BRINGING TOGETHER BUSINESS AVIATION AND BUSINESS LEADERS
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FC Interview: Trevor Lambarth & Valeria Kolyuchaya on Bombardier Business Aircraft and the market in Europe, Russia and CIS
Market Focus: Europe and Russia • Apps for pilots • SESAR Sector Focus: Airports, MRO • Open data • BizApps
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FC UPFRONT 8 Meet the team 10 Memo and index of advertisers
12 FC Upfront: Open data — evolution or revolution Does business aviation have a cultural aversion to data sharing? Jason Zappa Janse examines open data and the beneﬁ ts and disadvantages it may bring.
20 Bombardier Business Aircraft VP Europe, Africa & Middle East Trevor Lambarth and Regional VP Central & Eastern Europe, CIS & Russia Valeria Kolyuchaya discuss Bombardier’s view of prospects in Europe and Russia with FlyCorporate’s Phil Rose.
Business aviation review: Europe
MRO in Europe and Russia
MARKET FOCUS 24 Business aviation review: Europe With Europe struggling to pull itself out of recession, Rod Simpson reports on the current state of business aviation across the continent. 30 Business ﬂying in Russia Conditions for business aviation visitors to Russia are ever changing — generally for the better — but, as Rod Simpson notes, careful planning is essential.
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Contents SECTOR FOCUS
34 MRO in Europe and Russia Owning a corporate aircraft means that service is going to be a key consideration. Rob Seaman reviews the choices available to bizav operators to Europe and Russia when things go wrong. London and its airports
40 Choosing the London airport that’s right for you There is no shortage of airports claiming convenient access to London. Operators need to consider many factors — including the type of aircraft they ﬂy. Douglas Wilson weighs the options. 48 Europe evolves toward unity in the air J Peter Berendsen offers FlyCorporate readers a progress report on the Single European Sky Air Trafﬁc Management Research (SESAR) project.
With the paperless cockpit come apps galore
54 What’s in your collection of pilot apps? The bulky black ﬂight bag may be almost a relic, but with the proliferation of apps for pilots, how do you populate your paperless cockpit? Rob Seaman suggests some ways to choose wisely. 60 The King Air family at 50 More than 6,300 King Airs of all types have been delivered to commercial customers, as well as just over 600 for the US military and other armed forces. Rod Simpson looks at the ﬁrst half century of a classic workhorse turboprop. 66 BIZAPPS – the latest tools for business aviation
Fifty years of King Airs
Connecting flight departments with systems that work.
8 YOUR BIZAV RESOURCE
Jason Zappa Janse
Ward Van den Broeck
Online Editor jason.janse@ﬂycorporate.com
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J Peter Berendsen Rob Seaman Rod Simpson
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Ilse De Bruyckere Operations Manager
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10 YOUR BIZAV RESOURCE
RECALIBRATING NORMAL It took several seasons of increasingly shaky optimism for most pundits and prognosticators to accept the unpalatable truth that business aviation was in for a rough ride. That ride may at last be coming to a stop. Some European economies were already struggling in 2008 when the so-called Great Recession nearly crippled most of the others. Western Europe as a whole has still not recovered – although, depending who you talk to, things may be picking up. The general wisdom is that any global ﬁnancial recovery will start in the US – which many say created the crisis in the ﬁrst place – so the news that the US economy is on the rise is, ultimately, good news for Europe, whose business aviation sector has been in the doldrums for several years now. This edition of FlyCorporate is timed to coincide with the 14th annual EBACE Convention in Geneva, and focuses on developments in Europe and Russia. We also take a look at the contentious subject of open data for business aviation. Data sharing has its boosters and its detractors, and FlyCorporate welcomes voices from every side of the debate. We invite readers to tweet their views to #openbizav. The same invitation extends to views on features and online articles. FlyCorporate serves as mouthpiece and readers’ forum. If you have an opinion, let us know. We look forward to seeing you all in Geneva.
Phil Rose Editorial Director FlyCorporate phil.rose@ﬂycorporate.com
Index of advertisers Aélia Assurances www.aelia-assurances.com
ExecuJet Aviation Group www.execujet.com
Pratt & Whitney Canada www.pwc.ca
Air Total www.airtotal.com
FinServe Aviation www.ﬁnserve.aero
Rockwell Collins – ARINC Direct www.rockwellcollins/arincdirect
AMAC Aerospace www.amacaerospace.com
RUAG Aviation www.aviation.ruag.com
Honda Aircraft Company www.hondajet.honda.com
Signature Flight Support www.signatureﬂight.com
Cessna Aircraft Company www.cessna.com
Jet Support Services, Inc (JSSI) www.jetsupport.com
TAG Farnborough Airport www.tagfarnborough.com
Comlux Aviation www.comluxaviation.com
Mach Media www.machmedia.be
UAS International Flight Support www.uas.aero
Duncan Aviation www.duncanaviation.aero
NBAA 2014 www.nbaa.org/events/bace/2014
Vector Aerospace www.vectoraerospace.com
Open data for business aviation â€” evolution or revolution?
usiness aviation has a culture problem about data.” At least, this is what Richard Koe, managing director of Hamburg, Germany-based WINGX Advance, believes. Jason Zappa Janse reports.
Koe is a data specialist and all in favor of the open data mentality — especially when it comes to business aviation. The culture problem he refers to is “a hangover from [data’s] original purpose, which was to provide highly discreet services to aircraft owners on a purely operational — rather than commercial — basis.” But let’s take a step back and ask the question: What is open data?
Defining open data Many supporters of the concept and its mentality offer the following deﬁnition: “Open data is data that can be freely used, reused, and redistributed by anyone — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share alike.” While the term itself is recent, the philosophy behind it has existed for quite some time and has gained a lot of popularity through the rise of the Internet and online data platforms. When applied to business aviation, this deﬁnition alone is likely to make one person clench his ﬁsts in disagreement, while the next one nods vigorously in favor. It all depends on how the concept is approached.
“Business aviation still needs to improve in terms of the openness of the data that it’s producing,” says Gamba
This article approaches the subject of open data from an umbrella point of view — i.e., what it is, whether we need it, what its capabilities are (including its beneﬁts and concerns), and whether it could help change the way business aviation is perceived. We asked three individual parties — a data provider, an operator, and an association — for their views. Here are the results.
Perspectives In a general sense, Koe thinks that the entire business aviation industry could be much more valuable, and relevant to a far larger market, if it gathered and analyzed its data properly — one reason why WINGX has made it its mission to make market information transparent. “We ﬁrmly believe that the more data is available to everyone, the more insights will be drawn, and the more inefﬁciencies addressed,” says Koe. When Fabio Gamba took on the role of president and CEO of EBAA, one thing that struck him forcibly was the lack of even general statistics, ﬁgures, and numbers that business aviation could use. Gamba says: “I deﬁnitely agree with — and admit — [the fact] that business aviation still needs to improve in terms of the openness of the data that it’s producing.” According to Gamba, when it comes to certain economic key performance indicators (KPIs) business aviation is lacking compared with other air transport industries. “You can’t claim to be a mature and responsible industry if you don’t know yourself perfectly,” he says. “And there’s no way you can claim you know the ins and outs of the industry if you don’t have statistics. Of course, there are always specialists claiming they do, but [the reality is that these] numbers result from estimations — even “guestimations” — not [from] solid, robust KPIs. As long as we don’t have these KPIs in place, commonly accepted and followed, the rest would be speculation. An industry such as business aviation should do more than rely on speculation.” At present, the most prominent KPI on which the industry relies (and heavily) is the number of movements — something Gamba describes as “by deﬁnition, a very rough and gross KPI.” Indeed, one indicator doesn’t enable an observer to say things are going well or not. Gamba believes that we’re in an age where the sector’s various stakeholders should come together to deﬁne a set of solid KPIs which should be absolutely transparent. But doesn’t absolute transparency for a speciﬁc set of KPIs necessarily imply less privacy? Not necessarily, according to Koe. “We don’t need any customer-speciﬁc data, and we agree not to share any speciﬁc contributor’s data with anyone else,” he insists. Generic data, such as the number of passengers per ﬂight, their purpose for ﬂying, the cost, and the routes — as well as passenger-related (but not personal) data such as nationality, gender, and age — is what a data provider such as WINGX uses to create market analysis and insightful statistics that can lead to educated decisions.
Koe thinks that the entire business aviation industry could be much more valuable, and relevant to a far larger market, if it gathered and analyzed its data properly
Regardless, the contrast with scheduled aviation, for which every passenger’s name and proﬁle is collected each time a ﬂight request is made, couldn’t be bigger. “There’s no proper explanation for this contrast,” says Koe, “except the powerful political inﬂuence of individuals who have genuine security concerns and want their private jet activity blocked.” Gamba, too, sees no need to go into too much detail. “I think there’s a need of reﬂection to examine which kind of KPIs need to be known and fulﬁlled. That would be a very promising ﬁrst step,” he concludes. The fact that Koe doesn’t need customer-speciﬁc data, and has to mention this, is directly linked to the ﬁrst and foremost problem business aviation has with open data — that, due to the extent of privacy bizav users expect from the industry, nobody has the reﬂex to capture data, let alone analyze or share it. This is all due to what Koe calls a reactive mentality. “The majority of operators are 100% in reactive mode,” he explains. “[They focus] on customer service only when the phone rings — until then they’re just waiting. Brokers, even though their main purpose is to intermediate between operators’ spare capacity and third parties wanting to charter, are also by and large reactive-only.” Koe believes that by analyzing proper data, collecting market data and subsequently searching proactively for customers in the right places, both operators and brokers could easily outclass competitors who stay in reactive mode. In today’s cut-throat climate of competition, outclassing your competitors is a highly desired skill. However, in this case, outclassing doesn’t necessarily imply being better than the other party.
“Many established traditional brokers continue to portray booking a private jet as very complicated, when generally it’s not”
According to PrivateFly CEO Adam Twidell, one of the major beneﬁts of open data within the business aviation industry is that it would allow aircraft operators to differentiate themselves within a crowded and highly fragmented market, help them ﬁnd new customers, and help customers ﬁnd them. “Many established traditional brokers continue to portray booking a private jet as very complicated, when generally it’s not,” says Twidell. “Pooling shared data allows the customer more control too [and lets him] research and compare his options without necessarily needing to pay hefty broker premiums.” Twidell believes that embracing the emergence of open data and other new technologies is the key to success. “Companies that oppose open data, or simply don’t understand it, are at risk of becoming dinosaurs that will soon be extinct,” he adds. As it turns out, the current situation is indeed becoming increasingly black and white — there are those who join the open data ranks versus those who stick to their own methods. This, of course, does not explain why some choose not to embrace the open data concept and share in its beneﬁts. “The ‘old school’ parts of the industry consider that any data sharing is inherently undermining their competitiveness,” explains Koe. “Some even think it’s unethical [and] against the principles of business aviation. This reﬂects how stuck in the 20th century much of our industry still is.” According to Koe, the main reasons why people withhold and protect their data are client conﬁdentiality, fear of change, and lack of understanding. At PrivateFly, Twidell explains that his company follows the military/government “need to know” philosophy. “Our ﬁnance department doesn’t need to know who is on board an aircraft,” Twidell says. “They just need to know who has paid for it. This way, all our departments are properly informed to do their jobs, without compromising our customers’ information.” Twidell concludes that a full open data mentality is not possible in business aviation. Gamba sees no point in forcing the “old guard” into something new. However, he believes reality is catching up with them. “For years people have ﬂocked to business
aviation, without bizav doing anything in return,” he says. “Now that things are improving, business aviation is ﬁnding itself in a world where it has to reach out itself to its customers — the passenger won’t come automatically any more. This forces the industry to be less secretive, to expose itself more, and to become more visible.” Mentalities are shifting, says Gamba, and it takes more time for some companies to adjust than for others. However, as he points out, there is a huge difference between a company that set out on day one to build its business on the premise that it should be transparent and a company in business for 50 years and still proﬁtable based on its original business model. In the latter case, the “if it ain’t broke, don’t ﬁx it” rule applies. Besides, adds Gamba, “Why should one revolutionize things simply because someone who is brand new to the business is telling him so?” This is why Gamba believes in evolution rather than in revolution. “You can try to speed up things, but as long as you’re not convincing everyone, you won’t get there,” he continues. “It sufﬁces to say that business aviation is led by a handful of very powerful companies, whose buy-in you need to realize a revolution or an evolution.”
Taking time The greatest barrier to evolution — if one considers it a barrier — is time. “Business aviation has existed for over 60 years,” Gamba notes. “It’s not a new sector, but it is new in that sense that it has become a sector that really matters economically and politically in Europe.” Gamba considers that EBAA’s raison d’être requires it to take these things into consideration and expose the sector’s ins and outs. “This obliges us to come with facts,” he says. “And if we cannot ﬁnd actual facts, we come up with methodologies in order to get them. That’s what we’re doing — and it takes time.” Although he has been a part of this industry for only two and a half years, Gamba has witnessed many changes, and he’s optimistic about where the industry will stand in another two and a half years. He concludes: “There will never be a point where we’ll say: ‘Mission accomplished — we’ve reached full openness.’ However, it’s absolutely clear that business aviation is undergoing a complete transformation, and everything indicates we’re going toward much more openness and visibility rather than the opposite way.”
FC UPFRONT Clearly, there is an intermediate path between releasing too much sensitive information and keeping everything secret, and it appears that neither extreme will become possible. The evolution Gamba describes is happening, by deﬁnition, at a natural pace, and to the industry’s advantage. All three of the interviewees believe that this gradual opening of business aviation — both to itself and to the world — can assist perception of the industry. Koe sees people starting to consider business aviation once open data helps illustrate how many unscheduled trips fall into a (perhaps) more democratic purpose or value bracket. Twidell believes the industry should be more collaborative internally — regardless of open data — so as to widen the market to a broader community. “While it’s undoubtedly a contentious topic that should be handled with care,” he says, “I also believe being more open with data could break down some of [the industry’s] barriers, create more overall transparency, and ultimately help [expand] the market for everyone’s beneﬁt.” Gamba sees this opening up of the industry, based on the sharing of KPIs, as a potential means to take away some of the popular mystique surrounding business aviation — to debunk the idea that it’s only for heads of state or famous and wealthy people. “They would realize that business aviation is just another means of transport for more ordinary, but obviously more senior, people in companies who ﬂy for very speciﬁc purposes,” he explains. However, Gamba remains cautious. “If I’m the CEO of a company, and I’ve never thought of ﬂying business aviation, simply because I’ve never seen it on a website ... or because my company’s travel department has never thought of booking me a ﬂight on a business jet, I probably wouldn’t think about it myself.” He continues: “It’s not because suddenly there are some KPIs out there that show business aviation is an industry just like another that I would think about its feasibility. I would just see that business aviation is simply faring good, bad or just okay, that it boasts that many operators with that many aircraft, with that much turnover, but it wouldn’t make it more palatable for me personally.
“It would precipitate in the whole consciousness of people about business aviation, but what would trigger the actual phone calls is when you ultimately convince people that the numbers match.”
Conclusion While it may be premature to draw conclusions, there is good reason to support a more open mindset when it comes to analyzing, aggregating, and sharing business aviation market data. The online age somehow obliges the industry to get in line. It remains important, however, for an industry such as ours to also consider potential repercussions, or even abuse. If the industry is open to accepting the evolution toward open data, it is of the utmost importance to respect the “golden path” between continuing to keep everything secret and sharing too much information. Koe advises: “We should focus on the basics — a non-conﬁdential mass of operational data — which could be shared but, instead, is still residing in individual silos.” Twidell sees a need for introducing self-policing policies. “Wikipedia is a great example of this,” he says. “Information is produced and used with care, ensuring that the quality remains high — and there are always references.” To this end, Gamba believes that, in an evolution, wouldbe abusers are dealt with naturally. “The system would simply try to circumvent [abusers],” he insists, ”despite the fact that 99.9% of the time, in industries where openness is almost total, abusers remain an exception to the rule.” Gamba concludes: “We’re going to get there, but à la business aviation.” There is no feasible way to achieve full openness within business aviation. Beyond the three different, but operations-related, points of view discussed here, there are endless other ways of applying the concept to various sectors within the industry. There will always be differences in opinion, simply because there is no such thing as a universal business model. However, it is clear that endless possibilities exist for open data integration in business aviation. Similarly, there are endless reasons — starting with fear of the unknown — for ongoing rejection of the concept.
The online age somehow obliges the industry to get in line
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Bombardier in Europe and Russia
An interview with Trevor Lambarth VP – Europe, Africa & Middle East, Bombardier Business Aircraft
and Valeria Kolyuchaya Regional VP – Central & Eastern Europe, CIS & Russia, Bombardier Business Aircraft
ombardier Business Aircraft VP Europe, Africa & Middle East Trevor Lambarth and Regional VP Central & Eastern Europe, CIS & Russia Valeria Kolyuchaya talked recently to FlyCorporate’s Phil Rose about Bombardier’s view of prospects in Europe and Russia.
With little prospect of an economic resurgence any time soon, business jet activity in Europe and Russia is reported to be generally down from historic levels. Honeywell predicts that over the next fi ve years demand for business aircraft in Europe will represent only about 12% of global demand — far less than in the past. Does this correspond with what you’re seeing across the region? Trevor Lambarth: The European business jet ﬂ eet currently accounts for approximately 10% of the worldwide bizjet installed base. Europe is the second largest market for business aviation and we expect it to remain among the three most active markets — generating the most revenues — over the next 10 years. Based on our market forecast, we anticipate close to 1,670 deliveries (industry total) in Europe by 2022. How do you view the European market as compared to North America, for example? North America is by far the largest market for business aviation and key to the long-term success of our industry. As the world’s most mature market, aircraft replacement is an important driver of business jet demand. Our market forecast leads us to anticipate close to 4,100 deliveries in North America by 2022. Are you seeing a trend in terms of which Bombardier business jet products are most popular with European customers? Bombardier has the most comprehensive product portfolio of any manufacturer, covering all business aircraft segments. Interest in our products is across all families of aircraft.
Are the Challenger 300/350 and the Global series selling strongly? And is the Challenger 605 the market leader? Demand remains strong for the Global family, and we’re conﬁdent that our new Global 7000 and Global 8000 will meet the needs of this growing category. In 2013 Global aircraft deliveries hit an all-time high, with 62 units delivered. Deliveries of our Challenger family of aircraft were also very solid. We delivered 89 Challengers of all types last year — our strongest performance in ﬁve years. The Challenger 605 holds roughly 50% market share in its segment, and the Challenger 300 is the leader in the midsize category, with close to 60% market share in 2013. Do any particular countries or regions stand out as favoring particular types? Our portfolio of products is very well positioned across all markets. We see great interest in our Learjet family, especially since introducing the new Learjet 70 and Learjet 75 at the end of last year. We’re very excited about the entry into service of our new Challenger 350 aircraft later this year, and we’re conﬁdent it will build on the success of the Challenger 300. Finally, we see strong demand for our entire Global family of aircraft, especially in emerging markets, where long and ultra-long range is a very attractive feature. What do you consider the reasons for the popularity of Bombardier products in Europe and Russia? Which characteristics appeal especially? Valeria Kolyuchaya: In Russia our customers have always said that the most important features that affect a purchase decision are the cabin — its size, conﬁguration, and features — and the range. Comfort and range are two things Bombardier understands.
Based on our market forecast, we anticipate close to 1,670 deliveries (industry total) in Europe by 2022
Naturally, with Russia’s vast landmass these are factors that really drive a customer’s decision on which jet to purchase. Because our Russian customers frequently ﬂ y long distances, we know that our Challenger and Global jets have great appeal. Both aircraft families offer the ultimate in comfort and range — for example, the Global 6000 will easily ﬂ y eight passengers from Moscow to Singapore or Moscow to Los Angeles non-stop. We’ve already been seeing huge interest in the Global 7000 and Global 8000 jets. These two aircraft offer the blend of range, superior comfort, and massive cabin space that we know will attract Russian customers’ interest. Overall, the market in this region is set to see very solid growth. We expect to see growth across all product families, with the Global and Challenger jet categories leading the way. How would you characterize the Russian market? Do you see a customer preference for larger or longer-range bizjets, for example? The CIS region is experiencing one of the highest ﬂ eet growth rates anywhere. We expect this to continue in coming years. Given the country’s geography, and the long distances Russian customers have to ﬂ y to conduct business, regional demand for business jets is highly concentrated in medium and large-size aircraft, such as our Challenger and Global platforms. Based on our market forecast, demand in the Russia and CIS region over the next 20 years is expected to be strong. The business ﬂ eet in Russia and CIS is expected to increase at a compound annual growth rate of 7% over the next 20 years — the third highest in the world after Greater China and India — and to account for 1,925 aircraft in 2032. In the next 20 years we expect to see a total of 1,570 business jets delivered in the Russia and CIS region. How many Bombardier aircraft have been delivered into Europe? And about how many are in the active fl eet today? Trevor Lambarth: As of December 2013, the active ﬂ eet of Bombardier business aircraft in Europe numbered more than 500. Around the world, Bombardier Business Aircraft delivered a total of 180 aircraft in 2013, and we expect to deliver 200 this year.
Which European countries or regions would you say are showing the most promise? We see interest in our products all across Europe. We anticipate that the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and Switzerland will lead growth in the region, while Greece, Italy, Spain, and France are expected to lag. Bombardier has a well-developed customer support network in Western Europe. Are you aware of specific challenges related to MRO and product support in Eastern Europe and Russia? Our European network and team members are based in the ﬁeld or at regional support ofﬁces, and they serve customers with a regional approach. They’ve built relationships with operators across all of Eastern Europe, Russia and the CIS. Bombardier operators have access to our Amsterdam facility, as well as authorized service facilities throughout Eastern Europe. We continue to evaluate and adjust our network as needed, but we’re conﬁdent that our support offering for the region meets operator requirements. What kind of customers choose Bombardier? How do European customer profiles differ from those in other regions of the world? Our customer base is very diverse — from small, medium, and large companies, including fractional operators, to high net worth individuals. Having the most comprehensive product portfolio in the industry, we are well positioned to address our customers’ needs and allow them to grow within our business aircraft family as their travel requirements evolve. Bombardier’s product portfolio covers all business aircraft segments. Over the years, we’ve continued to invest signiﬁcantly in our portfolio of products so as to be ready when the worldwide economy takes up. We’re very well positioned to address customers’ needs in all segments.
The CIS region is experiencing one of the highest ﬂeet growths anywhere [and] we expect this to continue
MARKET FOCUS: EUROPE
Business aviation review:
MARKET FOCUS: EUROPE
usiness aviation ﬂight activity in Europe has, at best, ﬂatlined during the economic recession. That said, European companies and individuals are signiﬁcant users of business aircraft, and the number of business jets and turboprops in Europe is considerable. Rod Simpson reports.
Compared with the US, where company-owned/ operated business jets are in widespread use, Europe has a high proportion of charter and fractionally-owned aircraft. In addition, there are still many private owners, particularly of smaller jets and turboprops. It is very common for corporate owners to place their aircraft on a management company’s air operator certiﬁcate (AOC) so that idle time can be used for chartering. Our FlyCorporate census shows that there were 2,775 turbine aircraft registered in the European Union (EU) as of mid-2013, of which 25% are turboprops. Excluded from our total are an additional 354 aircraft which appear on the Isle of Man “register of convenience,” since many of these are based far from European shores and are only occasional European visitors.
Our census shows that there were 2,775 turbine aircraft registered in the European Union (EU) as of mid-2013
MARKET FOCUS: EUROPE It’s worth noting that a number of large business jets registered in other countries, such as Malta, have similar “worldwide” status, and the active business aviation ﬂeet in Europe also includes aircraft registered in the US and a few from Caribbean convenience states such as Bermuda and the Cayman Islands. Despite these apparent anomalies, the 2013 survey does give an excellent indication of which countries are the major business aviation users — and of which aircraft types are particularly favored by European operators. Not surprisingly, the countries with the largest and strongest economies have the major aircraft ﬂeets. Germany is in the lead with just over 600 turbine business aircraft — followed by the UK (312), France (294), and Austria (267). For the purposes of our survey, we have also included Switzerland — a small but economically powerful part of Europe, although outside the EU — which has a 186-strong ﬂeet. The former communist bloc countries such as Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and Romania are increasingly ﬁnding a need for business aircraft. These nations have no inherited experience of private aviation, and tend to use aircraft primarily for intra-European travel. Countries such as Bulgaria, Poland and Slovenia have few large long-range aircraft, and the emphasis is on shorter-range small and midsize types.
Surveys show that the most active ﬂight routes are those between London, Paris, Rome and Frankfurt
Trafﬁc surveys prepared by Eurocontrol show that the most active ﬂight routes are those between London, Paris, Rome and Frankfurt. It’s clear that Germany, France, the UK, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland are the main business aircraft users. Germany, with its strong commercial and industrial base, sees business aviation as an important tool — 52% of its business aircraft are in the small category, indicating their widespread use for short journeys between major city destinations. Of those aircraft currently registered, 153 are Cessna Citations ranging from the Mustang up to the CJ4 and Citation 550 series. In Germany’s midsize sector, honors are evenly shared between Cessna and Bombardier, with the Citation Excel/XLS being particularly popular. This overall pattern is reﬂected in the other large user countries — for instance, the UK counts 64 Citations in its 89-strong small jet ﬂeet. For long-range intercontinental travel, the Bombardier Globals (5000 and 6000/XRS) are popular, making up a quarter of the European total of 410 aircraft in this category. Bombardier is the exclusive supplier to Thomas Flohr’s charter company, VistaJet, and its growing ﬂeet is registered in Europe — principally in Austria, where the company has a 23-strong list of Global 6000s, Challenger 850s, Challenger 605s and Learjet 60XRs. A massive order for a further 20 Challenger 350s (plus 20 on option) is due for delivery starting this year. Not surprisingly, Europe’s signature bizjet manufacturer Dassault has a very strong position, with 92 Falcon 900s and 54 Falcon 7Xs in service across Europe. Dassault’s Falcon 2000 is also a favorite in the midsize market, with 102 in service. In the large aircraft segment, German companies especially favor the Gulfstream G450 and G550, together with Embraer’s Legacy. There are also growing numbers of Phenom 100s and 300s. More Phenom 300s are due to appear as NetJets Europe (whose aircraft appear on the Portuguese register) re-equips.
DuBAi is ChAnging â€“ But we reMAin At yOur serviCe With the dubai international airport (dXB) runway closure from 1st may 2014 for 80 consecutive days, all General aviation flights will need to be operated from dubai World central airport (dWc) during this period. execuJet middle east is pleased to announce that we are currently building an interim fBo lounge extension at dWc airport which will be operational by the 14th may 2014. the purpose built 2000sft facility will offer the same amenities and high level of service currently provided by execuJet at dXB airport. We also offer a line station during this period at dXB to conduct scheduled maintenance packages on Bombardier, Gulfstream, embraer and Hawker aircraft. operators who utilise execuJetâ€˜s services at dWc will receive preferred status at dXB when the runway reopens. for more information email: firstname.lastname@example.org execuJet middle east, tel: +971 4 601 6363
Aircraft Management Charter FBO Maintenance Completions Consulting
l at i n a m e r i c a
MARKET FOCUS: EUROPE The airliner-class business jet sector is dominated by Airbus, particularly due to the Malta-based Comlux ﬂeet of nine ACJ318, 319 and 320 aircraft which are used for worldwide charter services. In Germany, DC Aviation, based in Stuttgart, operates three ACJ319s for charter alongside a signiﬁcant ﬂeet of Challenger 604s and Global 5000/6000s, as well as shorter-range Citations and Learjets. The Portuguese company Masterjet also has an ACJ320 conﬁgured for head-of-state-class charter. At the lower end of the jet market, Cessna is the market leader. Its Citation CJ series and Citation Excel/XLS are widely used by corporations, while a good number of the 85 Citation Mustangs in Europe are used by air taxi companies such as Blink, headquartered at Blackbushe, England (BBS), and the French company WiJet. Moving to the turboprop ﬂeet, Beechcraft King Airs make up most of the twinengine segment, with the King Air 200 being very popular with corporate and charter operators. European turboprops have also been very successful. There are also 37 Piaggio P180 Avantis in service, notably in Germany. In addition, 46 of DaherSocata’s TBM700/850s are in use, notably in France and Germany; and there are 90 Pilatus PC-12s ﬂying, including an 8-strong ﬂeet operated by Jetﬂy, Luxembourg’s charter and fractional-ownership turboprop company. Overall, the European business aviation scene is robust, but its future growth is linked directly to the health of the European economy. We can only hope that both will see expansion in 2014.
A good number of the 85 Citation Mustangs in Europe are used by air taxi companies such as UK-based Blink and the French company WiJet
Now that you know with whom your broker is really concerned...
... what does budget mean without service?
MARKET FOCUS: RUSSIA
Business flying in
usiness aviation visitors to Russia will ﬁnd that conditions are constantly changing — generally for the better. However, operating in Russia is far from straightforward. Careful advance planning will pay dividends and avoid frustration for passengers and embarrassment for the crew. Rod Simpson reports.
The past few years have seen signiﬁcant changes in the Russian business aviation ﬂeet. Many older Soviet-built aircraft, such as Yakovlev YAK-40s and Tupolev TU-124s, have been retired and replaced by modern
Western-built business jets. In many cases, these are registered outside Russia, in convenience territories such as Aruba, the Cayman Islands and the Isle of Man, and are operated by non-Russian AOC holders.
Business aviation ramp at VKO 31
MARKET FOCUS: RUSSIA For arrivals into Moscow, ATC will be in English, but in the wider CIS controllers only speak Russian, and it is mandatory to carry a Russian navigator/interpreter on internal ﬂights. The navigator will handle ATC transmissions and be familiar with local arrival and departure procedures. Requests for navigators should be made as far in advance as possible so as to keep costs to a minimum and should be lodged with the arrival permit submission. With effect from December 1, 2013, Russia requires advance passenger information system (APIS) compliance for business aircraft. This applies to both passengers and crew. While there is a clear mechanism for airline passengers, it seems that an effective system for business aviation has not yet been established. In the words of NetJets Captain Eric Wickﬁeld, speaking at the recent NBAA International Operators Conference, “You’re well advised to entrust this task to your international ﬂight planning organization, [which] will know how to ﬁle your information.” For international business aircraft, the system for arrival permits has been improved and applications no longer have to go through the military authorities. The new system, applying to aircraft with up to 19 passenger seats, now takes one business day and the permit covers both arrival and departure within the 48-hour validity period. If you’re going to exceed the 48 hours, a departure permit (applied for by your handler) will be required. The permit is route speciﬁc and details of crew members must be given. Russian visas are, of course, required for all passengers and crew, and must be applied for well in advance of the trip — although it is understood that crew members can still obtain visas on arrival at Moscow’s Domodedovo (DME), Sheremetyevo (SVO) and Vnukovo (VKO).
Planning and preparedness
Operating procedures in Russia have changed, too, with airspace above the transition level now referenced by ﬂight levels and in feet — although below the transition altitude heights are still denominated in meters. Crews should expect to be given pressure settings in QFE (ﬁeld elevation) rather than QNH (adjusted to sea level) for arrival at Russian airports.
While facilities for business aircraft are undoubtedly improving, this is not the case for all large Russian cities. Operators should not count on quick and efﬁcient fueling and ground handling, either — nor on hangarage availability, which can be a signiﬁcant issue in the depths of winter. Advance engagement of a handling agent at any Russian airport is a wise move because the language barrier can cause endless frustration. In addition, a good handling agent will smooth the way through customs and immigration, ensure that fueling is carried out, arrange catering, and coordinate changes to your schedule. If you get really good service, tipping the ground staff is nice, but not mandatory — and be aware that such a gesture to government employees is absolutely prohibited.
MARKET FOCUS: RUSSIA
However efﬁcient your agent may be, you’re well advised to allow at least three hours for pre-departure arrangements as delays are inevitable. It’s also wise to carry aircraft tow bars together with other supplies which would normally be available from your FBO. Maintenance will be available at large city airports, but it could entail a technician coming from another airport — and the further one goes from Moscow the fewer facilities are available, so self sufﬁciency is vital. Long-term parking is at a premium at many airports, particularly those serving Moscow and St Petersburg, so visitors may need to reposition for longer layovers, perhaps to Finland, where parking is available at Helsinki/Vantaa (HEL), or to Tallinn, Estonia (TLL). NetJets’ Wickﬁeld cautions that in winter crews should go dressed for the occasion with gloves, boots, and sub-zero clothing, since temperatures can be as low as –30°C. In these conditions, it’s essential to purge the aircraft’s water systems, drain the lavatory, and remove all liquids to ambient temperature storage.
Major bizav centers
However efﬁcient your agent may be, you’re well advised to allow at least three hours for pre-departure arrangements as delays are inevitable
Most international business aircraft ﬂights will head initially for Moscow or St Petersburg. Signiﬁcant changes have taken place at all these airports recently. Moscow has ﬁve airports available for business trafﬁc — SVO to the north of the city, DME and VKO to the south. Bykovo (BKA), Ostafyevo (OSF), and Ramenskoye also lie to the south, but most operators will opt for one of the ﬁrst three. VKO is a good arrival choice. Visitors will ﬁnd high standards at the Vnukovo-3 executive terminal, which is now well organized and delivers services equal to those found at US and European FBOs. It handles 50–60 business jet movements daily and a new runway is planned. A large hangar suitable for Boeing 767s opened recently, and two more hangars are to open next year. DME is a very busy commercial airport. It currently serves 85 carriers, and airline movements get priority over business aircraft. Nevertheless, it handles 25–30 bizjet movements a day and has a recently opened VIP terminal. SVO, Moscow’s main international airline hub, has four FBOs to handle a daily volume of around 30 private aircraft, and it recently opened a helipad adjacent to Terminal A. Business aircraft at St Petersburg/Pulkovo (LED) are often handled at the domestic terminal, Pulkovo-1. LED is a 24-hour port of entry. Two handling companies on the ﬁeld meet the needs of business aircraft, the principal one being JetPort SPB.
Conclusion Overall, the message to would-be Russian bizjet visitors is that there are complications, but careful advance planning should result in a successful trip.
Arjen Groeneveld Arjen started with Duncan Aviation in 2009 as a Sales Representative in Europe. He took on his current role as a European Regional Manager in 2011. Prior to Duncan Aviation, Arjen worked 25 years in the industries of aerospace research, commercial airline and aircraft leasing. +31.2.0820.2328 Arjen.Groeneveld@ DuncanAviation.com
Business Aircraft Service & Support ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
Aircraft Acquisition & Consignment Airframe Maintenance Avionics Installation Engine & APU Government & Special Programs Paint & Interior Parts, Avionics, Instruments & Accessories Emergency Assistance (AOG)
Duncan Aviation, Inc. is an independent business aircraft support organization providing complete service and technical support. The Duncan Aviation name is well-known and respected by manufacturers and service providers around the world. We have a strong reputation for providing premier aircraft services—delivered on time—for a wide variety of business aircraft.
Visit us May 20-22, 2014 at EBACE Stand #4634.
www.DuncanAviation.aero/ebace Owned and operated by the Duncan family since our founding in 1956.
SECTOR FOCUS: MRO
MRO in Europe and Russia Getting service and support — and knowing where to find a factory approved source
wning a corporate aircraft means that service is going to be a big part of the equation. Given the vast distances covered by trips — especially those beyond your home country — you depend on the aviation equivalent of roadside assistance and the network of folks who know how to get you back to work when things go wrong. Rob Seaman reports.
SECTOR FOCUS: MRO Knowing who is where and what they can do is an element of trip planning that frequently gets overlooked. Given how many service center providers there are, why should you focus on factory authorized/afﬁliated sites over an independent company? After all, many factorytrained technicians work for the independents and carry out good creditable work. It’s the person doing the work that counts, so the lack of an OEM endorsement may mean nothing — right? Then again, think about taking your car to the corner station for a ﬁx. The last thing you want to hear is the technician saying: “I’ve never seen one of these before, but I’ll certainly give it a try.” Most of us would sooner ﬁnd someone who knows what they’re doing. So, if you’re planning a trip into Europe or Russia, where can you count on to get your aircraft serviced to factory spec and approvals? Perhaps you’ll have an extended layover in the area, allowing you the time to have some deferred items that need attention taken care of — in which case, here is a short review of some options, based on manufacturer, that you might like to remember. Jet Aviation maintains service operations in both Russia and Europe. Its facility in Russia is currently the only factory-afﬁliated service provider at Moscow/Vnukovo (VKO). Jet Aviation VKO focuses on line maintenance. It is an AOG and authorized warranty line service facility for Bombardier aircraft products, and offers authorized line service for the full line of Gulfstream
jets. In addition, it manages the Gulfstream spare parts inventory for the Russian market. Jet Aviation’s modern, purpose-built facility is next to the Vnukovo-3 FBO building. The company can also provide AOG services at Moscow/Domodedovo (DME), Moscow/Sheremetyevo (SVO) and throughout the Russian region. In addition, it carries out approved maintenance on Embraer aircraft and provides support for Hawker products. Jet Aviation’s maintenance operation at Basel, Switzerland (BSL) has almost 50 years of experience, and provides complete services for most current and out-of-production Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, Dassault, Embraer, and Gulfstream types. The maintenance division of Jet Aviation Geneva, Switzerland (GVA) is an authorized manufacturer warranty service center for base maintenance on the Boeing BBJ, Bombardier Global Express and Nextant 400XTi. It is also a factory authorized service center for all Gulfstream aircraft except the G100 and G150. Another well-known name in Europe is TAG Aviation. With more than 45 years’ experience, the company considers maintenance one of its core services. TAG maintains centers with teams of factory-trained technicians at GVA and Sion (SIR) in Switzerland, as well as Farnborough, England (FAB), Paris/le Bourget, France (LBG), and Madrid/Barajas, Spain (MAD). TAG is approved by multiple aircraft manufacturers and holds more than 60 aircraft type approvals.
Gulfstream LTN service center
SECTOR FOCUS: MRO
Lufthansa Technik (LHT) at Berlin/Schönefeld, Germany (SXF) is noted for completions and technical support of VIP and executive jets. It is best known for widebody and high-end narrowbody completions, but it performs MRO work on Challenger, Global, and Learjet aircraft through Lufthansa Bombardier Aviation Services (LBAS). BizJet International is another LHT company, carrying out MRO work on Airbus ACJs, Boeing BBJs and 737s, and Gulfstream aircraft.
Together, Jet Aviation and Gulfstream form General Dynamics’ aerospace group, and Jet Aviation operates several Gulfstream factory authorized service centers
Manufacturer facilities When we review facilities by manufacturer, Cessna Citation lists a total of 14 authorized centers throughout Europe, six of which are company-owned. These are at LBG; Doncaster/Shefﬁeld, England (DSA); Düsseldorf, Germany (DUS); Prague, Czech Republic (PRG); Valencia, Spain (VLC); and Zürich, Switzerland (ZRH). Independent authorized facilities consist of Atlas Air Service at Bremen International (BRE) and Paderborn–Lippstadt, Germany (PAD); CSE Citation Centre at Bournemouth, England (BOH); CTA at Milan/Linate, Italy (LIN); European Maintenance Service at Göteborg City, Sweden (GSE); Flyinggroup at Antwerp, Belgium (ANR); Gate V Aircraft Maintenance at Vienna/Schwechat, Austria (VIE); and RUAG Aerospace Services at München/Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany (OBF). If your aircraft comes from the Dassault Falcon Jet stable, your choices for factory authorized service in Europe and Russia include (naturally) Dassault Falcon Service at LBG, together with satellite service stations at Roma/Ciampino, Italy (CIA), London/Luton, England (LTN), Nice–Côte d’Azur, France (NCE), and VKO.
Photo courtesy Jet Aviation
SECTOR FOCUS: MRO
In addition, Dassault Falcon lists the following factory service providers: Aero-Dienst at Nürnberg, Germany (NUE); Air Alsie at Sonderborg, Denmark (SGD); Airﬁx Aviation at Helsinki/Vantaa, Finland (HEL); Cobham Aviation Services at BOH; Corjet Maintenance Europe at MAD; Euroﬂy Service at Torino/Caselle, Italy (TRN); JETS Biggin Hill at Biggin Hill, England (BQH); Jet Alliance Services at VIE; Jet Aviation Basel at BSL; RUAG Switzerland at GVA; Servizi Aerei at CIA; TAG Aviation at GVA; and TAG Farnborough Engineering at FAB. For the former Hawker Beechcraft, there is currently only one factory-owned major modiﬁcation service center dedicated to serving Hawker and Beechcraft aircraft in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Located at Broughton, Wales (CEG) — formerly Chester/ Hawarden — Hawker Beechcraft Services (HBS) has been in business for over 50 years. In fact, the facility that became HBS Chester was the original site of HS125 production, but most recently has been a key location for heavy maintenance, modiﬁcation, repairs, avionics, electrical design, design engineering and fabrication. It currently supports the entire line-up of Hawker/ Beechcraft products, including the Premier IA and King Air 200/300 series. That said, the recent change in ownership that brings Cessna and Beechcraft together under Textron will bring changes in speciﬁc facility offerings. Add to that some uncertainty over what will happen in terms of support for Hawker aircraft, and the future has a question mark over it. Together, Jet Aviation and Gulfstream form General Dynamics’ aerospace group, and Jet Aviation operates several Gulfstream factory authorized service centers. Jet Aviation GVA handles the G200, G280, and largecabin types up to and including the G650. Jet Aviation BSL focuses on all large-cabin models except the G650. Gulfstream’s service center at LTN is approved to work on the G280 as well as the complete range of larger Gulfstream aircraft.
Other European authorized service and support activities include Airﬁx Aviation at HEL; Altenrhein Aviation at Altenrhein, Switzerland (ACH); and Corjet Maintenance Europe at MAD. Embraer Executive Jets has ensured that its customers can get factory spec service across Europe and Russia, with a factory-owned facility at LBG and 12 authorized service centers in the region. These offer a range of base and line maintenance for the Phenom 100, Phenom 300, Legacy 600/650, and Lineage 1000. Embraer authorized service centers in Europe and Russia are as follows: ABS Jets at PRG; Air Alliance at Siegerland, Germany (SGE); Altenrhein Aviation at ACH; Inﬂite The Jet Centre at London/Stansted, England (STN); Jet Aviation BSL; Jet Aviation VKO; Nayak Aircraft Service at Köln– Bonn, Germany (CGN); Nayak Aircraft Service at Frankfurt-am-Rhein, Germany (FRA); Nayak Aircraft Services at Milano/Malpensa, Italy (MXP); OGMA at Alverca, Portugal; RUAG Aviation GVA; and RUAG Aviation OBF.
Weighing the options and planning ahead When all is said and done, an independent, nonafﬁliated service provider can usually do the basic job you need — and maybe do it for a few dollars less. However, as a customer you need to consider the long-term costs and whether the company is using parts and service procedures according to OEM spec and standard. For example, do they have a supply chain in place to get materials quickly? Even more importantly, could work by a non-approved service provider void existing warranties and support or parts programs? That last issue is why you might want to take your aircraft back to the dealer or an authorized service provider. Let’s face it — when something goes wrong in the air, you seldom get the chance to just cruise to the side of the road and look over the problem.
When something goes wrong in the air, you seldom get the chance to just cruise to the side of the road and look over the problem
SECTOR FOCUS: MRO Modern aircraft have incredibly complex systems and components. The people qualiﬁed to manage and maintain them according to the factory “norm” are highly trained, and they keep current. The ﬁrms they work for also invest in the proper facilities, tooling, diagnostics, and parts inventories — not to mention outside relationships — to keep a maintenance job moving. Their network includes not only the factory, but third-party providers for everything from avionics, engines, and lubricants to basics like tires. This is part of how they earn that sign on the door with the OEM’s name on it, saying “approved” or “authorized.” There’s another big plus in working with a factory-
supported service provider. In many cases today, OEMs have dedicated AOG scramble teams. These range all the way from phone support or online protocols to trucks — and even aircraft — with specialists and parts that will come and get you back in the air. These folks talk to each other and support your needs collectively when things go wrong. An independent, non-afﬁliated service provider will simply not give you the same level of attention when needed. When you need service, you have choices. They can be good — or not. Hopefully, a little overview like this can help you plan accordingly.
As a customer you need to consider the long-term costs and whether the company is using parts and service procedures according to OEM spec and standard
Technician performs GE CF34 maintenance work on a Bombardier Challenger
AMAC Aerospace is the largest privately owned aviation firm in the world specializing in completions, maintenance, charter and brokering. We provide corporate and private aircraft maintenance, refurbishment and completion services, as well as aircraft management and charter services. Located at EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse in the new expansion zone, our three state-of-the-art maintenance and production facility hangars enjoy generous workshop and office space as well as 31,325mÂ˛ securely fenced tarmac that opens directly onto the linkage taxiway. Of our three hangars, we dedicate one wide-body hangar to maintenance, the second to completions and refurbishment and a third, smaller hangar to maintenance work on a variety of smaller aircraft. Total floor space extends over 21,000mÂ˛ The two large hangars comfortably accommodate multiple narrow and wide-body aircraft, Boeing B747s, B777s, B787s, Airbus A340s, A330s and extend to service an A380. The smaller hangar simultaneously serves two narrow-body aircraft, Boeing Business Jets and/or Airbus A318, A319, A320 or Gulfstreams and select Bombardier jets. We are proud to offer our esteemed clientele the chance to experience AMAC professionalism and we look forward to welcoming you! Visit us at EBACE in Geneva, Switzerland, May 20-22, 2014, Hall 5, Stand 2946.
AMAC Aerospace Switzerland AG Henric Petri-Strasse 35 4051 Basel, Switzerland
Telephone +41 58 310 31 31 email@example.com www.amacaerospace.com
AMAC Aerospace: Swiss Excellence in Business Aviation
SECTOR FOCUS: AIRPORTS
More than a name: Choosing the London airport thatâ€™s right for you
SECTOR FOCUS: AIRPORTS
hile the number of airports claiming geographically convenient access to London seems unending, business aircraft operators are wise to do their homework. Flight restrictions — including slots, lack of 24-hour service, or additional fees for weekend services — have an impact on the geographical desirability of these choices, as does the type of aircraft used by the operator. Douglas Wilson reports.
One recent study of London area airports compared fees and access issues for Global Express operators, and while it rightly observed that London City (LCY) is the “closest” airport to London, it failed to note that Globals are not permitted into LCY. So how do we compare the choices objectively? Scientiﬁ c method suggests the following approach. Firstly, in examining the basic suitability of an airport, we can take the distance
from the airport to the center of London. Secondly, in reviewing “apples-to-apples” costs, we should use a baseline aircraft with transatlantic range and the ability to operate into all the airports being examined — preferably a type that approximates the size and weights of several commonly used business aircraft, and meets all necessary performance and access requirements. Our baseline aircraft is one that can operate into all the airports under consideration — the Dassault Falcon 900EX.
Gulfstream G550 departs LTN
SECTOR FOCUS: AIRPORTS The geographic center of London is traditionally considered to be Charing Cross, in the City of Westminster. While LCY is the closest ﬁxed-wing airport to Charing Cross, it also has the most restrictions as to the types of aircraft permitted, due to its steep approach gradient of 5.5°. That restriction alone eliminates most business jets with the range to ﬂy nonstop from the US to London, with the exception of the Falcon 900EX and its stablemates and a very small handful of other business aircraft. Before starting this exercise, we need to consider too that most London area airports charge by the hour for parking and that operators are subject to navigation fees levied by NATS — the UK’s air navigation service provider. An operator’s arrival time, the level of service desired, pricing, and other factors all become independent variables. One variable that often gets overlooked in planning is access — not slots, prior permissions required (PPR), or even distance to/from London, but access to your aircraft once it’s parked. While the complexities involved in this type of access at London area airports pales in comparison to those in, say, China, they nonetheless require consideration in the event that you need to return to your aircraft midway through a trip to retrieve a personal item — say, (pardon the cliché) a London Fog jacket.
London/Luton (LTN EGGW) Far and away the UK’s busiest GA airport, London/Luton (LTN) also places consistently among the ﬁve busiest GA airports in all of Europe. LTN serves business jet operators well for a number of reasons. It is geared for high-density operations, road access to London is extremely direct via the M1 motorway, and access to and from your aircraft is straightforward. Also, generally speaking, LTN is the least expensive London area airport for operators. A Falcon 900/900EX operator should expect to pay about £288 ($480) in landing fees plus another £148 ($245) for night-time operations — deﬁned as a take-off or landing operation between 2300 and 0700L. Despite its modest pricing premium for night-time operations, LTN is one of the few truly 24-hour airports in the London area. Operators to LTN should be aware that, in common with many other UK airports, an additional NOx levy applies — a function of the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme. Luton Airport’s Charges and Conditions of Use 2014/2015 provides greater detail, deﬁning engine NOx emission as “the ﬁgure expressed in grammes for emissions of oxides of nitrogen for the relevant engine derived from the ICAO landing and take-off (LTO) cycle as set out in ICAO Annex 16 Volume II published in Document 9646 AN1943 (1995) as amended.”
Far and away the UK’s busiest GA airport, London/Luton (LTN) also places consistently among the ﬁve busiest GA airports in all of Europe
The Business Aviation Gateway to London Experience TAG Farnborough Airport. The ultimate business aviation airport. Be inspired by the iconic architecture. The most discreet and efficient airport experience anywhere.
SECTOR FOCUS: AIRPORTS While painful to read and replete with interesting acronyms, conditions of use publications are available for almost every major UK airport, and are a must-read for operators to gain a full understanding of the landscape. As for handlers and FBOs at LTN, Signature Flight Support stands out, having a UK Border Force ofﬁcer on site for clearance, as well as plans for construction of a new state-of-the-art FBO, scheduled to commence at the time of writing.
London City (LCY EGLC) Save for the Battersea (Barclay’s) Heliport, London City (LCY) is the closest airport to central London for ﬁxed-wing operators — a 10-minute drive from nearby Canary Wharf. Yet with geographic convenience come manifold operating restrictions and prices that might cause even the bankers of London’s ﬁnancial district to blush. As previously remarked, with the exception of Dassault’s entire bizjet line-up, the Bombardier Challenger 605 and the Embraer Legacy 600/650, very
few aircraft with transatlantic range are permitted to use LCY due to the steep approach. Like most airports in this study, LCY is a slotted airport, and its hours of operation are second only in their nuances to those of Farnborough. (See below.) On the subject of restrictions, there is no vehicular airside access for passengers or crew, making trips back and forth to your aircraft rather inconvenient. Using our baseline Falcon 900EX for this analysis, an operator should plan on a combined landing and handling fee in the range of £2,260 ($3,750).
Farnborough (FAB EGLF) Legendary for its history and its hosting of the biennial air show, Farnborough (FAB) is a unique business airport on a number of levels. For one, it is privately owned — by TAG Aviation — and for another, it is exceedingly well equipped for business aviation operators. Even pricing, given the amenities, is relatively reasonable — about £836 ($1390) for a combined landing and handling charge. What FAB has in amenities, however, is offset by its drawbacks.
SECTOR FOCUS: AIRPORTS FAB is quite distant from the center of London, but it makes it into this study by virtue of its business aviation features. Its hours of operation are quite restrictive. On weekdays, operations are allowed from 0700 to 2200L. Weekend ops are even more restrictive — the airport is open only 12 hours each day, from 0800–2000, and based aircraft receive priority for slots. Landing on the weekend creates a hefty surcharge for operators as well — £390 ($650) per movement.
London/Heathrow (LHR EGLL) While hardly a GA airport, LHR’s slot availability has been increased — and its offerings are unique, with a “Royal Suite” available for GA trafﬁc. Clearly, for passengers connecting to or from airline ﬂights at LHR, or for head-of-state aircraft, it’s the right choice. Not surprisingly for the world’s busiest international airport — its controllers handle some 80 arrivals and departures an hour — fees are high, and LHR’s numerous security restrictions mean no airside access for passenger or crew vehicles. Only Signature can claim a true dedicated apron, making airplane access a
non-event. Another handler, DNATA Private Aviation Services, uses airport hardstands for longer-term parking. Given that LHR’s mandated “minimum charge for departure” is listed as £1,263 ($2,095), it’s no surprise that the average cost for landing, departure and associated NOx fees for our Falcon 900EX is £4,400 ($7,295).
London/Gatwick (LGW EGKK) Another unlikely ﬁrst thought as a business aviation airport, LGW does present some interesting options. Located to the south of London, LGW lies beyond the M25 motorway that surrounds London. However, the distance may make sense for operators with passengers arriving or departing on connecting airline ﬂights. Landing fees at LGW for the subject aircraft run the gamut between £186 ($310) and £667 ($1,105), depending on the aircraft’s noise certiﬁcate and the time of operation. As one of the few 24-hour airports around London, your aircraft’s noise rating dictates if it’s truly useful 24 hours a day. Associated fees for a departure are on the order of £221 ($365) plus NOx fees.
New Signature Flight Support facility at LTN
SECTOR FOCUS: AIRPORTS
From an access standpoint, LGW has no dedicated FBO parking — all aircraft parking is via hardstands, and access is exclusively via the FBO or handlers’ vehicles. One compelling feature of LGW, however, is a helicopter transfer service allowing quick access to Battersea. Taxiway U has a VFR helicopter aiming point which, if the handler is advised in advance, allows certain (smaller) helicopters access without a slot and outside the control of ATC. This option alone makes LGW an intriguing choice.
London/Stansted (STN EGSS) STN is another large, busy airline airport but with more choices of FBOs or handlers than LHR and LGW combined. With certain caveats, it’s a reasonable choice for an operator. It has average fee structures — our Falcon 900EX would incur a £179 ($295) landing fee, a £137 ($225) departure fee, and a £141 ($235) navigation fee. Like LTN, STN is a 24-hour airport located outside the M25, and has easy access to the capital, in this case via the M11. STN, however, sees considerably more airline activity than LTN and, being situated to the northeast of London, its suitability depends on your passengers’ destination. Airside movement is reasonable — passengers and crew may access their aircraft in their vehicles, under FBO/ handler escort.
RAF Northolt (NHT EGWU) Lying along the exceedingly direct A40, and less than 15 miles to the west of central London, is RAF Northolt, an interesting potential choice for business aircraft operators. According to the station historian, NHT predates the Royal Air Force itself, having begun operations in May 1915 during World War I as a base for defensive ﬁghter patrols by what was then the Royal Flying Corps. Today, NHT remains an active Ministry of Defence (MoD) base, but permits civilian operators to use the airport under certain conditions. As an operational MoD base it is a PPR airport and slot restricted, with the added restriction that military operations have primacy.
Northolt has restrictive hours, being available from 0800–2000L on weekdays, from 0800–1500 on Saturdays, and from 1200–1900 on Sundays and public holidays. This are not necessarily unique restrictions for business operators. While access in terms of distance ranks NHT high on the list, the restrictions and fees are surprisingly high. Touching down on the weekend, a Falcon 900 would be levied a landing fee of £906 ($1,525), plus a weekend surcharge of £680 ($1,144). Out of hours, these rates are effectively doubled. Yet, however high the pricing may seem, it does at least come with two hours’ complimentary parking.
Biggin Hill (BQH EGKB) As one might expect of a former WWII RAF ﬁghter base, BQH’s location guards the south-southeast approach to London. For business aircraft operators, it stands second in line only to LCY in terms of distance to central London. With similar operating hours to FAB and LCY, BQH offers fewer weekend operational constraints and stands out in this study as the only airport without slot restrictions. To arrive in London in true James Bond fashion, a regular helicopter service between BQH and Battersea Heliport by Agusta A109 shrinks the normal 35-minute drive to a breathtakingly quick 6 minutes — barely enough time to enjoy the martini. For an international arrival in the subject aircraft, an operator can expect to pay a landing fee of £759 ($1,095).
Conclusion It is, perhaps, too obvious to conclude that choosing the “right” airport is simply a matter of personal preference, or ultimate destination within London. The scientiﬁc approach dictates that some conclusion be reached. To that end, of the airports reviewed here, Luton stands out, followed by Biggin Hill. LTN offers 24-hour operations, excellent access for crew and passengers, well-equipped FBOs, and reasonable drive times and distances to and from central London.
It may be too obvious to conclude that choosing the “right” airport is a matter of personal preference, or ultimate destination within London
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Single European Sky will integrate ATC, aircraft and airports in 4D J Peter Berendsen reports on Europe’s SESAR project for FlyCorporate.
few weeks ago I was ﬂying my company’s Boeing 747-8i service from Chicago/ O’Hare, IL (ORD) to Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany (FRA). As my ﬁrst ofﬁcer and I reviewed the ﬂight documents, we noticed that the operational ﬂight plan with all the waypoints and the fuel calculation was two pages long. Dispatch had calculated that the ﬂight would take about seven and a half hours. The waypoints for almost six hours of the ﬂight, including the entire North American and oceanic portion, were shown on just over a quarter page. The rest of the two pages was taken up by tightly spaced waypoints in European airspace, only minutes apart from each other.
SECTOR FOCUS: REGULATION
What a great way to illustrate an age-old problem of Europe — this time not on a historic map but on a ﬂight plan computer printout. Space is tight in Europe, and so is the administration of airspace. But just as the countries of Europe have succeeded in making the land borders almost disappear, the creation of a single European airspace has always been a top priority for governments and industry. While European nations, like all countries in the world, value sovereignty over their national airspace, the need to unify management and control of air trafﬁc was recognized early on. Eurocontrol, with its headquarters in Brussels, Belgium, is the agency tasked with matters concerning European airspace. When Eurocontrol was founded in 1960, it was imagined that this new agency would actually control the airspace over Europe, directing all ﬂights, civil and military. While this certainly was a grand vision, the Cold War was at its peak, and most European govenments were not the least ready to give up control of their airspace to a supranational European body. Only the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and the northern part of West Germany were integrated into one air trafﬁc control unit, located in Maastricht, Holland. More than 50 years on, Maastricht remains the only actual ATC unit operated by Eurocontrol, in addition to a ﬂow management unit that concentrates on the performance of the overall European network. After the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, the countries of eastern Europe wanted to enjoy their new liberty themselves, while western European nations started to privatize their air trafﬁc control, making them corporations that supposedly competed for business. The added complexity of commercial interests did not leave room for Eurocontrol at the actual operational ATC level. However, Eurocontrol did take on an ever larger role in the coordination, planning, and management of European airspace. Today, it has 40 member countries, including non-EU European nations such as Georgia, Iceland, and Ukraine. Eurocontrol operates the Central Flow
Management Unit (CFMU) for European airspace — in other words, they hand out slots. They also collect the ATC user fees for European airspace. But the part where users get to actually enjoy the freedom of the skies is still a little lacking. The European Union’s Single European Sky regulation (SES, SES II, and the forthcoming SES II+) and Single European Sky Air Trafﬁc Management Research (SESAR) project is supposed to ﬁx that — and Eurocontrol, along with the European Commission, plays a big part in it.
SESAR and its goals In a way, SESAR is similar to FAA’s NextGen air trafﬁc management plan for the future of US airspace. The difference in Europe is that a lot more countries, companies, and organizations want to have a say. So the SESAR joint undertaking (SESAR JU) — a public body — was formed under European law in 2007 to create a new public/private partnership. The organization has a budget of €2.1 billion for an R&D program that runs through December 2016. Under this umbrella, regulators, government, and privatized air trafﬁc services such as the British NATS, ATC equipment manufacturers such as ThalèsRaytheon Systems, aircraft manufacturers like Airbus, and major airports work together on the future of air trafﬁc in Europe. They are working on a plan to integrate air trafﬁc data from gate to gate. The basic idea is to get rid of most of the existing airspace structure, like airways, predeﬁned waypoints, and even ﬂight levels, and let the sky be what is is — a big open space. As aircraft get ready for their ﬂights, they will be cleared for a 4D trajectory on an optimum proﬁle to their destination. “Optimum” means not just a direct route, but also most economical altitudes and speeds. The fourth dimension is, of course, time. By letting aircraft ﬂy their individual best routes, speeds and altitudes, the number of possible conﬂicts is actually reduced, since there are no more bottlenecks or restricting airway intersections — although, inevitably, new bottlenecks will emerge.
In a way, SESAR is similar to FAA’s NextGen air trafﬁc management plan for the future of US airspace
The SESAR SECTOR FOCUS: REGULATION
Business and mission trajectories
Trajectory management framework
Enhanced arrival and departure management in TMA and en route
Optimized 2D/3D routes
Integrated arrival and departure management at airports Enhanced situational awareness
Approach procedures with vertical guidance
Integrated surface management
Airport safety nets
Enhanced ATFCM process
Enhanced runway throughput
Systemwide information management
User-driven prioritization process System interoperability with air and ground data sharing
Network operations planning
Pilot enhanced vision
SECTOR FOCUS: REGULATION Airspace management and AFUA
Dynamic airspace configurations
Pilots and controllers will need new tools to assist them in conﬂict resolution and ﬂow sequencing, as there will still be areas of intense enroute trafﬁc and bottlenecks close to airports. These tools will rely largely on the transmission of intentions and a negotiated outcome — in other words, the FMS ﬂight plan and sequence will have to be transmitted continuously and be made available not just to ATC but also to other aircraft in the area. SESAR has the goal of shaving 8–14 minutes off average ﬂight times and saving 300–500 kg (600–1,000 lb) of fuel per ﬂight. As a side effect, CO2 emissions will also be reduced, as less fuel is burned.
Monitoring and fine-tuning
Low-visibility procedures using GBAS
Ground-based separation provision
Enhanced ground-based safety nets
Air traffic control center
Achieving all of this requires the examination of every aspect of the air trafﬁc environment. The ways in which one component of the system affects others is studied systematically. SESAR work packages led by members of the SESAR JU include enroute operations, terminal operations, airport operations, network operations, and information management. They also include aircraft on-board systems, ATC technology, meteorology, airline and military ﬂight operations, and all other elements that are needed for full integration of virtually everything that plans to get airborne in European airspace, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Of course, all this research work has to be validated. SESAR does this by conducting realistic validation exercises and trial runs grouped together in releases. Once certain processes and technologies are ready for industrial development, they are turned over to industry in so-called solutions. Since 2011, SESAR has achieved one release every year. In all, 68 exercises have been completed with ﬂ ight trials and simulations leading to 15 solutions. The yearly release process allows incremental improvements in routings, trafﬁc predictions, and ATC service, as well as airport ground trafﬁc ﬂow. For example, at FRA the pushback time from the gate is coordinated not only with ATC, but also with the airline and the pushback tractors. After some initial glitches, this system actually works fairly well, with only short waits (usually) at the runway for takeoff. In addition, seemingly little things, such as improved air trafﬁc controller workstations, do their part to optimize air trafﬁc. The need for tactical ATC intervention is reduced as 4D trajectories of ﬂights are coordinated in advance. In the longer term, automated trafﬁc conﬂict management is envisioned.
SECTOR FOCUS: REGULATION
4D trajectories The concept of the 4D ﬂight trajectory is a cornerstone of the SESAR project. Aircraft operators (airline dispatch, among others) and network management (ATC) will agree in advance on a 4D ﬂight trajectory, and crews will be expected to follow it — although they can renegotiate during operation if unexpected events make this necessary. Of course, following a previously ﬁled ﬂight plan and ATC route clearance is nothing new — it’s been with us since the beginnings of instrument ﬂight — but, in the future, SESAR plans to reduce the tactical interventions of controllers to a minimum. Controllers are envisioned to oversee the trafﬁc ﬂow and make sure that all goes well. Pilots will be expected to adhere to the latest agreed 4D trajectory. The big question is how far such a static, preplanned ATC system really works with more than 26,000 ﬂights a day and with uncertainties managed down to a realistic level. An area of thunderstorms or turbulence will force pilots to ﬁnd safe alternate routings. And that in turn inﬂuences other aircraft further out, creating a domino effect. As far as possible, this needs to be be planned for and any renegotiation kept under control so as to minimize negative domino effects. And, while the goal of a totally integrated, preplanned and automatically managed airspace system is quite ambitious, it should not be forgotten that the commander of each individual aircraft will still be responsible for his passengers, crew, and aircraft and therefore has ﬁnal authority on the conduct of the ﬂight. This limits the amount of predetermination dispatch and ATC can have over the ﬂight, thus driving the need to maintain the aircraft as an integral part of an ongoing negotiated trajectory with ATC. Human controllers and human pilots will still need to work together to make tactical decisions, avoid conﬂicts, and enable efﬁcient ﬂights.
SESAR has the goal of shaving 8–14 minutes off average ﬂight times and saving 300–500 kg (600–1,000 lb) of fuel per ﬂight
The real problem of European airspace is not the enroute portion. Yes, there are a lot of waypoints and multiple ATC units. But coordination among them works quite well already, and most ﬂights are planned on RNAV airways and conducted in a fairly straight line from origin to destination. To achieve the stated goal of signiﬁcant ﬂight time and fuel savings, real improvements need to be made in the terminal area. Arrival routes into FRA, for example, sometimes add over 80 nm to the ﬂight distance. For noise reasons, departures to the north head south for 10 nm, and then reverse course to the north, adding a total of 20 nm to each ﬂight. Other European airports have similar problems, largely as a result of environmental concerns of the local population. Some airports are closed at night, with no landings permitted before a certain time, e.g., 0500L. This means that each crew tries to time their arrival to exactly 0500, hoping to be the ﬁrst to land. This obviously leads to holding bottlenecks and lengthy radar vectors at fairly low altitudes in the early morning hours, which does not help to reduce noise or environmental impact. If these ﬂights were coordinated and timed during the last two or three hours before landing and arranged in a neat landing sequence early on, SESAR would have done a very useful job. Since this goal is also part of the SESAR project, we can hope that negotiated 4D trajectories and approach sequences can be joined in ways that are validated.
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FC REVIEW: APPS FOR BIZAV
The paperless cockpit:
What’s in your collection of apps?
irst there was paper. Lots of it. Pilots were rarely far away from a large, bulky black ﬂight bag containing volumes of paper — charts, tables, documentation, and plenty more. Then came laptops and, later, tablets. They were expensive, with an average price point somewhere north of $1500 for good hardware — plus all the software and, in some cases, interfaces. It was the beginning of paperless ﬂight operations. Rob Seaman reports.
It was only four years ago that we were ﬁrst introduced to the iPad and its amazing abilities. Few other devices have had such an impact and created such a measurable difference to society as a whole — and the impact on business aviation has been huge.
Cost has been a factor in this success, with average prices in the $500–800 range and apps that are most reasonably priced. iPads have become a paperless platform of choice — one that is available and affordable to a great many pilots.
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FC REVIEW: APPS FOR BIZAV
One of the best places to search just what’s available is the Apple App Store. Four years ago we were impressed at the 400 apps available for iPad/iPhone. Today, that number has swelled to about 1500 if you search under “pilot,” and close to 2500 if you look under “aviation.” While many of these are primarily for entertainment, a large number address aviation-related interests. Like anything else, the driving forces include personal preference, content, functionality, and operational layout — but with so many options, it’s unlikely you won’t ﬁnd something to suit your needs. While it would take volumes to review and discuss the selections available, zeroing in on the market leaders is insightful.
Names worth knowing The folks who took a brave step into the market a few years back are the ones who still come out on top when you ask pilots what apps they use. One of them, inevitably, is Jeppesen Mobile Flight Deck — after all, Jeppesen was the industry innovator that put its charts onto laptops and electronic ﬂight bags (EFBs). It was Jeppesen too that ﬁrst added features to guide you around an airport and show you where the FBOs are — not to mention adding terrain enhancement, early moving map technology, and, of course, interaction with the aircraft systems. Leading-edge thinking has kept Jeppesen at the forefront of the business. Features, options, and new enhancements to Jeppesen Mobile Flight Deck Version 2.1 include the following: own-ship position, off-map position indicator, airport diagram, custom keyboard, quick chart preview, distance measurement tool, and alternate airports. While the iPad is the platform used by most pilots, Jeppesen has also made its products available across the range of current mobile formats: iPad, Tablet, and Android enabled devices. ForeFlight was another early service and app provider. The current version of ForeFlight Mobile, ForeFlight AF/D, covers airports in 220 countries and includes
databases from AOPA, Universal Weather & Aviation’s UVTripPlanner, FAA, and its own proprietary research. Features include frequencies, runway details, diagrams, phone numbers, fuel prices, operating hours, times of sunrise/sunset, METARs, TAFs, and winds aloft. While ForeFlight Mobile is designed for the iPad and iPhone, it presents a good variety of weather map options, ranging from composite reﬂectivity radar to ceilings and PIREPs. Users can brief their route of ﬂight visually. They can also overlay weather and routes on any of the charts, including VFR/IFR charts and global data-driven maps. Also included are approaches, departures, arrivals, and diagrams for the entire US and Canadian IFR systems. For an additional fee, users may get a “US Pro” subscription allowing them to see their aircraft directly on US plates.
Newer offerings Garmin and Universal both stand out among the big (and growing) “we do a lot for you” market segment. Garmin’s apps are designed to work in both iPad and Android environments, while Universal Mobile for Apple iPad lets users access the entire range of trip planning applications offered by Universal Weather & Aviation. Garmin Pilot provides access to weather data, including NEXRAD radar, visible and infrared cloud imagery, METARs, TAFs, AIRMETs, SIGMETs, PIREPs, NOTAMs, winds and temperature aloft, and lightning reports. One interesting component is the NavTrack feature, which allows pilots to preview how changing weather conditions might alter their ﬂight. This app also provides fuel prices along a planned route and provides ATC preferred routes. Like most such apps, Garmin Pilot has a ﬂight planning feature that starts with the pilot entering a desired route and then allows the building in of other elements to overlay weather, pan across the entire route, pinch to zoom for detail, or graphically modify any leg of a ﬂight.
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FC REVIEW: APPS FOR BIZAV Garmin Pilot serves as a legal source of weather brieﬁng, and has built-in calculators to estimate fuel burn, enroute legs and ﬂight arrival times. Users can also save pilot, aircraft and ﬂight plan information to the Cloud, which avoids the user having to re-enter information every time he/she transfers devices. The Garmin Pilot app also permits use of the built-in GPS receiver (or compatible external receiver) in a user’s device to provide full enroute navigation on a moving map display. A “panel page” provides situational awareness and includes a graphical HSI directional display and indicators for groundspeed, altitude, rate of turn, and vertical speed.
One way to learn which apps are being used and how they work is to ask the pilot sitting next to you in the FBO what they’re working with So what do operators use? An easy way to learn what’s being used and how it works is to ask the pilot sitting next to you in the FBO what they’re working with. Most pilots are happy to share what’s in their iPad, explain what apps they use, and tell you why. To take a case in point, I sat recently with a Bombardier Global 5000 pilot who ﬂies for a large (50-plus) aircraft management ﬁrm. An inside look at his iPad spoke volumes about what works for this operator. Among the standout apps in use, the Bombardier customer variant of the On-Board Data Systems (OBDS) AviationDocs app is a key element. Its features include automatic across-the-board updates, compliance with EASA, CAA, FAA, and Transport Canada regulations, and information exchange based on Cloud storage of a virtually inﬁnite number of documents (and delivery to an inﬁnite number of iPads). Flight plans are moved back and forth, as are passenger data, ﬂight docs, etc, all based on this system and app. Next on this pilot’s list is an app called FltPlan Go — an EFB that includes moving maps, approach plates, nav logs, weather, weight and balance, and document storage. In addition, FltPlan Go has a recently streamlined interface, as well as new features such as aircraft checklists, “breadcrumbs,” ADS-B, and XM Weather.
Other must-haves or basic needs in this pilot’s “apps bag” are: • A good PDF reader with e-mail capability for docs – for direct upload and on-site provision/receipt of documents from apps or delivered from ﬂight planning • Ac-U-Kwik • AeroWeather Pro — a weather app for ﬂight planning (complements radar app) • Aircraft Fuel Calculator — a jet fueling app • ATC delays — shows ground stop/delay programs, arrival and departure delay programs, and airport closures • Aviation Data Systems MyWeather Radar — a weather app that displays animated weather radar around the user’s location • Flight Board — a commercial aviation app for deadheading crew to check on commercial ﬂights • Global Weight & Balance — can be set for any aircraft (priced around $200) • Got Visa? — free intel on visa needs, contacts, and required docs • HazMat PJV — an app dedicated to safe transport of dangerous goods by air • Holdover Times — provides the most recent aircraft ground de/anti-icing ﬂuid holdover times and related guidance • Intellicast —weather intel • Pocket GPS World — a GPS back-up app • Rockwell Collins Airshow moving map — delivers a unique, interactive way for business jet passengers to view the world around them during their journey • Snowtam — a collection of tools for cold weather ops, including SNOWTAM decoder, MOTNE decoder, and cold temperature correction tool • Translation and currency apps • Turbulence Forecast — estimates likelihood of the ﬂight being turbulent or smooth (handy for calming nervous passengers) This Global 5000 pilot also uses some maintenance-oriented materials, including a CAMP Systems app and Bombardier’s SmartFix Plus. Of course, these apps represent just one person’s choice, reﬂecting personal and corporate preferences as well as some years of proven practice. Most of the apps are free or available for a nominal fee, and even the larger “base” sharing apps have reasonable subscription fees. Like just about everything in the app world, regardless of system choice, this new technology represents affordability, ﬂexibility — and, just as importantly, value as proven and well supported tools for ﬂight ops. When people say: “There’s an app for that,” they mean it — and tomorrow there will be even more!
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FC REVIEW: KING AIR FAMILY
The King Air family
at 50 T
o date, more than 6,300 King Airs of all types have been delivered to commercial customers, as well as just over 600 for the US military and other armed forces around the world. Rod Simpson reports. It’s hard to believe that the twin-turboprop King Air has been around for half a century. Wichita, KS-based Beechcraft ﬂew its prototype Model 65-90 in November 1963, and the King Air’s reputation for safety and reliability continues to attract orders from around the world. Such is the integrity of the basic design that it has been able to keep reinventing itself with the latest technology and changes which have led to the three models currently in production at Beech Field, Wichita, KS (BEC) — the C90GTx, the King Air 250, and the King Air 350i.
FC REVIEW: KING AIR FAMILY
King Airs are now manufactured and sold under the Textron Aviation banner, but are still branded as Beechcraft
King Airs have a “big aircraft” feel, with a wide cabin and internal headroom of nearly ﬁ ve feet. The basic King Air 90 has a four-seat cabin with an optional side-facing seat at the rear. The King Air 250 has a longer fuselage which makes it into a full six/seven-seat aircraft and the King Air 350i has a further stretch to allow for two facing groups of four seats and an optional ninth seat at the back of the cabin.
Origins The King Air 90 traces its history back to Beechcraft’s Model 50 Twin Bonanza, introduced in 1949, which was sold in considerable numbers to the US Army as the L-23 Seminole. Then, because the Army needed a largercapacity light transport, Beech enlarged the Twin Bonanza fuselage to create the nine-seat Model 65 Queen Air. First ﬂ own in 1958 — long before jets were in widespread corporate use — the Queen Air sold in large numbers. Later, in the early 1960s, with the arrival of the Vietnam War, Beechcraft laid the foundations of the King Air by ﬁtting the Queen Air with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprops, creating the highly successful U-21 Ute military transport.
FC REVIEW: KING AIR FAMILY
Beech introduced regular upgrades to the King Air, starting with the A90 and progressing to the C90
The only other improvement to the basic design was to add pressurization. This was ﬁrst offered as a feature of the piston-engined Queen Air 88. It was only one small step to add PT6s and create the King Air, which entered production in 1964. It was an immediate success. By the end of 1968, Beech had delivered 424 King Airs, priced at $405,000 apiece — a substantial increase over the $196,000 price of a Queen Air 88. This did not deter customers, and the 500th King Air 90 was handed over in August 1970. The US Navy placed a contract with Beech for 61 examples of the T-44A advanced military pilot training aircraft, which were based at NAS Corpus Christi, TX. Many other King Air 90s were delivered to overseas air forces. Beech introduced regular upgrades to the King Air, starting with the A90, which had higher-thrust 550-shp PT6A-20 engines and progressing to the C90, ﬁ tted with further-improved PT6A-21s. In 2006, the new C90GTi found the King Air cockpit improved with Rockwell Collins Pro Line 21 avionics and an ACSS terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS). The current model is the C90GTx, which has composite winglets and a 385-lb increase in gross weight, nearly doubling the full-fuel payload compared with the C90GTi. Earlier C90 models are eligible for a cockpit upgrade to the Garmin G1000 (which is standard on the Baron G58 and Bonanza G36). Unsurprisingly, customers soon required more speed and more space. In response, in 1969 Beech introduced the King Air 100. This had a 50-inchlonger fuselage, allowing standard cabin seating for six passengers or a higher-density arrangement for eight. The King Air 100 could be powered either by 680-shp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-28s or, alternatively, by 715-shp Garrett AiResearch TPE331-6-251Bs.
Introducing the 200 This longer airframe offered further opportunities for even more performance, so Beechcraft engineers added longer wings and higherpowered 850-shp PT6A-41 engines. They also added a T-tail, which became the trademark of the iconic King Air 200 — known initially as the Super King Air and ﬁrst delivered to customers in 1974. The standard Model 200 cabin was ﬁtted with four club seats in the front, a forward-facing seat in the rear cabin and a rear side-facing two-seat divan. Not only did the Super King Air have more space — it also had the range to ﬂ y direct from London to Madrid, or from Chicago, IL to New Orleans, LA. Over the next 40 years, the King Air 200 design saw continual improvements. The latest King Air 250 has a modern Pro Line 21 glass cockpit and winglets.
FC REVIEW: KING AIR FAMILY
The King Air C90GTx features a 227 cu ft interior almost 50% larger than that of its closest light jet competitor
FC REVIEW: KING AIR FAMILY
The military forces of the US and many other countries purchased hundreds of King Air 200s, many being used as special missions platforms for variants such as the RC-12, used as a surveillance aircraft by the US Army and Air Force. The aircraft is also widely operated for coastal patrol missions. Among its more unusual applications, it is ﬂown by the French Institut Géographique National for worldwide aerial mapping surveys, and as an ambulance aircraft by Australia’s Royal Flying Doctor Service. At one point in its career, Beech considered developing the King Air 200 into a business jet and ﬁtted the prototype with a pair of JT15D-4 turbofans. This did not end up going into production. The King Air 200 has always been kept within the established FAR Part 23 gross weight limit of 12,500 lb, but consistent demands for more useful load led to development of the King Air 300, introduced in 1984 with a 14,000 lb gross weight and 1,050-shp PT6A60A engines. The main advantage of this development was to give better range performance with a full passenger load. Five years later, it was replaced by the
King Air 350, featuring a stretched cabin which could accommodate two four-club seating layouts to seat eight passengers in comfort together with a rear lav. Wingspan was also extended by three feet and the wings ﬁ tted with winglets. The King Air 350i can carry eight passengers and baggage for nearly 1,500 nm, and is competitive with light business jets on sectors of one to two hours — and with substantially lower operating costs. King Airs are now manufactured and sold under the new Textron Aviation banner, but are still branded as Beechcraft. Recent sales successes include an order for 105 King Air 350i aircraft (worth up to $1.4 billion) for fractional company Wheels Up. The King Air’s unique appeal is that it delivers reliable and cost-effective transportation for companies that need to ﬂy between hard-to-reach destinations but have no need for the longer range and speed of a business jet. As a true corporate workhorse, the King Air is likely be a top company choice for many years to come.
Pressurization was introduced with the Queen Air 88. From there it was only one small step to add PT6s and create the King Air
Beech Queen Air 88
What makes a LEGEND? It starts with an idea, it grows with the PURPOSE to delight CUSTOMERS, and it’s born from VICTORY. But the only legends that are truly worth celebrating are those that carry on long after the first victory lap, where VISION, purpose and success are ongoing. This is the legend of the PT6 engine, and now it’s time for us to CELEBRATE 50 inspiring years of turboprop INNOVATION. Visit us at EBACE Hall 6, Stand 3834
FC REVIEW: BIZAPPS
The iPad has totally changed the way we work and communicate, providing a new platform for business applications and information sharing. FlyCorporate looks at some of the latest apps designed for the bizav market. Name of app MyJetex Target user Pilots, operators and crew What it does MyJetex brings Honeywell’s global data center services to the iPad for Jetex customers. You can now create and ﬁle ﬂight plans, customize, e-mail and download trip kits and access up-tothe minute weather updates from your iPad. Cost
Name of app FlyCorporate Target user Business and professional general aviation users What it does FC is the premier multimedia resource for business aviation. It is dedicated exclusively to international operators, industry professionals, and users and owners of corporate aircraft. This quarterly publication is now available as a downloadable app for your iPad. Cost
Name of app Private Pilots Target user Pilots What it does This app is a practice exam with video tips to help you achieve your private pilot license. ICAO determines the requirements to obtain the license, but actual implementation varies widely from country to country. Cost
Name of app PrivateFly Target user Operators What it does PrivateFly’s jet charter, cost calculator and airport ﬁnder app enables you to access the company’s global network of accredited private jet aircraft on your iPhone or iPad. Cost
Name of app FlightSafety Target user Business and general aviation users What it does This app offers FlightSafety International customers the convenience of receiving all training materials electronically. Cost
Name of app EBACE2014 Mobile App Target user Attendees and exhibitors What it does EBACE is the annual meeting place for the European bizav community. Keep track of press conferences, events, and exhibitors through this dedicated convention app. Cost
VISIT US AT
We have Africa covered Many aviation companies consider locations across Africa as “challenging to serve”. At UAS, we see such missions as part of a typical day. In the last 14 years, UAS has serviced over 800 000 flights worldwide; our hands-on experience makes us subject matter experts. This means that no matter where you fly in the world, including the most remote stations across the globe, you will have the peace of mind of knowing that UAS has given its seal of approval on your mission, every step of the way. Across Africa and around the world, we have you covered.
Our vast range of services for VVIP, private, charter and commercial operators include: • • • • • • • • • •
Global flight planning and weather services Quality ground handling services Short-notice overflight and landing permits Global fuel supply Crew and VIP airport and ground assistance Luxury hotel accommodation and transportation arrangement Exclusive airport meet-and-assist services Gourmet catering services Charter services Concierge services
Every Signature FBO is full of character
Everywhere you turn there’s a story. Our people bring a dedication for aviation and UAS Africa Headquarters a commitment to service that you can feel. You’ll know that we’re glad to see you. Postnet Suite #112, Pvt Bag X21 Every one of us. Everywhere. Check out our worldwide network at SignatureFlight.com. Johannesburg , 2021, South Africa Tel: Fax: Arinc: Email:
+ 27 11 514 0755 + 27 11 514 0545 JNBWZ7X email@example.com
Rent from National and earn Signature TailWins points.
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Published on May 16, 2014
FlyCorporate looks at Europe and Russia in its special EBACE issue. It examines business aviation in Europe today as well as prospects for...