted and its industry has to do sector. Aer a poor 2016-17 crop, a recovery in Southern Europe, related to drought and high everything possible to secure its leadership. us the quantity and quality of grains production is temperatures.

every year, the FNPSMS carries out numerous expected in 2017-18. Its traditional export market

France's production should end at 13.9 million activities to promote French seeds and high- is in North Africa, as well as in other E.U. tons this year, up 12% from last year's 12.3 million performance genetics on the EU markets and in countries, but French barley has made big inroads tons, thanks to the excellent country-level yields. third countries, through speci c events and into the Chinese market in recent years. January - February 2018




How to inspect a used tractor before purchase When it comes to buying a farm tractor,

Look for caked dirt around ttings or joints,

each gear for slippage or gear chatter. Check the

farmers know what they need. Most arrive at

which could be a sign of a leak, and check the

steering for wear and make sure tires are going

farm equipment auctions knowing exactly what

front and rear engine transmission seals. If

the right direction.

they want - whether it's a John Deere 9630

lters look old, it may be a sign of how long the

4WD tractor, a 2011 New Holland T7060

tractor has been sitting. Check the oil level and

Cycle each hydraulic remote for leaks and test

MFWD tractor, or a 2011 Challenger MT865C

quality on the dipstick; look for any creaminess

the PTO system. Turn on all lights and inspect

tracked tractor with a speci c number of

or signs of water in the oil.

them. If the tractor has heat and air

other farm attachments.

Start it up

working properly — air conditioning is oen a

Once the tractor res up, check for blue, white

problem and expensive.

ough they know the exact make, model and

or continuous black smoke. e smoke should

conditioning, test both to make sure they are

hydraulic outlets to run a scraper, air drill or

speci cations, farmers will almost always

clear quickly unless the tractor is under load.

e home inspection

inspect a tractor before they bid.

Listen for any taps in the engine. Open the

Once you've decided to make the purchase, it

radiator to look for bubbles; open the engine ll

doesn't hurt to do a more thorough inspection.


port to observe for gases, and check for lm in

Change all uids and lters, and grease all

Shiny paint looks nice but can also hide the

the oil ll port. Check all other uids and look

tractor's history. Take a closer look. Lots of

for foam or gases.

ttings and bearings. Remove the oil pan, feel the cylinder, check rod bearings and check the pan for metal akes or sludge. Open the

dents could mean the previous owner did not take care of the tractor. Check for wear on the

Test drive

transmission inspection cover, inspect gears,

drawbar and three-point hitch and check

You'll need to take the tractor for a short drive

look for chips and feel around. Conduct a

controls for linkage wear. Inspect the frame and

to test the brakes, gears and steering. Stand on

pressure test on the hydraulics system.

axles for any signs of repair welds.

the brakes to check for clutch slippage. Check



January - February 2018


Agricultural Balers A baler, most oen called a hay baler is a piece of (literally) by horse power with horses walking on farm equipment. One reason for this is that hay is farm machinery used to compress a cut and raked an inclined leather and wood treadmill belt. Once eaten by almost every farm animal. Hay elds are crop (such as hay, cotton, ax straw, salt marsh a hay bale reached the right size, twine or wire similar to tall grass in that they must be moved in hay, or silage) into compact bales that are easy to was wrapped around the bale and tied.

collected so that animals are fed all year. Without

handle, transport, and store. Oen, bales are Baler technology was constantly improving. a hay baler, none of this would be possible. con gured to dry and preserve some intrinsic Steam traction engines took over for the horse Once hay is cut or mowed it is raked into (e.g. the nutritional) value of the plants bundled. and then the internal combustion tractor windrows – or rows of hay that are uffed so that Several different types of balers are commonly replaced the steam engine.

wind can dry out some of the moisture. Once this

used, each producing a different type of bale – In the 1930s, balers were attached to tractors, process has taken place, hay is able to be baled. rectangular or cylindrical, of various sizes, bound allowing them to pick up hay from the ground. with twine, strapping, netting, or wire.

irty years later, hydraulics allowed the Round or Square Bales

Industrial balers are also used in material introduction of the large round baler. Balers Round or square bales? at's the big question recycling facilities, primarily for baling metal, continue to improve to this day thanks to farm you need to ask, and there are arguments for both plastic, or paper for transport.

implement manufacturing companies. Today, when it comes to cost and convenience. the most popular baler on the market is the round Square bales are generally produced by

Hay balers have been around since the late 1800s, hay baler.

contractors and have a number of storage and

the same time the agricultural industry was

handling bene ts.

evolving thanks to the introduction of many new Presently, custom balers, or people who bale hay Round balers are signi cantly cheaper than machines.

only to sell it, are a huge market for new baler square balers and are popular for dairy farmers

Before the introduction of the hay baler, bay was sales. Corporate farms are another large market wanting to bale their own hay. stored loose in the upper story of a farmer's barn. segment. Both custom balers and corporate en you need to decide if it's worth investing in is took up valuable barn space, however, so the farms utilize large tractors to power balers. Large hay baling equipment or better to pay someone prospect of more easily stored hay bales was balers are predicted to be the standard for several else to do it? We talked to contractors and farmers something farmers were extremely interested in.

years as hydraulics and bale wrapping technology to guide you through the differences between

Hay was taken from the eld and put into a bale continue to improve.

round and square bales.

chamber by hand. e baler was powered Balers are one of the most important pieces of January - February 2018



Agricultural Balers



Square: ose with horses or who are on smaller, might be needed, but this horsepower range is

Round: Round bales are fairly simple to handle less intensive properties prefer the small square ideal for other farm tasks, so there's no need to buy with a two-spike loader fork or bale grab but bales because you can easily break off a biscuit another tractor. forget about pushing them around by hand. ey and keep the rest neatly stored. ey can also Square: Extra weight, heavier bales and more are generally 150cm from at end to at end, work with mechanical bale feeders.

moving parts including a big plunger mean you're

120cm wide and weigh about 350kg. Make sure

not going to get away with anything much less than 200hp to drive a square baler, especially on

you leave them on at spots. ey've been known TIME/SPEED to roll through fences and worse.

Round: A round bale needs to be wrapped and hilly land. is puts it in the realm of contractors unloaded, and unless you've spent the extra cash and hay exporters.

Square: A three or four-spike loader fork is for a continuous round baler, that means recommended for the large bales which usually stopping and starting as each bale is nished.


measure about 120cm x 90cm x 240cm long and

Round: A round baler on average costs about

weigh about 550-600kg, although the small bales Square: is is where square balers really shine. $60,000 and needs only a 100hp tractor. If you are easy to carry by hand. ere are also bale ey can operate non-stop, pushing out bale aer want to wrap bales for silage, a wrapping machine packers on the market that make it easier to bale, if nothing goes wrong with the complex will set you back about $20,000, so a dairy farmer handle multiple bales.

knotting system that can sometimes skip.

can justify the cost of producing round bales.



Square: Even a small square baler costs nearly

Round: It's harder for water to penetrate a round Round: Newer round balers can get more three times as much as a round baler with large bale so they're less susceptible to weather and can compaction into bales, but by the nature of the square balers coming in about the $180,000 mark. be le out in the paddock. Stacking them under baling process, they can only be packed so tight. Factor in a 200hp tractor and about $70,000 for a cover is also an option, although there's a fair bit It's not such an issue for livestock farmers as wrapper and you can see why they're contractor of wasted space due to the shape.

round bales aren't for the export market where territory. density is more important. CONTRACTOR OR DO IT YOURSELF

Square: ey're shaped like bricks so they're ideal

for stacking in sheds and unless they're wrapped Square: You get a lot more hay in a square bale Round: Some contractors and other farmers will in plastic for silage, that's where they should be. which is a reason why export hay is delivered in sell bales, which can be cheaper than owning a Unlike round bales, rain will go right through a that shape (easier loading for transport is the baler. Lack of contractors at ideal hay making square bale and ruin it.

other). Baler manufacturers are racing to times makes owning a baler attractive, although discover new ways to increase density, which running costs can make it more expensive.


adds value.

Round: Feeding large herds of cattle by running

Square: Given the costs and complexity of a square

out hay in long strips from a trailed bale feeder is POWER REQUIREMENTS

baler, there's not much bene t in owning one

efficient and fast. Round bales are also good for Round: A round baler is relatively small and will unless you want to sell hay. Many farmers opt to dropping into large feed mixer wagons. It's hard usually require a tractor of about 100hp to buy hay or have contractors come and bale their to strip hay from the bale by hand so that can be operate it effectively. On hilly land, a bit extra paddocks. limiting.



January - February 2018


Magnets in food processing Assessment and removal of metal contaminants

range of applications. ey are used to Magnet Materials

are becoming common practice in the food

remove ferrous contaminants present in ·

Alnico magnets are made from aluminium,

processing industry. Many retailers make metal

small, shallow quantities of owing powder,

nickel cobalt and iron. ey are economical

detection a critical control point (CCP)

granules, bres and liquids.

magnet sources used in applications that

requirement in their supplier's plans, to ensure ·

Plate magnets are used in the bottom of an

have high temperatures (>204 °C). Alnico is

inclined chute or suspended above conveyor

comparable in strength to ceramics and is

nished products meet established speci cations. Metal pieces in food products pose a safety risk to

belts or stainless steel vibratory feeders. ey

used to remove relatively large metal pieces,

consumers and c an d amage pro cessing

are used to remove ferrous contaminants

such as bolts or nuts.

equipment. Sources of metal contamination

that occur occasionally in products lines, ·

Ceramic magnets are low-cost and made


particularly large pieces of metal, such as

from a composite of iron oxide and




incoming ingredients (contaminated during

nuts, bolts or staples, from dry products.

barium/strontium carbonate. ey are used

processing or transportation of the ·

Grate magnets have magnetic tubes

to remove relatively large pieces of ferrous


designed in a grid to allow the

processing equipment (grinding, crushing

material to cascade though a grate. ey

ow of

metal objects of that size.

metal such as nuts, bolts, nails and other

processes or general abrasion or vibration

spread magnetic protection through cross- ·

Rare earth magnets generate an extremely

causing the loss of nuts and bolts etc.)

sectioned areas of equipment, such as pipes

strong magnetic

inadequate personnel practices and

or hoppers. ey can be used to remove ne


environmental causes Selecting a Magnet


Equipment that detects and removes metal

eld, allowing them to

ne or weakly magnetic

or re l at i v e l y l ar g e pi e c e s of m e t a l

contamination such as rust or work-


hardened stainless steel from product ow.

Liquid line trap magnets are traps with tube

Extensively used by the food industry, rare

magnets inside them, designed with an inlet

earth magnet types include:

contaminants is important in food processing and

port to match existing pipelines. e magnet ·

s amar ium-cobalt magnets are more

magnets are one approach that works successfully.

collects metal pieces like baling wire or

expensive and have a weaker magnetic eld.

Selecting the proper magnetic separator requires


ey perform well in corrosive or high

an understanding of magnetic properties, ·

Pneumatic line magnets draw metallic

temperature environments.

product characteristics and the speci c

pieces from products such as starch, milk ·

neodymium magnets are second generation

environmental factors in each food processing

powder and


pneumatic lines.

our as they

ow through

rare-earth magnets made from neodymium, iron and small amounts of boron. ey are

Magnetic separators are available in a wide range ·

Suspended magnets hang above conveyor

the most powerful and most affordable of the

of designs, including: bar, plate, grate, liquid line

belts and remove metal fragments from the

rare-earth magnets.

trap, pneumatic line and suspended.

material as they pass under the magnet. ey


Bar magnets are permanent non-electric

remove large pieces of metal and can protect Factors Affecting Magnet Performance

magnetic units that can be used in a wide

equipment, such as crushers, from damage.

January - February 2018



ere are several factors that can affect the

Magnets in food processing

effectiveness of a magnet's performance: ·


it cascades down a sloped chute. Suspended grain and what are his responsibilities?


Temperature: Magnetic materials lose

magnets work efficiently when dry products farmer harvests his crop, and before bagging or

st rengt h w hen exp os e d to ele vate d

are transported on a conveyor belt.

temperatures. When magnets are heated · beyond certain temperatures (which depend

require a magnetic trap, either in a grate or Where does the ferrous contaminates come from

on their speci c material), they lose strength

plate con guration. Traps are similar to well, most would be surprised how bits of old

placing in the silo he must eliminate any ferrous

Liquid products — a liquid or slurry state contaminates before the milling process.

that cannot be recovered by cooling. When

g r at e s , tu b e m a g n e t s are ar r ange d bailing wire or machine parts like nuts and bolts

using magnets in a process that involves high

perpendicular to the ow inside an enclosed

nd their way into the grain truck. Fine metallic

temperatures, make sure you are using the

vessel to trap any ferrous material passing dust is also generated in the actual harvesting.

correct material.


All these must be eliminated before the milling

Flow characteristics: Many food products ·

Moist products — such as our or starch do operation and the most economical solution is

exhibit different ow characteristics when

not ow through grate magnets because of normally to use permanent magnets housed in

damp or moist. For instance, sugar with high

product build up. e best option is to use a food quality stainless steel. Permanent magnets

moisture content can form large particles

powerful magnet that is completely out of do not require any electrical power to operate and

that may plug the opening of a magnetic

the product

separator. is can stop the product from owing the tubes of the magnet. ·


ow. A magnetic rotation they should last for years. ese magnets can take

system outside the product line eliminates the form of grid magnets or sometimes plate product build up and allows product to ow magnets.

Equipment design: e spacing and number

e type and the positioning of the magnet device


of tubes in magnetic equipment affect the

is most important, the earlier in the grain ow is a

strength of the magnetic eld it generates. How permanent magnets devices help the farmer good rule of thumb. It's oen a good idea to get Closer spacing and more tubes mean a improve the food quality standards advice and proposals from an expert magnetic stronger magnetic eld and hig her Food safety standards are increasing throughout equipment supplier. e type of magnetic device efficiency. the world driven by consumers demanding higher will depend on a number of factors including the ·


Product characteristics: e characteristics and higher standards of food security. What is rate of ow. of the food being processed greatly affect the food security, you may ask and who does this effectiveness of magnetic separators. Food affect? e answer is simple food must be ese permanent magnets, however do require products can be categorized in three groups: produced in hygienic conditions to a high regular inspection and discarding of any ferrous dry, liquid or moist. measureable and consistent and acceptable contaminates which have been collected. You will Dry products — range from small food standard and it must be free of impurities and be amazed at what is collected and saved from grains owing down a chute to large rock- contaminates. is achieved in the supply chain entering the next stage of the production. Oen like products moving along high-speed following the procedures and standards as set the quality control standard requirements will conveyor belts. Each one requires different down by ISO / SABS and where exports are necessitate an annual so called magnetic audit separation equipment. If the material is concerned with the British Retail Food where the magnetic surface ux of every magnetic small and free- owing, a grate magnet may Consortium Regulations which is oen an device is measured and recorded to ensure there be best. Plate magnets do not disturb the ow accepted standard. has been no deterioration in the magnetic of the product nor cause it to build up when Let's look at the farmer the primary producer of performance.

Techco Power Magnets


For all your magne c TGD specialises in all permanent type magnets and magne c applica ons. requirements Rare earth / Neodynium magnets, Ferrite magnets, Alnico magnets , Cow magnets, Call today for Grid magnets, Plate magnets, Magne c Sweepers , Flexible magnets and more. friendly service Rumax Cow Magnet Due to the nature of cow's eating large portions of food without chewing, it leads to conditions known as Hardware Disease. This is caused by cows eating ferrous items like nails, fencing etc. These items are potentially life threatening to the cow. To protect the cow's stomach from this farmers insert a cow magnet into its stomach to attract these harmful objects

and advice No orders too Big or small

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January - February 2018


Fertigation in High Tech Agriculture Fertigation is the application of water soluble of irrigation where the use efficiency is very high Advantages solid fertiliser or liquid fertiliser through drip and it is very popular in arid and semi-arid 1) In drip fertigation, fertiliser application is irrigation system. conditions of the world. synchronized with plant need which varies from plant to plant In drip fertigation, the amount and e factors that governs the fertigation are soil With the advent of this new method of irrigation form of nutrient supply is regulated as per the types, crops, methods of irrigation used, water system, traditional method of fertilisation which need of the critical stages of plant growth. quality, types of fertilisers available, economic is still in practised by the farmers is being slowly

2) Saving in amount of fertiliser applied, due to

feasibility etc. Fertigation has become an replaced by fertigation. In drip irrigation, the better fertiliser use efficiency and reduction in attractive method of fertilisation in modern wetted soil volume and thus the active root zone leaching. intensive agriculture systems. is reduced under drippers and this small volume 3) Optimisation of nutrient balance in soils by does not allow the addition of all plant nutrients supplying the nutrients directly to the effective is has assumes added importance aer the needed by the plants. introduction of micro- irrigation system like drip in irrigated agriculture.

root zones as per the requirement.

4) Reduction in labour and energy cost by Rather, fertiliser needed is to be applied making use of water distribution systems for frequently and periodically in small amount with nutrient application.

Water and nutrient are the main factors of the each irrigation to ensure adequate supply of 5) Better yield and quality of products obtained. production in irrigated agriculture and are the water and nutrient in the root zone. 6) Timely application of small but precise major inputs in contributing higher productivity.

amounts of fertilisers directly to the roots zone,

In intensive agriculture, both fertiliser and erefore, as a result of the shi from surface this improves fertiliser use efficiency and reduces irrigation management have contributed irrigation to drip method of irrigation, nutrient leaching below the root zone. immensely in increasing the yield and quality of fer tigation b ecomes the most common 7) Ensures a uniform ow of water and nutrients. crops e method of fertiliser and irrigation fertilisation in the irrigated agriculture.

8) Improves availability of nutrients and their

application affects the efficiency of these inputs in

uptake by crop.

arid and semi arid regions. Improvement of the e use of soluble and compatible fertilisers, 9) Safer application method, as it eliminates the use efficiency of these valued inputs is of utmost good quality irrigation water, and application of danger affecting roots due to higher dose. importance because these are costly and scare. actual crop and water need are the prerequisite of 10) Soil and water erosion are prevented. the successful fertigation system. As any system Under this disadvantaged condition the use has both advantages and disadvantages, so has Disadvantages efficiency of these is also very low. Micro- the fertigation.

1) Both the components (drip and water soluble

irrigation systems are the most modern systems

fertiliser) are very costly.

January - February 2018



Fer ga on in High Tech Agriculture


2) Maintenance of drip irrigation is difficult. ere is possibility of the and rat infestation. 3) Good quality water is very essential. Clogging of emitters may cause a serious problem. 4) It needs water soluble fertilisers, the availability of these types of fertilisers is limited. 5) Adjustment of fertilisers to suit the need is not easy. 6) Infestation of insects pest and diseases increases. 7) Area under micro irrigation is now increasing mainly because of subsidy in microirrigation, if s u b s i d y i s w it h d r aw n , t h e a re a u n d e r micronutrient may also reduced. So also would be the fate of fertigation. 8) Due to fear of yield loss, because of relatively lower dose of fertilisers in fertigation, farmers have the tendency to add additional fertilisers and irrigation water by traditional methods too. is may result in crop lodging (Sugar cane) lower yield and lower pro ts. A well-designed fertigation system can reduce fertilizer application costs considerably, and supply nutrients in precise and uniform amounts to the wetted irrigation zone around the tree where the active feeder roots are concentrated.


Hazera's Mini-Watermelon Comes to Africa Delighting Farmers and Consumers The Polimore hybrid watermelon provides size, taste and shelf life Hazera, a global leader in the seed industry,

Polimore watermelon to those of the larger ones

About Hazera

recently introduced the Polimore, a small, tasty,

to which they were accustomed. e growth of

Hazera, a global leader in the seed industry.

rm seeded watermelon with an exceptionally

consumer demand has shown the growers that

combines decades of experience with state-of-

long shelf life, to the African market. e hybrid the switch to Polimore bene ts everyone.

the-art technology in breeding, developing,

fruit was developed to improve on the local

producing and marketing a wide variety of seeds

watermelon, whose lack of taste, quality,

''e growers can capitalize on Polimore's

rmness and disease resistance - plus short shelf superiority to establish long-term deals with the

for a wide range of vegetable crops around the world. Headquartered in Israel and e

life and prohibitive price - resulted in very low

marketing chains,” said Asaf Stern, Sales

Netherlands, it has subsidiaries in 12 countries

market demand.

Manager for Africa, Hazera. “eir customers

and an extensive distribution network providing

e easy-to-grow Polimore's adaptability to

will learn to value the produce's high quality

services in over 100 additional markets. is

and potential for brand loyalty."

worldwide presence enables Hazera to be close

African conditions will provide a boon. Its long

to its customers and offer technical support - as

shelf life bene ts all involved in the marketing

Hazera breeds, develops, produces and markets

well as anticipate and respond to local needs by

chain - farmers, distributors and consumers -

seeds for a wide range of vegetable and eld

creating varieties that t speci c climates,

and enables export to neighboring countries

crops around the world. Combining decades of

growing conditions and market requirements.

without negative results (consumers can still eat

experience with cutting-edge technology,

Hazera is part of the Limagrain Group, an

the fruit several days aer purchase). e

Hazera's breeders and scientists create top-

international agri-business based in France.

Polimore's total yield - and the price obtained

quality and high-yielding varieties and tailor

for the crops – are generally higher than those

them to meet the farming conditions and

of the traditional watermelons.

marketing requirements of customers

For questions, comments, or more information,


contact Nili Snir, Regional Marcom Specialist at

Consumers prefer the taste, size (two to three

kilograms), shelf life and reasonable price of the

or by phone +(972)88508872.

January - February 2018



Cropping compared with the standard non-Omex calciumcontaining product used on the estate. Improvements in growth of coffee bushes and yield and quality of the coffee harvest included: ·

Higher coffee cherry and bean yields per tree

· ·

Increased branch extension growth Higher bean quality as measured by bean size

Reduced frequency of green coffee bean defects including black, mouldy and broken beans “Some coffee growing areas in Vietnam have inherently low pH soils, so enhanced cell and tissue strength afforded by the extra calcium, and translating into lower levels of berry disease with reduced berry drop and fungicide usage, offers exciting opportunities for farmers using Omex Calmax,” says Peter Prentis. “Much of the Arabica coffee produced in Kenya is grown on moderately acidic soils within the pH 56 range says Omex Regional Director Alan Lowes. Liming during the growing season is common practice in areas of low soil pH and there is concern that soil acidity is increasing in some

Omex Calmax gets calcium into coffee beans

areas of Kenya. “Application of Omex Calmax containing soluble calcium can avoid the de ciencies commonly caused by 'lock-up' of soil

Coffee whether the long-established Kenyan reduction in soil acidity but simultaneously calcium,” says Alan Lowes. Arabica origins or more recent provenances from aggravate calcium availability to growing coffee. Coffee beans are not especially rich in nutrients.

Vietnam, the world's leading exporter of Robusta

coffee, is frequently cultivated on moderately acid Any shortfall in the calcium nutrition of coffee Eight uid ounces (227 ml) of ground and brewed plants may impact on vegetative growth and coffee will normally provide 5 mg of calcium.

soils within the pH 5-6 range.

reduce yield of coffee cherry, while increasing However, there is a speci c reason why the Liming with calcium-rich materials including frequency of primary bean defects and secondary calcium content of coffee beans should be boosted to the highest possible level. Well-established limestone, dolomite, marl, chalk and hydrated damage caused mechanically or by insect pests. research shows an inhibitory effect of caffeine on

lime is widely practised to raise soil pH and

thereby reduce acidity, while incidentally Omex Agri uids the United Kingdom-based the absorption of calcium by the human gut. And formulator and exporter of innovative, high sufficiently signi cant to cause potential supplementing soil calcium. quality, soluble plant nutrients (in liquid and problems for coffee drinkers in the higher age Calcium is a crucially important structural powder delivery systems) has the answer in a groups whose ability to absorb calcium may component of coffee berries, cherry and beans as product which is rich in soluble calcium and already be low. a constituent of calcium pectate which cements applied by foliar spraying as an integral part of the cell walls together. e calcium nutrient displays Omex foliar-feeding programme for coffee.

Further information and details from:

Peter Prentis (Export Director) and Alan Lowes inherently poor mobility made worse by soil 'lock-down' caused by calcium reacting with “Foliar application of Omex Calmax containing ( R e g i on a l D i re c t or ) : O m e x Ag r i u i d s . phosphorous to for m ins oluble, plant- 22.50% Ca (Wt/Vol) avoids potential lock-down Saddlebow Road, King's Lynn, Norfolk, PE34 unavailable calcium phosphate.

of calcium in the soil,” says Export Director Peter 3JA, United Kingdom. Telephone: +44 1553 Prentis. He points to recent results from Omex- 817500. Fax: +44 1553 817501.

Liming may inadvertently exacerbate the funded research carried out on coffee in Vietnam. Peter Prentis Email: situation. As pH rises towards neutral (pH 7) and e results demonstrate a range of bene ts from Alan Lowes Email: Email: agri beyond into alkaline territory the reaction foliar application of Omex Calmax.

between calcium and phosphorous accelerates. Growers may therefore achieve the desired Omex Calmax applied at three different rates was



January - February 2018


Micronutrients for Crop Production reservoir is especially important for anions such While it's common knowledge that plants need Plant Requirements and Soil Availability water and air to grow, sometimes the question of ere are 16 elements essential to growth of crop as boron, which do not bind to soil particles and are therefore subject to losses. Soils that receive exactly what nutrients a plant needs in order to plants: thrive can be challenging.


Supplied by air and water: carbon, regular additions of organic residues such as manures rarely show micronutrient de ciencies. hydrogen, oxygen


M a c r o n u t r i e n t s : n i t r o g e n , An exception is de ciencies caused by nutrient imbalances, such as a de ciency of manganese phosphorous, potassium

Nutrients in the soil are vital to the growth of plants, and proper allocation is critical to the plant's quality. Understanding fully what nutrients are and how they help a plant grow are the


rst steps in providing an enriching

S e c ond ar y Nut r i e nt s : c a l c iu m , caused by an excess of phosphorus in overly manured soils. Another exception is soils of

magnesium, sulfur

Micronutrients are essential elements that are

Micronutrients: boron (B), chlorine extremely high organic matter such as muck or ( C l ) , c o p p e r ( C u ) , i r o n ( F e ) , peat soils. In these soils, strong, natural chelation manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), (the combination of a micronutrient with an

used by plants in small quantities. For most

and zinc (Zn).

environment for your crops.


organic molecule) can make some micronutrients

micronutrients, crop uptake is less than one e 7 micronutrients are sufficient in most soils unavailable, particularly copper, manganese and pound per acre. In spite of this low requirement, to meet crop needs. However, some sandy soils zinc. c r it i c a l p l a nt f u n c t i on s a re l i m it e d i f and other low-organic matter soils are naturally micronutrients are unavailable, resulting in plant de cient in micronutrients, and high pH soils Micronutrient Removal by Crops abnormalities, reduced growth and lower yield. may make some micronutrients less available and Crop yields are continually increasing due to In such cases, expensive, high requirement crop therefore de cient.

genetic improvements in stress tolerance and

inputs such as nitrogen and water may be wasted.

disease resistance, incorporation of insect

resistance traits, and use of seed treatments and Because of higher yields, higher commodity Organic Matter prices and higher costs of crop inputs, growers Organic matter is a reservoir for essential plant other crop protection products. is means that are reviewing all potential barriers to top grain nutrients, continuously supplying these nutrients more micronutrients are removed from the soil by p r o d u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g m i c r o n u t r i e n t to the crop as it decomposes over time. is each harvest. de ciencies. January - February 2018



Micronutrients for Crop Produc on


Soil Tests to Detect Micronutrient De ciencies Many plant symptoms associated with micronutrient de ciencies, including stunting and chlorosis, may have a variety of causes, including disease, insect or herbicide damage, or environmental conditions. Soil and plant analysis are both useful in determining if the cause is truly nutritional. ough adequate for this purpose, micronutrient soil tests are not as precise as soil pH, phosphorus, and potassium tests. e most reliable micronutrient soil tests are for zinc, boron, copper, and manganese. Because interpretations are soil speci c, it is best to use locally calibrated recommendations. Soil tests for iron and molybdenum are considered to be of little value in predicting the supply of these nutrients in soils. When sampling for micronutrients, sample the root zone from 0 to 8 inches deep. Plant Analysis to Detect Micronutrient De ciencies Plant tissue analysis is more reliable than soil testing for identifying many micronutrient problems, and can also supplement soil test information. Tissue testing is especially valuable in cases where reliable soil tests are unavailable. However, molybdenum and chlorine levels cannot be

Amino Acid Based Solutions For A Healthier And Sustainable Future

determined by this method.


Plant analysis can be used in two ways; one is to monitor the crop's

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micronutrient status, and the other is to diagnose a problem situation. By quantifying the nutrient content of tissues, plant analysis can point out an existing or potential problem before visual symptoms develop. If in-season micronutrient de ciencies are suspected, plant samples should be taken as early as practical; treatments, when needed, should be made in a timely manner. Research has shown that once a micronutrient de ciency is detected, the plant has already suffered irreversible yield loss. Because plant nutrient composition varies with the crop, age of the plant, part of the plant sampled and other factors, it is important to follow the standard sampling procedures provided by your plant diagnostic laboratory. In order to obtain a representative sample, take multiple plants from areas randomly distributed throughout the affected eld area. Avoid border plants and those contaminated with dust, soil or foliar sprays. Taking samples of non-symptomatic plants to compare with apparent nutrient-de cient plants

BENEFITS ·Increases photosynthesis activity and chlorophyll content

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can increase the usefulness of plant analysis. Be aware that interpreting results is complex and may require expert advice. e importance of micronutrients to a plant's health has gotten more attention recently as their incorporation into broad fertilizers has become more common. One reason is increasing per-acre crop yields. is trend removes higher amounts of micronutrients from elds, and the soil is unable to naturally compensate for the loss. Growers are le with the burden of adding the

Aminocore develops and supplies amino-acid based raw materials and bios mulants obtained by enzyma c hydrolysis for professionals in agriculture.

nutrients back to the soil. Also, advances in fertilizer technology have improved the removal of impurities in the manufacturing process. Adding micronutrients has become much easier and more effective. In addition, before the common practice of adding primary nutrients to soil,

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January - February 2018


Monitoring CO2 in stored grain and food Millions of dollars are lost worldwide due to mold how grain temperature and moisture are detection of spoilage and to prevent grain losses.2 (fungi) and insect-related spoilage during grain managed. When molds and insects grow and respire, they storage resulting in substantial economic losses produce CO2, heat and moisture. Temperature for farmers and stored grain managers. Molds are the primary cause of spoilage in stored sensors detect increases in temperature caused by It is becoming increasingly difficult to meet the grain. ey can cause detrimental changes in insect infestation or mold growth, thus indicating food requirements of a growing global appearance, quantity and quality, thus reducing the existence of grain spoilage. However, they are population. In spite of the need for additional the end use value for food, feed and biofuel. More not able to detect temperature increases brought food, it has been estimated that 50-60% of grain is importantly, some mold species can produce about by infestation unless the infestation is lost aer harvesting, at a cost of about $1 trillion toxic substances known as mycotoxins. ese are within a few meters of the sensors. CO2 sensors per year. secondary metabolites produced by a group of are capable of detecting the CO2 produced by molds that belong mainly to the Aspergillus, insects and molds during respiration. As the CO2 A constant supply of grain is provided all through Fusarium and Penicillium genera. gas moves with air currents, CO2 sensors will be the year by keeping the grains in long term Preventing these toxins from entering the food able detect infestations that are located far away storage aer they are harvested. It is crucial to and feed value chains is a major concern of the from the sensor than temperature sensors. CO2 maintain the quality of stored grain in order to global grain and feed industry. measurements are thus considered to an prevent economic losses for Farmers and also to e early detection of spoilage due to insects and important part of the toolkit needed to monitor 2 ensure the quality of the nal food products. molds during grain storage is essential to keep stored grain quality. Maintaining stored grain quality requires a them at levels where they do not cause grain combination of multiple tools and practices to spoilage and affect economic value. ensure that the quality and quantity of grain

How CO2 Sensing Works entering the storage facility does not deteriorate Monitoring Stored Grain Research conducted at Purdue University, Kansas over time. Farmers are advised to conduct a weekly check on State University and Iowa State University, as well Despite decades of research and the availability of their stored grain in order to look out for signs of as by INTA in Argentina, shows that CO 2 advanced monitoring technology, combating spoilage. Grains are traditionally checked both monitoring can be employed for monitoring the pre- and post-harvest mold infection and insect visually and by odor. Grain sampling can permit quality of stored grains, and for early detection of infestation during storage remains a challenge earlier detection of molds and insects, but these spoilage in stored grains. throughout the world. Grain has a nite shelf-life, methods can be time-consuming and tiresome. S afe g r ai n stor age ge ne r a l ly re su lt s i n and these biological organisms ourish based on Simple, rapid methods are required for early CO 2 concentrations below 600 ppm, while January - February 2018



Monitoring CO2 in stored grain and food


concentrations of 600-1500 ppm indicate the the cable until the size of the spoiling grain mass structure, a CO2 ush and reading sweep will take onset of mold growth. Severe infestations are is large enough to raise the temperature closer to several minutes. Aerwards, aeration fans can be indicated by CO2 concentrations more than 1500 the sensor. Given that CO2 moves with air turned off and CO2 will accumulate again until ppm, and these concentrations can also represent currents much faster than heat conducts in grain, the next scheduled reading. the presence of mycotoxins.

CO2 sensing overcomes the limitations of An additional advantage of monitoring with CO2 temperature cables and can give a more “real- sensors is with regard to deciding which storage

CO2 measurements can be performed in a rapid time” indicator of the onset of grain spoilage. structure to unload rst. If higher CO2 readings and effortless manner and can detect infestations Once onset of spoilage is detected, the manager of are detected in one grain mass but the others 3-5 weeks earlier than temperature monitoring. a bulk storage facility, whether on or off farm, has remain in stable condition, the decision which Aer spoilage has been detected, the Manager of a sufficient window of time to decide how to one to unload and ship rst is clear. is can save the storage facility will address the problem by address the situation such as aerating, turning, or thousands of dollars in discounts or blending aerating, selling, or turning the grain. even selling the grain.


Additionally, CO2 measurements can help in deciding which storage structure should be Placement of CO2 Sensors unloaded rst.

Carbon dioxide-based spoilage detection sensors

Hand-held CO2 sensors can be purchased from are available and have been utilized successfully numerous sources. Several vendors have begun by stored grain managers for the past few years.

Insects and molds are aerobic organisms that selling CO2 sensors as add-ons to temperature Reducing grain spoilage lowers mycotoxin levels respire and release carbon dioxide into the monitoring systems. Sensors are either held in and the need to apply protectants and fumigants. interstitial air of a stored grain mass. Upward front of exhaust vents and access ports at roof It also minimizes chemical residues and foreign moving convection air currents within the grain level or are placed near these in the headspace of material in the food and feed supply. mass transport CO2 into the silo's head space. storage structures in updra aeration systems. Typically, ambient air has a CO2 concentration of ey are either held in front of aeration fans or are Maintaining the quality and quantity of stored 350-400 parts per million (ppm). Past research placed in aeration ducts at ground level in grain with this technology minimizes storage and indicates that a stable grain mass has a CO2 downdra aeration systems.

handling costs. is early warning system

concentration of 400-600 ppm. Higher levels A weekly reading during the warm season and a provides more timely information for stored indicate biological activity above normal.

bi-weekly reading during the cold season suffice grain managers to make better management for a CO2 sweep. In order to take a representative decisions in terms of spoilage mitigation

is technology was tested and validated in 20 reading, aeration fans need be turned on measures such as turning, aerating, and different sized grain storage silos in Kansas and manually or automatically.


Indiana during several storage seasons. e results clearly demonstrated that CO2 sensors A handheld sensor needs to be placed in the e early detection of the onset of spoilage helps can detect grain spoilage due to insects and molds airstream soon aer. e sensor(s) will show an in moving stored grain to market in order to avoid usually about three to ve weeks earlier than increasing CO2 reading above the background further quality deterioration. is technology detection by traditional methods such as visual, level and reach a maximum value before complements other stored grain management odor, or temperature detection. Unfortunately, temperature sensors on cables

decreasing again. Essentially the aeration fans tools and practices such as sanitation, application ush out the CO2 from the stored grain mass of protectants at the time of silo


whether analog or digital will not detect heating which explains why the readings increase to a temperature monitoring, insect and mold due to mold growth and high insect density maximum before decreasing to a minimum. detection, and last but not least, costly accumulation a few feet (or meters) away from Depending on air ow rate and size of the storage fumigation.



January - February 2018

Tech & innovation

"Méchoto"- An innovative device that reduces agricultural losses Wesley Fioklou Messan-Koudosso >> Méchoto is an innovative digital kit whose would result in a signi cant increase in supplies. An CFA / piece. mission is to reduce agricultural losses in Togo. approach that the young Togolese engineer quickly With a system that controls the temperature understood because his technology is a clever mix of e technology is equipped with a sensor and a and humidity of the storage site, the kit the needs of the African peasant and crop protection. 9-volt battery. With a weight of 300 grams and provides several conservation functions and is Agbéko Kodjo Tounou, a researcher in insect Bluetooth technology, Mechoto transmits the entomology and pathology at the University of Lomé, data on an LCD screen, directly to a housing. In seen as a boon for farmers. Keeping agricultural crops under optimal con rmed to our colleagues at SciDevNet that most addition to these innovations, the device is an conditions is the challenge faced by Wesley of the agricultural losses are attributable to pests and inclusive tool. Mechoto can also communicate Fioklou Messan-Koudosso, a 23-year-old fungi:

with an illiterate user, showing him sound and

Togolese from the National School of

light signals, thus alerting to the quality of the

Engineering (ENSI) at the University of Lome.

He calls his device "Mechoto" which means place of storage. supervisor, in Fon language. e use is simple: the

In sub-Saharan Africa, grain losses are user indicates the product to be preserved and Progress is still being made to equip the device estimated to be worth $ 4 billion, according to Méchoto automatically highlights the temperature with a dr yer and an air conditioner to FAO and the World Bank. us, investing in margin and the moisture content required for a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e g u l a t e h u m i d i t y a n d post-harvest technologies to reduce food losses storage. e device is sold on the market at 60,000 temperature, all based on agricultural products.


Innovative Food Packaging Solutions e largest losses from farm to plate are understanding on the protective and marketing interact with food and the environment and play a attributed to poor handling, distribution, storage, functions of packaging and a better appreciation dynamic role in food preservation. and purchase/ consumption behavior.

of the economics of its use can help promote the Developments in active packaging have led to

Huge resources that could otherwise be spent on use of food packaging to reduce food losses.

advances in many areas, including delayed

more productive activities go into producing and

oxidation and controlled respiration rate,

transporting goods that only go to waste. Losses Advances in packaging will not only lead to microbial growth, and moisture migration. Other at almost every stage of the food chain may be improved food quality and safety, they will also active packaging technologies include carbon address an equally important concern in dioxide absorbers/emitters, odor absorbers, reduced by using appropriate packaging. Packaging is an essential part of a long-term developing countries: that of livelihood ethylene removers, and aroma emitters. incremental development process to reduce enhancement of small producers through In addition, active packaging technology can losses, that will have to employ a blend of enhanced market access and integration into manipulate permselectivity, which is the selective sustainable value chains. permeation of package materials to various gases.

technologies and processes.

e global food packaging industry has a lot to If there is an industry sector that is equally, if not rough coating, microperforation, lamination, contribute not only in addressing food losses but more dynamic than the food sector, it is none c o e x t r u s i o n , o r p o l y m e r b l e n d i n g , also in ensuring food safety as well as enhancing other than the packaging industry. It is permselectivity can be manipulated to modify the global food trade, which is a key to economic undergoing transformation almost every day at m o s p h e r i c c o n c e nt r at i o n o f g a s e o u s development of varying economies. Important as with new technologies, better than before, taking compounds inside a package, relative to the oxidation or respiration kinetics of foods. Certain it is, packaging has a high cost for users from the the place of old ones . Consumer behaviour, product demand and the nanocomposite materials can also serve as active farm, processing and distribution sectors. current level of global warming are all going to packaging by actively preventing oxygen, carbon dioxide, and moisture from reaching food. A comprehensive analysis of the true value of have a direct impact on the future of packaging. packaging and the options available (usually a Knowing when and where the losses occur in the Intelligent or smart packaging is designed to factor of the demand for commodities requiring commodity chain helps to pinpoint, not only the monitor and communicate information about packaging, resource availability and innovation food loss hot spots, but also their probable causes, food quality Examples include time-temperature capacities, among others), can place the cost of which in turn will be crucial in determining the indicators (TTIs), ripeness indicators, biosensors, extent to which they can be avoided or not, and and radio frequency identi cation. ese smart packaging in the right perspective. In fact, views are emerging that in the long run the packaging solutions to best address them.

devices may be incorporated in package materials

or attached to the inside or outside of a package. more, but better, packaging rather than less could help address the problem of losses. An increased Active Packaging Active packaging, however, allows packages to January - February 2018



Innova ve Food Packaging Solu ons


of crispy products such as crackers, and substitute for good sanitation practices Oxygen scavengers e presence of oxygen in a package can trigger moistening of hygroscopic products such as or accelerate oxidative reactions that result in sweets and candy. Conversely, too much moisture Temperature control: self-heating and cooling food deterioration: Oxygen facilitates the growth loss from food may result in product desiccation. Self-heating packaging employs calcium or of aerobic microbes and molds. Oxidative Moisture control agents help control water magnesium oxide and water to generate an reactions result in adverse qualities such as off- activity, thus reducing microbial growth; remove exothermic reaction. It has been used for plastic odors, off- avors, undesirable color changes, and melting water from frozen products and blood or coffee cans, military rations, and on-the-go meal platters. e heating device occupies a signi cant reduced nutritional quality. Oxygen scavengers uids from meat amount of volume (almost half ) within the

remove oxygen (residual and/or entering),

package. Self-cooling packaging involves the thereby retarding oxidative reactions, and they Antimicrobials come in various forms: sachets in headspace, Antimicrobials in food packaging are used to evaporation of an external compound that labels, or direct incorporation into package enhance quality and safety by reducing surface removes heat from contents (usually water that is material and/or closures.

contamination of processed food; they are not a evaporated and adsorbed on surfaces).

Carbon dioxide absorbers and emitters Carbon dioxide may be added for bene cial effects, for example, to suppress microbial growth in certain products such as fresh meat, poultry,

Cartoning machinery

cheese, and baked goods. Carbon dioxide is also used to reduce the respiration rate of fresh produce and to overcome package collapse or partial vacuum caused by oxygen scavengers. Carbon dioxide is available in various forms, such as moisture-activated bicarbonate chemicals in sachets and absorbent pads. Moisture control agents For moisture-sensitive foods, excess moisture in packages can have detrimental results: for example, caking in powdered products, soening


Products & services






tropical fruits processing are becoming more and more stringent. It is therefore mandatory that the equipment used for their processing be continuously updated in order to maximize the yield and quality of the juice/puree extracted. This is in fact the basis to keep quality in the subsequent operations of heat treatment, evaporation (when it occurs) and packaging. One of the ways to meet the target of a good extraction is the use of dedicated machines for the various “families� of fruits having similar characteristics.


January - February 2018




Products & services

On the contrary of the “Universal machines”, the dedicated juice/puree extraction machines are tailor made taking into account the peculiarities of the fruits: the good juice extraction from a passion fruit, for instance, is something of completely different from the extraction of juice / pulp from a pineapple. The use of dedicated machines avoids the compromises that, otherwise, has to be accepted. The use of dedicated machines avoids to a large extend the contamination caused by the peel to the juice/puree. This contamination can consists in color (for instance the purple variety of passion fruit, the chlorophyll of the pineapple peel etc) as well as in the bitter/not palatable components as well as the pesticides and other chemicals.

Elead Packaging Solutions is the sole appointed agent For any further information, for Bertuzzi Food Processing in Southern Africa. please contact Mnr Peter Vermaak Bertuzzi Food Processing, a leading Italian company, has been operating since 1936 in the design and Tel: +27 21 868 0095 construction of machinery and plants for the processing Email: of fruits and vegetables and has gained a wide experience in the field of tropical fruits processing for which has developed a number of specific, dedicated machines and technologies for the juicing of pineapple, passion fruit, acerola, dragon fruit, pomelo, banana, mango, guava, litchee, ranbutan, coconut, etc.

Elead Packaging Solutions (Pty) Ltd Corner of Donkervliet and Vosmaar Street, Dal Josafat, Paarl, South Africa Tel: +27 (0) 21 868 0095 ext 1




January - February 2018

Products & services SpanAfrica Steel Structures (Pty) Ltd has been designing, fabricating and installing steel structures for more than 20 years. We are an owner-managed business, with a hands-on management style. Our in-house fabrication facilities, with trained and experienced staff, facilitate the accurate production of buildings, according to design speci cations. Each project is managed, from the conceptual stage through to completion, by a single project manager. is allows for clear communication with clients and ensures that client expectations are met. We actively trade throughout South Africa, and we also export throughout Southern Africa right up to Sudan. SpanAfrica supplies multiple sectors including ·

Industrial; Factories, Warehouses and Mini Factory/Industrial Parks.


Commercial; Wholesale Shops, Retail shops and Shopping Centers.


Agriculture; Dairy, Poultry, Pork and Horticulture


Community; Places of Worship, Community Halls and School Buildings.


Housing; Domestic Houses, Hostels and Low- Cost Housing.

SpanAfrica is a level 7 contributor to B-BBEE. We are registered members of the Construction Industry Development Board, South African Institute of Steel Construction, South African International Steel Fabricators and Master Builders Association. SpanAfrica provides the building market with a composite solution to structural steel needs. Our signi cant experience, and the energy of our highly motivated teams, enable us to focus on providing clients with quality and cost-effective steel structures that are designed to last. Contact Steve Oellermann on (033)346 2555 or (082)9019046 email visit our website for more details



January - February 2018

Products & services PÖTTINGER has launched MULTILINE, its new concept in drilling technology that brings together a compact disc harrow or stubble cultivator

PÖTTINGER presents new flexible mulch drilling technology

with a seed drill, providing a cost-effective, high-performance mulch drilling technology that enables exibility during operation e company commented that used solo or in a combination, the new MULTILINE concept promises potential for light tractors. e TERRADISC MULTILINE is available in working widths of 3 and 4 metres. e basic unit is a TERRADISC compact disc harrow, or the SYNKRO 3030 for the stubble cultivator, in both cases in combination with the new tyre packer. e machine is trailed using a drawbar attached to Cat. III / width 2 low linkages. e MULTILINE can be operated conveniently using the most straightforward tractor set-up. Combined with the seed drill, it offers an ideal alternative among mulch seed technology. e weight of the machine is borne by the tyre packer and only the supported load acts on the tractor. is means that it is possible to use the machine without front ballast. e MULTILINE system with offset wheel con guration offers excellent ground conservation technology. is guarantees both yield and long-term and sustainable operation with no harmful compaction. e machine is raised using the tyre packer. Ground clearance of 27 cm allows smooth turns at the headland and on the road. VITASEM ADD or AEROSEM ADD seed drills are installed as standard above the packer roller on both the compact disc harrow and the stubble cultivator. e seed drill can be tted or removed easily, depending on whether the trailed machine is to be used on its own or not.

New Holland's new concept tractor New Holland recently exhibited a concept tractor powered by methane at the Farm Progress Show in Illinois, the largest outdoor farm event in the US. New Holland's vision of the farm of the future is of a system that produces not only food, but the biomass needed to generate the energy to run its operations and power its tractors and other machinery. “e new methane-powered concept tractor is the latest development in New Holland's pursuit of sustainable and efficient technology through innovation,” says New Holland's Carlo Lambro. “Its groundbreaking engine delivers the same performance and has the same durability as its standard equivalent, but with much lower running costs.” e tractor builds on the T6 methane prototype. It features a power-train that uses cutting- edge combustion technology speci cally developed for agricultural applications by FPT Industrial, which has pioneered natural gas traction for more than 20 years. e engine is signi cantly quieter. Carbon dioxide emissions are at least 10% lower than those of a standard diesel tractor engine, while overall emissions are 80% lower. e six-cylinder NEF engine delivers 135kW and 740Nm, the same power and torque as a standard diesel equivalent, but with up to 30% saving in running costs. With its composite layered tubular structure, the tank can carry enough fuel for a full day's work. e interior of the cab is ergonomically designed with all the essential controls on the integrated armrest. Additional functions are controlled through an interactive headliner display.



January - February 2018

Products & services

New Trimble Display System Helping Farmers Work Faster and Smarter e recently released GFX-750™ display system e GFX-750 display system features a 25.6 cm e less cords, the better; and install times have from Trimble® Agriculture has dealers, farmers high de nition color touchscreen display, an dropped dramatically.” and equipment operators alike excited about the Android-based operating system that supports future of precision ag.

full customization to a user's preferences, and Users appreciate how fast and intuitive it is to get rugged construction for everyday use in the eld started with the GFX-750 display system.

e latest Trimble Agriculture guidance display and other harsh environments.

“One other signi cant advantage is that it is

and NAV-900 guidance controller build on a

simple for you to access important options from

legacy of high-performing, brand-neutral “Weather has a big impact on my daily the sidebar while driving,” says van der Burg. “e solutions by becoming even easier to use. From operations,” says Mr. van der Burg. “Since I use display is super sharp and it's big enough to easily its half-day install time and quick-to-learn GPS, I can continue working aer sunset and get operate and use all the functions.” interface to enhanced connectivity through the job done when conditions are most ideal.” Mr. van der Burg summed up the bene ts of using

Bluetooth®, Wi-Fi and ISOBUS compatibility, the

GFX-750 display system is the only GPS product Trimble dealers love the new display system too. the system perfectly: “Since I started using the famers need, no matter what needs doing.

“With GFX, there's a lot of bene t we can provide Trimble GFX system, my machines work more to growers as they try to scale their operations,” efficiently and I come home relaxed at the end of

“e GFX-750 offers operator comfort and ease says Jaco Viviers, General Manager of Vantage the day.” of use. e display interface is really easy

Sub-Saharan Africa, which covers South Africa,

to use,” said Pieter van der Burg, who runs an Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe, To learn more about Trimble Agriculture arable farm with broiler chickens in the Mozambique, Madagascar, DRC, Congo, products, or to purchase the new GFX-750 Netherlands. “Once I have selected the basic Nigeria, Lesotho and Swaziland. “It's a lot easier display system in Sub-Saharan Africa, please settings, my 74 year old father manages to work for us to be able to go into a farm without a lot of contact Vantage Sub-Saharan Africa (Vantage with it all day long.”

different harnesses for the nav controller and SSA) at +27 12 683 4500 or via email at receiver and antenna. Now it's all built into one. Website:

January - February 2018




How to start your own poultry business South Africans' appetite for chicken is at an all- chickens. Another option is to become involved Growing chicks An alternative is to buy day-old chicks and grow time high. More than one billion broilers are in the entire process, including slaughtering. them to six weeks, then sell them either as live or slaughtered per year and average per capita slaughtered birds. consumption of chicken meat is currently more Quick returns Many new businesses require a large capital With this model, you'll need to take into account than 33kg. factors such as feed, medicine and the facilities ese gures help to explain why there are so outlay, which is not within reach of most people. many opportunities in the industry today. And A typical business also takes a long time to required. the really good news for a small- and medium- produce a return on your investment. By scale producer is that he/she can also pro t from contrast, a small-scale poultry business has a New technology has enabled small-scale producers to hatch day-old chicks relatively this burgeoning demand by starting his/her own relatively low start-up cost and rapid returns. poultry business, and earn a sustainable and You can begin with as little as R20 000 and get a easily. 100% return on your capital investment within You'll also have to nd a suitable market for your growing income. chickens; in fact, this should be done before you e facts speak for themselves. Although at rst six months. glance the industry might seem to be dominated And because chicks take only 21 days to hatch, even start. by large-scale producers, as many as 25% of all you can start generating an income just three You'll also have to nd a suitable market for your broiler chickens supplied to the market are weeks aer starting. No other business can chickens; in fact, this should be done before you produced by small- and medium-scale growers.

provide such a quick turnaround.

even start.

is means that these suppliers have a market

Most entrepreneurs prefer to produce day-old

share currently worth more than R6 billion a year.

If you intend producing day-old chicks, you'll chicks and sell them to growers, as this option is need incubators to start a hatchery. Selling day- easier and less risky.

old chicks will provide you with the fastest e choice, however, is up to you. At the heart of How to get going If you're a small-scale producer and interested in method of generating an income, as you'll be these opportunities is new technology that allows small-scale farmers to produce day-old chicks or starting your own poultry business, it's important supplying chicks weekly. to decide which sector of the industry you want to You'll also be able to get a good pro t margin, fully grown chickens competitively. because there is no need to feed the chicks. ey A pro table chicken business is no longer limited serve. to big companies. is will determine how you go about setting up a are off your hands when they're only a day old. business and making money. One option is to Selling day-old chicks will provide you with the hatch and sell day-old chicks to the big producers. fastest method of generating an income, as you'll e choice, however, is up to you. At the heart of these opportunities is new technology that allows is means that you are only involved at the rst be supplying chicks weekly. stage and are not concerned with growing the You'll also be able to get a good pro t margin, small-scale farmers to produce day-old chicks or because there is no need to feed the chicks. ey fully grown chickens competitively.

chicks at all.

A second option is to buy day-old chicks yourself are off your hands when they're only a day old.

A pro table chicken business is no longer limited

and grow them, selling them as fully-grown

to big companies.

January - February 2018




Poultry Hatchery and Incubators Poultry consumption is expected to increase global production will expand by a further 600 e impact of poultry genetics substantially in the coming decades as a result of million day-old chicks (from the 800 million Over the next 20-30 years, geneticists predict world population growth. Along with other chicks produced currently) to a staggering 1.4 continuing demand for higher nal bodyweight in uencing factors in poultry production, the billion chicks per week.

and lower feed conversion. e negative

design of hatcheries must be based on this

correlation between high juvenile growth rate

changing and growing demand.

Today's automated hatcheries produce up to 1.5 and reproductive performance, and selection for million chicks per week in four equal hatches. To speci c traits in pure breeding lines, will produce

By 2034, more than eight billion people will live keep pace with demand, production will have to new challenges in incubation. Selection for on this planet. is growth signals a 50% increase scale-up and we are going to see a shi to higher growth increases metabolic growth in the in demand for food over the next 25 years. massive, industrial complexes, or 'super embryo. is, in turn, increases metabolic heat During this time, experts say that consumption hatcheries', where up to six million day-olds are production by the embryo, making it more of poultry will outstrip beef, pork and lamb, hatched every week in six routine hatches of a complex to achieve optimum incubation. without puts climbing to 130 billion tonnes a million chicks a day. Plans for these enormous year.

hatchery complexes are already on the drawing Increased metabolic heat production by the board!

embryos demands greater cooling capacity – a e US, China, Brazil, the EU, Mexico and Russia Efficiency throughout the production chain key area for further change and progress in now account for more than 70% of world poultry means targeting repeatable results:>95% hatch of incubation technologies and practice. Today, production, with Brazil and the US dominating fertiles per batch, with rst week mortality there are very few machines on the market with 80% of global exports. By 2034, India will have reliably below 0.5% and a hatch window of less sufficient cooling capacity to optimise incubation joined this 'super group' of producers, combining than 12 hours. in line with genetic progress. with China to boost Asia's dominance of global Alongside the industrial segment, a niche will In large incubators (>100,000 eggs capacity), it is poultry consumption and production. Industry output will grow by about one billion develop for a more robust, rustic broiler. is will not unusual to nd mixed batches in one chicks per year to an estimated 70 billion day-old be triggered in some areas for reasons of animal machine, differing in egg size, breed type, chicks per annum, representing an increase of 20 welfare, in others by a preference for the quality parental age and egg storage time. million day-olds every week, of which 50% will and taste of tougher meat. is market is growing be produced in Asia and 30% in the US and Latin quite rapidly in Europe and could account for Surehatch – Egg incubators and hatchers America. Extrapolated over the next 25 years, 10% of broiler production by 2034.



Surehatch is a leading manufacturer of quality January - February 2018

Poultry Poultry Hatchery and Incubators egg incubators and hatchers. ey have built a


Highly reliable Automatic Egg Turners

throughout the incubation period.

reputation in the incubation industry on quality

Surehatch Incubators feature a highly effective

and efficiency. eir egg incubators are designed Highly accurate digital temperature controls

humidity control system which can be used to

to suit the needs of breeders wanting to produce In order for eggs to develop and hatch, a constant adjust humidity levels as desired. All our their own poultry on both a small, medium and and accurate temperature of 37,5 Degrees Celsius incubators have fully digital humidity displays. large scale.

(100 D eg re es Fa hren heit) ne e ds to b e

e company supplies egg incubators to

period. Slight differences in temperature can Your incubator should be an investment, not an

maintained throughout the 21 day incubation Durable construction poultry breeders, hobby farmers, commercial

have a devastating effect on the eggs. It is expense. In order to ensure this, they only use

hatcheries and educational institutions across

therefore highly important that the incubator high quality, durable materials to manufacture

the world.

maintains the correct incubation temperature at egg incubators. ey use industry speci c all times.

components which ensure optimal functioning and performance. All the components have been

All their egg incubators are manufactured in South Africa to international standards. ey

Surehatch incubators feature highly accurate tested for long term durability and performance,

only make use of the best components and

DIG I TA L t e mp e r atu re c ont ro l s w h i c h resulting in better hatch rates and incubation

technology to manufacture our equipment.

automatically regulate and control incubation performance. When investing in a Surehatch temperature. is results in Surehatch having Incubator, you can be assured that only the best

Surehatch egg incubators are widely used by

one of the most accurate and advanced materials have been used to ensure long term

entrepreneurs starting their own hatcheries and

temperature controls in the incubator industry, usage for its user.

poultry businesses. Our incubators have set a

leading to better and more predictable hatch

new benchmark in the incubation industry due


Siemens Automatic Egg Turners


Easy to regulate humidity

ensuring incubation success. Eggs need to be

Surehatch egg incubators are renowned for

incubation is critical to ensure good hatch rates. uniform development of the embryo. We use

being the best quality and value for money in

During incubation eggs need to lose moisture in patented Siemens egg turners which have

Correct turning of the eggs forms a critical part in

to their advanced features and reliable hatch

Maintaining the correct humidity levels during turned very gently every hour in order to ensure

the incubation industry.

order to enable the chick to develop inside the speci cally been designed to work with egg. If the egg loses too much moisture the chick Surehatch Inc ub ators. Eg gs are tur ne d

All Surehatch Egg Incubators feature:

will dry out and fail to hatch.

automatically by the incubator every 60 minutes, ensuring optimal embryonic development.


Highly accurate, digital temperature controls

Conversely, if the egg loses too little moisture the Surehatch follows a couple of cardinal principles


Easy to regulate humidity controls

chick will drown inside the egg before it even which has enabled them to become the leader in


Durable, quality construction and hatches. It is therefore highly important that an the incubation industry. ese are – quality, components

incubator regulates humidity on a constant basis affordability and innovative design. January - February 2018




On-farm water storage can help ease drought risk With 70 percent of the world s annual consumption, agriculture is to crop income lost from land that was taken out of production for the undoubtedly the largest consumer of the world s fresh water. Presently, storage facility. “ese on-farm water systems are pro table — just not quite irrigation agriculture accounts for 40 percent of global food production as much as with dryland production. But the numbers were very close, and from 20 percent of cultivated land (FAO, 2014).

when you look at them statistically, there's not much difference.

ough irrigation can offer producers many advantages such as reducing potential losses due to uncertain rainfall, in some areas of the Southeast irrigation options for agricultural crops are limited. As a result, producers are gradually resorting to the use of on-farm water storage systems (OFWS) to recapture irrigation runoff and rainfall for later use for irrigation.

Dam Linings and Tarps

Previous research has con rmed reduced groundwater withdrawal and downstream ow of nutrients are some advantages that come with OFWS,

Reservoir linings

Earth dam linings

but few studies have focused on the economic pro tability of this system. Apart from reducing groundwater withdrawal, researchers have shown that OFWS have the potential to trap and store potential contaminants (fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, crop residues, etc.) that threaten the water quality of nearby water bodies. According to Dr. Brian Williams, Extension assistant professor of

Trailer Tarpaulins

agricultural economics at Mississippi State University says there are a couple of considerations, when doing on farm water storage. “One is the land you have to take out of production for the reservoir; the other, on the ip side, is the risk management bene t — irrigation can give

Truck tarpaulins

Welded mesh reservoirs

you more consistent, and oen higher, yields. One thing that does change the results toward the positive side, Williams says, is the environmental bene t. “At the same time you're capturing rainfall

For more informa on contact

in runoff from the elds, you're also capturing sediment, nutrients, and

+27 72 279 3294

chemicals — keeping them out of streams and rivers. at has a positive value.”

Or visit

In most cases, he says, non-irrigated systems beat out irrigated, mainly due



January - February 2018



January - February 2018




Farmers Review Africa Jan/Feb 2018  
Farmers Review Africa Jan/Feb 2018  

Farmers Review Africa Jan/Feb 2018