First Mining Drc-Zambia Nov/Dec 2021

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VOL 13 | ISSUE 6 | November - December 2021

Electrowinning plants Increased Current Density, A Profitable Plant

In this issue... Congo government seeks audit of mining registry Pg 12

On-site Emergency Medical Servicesfor Mining Projects Pg 22

Tackling corrosion in mining processes with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Pg 43



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Zambia’s green energy, copper with private-sector

TOMRA Mining holds seminar on sensor-based sorting

Clean coal a viable option due to latest advances







Nigeria’s Mining Act review underway


NSK Self-Lube® bearings reliable in harsh conditions


KBC introduces Safety Performance Coaches


Improving efficiency of mines with pneumatic systems


Electrolyte Soft Aeration System for Copper Plants


Tackling corrosion in mining processes with FRP


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FMDZ is a bi-monthly magazine for mining industry incorporating, exploration, oil, power, drilling and other large scale extraction, storage, transport, Market and utilisation of Africa’s Copper Belt wealth and resources. First Mining DRC-ZAMBIA is published 6 times per annum: Jan/Feb, Mar/Apr, May/Jun, Jul/Aug Sept/Oct and Nov/Dec.



VOL 13 | ISSUE 6 | November - December 2021

Editor Bertha M. bertham@fmdrc-zambia

Electrowinning plants Increased Current Density, A Profitable Plant

In this issue... Congo government seeks audit of mining registry Pg 12

On-site Emergency Medical Servicesfor Mining Projects Pg 22

Sub-Editor Anthony Kiganda

Tackling corrosion in mining processes with Fiber Reinforced Polymer Pg 43

Cover Image: Air Sparger bubbles, Courtesy ANCOR TECMIN

COVER STORY: PG 36 Electrowinning plants Increasing currency density is universally respected as a way of improving the output of electrowinning plants (increasing metal production). However, it can also have unintended consequences of affecting production capabilities and site safety. That is why the task of improving the performance of an electrowinning plant should not be based on guesswork but precision. Increasing current density without compromising quality.

Contributing Writer Oscar Nkala, Mfuneko Jack Lindani Mkhize Caroline Thomas Anthony Kiganda Anita Anyango Sales and Marketing Victor Ndlovu +27 11 044 8986 Isabel Isiziwe +260 96 187 4888 Advertising Consultants Meshack Ndzendevu Polite Mkhize Gladmore Ndhlovu Leslie Nyembe Production Coordinator Kholwani Dube Art Director/Layout Augustine Ombwa Arobia Creative Consultancy Published By Mailing Times Media Circulation/Sales +27 11 044 8986

EDITOR’S COMMENT We should all play our role to stop illicit trade in minerals


inerals constitute Africa’s second largest export category after hydrocarbons and form roughly 10% of the continent’s total exports. Unfortunately, the minerals are targeted for illicit trade denying the content much needed revenue. For instance, according to reports, illicit diamond trading is rife in Zimbabwe’s Marange diamond fields, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Sierra Leone. According to The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) illegal mining and the illicit trafficking of precious metals constitute a multi-billion-dollar transnational criminal industry that has lasting social, economic and environmental consequences. UNODC notes that in many countries around the world, the profit generated by illicit mining and trafficking in precious metals has outgrown the profits associated with other crimes, such as drug trafficking. Experts have agreed that smart use of technology, concerted cooperation both across and within sectors, and information sharing on risks and risky actors are key to combating the vice. Governments, regulatory bodies, the private sector and civil society all have a different but important role to play in assessing and mitigating the risk of corruption concerning the licit and illicit trade in natural resources. There needs to be increased cooperation not only between but also within sectors. For law enforcement, this means proactive bilateral and multilateral collaboration on cross-border investigations. First Mining DRC-Zambia wishes our readers fantastic festive season ahead and a great 2022.

Anthony Kiganda

Mailing Times Media (Pty) Ltd makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of the contents of its publications, but no warranty is made as to such accuracy and no responsibility will be borne by the publisher for the consequences of actions based on information so published. Further, opinions expressed are not necessarily shared by Mailing Times Media (Pty) Ltd



Zambia’s green energy, copper with private-sector project on course


ambia is going all out to up green energy, copper with private-sector at helm. The country is doing did all it can to sweep investors off their feet with pledges to be private-sector driven, surge into green energy, and do everything it can to regain top spot in global copper at a time when the metal is set to play such a key role in the fight against climate change. Zambia Commerce Trade and Industry Minister Chipoka Mulenga, the MP for Chingola, a Copperbelt area, was very impressive in providing assurances of very near-term incentivisation and showing great conscientiousness in re-entering proceedings to ensure that government would deal immediately with the perceived drawbacks to investment raised on the day.

Mulenga informed mining investors that to promote investment in the mining sector, the government would, with effect from January 1, 2022, implement mining tax incentives that: reintroduce, in alignment with international best practice, the tax deductibility of Mineral Royalty Tax, or MRT, for corporate income tax assessment purposes; and increase from five years to ten years the period for which unutilised disallowed interest for the purpose of corporate income tax may be carried forward. He spoke with great conviction at the spotlight on Zambia event hosted by Webber Wentzel and Musa Dudhia & Co. Webber Wentzel Zambia country partner Mmadika Moloi moderated the in-person and online discussion in which panellists that included Energy Ministry private

power chief engineer Clement Chiwele, Musa Dudhia managing partner Arshad Dudhia, Webber Wentzel partner Robert Appelbaum, Fraser Alexander CEO Keith Scott, Webber Wentzel partner Jonathan Veeran, Enel Green Power business development lead KachingaWankunda Phiri, and Zambia economic advisory transition team member Nitesh Patel took part. Zambia is so focused on propagating green energy that it has created a special Green Ministry to advance sun and wind energy, in addition to the development of more green hydropower in areas not prone to drought. “There is tremendous mining opportunity in waste and a surface waste deposit is a deposit, a resource of copper, and there is a tremendous opportunity in Zambia to remine waste for both economic benefit and significant environmental benefit as well. It’s low-hanging fruit. One can generate revenue out of some of that waste and increase resources and reserves in existing mining jurisdictions quickly relative to going and finding new projects,” said Scott. He referred constantly to the incumbent government as the New Dawn Zambia, which recognised energy as a key sector for development and an enabler of productivity. A better policy framework would deliver clean energy from renewable green sources to allow the country to lower its dependency on drought-prone hydroelectric power systems. With global warming threatening, solar, wind and geothermal power possibilities would be heaped on to the hydroelectric baseload.



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Mozambique reports illegal exportation of gems through corrupt local officials, has become a means of survival for many displaced people, according to a report released in early November by the Swiss think tank Global Initiative against Transnational Organized Crime (GI-TOC).


he government of Mozambique has reported that 14 tons of gem have been illegally exported since January. Fernando Maquene, a senior official in the Ministry of Mineral Resources confirmed the report and said Gold, rubies, garnets and tantalite - used to create surgical steel - have been exported by smuggling networks since the start of the year. The illegal gem trade is largely concentrated in northern Mozambique, where an Islamist insurgency has forced some 800,000

people to flee their homes. “We are looking for ways to fight the expansion of criminal networks that plunder our territory and our strategic resources, so that these resources can generate income to develop local communities,” said the official. Mozambique is home to some of the world’s largest gemstone deposits, often mined by artisanal miners with no access to official markets. Mining gems and selling them on illicit markets, sometimes

The province of Cabo Delgado, the most affected by the insurgency, is home to the Montepuez ruby mine, which currently supplies more than half of the world market for new rubies. The mine has extracted $600 million (about 527 million euros) worth of rubies since official operations began in 2011. Mozambique’s Supreme Court judge, Rafael Sebastiao, meanwhile, assured that the judiciary is working to prosecute those responsible in smuggling cases. But “there is sometimes a lack of transparent mechanisms and evidence to hold those involved in smuggling accountable,” said Sebastiao.

Sarama Resources announces in Burkina Faso gold resources


arama Resources, West African gold miner has reported a significant increase in mineral resources for its 100% owned Sanutura project in southwest Burkina Faso.The company is an advancedstage exploration project covering approximately 1,500 km² that hosts a well-defined mineral resource base and a suite of exploration targets. The resource upgrade follows an updated interpretation and re-estimation of mineral resources at the Bondi deposit, located to the north of the project’s main Tankoro deposit. The Sanutura project now contains total resources of 9.4Mt at 1.9 g/t Au for 0.6Moz gold in the indicated category, plus 52.7Mt at 1.4 g/t Au for 2.3Moz gold inferred. Its resource estimate as of last year was 0.6Moz (indicated) and 1.9Moz (inferred). The combined oxide and transition component of the mineral resource now totals 0.2Moz (indicated) plus 0.8Moz (inferred), illustrating the ability to provide early plant feed to support a potential staged

mine development. The free-milling component also increased to 0.2Moz (indicated) plus 1.1Moz (inferred), the company said. “The inclusion of the Bondi deposit to the project’s mineral resource base provides a significant increase in highgrade, free-milling material and has the potential to materially improve start-up economics for the project,” Sarama CEO Andrew Dinning said. “Our next key step will be to pursue the compelling exploration targets we have identified across the project. These targets, when combined with the current mineral resources, give us an exploration target in excess of 3-3.5 million ounces of gold,” he added.


According to Sarama, re-interpretation and improved modelling of the Bondi deposit has identified several highergrade shoots within the mineral resource and will greatly assist in exploration targeting. This, combined with compelling regional targets at the Zanawa and Malbus prospects, is expected to deliver further increases to the mineral resource base. “The project is being positioned as a long-life, multi-stage asset that can be built and paid for well before we have exploited the oxide resource, and one which provides significant optionality and leverage to the gold price and remains key to the development of the southern Houndé Belt,” Dinning added. Shares of Sarama Resources jumped 8.3% by 12:45 p.m. in Toronto in reaction to the resource update. The gold junior has a market capitalization of C$19.4 million ($15.1m).


VAELL wins gold mining tender in Tanzania


egional leasing firm, Vehicle and Equipment Leasing Limited (VAELL), has won a tender to supply mining equipment to the second largest mine in Tanzania. Machinery worth US $20 million have been ordered and about US $10 million has already been delivered. According to the agreement the leasing firm will be equipping Star Planet Consultancy (T) Limited (STAPCO) that was awarded the contract to mine gold in the Stateowned Biharamulo mine located in Kagera Region. Tanzania is the fourth-largest gold producer in the continent after South Africa, Ghana and Mali. The mining industry experienced an estimated 15.3 per cent growth in the first quarter of 2020 compared to 10 per cent growth during the same quarter in the previous year. Some of the equipment leased to the miner includes

articulated dumpers that have become popular in many industries because of their unique hauling capabilities. In particular, an articulated dump truck has the power and dependability you need to accomplish the toughest of tasks and the precise handling required to ensure safety and efficiency. Other equipment that will be supplied in the arrangement include includes excavators, loaders, breakers, tippers, wheel graders, drills and compressors. The contract will run for a period of five years. Bertha Mvati, VAELL’s Managing Director, said: “We aim to support more government initiatives, particularly in the gold mining sector. In our operations in East Africa, we have realized that locals have the capacity and they can do more when supported. We have collaborated with Tanzanians

to develop the capacity as we create more job opportunities for the locals. We believe local content has become of age and we need to empower them so as to uplift the standards of living.” Most Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) currently prefer to lease owing to the flexibility of leases. In keeping with its focus on flexibility, SMEs are keen to adopt lease solutions to ease their operations. Leasing increases total capital investment in an economy. Leasing is a complementary form of financing that serves as an alternative to traditional bank lending and increases the ability of companies to source different types of financing for capital investment. “Businesses and governments prefer leasing model which enables them to concentrate on their core business, cut business operational costs and increase efficiency in their day-to-day operations,” said Bertha. “With this transaction, our group turnover will increase from Sh950 million to approximately Sh1.3 billion which will, in turn, translate to a 40 per cent growth in our revenue. Our gross profit and net profit will grow by 25 per cent annually boosting the internal cash flows, creating Investments Avenue which will, in turn, provide employment within the East Africa Region.”

Results from third campaign on Lati Permit in Burkina Faso revealed


esults from a third campaign on Lati Permit in Burkina Faso has been revealed. Indigo Exploration Inc. made the announcement and said the Lati 2 Permit has very extensive artisanal dry pan workings covering a collective area of 3 square kilometres. Efforts in 2020 narrowed the search and identified a high priority drill target, a northwest-oriented gold trend >1 kilometre long averaging 140 metres wide, as well as several subsidiary subparallel trends, defined by lines of

continuous 5-metre-long soil channels and limited historic drilling. Two 5-metre-long continuous channel soil samples grading 22.5 g/t Au and 7.8 g/t Au and drill intercepts of 12 metres grading 2.5 g/t Au and 4 metres grading 4.2 g/t Au occur within the trend. In the early summer 2021 the Company conducted further sampling within this 1-kilometre long gold trend, focusing on an area of 250m x 200m, taking 58 additional samples.


Most of the samples were from materials being worked by locals. The average grade of both the host rock graphitic sediments and quartz material was 1.26 g/t Au. Four samples of the crushed quartz veins averaged 3.28 g/t Au. Eight samples of their quartz rejects (after their rudimentary gold extraction) averaged 1.59 g/t Au. Seven of 26 host rock graphitic sediment samples ranged between 1.3 and 5.5 g/t Au (average grade of all graphitic sediments was 0.85 g/t Au). Ten in-place rock samples were also taken within this area and averaged 0.52 g/t Au, ranging from 12 ppb to 4.25 g/t Au. The Company is designing a plan to test the gold trend with reverse circulation drilling.


Congo Lawmakers seek reparations over illegal mining


Gold, one of the Central African country’s abundant mineral resources, is also used to fund armed groups and fuel the conflicts that have plagued eastern regions for more than a generation. The lawmakers also called on the authorities to create “trading centres for gold transactions” in Mwenga.

awmakers in Democratic Republic of Congo probing illegal mining by foreign-owned firms, are seeking fines and reparations to local communities to compensate for the losses. They said the mining sector presented “huge potential” for Democratic Republic of Congo, but the country was facing an onslaught of illegal “mining firms and cooperatives” who were “dispossessing the state”. “Most mining companies have not entered into a contract with the local communities and those that did have never respected it. During exploitation, the local communities’ fields and fishing ponds have been destroyed,” the lawmakers said in a report presented to parliament. The members of parliament recommended the government “restore order in the South Kivu mining sector”, by “suspending all mining activity across the whole province”, and “identifying and withdrawing, where appropriate, the rights of irregular mining firms and cooperatives”.

They asked the authorities to impose “fines on firms carrying out illegal mining activities”. The opacity of the exploitation and sale of Congolese gold has long been a source of concern, with UN experts last year noting “volumes of smuggled gold significantly higher than those marketed legally”.

They said they hoped parliament would pass a resolution to urge the government to “fully, and jointly with the mining companies and cooperatives, compensate for the prejudices suffered... by the local communities due to the passiveness and/or complicity of the competent authority, both at provincial and national level”. They also called for the army and the police to be banned from mining sites, but said an exception should be made for the so-called “mines and hydrocarbons police”.

Nigeria’s Mining Act review underway


he amendment of the Nigeria Minerals and Mining Act (NMMA) is underway. Vice President, Yemi Osinbajo confirmed the report and said that the federal government aims towards ensuring growth and investment in the mining sector. The announcement is also coming at a time experts have consistently reiterated the call for an amendment of the Act. They said the current mining laws do not conform to the modern-day reality of global best practices, and by implication hampers the growth and development of the mining industry. Mr Osinbajo at the revealed that the development of the sector is an important component of the nation’s economic policy. He said the mining sector features prominently in the National Development Plan 2021 to 2025, as approved by the Federal Executive Council about a week ago. “Concurrently, there is an ongoing review of the Nigerian Minerals and Mining Act 2007, aimed at bringing

industries, generate employment, and focus on resource beneficiation to create wealth along the mineral value chain.

legislation into conformity with global best practices, limiting the role of the government to that of regulation, and creating the space for the private sector to maintain a more expansive presence in the sector. “So as we deepen our efforts to revitalize the mining sector, we are doing so with lessons learned from a half-century of resource extraction. We recognize, for instance, that it is not enough to seek investments merely for the sake of exploitation and extraction. Rather than writing this new chapter of economic growth, our aim is to develop local

“The Mining Roadmap Implementation Strategy Team (MIST), a team set up in 2016 to implement the roadmap, stated in the report that: “there may be the need to review some of the laws as contained in the Mining Act of 2007 as they may no longer be achievable given the current business operating environment,” he said. The Nigerian Mineral and Mining Act 2007 was re-enacted to repeal the Minerals and Mining Act No. 34 of 1999 for the purpose of regulating all aspects of the exploration and exploitation of solid minerals in Nigeria. However, despite the gloomy view by the general public, the sector has recorded tremendous growth since the inception of the current administration as noted by the Vice President who cited “notable inflow of investments and increase in revenue generation.”



Cape Coast application granted as an exploration license


he Cape Coast application has been granted as an exploration license. IronRidge Resources announced that the newly granted license is adjacent to the Mankessim exploration license which hosts the Ewoyaa Lithium Project, where the Company has defined an initial JORC 2012 compliant mineral resource estimate of 14.5 Mt at 1.31% Li2O in the inferred and indicated category, including 4.5 Mt at 1.39% Li2O in the indicated category in Ghana, West Africa. “We are very pleased to have been granted this Cape Coast exploration license, strengthening our existing portfolio in Ghana. We will move aggressively to commence regional exploration on the license to define additional pegmatite targets. The license is exceptionally well located, both geologically and from an infrastructure perspective, and provides the Company with access to an additional 139 km2 of

for lithium due to its role in the stored energy transition and we look forward to keeping shareholders updated as further results become available,” said Vincent Mascolo, CEO of IronRidge.

highly prospective geology, adjacent to the Company’s Ewoyaa Lithium Project. “We are confident the additional exploration tenure will help generate targets to potentially increase resource scale and improve overall Ewoyaa project economics, where we have defined Ghana’s first lithium JORC compliant resource of 14.5 Mt at 1.31% Li2O, within 110 km of an operating deep-sea port. “The Company is ideally positioned to take advantage of the increasing demand

Cape Coast exploration license now granted, providing the Company access to 139.23 km2 of highly prospective lithium tenure. Newly granted license further bolsters the Company’s Cape Coast Lithium Portfolio, which hosts the 14.5 Mt at 1.31% Li2O Ewoyaa Lithium resource (JORC) and the historic 1.48Mt at 1.66% Li2O Egyasimanku Hill deposit (non-JORC). Original Cape Coast application for 264 km2 with 139.23 km2 granted in line with mining regulations, bringing total Ghana Cape Coast Lithium Portfolio to 560 km2. Only 13 km2 of IronRidge’s 560 km2 Cape Coast Lithium Portfolio drill tested to date; significant exploration potential within proven prospective pegmatite hosting terrain.

Kenya reports decline in credit to mining sector


redit to the mining sector in Kenya has reported a decline to a sixyear low despite an increase in lending to other sectors in line with the economic recovery after the Covid-19 slump.

said to hold significant deposits of copper, niobium, manganese, rare earth minerals, and titanium which is main export revenue earner. Kenya has not renewed or issued any new mining licence since 2015 when then Mining Cabinet Secretary Najib Balala revoked the licences of 65 companies, forcing firms to operate under a gazette notice.

Latest data from Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) shows that the total loans to the mining sector stood at Sh10.9 billion in August, the lowest since July 2015. This was a credit growth declined of 23.1 percent from Sh14.1 billion in same period last year. Mining and quarrying has been the only sector that has registered drop in growth in uptake of credit in the economy, even though it accounts for 0.7 percent of the country’s GDP. Sectors such as manufacturing, transport and communication, and construction registered 9.3 percent, 11.8 percent and 1.7 percent credit expansion to Sh437.8 billion, Sh237.9 billion and Sh121.0 billion respectively. Mining sector was hurt last year due to global chain supply constraints, worsening existing licensing

challenges that reduced investor appetite. Earnings from mineral sales dropped by Sh1.5 billion in 2020 to Sh22.7 billion compared to the previous year. This was attributed to decline in demand for minerals in international market, slowed operations by local miners and global supply constraints that hurt miners’ ability to export. Kenya has deposits of gold, and coal and is also


The Mining ministry had slotted to complete a survey mapping Kenya’s resources in June and pave way for lifting of a moratorium on exploration of licences. The survey that costs Sh3 billion was covering Migori, Homa Bay, Siaya, Kakamega and Busia. The Kenya’s untapped mineral sector is stated to have potential of earning the country $6.6 billion (Sh719.4 billion) or 12 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) from the minerals sector.


Kefi to receive project finance confirmation for Tulu Kapi gold project


Further, Phase 4 exploration of the Hawaih copper/gold project, in Saudi Arabia, was completed, with 16 306 m drilled. An update to the mineral resource estimate is expected in December following the drilling campaigns undertaken during the year, and will include the additional resources defined in the Phase 3 and Phase 4 drilling programmes.

efi Minerals, is set to receive project finance confirmation for its Tulu Kapi gold project, in Ethiopia, by the end of January, with the project’s full launch expected between February and May. The country’s Ministry of Mines also confirmed a licence for the project, valid until 2035, earlier this month. These developments follow a temporary pause of the project during September and October owing to the prohibition of site access imposed by government security authorities, which followed the abduction of four staff members. Kefi’s beneficial interest in the project is now expected to be about 70%, up from the 45% expected in 2020, making the project “significantly value accretive”.

Kefi on November 16 said early statistical analysis confirms mineralisation delineated during the recent drilling programmes, which “will aid to improve the overall project economics.”

Kabanga seeks US $1.3bn for nickel project in Tanzania


abanga Nickel Ltd. is seeking to raise US $1.3 billion for a massive mining project in Tanzania that the company says could help ease electricvehicle manufacturers’ insatiable demand for nickel. Chief Executive Officer Chris Showalter, a former investment banker revealed the report and said Kabanga is trying to secure funding for a $950 million mine and $350 million refinery that would be developed simultaneously in the northwest part of the country. The project would eventually produce as much as 50,000 tons of nickel cathodes a year, as well as smaller amounts of copper and cobalt. The company plans to bring it online by 2024, with an additional year to reach a steady state of production. Nickel, traditionally used to make stainless steel, is also a key component in lithium-ion batteries, allowing vehicle manufacturers to reduce the use of cobalt, which is more expensive and has a less transparent supply chain.

The Tanzanian government has a 16% stake in the project, which was previously owned by Barrick Gold Corp. and Glencore Plc. Their joint venture lost a license for the undeveloped project in 2018, when Tanzania introduced a new mining regime. Kabanga plans to process the metals in a refining process that uses less electricity and has a reduced carbon

footprint, which may help it sell its output at a premium, according to Showalter. The Tanzanian government granted the Kabanga project a special mining license on Sept. 27. The nickel deposit could be exploited for 30 years. “The world needs clean nickel and we are not going to be the only solution, but we are the next fast-growing project,” he said.



Geita Gold Mine loses court case on Sh 6bn tax dispute


eita Gold Mine’s (GGM) has lost a court battle on an appeal to escape a Sh6 billion tax liability to on fuel supplied to its contractors. The case has ended a decade-long legal fight between the Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA) and the mining company that had previously lost the tax case twice. “As rightly held by the tribunal, the supply of fuel to the appellant (GGM)’s contractors constituted a taxable supply for which the appellant was bound by section 58 of the VAT to charge VAT from the contractors for the supply and remit it to the respondent (TRA),” said Justices

Gerald Ndika, Lugano Mwandambo and Lucia Kairo. The tax dispute arose over a decade ago after the taxman made a tax audit into the affairs of GGM, only to discover that the company had supplied fuel to Geita Power Limited (GPL) and DTP Terrassment, for which VAT was chargable but not remitted. Following the audit, TRA made an assessment for additional VAT splashed GGM with a Sh6.2 billion tax bill. GGM has throughout opposed the liability contending there was no outstanding VAT for the fuel it supplied to the contractors on the ground that the law has exempted them from that liability. TRA has rejected

Reports for initial resource estimate for Douta gold project in Senegal released


eports for an initial NI 43-101 standard mineral resource estimate for Douta gold project in Senegal has been released. Thor Explorations said the resource estimate, which stood at 15.3 million tonnes grading 1.5 g/t Au for 730,000 oz of gold, is supported by a total of 35,728 metres of drilling. The resource is classified as inferred and is constrained within optimized pit shells.

The Makosa resource encompasses the Makosa, Makosa North and Makosa

Tail zones, which all remain open along strike and down dip, and are expected to grow with ongoing drilling. “The Makosa maiden resource estimate is the company’s first major milestone at the Douta project. The resource is the culmination of the first round of mostly wide-spaced exploration drilling conducted over a strike length of over 7 km. This provides for a solid growth platform for Thor following the greenfield discoveries of Makosa and Makosa Tail in 2018 and 2020 respectively,” Segun Lawson, Thor’s CEO, said.


the objection, maintaining that the exemption from payment of VAT for imported fuel did not extend to GGM’s contractors. GGM’s first attempt to fault TRA’s tax bill suffered blow at the Tax Revenue Appeals Board (Trab) which sided with TRA and dismissed the tax case. The company’s second avenue to challenge the Trab decision was at the Tax Revenue Appeals Tribunal (Trat). It faulted Trab’s decision on grounds that the board was wrong in disregarding Mining Development Agreement (MDA) that company had with the government. It was their contention that Trab was wrong in holding that there was a taxable supply to the contractors in respect of fuel she supplied for exclusive use in the mining activities. GGM’s also argued that Trab erred in failing to rule that GGM enjoyed relief from VAT pursuant to Third Schedule to the VAT Act. In its judgment of October, 2012, Trat sustained Trab’s decision and dismissed the appeal. The tribunal’s reasoning was that despite the board’s disregarding the MDA, such approach did not have any bearing on the ultimate decision on the appeal. The tribunal also concurred with the board that there was a taxable supply of fuel to GGM’s contractors which was chargeable with VAT. The tribunal maintained that the tax relief did not extend to contractors irrespective of the fact that such contractors were delivering mining services on behalf of the appellant. The company is now focused on expanding the resource along the prospective corridor that runs along the full 30 km length of its exploration licence. Priority will be given to extensional drilling at Makosa North, where the mineralization remains openended towards the northeast. Additionally, Thor revealed that exploration drilling at the Mansa prospect, located 5 km along strike from Makosa, resulted in encouraging drilling intersections, including 4m grading 3.11 g/t Au, 5m grading 1.75 g/t Au and 2m grading 10.65 g/t Au. Shares of Thor Explorations rose 4.7% by 12:10 p.m. in Toronto, giving the West Africa-focused gold junior a market capitalization of C$203.3 million.

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Congo government seeks audit of mining registry

The government of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has ordered the country’s mining registry to be audited. President Felix Tshisekedi gave the orders and issued a ban on issuing and trading mining permit until the process is done, a measure aimed at combating fraud within the sector. Tshisekedi told ministers he wanted to end the squandering of mining assets by unnamed political actors and officials involved in the administration of the mining register, which records mining concessions. “This recommended cleanup will increase the contribution of the mining sector to the state’s budget and help, as a priority, the people benefit from

the mineral wealth of our country,” Tshisekedi told ministers. The move is an escalation of Tshisekedi’s ongoing review of deals struck by his predecessor Joseph Kabila, which includes a US $6bn “infrastructure-forminerals” deal with Chinese investors. The DRC is the world’s top producer of cobalt and Africa’s biggest copper producer, but more than 70% of its roughly 100-million people live on less than $1.90 per day, according to the World Bank. Transparency activists have estimated the DRC has lost out on billions of dollars of revenue from mining deals over the past two decades. Tshisekedi gained the presidency through a power-

Papua New Guinea mining industry eyed by Jaxin Group


he government of Guinea inked a memorandum of understanding with Jaxin Group to expedite the process of identifying the opportunities and move into making investment decision over the Papua New Guinea mining industry. Mining Minister Johnson Tuke said the memorandum of understanding was witnessed by representatives of China Energy, in Port Moresby. “We are creating an understanding so that we can invite this company to conduct business in

the mining sector, so as in the oil and petroleum sector because they have a known history back in their country. We’ve got a process at the Mineral Resources Authority (MRA). This doesn’t mean we’ll give them first preference or priority. They have to fully comply with processes down at MRA, meaning they have to take part in the application processes,” Tuke said. Jaxin PNG chairman Kennedy Penial

sharing settlement with Kabila, following the disputed 2018 election, but he has gradually taken almost all the levers of government, political analysts say, and been increasingly outspoken about Kabila’s mining deals. Mining companies who fail to comply with their administrative and social obligations should have their licences revoked, Tshisekedi told mines minister Antoinette N’Samba. He asked N’Samba to identify mining companies where the state had not gained 10% of shares when the permit flipped from exploration to exploitation, as required by the mining code. Meanwhile, gunmen killed a policeman and kidnapped five Chinese nationals near a mine in southeast DRC overnight. It was not clear who carried out the attack near the village of Mukera in South Kivu province. said the company had the financial capacity and human resources to invest in PNG. Simons Energy, an upstream oil and gas subsidiary of Jaxin, is 51% owned by China Offshore Point Corporation. “Since Prime Minister (James Marape) opened up to bring in investors from China through the Embassy of China in PNG, they (Jaxin) are the first ones who have taken up the initiative. Our interest is more in the mining and petroleum sector,” Penial said. Initial investment anticipated in this arrangement is about US$10 billion (K34 billion) in the first three years, and a further US$30 billion (K103 billion) thereafter.

Compact overload limiter


he safety coupling of the SKY series for indirect drives from JAKOB Antriebstechnik is designed as overload limiter or collision protection for the most modern requirements. With a compact design, it can still offer high release torques of up to 9000 Nm. The conical clamping bushing enables simple assembly, large shaft or bore diameters, the high possible bearing load and the excellent concentricity round off the safety coupling. By using high-strength quenched and tempered steel with

surface hardening or plasma coating of the relevant functional surfaces, particularly high release torques could be achieved. It is also available in a rustproof version on request. Jan Möller Marketing JAKOB Antriebstechnik GmbH Daimler Ring 42

D - 63839 Kleinwallstadt Tel. : +49 (0) 6022 12208-55 e-mail: Registergericht Aschaffenburg HRB 797 Geschäftsführer: Ludwig Jakob







andals lay-flat hoses are an important part of an optimal water management system. Effective mine de-watering and slope depressurization systems are important components of many surface and underground mining operations. In high flow and deep well de-watering systems for mines, layflat hoses are used to deliver or remove the many thousand gallons of water needed per minute. In mines where pit slope depressurization is essential to maintain stable slopes, lay-flat hoses offer ease of handling, deployment and retrieval. And if the mining operation is to be taken to a deeper level, bore hoses are used to remove ground water.

Lay-flat hoses are ideal for rapid large volume de-watering due to less pressure drop over large distances. Not to forget the rapid and flexible deployment compared to other types of rigid hoses or steel pipes. Mine de-watering takes place in the harshest of environments. This requires extremely abrasion resistant hoses to withstand being deployed down steep, rocky mountain sides, lowered into deep wells and to carry the weight of a full set of submersible pumping equipment.



Flexible rising main

Designed for long life and maintenance-free service in the harshest environments. This world class leading hose is tough and durable with exceptional resistance to abrasion and cutting.

Wellman 300 flexible rising main is designed as a permanent alternative to traditional materials such as steel, fibreglass, PVC and polyethylene in water wells with electric submersible pumps.

MANTEX HP World class lay-flat hose designed for compressed air at high working pressures, while still offering a light-weight solution easy to deploy and store


Mandals (a Michelin Group company) is a world leading manufacturer of premium lay-flat hoses. With over 245 years of experience in production and distribution of lay-flat hoses, you can trust us as your next business partner. Mandals has become a well-known brand though our worldwide sales and distribution strategy. We can offer a solid base of products and solutions, in addition to in-house services that can help your business grow together with the Mandals brand.

We are looking for new partners in various industries, such as agriculture/irrigation, oil and gas, mining and portable water. We are always open to explore new industries as well. If you would like to discuss your future partnership with us, please contact us at and we will get back to you as soon as possible. If you would like to know more about our products, please have a look at our website


NSK Self-Lube® bearings prove reliable in harsh conditions NSK Self-Lube® bearing units with triple lip seal and end cap protectors provide an extended service life in harsh operating conditions, such as those prevalent within the quarrying, mining and construction sectors. This proven performance is vital in these industries, where contaminants can easily penetrate poorly specified bearings, bringing machinery and equipment to a halt.


Design innovation In another customer success story, a company supplying ready-mixed concrete and other construction materials invited NSK to perform an application review of its augur screw pump bearings. The augur pumps transfer ash (an abrasive mixture of ash, sand, glass, fibres and metal grit) into waiting containers. Here, the screws lift the ash at an angle of approximately 40°, where the lower bearing units frequently fail.

owntime is the enemy of quarry/ mine operators and construction project managers. Critical plant and equipment must offer reliable performance to meet demanding output targets, project deadlines and budgets. Whether extraction, transportation, preparation, separation or enrichment, these processes are subject to contamination and debris, not to mention heavy loads, shock loads and vibration. Bearing selection is vital to ensure long service life. Getting it right means that mining and construction sites can maximise their uptime and productivity while simultaneously reducing maintenance costs. Leveraging stateof-the-art design, material, lubricant and seals, NSK Self-Lube® bearings exceed the life of conventional bearings. Furthermore, by selecting Self-Lube® bearings with triple lip seal and shaft end protectors, it is possible to reduce the costs associated with downtime and repairs. Reliable protection NSK recommends its specially developed triple-lip seal for applications with a high degree of contamination. Bonded to a protective outer steel pressing (secured in the outer ring), this one-piece moulded nitrile seal with three lips makes for a highly efficient sealing design that protects the bearing in severe operating environments. Standard Self-Lube® bearing inserts also have a locating groove to allow the easy fitting of an optional end cap protector. The cap helps to protect personnel from rotating components and the bearing from external contamination. NSK SelfLube® bearing units comprise a broad portfolio of reliable inserts and housings. Notably, these cost-effective solutions provide a fast and straightforward solution for mounting bearings without the need for complex housings or special shaft arrangements.

Self-Lube® bearing units with triple-lip sealed inserts are ideal for applications where bearings face exposure to dust and water contamination

Reduce costs The combination of easy use, selflubrication and long service life mean that increasing numbers of companies in the quarrying, mining and construction sectors are now reducing PR Ref. B192021-N | 1/4 their costs for replacement bearings, maintenance and downtime. A case in point involves a company that was experiencing frequent reliability problems with the bearing units assembled in a vibrating drum. These bearings work in severe environments, where they suffer exposure to sand that often wholly covers the units. In addition, due to the nature of the application and its difficult access, the regularity and increasing cost of maintenance was proving an issue. Following a comprehensive failed bearing analysis as part of its AIP Added Value Programme, NSK proposed Self-Lube® bearing units with triple lip seals, which increased the operating life by a factor of 10 against the previous solution. In addition, the three highintegrity nitrile seal lips with lubrication traps have provided an effective way of stopping the ingress of contaminants.


Upon examination of the failed bearings, NSK was able to identify several issues. For instance, after removing the flinger seal, it was evident that no contact seal was running against the inner ring of the bearing. It had likely worn away, and there was now a direct contamination path into the bearing. Further problems included heavy cage corrosion and the absence of lubrication. The ingress of fine dust and particulates had probably soaked up any grease and created a grinding paste, eroding the rubber seal. To rectify the situation, NSK again recommended its Self-Lube® bearing units. In this case, NSK also suggested the inclusion of a small disc plate with an additional seal. This minor redesign would help stop most of the contamination and significantly reduce pressure on the bearing seal as it features a path for the debris to escape. By further improving the sealing, using the triple lip sealing solution on the Self-Lube® insert bearing, it is likely that reliability will significantly improve. In addition, the use of an end cap protector for the bottom bearing could also benefit the company as it will help reduce any dust ingress. These examples are just two of many successes that NSK is encountering in quarrying, mining and construction applications.


Metso Outotec launches innovative Concorde Cell flotation technology for fine and ultra-fine particle recover


etso Outotec is launching groundbreaking Concorde Cell™ flotation technology for efficient fine and ultra-fine particle recovery. This innovative Planet Positive technology sets a new benchmark in high-intensity pneumatic flotation, reducing plant operation costs and contributing to sustainability of operations through minimized energy and water consumption per tons of metal produced. The patented Metso Outotec Concorde Cell™ technology is the first fine and ultra-fine flotation solution for more finely disseminated and complex orebodies that have previously been inaccessible. “The need to process more finely disseminated and complex ore grades, as well as the declining ore grades and the demand for improved flotation selectivity, all bring new challenges

to minerals processing flowsheets. The new Concorde Cell™ technology helps flotation circuits overcome these challenges and recover the previously unachievable ore value,” says Antti Rinne, Vice President, Flotation at Metso Outotec. The Concorde Cell™ forced-air Blast Tubes treat 100% of fresh feed combined with tailings recycling for improved performance, allowing finer grinding to get extra liberation without the risk of valuable particles lost into tailings. “Combining the well-proven TankCell® technology with Concorde Cells is a low-risk and high-benefit approach for minerals processing flowsheets. The cell produces very high shear and extremely fine bubbles, which increases recovery in particles under 20 microns,” explains Rinne.

Benefits of the Concorde Cell™ flotation technology: • Superior recovery of fine and ultrafine particles • Very high shear environment with increased bubble surface area flux for faster flotation kinetics • Optimized froth recovery and improved selectivity • Forced air allowing wider process control and stability for further flotation optimization The offering also includes Blast Tube retrofit kits for upgrading the metallurgical performance of self-aspirated pneumatic flotation cells to the Concorde Cell™ technology. In addition, Metso Outotec can provide a complete slurry handling package for the Concorde Cell, including pumps, spare parts, as well as optimization and maintenance services.



USIM PAC, the most well-known mineral processing simulation software, is 35 years old


ASPEO, worldwide provider of process engineering software and consulting services to metals, minerals and mining industries, celebrates the 35th anniversary of its USIM PAC software. 1986 was the year of the Chernobyl nuclear accident… It was also the year BRGM, French national geological survey launched USIM PAC, a powerful process modelling and simulation software dedicated to the design, the monitoring and the optimization of mineral processing and metallurgical plants. A pioneering software with an already mine-to-mill approach It’s hard to believe that 35 years ago, BRGM introduced one of the cuttingedge process simulator. Ahead of their time, the experts from the BRGM team –among them Alain Broussaud, Guy Fourniguet, Jean-Claude Guillaneau, Jacques Villeneuve and the CASPEO managing directors Marie-Véronique Durance and Stéphane Brochot– had already understood that they needed to provide an integrated software that would allow mining companies to optimize the whole mining value chain from ores to metal, also called the mine-tomill approach. An approach recently adopted by other software publishers offering a new way of modelling: back to the future?

each part of a process as well as the overall circuit (and recirculation). In a single interface, USIM PAC performs simulation, data reconciliation, mass balancing, flowsheeting, equipment sizing and sensitivity analysis. “USIM PAC is the only on-premise simulator on the market able to model the entire mineral processing value chain: from crushing to refining, passing through grinding, magnetic and gravity separation, flotation, leaching and concentration. All the models are connected within a single platform. It was, at the time, a real innovation” says Stéphane Brochot. Separation and physical, chemical or biological transformation: all these kind of processes are simulated in USIM PAC. A library of more than 150 models of unit operations is integrated in the standard tool: extraction, comminution (grinding, crushing…), size classification, concentration (flotation, magnetic and gravity separation…), solid/liquid separation (filtration,

From the beginning, USIM PAC have been specifically developed to meet these requirements allowing engineers to design and optimize


decantation…), and hydrometallurgy. USIM PAC offers the possibility to engineers to add their own equipment models. Modelling the mineral diversity: a challenge for ore processing simulation Another originality of USIM PAC process simulation and optimization software: the possibility to take into account detailed and configurable material description, especially for the mineral phase. Mineral processing is characterised by the wide variety of raw materials. This diversity appears through the mineralogical and chemical constitution of the ore or through the variability of its properties (mechanical, chemical or physical properties). Consequently, it involves a great diversity in the processes and in the unit operations making ore processing simulation a real challenge. From the beginning, USIM PAC offers a new approach of modelling to better understand the response of the plant when various variables change at the same time (ore or operation) and automatically test numerous operational strategies. It does not require the use of thermodynamic databases unlike other generic chemical process simulators on the market. The process simulator allows the description of any type of ore with almost no limit in the level of details and associated physical properties that can be met in the mining industry. A feature particularly interesting

in the field of geometallurgy to forecast ores (recovery rates, grades…). Extract valuable minerals more economically… and with less environmental impact Processing, refining, recycling… In the 2000s, the development of USIM PAC has been focused on helping mining companies to reduce their environmental impact. Thus, a multi-criterion design approach has been developed. It includes economic criteria such as capital cost, reagent and power consumption, production quality in terms of valuable mineral grade or undesirable elements level; technical aspects with the evaluation of various configurations and processing technologies, a complete and detailed description of all material streams and their behaviour during process and, environmental factors such as water consumption and recycling, pollutant production or waste treatment.

It is also in 2004 that Marie-Véronique Durance and Stéphane Brochot, members of the BRGM mineral processing team (“Département Minéralurgie”), created CASPEO to take over the development and the marketing of USIM PAC as well as BILCO, a data reconciliation by mass balancing software and ECHANT, a sampling error calculator solution. The path forward Today, USIM PAC is a decision-making tool that supports industrial R&D departments, technical centres and engineering offices all over the world. Among mineral process modelling and optimization software, USIM PAC is one of the most well-known application. It helps to better understand and analyse complex processes such as minimizing investment costs, optimizing plant production performance (yield, product quality, etc.) and improving energy efficiency.

According to Marie-Véronique Durance, CASPEO Co-Managing Director: “Over the last decade, more than 300 customers spanning 55 countries have leveraged USIM PAC software. Among them the world’s top leading mining companies such as AngloAmerican, Arcelor Mittal, Eramet, Glencore, Vale, etc.” What’s next? CASPEO team is working to integrate in USIM PAC new models already developed: dissolved air flotation, ion exchange resin, reverse osmosis, to name but a few allowing to manage water quality. Project development will also be based on new services with the launch of self-paced online training courses covering process simulation and metallurgical accounting in 2022. The goal: help the current mineral processing engineers and the next generation to gain skills on these complex areas that bring a lot to mining companies if (well) used. A redesign of the interface is also planned in the middle term.



TOMRA Mining holds second successful seminar on sensorbased sorting in Toronto Experienced industry leaders joined TOMRA Mining’s experts as guest speakers in a seminar designed to provide a solid, pragmatic grounding on sensor-based sorting. The event highlighted the important role of sensor-based sorting technologies in green mining and their potential to unlock significant value in mining projects, as well as the possibilities of digitalization for supporting customers and managing connected equipment.


OMRA Mining’s seminar on sustainable mining solutions through sensor-based sorting covered a wide range of topics, starting with an introduction to the various sorting technologies, and including different applications, test work, design and economic considerations. Every topic was backed up with practical examples from case studies of ore sorting projects. The presentations gave rise to interesting discussions about the state of the art of sensor-based sorting in mining today and its potential for the future as the industry transitions to green mining. The seminar highlighted the value of considering these technologies in the


first phases of preliminary feasibility. Jordan Rutledge, Area Sales Manager at TOMRA explains: “sensor-based sorting should be considered in the flowsheet from the beginning and evaluated in prefeasibility studies to see if it is suitable for the project and will add value to the plant. In many cases sorting works really well and, as we continue to go towards a green economy, the use of our resources is vitally important. In order to make the best use of them, sorting plays a critical role.” The seminar attracted around 40 participants from across Canada. They included representatives from operator mining companies such as Agnico Eagle, Capstone Mining and Cheetah

Resources; from laboratories such as testing and certification company SGS and the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC); from engineering companies such as DRA Global, Primero, CIMA and Halyard; as well as students from the University of Toronto. This was the first live event in almost two years for many of the participants, who appreciated the opportunity to meet face to face with their peers, as Justin Taylor, President and CEO of Halyard Inc. expressed very well: “I think live events offer a much deeper look and a different dimension into how people can communicate and connect. Part of the experience is learning about things and the other half is interacting with people, building networks and relationships.” The breadth and variety of topics covered by the speakers was a key element in the seminar’s success: “It was a good mix of speakers and topics that range from academia to on-site real case studies that were very well presented. The speakers were very knowledgeable and very easy to listen to. The seminar allowed me to gain more understanding of the basics behind the technology, the different applications, in a variety of different parts of the industry,” said Sean Kautzman, Principal Consultant at SRK Consulting. “It’s good to get all the different perspectives,” added Ryan Cunningham, Process Engineering Director at CIMA+ “We’ve had the innovators, the laboratories, the implementers, different engineering firms. It encourages

us to seek out new solutions and to collaborate, and use the technology in the best way possible.” Justin Taylor concluded: “Most importantly, I think that the seminar put forward a whole lot of concepts or topics that aren’t usually discussed. Sorting has always been a buzzword, but it’s been spoken about in non-defined terms in previous conferences, and I think this was really focused on the type of technology that TOMRA puts forward. TOMRA being a world leader in this type of technology certainly makes it clear to people what can be done, and I think there is a lot if scope for people to understand what can be done with sensor-based sorting to optimize their sites.” The program: a fact-based exploration of sensor-based sorting technology in mining The wide-ranging program of the seminar benefited from the expertise of TOMRA’s specialists and the intervention of highly qualified guest speakers who gave interesting insights: Introduction to sensor-based sorting and current technology

• • • • •

Ines Hartwig, Jordan Rutledge, Harold Cline – TOMRA Mining Case study: X-Ray sorting chrome ore – a dry processing alternative to DMS Helga van Lochem, Gavin Rech – TOMRA Mining Introducing final diamond recovery Harold Cline – TOMRA Mining

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Sensor-based ore sorting – Mining Consortium perspectives Gillian Holcroft – GLH Strategic Victories and lessons learned at Ma’aden: the largest sensorbased sorting project in the world Jordan Rutledge – TOMRA Mining Setting objectives for sorting projects: financial and technical aspects Ryan Cunningham – CIMA+, Jordan Zampini – DRA Global, Lina Du – Primero CanMicro: microwave-assisted comminution and sorting Erin Bobicki – University of Alberta Ore characterization for sorting Jane Danoczi – Saskatchewan Research Council Implementing a mobile sorting installation Justin Taylor – Halyard Inc. Integration opportunities for particle sorting and bulk sorting Robert McCarthy – SRK Consulting Challenges and opportunities with greenfield ore sorting projects Marie-Claude Hallé – PGNAA & Minerals Case study: Dalradian gold project Jörn Rohleder – Metso:Outotec Case study: sensor-based sorting ups ESG/CSR and lowers costs at Nechalacho Rare Earth Mine David Connelly – Cheetah Resources The future of sensorbased sorting Ines Hartwig – TOMRA Mining



Reap all the benefits of on-site oxygen production with Atlas Copco’s efficient OGP+ oxygen generators


tlas Copco proudly unveils its latest range of cutting-edge OGP+ Oxygen Generators that seamlessly, efficiently, reliably and cost-effectively produces oxygen (O2) on-site, requiring only a supply of dry compressed air. These environmentallyfriendly machines deliver significant across-the-board savings through lower total cost per cubic meter of oxygen, optimised uptime due to continuous oxygen supply and the delivery of guaranteed gas purity.

Oxygen is a critical gas for a vast number of industries including waste water treatment, food & beverage, pulp & paper, steel, medical, pharmaceutical, bioenergy, metallurgical, glass and aquaculture. Oxygen has multiple uses within diverse applications: Oxygen is added to a process for better control of heating patterns, for higher furnace efficiencies (for lower fuel consumption) and for the reduction of particulate and NOx emissions. It can also be used with fuel gases to enhance processes


such as gas welding, gas cutting, oxygen scarfing, flame cleaning, flame hardening and flame straightening. Moreover, oxygen is a raw material in many oxidation processes and it is also used to regenerate catalysts. The on-site production or generation of oxygen as opposed to purchasing this gas from a vendor presents a highly cost-effective, safe, space-saving and convenient solution. Owing to groundbreaking engineering, Atlas Copco’s

new OGP+ 3-30 PSA (Pressure Swing Adsorption) machines deliver best-inclass oxygen generation performance and efficiency. These generators ensure continuous reliable on-site oxygen generation at a significantly lower total cost per unit of oxygen. Furthermore, with the touch of a button, the user is able to choose the correct oxygen purity level for the application. “With our OGP+ Oxygen Generators, professional oxygen users can become oxygen producers,” states Zandra van der Westhuizen, Business Line Manager at Atlas Copco Compressor Technique. “To switch from sourcing the gas from a vendor to producing oxygen on-site is easy. All that is required is a compressed air system plus a gas generator and the plug-and-play machine is ready to produce oxygen on-site.” Van der Westhuizen draws attention to the countless benefits that can be gained from on-site oxygen production. “Our Atlas Copco OGP+ generators are 30% more efficient at full load compared to a traditional generator. Moreover, thanks to the machines’ innovative Variable Cycle Saver technology, the OGP+ generators offer up to 70% in additional energy savings when oxygen demand is low. This all adds up to a lower cost per cubic meter of oxygen, delivering unparalleled cost savings.” Generating oxygen in-house also ensures a dependable and continuous supply source, thus mitigating potential stoppages due to stock shortages. “Reliance on a third-party supplier is eliminated,” adds Van der Westhuizen. “The user is in complete control, generating the exact amount of oxygen when needed at the correct and guaranteed purity required for the particular application. If more oxygen is required, simply run the generator a little longer. Bottom line - users only pay for the gas they need and use.” Coming back to the topic of purity, Van der Westhuizen points out that the purity of purchased oxygen is usually over-specified for most application requirements. “An on-site generator not only achieves this high purity more costefficiently, but it also offers additional savings. Because generating oxygen of the highest purity uses more energy, the

ability of on-site generators to set the correct purity for a particular application will significantly reduce the user’s operational costs.” Yet another advantage offered by onsite oxygen production is that there is no need for a facility to store oxygen cylinders or to install a large liquid oxygen tank. Owing to an intelligent design, aluminium extrusions and bestin-class usage of zeolite molecular sieve (ZMS) material, the OGP+ generator has a very small footprint and requires only a small space in a production facility. And finally, producing oxygen on-site with Atlas Copco’s OGP+ generator

removes the hassles of long-term contracts, logistics and safety concerns that accompany the ordering and handling of third-party oxygen cylinders. There is no need to move pressurised cylinders around the plant thus avoiding the potential risk of employee injuries. And finally, the elimination of oxygen transport and delivery reduces the user’s carbon footprint. The generation of oxygen for industrial use is a straightforward process that involves the separation of oxygen molecules from the other molecules within a clean, dry compressed air stream. The OGP+ generator uses and optimises Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) technology. This simple, reliable and cost-effective process takes place in two separate pressure vessels (tower A and tower B), each filled with carbon zeolite molecular sieve (ZMS) that separates the oxygen from the incoming air. Adsorption happens when atoms, ions or molecules from a substance (compressed air in this case) adhere to a surface of an adsorbent. PSA technology isolates oxygen molecules from other molecules (nitrogen, CO2, water vapour and trace gases) to leave high purity oxygen at the outlet of the generator. The ZMS material switches between a separation process and a regeneration process. So, at any time, one of these vessels produces oxygen while the other is regenerating its saturated ZMS. Thus, PSA technology enables continuous, high-capacity oxygen flow at the desired level of purity (90% to 95%). The Atlas Copco OGP+ generator is supplied standard with an oxygen sensor, a digital flow meter, a pressure regulator and an automatic start-up function. The machine features a new advanced controller with a large HD colour touchscreen that enables easy, user-friendly navigation through options such as oxygen purity selection and purity alerts. The automated 24/7 feed air and oxygen monitoring and interception function safeguards the quality of the OGP+ generator’s performance and output.



On-site Emergency Medical Services for Mining Projects

Wellness and Prevention-Oriented Emergency Medical Services

An emergency service provider should be appointed to implement a solution that meets the respective needs of a mine instead of off-the-shelf solutions. In the end, services that add value to an organisation, and not just merely ticking the box, are delivered. This is the advice which Trevor Justus, the Managing Director of ATA International Holdings, conveys to mining companies in Africa, as they are ramping up production to increase ore tonnage. By Eric Peters

can be devastating to daily operations. For this reason, it is important to have an efficient healthcare programme. These programmes result in decreased down time in operations due to less frequent interruption due to emergencies.


hanges to Mining Health and Safety Regulations globally are necessitating that mines and organisations in other industries leave no stone unturned in instituting measures to mitigate health and safety risks that their employees may be exposed to. What this implies for mining companies is that it is not just enough to have comprehensive safety strategies in place, they have to be well-equipped to mitigate any unforeseen circumstances, such as a medical emergency. Increasing health and safety risk In the current environment, mineworkers may be exposed to increasing health and safety risks than management may think. This is because there is increased activity as mining companies are ramping up production to meet tonnage targets. “While this (high productivity) may increase revenue and meet shareholder expectations, there are safety risks attached,” cautions Trevor Justus, the Managing Director of ATA International Holdings, a provider of turnkey medical and emergency solutions to mining companies in Africa. “For respective mining companies, it is advisable to assume that the risk is high, and adopt the ‘Better safe than sorry attitude’ mindset.” Based on his experience, Justus is suitably qualified to offer informed advice on issues of managing medical emergencies in the mining environment. ATA International Holdings provides medical assistance infrastructure to mitigate on-site accident risk. In this way, it minimises health and safety impacts, which ensures the continuity of client business and productivity across all site operations.

Consequently, Justus recommends that on-site medical services should focus on wellness and prevention rather than reaction. “Using data from incidents and common disease models provides the emergency service provider with insight to preventative measures and decrease employee absenteeism or less recovery time.” Trevor Justus, Managing Director of ATA International Holdings

Critical elements Justus is eager to share with mining companies about critical issues that can aid them to be adequately prepared to effectively deal with on-site medical emergencies, specifically in the following four areas: The necessity of on-site emergency medical services; the scope of mining-specific emergency medical services; meticulous steps in customising a solution; and carrying out comprehensive research on actionable insights. The Necessity of Onsite Emergency Medical Services Emergency medical services forms part of an integrated healthcare and safety programme, while supporting the wellness of employees. 1.

Sound emergency medical services are a necessity and not an option, mainly from a business perspective, with these emergency medical services having a huge implication on the bottom-line. For instance, the loss or injury of employees


The Scope of On-site Emergency Medical Services In a contemporary and ever evolving work environment, providing a proactive total healthcare solution that focuses on prevention and wellness is central. Standalone Emergency Care is no longer the acceptable standard. The expanded scope of contemporary on-site emergency medical services now includes the following aspects: Occupational Health Testing, Dietary programmes, Physiotherapy, Biokinetics, and Psychological Services. 2.

Informing management at mining companies about key areas, Justus emphasises: “Focusing on physical health and preventing diseases such diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, respiratory illness, skeletal, muscle and joint disorders should be at the forefront. If injury does occur, the focus should be on recovery by utilising physiotherapists, biokinetics and trainers to ensure the employee is back to work timeously.” “Nevertheless, should a life-threatening emergency occur the team of Doctors,

Nurses and Paramedics are quickly able to provide lifesaving treatment. Should the injuries or sickness require upgraded treatment, air ambulances are quickly available to fly the injured to a suitable facility for upgraded treatment or surgery. Dentistry, optometry and psychology are becoming essential aspects of the on-site services and are growing in demand among sites.” Creating a suitable solution Every mining company is unique, similarly the health and safety risks it faces. So, Justus says it is paramount for a service provider of on-site emergency medical solutions to ensure that a mine is provided with a suitable solution, through meticulous planning. In particular, sharing the experiences of ATA International Holdings, he mentions the following steps: • The process starts with a kick off meeting and visiting the mine. This involves investing the time to identify underlying and ongoing client needs to see the world from the mines point of view. Learning and appreciating the difficulties they face, their roles, and their work context. • Segmentation is used to align and focus on specific, targeted issues and build the medical team on these needs. • Then designing a complete solution for the mine’s current and long-term needs, ensuring that the initial and long-term experience of the client is always considered and evolves as needed. This is the key to a longerterm relationship based on a clear and accurate understanding of medical needs. • Once a full understanding is in place the medical professionals needed for the project are appointed and begin working with employees on-site. New and historic data is analysed on an ongoing basis to improve and adapt the services delivered. Moreover, the service provider can participate in the management review and problemsolving meetings to adjust scope where needed. With the end goal being to develop as part of the mine team and not just as a service provider. 3.

Comprehensive research in actionable insights The foundation of the success of any on4.

site service provider is comprehensive research that creates actionable insights into three areas: the problems clients face, the solution requirements, and the solution context. Firstly, given that clients are the ultimate beneficiaries of the value of the business solutions created, a provider should be able to focus on the Solution Context, which captures operation and support requirements. It is worth stressing that understanding Solution Context is crucial to value delivery. Secondly, endemic quality of staff and company team is a prerequisite. Otherwise, without it, the organisation will likely suffer due to poor performance and mismanagement. Thirdly, the emergency medical services approach should go beyond the traditional focus on emergencies only. Actually, it needs emphasis on

three areas: the total understanding of the problem to be solved, the context in which the solution will be used, and the evolution of that solution. The buck stops with the service provider When all is said and done, the buck stops with the emergency service provider, who, to succeed, should be determined to implement a solution that meets the needs of a mine instead of off-the-shelf requirements. In the end, services that add value, and not merely ticking the box, should be delivered. On the other hand, given that there may be a number of eager service providers out there, it is imperative for clients to exercise due diligence and establish the veracity of claims of competency. This is because oversights in emergency services can be very costly and have an impact on the organisation’s bottom-line, in the event of an incident.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic


ealth and safety is a fundamental shared value for the mining industry, and one which is at the centre of every responsible mining company’s business strategy. However, as it usually happens, there are developments which shape the way this vital area is managed, one such development has been the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 has altered the way providers operate in the mining environment. Normally, times of crisis test the resolve of service providers to tackle urgent health challenges. From his viewpoint, Justus has noticed the pandemic has somehow drawn professionals from a cross section of disciplines together, tapping into their past experience. “We have seen medical providers working together to understand and address the challenges caused by the crisis to support patients, their families, and communities. Using past lessons and management of Ebola, TB and Malaria, medical providers have relied on their knowledge to efficiently and effectively implement the vital protocols and measures needed to continue to operate safely. Each country has responded differently to the pandemic and placed restrictions on work-related

travel including health professionals. The Vaccine programmes have allowed for some movement and better planning with quarantines in place. Continuing to share learnings from different responses and knowledge of specific health protocols is now vital moving forward.” Another aspect that has been brought to the fore is the mental health of employees, an area hitherto overlooked, notes Justus. “Poor mental health and stress can negatively affect employees, job performance and productivity, work engagement, physical capability and daily functioning. Encouragingly, providing mental health services to employees is being prioritised. Workplace health promotion programs have proven to be successful, especially when they combine mental and physical health interventions.” Last but not least, Justus is of the view that to effectively tackle persistent health challenges the most practical approach is involving local medical service providers and medical staff. To that end, training of Local medical staff and service providers is of the utmost importance to grow and establish this sector and move away from only expat work forces.




HOLDINGS Offering you a 360° Healthcare and Emergency Medical solution

Protecting the health and well-being of your workforce can be challenging, especially in remote facilities. Our Medical Services Teams are specifically designed to help you maintain the health o of day-to-day operations, with a strong focus on prevention.

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Empowering Locals

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Why Choose Us? Experts in Healthcare & Emergency Medical fields Committed to providing quality products & excellence in customer service Exceed Industry Benchmarks Bespoke Turnkey Solutions Provider Delivering services across Africa since 2008

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KBC introduces Safety Performance Coaches for on-the-job gap training KBC continually searches for new training methodologies and innovative solutions to further enhance its existing training methods


KBC Health & Safety Chief Operating Officer Sian Thurtell

holistic provider of Onboarding solutions in Southern Africa, as well as induction and other training solutions across the mining industry, KBC Health & Safety has introduced the concept of Safety Performance Coaches (SPCs), who will be responsible to track, report and offer on-the-job gap training. When a health and safety code is violated with or without incident, the SPC will be available to explain to their colleague the error in execution and help them understand the correct processes instead. This will sustain learning and mitigate any lapse in health and safety adherence.

that the learning is adapted into more of an experiential training experience, so as to enhance knowledge retention. This will translate easily into the workplace and the learning that is applied, impacting the overall SHE performance of the client.

Trained and coached by KBC, SPCs will be able to gather critical data that will be delivered to the client through a monthly digital dashboard report. This will equip the client with valuable insights and analysis to understand if there are widespread violations of a particular nature that require immediate attention. Critical areas may require training to reinforce understanding, whether it be through microlearning, refresher learning modules or simply one-on-one coaching, which can all be delivered on various platforms.

A session with top leadership will unpack best practice case studies and assist the team in creating a game plan to achieve the organisation’s strategy and goals.

“KBC will apply a targeted implementation and process plan, specifically scoped per client, to ensure that the solution aligns to the client’s organisational SHE culture, objectives and strategy,” comments Chief Operating Officer Sian Thurtell. Another value add of a tailormade client solution is a fully-aligned safety culture across multiple sites that can include employees and contractors. “KBC has always tailored training to align to client needs and the safety strategy of Zero Harm,” stresses Thurtell. The SPC concept goes a step further in ensuring

The starting point is an organisational diagnostic, to understand the status quo and then identify the desired outcome. These results will set in motion the most effective strategies to be applied and the areas of focus. A crucial step is to ensure leadership is aligned to the overall SHE strategy and the key focus areas.

The next step is to implement the tailormade experiential training session, which will incorporate the following aspects: • A Hazard Park to be built to cover high-risk areas • Practical learning workshops • Roleplaying lessons • Hands-on practical activities • Critical base learning • MHS/OHS Act • Customisation of material so it can be easily implemented “KBC continually searches for new training methodologies and innovative solutions to further enhance or sustain our existing methods of training. It is critical for any business to constantly evolve and adapt to the ever-changing climate we operate in. This will, in turn, ensure we are adding value and making a real impact on our clients,” concludes Thurtell.



Heating, cooling and ventilation - BMG’s Fenner Powertwist Plus drive belts for extended service life and reduced downtime in mining


MG’s portfolio of Fenner power transmission components includes a range of high-strength friction transmission belts that offer dependable performance in demanding heating, cooling and ventilation applications in the mining sector. These transmission belts ensure longer service life, higher drive efficiency and reduced downtime compared with conventional V-belts. Fenner PowerTwist Drive V-belts, which are manufactured from a high strength polyurethane elastomer, reinforced with multiple plies of polyester fabric, offer excellent resistance to abrasion, oils and greases, water and steam, as well as industrial solvents and chemicals. “These flexible PowerTwist Drive V-belts are the ideal solution for permanent replacement and fitment into inaccessible locations. These friction transmission belts can be custom-sized for each sheave groove, reducing wear and providing a perfect matched set of belts when mounted on a drive,” says Leon Alberts, Operations Manager, Power Transmission division, BMG “In a recent project, the BMG team assisted a mine, where conventional V-belts on fans and blowers had failed within a short period, causing costly machine downtime, because of heavy shock loads and high heat. Belt installation previously required many workers and it took hours to weld and dismantle drive components. In addition, bearings had to be changed at least once a month, due to failure from drive vibration. “After installation of BMG’s Powertwist Plus belts on the same drive, belt life was significantly extended to over 12 months, with a major reduction in downtime. PowerTwist Plus belts are designed for decreased drive vibration,

designed for easy installation as a permanent replacement, with minimal downtime. No dismantling of equipment is necessary. For user convenience and inventory reduction, the PowerTwist Drive range is available from BMG in different speciality profiles and constructions for efficient power transmission and material handling applications.

resulting in increased bearing life. These belts do not stretch and do not require retensioning after the initial run in. Fenner Powertwist Plus belts are easily made up to the required length in seconds and there is no longer the need to move or dismantle any drive component. It is also easy for mines to hold the correct inventory at all times.” PowerTwist Drive belts combine extremely high strength with low stretch and have the same power ratings as conventional V-belts. The elasticity of woven polyurethane fabric enables these belts to be stretched over a pulley drive without any damage. Once the required length of belt is determined, the V-belt is simply twisted and the end links are interlocked by hand, without the need for tools. An important advantage is that these durable belts operate efficiently at elevated temperatures (up to 110 °C in harsh environments), for up to 15 times longer than standard rubber and other link V-belts. These flexible belts are also

Also, in Fenner’s range of transmission belts are Fenner Power Plus heavy duty drive belts, which meet stringent international quality specifications, as well as the highest standards for static conductivity (ISO 1813 standards). These belts, with an asymmetric weave double jacket for increased durability in harsh conditions, are heat and oil resistant. Their high length stability ensures minimal stretch and elongation. Important features of these robust belts include high performance, maximum drive efficiency and extended service life. They also offer up to 96% energy efficiency at optimum performance. Other Fenner products available from BMG include synchronous transmission belts, pulleys and accessories, as well as shaft fixings, chain drives and couplings. BMG also supplies Fenner shaft mounted speed reducers (SMSRs). This robust and flexible range, which is easy to install and maintain, is available nationally from BMG’s extensive branch network. The company offers a technical advisory and 24-hour support service throughout Africa.



The versatility of Pneumatic high pressure grouting pumps


neumatic Grouting pump is designed for pressure and filling grouting of cement and bentonite slurries. It is primarily used for injecting (grouting) bar anchors and the drill holes in order to reinforce the loose rock mass. The maximum grain size cannot exceed 0,2 mm. Grouting pump operation and maintenance is simple, safe and reliable. This pump is used in mines operating under difficult conditions because it is reliable and explosion-proof. Basic Pneumatic Grouting pump include: An air inlet, the pneumatic cylinder, mounting base frame and stand, pressure gauge, pumping cylinder, outlet with quick release coupling and wheels.

How it works Pneumatic pressure in the air cylinder exerts a high pressure on the grout mixture which leads to ejection of grout with a high pressure and velocity. The valves of the air cylinder in the pump function automatically to actuate the cylinder. The pneumatic cylinder then moves the plunger up and down to complete the pumping cycle. Pneumatic grout pump can be driven even without Electrical power supply in remote areas by using engine driven compressor. Applications The pump is majorly used in construction and mining industry for injecting material into wide and medium size gap in


beams, columns ,basement walls and flooring, lift shaft concrete wall fill-up etc. In mining industry it is used to fill up cement solution where there is a gap exists between structure and rock and for soil stabilization. Detachable design tends to easy maintenance and transportation. Challenging works like Grouting in Bridges. This pump is widely used in tunnels, coal mine, bridges and dams, building foundation, and other underground projects, and inflammable, explosive sites and other bad environment. It has application in chemical industry also to pump out chemical slurries. The pump is electricity free so, can be used

at any site condition whether it is rural or urban. Mining Pneumatic Grouting pump has a larger discharge slurry adjustment range. Generally the final amount of the grouting volume is 8 or10 times of the amount in the beginning. And the final grouting amount proves that filling is compacted. Simply put; Pneumatic high-pressure grouting pump is specially designed for high-pressure grouting. And it adopts full hydraulic drive, it’s pressure and flow can be adjusted according to the requirements of grouting,(The flow of grouting pump is 0-100L/min, pressure of discharge is 0-10MPa).besides, This Pneumatic high-pressure grouting pump can be used for grouting single or double fluid. High-pressure grouting pump is mainly used for highways, railways, water and electricity, construction, mining etc. ground/underground construction.

Benefits Mining Pneumatic Grouting pump has the advantages of low energy consumption, small vibration, low noise, small size, high efficiency, reliable performance, pressure and flow control, long life and so on. Common mine grouting pump has pneumatic injection pump, dual fluid

injection pump, extrusion injection pump and piston injection pump. Pneumatic grout pump is also Light weight and with a wheelie design it can be carried easily. It is designed for easy operation and low maintenance. Last but not least its spare parts are easily available.

GROUTING SOLUTIONS Our heavy duty, skid mounted grout plant can meet your practical needs with our speciality of reliable custom design: • Up to 2500 psi • Up to 20 GPM • Pneumatic or Electric-Hydraulic powered • Forklift chases or Lift lugs




Improving efficiency of mines with pneumatic systems


orking in both surface-level and underground mines many of which can stretch for miles presents harsh and unforgiving environments. When working to extract these precious minerals and natural resources, as well as maintain safety for work crews, mining companies rely on durable, energy-efficient and safe mining equipment. Compressed air is an important source of power in nearly all mining operations. Pneumatic drills are some of the mining tools that use compressed air. The word “pneumatic” when used in the world of tools is used to describe machinery operated by gas or air that is under pressure. Pneumatic systems are similar to hydraulic systems but in these systems compressed air is used in place of hydraulic fluid. Components Pneumatic cylinders, rotary actuators and air motors provide the force and movement for the most of pneumatic systems, for holding, moving, forming, and processing of materials. To operate and control these actuators, other pneumatic components are needed such as air service units for the preparation of the compressed air and valves for the control of the pressure, flow and direction of movement of the actuators. A basic pneumatic system consists of compressed air production, transportation, and distribution system and compressed air consuming system. How the system works Pneumatic tools are powered by air that’s typically delivered from an air compressor. The air is sent through a pressure regulator that’s set to the required pressure for operation of a given tool. The air leaves the regulator through a hose that’s mounted to the tool via a ¼” quick release coupler. Once the air enters the tool, it’s fed through a pneumatic motor that converts

the compressed air’s energy into mechanical work. Linear-action tools like hammers and nail guns typically employ a piston-style actuator, while rotaryaction tools use a geared or turbinestyle motor. Pulling the trigger on the tool sends the air into the motor and causes the tool to begin work. It is important to note that the more compressed air you have available in your air compressor, the more powerful tools you can run. Benefits There are several advantages to using pneumatic drills, including weighing less than an electric drill. Pneumatic drills can also increase productivity, cost less to operate, cost less to maintain and provide more of an ergonomic design. Pneumatic tools are preferred especially by miners due to their high effectiveness. And this is because there is an unlimited supply of air in the atmosphere to produce compressed air. Also there is the possibility of easy storage in large volumes. The use of compressed air is not restricted by distance, as it can easily be transported through pipes. After use, compressed air can be released directly into the atmosphere without the need of processing. Miners also prefer pneumatic tools due to their High durability and reliability. Pneumatic system components are extremely durable and cannot be damaged easily. Compared to electromotive components, pneumatic components are more durable and reliable. Compressed air is less affected by high temperature, dust, and corrosive environment, etc. Hence they are more suitable for harsh environment which most miners tend to work in. When it comes to safety, pneumatic systems are safer than electromotive systems because they can work in inflammable environment without


causing fire or explosion. Apart from that, overloading in pneumatic system only leads to sliding or cessation of operation. Unlike components of electromotive system, pneumatic system components do not burn or get overheated when overloaded. Easy selection of speed and pressure – The speeds of rectilinear and oscillating movement of pneumatic systems are easy to adjust and subject to few limitations. The pressure and the volume of the compressed air can easily be adjusted by a pressure regulator. Pneumatic system is environmental friendly. The operation of pneumatic systems do not produce pollutants. Pneumatic systems are environmentally clean and with proper exhaust air treatment can be installed to clean room standards. Therefore, pneumatic systems can work in environments that demand high level of cleanliness. Pneumatic system components are not expensive, the costs of pneumatic systems are quite low. Moreover, as pneumatic systems are very durable, the cost of maintenance is significantly lower than that of other systems. Mid-Western Drill advises that crew managers only allow strong workers to handle pneumatic drills because of their size and power. The engine that powers the drill can be loud, especially combined with the sound of the hard surface. Ear production is a must when operating a pneumatic drill. Critics of Pneumatic systems however, have blamed it for relatively low accuracy. And this is because pneumatic systems are powered by the force provided by compressed air, their operation is subject to the volume of the compressed air. As the volume of air may change when compressed or heated, the supply of air to the system may not be accurate, causing a decrease in the overall accuracy of the system.

CANUN International celebrates 40 years of CANUN Rock Drills and Service Parts


his year, CANUN International celebrated 40 years of CANUN Rock Drills and Service Parts being an essential part of mines around the globe. We are thankful to all of our incredible customers who have helped us reach this amazing milestone. Over the years, CANUN has grown to be one of the major suppliers of equipment to the Western Hemisphere. Today our equipment is shipped across five continents, as we continue to explore new markets for our flag ship drills.

If you would like a free estimate, please email us at gates@ or You can equally visit our newly designed website at to learn more about CANUN International, as well as the equipment that we have available. Our technical representatives and engineering staff are always available for consultation. Drilling, it’s in our veins.

At CANUN, we design and manufacture pneumatic rock drills for the mining, quarrying (granite) and construction industries. Specific products include CANUN’s 260B series of Jackleg Drills, Stoper Drills, Sinker Drills and Quarry Drills. We also specialize in CANPUSH51 Screen Pushers, CANUN Service Parts, Repair Shop Tools and Accessories. In addition, we supply replacement parts for Boart S250 drills, as well as Gardner Denver S83 Drills. Often utilized in areas particularly difficult to drill in, CANUN 260B Rock Drills can save valuable time when completing tasks, as larger drills require more space to accomplish similar outcomes. CANUN Rock Drills are an excellent choice for those who require the combination of strength and skill, in a compact, easy to transport package. With the exception of a few specialty alloy bronzes, all raw materials are purchased in Canada and all products are manufactured in Canada. Additionally, all CANUN products are inspected and tested at our facility under our ISO 9001:2015 quality standards. Our commitment is to make drills that stay at the face. To achieve this, all CANUN products are made of the best material available and manufactured to the highest quality standards in the industry. All major components such as cylinders, backheads, frontheads, handle adapters and the clevis body are made from high grade forged steel. Heat treating is done in such a way as to achieve the best combination of toughness and wear resistance possible. All bronze materials used are of the highest quality and strength for each application. CANUN also manufactures special parts for specific customer applications to extend the life of high cost items.



Air Compressors for drilling tasks in African Mining

By Eric Peters

“One of the ground breaking innovations in air compressors that are being supplied to mining projects in Africa is variable high-pressure technology, which is geared at bettering efficiency, cost reduction and cutting down emissions in drilling tasks.”


xploration and mining companies are leaving no stone unturned as far as the objectives of cost reduction, improving efficiency, cutting down emissions, and enhancing safety goes in their respective operations from mine to mill. This is dictating their choice of technologies. One of the areas where this is evident is in air compressors used in contemporary drilling tasks such as quarrying, mineral exploration, geothermal, construction and blast hole. If recent trends are anything to go by,

leading OEMs are tailoring the designs of their products to meet this demand.

which First Mining DRC-Zambia carried out.

Variable high-pressure technology Most striking amongst a myriad of innovations in air compressors that are currently being supplied to mining projects in Africa is variable high-pressure technology, which is geared at bettering efficiency, cost reduction and cutting down emissions. This is based on a snap survey of claims some OEMs make on the features of their air compressors


Efficiency The pressure and flow concept means that the compressors are able to achieve maximum air flow at any pressure, as the relationship between pressure and flow is optimised. The two variables combine to improve drilling efficiency through the most efficient use of compressed air. Fascinatingly, an optimisation feature in some compressor brands firmly places

some operators in control of the process. With the feature, the user is able to electronically adjust pressure and flow of a drill air compressors, matching flow and pressure in accordance with their application requirements. Moreover, some, if not most, compressors are engineered with minimal need for maintenance. This ensures that the equipment is available for drilling tasks most of the times, contributing to improving productivity. Agility and speed in the compressors allow for fast drilling. The high penetration rate with 35 bar pressure and flow means more metres drilled daily.

• Cost reduction Mainly, cost reduction can be achieved in three avenues – energy efficiency, low maintenance and low transportation costs. Energy efficiency can be regarded as one avenue of cost reduction. The pressure and flow technology results in from the very low specific fuel consumption for the air delivered. Significantly, this reduces fuel costs. Energy constitutes one of the

the compressors are able to meet emissions limits.

highest operating expenses in mining. Cost savings can also come in the form of low maintenance requirements. There are less costs incurred in unscheduled maintenance witnessed with other compressor technologies. Yet another opportunity in cost reduction is in ease of transportation. Compactsized compressors with the rig can be carried in a single trip in a lorry.

Low emissions The low fuel consumption translates into less emissions produced. In this way,

Informed procurement decisions With an inundation of air compressor brands, some seemingly with little differentiation in terms of quality, the significance of informed procurement does not have to be overstressed. Consequently, the onus is on a mining company to know specifications of the air compressor they require. Craig Swartz, fleet manager at Rand Air, a subsidiary of Atlas Copco South Africa, Rand-Air fleet manager urges industry to ensure that their procurement is based on informed choices of what they specifically need. “For drilling customers, choosing the right compressor to match hole depth and hammer size is critical to their success.” A common feature – some would argue standard – is robustness for use in remote and harsh environments, where support may be hard to access in the event of equipment failure.



Clean coal a viable option due to latest advances in fine-coal beneficiation Shift to mechanised coal-mining means more fines than traditional thickeners can cope with with traditional spirals in a fine-coal processing circuit. Two approaches were evaluated, one where run-of-mine fine coal was fed to the Optima Classifier™ and one where the Optima discard was fed to a low-cut spiral. In addition, the Optima can also be added to an existing fine coal circuit or mineral preparation plant as a separate module to boost overall recovery and quality.

The Gravitas Minerals team at the Southern African Coal Processing Society (SACPS) Biennial Conference


he shift to mechanised mining in the coal industry has had the sideeffect of an excessive quantity of fines being produced, which often means that the thickeners deployed in minerals-processing circuits are undersized and cannot cope. “Eight out of ten coal mines encounter this problem in their operations, mainly due to the fact that the thickeners are not designed to handle such a large quantity of fines,” highlights Gravitas Minerals Director Tebogo Kale (M.Inst.D). It is for this reason that the company presented a detailed overview of its latest advances in fine-coal beneficiation, focusing on a holistic overview of the value chain, at the Southern African Coal Processing Society (SACPS) Biennial Conference at the Graceland Casino and Country Club in Secunda, Mpumalanga from 12 to 14 October 2021 under the banner of ‘Coal Processing and our Role in the Drive for Cleaner Coal’. “The fact that the transition to renewables as a significant component of South Africa’s energy mix is not going to happen overnight means that any advances in clean coal are critical boost environmental awareness in the coal value chain and the impact on the triple

bottom line of ‘people, planet and profit’,” comments Kale. “The key questions we need to ask is how do we make the most out of coal fines and what are the alternatives?” Apart from thickener issues due to an overproduction of fines, these also invariably end up in slurry ponds, tailings dams and silt traps, which incurs significant handling, construction and disposal costs when it comes to remediation. Whereas traditionally only 10% to 15% of fines went to the thickener, this figure is now 20%. “The technology we can bring to the table not only mitigates this problem, but results in a commercially viable and sustainable end product,” stresses Kale. “Not only can this high-quality product be exported, it also means that less fines end up in slimes dams, which compounds the environmental impact of coal.” While Kale’s presentation focused on the business case of the technology developed by Gravitas Minerals, Franco van de Venter, who oversees the company’s technological development facility in Benoni, presented a paper in conjunction with Multotec Process Equipment as to how the Optima Classifier™ can be used in conjunction


Kale reveals that the dual presentation by Gravitas Minerals generated a lot of interest at the high-profile SACPS Biennial Conference 2021. “We clearly outlined the problems associated with clean coal and the impact from an environmental point of view, as well as outlining a potential solution that can be implemented efficiently and cost-effectively. It is important for the coal industry to advance the cause of clean coal in response to growing environmental concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.” A water-only density separator, the Optima Classifier™ is an engineered system that consists of feed preparation, beneficiation/separation and dewatering modules to ensure a high-quality product with the correct moisture content. Typical products consist of ash below 16% and a calorific value of at least 27Mj/kg. Moisture plays a major role in the fine coal market and the water recovered from the product is immediately reused for processing. Grain sizes of up to 5mm can be processed, while unit sizes of up to 150t/h can be built. The discharge devices are electrically controlled, which presents the opportunity for a total ‘green’ solution. The fact that the solution does not draw much power, with the Optima Classifier™ using the same 220V rating as a typical household appliance, means that renewable energy can easily and effectively be added as the main power source for sustainability.


Jet demolition pays particular attention to health and safety especially when working over an open space

Jet Demolition offers a turnkey service for the mining industry


he most effective means of ensuring that redundant shafts are protected from occupation by illegal miners is to seal them permanently below natural ground level (NGL), typically after filling the shaft barrel. Here is where specialist demolition contractor Jet Demolition stands to play a vital role. Another challenge is that various shafts are often interconnected, such as a live shaft and redundant shafts linking together hundreds of meters below NGL. “It is thus critical to ensure that we understand the network we are operating within, so that our capping and sealing activities do not influence or adversely affect miners underground in a neighbouring shaft,” comments Jet Demolition Contracts Manager André Botes (N. Dip. Mechanical Engineering).

footprint fully, rendering the area safe for public use. The main requirement for permanent shaft sealing and capping projects is to ensure full compliance with the Mine Health and Safety Act, the provisions of the Department of Mineral Resources, the approved Environmental Management Plan, as well as any clientspecific requirements. The natural surrounding environment also has to be taken into account, paying special attention to natural water courses and stormwater management. This could mean rerouting natural water

Jet demolition contracts Manager Andre Botes

courses slightly, while ensuring there is no subsequent negative downstream effect. All material used to fill shafts must be clean and uncontaminated. This is vital to ensure that no groundwater contamination will occur after sealing. Jet Demolition pays particular attention to health and safety, especially when working over an open shaft that could extend a few kilometres underground. “It is absolutely critical to protect plant and personnel from falling,” Botes stresses. Hence certified lifelines are installed prior to any work commencing, providing personnel with anchoring points during shaft sealing. Larger machines are also typically used for increased reach, and, in some instances, remote-controlled machines could be deployed to ensure the safety of persons.

Its turnkey service offering for the mining industry includes backfilling shaft barrels, designing permanent caps, installing caps at a defined depth below NGL, and recording the final position and depth of caps, followed by the backfill and reinstatement of the natural material over cap tops. Mining houses typically require such a turnkey service for two main scenarios: Firstly, to seal the shaft permanently as a mitigating factor, thereby preventing unauthorised access by illegal miners or, secondly, to rehabilitate the mining

The main requirement for permanent shaft sealing and capping projects is to ensure full compliance



Electrowinning plants

Increased Current Density, A Profitable Plant

Air Sparger bubbles

Increasing currency density is universally respected as a way of improving the output of electrowinning plants (increasing metal production). However, it can also have unintended consequences of affecting production capabilities and site safety. That is why the task of improving the performance of an electrowinning plant should not be based on guesswork but precision. Increasing current density without compromising quality. By Eric Peters


ncrease in demand for base metals augurs well for base metal producers in Africa. But it is not cast in stone there are rich pickings up for grabs, although conditions are in their favour. The reality is that they have their work cut out, more especially in exploring the most viable options for improving electrowinning production if they are to be competitive and profitable.

a globally renowned multidisciplinary research body in Australia, observes that this is because many sites globally run on high current densities and, while, incongruously, tank houses globally are still running low current densities. He attributes this to the inability to assess, prepare for and control the associated risks, which makes increasing current density seem too difficult.

And one area where there are vast opportunities to achieve this is in base metal electrowinning operations, where increasing current density is universally regarded as the tried and tested method. However, managing the associated risks of increasing current density is not always simple. Dr Mark Cooksey from Mineral Resources Optimisation Team at CSIRO,

More often than not, base metal producers make the mistake of failing to increase the capacity of their operations in accordance with market demands. This is a decision which proves costly sooner or later. “Inability to make changes to your core processes will restrict your production growth and lead to potential revenue losses,” advises Cooksey.


Vital aspects But what should be considered before increasing current density in an electrowinning plant? Cooksey informs metal producers to be well acquainted with the following key aspects about their electrowinning plants: Identifying, Testing and Understanding parameters; Examining potential risks of increasing current density; and common tank house challenges.

1. Identifying, testing and

understanding parameters and impacts of changes At the outset, Cooksey suggests that the first step before embarking on operational changes: “It is important to identify, test and understand the various parameters and flow-on impacts of any

change. This requires data collection, analysis, testing and interpretation in a controlled environment. Improved understanding will enable producers to increase electrowinning production without compromising product quality.” Before implementing new or optimised electrowinning operations, the following issues have to be considered: • Upstream and downstream processes, which are highly sitespecific; • Tank house challenges; and • How to undertake testing in a controlled environment and de-risk implementation.

2. Potential risks of increasing

current density The first point to take into account is that there are significant variations between electrowinning in different operating sites. It is important to understand the site-specific factors that will influence production capabilities and site safety before undertaking process improvement. Mainly, the following are the factors: upstream and downstream processes, electrolyte compositions, rectifier capacity, and current tank house design and its associated infrastructure. Cooksey points out that the ability to control the above-mentioned factors needs to be quantified when developing optimisation processes. “If you attempt to increase current density without a strong understanding of the base-line parameters, you risk compromising your product and site safety by creating process disruptions and undesirable byproducts. Not having the right measures in place or the necessary expertise can ultimately limit your site’s capacity to achieve production goals.”

and touch the opposite side of the plate. This can cause an electrical short circuit and compromise the entire tank cell(s).

Electrical efficiency Increasing current density can result in lower current efficiency, due to energy losses and other variants that compromise output.

Acid mist Higher current density leads to increased acid mist, compromising the safety of workers and accelerating the corrosion of equipment.

Electrolyte impurities Higher current densities, the effect of metallic and other impurities is exacerbated due to increased electrolyte flow rates and hydrodynamic effects within the cell. This can decrease the limiting current density, current efficiency and cathode metal quality.

Anode wear Increased current density can increase anode wear, but the benefit of increasing production often outweighs this cost. Cooksey notes that the extent to which these physical and procedural barriers impede optimisation processes can vary. Mainly, he explains, this is due to the different designs of tank houses across operations, and the processing steps which cause varying electrolyte compositions. “Ultimately, these challenges can make it difficult for base metal producers to

increase production without having to compromise additional processes. Often, specialised knowledge and test equipment is needed to address these issues.” Engaging experienced and knowledgeable professionals Base metal producers have to make rational decisions when it comes to electrowinning plant optimisation, looking beyond expenditure. Understandably, in the current environment, there is a strong bias towards cutting costs due to the increasing costs, and use of inhouse resources may make sense. Nonetheless, Cooksey says mines have to ask themselves whether or not they have the required electrochemistry, fluid flow characterisation and modelling expertise to make the right decisions without compromising product quality or site safety. “Increasing current density by trial and error carries the risk of disrupting your entire operation. The most effective way to guarantee successful improvements is to engage experienced and knowledgeable professionals. This allows for process audits and pilot testing, ensuring the most efficient optimization process can be evaluated and tailored to your site’s specific requirements, before you invest in a new process.” It is upon base metal producers to ensure that they are able to cope with changing market needs and ore grades by implementing appropriate process improvements.”

3. Common tank house challenges

Cooksey mentions the following as common tank house challenges that are often encountered:

Cathode metal quality There is a strong belief and associated concern that an increase in current density will result in lower or compromised cathode metal quality. A lower quality product ultimately leads to compromised revenue.

Short-circuits When current density increases, metal can deposit non-uniformly or dendritically,



Electrolyte Soft Aeration System for Copper Electrowinning Plants

Consistent Aeration, Quality Copper Cathode ANCOR TECMIN has an innovative system that guarantees effective soft electrolyte aeration through air sparging in copper electrowinning (EW) plants, which enables the production of high-quality cathodes. The Chile-based, but globally focused company is keen on helping mining companies in Africa use the technology and get more value from their ore.

By Eric Peters


here are bright prospects for copper mining companies in Africa due to the envisaged rise in production of electric vehicles, as, increasingly, the world embraces green alternatives to fossil fuel-powered vehicles. Copper is a major component in electric vehicles used in electric motors, batteries, inverters, wiring and in charging stations.

For mining companies, this is the ideal time to ensure that the performance of critical equipment like electrowinning (EW) plants is optimum. For this reason, ideally, plant engineers have to see to it that vital elements that create perfect conditions for the recovery of highquality copper on cathodes are in place. Unfortunately, in reality, the desired results are not always cast in stone.

The challenge

One of the challenges that is often encountered in EW plants is local fluctuations in electrolyte composition which have negative effects on copper deposit process, especially with high current densities. The ‘time-honored’ approach is homogenizing the electrolyte. Nevertheless, more often than not, most ‘conventional’ air distribution devices that have been developed to carry out the process, fail way short to produce the desired outcome. Poor homogenization hampers electrowinning, frequently, resulting in the following challenges: Lower concentration of copper ion near cathode surface, due to reduced efficiency and uneven copper deposits; as well as nodules and other quality


defects. Evidently, there has been a need for a practical and convenient process to homogenize the electrolyte.

An innovative alternative system

After noticing the potential losses copper mining companies had been incurring due to poor homogenization, Chilebased but globally focused, ANCOR TECMIN developed an innovative system that guarantees effective soft electrolyte aeration through air sparging. Thus far, the company’s system (Electrolyte Aeration System) has excelled in twenty projects where it has been deployed globally, improving the output of EW plants (through the quality and quantity of copper recovered). ANCOR TECMIN is keen to replicate the success of

its soft electrolyte aeration system in other parts of the world with potential clientele in Zambia, the DRC and other parts of Africa. ANCOR TECMIN is the undisputed world leader in polymer concrete and other composite materials technologies, especially Supertank® electrolytic cells and their accessories. Through an interview with First Mining DRC-Zambia, ANCOR TECMIN’s Commercial Manager, Mauricio Perretta C, guarantees that the adoption of the soft electrolyte aeration system can enable copper mining companies to get more value from the recovery process in their EV plants. Significantly, the system improves the quality and quantity of copper deposits on the cathode.

How the system improves cathode copper deposits

The ANCOR TECMIN’s electrolyte aeration system device generates millions of tiny air bubbles per minute that homogenize electrolyte composition. Perretta demonstrates how the system improves the quality of cathode copper deposit: “By gently diffusing low pressure air uniformly throughout the cell bottom, the electrolyte aeration system improves the physico-chemical properties of cathodic copper deposits maintaining sustained quality standards. The effect of air bubbles increases kinetic transfer and concentration of Cu++ in the liquid-cathode interface.” Uniquely, the system’s patented innovative design overcomes shortcomings of other air distribution devices that have been tested in the past in the following ways: • Uniform air distribution across the entire cell, through isobaric distribution ring, • Selected Micro-perforated diffusers

• •

for consistent bubbling effect over time; Auto-supported structure, for easy access for cell inspection and slime removal; and Customized clamps, for quick hose replacement (no incremental cell downtime!)

Basically, by using the ANCOR TECMIN’s Electrolyte Aeration through Air Sparging System in their EW plants, as recommended, copper companies are guaranteed consistent results, specifically the following: • Increased current densities, continuously over high range 350 600 A/m2; • Superior cathodic copper quality using copper lean electrolytes; and • Decreased acid mist generation at electrolyte surface.

A turnkey polymer concrete electrolytic cell solution & quality capping boards from ANCOR TECMIN Through a team of vastly experienced application engineers, ANCOR TECMIN offers a turnkey polymer concrete electrolytic cell solution that encompasses designing, manufacturing and commissioning. It has successfully delivered customised 35,000 polymer concrete electrolyte cells and capping boards in more than twenty countries. One of ANCOR TECMIN’s most prominent clients is a mining conglomerate. Thus far, ANCOR TECMIN has installed over 3,500 units of Aeration systems in South America. Recently, it installed its system at an electrowinning plant in Belgium. Interestingly, there has been an increase in demand for concrete electrolyte cells used in retrofitting older cells in existing plants, as well as capping boards.



MISTOP®: Acid Mist Suppressant for Electrowinning Tankhouses


During the copper electrowinning (EW) process, due to electrochemical reactions, oxygen is released from the anodes forming bubbles within the electrolyte that coalesce and increase in size. Once the bubbles reach the surface of the electrolyte, they burst, generating sulfuric acid-charged microdroplets that are released into the environment. This fine mist creates a corrosive environment that is hazardous to both workers and equipment. One of the most effective strategies to combat the problem is the addition of surfactants that reduces the surface tension of the electrolyte, significantly reducing the force with which the microdroplets explode in contact with the environment. MISTOP at specific operating conditions, in addition to its surfactant action, can form a thin layer of foam on the electrolyte, allowing the generated bubbles to drain into the liquid itself. MISTOP® can be added to electrowinning vessels and in conjunction with other

mechanical barriers (polystyrene spheres, ventilation systems, among others) significantly reducing the release of acid mist into the environment. To increase its effectiveness in acid mist control, the surfactant must be continuously added to the electrolyte at a controlled flowrate with a dosing pump, ensuring that a homogenization with the product is generated before entering the electrowinning vessel. It does not require costly and complex control systems for its use. Commonly the concentration of MISTOP® over the total electrolyte inventory is 6 to 12 ppm, or <2 ppm over the feed stream, which positions MISTOP® as one of the most economical and cost-effective alternatives. “Our core values focus on caring for the environment, innovating, and empowering the industry. In this sense, our commitment with a view to the future is to continue to grow and become the leaders in natural surfactants for the


control of acid mist” said Manuel Véliz, Technical & Commercial Engineer, Desert King Chile. Benefits • It is a surfactant rich in Quillaja saponins, biodegradable and safe to handle. • Efficient, clean, and economical alternative to fluorocarbon-based surfactants. • Effectively formulated for acid mist reduction in copper and zinc electrowinning processes by reducing the surface tension of the electrolyte. • It does not reduce the current density, neither does it alter the quality of copper cathodes. • It has a low half-life, allowing it not to accumulate in the system. • No emulsions are generated at low utilization dosages allowing to maintain stable operational parameters. Successful cases Codelco’s Radomiro Tomic Division is



7024 Manya Circle, San Diego, California 92154, USA Tel 619.429.522 Fax 619.429.5001 e-mail: /


one of the largest exponents of copper production in Chile. It is responsible for the production of high purity copper cathodes on a large scale through the electrowinning process. In 2002 Codelco Radomiro Tomic incorporated MISTOP® for acid mist control, obtaining excellent results.

ensures that MISTOP® is a natural product with the highest quality standard, sustainable, traceable, and auditable.

the use of MISTOP® up to current

Quillaja extracts are considered GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency).


A year later in 2003 Chiquicamata and El Salvador also incorporated our surfactant in the same manner. The excellent results have allowed the incorporation in copper and zinc operations in countries such as Australia, the United States, Mexico, and Peru.

How to switch to MISTOP? Implementing MISTOP® requires initial supervision of an expert to reach technical difficulties, before operating the product on an industrial scale. For EW operations without inhibition systems,

Contact us for information, technical

densities of 240 A/m2 is recommended. For EW with other inhibition systems. is




current densities of 390 A/m2. The use of mechanical barriers greatly enhances the effectiveness of MISTOP®. support, or implementation instructions. Learn more about our surfactant at:

Desert King is a multinational company, market leader, specialist in the production of Yucca Schidigiera, Quillaja Saponaria, and Jojoba products. We have more than 20 years of experience implementing our products effectively in different industries. We are a customerfocused company, we work based on the requirements of the customers and support them in the implementation of our products. Our solutions have been incorporated in several countries around the world, including Chile, Australia, the United States, Mexico, Finland, among others. Sustainability MISTOP® is a natural extract obtained from Quillaja Saponaria, is perfluoroalkylpolyfluoroalkyl (PFAS)-free, solventfree, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and does not accumulate in soil or water. The production process is carried out by Desert King Chile, including native forest management, extraction, concentration, pasteurization, and packaging. This

The world leader in industrial private LTE networks



Tackling corrosion in mining processes with Fiber Reinforced Polymer


orrosion can simply be defined as the destructive oxidation of metallic material. But more recent definitions of corrosion have include the degradation of any material and its intended loss of function by exposure to and interaction with its environment. Corrosion in the mining industry is often characterized as corrosion enhanced by abrasion—this is especially true for pipe and pumping systems used in many mining processes. Material selection is therefore a critical component of most corrosion management strategies.

Fiberglass Fibreglass or Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a complex non-isotropic material, in which two or more distinct, structurally complementary substances, glass fiber and thermoset polymer resin, combine to produce structural or functional properties not present in the individual component. Used throughout the world in a wide range of industrial and nonindustrial applications, FRP boasts cost-effectiveness, design flexibility, dimensional stability, high strength-

to-weight ratio, durability, and low maintenance costs—among other things. FRP products have been employed effectively in a diversity of applications, including pulp and paper, chemical processing, power generation, wastewater management, desalination, aerospace, architectural, food and beverage, and mining and minerals— among much else. FRP continues to gain in popularity as a material solution for pump and piping systems in the mining and mineral industries. And this is because they can



chemical precipitants, coagulants, flocculants, and defoamers. Fiberglass materials formulated from high quality epoxy vinyl ester resins will outperform stainless steel in chemically aggressive environments including Sulfuric Acid. For example, in dilute form sulfuric acid is known to be extremely corrosive to carbon steel, yet properly formulated fiberglass can provide corrosion resistance. FRP Composition There are four main ingredients that FRP are comprised of: resins, reinforcements, fillers, and additives/modifiers. Each ingredient is equally important and all ingredients play an important role in determining the properties of the finished FRP products. To simplify, think of the resin (polymer) as the glue or the binding agent. The mechanical strength is provided by the reinforcements.

be made to be: Compliant for potable water, Fire retardant, Abrasion resistant, Impact resistant, Electrically conductive, Heat resistant up to 450F, Corrosion resistant – acids, caustics and UV resistant. Fibreglass Design Some of the information required for FRP design include the: structural loading, chemical resistance required, temperature, seismic loading and wind loading.

supporting case studies available that demonstrate the opportunity, solutions and benefits realized when integrating FRP into project design. Tanks, pipe and duct are made on “male” molds, with the fiberglass applied to the outside of the mold. Per FRP standards, dimensions are based on the internal diameters of the finished parts.

Fiberglass fabrication Since they are produced as “wet” material that is then cured to provide the hardness required, Fiberglass products are prepared on molds.

The first layers on the mold are the most critical for corrosive environments. These typically consist of a corrosion resistant veil followed by 2 to 3 layers of random mat to provide a resin-rich100 to 125 mil corrosion liner. Plastics such as PVC, polypropylene and Viton can also be used for the internal barrier.

FRP when designed properly is a cost-effective material that has demonstrated its durability and ability to withstand industrial conditions, but also, importantly long-term environmental exposure—a key distinction that has interested many civil engineers involved in the rehabilitation, retrofitting and complete rebuilding of bridges, other load bearing structures and or architectural elements, such as, prestressing tendons, reinforcing bars, and grid-reinforcements and structural columns. Regardless of what type of project type or project environment you are planning for there are likely

Fiberglass brings versatility to the table—among much else including light-weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, it can also be designed to meet vacuum specifications—an important component in some wastewater applications. Fiberglass applications in the wastewater or water purification industry include, but are not limited to, chemical water treatment, industrial waste water treatment, lime-soda treatment, chlorine, disinfection, clarification, demineralization, oil demulsification, metal precipitation, odor, control, bioaugmentation, and the processing/handling/storage of many


Resins The primary functions of the resin are to transfer stress between the reinforcing fibers, act as a glue to hold the fibers together, and protect the fibers from mechanical and environmental damage. Reinforcements: Fibers and Forms Generally speaking there are four common types of fibers broadly used in the FRP industry: glass, carbon, natural, and arimid. Each has their advantages and applications. Similarly, reinforcements are available in forms to serve a wide range of processes, service and end product requirements. Fillers Fillers are used as process or performance aids to impart special properties to the end product. Some examples of inorganic fillers include calcium carbonate, hydrous aluminum silicate, alumina trihydrate, and calcium sulfate. Additives and Modifiers Additives and modifiers perform critical functions despite their relative low quantity by weight when compared to the other ingredients such as resins, reinforcements and fillers. Some additives used in thermoset and thermoplastic composites include: low shrink/low profile (when smooth surfaces are required), fire resistance, air release, emission control, viscosity control, and electrical conductivity.


Crimar Industrial:

A leader in fiberglass industrial Equipment manufacturing


or over 30 years, Crimar Industrial has been providing high quality fiberglass industrial equipment (tanks, piping, ductwork, thickener covers, process equipment, custom fabrication, and field installation and maintenance services) to mining, municipal, petro-chemical and other industrial applications around the world. Through their sister company, Shijiazhuang Beman Commercial Co. Ltd. (SBC) which handles sourcing and project management in China, the company can negotiate and enforce contracts with all the rights and privileges of a Chinese company and provide complete quality control and expediting services. With a strong customer base which includes companies such as: WesTech, FLSmidth, Glencore Mining, Hatch Engineering, CODELCO, Freeport McMoRan, Jacobs Engineering, ASARCO, M3 Engineering, IMC Kalium, Abbott, Labs, Intrepid Potash, Siemens/ US Filter, Biorem, Grupo Mexico among others, Crimar Industrial/SBC continues to be a major player in the industry. Crimar Industrial/SBC also utilises top notch expertise both internal and external during the design stage of their products to ensure high quality products. “While we have extensive internal expertise in fiberglass design and fabrication, we also have the full support of the design center at our subcontract facility in as well as of Professional Engineers in the US and Canada that specialize in fiberglass design and inspection services,” says company president Roger Beman.

evidence of compliance. But when appropriate Crimar also contracts or coordinates with internationally known third party inspection companies such as Moody, Veritas, TUV Rheinland, and others to provide certified inspection reports of materials, production procedures, dimensions, and overall compliance with the terms of the contract. To serve their customers better, Crimar Industrial/SBC have sales & support offices in Tucson, Arizona; Toronto; Santiago; Lima; Shijiazhuang; Johannesburg; and Medellin in Colombia. Their office in China (Shijiazhuang Beman Commercial Co. Ltd.) provides complete sourcing, QC, import - export and expediting. Key to their success has been in assisting customers by understanding their requirements, assisting them in design when appropriate, and the delivery of high-quality products on time for a competitive price. In fact, Mr. Beman, the President and Owner of Crimar Industrial and majority owner of the Shijiazhuang Beman Commercial Co. Ltd. (SBCCO-China) has been traveling to China an average of 10 times a year for the past 15 years to ensure that suppliers understand and meet customers’ needs.

All design, fabrication and inspection is in accordance with international standards such as ASME RTP-1, ASTM 3299, ASTM 4097.

Products and services at a glance • Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP) Products • Steel Pipes & Fittings • Crushing and Milling Equipment and Wear Parts • Casting & Forging • Steel Process Equipment • Custom Fabrication - Steel and FRP • Dampers & valves • Solid/Liquid Separation Equipment • Project Management

As a testament of their rigorous internal QC, most customers have accepted in-house QC inspections as sufficient

For further information see • •


High quality, on time delivery and competitive pricing

INDUSTRIAL FIBERGLASS Crimar Industrial for over 30 years has been providing high quality fiberglass industrial equipment (tanks, piping, pumps, ductwork, roofs, process equipment, custom fabrication, and field installation and maintenance services) to the mining, municipal, petro-chemical and other industrial applications around the world. Through our sister company in China, Shijiazhuang Beman Commercial Co. Ltd. (SBC) we can negotiate and enforce contracts with all of the rights and privileges of a Chinese company and provide complete quality control and expediting services.


There are many different kinds of glass fiber to provide a wide variety of laminate strengths: • Glass fiber • Carbon fiber • Bamboo fiber And different textures • Winding glass • Chopped strand glass • Woven glass • Unidirectional glass • Corrosion veil

FABRICATION METHODS • Filament winding • Chopper gun

• • •

Hand lay up Resin Transfer Pultrusion

FRP DESIGN Some of the information required for FRP design include the: • structural loading • chemical resistance required • temperature • seismic loading • wind loading When appropriate we prepare finite element analyses (FEA’s) to model the design and loads to ensure that the project requiremenst will be met

We can help you from the beginning of the project through completion. We can assist with the design, fabrication, and shipping of the products sold. Where appropriate we can also provide on site fabrication or assembly. Once the installation is complete, we can provide ongoing support and maintenance services.

For further information please contact Zish Zhao at


Offices in the USA, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, South Africa |



Phytomining Author: Harshvardhan singh, works as a senior service engineer at a mining firm in India


ining is a tough place to work in. My career transition from a tribology research-based job in Austria to a service-oriented job involving heavy earth moving machines, inside underground mines in India, was difficult in the beginning but my inner automotive engineer help me adapt to the workplace. In a short but adventurous work tenure in mining industry, every single work on machine whether in underground or on surface, focused on “Safety first” or “My safety my responsibility” moto. Considering the hazards and risks involved in mining, the above safety moto should be followed by everyone working in any mines. As we are all aware of; mining serves as the primary source of minerals that countries discover to satisfy needs such as manufacturing of electronic and electrical appliances, construction of transportation network, power generation, job creation and many other things that grows in demand with rising population, urbanization and income growth. It can be said that mining is the Impact of mining Environment

Water quality and availability of water resources within the mining area and nearby regions. Gas emissions from combustion of fuels in stationary and mobile sources and particulate matter dispersed in air due to blasting and excavation. Noise pollution from mining equipment’s and vibrations affecting stability of infrastructures. Soil contamination affecting agricultural activities.


• •

Migration Livelihood loss


Habitat loss

C l i m a t e change

High carbon uptake into the environment


Exposure of worker occupational hazards


starting point of every supply chain. Given that mining plays an important contributor to goods and services that consumers enjoy in their day to day life, it also has drawbacks; that is its negative impact on environment, social and cultural values, climate change and health of workers. The growing demand of minerals and considering the harsh effects of mining as listed in Table 1., exploration of sustainable environmental-friendly technologies to mine minerals have begun. One such evolving technology is Phytomining. Rufus Chaney, an agronomist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture is widely credited for inventing Phytomining in the year 1983. As a token of recognition for his research findings, a hyperaccumulator plant capable of absorbing Nickel has been named after him – “P. rufuschaneyi” In order to understand concept of Phytomining, we need to first become familiar with the term Hyperaccumulation. The term can be broken down into two parts – hyper meaning excessive and accumulation meaning to gather a quantity or mass. Hyperaccumulation can be referred as the ability of a plants to absorb, tolerate, traffic and store elevated amount of heavy metals from root to leaves. The associated plants are referred to as hyperaccumulators. More than 450 species of plants have these hyperaccumulation genes (HA genes). The process starts with growing hyperaccumulator plants in regions containing metal rich soil, it can be a fresh land or contaminated land. Land surveys for minerals can help us choose the type of plant that would be suitable to grow in the region. Next comes absorption of metal by roots provided the metal has dissolved itself in the soil in the form of ion. Absorbed metFigure 2. Metal als are then transhyperaccumulation ported from roots

to shoot via metal transporting proteins. Metals are then stored in in stem and leaves. Metal extraction starts with chopping and drying of leaves. The dry mass is then put inside a reactor along with some quantity of water. This results into generation of biogas and breakage of cell walls. The output is a wet mass which is then dried in an oven and further processed to yield metal.

Figure 3. Model representing Phytomining process

Since we are now familiar with the process, lets discuss some pros and cons of Phytomining. Advantages of Phytomining • Can be utilized for areas having low mineral reserves, where commercial mining won’t be sustainable. • The process is environmentally friendly. • Higher amount of concentration can be achieved. • Quantity of waste disposal is low. Disadvantages of Phytomining • Process is slow as crops can take years to grow. • Dependency on weather, soil type and other growing conditions. • Large scale harvesting hyperaccumulator plants proves to be expensive. Phytomining is still in developing stage. Genetic modification of plants to increase metal uptake, fertilizers to protect these crops from pests, suitable environment and condition to grow these crops, are few areas which require further investigation that will help this technology to switch to commercial scale.

Table 1.Impact of mining on environment


AGRULINE FITTINGS & PIPES RESISTANT TO CRACKS LONGER SERVICE LIFE crack resistant PE 100-RC HIGH ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY sandbed-free installation LASTING CONNECTIONS better welding results ONE STOP SHOPPING complete PE 100-RC piping system

agru Kunststofftechnik Gesellschaft m.b.H. | Ing.-Pesendorfer-Strasse 31 | 4540 Bad Hall, Austria | T +43 7258 7900 |