For Alumni and Friends of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University Spring 2015
small nation, big footprint Why so many of Armenia’s leaders come from Fletcher
Emergency Responder You may have seen Nahid Bhadelia, J99, F04, M05, looking poised and determined on the cover of Boston magazine’s “Top Docs” issue back in December. The editors presented her as the local face of the Ebola crisis in West Africa, and this was a fair claim. Under the auspices of Partners in Health, Bhadelia has participated in three grueling medical tours to Sierra Leone. “Once you’ve been there and seen how bad things are, I think anyone would be driven to go back,” she told the magazine. The 37-year-old Bhadelia, a doctor based at Boston Medical Center specializing in infectious diseases, came by her global perspective naturally. Her father was a world-traveling physician. “I was born in India, and I grew up in Saudi Arabia and Sweden,” she says. “Then we came to the U.S. when I was 12 or 13 years old.” Moving from culture to culture taught Bhadelia how varied human societies can be and how differently they approach their problems. Her unifying fire has always been the link between social justice and medicine. While in medical school, she served as an HIV/AIDS counselor and coordinator for a student-run clinic. In 2001–02 she was an Albert Schweitzer Foundation Fellow, working to improve health care among Boston’s inner-city youth. She also founded and directed the Chinatown Community Health Program, which sponsored a cardiac screening program for Asian immigrants. Now director of infection control at the National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory at Boston University, Bhadelia hasn’t been the only Fletcher graduate tackling Ebola. Anthony Banbury, A86, F92, A18P, served as the special representative of the secretary-general and head of the United Nations Mission for Emergency Ebola Response from September until early January. Bhadelia is interested in improving health-care systems so that emerging pathogens can’t take advantage of any weaknesses. “These epidemics are disasters, but they don’t have to be disastrous,” she says. “They’re only disastrous because of the vulnerabilities in the health-care systems.” — Bruce Morgan
Photo: Kelvin ma
Spr i ng 2015 Vo l u m e 3 6 , N o. 2
8 Fair Fashion
Fletcher Women’s Leadership Award winner Amanda Judge, F09, uses her artisanal jewelry business to combat poverty in Ecuador and Vietnam. by Mike Eckel, F13
10 Shadow Politics
Elected officials are no longer in charge of U.S. national security, says Professor Michael Glennon—and that undermines our democracy. By Bruce Morgan
12 Influencing Armenia
cover story Fletcher has educated more people per capita in Armenia than anywhere else in the world. The resulting network of skilled diplomats and other officials is a powerful force for change. by Taylor McNeil
16 The Baby-Faced Hit man
Author of the original House of Cards, Michael Dobbs, F73, F75, F77, says politics is not a place for “choir boys or angels.” But how real are the conscienceless characters he describes? by Gail Bambrick
16 In Every Issue 2 Letters 3 From the dean 4 Dispatches News from Around the Globe 20 connect Keeping Up with the Fletcher Community
About the Cover Fletcher is helping to create a network for change in Armenia, which is bordered by Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. (“Influencing Armenia,” page 12.) Illustration by Carolynn DeCillo
24 Club News 28 Class Notes 57 In Memoriam
Letters Arctic Debates I read your excellent article in the latest Fletcher News entitled “Heating Up” (Fall 2014). Your assessment of the challenges to Arctic energy operations was right on target, but I would like to urge caution on one point. In your second paragraph, you refer to “rapidly rising temperatures the world over.” In fact, global temperatures have not risen at all since about 1998. This “temperature hiatus” has brought into doubt many of the climate models which are predicting future catastrophe. In reality, we don’t really understand the role of human greenhouse gas emissions in observed changes in climate. There are too many other variables. Note, for example, that Antarctic ice has been increasing recently. The future may bring more Arctic ice melt or not or even a refreeze. We really don’t know. Bruce M. Everett Adjunct Associate Professor of International Business, Fletcher
According to data released this January, 2014 was the hottest year on Earth since record-keeping began in 1880. While the Midwest U.S. was cooler than average, extreme heat hit Alaska and much of the West, and record heat occurred over most of every inhabited continent. The 10 warmest years on record have all occurred since 1997, according to other reports. The moving average of global surface temperatures from 1880 to the present is also on a consistently upward trajectory, regardless of short-term changes. —Editor
As a longtime veteran of the Icelandic Foreign Service, I read your article on the Arctic with much interest. In my career, I have served as PermRep at NATO, ambassador to the EU, to Norway, and, as my last assignment, to the United States. The Arctic is not a homogeneous zone. The American Arctic off Alaska and Canada is a zone of total stability, under heavy military protection of NORAD (North American Aerospace Defense Command). This stability and security is far from true of the European Arctic or High North after the unfortunate American departure from the Keflavik air base in 2006. I strongly recommend Research Paper No. 94 of July 2013 of the NATO Defense College, “Putting the ‘N’ back into NATO: A High North policy framework for the Atlantic Alliance?” It is a powerful exposé of mistakes related to the decision to depart from the most important military facility in the European High North. President Putin plans to build a network of modern naval bases in the Russian Arctic for newgeneration ships and submarines and to reopen airfields and ports there. This Russian military buildup has to be met with a resolute policy that in the case of use of force, like in Ukraine, there will be a response as circumstances dictate. But there has to be an active dialogue with Moscow, and there Washington counts. With the current power vacuum in the European Arctic, China is seeking a permanent foothold in the middle of its new maritime highway to Europe. China would greatly benefit from having a permanent base in the gigantic container port in northeastern
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Iceland that is now under study. The staggering size of this and other projects in relation to a population of 330,000 makes such a relationship unthinkable unless we would want to commit a national suicide. They could mean an end to a history of 1,100 years as a distinct nation with a language and culture we have preserved. Accepting China in the Arctic Council, as Dean Stavridis proposes, would be a gigantic step in recognition of the preposterous “rights” they seek. It is quite simply inimical to Iceland’s national interest. You might want to read an article in the New York Times on March 12, 2013, entitled “China Knocks on Iceland’s Door” by my Fletcher classmate, Tom Pickering, and myself. If having the Chinese here fills me with dismay, it is because of the accumulation of information on their empire-building in Africa and elsewhere. Should I have been too harsh and direct, please accept the apologies of an 83-yearold patriot who fears for the future of his grandchildren. Einar Benediktsson, F54 Reykjavík, Iceland
We welcome your letters. Send correspondence to fletcheralum@ tufts.edu. Letters are edited for length and clarity.
v o l u m e 3 6 , n o. 2 S p r in g 2 015 Editor Heather Stephenson Editor, Advancement Communications Editorial Advisor Kristen Curran Assistant Director, Alumni Relations and Stewardship Designers Margot Grisar, faith hruby, kathleen sayre Office of Development and Alumni Relations Kathleen Bobick, Administrative Assistant Caroline caldwell, Assistant Director, Reunion Programs Kristen Curran, Assistant Director, Alumni Relations and Stewardship Tara DiDomenico, Associate Director, The Fletcher Fund Lindsey Kelley, Coordinator, Alumni Relations and Stewardship Georgia Koumoundouros, Assistant Director, Development Jennifer Weingarden Lowrey, Senior Director, Development and Alumni Relations Bronwyn McCarty, Director, The Fletcher Fund Robert Sherburne, Associate Director, Development Cynthia Weymouth, Administrative Assistant Stay connected with Fletcher! Online Community: alumniconnections.com/fletcher LinkedIn: fletcher.tufts.edu/Alumni/LinkedIn Fletcher Magazine is published twice annually by The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. The opinions expressed in this publication are the authors’ own and do not necessarily represent those of The Fletcher School. Send correspondence to: Fletcher Magazine, Office of Development and Alumni Relations, 160 Packard Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. © 2015 TRUSTEES OF TUFTS UNIVERSITY Printed on 25% postconsumer waste recycled paper. Please recycle.
From the Dean
Charting Our Course My Time at nato
showed me how hard it is to plan rationally for the future in an environment that is rapidly shifting. Still, I believe that planning is the key to success. That’s why I’m excited to unveil our strategic plan for The Fletcher School—and to ask for your help in realizing its ambitious goals. A Big-Picture Process The planning process at Fletcher has allowed us to recommit to our mission, assess our environment, develop innovative ideas, and analyze and debate options. We started with a broad look at what we think lies ahead in five to ten years. Then we created a long-term vision for the School. Our Vision Recognizing the challenges and opportunities that we’re likely to face in the years ahead, our vision for Fletcher is that it will be the premier global institution for preparing a highly selective and diverse body of professionals for leadership, impact, and influence on the international stage across the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. These future leaders will be equipped with cutting-edge interdisciplinary knowledge, practical problem-solving skills, and an unparalleled network to address the most significant international challenges of the 21st century. By promoting excellence in research, teaching, conferences, and service, The Fletcher School, together with its international network of graduates and partners, will leave a lasting impact on the sustained development of economies, public and private organizations, sociopolitical institutions, security, justice, and the environment. Our Objectives How do we make our vision real? Over the last several months, alumni, students, faculty, and other members of the Fletcher community shared excellent ideas about how to sustain and improve our work. Together we developed the following four overarching objectives as the mutually
reinforcing means by which to realize our vision. First, enhance the professional and academic preparation of our students as problem solvers, future leaders, and agents of change. Second, bolster the School’s reputation by increasing research productivity, policy impact, and relevance for decision makers. Third, ensure a robust and more diversified revenue stream to support pursuit of the School’s mission. Finally, develop a sustainable, diverse, and high-quality student body across all our degree programs. For more details of our strategy, including how we will assess our progress, please see sites.tufts.edu/ fletcherstrategicplan. Your Role Generous alumni like you have offered key support throughout the strategic planning process— through committee work, participation in town hall meetings, and countless emails. Alumni are also advancing the Fletcher mission through gifts that support scholarship aid, research funding, and physical improvements to the School. And alumni provide essential help with the School’s recruitment and job placement initiatives. To stay on course, we need your continued involvement. Please consider what you can do, whether it is to provide financial support, offer internships or job opportunities to our graduates, or identify potential students who would benefit from a Fletcher education and enrich our community. Then take a few minutes to write that check, make that call, or send that email. It makes a critical difference. Setting Forth With our new strategic plan in place, and a process for revisiting it, we will move forward with purpose, confident that Fletcher is responding to the changing needs of our students and the international community. Thank you for your help as we set forth together.
James stavridis, Dean
photo: kelvin ma
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Dispatches Daniel Drezner takes a contrarian view.
Crisis Averted After the financial meltdown in 2008, the international economic system worked well, says a Fletcher professor by Taylor McNeil
the financial crisis of 2008 and what is now called the Great Recession, the prevailing view in international economic circles is that the governing global economic institutions, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), didn’t do such a great job managing the crisis and should have prevented the worst aspects of the resulting economic downturn. Daniel Drezner, a professor of international politics at The Fletcher School, takes a contrarian view in his new book, The System Worked: How the World Stopped Another Great Depression (Oxford University Press). Despite what the pundits say, the international system did work well, at least at the beginning of the meltdown, he argues, and a worse crisis was averted. That’s not to say the system is perfect; there is plenty of room for improvement in international economic governance, Drezner says. But recognizing what worked well could help strengthen those institutions, instead of setting an agenda to fix things that aren’t broken.
n the aftermath of
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Drezner, who is also a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and writes a daily blog for the Washington Post, argues that institutions like the WTO and forums like the G20, a group representing 19 countries and the European Union, did several things right. For starters, they avoided extreme protectionism. “When you have a systemic financial crisis, which we had in the fall of 2008, you want to make sure that trade barriers don’t suddenly go up,” he says. “You don’t want trade wars or what are called beggar-thy-neighbor policies to start. The WTO and the G20 functioned reasonably well in mutually pledging that its members would not suddenly raise tariffs or raise nontariff barriers.” In addition, governments backed up banks and other financial institutions so that they could continue to lend without failing. “First the G7 and then all the G20 economies agreed that we needed to cut interest rates, and, for at least the first two years, some pledged to increase fiscal expenditures,” he says. So why is there a general impression that global economic governance didn’t work? Drezner cites two reasons. First, “you could argue that in some cases, these institutions really were asleep at the switch. Part of the reason Europe is in such bad straits now is that prior to 2008, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision approved banking standards that basically exacerbated the bubble rather than easing it.” Second, he says, the centers of economic growth have not been in advanced industrialized states, where those who write about the global economy tend to live. “The developing world has done remarkably well, but the tendency is to assume we’re not doing well where we live, ergo, everyone else is not doing well.”
Photo: Alonso Nichols
n ews from arou n d th e globe
Lost Empire World War I set the stage for today’s conflicts Demonstrating the solar light
Night Lights The inaugural winners of a Fletcher development prize are bringing solar lights to remote regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Tommy Galloway, F14, and Andrew Lala, F14, won $15,000 last year in the Fletcher D-Prize Poverty Solutions Venture Competition for their effort, which they call Clair de Lune, French for “moonlight.” They hope villagers in Burkina Faso will replace kerosene lanterns with solar lanterns, which provide a cheaper, safer, and cleaner alternative. The lanterns will be distributed on local bus routes, a process the duo observed earlier in the region. “I saw my Burkinabé counterparts frequently going to bus stations to send cash and goods that you couldn’t find in villages—such as flashlights and cell phones—to rural family members,” Lala says. “Buses are the West African version of FedEx and PayPal mixed together.” Starting last summer with 400 off-the-grid families, Lala and Galloway aim to scale to 30,000 customers within two years. Meanwhile, this year’s entrants in the D-Prize contest and other Fletcher entrepreneurs can enlist the help of The Fletcher School’s new entrepreneur coach, Rockford Weitz, F02, F08. A veteran of numerous successful start-up ventures, Weitz holds office hours on campus twice a week.
photos: Above, Tommy Galloway/Clair de Lune; right, Library of congress
When most Americans think of World War I, images of trench warfare in France come to mind. But the Great War, as it was called then, wasn’t just fought in Europe. Fletcher historian Leila Fawaz brings home this point in her new book, A Land of Aching Hearts: The Middle East in the Great War (Harvard University Press), exploring the ravages of the conflict in the region and the ensuing devastation, whose consequences are felt to this day. The Ottoman Empire, a lumbering giant that was suffering inexorable decline after more than 600 years, chose to ally with Germany soon after the outbreak of war in 1914, and found itself embroiled in conflict on all sides. It fought battles that most people in the West have long forgotten, including in the Caucasus, Suez, Palestine, what is today Iraq, Persia, and Gallipoli, near the Dardanelles. Fawaz, the Issam M. Fares Professor of Lebanese and Eastern Mediterranean Studies, describes the battles that were turning points in the war and brings to life how the war affected everyday people throughout the greater Middle East. Ottoman troops were so poorly provisioned, she says, that in Syria the conflict is known as the “barefoot war.” As the war ended, the Ottoman Empire collapsed, setting the stage for conflicts that exist to this day. “In peace treaties that settled World War I, the victorious colonial powers divided up the region in ways that ignored natural divisions in favor of artificial borders that still cause resentment or conflict,” Fawaz writes. The French took over Greater Syria, and broke it into several states, including modern Lebanon, which they created as a Christian state, while the British spurned Arab desires for independence, kept control of Egypt, and established “mandates” in Palestine and in the newly formed—and oil-rich—Iraq. In doing so, they created a state where one had not previously existed, and installed King Faysal, whom the French had pushed out of Syria. “No wonder, then,” Fawaz writes, “that cynicism was one outcome of the The Battle of Katiah Great War.” in Suez, 1916
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Dispatches Paula Armstrong, left, and Emily Cole are the inaugural recipients of the Philip and Barbara Kaplan Scholarship, established in 2014.
The Next Generation
mericans are tired of war. Ambassador Philip Kaplan gets that. But our wariness about military intervention doesn’t mean we should retreat from the costly and difficult task of maintaining stability and the balance of power around the globe. In fact, he argues, we have no alternative but to play a role on the world stage. “Superpowers don’t get to retire,” Kaplan says, quoting historian Robert Kagan. Still, diplomats like Kaplan do retire, which creates an endless need to train their replacements. And we all have a stake in making sure that today’s brightest and best will guide our involvement in tomorrow’s global conflicts. That’s why Kaplan and his wife, Barbara, a high school history teacher, are funding a scholarship for second-year graduate students at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. The aid is earmarked for students who are dedicated to a career in international public service and have excelled in their coursework. “It’s very important that we have a continued focus on our role in the world and that we have the people with the smarts and the determination to play an important part,” says Kaplan, who is a partner
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BY Heather Stephenson
at a law firm in Washington, D.C., and a lecturer in international affairs at George Washington University. His 27-year Foreign Service career included working with former Fletcher Dean Stephen Bosworth in the Philippines in the 1980s and serving from 1989 through 1991 as U.S. ambassador and deputy representative to the 22-state Vienna Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. Regarding the scholarship, he says, “We wanted to provide support to the absolutely top students who also have financial need. That affords the best prospect of contributing effectively to the next generation of American diplomacy.”
Photo: Alonso Nichols
Languages: German (native),
Languages: English (native),
English, Japanese, French
French, Pulaar Specialty: Human security, with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa, particularly the western Sahel
Places she called home by age 18: Germany, Hungary,
Switzerland, the Philippines, the United States (her father works for the Foreign Service; her mother is German) Specialty: International security and migration and refugees studies
Teaching assistant for:
after college: Japan, where she
Economics 201: Introduction to Economic Theory Peace Corps insight: While volunteering in health, gender, and development programs in Senegal, she saw refugees still living in “temporary” camps set up 20 years earlier and homeless children migrating in small groups without adults. “I’m interested in the most vulnerable populations,” she says, “and what happens to them during conflict, when people are displaced and lose their assets, their livelihoods, their status, and, often, their communities.”
taught English for two years
Experience that confirmed
Family’s refugee experi-
her path: Summer 2014 intern-
ence: Her maternal grandmother
ship with the House Committee on Ways and Means, helping with research and briefings. “I like the fight of politics,” she says. “I like being really hands-on.” Her dream job: Doing human security policy decision-making in the federal government, either in the administration or in Congress. Capstone project: Analyzing and making policy recommendations based on changing patterns of human trafficking and slavery in the western Sahel. Why she’s grateful: “I’m volunteering for an unpaid project with ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross] rather than increasing my work-study hours. The scholarship makes it easier for me to say yes to opportunities like that when they present themselves.”
Biggest extracurricular commitment at Fletcher:
Program coordinator for Tufts University Refugee Assistance Program, which matches student volunteers with recently resettled refugees in greater Boston. “Things that might seem simple to us, like making a phone call, can be so hard.” Country she chose to move to
was a refugee twice—first leaving Czechoslovakia with her family as a young girl at the end of World War II, when ethnic Germans were expelled from that country, and then fleeing East Germany with her future husband to resettle in West Germany when she was 20 and he was 21 years old, leaving their families behind the Iron Curtain. Capstone project: Examining remittance flows from immigrants to families abroad, which U.S. banks sometimes refuse to process because of security concerns, and providing policy recommendations. How the Kaplan Scholarship helps: “It let me spend a summer
in New York City working for a nonprofit that could offer only a small stipend.” Her internship at the International Rescue Committee resettlement office “solidified my desire to work in refugee affairs.”
Photo: NATO/Edouard Bocquet
Navigating Command Dean Stavridis recounts lessons learned as military head of NATO After five years in the Navy, James Stavridis thought he’d had enough of military life—law school beckoned. He told his commanding officer and soon received a call from Mike Mullen, the future chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff who had mentored Stavridis when he was a student at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis. Mullen offered him a deal—stay in the Navy and he’d get to go to The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts for graduate school. But it’s not a law school, Stavridis pointed out. Mullen persisted, and Stavridis soon headed to Massachusetts, where he earned a Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy and a Ph.D.—and then went on to an illustrious naval career before returning to Tufts in 2013 as dean of The Fletcher School. Stavridis, F83, F84, recounts the story in his new book, The Accidental Admiral: A Sailor Takes Command at NATO (Naval Institute Press). Part memoir, part current history, and part management advice book, it mostly covers the years when Stavridis was the supreme allied commander of NATO and head of the U.S. European Command, positions he held from 2009 to 2013. It was a tumultuous time for Stavridis, who was the first naval officer to serve as military head of NATO and the U.S. European Command. He describes dealing with Afghanistan, Libya, Syria, the Balkans, Russia, and Israel, piracy and cyberterrorism—not to mention trying to marshal consensus from the 28 NATO member countries, never an easy task. —Taylor McNeil
Read a Q&A with Dean Stavridis at bit.ly/Stavridis.
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Fair Fashion Fletcher Women’s Leadership Award winner Amanda Judge, F09, built a thriving company that’s bringing economic stability to rural artisans in Ecuador and Vietnam by Mike Eckel, F13
y any traditional accounting measure, Faire Collection, the New York–based artisanal jewelry company founded by Amanda Judge, F09, has seen major success. In the seven years since its founding, the company has grown from just $10,000 in start-up capital to well over $1 million in sales revenue. Then there’s less traditional accounting: mattresses, for example. In rural northern Ecuador, where Judge first conceived of the idea to combine fair trade jewelry and social development, the artisans she’s partnered with have seen their lives transformed. Cookstoves have replaced open fires. The artisans and their families eat meat instead
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of only potatoes, and use bathrooms instead of open fields. And for Olga— one of Judge’s first partners—mattresses have replaced straw mats. “For Olga, the mattresses were even more exciting than the car she bought with her earnings,” says Judge. “The work we’re doing is not on a massive scale, but it’s really profound in the circles that we’re dedicated to.” All told, Judge and Faire Collection now work with more than 200 artisans.
PHoto: Courtesy Amanda Judge
Seventy are in Vietnam and the rest in Ecuador. Mattresses aside, the impact that Judge’s efforts have had in Ecuador are substantial. Faire Collection’s production company there offers various training sessions, including regular classes on issues like family planning and domestic violence, which are open to the artisans and community members. In recognition of her innovation and her success at alleviating rural poverty, Judge is this year’s recipient of the annual Fletcher Women’s Leadership Award (FWLA). The award was established in 2014 by the Fletcher Board of Advisors and the School’s executive leadership to honor outstanding female graduates who are making a meaningful impact in the world in the private, public, and NGO sectors. “Amanda demonstrates the qualities that are emblematic of Fletcher alumni. She has been passionate, persistent, and creative in providing people with market-driven opportunities to use their skills and artistry to build businesses of their own,” says Leslie Puth, F11, chair of the FWLA committee. “Not only has Amanda been instrumental in changing the lives of hundreds of artisans and their families in countries like Ecuador and Vietnam, she has built a very successful business. Her leadership, compassion, and commitment truly recommend her and inspire others.” For Judge, 34, artisanal jewelry and economic development in impoverished communities is a creative extension of the “rogue” jewelry shops that she and her friends used to set up in her parents’ garage when she was growing up in Arlington, Massachusetts. After getting a degree in finance from Santa Clara University, in California, she worked in a series of private sector finance jobs: accounting and marketing positions, mainly on
the West Coast. But, she says, she was uninspired by “corporate work.” “I kept thinking, ‘I want to be doing something that has an impact…I want to do something that I feel proud of,’ ” she says. Having grown up so close to Fletcher, she wanted to attend, but she knew no foreign languages, a graduation requirement. In 2006, while working for a Seattle financial services company, she volunteered doing data analysis for FINCA, a Washington,
Cookstoves have replaced open fires ... mattresses have replaced straw mats. D.C.–based microfinance organization. When she won an internal competition, she says, she requested a meeting with FINCA’s CEO, John Hatch, and went to Washington, D.C., to see him in person. He advised her to travel abroad and learn Spanish, and promised to write her a recommendation for admission to Fletcher once she did so. Judge ended up in Peru, volunteering for FINCA, working with indigenous women to increase the profitability of their artisanal exports. That experience, in addition to improving her Spanish, opened the door for her to enroll at Fletcher. “I’m not necessarily a very academic person,” she says. “But I loved the curriculum. I loved the flexibility to make it what you wanted. “I didn’t like the idea of doing exercises for exercise’s sake. I always wanted
it to have some relationship to what was going on in the world,” she says. Judge completed two internships, the second of which took her to northern Ecuador, doing a market research field survey, again for FINCA. While she was there—in Otavalo, about a two-and-a-half-hour drive north of Quito—she researched “income flows” for some of the families. The men were typically doing small-scale farming, the women artisanal craft work or selling produce on the roadsides. Judge started thinking about how the “flows” could be made higher and more sustainable by differentiating products, finding better prices for raw materials, or exporting more. “When that dawned on me, I called up [lecturer] Kim Wilson. I told her I didn’t want to do my thesis anymore,” she says. “What I wanted to do was create a business plan.” Her remaining time at Fletcher was spent primarily getting Faire Collection off the ground, using some savings she had accumulated and start-up capital in the form of a graduation gift from her mother. (“I hope that no one actually goes back and looks at my grades from then,” she says, laughing.) Seven years later, the company now has 10 employees based in Brooklyn, New York, and a satellite office in the Hudson Valley, and six with its Ecuadoran production operations. The designs, the models, and the feel of its website, shopfaire.com, wouldn’t be out of place on the pages of Vogue or Cosmopolitan. Judge says she hopes her company can help change American consumers’ perceptions, from helping the poor out of charity to buying artisans’ products because of their beauty and quality. “It’s chic jewelry that the fashion industry has embraced but customers can also be proud of,” she says. “It’s a celebration of the artisans, their culture and their heritage.”
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Security Professor Michael Glennon argues that the United States is on the path to autocracy.
Shadow Politics Elected officials are no longer in charge of our national security—and that is undermining our democracy, says Professor Michael Glennon by Bruce Morgan
of the book, and had cited it in his classes many times, but he had never gotten around to reading the thing from cover to cover. Last year he did, jolted page after page with its illuminating message for our time. The book was The English Constitution, an analysis by 19th-century journalist Walter
ichael Glennon knew
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Bagehot that laid bare the dual nature of British governance. It suggested that one part of government was for popular consumption and another more hidden part was for real, consumed with getting things done in the world. As he read, Glennon, a professor of international law at The
PHoto: Glenn Kulbako
Fletcher School, where he also teaches constitutional law, saw distinct parallels with the current American political scene. He decided to explore the similarities in a 30-page paper that he sent around to a number of his friends, asking them to validate or refute his argument. As it happens, Glennon’s friends were an extraordinarily well-informed bunch, mostly seasoned operatives in the CIA, the U.S. State Department, and the military. “Look,” he told them. “I’m thinking of writing a book. Tell me if this is wrong.” Every single one responded, “What you have here is exactly right.” Expanded from that original brief paper, Glennon’s book, National Security and Double Government (Oxford University Press), takes our political system to task, arguing that the people running our government are not our visible elected officials but high-level—and unaccountable— bureaucrats nestled atop government agencies. Glennon’s informed critique of the American political system comes from a place of deep regard. Glennon says he can remember driving into Washington, D.C., in the late spring of 1973, at the time of the Senate Watergate hearings, straight from law school at the University of Minnesota, to take his first job as assistant legislative counsel to the U.S. Senate. Throughout his 20s, he worked in government, culminating in his position as legal counsel to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee under Sen. Frank Church from 1977 to 1980. Since entering academic life in the early 1980s, Glennon has been a frequent consultant to government agencies of all stripes, as well as a regular commentator on media outlets such as NPR’s All Things Considered, the Today show, and Nightline. In his new book, an inescapable sadness underlies the narrative. “I feel
a great sense of loss,” Glennon admits. “I devoted my life to these [democratic] institutions, and it’s not easy to see how to throw the current trends into reverse.” Fletcher Magazine spoke with Glennon recently to learn more of his perspective. You’ve been both an insider and an outsider with regard to government affairs. What led you to write this book?
I was struck by the strange continuity in national security policy between the Bush administration and the Obama administration. Obama, as a candidate, had been eloquent and forceful in criticizing many aspects of the Bush administration’s national security policies, from drone strikes to Guantanamo to surveillance by the National Security Agency—the NSA—to covert operations. Yet as president, it turned out that he made very, very few changes in these policies. So I thought it was useful to explain the reason for that.
You use the phrase “double government,” coined by Walter Bagehot in the 1860s. What did he mean by that?
Walter Bagehot was one of the founders of The Economist magazine. He developed the theory of “double government,” which in a nutshell is this. He said Britain had developed two sets of institutions. First came “dignified” institutions, the monarchy and the House of Lords, which were for show and which the public believed ran the government. But in fact, he suggested, this was an illusion. These dignified institutions generate legitimacy, but it was a second set of institutions, which he called Britain’s “efficient” institutions, that actually ran the government behind the scenes. These institutions were the House of Commons, the Cabinet, and the prime minister. This split allowed Britain to
move quietly from a monarchy to what Bagehot called a “concealed republic.” The thesis of my book is that the United States has also drifted into a form of double government, and that we have our own set of “dignified” institutions—Congress, the presidency, and the courts. But when it comes to national security policy, these entities have become largely for show. National security policy is now formulated primarily by a second group of officials, namely the several hundred individuals who manage the agencies of the military, intelligence, and law enforcement bureaucracy responsible for protecting the nation’s security. What are some components of this arrangement?
The NSA, the FBI, the Pentagon, and elements of the State Department, certainly; generally speaking, law enforcement, intelligence, and the military entities of the government. It’s a diverse group, an amorphous group, with no leader and no formal structure, that has come to dominate the formation of American national security policy to the point that Congress, the presidency, and the courts all defer to it. To what degree are we still a functioning democracy? I’m sure you know that President Jimmy Carter told a German reporter last year that he thought we no longer qualified as a democracy because of our domestic surveillance.
We are clearly on the path to autocracy, and you can argue about how far we are down that path. But there’s no question that if we continue on that path, America’s constitutionally established institutions—Congress, the courts, and the presidency—will ultimately end up like Britain’s House of Lords and monarchy, namely as institutional museum pieces. Bruce Morgan can be reached at bruce.morgan@ tufts.edu.
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Influencing Armenia Fletcher’s big footprint in a small nation creates a network for change at the top By Taylor McNeil
armenia is a crossroads between east and west. Bordered by Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Iran, it’s been part of the Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, and Russian empires—not to mention the Soviet Union— with rare periods of political independence. As the USSR crumbled in 1991, the Republic of Armenia was born anew. The nation of 3.3 million people faced daunting challenges, still recovering from a devastating earthquake in December 1988 and a war with Azerbaijan over the disputed territory of Nagorno-Karabakh.
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Photo: ©Jane Sweene y/JAI/Corbis
Mount Ararat overlooks Yerevan, the capital of Armenia.
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Given those circumstances, building a national government from scratch was difficult, especially when it came to developing a diplomatic corps where none had existed. And so, in 1999, 15 young diplomats from the Armenian foreign ministry took a six-month leave of absence and flew to the United States to pursue an intensive program in international relations and diplomacy at The Fletcher School. They were the first group of Tavitian Scholars at Tufts. Now in its 16th year, the program, funded by the Tavitian Foundation, has paid for more than 250 early and mid-career Armenian officials to study at The Fletcher School. Not just for diplomats anymore, the program offers executive training to a range of Armenian government officials and central bankers. The latest scholars arrived on campus in January. In a nation roughly the size of the state of Maryland, Fletcher has educated more people per capita than in any other country in the world. The Tavitian Scholars Program has created a deep network of highly trained administrators who hold positions throughout the government, from the foreign and justice ministries to the office of the president. “You get an educated group like that, and it begins to become a critical mass for positive change,” says Jeswald Salacuse, the Henry J. Braker Professor of Law at The Fletcher School, who has taught in the program.
ACT OF KINDNESS Aso O. Tavitian, H13, understood Armenia’s problems and wanted to help. Of Armenian heritage, he was born in Bulgaria but escaped that communist country in 1959, landing in Beirut, Lebanon. An Armenian English High School teacher taught him English for three months, after which Tavitian was accepted at Haigazian College on a full scholarship. He couldn’t afford his living expenses,
Joyce Barsam, J62, AG89, J89P, A91P, A94P, AG91P, and Aso O. Tavitian, H13, escorted Fletcher leaders to Armenia in October to meet alumni of the training program that Tavitian funds.
though, and it looked like he wouldn’t be able to pursue his education. Then an anonymous benefactor stepped in. Tavitian later learned that his poorly paid teacher made his education possible—an act of generosity he’s never forgotten. Tavitian came to the United States in 1961. He studied nuclear engineering at Columbia and later co-founded Syncsort, one of the first companies to develop and market standalone software. Through his Tavitian Foundation, he seeks to match the generosity of his mentor and honor his Armenian roots. In the 1990s, Tavitian sponsored several students from Armenia to attend The Fletcher School. Later, he spoke with the country’s new foreign minister, Vartan Oskanian, EG83, F93, A08P, who was trying to figure out how to train the fledgling nation’s diplomats. Having been part of the Soviet Union for seven decades, Armenia had no home-grown diplomatic corps—that was always
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Moscow’s purview. The Fletcher School’s name came up. Through Joyce Barsam, J62, AG89, J89P, A91P, A94P, AG91P, a trustee of Tufts at the time and vice president of the Tavitian Foundation, Tavitian met Jack Galvin, then dean of the School. Galvin pitched the idea that Fletcher could provide the training for the young Armenian diplomats. Tavitian decided to pay for 15 newly minted diplomats from the Foreign Ministry to spend six months at Fletcher. “I had gotten the commitment from the foreign minister that they would be young, educated, and chosen on merit—no Soviet apparatchiks,” Tavitian says. That first group included Nairi Petrossian, then an attaché in the foreign ministry’s public affairs department who had joined the Armenian diplomatic service just 18 months earlier. “I have very warm recollections of all the people who taught me at Fletcher,” he says, recalling the “hardcore realism” of Professor Richard Shultz and “insight into the Middle East” by Professor Andrew Hess. Petrossian, who is an aide and interpreter for Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan, says that his time at Fletcher gave him “various fine keys to quite an extensive number of doors that otherwise would have been closed to me.” “We studied international law, economics, international relations, negotiation theory and practice, among many other topics,” notes Ara Margaryan, a career diplomat posted at the Armenian embassy in London who was among the first group of Tavitian Scholars in 1999. “They aimed to provide younger and new diplomats with this package of knowledge that we could use in our careers.” After a few years focusing on the foreign ministry, the Tavitian Foundation expanded its Fletcher mission. “We decided to reach out to other ministries and the central bank,” says
PHOTO: Courtesy of Joyce Barsam
Armenia is in a tight spot geographically. It is still technically at war with Azerbaijan over disputed territory. Turkey closed its border with Armenia in 1993 in support of Azerbaijan, so trade between the two countries has to go through neighboring Georgia. Iran is on its short southern border. Tavitian tells the story of having dinner with the Armenian foreign minister a decade ago and asking him about the countries that surround Armenia. “He said that Iran was their best neighbor,” Tavitian reports. “My response was, ‘When Iran is your best neighbor, I know you’re in a tough neighborhood.’ ” It’s not only the geopolitics that are tough. One of the most important challenges for Armenia, the central bank’s
A ‘Tough Neighborhood’
Barsam, who helps select participants. Now the scholars come from a variety of ministries. The Tavitian Scholars’ backgrounds vary, but they are all highly educated— they typically have at least a master’s degree and a significant number have doctorates. They all share an appreciation for the rigor of the program. “If you ask the students what was the most valuable thing you got out of the course, almost all of them will say a new way of thinking, a new way of analyzing,” Barsam says. Vahktang Abrahamyan, a 2004 participant and now a board member of the Central Bank of the Republic of Armenia, agrees. “I think that we managed to start thinking in more structured ways—and more globally,” he says. Richard Shultz, director of Fletcher’s International Security Studies Program, who has taught security studies for the Tavitian Scholars Program over the years, says the goal is to give the scholars a global perspective. “After they are here, you hope that they have a broader view of the world, understanding from a multidisciplinary perspective,” he says.
At an East-West crossroads, Armenia has been claimed by many empires. Since the Soviet Union’s fall in 1991, it has been rebuilding its own government.
Abrahamyan says, is overcoming what he calls the post-Soviet syndrome. “We need to change the way of thinking, way of working, education, health care—everything needs to be adjusted. The only key that can open the door is an educated society—a young generation with ‘Western education,’ with the ability to apply theory in real life.” That’s just what Tavitian was hoping for. “Whenever I sit with [the scholars] after they finish their program at Fletcher, and I try to understand what they have learned, inevitably what I hear is [a different] way of thinking,” he says.
A Powerful Impact Last October, Tavitian and Barsam escorted Fletcher School Dean James Stavridis, F83, F84, and Senior Associate Dean Deborah Nutter to Armenia to meet alumni of the program as well as top government leaders. Demonstrating their strong ties to each other, about 200 alumni of the Tavitian Scholars Program showed up for a reunion.
On the trip, the group also attended a luncheon hosted by the president of Armenia. “He made a point of inviting his eight senior aides to sit at the table with us,” says Barsam, “and every one of them—from his chief of staff to his senior foreign policy advisor, senior domestic policy advisors to his translators and financial advisors—had been to Fletcher.” They also visited a number of ministries and the central bank, where they also met many Tavitian alumni. “Two hundred and fifty people in a government of a small country is a very powerful force,” Barsam says. “Many of our graduates are now in leadership positions—one is chief of staff to the president. It’s a very powerful trajectory that has been established.” Shultz agrees. “With all these people who have been through the program who are now working in critical ministries,” he says, “that’s a pretty big footprint.” Taylor McNeil, senior news editor in the Tufts Office of Publications, can be reached at email@example.com.
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Author of the original House of Cards, Fletcher alumnus Michael Dobbs—now Lord Dobbs of Wylye— learned about politics the hard way
The BabyFaced Hit man by Gail Bambrick photo by Alonso Nichols
who knows what evil lurks in the halls of government? michael dobbs does.
Dobbs, F73, F75, F77, wrote the novel House of Cards, which is now a popular Netflix series about corruption in American politics. In it, he dares us to explore the outer limits of human ambition and immorality. “So much of drama comes from the dark side, and there is a lot of dark side in politics,” says Dobbs. “It’s like Shakespeare—he concentrates on the dark side because that’s where you find what makes us what we are.” There’s plenty of wickedness in House of Cards. U.S. Rep. Frank Underwood (played by Kevin Spacey) and his wife, Claire (Robin Wright), seek power and revenge for a perceived betrayal after Frank is passed over for secretary of state. It is a modern-day Macbeth, with murder and blackmail almost incidental to the slander, lies, and deception.
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“I owe all the fame and success I’ve had for the last 25-odd years to being beaten up by Margaret Thatcher,” says Michael Dobbs, whom the Tufts University Alumni Association honored with a Distinguished Achievement Award last year.
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Dobbs knows a thing or two about political gamesmanship. Beginning in 1977, he was an advisor to Margaret Thatcher, and by 1986, he was Conservative Party chief of staff heading into Thatcher’s third-term election as prime minister. Dobbs was often called the “baby-faced hit man” for his role as a party enforcer. But he fell victim to ambitious rivalry within the party. “During the course of the campaign, Margaret came to believe that I was plotting against her. Totally untrue—absolutely untrue,” Dobbs says. “What was happening was that people were plotting against me and my boss, the chairman of the party,” he says, shaking his head. “They spread rumors, and dare I say they played the game of rumor mongering far better than we did. We didn’t bother to do it; we just got on with the job.” Even though Thatcher won her third term by a record margin, Dobbs saw the writing on the wall. “My relationship with Margaret became absolutely fractured. There was one meeting just a few days before the election when she exploded—became hysterical.” Dobbs says the confrontation left him “very badly bruised and left various other people at the meeting utterly appalled.” He went home and took a legal pad, pen, and bottle of wine down to his swimming pool. On the pad he wrote the first words of House of Cards: the letters “F.U.”
Stomping Souls And so began the creation of one of politics’ most vile and immoral fictional characters. In the original 1989 novel, set in the British Parliament, he is Francis Urquhart, wending a dark path to become prime minister. Dobbs kept Urquhart and the story alive with two more books in the series, To Play the King and The Final Cut. The BBC adapted the trilogy into a highly acclaimed miniseries that aired in the early 1990s.
not a holiday camp—it’s a machine for getting things done.” Frank Underwood would certainly understand this Darwinian view of politics. “It’s not a place for choir boys or angels or people who simply want to be loved,” Dobbs says. “It’s where people have to make the really difficult, unpleasant, unpalatable decisions when sometimes the option isn’t between good and bad, it’s between what type of bad have I got to choose.”
The Fletcher Years The critically acclaimed American version transformed Francis Urquhart into U.S. Rep. Francis “Frank” Underwood, D-S.C., who stomps souls and will stop at nothing to capture the Oval Office. Season three premiered in February. “So I owe all the fame and success I’ve had for the last 25-odd years to being beaten up by Margaret Thatcher,” says Dobbs. “She was still the greatest peacetime prime minister our country had in the last century. But as I say, greatness is never comfortable.” Just how real are the unnerving maneuvers and conscienceless characters in House of Cards? By way of answering, Dobbs mentions a recent news item about the Italian prime minister buying a couple of copies of House of Cards. Dobbs felt compelled to post a comment on Twitter. “I said that I hope he realizes this is a book of entertainment, not a book of instruction.” Dobbs acknowledges he’s witnessed a great deal of the less savory side of politics. “I’ve seen quite a lot of it—maybe I’ve been part of it,” he demurs, noting that quite a bit of the 1987 Thatcher election campaign is in House of Cards. “I’ve never done anything that I’ve been ashamed of, but I’ve been through some difficult times,” he says. He did fire friends who worked in the Thatcher administration, “because politics is
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Leaving England for The Fletcher School, where he earned an M.A., an M.A.L.D., and a Ph.D. in nuclear defense studies, was a strategic choice, Dobbs says. He wanted to be near a woman he had fallen in love with who was living in New York. “Those were some of the most important years of my life,” says Dobbs, who received a P.T. Barnum Award for Excellence in Entertainment from Tufts and a Distinguished Achievement Award from the Tufts University Alumni Association last year. “Not only did I take away huge friendships that still exist to this day, as an Englishman who had barely ever been abroad, it opened my eyes to what the world was like.” He ticks off the positions his fellow students ended up in: “prime ministers, foreign ministers, ambassadors, leaders of great institutions, academics, lawyers. That helped me deal with Margaret Thatcher, because to understand these great figures, you have to understand who they are in private.” He got a political education outside the classroom as well, working as a political feature writer for the Boston Globe from 1971 to 1975 and watching the Watergate saga unfold. “You want dark side?” he asks. “Richard Nixon came very close to being the greatest president this country ever had, and he destroyed himself. You couldn’t make this up. Nobody would believe it.”
Photo: Courtesy of Netflix
After graduating from Fletcher, Dobbs worked for Thatcher and the Conservative Party. He then moved into public relations and advertising, working for Saatchi & Saatchi from 1983 to 1991, with the interregnum in the Thatcher administration in 1986– 87. Returning to the ad world, Dobbs served as Maurice Saatchi’s deputy chair in New York. His writing career started to take off as the 1990s began. Still bitten by the political bug, he served as deputy chair of the Conservative Party in Prime Minister John Major’s government from 1994 to 1995, but writing remained his passion. He penned a series of novels about political intrigue featuring an unlikely hero, Tom Goodfellowe, a backbench member of Parliament, and then wrote four historical novels in which he mined the motivation of Winston Churchill.
UNCOMFORTABLE PEOPLE “The more you analyze Churchill, the more he is not this two-dimensional hero who got everything absolutely right,” Dobbs says. “He was a
Fictional U.S. Rep. Francis ‘Frank’ Underwood will stop at nothing to capture the Oval Office. three-dimensional man who got loads of things wrong, who was not always very nice or polite or patient, but who did the most extraordinary things. In my opinion he was the greatest English prime minister ever.” The great politicians have the ability to change things, Dobbs says, and change means disruption. “It means breaking things and putting them back together in another order. All the greatest politicians I know have been uncomfortable people to be with—not nice and warm and gentle people. That,
I think, is the secret of leadership—you are not going to get ordinary men and women to take it up and make a success of it. You have to be extraordinary, driven, obsessed,” he says. Dobbs followed the Churchill novels with six thrillers starring Harry Jones, an ex–Special Air Service MP. The inspiration for the series came in the form of two small doors right behind where Queen Elizabeth sits in the House of Lords. Dobbs was shocked to learn that they were not escape hatches or communications centers, just janitorial closets. “I said, ‘Someday, I will write a book about it.’ So I wrote about holding the head of state hostage, and developed the character Harry Jones, who is the antagonist,” Dobbs says. It’s part of a larger pattern. “All my ideas for books are just by accident. That’s my life—I never had a plan at all.” For the past four years, Dobbs has had another sideline, so to speak. He was appointed life peer in the House of Lords—meaning his title cannot be passed down as it would if he were a hereditary peer—and accorded the title Lord Dobbs of Wylye. “They asked me back to the House of Lords because I’m a writer and had been a cheerleader of the conservative cause for decades,” he says. “They thought I would come and support the government faithfully. So in my first week there, I voted against the government and defeated by one vote—my vote—a very important piece of legislation to change the electoral system. The beauty of it is now they don’t take me for granted.” Gail Bambrick can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. Opposite: An advertisement for the season premiere of House of Cards, the Netflix series based on Michael Dobbs’ novel. Left: Kevin Spacey with Molly Parker, who plays the House majority whip.
Photo: Courtesy of Netflix; Nathaniel Bell for Netflix
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Connect Ayesha Jalal
Pakistan’s Journey In a new book, Ayesha Jalal chronicles how the country has lurched from crisis to crisis since its founding by Taylor McNeil In the spring of 2013, Pakistan experienced something never before seen in the country’s 67-year history: one civilian government ceded power to another after an open and relatively fair election. That might seem a small achievement, but it was a landmark for the South Asian nation founded in 1947. It’s also the ending point for Ayesha Jalal’s new book, The Struggle for Pakistan: A Muslim Homeland and Global Politics (Harvard University Press), published in September. A history of her homeland from just prior to its founding to almost the present, the book is the culmination of years of study about Pakistan’s reason for being, its place in the world, and its prospects. Jalal, the Mary Richardson Professor of History in the School of Arts and Sciences and The Fletcher School, tells the story of Pakistan with the intricate detail of a Mughal miniature painting: the players, major and minor, strive for power amid a complex interplay of domestic and international forces as the country, often dominated by the military,
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lurches from one crisis to the next. For starters, Pakistan might never have existed. With the British on the way out of India in the 1940s, Hindu and Muslim politicians could not agree on power sharing in a federated state; if they had, Pakistan would still be part of India, says Jalal. Almost at the last minute, before the British pulled out, two geographical corners of India, separated by 1,000 miles, were sheaved off to form Pakistan. Even though the dividing lines were religion, “it was mainly religion as identity” more than a desire for a religious state, writes Jalal, author of The Pity of Partition and Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia. The name itself, devised in the 1930s, signals its uncertain origins—an acronym for Punjab, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Sind, and Balochistan. From its earliest years, Jalal writes, Pakistan was convulsed with instability. The first prime minister was assassinated in 1951, after just a few years in office. Civilian governments were routinely tossed from office by martial law and military coups d’etat. Throughout, each new regime decried its predecessor and often changed the constitution to suit its needs. “Everybody who comes into power changes the rule of law at will; that’s what’s ailing Pakistan,” Jalal says. Yet she sees that changing, as the judiciary demonstrates more independence. “That is where my hope lies,” she says. “But the military is also more entrenched, so the struggle is going to be intense.” Still, she writes, “after eluding Pakistan for over six decades, democracy is coming to be recognized by a cross section of society…as the one remaining salve that can relieve the extreme stresses caused by aborted political processes and military authoritarianism.”
PHOTO: Courtesy Ayesha Jalal
k eepi ng up with th e fletch er com munity
Books Alum ni
Bergsten, C. Fred, F62, F69, Gary Clyde Hufbauer, Sean Miner, Tyler Moran
Miles, William, F82
Jacque, Laurent L.
Scars of Partition: Postcolonial Legacies in French and British Borderlands
International Corporate Finance: Value Creation with Currency Derivatives in Global Capital Markets
University of Nebraska Press, 2014
Bridging the Pacific: Toward Free Trade and Investment Between China and the United States
Afro-Jewish Encounters from Timbuktu to the Indian Ocean and Beyond
Peterson Institute, 2014
Markus Wiener Publishers, 2014 Dabrowski, Patrice M., F92
Gompert, David C., Hans Binnendijk, F69, F72, F06P, F09P, F09P, Bonny Lin
Blinders, Blunders, and Wars: What America and China Can Learn Rand Corporation, 2014
Poland: The First Thousand Years
O’Neil, Henry V., F96
Northern Illinois University Press, 2014
Glory Main: The Sim War: Book One Harper Voyager Impulse, 2014
Day, Adam, F06
Wander in the Night Archway Publishing, 2014
Lavdas, Kostas A., Spyridon N. Litsas, Dimitrios V. Skiadas
Hagmann, Jonas, F05
Stateness and Sovereign Debt
(In)Security and the Production of International Relations: The Politics of Securitisation in Europe
Rowman & Littlefield, 2015 Martel, William C.
Savage, Carroll J., F57
Grand Strategy in Theory and Practice: The Need for an Effective American Foreign Policy
Lautze, Jonathan, F05, ed.
Cambridge University Press, 2014
Key Concepts in Water Resource Management: A Review and Critical Evaluation
High Tide Books, 2014
Brown, Jennifer S. H., and Wilson B. Brown, F62
Col. William Marsh, Vermont Patriot and Loyalist
Tiger Rock Press, 2013
Fawaz, Leila Tarazi McCrea, Ron, F67
Building Taliesin: Frank Lloyd Wright’s Home of Love and Loss
A Land of Aching Hearts: The Middle East in the Great War
Front Line Public Diplomacy: How US Embassies Communicate with Foreign Publics Palgrave MacMillan, 2014 bit.ly/FletcherRugh
Harvard University Press, 2014 Schaffner, Julie A.
Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2012
Glennon, Michael J.
National Security and Double Government
Development Economics: Theory, Empirical Research, and Policy Analysis
Meier, Patrick, F12
Oxford University Press, 2014
Conklin, Tara, F03
Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response
The House Girl
Taylor & Francis Press, 2015
William Morrow Paperbacks, 2013
Rugh, William A. f a c u lt y a n d f e l l o w s
Have you published a book this year? Let us know by emailing email@example.com.
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
From the Fletcher Files First Writer-inresidence
Fletcher, ICRC Partner on Africa
A03, F03, will be Fletcher’s first writer-in-residence this spring. He is the author of Green on Blue, a novel about two Afghan boys caught in their country’s deadly conflict, which was released in February. Ackerman served five tours of duty in Iraq and Afghanistan and is the recipient of the Silver Star, the Bronze Star for Valor, and the Purple Heart. A former White House Fellow, he has written essays and fiction that have appeared in The New Yorker and The Atlantic, among others.
The Fletcher School entered into a partnership with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in conjunction with the celebration of the ICRC’s 150th anniversary in the fall. This partnership will focus on research and policy guidance for responding to “conflict-affected migrants” in the Sahel and North Africa. The initiative will be housed under Fletcher’s Institute for Human Security, which has a new director, Eileen Babbitt, professor of the practice at The Fletcher School.
GMAP Visits Estonia and Argentina The Global Master of Arts Program traveled to Tallinn, Estonia, in August 2014 and Buenos Aires, Argentina, in January 2015 for two-week residencies. In Tallinn, GMAP participants met with Estonian President Toomas Hendrik Ilves, many cabinet ministers, parliamentarians, policy makers, and business leaders. Similarly, in Buenos Aires, participants were treated to excellent conversations about the region’s economic and political contexts with key policy makers and leaders in civil society. GMAP’s next international residency will be in Brussels in August 2015.
Fletcher Receives $1 Million Grant The Fletcher School has been awarded $1 million from Carnegie Corporation to develop strategies to enhance the legitimacy of fragile states through research and outreach aimed at the media and policy makers. The initiative will explore indicators for state legitimacy across four sectors: political, economic, justice, and security. Carnegie challenged the 22 American members of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs to compete and come up with novel, feasible ways to bridge the gap between academics and policy makers working on foreign policy issues, and made five $1 million awards. “In practical terms, this grant might help us to understand many of the
security threats we see unfolding now in real time—like ISIS, which styles itself an Islamic ‘State,’ or the illegal annexation of Crimea, or the next breakaway ‘nation’ carved out of a European power,” says James Stavridis, F83, F84, dean of The Fletcher School. “The grant will help support the mechanisms that move ideas from the academy into the real world where policy impacts the globe.” Fletcher’s Institute for Human Security will be the focal point for the initiative, which will also involve the School’s International Security Studies Program, World Peace Foundation, and Institute for Business in the Global Context, as well as the Feinstein International Center at the Friedman
fletcher magazine | Spring 2015
School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University. Partnerships with outside institutions, think tanks, governments, and nonstate actors in the business and nonprofit sectors, which will be involved throughout the research process, will help to bridge the academic-policy gap. In addition, media outreach initiatives will be achieved through planned upgrades to the School’s Edward R. Murrow Center of Public Diplomacy. “These are urgent times that require up-to-date, in-depth research in order to allow the vast learning reservoir of our universities to be of assistance to practitioners in the public and foreign policy domains,” said Vartan Gregorian, president of Carnegie Corporation.
photo: ilker Gurer
VIP Visitors Liu Xiaoming
This year’s Diplomat in Residence is Ambassador Mary Beth Leonard,
former U.S. ambassador to Mali. Leonard was previously director for West African affairs at the U.S. Department of State and deputy chief of mission in Bamako, Mali. The Fletcher Reads event in September focused on the book Strength in What Remains, by Tracy Kidder, which recounts the true story of Deogratias Niyizonkiza , who survived a civil war and genocide in his native Burundi. Kidder and Niyizonkiza attended the event. In February, the School welcomed Gary Shteyngart, author of the novel Absurdistan. Fletcher welcomed NobelLaureate-in-Residence Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, director general emeritus of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and co-recipient of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize with the IAEA, for the fall semester. He gave a series of lectures, one of which was with former dean Stephen Bosworth, on “Nonproliferation and North Korea.” His closing lecture, titled “The Arab Spring: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects,” was moderated by Fletcher’s new director of the Fares Center, Nadim Shehadi.
Fletcher honors Ambassador The Fletcher School awarded the 11th annual Class of 1947 award to Liu Xiaoming, F83, the Chinese ambassador to the United Kingdom, at Convocation in September 2014. In his keynote address, “The Noble Mission and Dream,” Ambassador Liu reflected on his 40-year career in the Chinese Foreign Service, much of which has been dedicated to Chinese-U.S. relations. He has held prominent posts, including Chinese ambassador to Egypt and to North Korea. Ambassador Liu also described the professors who inspired him while at Fletcher, the many instances where he crossed paths with fellow Fletcher alumni during his work around the globe, and his encounters with our own former dean, Stephen Bosworth, during the six-party talks with North Korea. The Class of 1947 award was established by the class after its 50th Reunion as a way to give back to the School.
London Symposium Focuses on Russia “Russia and the West: Where Is It Going?” was the topic for Fletcher’s 12th annual London Symposium. With Dean James Stavridis as moderator, the keynote speaker was Marina Kaljurand, F95, Estonian undersecretary for political affairs and former Estonian ambassador to the U.S., Russia, Kazakhstan, Israel, and Canada. Drawing from the dean’s experience as the former supreme allied commander of NATO and Ambassador Kaljurand’s work as a diplomat in both Eastern Europe and the U.S., the discussion was lively and thoughtful. Almost 100 alumni from Europe attended the event at the Hellenic Centre, hosted by Andrei Vandoros, F71, A04P, F10P.
Doctoral Conference Highlights Research Keynote speaker Hans Binnendijk , F69, F72, F06P, F09P, F09P, a senior fellow at the Center for Transatlantic Relations at John Hopkins’ School of Advanced International Studies and a member of Fletcher’s Board of Advisors, discussed the challenges facing NATO at the 8th annual Fletcher Doctoral Conference, held in October. His talk, “The Future of NATO and the 2014 NATO Summit,” analyzed how NATO had to change its focus over the months leading up to the summit. The keynote was followed by four panels presenting original research covering everything from nuclear proliferation cascades and limits to dissent in divided societies to political networks and the evolving China and ASEAN relationship. A special roundtable discussion on “Perspectives of the Islamic State” was well received. The 9th Annual Doctoral Conference will be held on 18 September. For more information, see fletcher.tufts.edu/Doctoral-Conference/2015.
PHotos: Top right, Kelvin Ma; Kal jurand, White House photo by Lawrence Jackson
Spring 2015 | fletcher magazine
Club News Boston, Massachusetts In addition to monthly happy hours, the Fletcher Club of Boston had two great events in the fall. In September, the club co-hosted “So You Want To Be a Social Entrepreneur?” with Vanessa Kirsch, J87, founder of venture philanthropy fund New Profit Inc., and Alan Khazei, co-founder of City Year. The evening’s conversation was moderated by former Ambassador Alan Solomont, A70, A08P, now dean of the Jonathan M. Tisch College of Citizenship and Public Service at Tufts. The event was attended by nearly 200 people. In November, the club had nearly 80 alumni and 100 students attend the Fletcher Student-Alumni Networking evening at the Greek Consulate. To join the e-list or share ideas, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nevas, F09, Elena Nikolova, F14, and Samina Jain, F08. Houston alumni will gather quarterly in 2015 and talk about energy policy and good Fletcher memories!
Seattle, Washington The Fletcher Club of Seattle welcomes alumni to connect on LinkedIn at the Fletcher Club Seattle.
Dhaka, Bangladesh On 13 December 2014, the Fletcher Club of Bangladesh organized a dinner for all Fletcher alumni and their spouses at a newly opened grill restaurant, Angaar, which about 25 alumni attended. The club is planning to have a coffee evening during the spring, a lecture or a panel on a specific topic during the summer or fall, and its annual dinner in December.
Hong Kong, China
Fletcher alumni in Houston gathered for a holiday dinner in December. Attendees included Nathalia Arruda, F14, Beau Jewell, Mark Fisher, F05, Travis Pace, F14, Erica Bauer
The Fletcher Club of Hong Kong is unfortunately getting smaller as Jacob Hamstra, F11, his wife, Laura, and baby have moved to Hawaii. We last saw Jake in May at
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a Fletcher gathering with Alicia Eastman, F04, Lindy Lek, F04, and Martha Levin, F15. In November, Charles Lee, F90, now based in Paris but still working for the Asian Corporate Governance Association, was in town and Alicia Eastman and Diedre Lo, F90, met him for dinner. The club had an event in Decem ber with Professor Thomas Hout, a fellow at the Center for Emerging Market Enterprise at Fletcher and currently a visiting professor at University of Hong Kong’s School of Business.
alumni participated in a lively discussion that ranged from Horn of Africa politics to shifts in global natural resource dynamics and the Ebola crisis. In December, the Fletcher Club of London, in conjunction with Chatham House, hosted “Torturing the Rule of Law: Why the President, Congress and the Courts Can Do Little to Change U.S. National Security Policy,” a talk with Fletcher Professor Michael Glennon. Additionally, in December, the 12th Annual London Symposium took place (see page 23).
Following a summer of informal gatherings, the Fletcher Club of London kicked off the fall season with a bang. In October, the club hosted Fletcher Professor Alex de Waal, executive director of the World Peace Foundation, for an intimate dinner. Twelve
The Fletcher Club of Paris hosted three events in the fall, starting with a visit by Dean James Stavridis, F83, F84, on 6 October 2014 hosted by Jana and Joseph Roussel, F89, for a small gathering with alumni; then a discussion with Professor Laurent Jacque
on the future of the euro on 21 October 2014, hosted by Noah Rubins, F99, in the office of Freshfields; and then Professor Michael Glennon, who stopped in Paris on 10 December 2014 during his European trip to talk about his new book National Security and Double Government, once again kindly hosted by Noah. In each case, attendance was close to or at capacity and represented both long-term expats as well as new joiners to our community.
Milan/Rome, Italy Chiara Di Segni, F15, and Ronald Facchinetti, A92, hosted an aperitivo in Milan on 18 December 2014. It was a small gathering for their first event.
Mexico City, Mexico 2014 was a year of celebrations for the Fletcher Club of Mexico. The year started
with two visits from de facto diplomat Lulu Cheng, F13. Alessandra Valenti, F14, is also a frequent visitor to Mexico City. During spring break, Qasim Hasnain, F14, visited the Aztec capital, together with Aaron Melaas, F14, Macarena Olazábal, F14, N14, Jonathan Perry, A05, F11, Alessa Popovic, F15, Samuel Rosenow, F14, Juan Alberto Salinas Macias, F13, Kathleen Yaworsky, F15, and Shahshams Zaheer, F15. Garden parties were held to mark the occasion, and a few bold Fletcherites used calla lilies (Alcatraces) as their wine glasses. The lilies perished shortly thereafter. The Fletcher Club of Mexico, together with Enrique Alanís, F12, Francisco “Paco” Montaño, F11, and Tania Espinosa, F13, is developing an active core in Mexico and may launch a series of “Fletcher Talks” in 2015.
Taipei, Taiwan On 23 November 2014, the Fletcher Club of Taiwan held a lively joint event with the Tufts Club of Taiwan with about 30 people in attendance. Professor Thomas Hout of Fletcher spoke on enterprises and management issues in China.
Dubai, UAE On 11 November 2014, the Fletcher Club of Dubai held an event featuring Dean James Stavridis, F83, F84. Alumni attendees included Alain Hasrouny, F09, Abdulrahman Albisher, F11, Hania Bekdash, F10, Merdad Momadi, Hiba Zeino Steyn, F11, Paul Bagatelas, F87, and Christine Lauper Bagatelas, F87.
The Fletcher women’s network In September, the Fletcher Women’s Network (FWN) in
D.C. and Fletcher Women on Boards (FWOB) partnered with the Fletcher Club of Washington, D.C., to sponsor a panel on “Getting on Board: Pathways to Becoming a Board Director.” Panelists included Maria Proestou, F94, president of Delta Resources Inc.; Ellen Richstone, F74, former CEO, former Fortune 500 CFO, and current member of four corporate boards; and Alissa Wilson, F05, board member of the Alliance for Peacebuilding. Because of the enthusiastic and diverse attendance in D.C., the FWN/FWOB and the Fletcher Club of Boston are planning a similar event. In D.C., the groups are organizing another joint event to focus further on nonprofit boards. Alumnae interested in serving on the FWN’s Steering Committee are encouraged to contact us at fletcherwomen@ rocketmail.com.
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Club Contacts United States Arizona
Morgan Lerette, F13 morgan.lerette@gmail. com Ca l i f o r n i a
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Ma l a y s i a
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Shared Interest Fletcher Alumni of Color A s soc i at i o n
Kelly Smith, F03 kelly.a.smith@comcast. com F l e t c h e r P hD Alumni*
William Lawrence, F90, F04 email@example.com Jon Rosenwasser, F02 jon_rosenwasser@ alumni.stanford.edu Fletcher Women’s Network
Marcia Greenberg, F91 megreenberg@hotmail. com *Change or addition since the last edition of Fletcher Magazine
In Memoriam 1940s Kathryn (“Kathy”) Dineen Wriston, of New York City, Sherman, Connecticut, and Boynton Beach, Florida, passed away suddenly on Sunday morning, 28 September 2014, from complications from a fall at Deer Pond Farm, her house in Sherman, Connecticut. Kathy was predeceased by her beloved husband, Walter B. Wriston, F42, H63, former CEO of Citibank, who passed away in 2005. Kathy’s greatest joy in life was the time she spent with Walter working on Deer Pond Farm, which they planned to have maintained as a nature preserve. Kathy was born in Syracuse, New York, on 1 March 1939, to the late Robert Emmet Dineen and Carolyn Bareham Dineen. She is survived by her loving sister, the Honorable Carolyn Dineen King, of the 5th Circuit United States Court of Appeals, and devoted brother, Robert E. Dineen Jr. She is predeceased by the cherished brother, Laurence Joseph Dineen, who died of leukemia at age seven. She is also survived by Walter’s daughter, Catherine “Cassy” Wriston Quintal, her husband, Richard Quintal, and their children, Christopher W. Quintal, his wife, Sara, and Barbara Catherine “Katy” Quintal, all of whom she cared for dearly. In addition, she is survived by her brother-in-law, the Honorable Thomas M. Reavley, her sister-in-law, Jeanne C. Olivier, and three nephews, James D., Philip D., and Stephen E. Randall, and two grand nieces. She graduated from Smith College in 1960 and from the University of Michigan Law School in 1963. In her early career, she practiced law at the New York law
firm of Shearman & Sterling LLP. Later in her professional career, she served on the corporate boards of Federated Department Stores, Goodyear, Northwestern Mutual, Southern Pacific, Stanley Works, Union Carbide, and WR Grace & Co. and on the boards of professional organizations, including the American Arbitration Association and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. She also served as a trustee of the Financial Accounting Foundation, the Practising Law Institute, Fordham University, and the John A. Hartford Foundation. As her friends and family know, her personal and financial support spanned many charitable causes, such as nature conservation, medical research, educational institutions like The Fletcher School, Syracuse University College of Law, and Hobart & William Smith Colleges, and programs to feed the elderly and poor. She was one of the founders of the Matthew 25 Project, an organization established to assist the elderly in Sherman, Conn. Donald Y. Gilmore, F48, of Concord, New Hampshire, died on 17 June 2014 at HavenwoodHeritage Heights Nursing Facility. A retired Foreign Service Officer with the Department of State and the U.S. Information Agency, Gilmore was born in Charlottesville, Virginia, on 14 September 1923, but moved with his family shortly thereafter to Providence, Rhode Island, where he attended school until graduating from Providence Country Day School in 1941. He was a graduate of Middlebury College in Vermont
and earned an M.A. in international affairs from The Fletcher School. Gilmore was a naval aviator and flight instructor at Pensacola, Florida, in World War II. His Foreign Service assignments included Senegal, Morocco, Tunisia, Belgium, India, and Colombia. He also served for several years as director of French language broadcasting at the Voice of America, and later as a deputy assistant director of USIA in Washington, D.C. He was accompanied on his Foreign Service postings by his wife, Norma (Nicki) Kerr Gilmore, a former State Department employee. Three of their four children were born in North Africa. From retirement in Meredith, N.H., and later Concord, Gilmore served as a contract escort-interpreter for State Department cultural exchanges and arranged conference programs for The Fletcher School and the Television Conference Foundation. He also took summer field schools in archaeology, and was elected president of the New England Antiquities Research Association (NEARA) for six years. For NEARA publication, he co-edited a book on evidence for transoceanic contacts with the Americas before 1492, Across before Columbus? (1998). He and his wife loved the mountains and climbed most of the “four-thousand footers” of New Hampshire and also hiked in Switzerland and in the Grand Canyon. He is survived by his wife, Norma; daughter Deborah Gilmore of Voorhees, N.J.; daughter Shelly Barton of Laconia, N.H.; daughter Katherine Sheils of Potomac, Md.; and by his son, Jefferson Gilmore of Denver; by his sister, Jeanne O’Brien
of Cambridge, Mass., as well as by four grandchildren. Frank Cameron “Cam” Ludwig, F48, died peacefully on 8 June 2014, at Catholic Medical Center in Manchester, New Hampshire. He was born 27 June 1920, to Frank J. and May C. Ludwig of Brookline, Massachusetts. Between 1938 and 1942, he continued his education and graduated from Harvard College. Immediately following his graduation from Harvard, Ludwig enlisted into military service and graduated in June 1943 as an officer from the Cavalry School. Soon thereafter, he volunteered for the South West Pacific Area, helping in Hollandia, Dutch New Guinea. After five major actions for the control of the Philippines, he served as a platoon leader in the Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop, was detailed as assistant AC staff G-2, 24th Division, designated divisional historian for the Mindanao campaign, and commanded a special service unit on Leyte, for which he was decorated. Shortly before Hiroshima, he was ordered to the 8th Army and named staff ADC, becoming the personal aide to Maj. Gen. Clovis E. Byers. The 8th Army was responsible for the civil administration of Japan and occupational control of the Allied Occupation Forces. In spring of 1946, Ludwig returned to the United States. In 1948, he received an M.A. from The Fletcher School. In 1959, he enrolled in the Graduate School of Education of Yeshiva University and continued to explore the psychopathological study of offenders, becoming a member of the Medical Correctional
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Connect Association and the American Association of Correctional Psychologists, graduating in June 1969 from Georgetown University with a master’s degree in psychology, practicing in the Washington, D.C., area. Ludwig settled in Weare, N.H., in 1971, cultivating a vineyard. He was a member of the Harvard Club of Boston and attended St. Lawrence Church in Goffstown. Surviving is his nephew, L. Bardes Haase of Westerly, Rhode Island, and his niece, Cameron Haase-Pettingell of Newton Centre, Massachusetts. He will be missed by all his family, friends, and staff. Harry Irvine Odell, F49, of Washington, D.C., and Margaretville, New York, died in Margaretville on 28 September 2014, at the age of 93. While he was a member of the U.S. Army Air Corps in World War II, his B-17 bomber was shot down in July 1943 during a raid over Germany, and he was held as a prisoner of war in Stalag Luft III and other camps for the rest of the war. He graduated from Brown University with a B.A. in political science, going on to earn master’s degrees from Fletcher and Harvard University. He joined the U.S. Foreign Service in 1949. His 27-member entering class went as a group to Germany in 1950 to serve as resident officers of the Occupation; he began his diplomatic career managing an entire district of Bavaria. Odell was charge d’affaires at the U.S. Embassy in Jordan during the conflict between the Jordanian army and Palestinian militants, and wound up his Foreign Service career as deputy chief of mission at the U.S. Embassy in Bern, Switzerland. Following his retirement, he became executive director of the American Swiss Association, based in New York
City. He was later for many years a member of the Town Council of Glen Echo, Maryland. Odell married Barbara Lohmann of Brooklyn, New York, in 1946; she died in 1997 after 51 years of marriage. He is survived by his daughter Deborah of Alexandria, Va., and Margaretville and his son David (Debra) of Altoona, Pa., as well as nephews, nieces, and friends.
1960s Paul Bains Altemus, F64, died on 2 October 2014 in Silver Spring, Maryland. Beloved brother of James C. Altemus Jr. (Carol), loving uncle of David, Michael, and Elizabeth (Nathan Hayes), grandnieces Emilia and Madeline, nephew of Rebecca and also survived by many cousins.
1970s John Edwin Mroz, F74, F76, founder and CEO of the EastWest Institute (EWI) an influential research and policy group that worked behind the scenes with governments involved in the Cold War, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, superpower relations between the United States and China, and elsewhere, died on 15 August 2014 from complications of a blood cancer and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Mroz was born and raised in Westfield, Massachusetts. After completing his undergraduate studies at the University of Notre Dame and a master’s at Northeastern University, he completed a M.A.L.D. and his doctoral studies at The Fletcher School. Mroz was serving as director of Middle East studies at the International Peace Academy in June 1981 when he was handed a Palestinian Liberation Organization memorandum. Mroz contacted the Reagan administration and received approval to conduct a series of clandestine conversations with the
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Palestinian leadership. He met with PLO leader Yasser Arafat more than 50 times over three years. In 1981, with Ira D. Wallach as initial benefactor, Mroz and Wallach founded the Institute for East-West Security Studies. Based in New York, its mission in the 1980s was focused on helping to resolve underlying conflicts in the Cold War. In 1989, Mroz opened a European headquarters in Prague and reinvented the institute as the EastWest Institute (EWI). In February, shortly before he was diagnosed with a non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma, Mroz chaired a panel on transatlantic relations at the 2014 Munich Security Conference. Mroz was the recipient of numerous international awards, including the Order of Merit from the Federal Republic of Germany for the role he and EWI played in facilitating German reunification. He was also awarded the highest civilian awards given to non-citizens by the presidents of Slovakia and Romania. Mroz was author of a book on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Beyond Security: Private Perceptions among Arabs and Israelis, and contributed to Foreign Affairs magazine and numerous other publications. Mroz leaves his beloved wife, Karen Linehan Mroz, president of the Middle East Children’s Institute (MECI); three grown children, Jonathan, Jessica Mroz Stewart, and Jeffrey, and his granddaughter, Noel Isabella Mroz, and brothers, Thomas and Robert of North Carolina.
1980s Joel Michael Rothblatt, F87, a board certified Los Angeles Unified School District master social studies teacher, age 52, died suddenly from a brain hemorrhage on 21 July 2014. Rothblatt, a born teacher with a passion for the study
of history, civics, and multiculturalism, was a past president of the Southern California Social Science Association and a “best practices” presenter for the California Council for Social Studies. He was an innovative instructor in bringing “history to life.” As one former student shared on social media: “Mr. Rothblatt always challenged me. I can’t remember a time when I was not excited about going to class; he taught me about history, but more importantly, about life.” Until the time of his death, Rothblatt was a pro bono reviewer of scholarship applications for the UCLA Honors Program, a program dear to him and in which he excelled as a UCLA student. He embraced the Mexican culture and was a proud Jew and supporter of Israel. Rothblatt loved sports, working out, bike riding on the beach path, traveling, and exploring the outdoors. He could converse with almost any cab driver (anywhere in the world). He shared a love of sports and “all things UCLA” with sons, Max (17), and Wyndham (13). With his daughter, Dasha (11), he often spoke of trips that the family would take “one day” and he would recite the Shema when he tucked her in for the night. With his wife, Julie, he shared the joys of travel, parenthood, fostering community, and a love of primates. He was an exceptional brother to his only sibling Steven (Katharen) of Los Angeles, and a loving son to his parents, Ann and Don, of Palo Alto. He is also survived by a wealth of friends in Los Angeles and across the globe, a circle of dedicated colleagues, and legions of former students. He died at a time of great joy in his life: replete with travel, love, admiration, inner calm, and with a certainty that “the future would bring even more joy into his life.”
Faculty William C. Martel, an associate professor of international security studies at The Fletcher School, died on 12 January 2015 after a yearlong fight with leukemia. He is remembered as a leading scholar in the foreign policy community, but equally as an unusually devoted teacher and as a caring individual who always put others before himself. He was 59. “When he became ill last February, he couldn’t see people because of his compromised immune system,” said Torrey Taussig, F15, one of Martel’s doctoral students. “But what was truly amazing was that he arranged to teach all of his classes over Skype from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute as he was going through treatments.” “Bill Martel was an incredible teacher above all,” said James Stavridis, F83, F84, dean of the Fletcher School. “His students adored him, and his mentorship followed them throughout their lives. He was also a leading writer on strategy and security studies, whose work I regularly read as the supreme allied commander of NATO as well as throughout my career.” Martel’s books include Grand Strategy in Theory and Practice: The Need for an Effective American Foreign Policy (Cambridge University Press, 2015) and Victory in War: Foundations of Modern Strategy (Cambridge University Press, 2011). He was a frequent contributor to print and broadcast media on international security issues and was active in national and New Hampshire politics. He served as a senior foreign policy advisor to Mitt Romney during his 2012 presidential campaign. Martel was also the principal investigator in joint Fletcher School-MIT Lincoln Laboratory studies that formulated cyber codes of conduct and outer
space rules of engagement. A 2013 Boston Globe profile of Martel described him as “among a handful of scholars and military experts trying to solve one of the most nettlesome problems in modern foreign policy: coming up with a new definition of ‘victory’ that matches the complexity of our conflicts.” But it was Martel’s dedication to his students that set him apart. Close friend and colleague Richard Shultz, a professor of international politics at The Fletcher School, recounted his last conversation with Martel during his final hours in hospice. “ ‘Take care of Torrey, take care of my students,’ he told me—those were his last words,” Shultz said. “Those words illustrate what kind of a person this was. He was really engaged with the students; they loved him.” Taussig, his doctoral student, said, “He just went out of his way every day to include me in his work. He started as a professor, but really became a good friend, and I think a lot of students had that experience with him.” She said Martel was among the brightest and most inquisitive strategists and scholars who never ceased to ask big and important questions—and he pushed his students to do the same. Martel was chosen by the Fletcher student body to receive the James Paddock Award for Excellence in Teaching at the Fletcher commencement ceremony in May 2014. Because he was too ill to attend, Shultz accepted on his behalf and read Martel’s prepared remarks: “I believe that being positive is an essential ingredient for achieving success in all those things that are really important in life,” Martel wrote. “No matter how difficult the fight you find yourself in or how daunting the challenge you face seems to be, a positive and can-do attitude will help get you through
the darkness to a successful outcome. I believe it is always the way forward.” Stavridis stressed that Martel’s contribution to the spirit of the Fletcher community cannot be underestimated. “Bill personified what the Fletcher School is all about,” Stavridis said in a letter to the Fletcher School community. He was equally beloved by all members of the community, as evidenced by the tribute posted by the Fletcher School admissions staff on their blog. Martel served three years as chair of Fletcher’s admissions committee. “The Fletcher faculty is loaded with nice people, but in any group of nice people, someone can still be the nicest. Bill was the nicest,” wrote Jessica Daniels, senior associate director of admissions. “As he walked through the building, he greeted everyone by name. If he didn’t recognize someone, he introduced himself. With his incredible ice-blue eyes, he transmitted kindness and warmth. He was one of those very rare individuals in the world about whom everyone had something good to say.” Shultz said he has received hundreds of emails mourning Martel. “People around the world are just heartbroken,” he said. In answering the emails, Shultz said, he writes, “We needed Bill here at Fletcher, not with the angels . . . they could have waited.” After graduating from St. Anselm College, Martel earned a Ph.D. in political science at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and was a postdoctoral research fellow at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. Prior to joining the Fletcher School faculty in 2005, Martel was professor of national security affairs at the Naval War College. He also worked at RAND Corp. in Washington, D.C., and served as an advisor to the National Security Council, a consultant to
the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and the U.S. Air Force. He was the founder and director of the U.S. Air Force’s Center for Strategy and Technology. “Bill was a terrific colleague and friend within the school: always upbeat, positive, warm, welcoming, and friendly. He could disagree without ever being in the least disagreeable,” Stavridis said. “He was a devoted father and husband, and his family above all will miss him forever. We mourn his loss, celebrate his life, and will cherish his memory.” Martel is survived by his wife, Dianne; his children, William Cyprien Martel Jr. and Catherine Martel of Washington, D.C.; and his parents, a sister, and two brothers. Alfred P. Rubin, F89P, F94P, of Belmont died peacefully at home on 30 November 2014. He leaves behind Susanne, his loving wife of 54 years, three beloved children, Conrad, F89, Anna, F94, and Naomi, five grandchildren, and his brother, Sander. Rubin was a professor of public international law at The Fletcher School until 2002. He received his B.A. (1952) and J.D. (1957) from Columbia University. His studies were interrupted by three years of military service in the Navy during the Korean War. Upon completing his J.D., Rubin attended Jesus College at Cambridge University for postgraduate studies, completing an M. Litt. He began his career in 1961 as a legal advisor to the Defense Department, advancing to the position of director of trade control in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense. In 1967, Rubin took an appointment at the University of Oregon Law School where he taught until joining the Fletcher faculty in 1973.
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Dammed Field notes on a lost way of life in Guatemala BY NOAH COHEN-CLINE, F13
he road into the tiny Guatemalan community of Pacux borders a small but imposing cemetery. Its wall is plastered with peeling black-andwhite ID photos of those buried within—the murdered relatives of the Maya who live in this army-built settlement. On a June day in 2012, I walked past the cemetery and into the settlement, my arms laden with a stack of surveys for my research. I was greeted casually and without curiosity by heavily sunned residents squinting into the thick heat. My visit came 30 years after the massacres at Rio Negro, the farming village the Pacux residents once called home. In five separate onslaughts, the Guatemalan army had taken 444 lives. Massacres of indigenous people were not unusual during Guatemala’s civil war, a conflict that left more than 200,000 dead or missing. But the Rio Negro massacres were unique in one respect: their purpose was to dislodge a community that refused to leave its land and clear space for the reservoir that would be created by the new Chixoy hydroelectric dam. Pacux, which houses Rio Negro’s survivors, is four hours from the blocked-up river and the submerged fields that once fed them. Its only landmarks other than the cemetery are an abandoned school and a small infirmary with no medicine or staff, symbols of the government’s unfulfilled promise of compensation.
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I was in Pacux to study the dam’s lasting effects on the community. I found that many children of displaced Rio Negro families have stopped using their indigenous language—an indicator of cultural loss. But a much more salient point stuck with me, one that eluded my surveys: indigenous communities in Guatemala were tired of being pushed aside. They wanted some control over decisions about their resources and a development agenda that did not impose its greatest costs on minorities and the poor, time and time again. Advocates have won state-funded development support for this community and are forcing the Republic of Guatemala to accept responsibility for the atrocities it committed. But they cannot bring back the community’s way of life—its harvest festivals and rites of passage, its intimate relationship with the land. The best an advocate can do is show the state that indigenous people will insist on their due, even in the face of death threats, and even after 30 years. NOAH COHEN-CLINE, F13, heads the Food Systems Track of the Clinton Global Initiative. He conducted his research in Guatemala as a fellow at the Tufts Institute of the Environment. Read a longer version of this essay at bit.ly/Cohen-Cline.
Illustration: FRANCESCO BONGIORNI
A Small Step. A Giant Leap. How can you help change the world? For more than 80 years, The Fletcher School has trained committed scholars to be informed leaders who apply their knowledge, experience, and dedication to effect change in their local and global communities. By choosing to include The Fletcher School in your will or trust or naming Fletcher as a beneficiary of your retirement plans, you can provide future students with the resources they will need to build a better world.
Friedman School students at Jumbo’s Kitchen teach elementary school children about cooking.
T h e A u s t i n B.
For more information, please contact the Gift Planning Office: 888-748-8387 • firstname.lastname@example.org • www.tufts.edu/giftplanning
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The FleTcher School oF law and diplomacy 14Th annual TalloireS SympoSium
Save the Date Friday 5 June â€“ Sunday 7 June, 2015