T h e M a g a z i n e f o r a l u m n i a n d f r i e n d s o f T h e F l e t c h e r S c h o o l o f L aw a n d D i p lo m a c y at T u f t s U n i v e r s i t y Fa l l 2014
Will warmer temperatures in the arctic thaw diplomatic relations? preparing the worldâ€™s leaders
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Our Evolving Magazine If you’re like me, the first part of Fletcher News you turn to is the class notes. They’re incredible! Whether our graduates are organizing youth football in Tokyo, joining the International Criminal Court in New York James Stavridis City, or administering USAID efforts in Syria, Egypt, and South Sudan—and that’s just a partial listing of what three of them are up to—Fletcher alumni are doing amazing work everywhere. Even though the entries for my class keep creeping toward the front of the magazine, I love reading all the way through to the last pages full of wedding photos and baby pictures. But of course Fletcher News is also about fresh thinking from our outstanding faculty on issues of the day. It’s about portraying the breadth of endeavors pursued by our faculty, students, and alumni around the globe. By challenging us to think critically, act wisely, and make stronger connections with fellow leaders in our field, this magazine helps us respond effectively to the major challenges that confront the international community in our times. Whether you’re concerned about cyber security or bullish on the role of women in international relations, Fletcher News provides perspective, analysis, and inspiration. Just turn the pages of this issue to find: • A primer on bitcoin, the virtual currency that isn’t backed by any central bank (page 10) • Our cover article about the Arctic, which explores the challenges facing this strategic region (page 12)
• Firsthand reporting on the crisis in Ukraine from Mike Eckel, F13, with commentary from Fletcher faculty and alumni about its longrange implications (page 18) • Stories about Connie Schneider, F06, who’s helping to shore up the legal system in war-ravaged eastern Congo, and Professor Kelly Sims Gallagher, who’s examining the globalization of clean-energy technology, with a focus on China (pages 8 and 24, respectively) • And much more to shake up your thinking and inspire you to action. My asks from you as alumni are threefold. The first is for financial support—whatever you can afford. The second is with job placement or internship opportunities. For those of you who have openings within your organizations or who are in a position to hire someone, consider one of our extraordinary recent Fletcher graduates. And finally, help us in finding the next generation of wonderful Fletcher alumni. You know someone out there who is thinking about graduate school (or who should be thinking about it) and would be a superb fit here. Talk to them about The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy! Another of my priorities as dean of The Fletcher School is to ensure that we share our best intelligence with each other, and this magazine is being reimagined to help us achieve that goal. I’m excited to see its new vision taking shape. But the issue you’re holding today is just the first step in a process of evolution. Please let us know what you think so that we can keep changing for the better. Sincerely,
VOLUME 36 NUMBER 1 Fall 2014 Interim EditoR
Heather Stephenson Editor, Advancement Communications EditoRial Advisor
Kristen Curran Assistant Director, Alumni Relations and Stewardship Designers
Faith Hruby, Kathleen Sayre OFFICE OF DEVELOPMENT AND ALUMNI RELATIONS
Kathleen Bobick Administrative Assistant Caroline Caldwell Assistant Director, Reunion Programs Kristen Curran Assistant Director, Alumni Relations and Stewardship Tara DiDomenico Assistant Director, The Fletcher Fund Lindsey Kelley Coordinator, Alumni Relations and Stewardship Georgia Koumoundouros Assistant Director, Development Jennifer Weingarden Lowrey Senior Director, Development and Alumni Relations Bronwyn McCarty Director, The Fletcher Fund Robert Sherburne Associate Director, Development
James Stavridis, Dean
Cynthia Weymouth Administrative Assistant Cover Photo
Ty Milford /Aurora Photos
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Contents fall 2014
features 6 Animal Economics In Ethiopia, foot-and-mouth disease will be hard to eradicate, but better management can boost herders’ livelihoods. By Lindsey Konkel
8 Justice Served Cornelia Schneider, F06, patches up creaky legal systems in war-ravaged nations. By Mike Eckel, F13
10 New Money The digital cash known as bitcoin brings rewards—and risks. By Gail Bambrick
Cover Story 12 High North, High Tension? Melting ice in the Arctic is opening shipping lanes, tourism options, and mineral access—and with them, the potential for conflict. By Taylor McNeil
18 Witness in Ukraine
A veteran foreign correspondent talks to Ukrainians of all stripes as their nation threatens to unravel. By Mike Eckel, F13
d epartments 18
2 Dispatches Running for president; teaching Afghan girls; scholarly housemates; business ethics
24 From the Fletcher Files Kelly Sims Gallagher on China and clean energy; books; alumni awards; Talloires; VIPs on campus
29 Club News 32 in memoriam 38 Detail Would-be aid workers face a simulated refugee crisis
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View from Kabul Former presidential candidate Fazal Karim Najimi, F03, N03, says his country can overcome its past, but it won’t be easy
By Gail Bambrick
Afghanistan needs a new government that is not tainted by controversies, says Fazal Karim Najimi, F03, N03, an Afghan citizen who was a candidate early in the presidential election process. “The reason I decided to run for the president’s office was to offer an alternative to some other candidates who were either warlords or corrupt,” says Najimi, who has worked with nongovernmental organizations and United Nations Fazal Karim Najimi agencies in Afghanistan and the region for 20 years. “The best hope for Afghanistan is an inclusive presidency, free of corruption, and one that can be respected within the nation and across the global community.” His candidacy was derailed by Afghanistan’s Independent Election Commission (IEC), which also disqualified 16 other candidates from the original 27 early in the race. Najimi says he was taken out of the running for unjustifiable reasons based on Afghani President Hamid Karzai’s personal preselection criteria. Afghanistan’s three-pronged election process was beset by violence and suspected fraud since it began in September 2013. By the first round of elections on April 4, the slate had dwindled to eight names. As long predicted, the front-runners, Abdullah Abdullah (with 45 percent of the vote) and Ashraf Ghani (with 32 percent of the vote), won in April and competed in a final runoff on June 14. A preliminary result of the runoff was to be announced in July, but the vote count was slowed while Abdullah’s accusations that the IEC fixed the elections were investigated. Karzai asked the United Nations to mediate. “A presidency tainted by the election process or by its choice of vice presidents is the last thing Afghanistan needs [if it seeks] to establish stability and credibility,” Najimi says. Under the Afghan system, each presidential candidate names two vice presidents. Their reputation in the country is important, Najimi says. “The candidate who is everyone’s hope, Ashraf Ghani, chose a warlord, Abdul Rashid Dustom, as one of his vice presidents,” he says. “This was a turning point for me when I decided to run. I saw my country needed a clean option. I chose my vice presidents from among ordinary Afghans who are connected with average people.” This, he says, would have given his administration a strong foundation. Nevertheless, when he was named as a vice president, Dustom apologized to the Afghan nation officially for his part in the country’s civil war that killed thousands of civilians in the 1980s and 1990s. “Others don’t have even the courage to acknowledge their part in the conflict,” Najimi says. Karzai’s government is weak, Najimi says, because he chose vice presidents who constantly challenge his decisions. This has
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contributed to Afghanistan’s vulnerability to insurgency and diminished its position as a player in regional politics, Najimi says. Most recently, Najimi was country representative for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. He provided information about food security problems to decision makers in Afghanistan and central Asia; the goal of the network is to prevent famine and acute food insecurity. Najimi, who holds a master’s in humanitarian assistance, a joint degree of the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and The Fletcher School, says he often relies on his Tufts education to sort out many of the complexities of his work. The impact of the withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan by 2017 could be minimal, he notes, but only if the election ends well and if the United States and the rest of the international community fulfill their pledges to continue providing development and military aid until 2024. “If either of those does not happen, then Afghanistan would have a tough time maintaining security and stability and would become a headache for the international community.” Afghanistan is a complex place, but the Afghans can tackle the Taliban insurgency and maintain security with the capacity the government has built over the past 13 years, Najimi says. “But there is always the question of how regional and global politics will affect internal politics,” he adds. “After going through the 36 years of conflicts, Afghanistan now needs to focus heavily on finding solutions to its domestic problems. We are in a position to do just that—but there are no guarantees.” “After going through the 36 years of conflicts, Afghanistan now needs to focus heavily on finding solutions to its domestic problems,” says Fazal Karim Najimi, seen here at center.
Photos: Courtesy of Fazal Karim Najimi
Ted Achilles, F62, Helps Train Afghanistan’s Next Leaders By Charles Fisher-Post
the United States Ted Achilles, F62, used to recruit young Afghans to study in American and in other high schools. But after four years, he quit. “The program essentially countries. Basijended up feeding Canada,” where many of the young people fled Students walk outside the nonprofit Rasikh, who is just rather than return to Afghanistan, he says. “Students weren’t coming School of Leadership Afghanistan, an 24, is now chairback home.” English-language boarding school for girls. woman and CEO Achilles had started recruiting bright teenagers for State of SOLA, and aims to make it the first fully accredited international Department–funded scholarships after launching a freight-forwardboarding school in Afghanistan within the next five years, with more ing company in Afghanistan in 2003. Crisscrossing the country, he than 300 students attending. The school’s efforts to serve more girls interviewed hundreds of young Afghans and helped select 40 each have been bolstered by Cornelia Schneider, F06. (See story, page 8.) year to study in the United States through the Youth Exchange and Since 2009, Achilles has served on the board of the Abdul Madjid Study (YES) program. He enjoyed meeting youth from Afghanistan’s Zabuli Foundation’s Kabul office. He is now directing plans for an many tribal and regional groups and trying to include as many girls agricultural-environmental college to create educational opportunias boys. ties for rural Afghans. When he saw how few chose to return, Achilles Before what he calls his “Afghan retirement,” Achilles worked as set out to establish better educational and job opporan international banker at Citibank, then as an tunities within Afghanistan, entrepreneur. He came to Afghanistan in 2003 led by local people. “Solutions to to help a friend and top executive at Paxton “Solutions to AfghaniAfghanistan’s often International establish an office in Kabul. Paxton, stan’s often seemingly intraca global freight-forwarding company, organizes table problems will come seemingly intractable secure door-to-door transportation of cargoes from educated Afghans, problems will come such as U.S. government disaster and developespecially Afghan women, Ted Achilles ment aid around the world. and cannot be imposed from from educated Afghans, Achilles hired young, English-speaking Afghan the outside,” he says. “But we can help train and especially Afghan professionals who could grow with the company support those new leaders.” over the long term, instead of bringing in foreign Such big-picture thinking and a generous spirit women, and cannot professionals for one- or two-year stretches. have led Achilles to support many efforts to educate be imposed from Paxton invested heavily in training those local the next generation of leaders. At The Fletcher employees. By 2009, a young Afghan with an School, he oversaw the endowment of the Atlantic the outside.” undergraduate law degree had taken over full Community Scholarship in honor of his father, —Ted Achilles, F62 day-to-day management. Today, the Kabul office Theodore Carter Achilles, a U.S. diplomat who employs more than 50 people and is entirely helped draft the North Atlantic Treaty, which estabmanaged by Afghans earning what would be considered solid lished NATO in 1949. The scholarship provides much-needed finanincomes by international standards, Achilles says. cial assistance for Fletcher students who address the problems and Achilles sees Paxton’s experience as an example of the success of a prospects of the transatlantic region of North America and Europe. bottom-up approach to development, which focuses on the establishBecause of his supportive relationship with many educated young ment and growth of small and medium-sized businesses that can help Afghans, in Kabul Achilles is better known as “Baba Ted” (Grandfather build a new class of “wealth-creating” Afghans, including women. Ted). In 2008, he co-founded the nonprofit School of Leadership Education plus a rising private economy is the only sure antidote Afghanistan (SOLA) with Shabana Basij-Rasikh, an alumna of the to the insurgency, according to Achilles. “Change, real change is in YES program. The English-language boarding school for girls started the hands of Afghanistan’s youth,” he says. “They are the best eduwith four students in Achilles’s residence; it is now home to 32 and cated Afghans ever, and the status quo just doesn’t have a prayer of has expanded into a neighboring building. The students, who range withstanding them.” in age from 12 to 18 and are all on scholarships, come from 19 provinces across the country and represent Afghanistan’s many ethnic Charles Fisher-Post is a student in the MALD program Class of backgrounds. 2016. He has been an e-tutor for SOLA since 2011, and became the More than 30 SOLA students are currently studying on scholarschool’s distance tutoring volunteer coordinator in 2013. ships valued in excess of $7 million at schools and colleges across
Photos: Left, Kelvin Ma; top right, courtesy of School of Leadership Afghanistan
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Giving Back Two scholarship recipients aim to help women out of poverty
By Heather Stephenson
Yuki Poudyal, F15, and Alison Erlwanger, F15, grew up a world apart, but now they share utility bills, favorite wines, and latenight conversations about social justice as housemates down the street from Fletcher. Like many students, they first got to know each other in classes for the MALD program, but their friendship blossomed because they received the same scholarship. The Robert F. Meagher Foundation covers tuition for up to two entering students each year and provides them with a small living stipend. It also offers other perks, like meetings with members of the scholarship committee, who helped Erlwanger find a summer internship and invited her and Poudyal to a family Thanksgiving dinner. Over the cranberry sauce and the Model U.N. discussions, a deeper bond grew.
Coffee and Community
A 29-year-old from Nepal, Poudyal opened a coffee shop in Kathmandu in 2011, two years after earning her bachelor’s degree in sociology and psychology at St. Lawrence University. She started the business in order to create a gathering place for young people, pay local coffee growers fairly, and better use her family’s empty garage, which her parents provided for minimal rent. The shop, called Cuppas, serves local coffee, snacks, and sandwiches, and employs six people, including her cousin and business partner, who has been running the daily operations for the last two years. While Poudyal doesn’t get a salary—her main perk is free coffee when she is town— the venture is succeeding. She and her coowner are repaying bank and private loans, the shop is hosting open mic nights and other events, and they are sourcing their coffee directly from a regional farmers’ cooperative. “I realize you can’t change the world without resources and sustainability,” she says. “With a small or medium enterprise, you can generate employment, promote
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Alison Erlwanger, F15, and Yuki Poudyal, F15
local products, and connect the community. It’s about much more than making money. You can make that profit bring more meaning and social impact.”
The desire to make a greater impact led Poudyal to consider graduate school, and she was attracted to Fletcher’s courses and community. But she couldn’t have attended without the scholarship, which was funded through a bequest by Fletcher professor emeritus Robert Meagher. A lawyer by training, Meagher helped found the development studies program at the school, dedicating his career to practicing and teaching economic development and international law. Erlwanger, a 26-year-old who grew up in the suburbs of Gweru, Zimbabwe, decided to attend Fletcher to learn ways to alleviate poverty for African women. While a student at Mount Holyoke College, she double majored in chemistry and anthropology and thought she might make a career in developing pharmaceuticals to combat HIV. But she grew frustrated with the gap between the high-tech medicine she could work on in the United States and the lives of Africans who would not benefit from the treatments for many years, if at all. She decided to switch to something with more “direct impact” on poor African women like
those she had known back home—women who did not have the resources to forge careers, leave cheating husbands, or protect their sexual health. She saw too many die of AIDS, leaving young children behind. “Their options are so narrow,” she says. “I want to help change that.” Once Erlwanger heard about the scholarship, she made plans to leave her job in HIV research in Boston and spent the summer before Fletcher studying economics. Without that head start, she says, “I would have been a year behind where I am now.”
Role Model Moms
Erlwanger and Poudyal both credit their mothers with inspiring their commitment to fighting poverty. Poudyal’s mother worked on rural development for the Nepalese government. “When I visited rural areas with her, women of my age there were locked down with household chores—looking after the kitchen, working on the farm, walking barefoot for long hours for water or fodder for cattle. They were living in survival mode,” she recalls. “It made me feel privileged and made me question how could I use those privileges to help better others’ lives.” More recently, she has recognized how much she also can learn from her father, an elected bank director. Erlwanger’s parents grew up poor, but
Photo: Kelvin Ma
“Women of my age [in rural Nepal] were locked down with household chores—looking after the kitchen, working on the farm, walking barefoot for long hours for water or fodder for cattle.… It made me feel privileged and made me question how could I use those privileges to help better others’ lives.” —yuki Poudyal, F15
her father became a doctor and her mother, who was the first in her family to get a college degree, became an English teacher and now heads a school in addition to running a guest house, a plant-selling business, and some rental properties. Other relatives with less education faced more limited possibilities and “seeing how different their trajectories have been, I know how much investing in education pays off,” Erlwanger says. This summer, Poudyal traveled to Nepal for an internship in microfinance and to India to study a pilot project in which farmers are growing quinoa to sell internationally. She’s thought about introducing stevia, the plant whose leaves are used to make a zero-calorie sweetener, as a crop in Nepal. But she wants to know more about business and marketing first. Erlwanger spent the summer in Rwanda at an HIV clinic, analyzing the spending and accounting of women’s cooperatives there. “If they’re not managing their books well, if they’re not effectively anticipating expenses, that will affect revenue,” she says. And boosting revenue will have a ripple effect, since making money can help these women with HIV face down all the other challenges in their lives, she says. “In development, everything does boil down to resources, and access to building your own livelihood.” She and Poudyal know the importance of money and access on a personal level and are grateful to the dedicated professor whose generosity brought them to Fletcher. “The scholarship singlehandedly opened so much for me,” Poudyal says. “Without it, Fletcher would not have been possible. Now I ask, ‘How can I make myself useful? How can I give back?’”
Professorship Boosts Corporate Responsibility By Eric Goldscheider
iana Davis Spencer regards the film A Civil Action as a turning point for corporate social responsibility. The tragedy of children dying from cancer led to revelations of a company’s concealed toxic dump. The film pricked the nation’s conscience and prompted business and law schools to introduce courses on business ethics. Now The Fletcher School will forge a new path for corporate social responsibility thanks to a generous $2.5 million gift from Diana Davis Spencer and her family, which endows a new professorship created in honor of her father. The Shelby Cullom Davis Professorship of International Business will lead the way for influential graduates to enforce the values that Diana Davis Spencer considers the bedrock of society. “The primacy of social responsibility is as old as our nation, reaching back to our founders,” she says. “Civilization cannot survive if you undermine those values that create a society. Fletcher has the potential to do nothing less than change the global landscape of corporate social responsibility. Tremendous good comes from having influential Fletcher alumni around the globe, in embassies and boardrooms, redoubling the power of our shared commitment to everyone’s welfare.” Dean James Stavridis shares her aspirations for this pioneering work; the new professorship will be the only one of its kind offered in a premier foreign affairs curriculum like Fletcher’s. “This professorship will enable us to engage in the critical role of private-public partnerships and corporate social responsibility,” he says. “We are very excited about this new hire in an emerging dimension of international business.” Laurent Jacque, the Walter B. Wriston Professor of International Finance and Banking and director of the Master of International Business program, expects the new faculty member will evaluate standards for corporate social responsibility that “guide companies to do the right thing for the population at large.” Academic Dean Ian Johnstone says the chair will capitalize on Fletcher’s strength in emerging markets and “give all students a greater understanding of the role of the private sector in bringing people out of poverty.” Shelby Cullom Davis, a noted philanthropist, was ambassador to Switzerland in the Nixon and Ford administrations. The Shelby Cullom Davis Professorship in International Security Studies at The Fletcher School is also endowed by Ambassador Shelby Cullom Davis his family. fall 2014
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Animal Economics With training in veterinary medicine and policy, Emerson Tuttle, F15, V15, looks to mitigate the losses caused by foot-and-mouth disease By Lindsey Konkel
The giant oaks outside his veterinary school classrooms and the quiet hall of flags at The Fletcher School are poles apart from the everpresent traffic jams of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, says Emerson Tuttle. But his Tufts studies brought all three places together. Tuttle traveled to the East African capital in 2012, conducting research on foot-and-mouth disease for his dual degree in veterinary medicine at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University and international relations at Fletcher. Working through Tufts’ Feinstein International Center, Tuttle interviewed 16 African veterinarians about how Ethiopia might better control the disease— and boost the national economy. Although foot-and-mouth doesn’t infect humans or render meat unsafe to eat, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security has classified the virus as a national security issue because of the significant damage it can inflict quite quickly on a country’s agricultural industry. The rarely fatal but painful disease causes blisters on such clovenhooved animals as pigs, cows, sheep, and goats. Infected animals lose weight and produce less milk, leading to severe declines in food production. The United Nations estimates that foot-and-mouth costs the global economy up to $5 billion annually in production losses. An extremely contagious virus, foot-and-mouth typically spreads between animals via airborne respiratory droplets. The virus also can be carried in milk, semen, and livestock feed contaminated with meat byproducts. It can survive on animal-transport vehicles, in animalholding pens, and on footwear, meaning that dairy-tank transport drivers and others can easily spread the disease from farm to farm. To safeguard local and international trade, many countries that have eradicated foot-and-mouth have a policy of slaughtering infected animals along with those suspected of being exposed to the disease. In 2001, 6.5 million animals in the United Kingdom were euthanized after an eruption of foot-and-mouth—more than 30 years after the last reported outbreak. The crisis cost the U.K. the equivalent of nearly $13 billion, according to that country’s National Audit Office, including $4.5 billion paid to farmers who lost livestock. While foot-and-mouth has been wiped out in many countries— through vaccination, mandated culling of susceptible animals, and bans on the importation of animals and carcasses from countries where the disease still exists—it remains in an estimated 77 percent of the global livestock population. Home to more than 85 million cows, goats, and sheep, Ethiopia has the largest livestock population in Africa, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and a pastoralist economy that is always contending with the economic losses associated with foot-and-mouth.
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The High Cost of Disease The decreased milk production and weight loss in animals with foot-and-mouth particularly affects families who rely on dairy “In Ethiopia, I learned that it’s products as a significant source really crucial to understand the of nutrition, says Tuttle. Thinner system you are working in and find animals also sell for less in the a solution through that system,” marketplace, affecting the livesays Emerson Tuttle, F15, V15. lihoods of small-scale farmers. Until the disease is eradicated, Ethiopia can’t sell its livestock or meat to regions free of foot-and-mouth. From a Western perspective, says Tuttle, eradication appears to be a reasonable goal. But for a nomadic Ethiopian cattle herder, the methods used to control disease in an American feedlot are not an option. In the United States, every food animal has a health certificate that follows it from birth to death and gets checked each time the animal is sold or crosses state lines. Ethiopia currently lacks the funding and veterinary infrastructure for such a system, says Tuttle, and “mass vaccination campaigns are ineffective in areas without the means to keep the medicine refrigerated.” Eradication may be feasible at some point, says Tuttle, but in the short term, Ethiopia could benefit from better management of the disease, with the goal of increasing regional trade. Foot-and-mouth virus is not carried in muscle tissue, so meat should be a low-risk product if slaughterhouses are held to strict protocols to avoid cross-contamination by bone and lymph nodes, which can carry the virus, he says. If Ethiopia changed its agricultural trade practices to export only appropriately butchered meat— rather than live animals or carcasses—it potentially could develop new trade agreements with other African countries, Tuttle says. “In Ethiopia, I learned that it’s really crucial to understand the system you are working in and find a solution through that system,” says Tuttle.
Merging Two Worlds As a boy, Tuttle spent countless hours on his grandparents’ dairy farm in southern New Hampshire. But it was wildlife that first got him interested in veterinary medicine, when, as a biology major at Middlebury College, he studied bat ecology in the American Southwest.
Tufts Expands Work in Ethiopia
After graduation, he worked for the New York City parks and recreation department, teaching students from low-income neighborhoods about the environment. “Seeing the socioeconomic differences that divided New York’s neighborhoods forced me to confront the impacts of economics and politics affecting all realms of life,” he says. Attracted to Tufts because of the ability to meld veterinary medicine and his interest in international policy, Tuttle is the first student to simultaneously pursue a D.V.M. at Cummings and a master’s in international policy through Fletcher. He expects to receive both degrees in 2015. “What he’s doing is groundbreaking,” says Joann Lindenmayer, V85, director of another Cummings School dual-degree program that combines a D.V.M. with a master’s degree in public health. The dual degree will take five years to complete, but Tuttle decided the extra year was a worthy investment. It paid off in a second international assignment in the summer of 2013. At the FAO headquarters in Rome, Tuttle investigated the potential of private industry to help control the spread of foot-and-mouth disease. There are many potential solutions—including a subscription text-messaging service that would provide alerts about disease outbreaks so livestock owners could keep their herds away from highrisk areas. Whether farmers would be willing to pay for such a private service is unclear, Tuttle says, but “you’d be amazed at the penetration of mobile phone technology, even in some of the most remote regions of Ethiopia.” Increasingly, veterinarians are called on to work at the intersection of animal health and public policy, says Lindenmayer. “Whether local or international, veterinarians need to feel comfortable at the policy table,” she says. “Human health is tied to the health of animals and the environment. We don’t exist in a vacuum.”
Photos: Above, Alonso Nichols; Right, istock
he Feinstein International Center at Tufts has received an $8.5 million contract from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the largest in the center’s history, to advance rural development in Ethiopia. The Agricultural Knowledge, Learning, Documentation and Policy Project will evaluate a wide range of agriculture, livestock, nutrition, and food security projects as part of USAID’s Feed the Future initiative. “One of our main roles is to help USAID and partners to better understand the impact of agricultural development projects,” says Andrew Catley, Ph.D., a research director at the center and principal investigator on the project. “As agriculture grows and commercializes, we need to understand who benefits and who doesn’t, and look at alternative livelihood options for people moving out of agriculture.” The current project builds on previous Feinstein Center research conducted through the USAID-funded Pastoralist Livelihoods Initiative. In the last decade, Catley and other Feinstein researchers have studied the impact that USAID development and humanitarian projects—such as emergency drought response—have had in Ethiopia; the results of their studies contributed to the establishment of good practice guidelines and policy reform.
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A Commitment to Justice
or Cornelia Schneider, a typical workday could involve driving three hours through the jungles of eastern Congo to attend the opening of a new courtroom to prosecute perpetrators of sexual violence, arranging gasoline for a remote police station so officers can transport a suspect to court, or organizing humanitarian law training for soldiers at the front. Schneider, who goes by Connie, has been based since December 2012 in Goma, a city at the crossroads of the war and chaos that has ravaged eastern Congo and its neighboring countries for decades. “We’re here to assist the Congolese state,” says Schneider, F06. Her work with the United Nations Development Programme’s Access to Justice Project is helping to patch a creaky judicial system suffering from a lack of resources and a lack of legitimacy in the eyes of many. In doing so, Schneider, 37, draws on years of experience working in other war-wracked places like Afghanistan, eastern Chad, and South Sudan, as well as her deep determination to improve conditions for at-risk individuals. It’s a legacy of invaluable experience in conflict zones, and a testament of ability, tenacity, and leadership. In recognition of her work, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy honored Schneider with its inaugural Fletcher Women’s Leadership
Cornelia Schneider with police in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
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Cornelia Schneider, F06, wins honor for her efforts to bring rule of law to war zones from Afghanistan to Congo By Mike Eckel, F13 Award (FWLA) on 7 March. The award, to be given annually, was established this year by the Fletcher Board of Advisors and the School’s executive leadership to honor outstanding women graduates who are making a meaningful impact in the world in the private, public, and NGO sectors. “Connie’s commitment to using her professional legal skills in service to vulnerable populations—often in extremely dangerous situations—epitomizes the spirit of the global Fletcher community,” says Elizabeth Powell, F62, chair of the FWLA committee and member of the Fletcher Board of Advisors. “She was selected unanimously not only as an outstanding example of an emerging woman leader who is helping to create positive change in the world, but also for her efforts to help prepare a new generation of women leaders.”
Before her current assignment for the U.N. in the Congo, Schneider worked for the European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan (EUPOL), helping to train Afghan police officers and improve coordination with prosecutors. “How do you help a justice system to get back on its feet when it’s been neglected for so long, and professional education has been interrupted for decades; where do you even start?” she says of the complex situation she faced. Undaunted, Schneider went on to create a first-of-its-kind training manual for cooperation among police and prosecutors and developed a course that successfully brought together 400 police and prosecutors from across Afghanistan’s 34 provinces. As EUPOL’s acting head of rule of law component, in 2012 she was the only female member of EUPOL’s senior management team. During her three-year tenure in Kabul, Schneider also gave her expertise and energies to the development of the School of Leadership Afghanistan (SOLA), an organization that runs the country’s first multiethnic girls’ boarding school, providing education and leadership opportunities to help its students foster growth in their country. SOLA has helped 37 students from 19 provinces obtain about $7 million worth of competitive scholarships abroad. The organization was co-founded by another Fletcher alumnus, Ted Achilles, F62. (See related story, page 3.) “I met Ted at a Fletcher dinner in Kabul one night, and he shared the story of 17-yearold Farahnaz, whose dreams of studying abroad were destroyed by the denial of her visa,” says Schneider. She immediately became involved in the project, writing to U.K. schools on behalf of Farahnaz, who ultimately was awarded a two-year scholarship. “You cannot meet a SOLA girl without being deeply touched by her courage, commitment, pride, and enthusiasm.” Schneider went on to serve as chair of the board of directors of SOLA from January 2012 to 2013 and was instrumental in raising the organization’s profile and securing critical funds to support Afghan women’s leadership. Photo: Benoir Almeras-Martino
to using “Herhercommitment professional legal skills in service to vulnerable populations—often in extremely dangerous situations—epitomizes the spirit of the global Fletcher community.” —Elizabeth Powell, F62
Schneider’s career path was anything but a straight line. A graduate of University College London, Schneider worked with the multinational law firm Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer for several years, becoming a registered solicitor with the Law Society of England and Wales in 2004. She could have opted for a lucrative career as a commercial lawyer, and she was uniquely positioned to do so as a German national and a European lawyer. But later that same year, Schneider enrolled at Fletcher, where she focused on rule of law and Southwest Asia studies. The training she received at Fletcher went far beyond the classroom, says Schneider. She spent time teaching at a women’s college, Dar Al-Hekma, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that Fletcher Professor Andrew Hess had long been involved with. In addition, she spent the summer between her two years at Fletcher working for the U.N. mission in Sudan, thanks to help from Professor Ian Johnstone, currently Fletcher’s academic dean, who is deeply involved in the U.N. and international organizations. Schneider says everything she does these days is in many ways related directly to what she studied at Fletcher. Last year, when the U.N. Security Council authorized a U.N. intervention force to engage directly in Photo: Raphael Kopper
eastern Congo, fighting the shadowy rebel group M23, she thought, “I wonder what Professor Johnstone and his students will be making of these developments.” In the months after graduating from Fletcher, Schneider worked with different European justice and rights organizations, then spent a year with the International Committee of the Red Cross, helping to manage a base in eastern Chad and overseeing distribution of humanitarian aid there. After a short stint as public information officer for the International Criminal Court, she was hired by EUPOL, where she worked for more than three years, before moving on to her current post at the U.N. Last summer, fighting intensified between the M23 rebels and Congolese army troops. At one point, the rebels lobbed mortar shells into Goma from a hilltop position, destroying several houses and killing several people. “That was a particularly intense period for everyone because it directly affected the city,” she says. “It was a pertinent reminder of how violated you feel when war touches your home and your friends, and your freedom to move and to plan your future. And we must never forget that, as foreigners, we can leave at any moment, whilst this is a reality that the Congolese have had to live
with for decades with nowhere to go.” While helping to improve the Congolese justice system is the overall mission of Schneider’s work in Goma, the focus on sexual violence has been particularly acute, she says. She routinely confronts cases of horrific crimes and suffering by women and girls, who in some instances have been literally branded—like cattle—by their attackers. In that sort of environment, amid such suffering, depredation, and poverty, it’s often hard to maintain your composure, she says, and not simply despair at the idea of helping people find peace and build prosperity. “The trick is reminding yourself that you can’t personally solve all the problems. If you go out there saying, ‘I’m going to save all the rape victims there are or completely eliminate sexual violence,’ then you’re obviously setting yourself up for disappointment and frustration,” says Schneider. “You have to set yourself discrete goals in line with the more ambitious institutional objectives, bearing in mind that reform is an ongoing process; a journey and not a destination. Sometimes, what keeps you going on an individual level is telling yourself, ‘I want to help that one person and make that one person’s life better.’”
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The Future of Money Bitcoin isn’t your grandfather’s currency, but some variant of it might be yours in the future, says a Fletcher business expert By Gail Bambrick
e all know how to make money: get a job, make things and sell them, maybe play the stock markets. But what about creating a whole new kind of money? This is just what the digital cash known as bitcoin has done. Bitcoin—the U.S. Treasury calls it a “decentralized virtual currency”— can be used to buy products and services. The largest reported bitcoin purchase was a $500,000 villa on the Indonesian island of Bali, but it is also used for smaller items such
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as sandwiches and candy bars. More than 9,000 online retailers worldwide now accept bitcoins, including Amazon, Target, CVS, and Subway. So what exactly is a bitcoin? “The electronic transactions you and I engage in with our banks and our credit cards are measured through currencies that are all backed by the central bank of a given country,” says Bhaskar Chakravorti, the senior associate dean for international business and finance at The Fletcher School and
executive director of Fletcher’s Institute for Business in the Global Context. “Bitcoin is a parallel system because it is not backed by any central bank,” he says. “It is a new form of currency that is expanding the supply of money substitutes without the authority or backing of any central bank or country.” If that sounds like risky business, it can be, especially because it is difficult to understand what gives bitcoins their value. “As a colleague who participated in a recent NPR show on Photo: Depositphotos
“All the controls of governments and central banks are gone, but so are all their guarantees,” says Bhaskar Chakravorti.
bitcoin that I spoke on commented, bitcoins are like Kim Kardashian—they have value because people believe they have value,” says Chakravorti. The value of bitcoins fluctuates based on supply and demand; a bitcoin you bought for $900 may be worth only $9 when you go to use it, he says.
Caveat Emptor In other words, buyer beware. If you purchase bitcoins from one of many large and small digital exchanges, what you get are a series of numbers. Each represents a bitcoin that you access through a “digital wallet.” But if you lose that wallet, you’ve lost your bitcoins for good. And if the exchange you are using fails—that is, the place where your bitcoins are digitally stored—your money is gone, too. “All the controls of governments and central banks are gone, but so are all their guarantees,” says Chakravorti. “There are no refunds or recourse with bitcoins.” Even so, it’s likely that bitcoin—or, more likely, a variant of bitcoin that abides by some minimum rules and regulations—is here to stay, he says, though it represents just a tiny percentage of the some $60 trillion circulating in the world economy today. Disillusionment with large financial institutions blamed for the 2008 economic crash motivated the creation of bitcoins in 2009, Chakravorti says. The fact that no one has been able to uncover the identity of bitcoin’s inventor or inventors, who choose to be known only by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, speaks to the very populist nature of the bitcoin system. “No central authority controls it, as the inventor intended,” he says. “People felt the institutional systems that were governing finance and financial transactions weren’t what they were cracked up to be. Along with that, there was the growing peer-to-peer culture that bypassed any kind of a central authority in virtually all forms of transaction,” Chakravorti says. “Whether it was sharing music or ideas or videos, we had entered a world of YouTube and blogs and people uploading their personal experiences Photo: Alonso Nichols
to share with the rest of the world.” Today there are about 12 million bitcoins in circulation, worth between $7 billion and $10 billion, depending on their value on any given day. New coins are created and released through a complex algorithm that controls their quantity. The algorithm is controlled by a currency software system invented by Nakamoto. The software ensures that “the number of new bitcoins created each year is automatically halved over time until bitcoin issuance halts completely with a total of 21 million bitcoins in existence,” according to the Bitcoin Foundation, a group of hundreds of corporate and individual bitcoin users dedicated to constantly improving the bitcoin as a stable currency. “This constraint on supply is the reason bitcoins can have value,” Chakravorti says. “Otherwise, people could just make up coins, and there would be no way to verify virtual transfers to ensure that when I give you a unit, a ledger shows that I’ve lost one unit and you have gained one unit. Without this balancing of the books, bitcoins would have no value.”
Supply and Demand That’s the great irony of this system that was created to bypass centralized controls: some entity must monitor and qualify all transactions, says Chakravorti. Thousands of volunteer bitcoin users monitor a master list of every transaction ever executed in the currency, known as a block chain. This ledger can also be viewed by the public, to maintain the integrity of the system. There are tens of thousands of computers around the world whose users have chosen to run the bitcoin software, which stores and updates the block chain and compares it with older copies when new transactions are added. Bitcoins are created when “prospectors” (individuals or groups) solve extremely complex mathematical problems generated by the bitcoin software to produce a string of numbers within prescribed parameters. These numbers are used to constantly
update the digital identity and therefore security of each block chain. These problems require vast computing power to solve and can take weeks to crack. Those who solve these problems are rewarded in bitcoins, thereby placing more of the virtual money in circulation. Though bitcoin will likely remain in use as a currency for the foreseeable future, it may not always look the same, says Chakravorti, calling bitcoin “an experimental new currency that is in active development.” That’s a good thing to know, given the now-infamous collapse of what had been the world’s largest bitcoin exchange, Mt. Gox, based in Tokyo. In February, it lost an estimated 850,000 bitcoins, of which 750,000 belonged to its customers. At the time, the loss was valued at $620 million. The cause of the loss has not been determined, but may have been the result of a socalled malleability bug, which lets malicious users transfer bitcoins into their accounts while making Mt. Gox think a transfer has failed, according to Wired magazine. Fixing these kinds of bugs, as well as finding ways to stem the use of bitcoins for illegal activity—drug dealers have been known to use them—will be critical to bitcoin’s growth and survival, says Chakravorti. “Everything suggests that bitcoin is a phenomenon that is not going away,” he says. “We are inherently going deeper and deeper into a peer-to-peer culture, where people are already feeling enabled to circumvent centralized institutions in all manner of ways. Once this horse has left the barn, it will be really difficult to put it back again.” fall 2014
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Heating Up As the ice cap melts, nations jockey for control of the Arctic’s natural resources—and concerns about the environment and indigenous peoples’ rights simmer
By Taylor McNeil
It’s July and a cargo ship, laden with
some 70,000 tons of coal, is slowly wending its way from Russia to China across the top of the world. This ship is functional, not beautiful; it’s longer than two football fields and at least 30 yards wide. As it enters the Kara Sea, north of Russia, the water is scattered with ice floes that are like small islands. With the aid of an icebreaker ship, the cargo ship makes its way steadily under the 24-hour sun to deliver its goods. In 2004, the possibility of a large commercial tanker crossing the Arctic from Europe to Asia was pretty much nil: even with a trail blazed by sturdy icebreaker ships, dense ice obstructed too much of the route. A decade later, that same journey is almost routine. Rapidly rising temperatures the world over— especially in the northern Arctic zone—
The Arctic could become known more for divisive competition for resources and potential environmental disasters than its awe-inspiring natural beauty. now allow some 100 of these mammoth ships to travel the Arctic waters in the summertime, delivering iron ore, coal, and other commodities. The consequences of the Arctic ice melt extend far beyond shorter shipping lanes. The warmer Arctic waters are opening access to oil, gas, and mineral deposits for an energy-craving global population and at the same time increasing possibilities for ecotourism. But those same conditions are also eroding the habitats of polar bears and other northern species of land- and sea-dwelling animals and plants, and threatening the way of life of the region’s indigenous peoples. For the United States and the seven other countries with territory in the Arctic—an area of about 13 million square miles—these kinds of changes in a region that has remained relatively pristine for eons could portend potential conflict. “It would be easy to hypothesize that the ingredients are there for the region to become one of intense competition, if not conflict,” says James Stavridis, F83, F84, dean of The Fletcher School and former NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe, whose military duties took him to the Arctic on numerous occasions. “I think the key issue for the U.S. and for the global community is ensuring that the Arctic becomes a zone of cooperation, which I think has high potential if we approach it using tools like diplomacy and coordination among nations.” Oddly enough, the Arctic countries aren’t solely defined by latitude. Instead, northern territory that has a median temperature of 50 degrees Fahrenheit or less in July qualifies as Arctic. Eight countries fit the bill: Canada, Denmark (Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden—and the United States. Alaska makes the United States an Arctic country, “though most Americans don’t know it, and most of Congress doesn’t know it,” says Crocker Snow, F68, director of The Fletcher School’s Edward R. Murrow Center for Public Diplomacy. A longtime personal interest in the Arctic—he has family connections in Alaska—led Snow three years
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ago to begin hosting annual conferences at The Fletcher School to examine the range of issues affecting the region. The Arctic could become known more for divisive competition for resources and potential environmental disasters than its awe-inspiring natural beauty, Snow says, unless there is careful planning and coordination of activity in the region.
A Sphere of Cooperation One path to increased cooperation is the Arctic Council, a multinational organization founded in Canada in 1996 by Arctic governments concerned about environmental issues, and now based in Tromsø, Norway. All eight Arctic nations are members, as are “permanent participants” representing the indigenous people in those countries. Observers from countries outside the region also participate because of their interest in natural resources or shipping. The council operates on a consensus-only basis—all the players have to agree on resolutions. “Everybody involved with the Arctic would say that it’s a forum for cooperation and nonconfrontation,” Snow says. Recent agreements it has brokered are aimed at coordinating search-and-rescue efforts and fishing rights. The Arctic Council lacks enforcement powers, though. “If things don’t translate from the international level to the domestic, national level, then all of the dialogue, debate, and agreements arrived at through the Arctic Council mean absolutely nothing,” says Dalee Dorough, F91, an associate professor of political science at the University of Alaska who has closely studied the region. “That’s where, from my point of view, entities like the Arctic Council need to be strengthened.” Dorough, an Inuit from Alaska, points to the rights of indigenous peoples throughout the region. Their representatives have permanent participant status on the Arctic Council, meaning that they have full consultation rights in connection with the council’s negotiations and decisions. But what happens on the ground depends on the political
photos: previous page, corbis images; right, getty/nbc newswire
situation in each member country, which varies widely. For example, Dorough points to Canada’s landmark 2005 Labrador-Inuit Land Claim Agreement, which affirmed Inuit rights to broad areas of land and sea as well as their right to self-governance. “They have rights to the land, but they also have a major role in management and co-management in territory and those lands immediately adjacent to their territory,” says Dorough, who chairs the U.N. Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. She contrasts the Canadian agreement to less well-defined rights for indigenous peoples in other Arctic nations, and a very basic lack of rights of indigenous people in the Russian Federation. In Russia, the government doesn’t recognize the rights of the indigenous peoples to territory or resources; “they are not even on the radar screen,” she says.
Icebreakers like this nuclear-powered Russian ship help clear routes for commercial tankers crossing the Arctic. They’re also essential for search and rescue, research, and response to environmental crises. The United States has only two icebreakers in the region, while Russia has more than 12. Even China has more icebreakers than the United States. “We should invest more in such ships,” says James Stavridis, F83, F84, dean of The Fletcher School. But, he argues, that’s just one part of what should be a multi-pronged approach to reducing conflict in the Arctic.
That said, while the Arctic Council isn’t a strong mechanism for multilateral governance of the region, “it is all we’ve got at the moment, so we ought to invest in that,” Stavridis says. “I think the United States should continue to be a strong supporter of the Arctic Council, and I think we should be open to having other nations in it that are not necessarily Arctic nations, but that have key interests, like China, which is a huge economic force, or Greece, which controls a fourth of the world’s shipping.”
Oil and the Environment As the ice melts in the Arctic, a rush to extract its natural resources may follow. The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates that the Arctic contains 13 percent of the world’s undiscovered oil resources and 30 percent of the natural gas.
As the ice melts near the North Pole, the eight Arctic nations—Canada, the United States, Russia, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland, and Greenland—have claimed nearly 95 percent of the region’s natural resources.
The Arctic is also a rich source of nickel, iron ore, copper, and rare earth metals used in electronics manufacturing, according to a 2012 report from the Center for Strategic and International Studies that was co-authored by Jamie Kraut, A08, F13. Nearly 95 percent of the natural resources have already been “spoken for” by one of the eight Arctic Council member-countries, Snow says. That’s based on provisions in the United Nations Law of the Sea Treaty that mandate ownership of waters 200 miles from the continental shelf of each country’s territory. (Other countries extend de facto treaty rights to the United States, which has not signed the treaty; U.S. Senate approval has been blocked for the last 20 years by a handful of senators concerned about giving up sovereignty rights.) “If we want to take advantage of the enormous hydrocarbons that are present there, which I think ultimately the world will want to do,” Stavridis says, “there are two possible outcomes.” If carefully managed with ongoing international coordination, he says, it could work well. “But badly managed, it could destroy a very fragile ecosystem.” While the prospects for oil and gas exploration are high, so is the risk of oil spills and environmental disaster. “If you have a serious oil spill in the Arctic, there’s a very good chance it’s going to be in the dark—in the winter, it’s dark 24 hours a day—with very cold weather, and probably offshore,” says Snow. “The real fear everybody has is that it will be almost impossible to contain.” He cites a recent example of a very small spill that occurred in February 2011 off the coast of southern Norway and affected Aker Island, a seabird reserve near Oslo. The oil
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started soaking into the ice, and the Norwegians, who pride themselves on their advanced oil production technology, couldn’t easily handle it. When oil is in water, it floats on top, but it penetrates porous ice, and can’t be as simply contained and collected as it is in water. “The idea of oil permeating ice in very cold weather, where there’s no light at all for rescue crews, it really worries people,” Snow says. And it’s not just spills. An increase in mining and tourism could damage the fragile environment. “Even so-called ecotourism can have an impact,” Dorough says, noting that when climbers summit Mount McKinley in Alaska’s Denali National Park, “a lot of garbage gets left behind.” The tension between economics and the environment also applies to the opening of the Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route, which large ships traverse in the sum-
“If you have a serious oil spill in the Arctic … the real fear everybody has is that it will be almost impossible to contain.” Crocker Snow, director of The Fletcher School’s Edward R. Murrow Center for Public Diplomacy
mer carrying cargo. The benefits are clear. According to a recent report by Kimie Hara, Renison Research Professor in East Asian Studies at the University of Waterloo, published in the Asia-Pacific Journal, “These northern transportation routes can significantly shorten the shipping distance from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Europe or the east coast of North America to East Asia, making possible reductions in shipping time, fuel costs, and CO2 emissions.” “If we want to take advantage of [the Arctic] as a transit route,” Stavridis says, “we need to manage it carefully.” In the end, though, it will be the four million people— indigenous and others—who inhabit Arctic nations who will pay the price for development. “This all goes back to the indigenous people in the region,” Dorough says. “Development has to be sustainable, and it has to be equitable.”
Avoiding a Cold War Regional politics are critical to development in the Arctic, since policies are implemented at the local, not international, level. Seven of the eight Arctic nations are democracies, and most are NATO members. Then there is the Russian Federation, which has a large stake in the region, operating oil, gas, and mineral industries in its territory, and is no doubt interested in more. During the Cold War, U.S. and Soviet submarines routinely trolled beneath the ice cap north of the Arctic Circle, playing a cat-and-mouse game. “The region was going to be a major battle zone between the U.S. Navy and the Soviet forces,” says Stavridis. Now, of course, conditions are more peaceful—though there are no guarantees. A year ago, Stavridis notes, he would have argued there would always be some tension between Russia and the NATO nations, but that was manageable. With the ongoing crisis in Ukraine, friction is clearly rising. “Let’s hope we are not stumbling back into a Cold War, no pun intended, in terms of the Arctic,” he says. “We need a modus vivendi with Russia that allows us to coop-
erate in other areas, even as we object and condemn their behavior, appropriately in my view, in Ukraine.” Some countries take a quiet approach to security issues, while others are more strident. “The Canadians always say, ‘high north, low tension,’ and the Norwegians say, ‘This is a border of the alliance; we want NATO involved up here,’” reports Stavridis. The U.S. position lies somewhere between the two. As Stavridis notes, NATO’s borders are in the Arctic, and the United States has a leadership role in NATO. Still, in any matters involving the Arctic, the United States “needs to work through international organizations and not try to perform in a unilateral way—that’s the wrong approach,” he says. The United States does not have a significant naval presence in the Arctic, and only has two Coast Guard– operated icebreakers. “In terms of the ability to send ships into the high north, it’s limited in ice season,” which runs from September to May, Stavridis says. By contrast, Russia has more than a dozen icebreakers. Stavridis says lagging behind the capabilities of other major powers in the Arctic is not wise, pointing out that even China has more icebreakers than the United States. “We should invest more in such ships, so that we can conduct year-round search and rescue, navigational charting, research and development, and environmental response,” Stavridis wrote in a Foreign Policy article last October. Building up that capability, Stavridis says, is just one part of what needs to be a multi-pronged approach to the Arctic, which the U.S. needs to address sooner rather than later. With its natural resources, key shipping lanes, and political alignments that highlight the differences between NATO nations and Russia, Stavridis says, “the strategic key is ensuring that the Arctic does not become a zone of conflict, and that it remains—at a minimum—a zone of competition, but hopefully becomes a zone of cooperation.” Taylor McNeil, the editor of Tufts Now, can be reached at email@example.com.
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By Mike Eckel, F13
After ousting their corrupt president, many Ukrainians thought they could celebrate. Then Russia seized Crimea and insurgency erupted in the east. The men roaming the pillaged halls of the Regional Administration Building in the eastern Ukrainian city of Donetsk in early April were a motley group: Some wore balaclava masks, mismatched camouflage, and high-top sneakers and wielded baseball bats and wooden two-by-fours. Others had brand-new Kevlar flak jackets, multiple top-of-the-line cell phones, pump-action shotguns, and Russian military-style pistols tucked under their shirts. Depending on your perspective, they could have been labeled insurgents, paid provocateurs, patriotic nationalists, members of an embattled minority, or anti-fascist resistance fighters. They were most certainly bit players in the drama that opened months earlier, in a narrative penned largely by Russian President Vladimir Putin and the hardline bloc of military, security, and defense industry officials that support him. While many Westerners saw Putin as an aggressor in this conflict, his rhetoric justified the Russian intervention in Ukraine variously as 1) a logical evolution of legal norms (the Kremlinâ€™s responsi-
photo: getty images
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This map, made available by Nations Online Project in July, depicts the shifting borders of control in Ukraine. The Russian Federation annexed Crimea, on the Black Sea, in late March and insurgents took over areas in the east shortly afterward. The new Ukrainian president, elected in May, opposed both actions and deployed the nation’s military to try to quell the unrest in the east.
bility to protect Russian speakers beyond its borders); 2) a rectification of historic geographic injustice (Khrushchev’s transfer of Crimea to Ukraine in 1954); or, more subtly, 3) blunt realpolitik in response to Western betrayals (NATO expansion to the Russian border). The result has been a tale of two countries: Ukraine fraying at the edges, wobbling at the core, uncertain of its loyalties and its allies; and Russia, brashly asserting a manifest destiny for the Motherland and lighting a beacon for those seeking something less messy than Western-style democracy. Throw into the mix 298 civilians killed when their airliner was hit by a Russian-made surface-to-air missile and you suddenly had the makings of a new world order that is far less predictable than anyone foresaw just a few months ago. Maidan Evolves Over two months this past spring, I traveled through much of the central, southern, and eastern regions of Ukraine, talking to dozens of Ukrainians—both ethnic Ukrainians and ethnic Russians—about the turmoil and their hopes for the future. In Kiev, I found a cosmopolitan city, buoyed by the months-long “Maidan” protests that challenged a kleptocratic political order and brought down the man who was its avatar: Viktor Yanukovych. The word Maidan now refers to not only the central square that was the epicenter for the protests, but also the larger movement seeking to push Ukraine out of its corrupt stupor and away from its status as a vassal state of Russia. Maidan the square became hallowed ground for many, a shrine to those who died, mainly in the final spasm of violence in February when protesters battled riot police. When I was there, tents, outdoor cookstoves, and razor-wire barricades still lined the boulevard that used to be a fashionable 20
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place for pedestrians to window-shop. Maidan the movement, meanwhile, was struggling to define itself in the face of competing political demands. Rightwing nationalists were trying to reject all things Russian; euro-pragmatists pushed to hitch Ukraine’s near-bankrupt economy to the European Union; oligarchs with mindboggling wealth scrambled to keep ill-gotten investments intact; and older ethnic Russians, spooked by unrelenting Moscow propaganda, imagined imminent lynching at the hands of Ukrainian extremists. Meanwhile, Russia held a cocked gun to Kiev’s head and started emptying its pockets. The loot so far had been limited to Crimea, the Black Sea peninsula that has been fought over for centuries. But Ukraine, and the world, feared that Russia would grab more.
Annexing Crimea Moscow annexed Crimea in late March, a move that some historians said had echoes of Anschluss in 1938, when Hitler occupied and then seized Austria in the lead-up to World War II. The immediate pretext for the annexation was a cobbled-together March referendum that Ukraine and Western leaders dismissed as illegal. But many of those supporting union with Russia also insisted that annexation was righting a historic wrong: Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev’s decision in 1954 to transfer Crimea to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In Crimea during the run-up to the vote, I witnessed “little green men”—unidentified armed troops whom Putin later acknowledged were Russian—and their local allies seize power in what turned into a bloodless invasion by a foreign country. I also found a yawning gap in perception about secession from Ukraine. Those in Crimea who supported leaving Ukraine were uniformly thrilled about the prospect of gaining Russian
Fletcher Voices on Ukraine Richard Shultz
Professor of International Politics and Director, International Security Studies Program, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
The Russians are showing us a new generation of warfare, but in many ways the techniques are all old KGB tradecraft. It used to be called “Soviet Active Measures,” which entailed influencing the policies of other governments, undermining confidence in its leaders and institutions, and discrediting and weakening opponents. It included covert propaganda, disinformation, agents of influence, creation of front groups. Then the objective was to foster pro-Communist ideology. Now it’s to foster Russian identity. In both cases though the ultimate goal was to keep at bay or undermine the West. James Stavridis
Admiral (Ret.), U.S. Navy, Charles Francis Adams/Raytheon Dean of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
While Russia is having tactical success, their annexation of Crimea and destabilization of Ukraine will be a long-term strategic loss for Putin. They are burning their bridges to Europe, and they have few strategic options elsewhere in the world. They are operating cleverly tactically in a very 21st-century way, but have defaulted to 19th-century strategic thinking.
F01, AG01, F07, Ambassador-at-Large for Energy Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Hungary
The dependence of any country on a single source of energy supply makes it vulnerable to supply disruptions and predatory pricing. Additionally, Ukraine is a very energy inefficient economy that spends a higher portion of its GDP on energy resources than any other European country. Therefore, when Gazprom raised the price of natural gas for Ukraine by 80 percent in the spring, it was not only an energy security issue but also a severe economic and financial challenge. The dependence of many European countries on the same Russian supplies, flowing through the Ukrainian pipeline system, has constrained the room for maneuver of the EU vis-a-vis Russia. Daniel Drezner
Professor of International Politics, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
No one should believe that sanctions alone will bring Jeffersonian democracy to Iran or compel Russia to relinquish Crimea. But the most complete academic studies on the matter show that sanctions lead to concessions from the targeted government in one out of every three or four cases. That is a far cry from never working.
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Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Tufts University
The dangers that Putin’s aggressive policies pose for Ukraine and Europe broadly can be countered by making the alternative model more appealing for countries in Russia’s immediate neighborhood. As Putin made it clear in his 47-minute speech on the occasion of Crimea’s annexation, his vision of Russia’s success and source of pride for its citizens comes from it reclaiming its former imperial glory, including lost territories central to its imperial psyche. The Western powers can do much to promote the attractiveness of an alternative model: A polity where people’s self-worth and pride as citizens is derived not from geopolitical standing, landmass, or self-proclaimed spiritual superiority, but from a democratic system where individual rights and liberties are respected and where officials serve the public and not their pockets. Hurst Hannum
Professor of International Law, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
If Russia’s annexation of Crimea is allowed to stand without even a fig leaf of consent by both Crimea’s population and the Ukrainian government, international law will have suffered a serious blow. Following on the heels of Kosovo’s quasi-independence (made possible by the illegal NATO bombing campaign in 1999) and Russia’s intervention to “protect” South Ossetia from Georgia, it would signal a return to the 19th century, when might generally made right.
citizenship, and believed it would bring prosperity. On the night of the vote, the streets of the capital, Simferopol, were flooded with drunken revelers and celebratory, triumphant music and dancing. But there was also a deep unease among many Crimeans. Tatars in particular were fearful because their relatives just 70 years ago were deported en masse by Stalin and nearly wiped out. Others feared Russia’s creeping authoritarianism. One woman, a retired mechanical engineer, told me: “I’d rather be poor and live in a free country, than be rich and live under Putin’s regime.” In the weeks after annexation, Crimea slipped into an economic twilight as the realities of changing a political, economic, legal, and social system overnight came into focus. People realized that unification with Russia wasn’t going to bring the Shangri-La they hoped for, at least not immediately. “It’s the hangover after the party,” one commentator said.
Insurgents Erupt In Donetsk, meanwhile, at the center of a region with deeper psychological and economic sympathies with Russia, a fullblown insurgency erupted. I visited the Regional Administration Building, a drab, 11-story Soviet-style office building that 22
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looked like a college fraternity house after a long keg party. Outside were snaking, makeshift barricades, barrel fires, propaganda posters, and a flat-screen TV broadcasting incendiary Russian newscasts and documentaries about Soviet World War II triumphs. Inside were masked men who glared from ransacked offices at me and other foreign reporters. For every sincere, articulate Russian-speaking citizen eager to discuss autonomy and self-determination and Kosovo, I found another ready to rail against the depravity of the West. If you looked just below the surface, though, you would see that there was nothing homegrown about the uprising. Yes, there were well-founded grievances against the central government among residents of eastern Ukraine. Yes, there were fears of legislation that would have downgraded the status of the Russian language. But the speed, efficiency, and deliberateness with which the insurgent leaders pushed demands for separation from Kiev meant they were something other than local farmers brandishing muskets from the stable or businessmen nursing grudges. In the following weeks, gunmen carrying military-grade sniper rifles and wearing camouflage identical to that worn by the “little green men” in Crimea started seizing police stations, arsenals, and other buildings in the towns around
Donetsk. The fact that 40,000 Russian troops, along with heavy artillery, helicopters, fighter jets, and other materiel were massed just across the border only made the Kremlin’s denial of involvement even more disingenuous. Putin seemed to tip his hand when he casually mentioned “Novorossiya,” the tsarist-era term describing Imperial Russia’s frontiers down to the Black Sea and out to the borders with the current EU, in a press conference after the Crimea vote. In Putin’s thinking, and that of an increasing number of Russians, it seems, Novorossiya ought to be reunited, international treaties and 21st-century borders be damned. Novorossiya, in Putin’s construct, also encompasses Odessa, the Black Sea port renowned for dark humor, maritime commerce, and tolerance. When I visited in April, Odessa was a busy city of sycamores, sailors, sidewalk cafés, and cobblestones, a city gearing up for the busy tourist season, more focused on making money than overthrowing governments. That image came crashing down a couple weeks later, when riots broke out and dozens died in a horrific fire. Suddenly, Odessa’s reputation was in tatters, and fears were rampant that the city would morph into a variation of Donetsk. When Donetsk separatists claimed their May referendum justified seceding from Ukraine and asked to unite with Russia, I couldn’t help but wonder if Novorossiya was indeed the goal for Putin, a righteous return to imperial glory—and a useful distraction from Russia’s current corruption, economic woes, and authoritarian thought-control. By the end of May, Ukrainians had voted for a new president, the threat of outright war had receded slightly, and Russia had slipped into recession. The insurgency, with the arrival of battled-hardened Chechens and other mercenaries, appeared to be headed into a dangerous, uncertain phase. In July, a Malaysia Airlines passenger jet was downed over eastern Ukraine by a sophisticated Russian missile. The following month, Ukraine’s armed forces were still trying to regain control of Donetsk. And by early September, Russian troops had entered Ukraine to buttress the insurgents, according to NATO, although Moscow denied deploying them there. It’s too soon to say what the legacy of the Ukrainian crisis will be. A new Cold War? A “re-pivot” for the United States from Asia back to Europe? A reevaluation of NATO’s mission? As I packed my bags to head back to the United States in early May, I felt like I was leaving a theater without seeing the second act of a play. I wondered what would happen to the people I had met, whose country seemed to be cracking apart. But the reallife drama didn’t finish unfolding that night, or the next night. The story of Ukraine is still being written. Mike Eckel, F13, is a veteran foreign correspondent and editor who’s worked in Moscow, Phnom Penh, New York, and Vermont, reporting primarily for the Associated Press, but also the Christian Science Monitor, the Wall Street Journal, Al Jazeera America, and others. He lives and works in Washington, D.C. PHOTO: Dallin Van Leuven
Fletcher Diplomat on the Ground When Europe needed help responding to the crisis in Ukraine last spring, it tapped a Fletcher alumnus: Ambassador Wolfgang Ischinger, F73. Ischinger, who heads the Munich Security Conference, led the negotiations in Ukraine on behalf of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in May. He organized three roundtables that included Kiev authorities and representatives of the opposition. After the successful election of a new president of Ukraine, Ischinger stepped down. He previously served as the German ambassador to the United States and the United Kingdom and represented the European Union in the Troika negotiations that charted the future of Kosovo. At a talk at The Fletcher School in April, Ischinger described Russian President Vladimir Putin as a leader who tries to recreate the past, “what used to be a Soviet or Russian empire.” He said European leaders “have learned that recreating the past is actually a very bad idea—rarely a good idea.”
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From the Fletcher Files
To Go Green, Go Global China offers lessons on competing in the clean-energy market By Gail Bambrick
China and the United States are competing for dominance in the global clean-energy business, a market valued at billions of dollars. But if the U.S. wants to stay in the race, it needs to pay more attention to China’s business strategies, says The Fletcher School’s Kelly Sims Gallagher, an expert on energy policy. In her new book, The Globalization of Clean Energy Technology: Lessons from China (MIT Press), Gallagher observes that U.S. businesses have been too inward looking and are handicapped by what lawmakers and regulators think are barriers to the global diffusion of green technologies. These perceived roadblocks include intellectual property concerns, trade barriers, and lack of markets in developing countries. “Unlike the U.S., China didn’t start out looking to sell clean-energy technologies like solar to their own domestic market. They were looking abroad,” Kelly Sims Gallagher says Gallagher, director of The Fletcher School’s Center for International Environment and Resource Policy, who is spending the next year in Washington, D.C., as a senior policy advisor to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. “China saw countries like Germany, the U.S., Italy, and Spain creating energy policies that would open up new clean-energy markets, and they wanted to serve those markets.” For the book, Gallagher spent two years researching China’s solar photovoltaic, gas turbine, advanced battery, and coal gasification industries. She found that fear of perceived impediments to becoming a player in the global market has slowed America’s progress in developing clean technologies. It is true, for example, that there is more potential for intellectual property infringement in business sectors such as computer software and chemical products because those technologies are very easy to copy, she says. But the clean-energy industry is based on very complex technologies that are hard to duplicate. China has legally partnered with other countries on green technologies, to the mutual benefit of both. In fact, Gallagher initially wanted to title her book No Great Wall because of the lack of barriers to global competition. “What I realized midstream was that clean technology was a truly global enterprise, and that the Chinese had an incredibly global perspective on where and how they could get the technology they needed,” she says. “They would buy manufacturing equipment from the Germans, and they would license Danish wind technology. They hired Korean consultants and Chinese who had been educated abroad. That was when I saw the potential of the forces of globalization that the U.S. should take advantage of.”
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A starting point for developing a more robust clean-energy industry is having a strong domestic market for it. Gallagher points to the recent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announcement that it will limit the percentage of U.S. electricity generated by coal-fired power plants to 14 percent by 2030—compared with 40 percent now—in an effort to cut carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This is the boldest step the U.S. has ever taken toward a national policy to generate clean-energy markets, she says. While critics say the new policy will lead to job losses, Gallagher counters that it will be economically beneficial and expand the global market for clean energy. “Any government policy that creates a market for clean energy will create demand for these technologies,” she says. As clean energy is perfected and proliferates, costs will come down, making these technologies more available to the United States and developing countries, and helping to avoid the costs of climate change, she notes. “In the 10 years since the Chinese have gotten into the solar photovoltaic market, for example, the cost of solar on the global market has dropped by half,” she says. “And because costs fell, market demand rose. The market forces really do work. But you need the government to step in and create that market in the first place.” Gallagher hopes her book will help fuel the debate about the potential of the global clean-energy market, both as an important cornerstone for the U.S. economy and as a way to lessen our reliance on imported fuels, reduce air and water pollution, and avoid larger climatic disruption caused by the dramatic rise in CO2 in the atmosphere—one-third more than before the industrial revolution began. To compete successfully, the U.S. needs to learn from China by focusing on world markets, devising and implementing a national energy policy, and being less risk-averse, she says. “We just cannot seem to agree at the national level on clean-energy market formation policies that would spark our creation of new technologies.”
“In the 10 years since the Chinese have gotten into the solar photovoltaic market, the cost of solar on the global market has dropped by half,” says Kelly Sims Gallagher.
Photos: left, Matthew Modoono; right, Ingimage
Faculty and Fellows
Abbas, Hassan, F02, F08. The Taliban Revival: Violence and Extremism on the Pakistan-Afghanistan Frontier. Yale University Press, 2014.
Bijapurkar, Rama. A Never Before World: Tracking the Evolution of Consumer India. Penguin India, 2013.
Alvandi, Roham, F04. Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah: The United States and Iran in the Cold War. Oxford University Press, 2014. Binnendijk, Hans, F69, F72, F06P, F09P, F09P, ed. A Transatlantic Pivot to Asia: Towards New Trilateral Partnerships. Center for Transatlantic Relations, 2014. Garofano, John, and Andrea J. Dew, F03, F07. Deep Currents and Rising Tides: The Indian Ocean and International Security. Georgetown University Press, 2013. Ganson, Brian, F88, ed. Management in Complex Environments: Questions for Leaders. International Council of Swedish Industry, 2013. Gole, Henry G., F58. Exposing the Third Reich: Colonel Truman Smith in Hitler’s Germany. The University Press of Kentucky, 2013. Huffman, James, F68. Private Property and the Constitution: State Powers, Public Rights, and Economic Liberties. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. ———. Private Property and State Power: Philosophical Justifications, Economic Explanations, and the Role of Government. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Drezner, Daniel W. The System Worked: How the World Stopped Another Great Depression. Oxford University Press, 2014. Gallagher, Kelly Sims, F00, F03. The Globalization of Clean Energy Technology: Lessons from China. The MIT Press, 2014. Laidler-Kylander, Nathalie, F07, and Julia Shepard Stenzel. The Brand IDEA: Managing Nonprofit Brands with Integrity, Democracy and Affinity. Jossey-Bass, 2013. Jacobsen, Karen, Dyan Mazurana, and Lacey Andrews Gale, eds. Research Methods in Conflict Settings: A View from Below. Cambridge University Press, 2013. Davis, Jacquelyn K., and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff Jr. Anticipating a Nuclear Iran: Challenges for U.S. Security. Columbia University Press, 2013. Salacuse, Jeswald W. Negotiating Life: Secrets for Everyday Diplomacy and Deal Making. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. ———. The Three Laws of International Investment: National, Contractual, and International Frameworks for Foreign Capital. Oxford University Press, 2013. Shultz, Richard H. The Marines Take Anbar: The Four-Year Fight Against al Qaeda. Naval Institute Press, 2013.
Husain, Aiyaz, F06, F11. Mapping the End of Empire: American and British Strategic Visions in the Postwar World. Harvard University Press, 2014.
Stavridis, James, F83, F84. The Accidental Admiral: A Sailor Takes Command at NATO. Naval Institute Press, 2014.
Léger, Natasha, F97. Travel Healthy: A Road Warrior’s Guide to Eating Healthy. Blue Pearl Media, 2013.
Trachtman, Joel P. The Tools of Argument: How the Best Lawyers Think, Argue, and Win. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013.
Levitt, Matthew, F95, F05. Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon’s Party of God. Georgetown University Press, 2013. Moghalu, Kingsley, F92. Emerging Africa: How the Global Economy’s ‘Last Frontier’ Can Prosper and Matter. Penguin, 2014. Olivera, Daniel, and Luis Rosales, F98. Francis: A Pope for Our Time, The Definitive Biography. Humanix Books 2013. Schulte, Paul, F88. Cravings for Deliverance: How William James, the Father of American Psychology, Inspired Alcoholics Anonymous. Lantern Books, 2014. Nettelfield, Lara J., and Sarah Wagner, F02. Srebrenica in the Aftermath of Genocide. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
———. The Future of International Law: Global Government. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Books Have you published a book this year? Let us know by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org
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From the Fletcher Files
Fletcher’s 13th Annual Talloires Symposium
Almost 80 Fletcher alumni joined faculty and staff to discuss economics and politics in the 21st century at the 13th Annual Talloires Symposium in late May and early June. The three-day event was set at the Tufts European Center, a restored 11th-century monastery, located in the idyllic lakeside village of Talloires in the Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France. Keynote and faculty speakers included General Sir Richard David Shirreff, former Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe (Deputy SACEUR), NATO; Charles Dallara, F75, F86, executive vice chairman of the board of directors and chairman of the Americas, Partners Group (USA) Inc.; and Michael W. Klein, A11P, William L. Clayton Professor of International Economic Affairs.
Fletcher’s 14th Annual Talloires Symposium will take place at the Tufts European Center 5–7 June 2015.
Mian Zaheen, F73, F74; Dr. Mehrdad Khonsari, F76; and Mandana Khonsari, J79
Fletcher Alumni Win Tufts Honors
Two Fletcher graduates—Michael Dobbs, F72, F77, and Marsha “Marty” Evans, F77—were honored at the annual Tufts Alumni Awards program in April. Dobbs is a British politician and bestselling author who is perhaps best known for his novel House of Cards, which has been adapted for television by both the BBC and Netflix. Evans was one of the few women to reach the rank of rear admiral in the U.S. Navy and, since then, has served as the executive
Tufts University President Anthony Monaco (far left), Tufts University Alumni Association President Brian McCarthy, A75, A07P (far right), and Alumni Awards Committee Chair Steve Wermiel, A72, A07P (fourth from left, in rear) flank nine of the 2014 Tufts Alumni Award recipients. From left: Pauline Eveillard, A05;
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director of the Girl Scouts of the USA and president and chief executive officer of the American Red Cross. Both alumni were recipients of the Distinguished Achievement Award, which is presented to those who have made significant achievements and contributions to their professions or community and are recognized for leadership in their respective fields. The Alumni Awards program, which started in 1941, honored 10 alumni from across the university this year.
Randall Christensen, M95; Jennifer Bokoff, A08; Katherine Ruiz De Luzuriaga, M84; Mary Lee, J75, M83; Marsha “Marty” Evans, F77; John McCarthy, A68, AG73, A01P; Michael Dobbs, F72, F77; and Eric T. Washington, A76. The 10th recipient was the late Alison “Sunny” Breed, J66, AG72.
In September 2013, President of the Republic of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a lecture on cyber security, modern transatlantic relations, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In his talk, titled “What Keeps Me Awake At Night,” Ilves warned that cyber warfare, with its ability to directly affect enemies’ economies, is starting to render traditional warfare irrelevant. In August, Ilves also met with the March 2015 GMAP class in Tallin, Estonia, where the class spent its mid-year residency. In January, best-selling author Robert D. Kaplan discussed his latest book, The Revenge of Geography: What the Map Tells Us About Coming Conflicts and the Battle Against Fate. Kaplan is chief geopolitical analyst for Stratfor, a private global intelligence firm. He is the author of 14 books on foreign affairs and travel, and has been a foreign correspondent for The Atlantic for nearly three decades. In 2011 and 2012 he was named one of the world’s “Top 100 Global Thinkers” by Foreign Policy magazine. Former Iraqi National Security Advisor Dr. Mowaffak al-Rubaie served as senior statesman in residence at The Fletcher Frances Townsend School in February and March. He keynoted a lecture series on international security and led lectures on international business, as well as participated in three small-group sessions with students. Dr. al-Rubaie served as national security advisor in his native Iraq from 2004 to 2009 and as an MP in Iraq’s Council of Representatives from 2009 to 2010. He has worked as a medical doctor, entrepreneur, activist, and politician, both in Iraq and abroad in the United Kingdom. After his political activism saw him tortured by the Ba’ath Government in the 1970s and later Mohamed ElBaradei sentenced to death in absentia during the rule of Saddam Hussein, Dr. al-Rubaie returned to his home country in 2003 to become a member of the Iraqi Governing Council. The Honorable Mikheil Saakashvili, former president of the Republic of Georgia (2004 – 2013) and founder of Georgia’s United National Movement Party, joined the School as Senior Statesman for the spring 2014 academic term. In this role, he conducted major addresses and lectures on European governance and other contemporary international and regional issues. At age 37, Saakashvili became the youngest national president elected in Europe, following a bloodless revolution that ousted his predecessor, President Eduard Shevardnadze. Saakashvili served two terms—the maximum allowable—before stepping down in November 2013. In 2005, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Eric Schmidt, executive chairman of Google, and Jared Cohen, founder and director of Google Ideas, came to campus in February to discuss how mobile technology may foster positive change. The
Photo: upper left, Kelvin Ma/Tufts University
new technology has created “a massive shift of power to individuals,” Schmidt said. Schmidt and Cohen are co-authors of The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives; they spoke as part of The Fletcher School’s Hitachi Center for Technology and International Affairs speaker series. Technology will change world politics, the Google executives argued. “In the future, revolutions will be easier to start and happen faster, but Robert Kaplan will be much harder to finish,” said Cohen. “What we’ve seen from the Arab Spring, the Ukraine, and various other examples is that it’s very easy for people to organize in virtual town squares around the common idea of ‘We don’t like this particular dictator. Let’s get him out of power.’ But that seems to be the only thing people agree on, and after the dictator is unseated, the expectation that change and transformation will happen just as quickly is not met.” Former Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Advisor Frances Townsend gave a talk in March on current national security threats and challenges. She focused on the Middle East, including the threat posed by Iran and its implications for surrounding crisis zones such as Syria. A frequent contributor to the media on security topics, especially as a CNN analyst, Townsend touched on what she identified as the four great “cross-cutting issues” to security: proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, cyber security, governance and corruption, and leaks of classified or sensitive information. Leading feminist author, scholar, and activist Dr. Cynthia Enloe gave a public talk in April on gender, conflict, and peace. A research professor in the International Development, Community, and Environment Department of Clark University, Enloe is the author of (among others) The Curious Feminist and Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, director general emeritus of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is joining The Fletcher School as Nobel-Laureate-in-Residence in fall 2014. Dr. ElBaradei was co-recipient of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize with the IAEA for his efforts “to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way.”
Cynthia Enloe, center, with Fletcher students
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Spring Reunion 2014
1 Members of the Class of 1969 2G olden Graduates from the Class of 1964 gathered at Saturday’s class dinner 3 Members of the Class of 2004 4 Members of the Class of 1984 5M embers of the Class of 2009 joined Dean Stavridis at Friday evening’s clambake
SAVE THE DATE!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 –16 May 2015 Members of the classes of 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 are invited to join us in Medford for Reunion Weekend 2015 For more information, please visit fletcher.tufts.edu/alumni/reunion2015 | email@example.com +1- 617- 627- 2372
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On 11 June, a welcome luncheon took place at the Club de Golf los Leónes in Santiago, Chile, for the new U.S. Ambassador to Chile, Michael Hammer, F87, and his wife, Margret Bjorgulfsdottir, F88. In attendance were Gustavo Palacios, F76, Cristian Quinzio, F76, Lauren Cozzolino, F08, Rodrigo Palacios, F85, Jorge Allende, F78, Jorge Ramirez, F98, Rodrigo Gutierrez, F80, Juan Pablo Baraona, F96, Francisca Reyes, F02, F03, José Luis Mardones, F86, F91, and Stephen Liston, Deputy Chief of Mission in Santiago. The club is very active and is planning to organize a seminar with Ambassador Hammer as a speaker.
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
The Fletcher Club of Phnom Penh gathered at the home of Maria Fariello, F99, on 11 June. Standing in the photo (from left) are Katie Hallaran, F15, Jeanne (Izard) Everett, F01, Sarah Sitts, F09, and Silas Everett, A94, F00. Seated are Maria Fariello, F99, Greta Greathouse, F73, and Claire Van der Vaeren, F89.
On a warm spring evening, more than 20 Fletcher and Tufts alumni as well as staff members gathered in the Hotel de Talleyrand, which was once again graciously made available through our alumni support at the U.S. Embassy in Paris. Professor Ian Johnstone spoke on “The Future of Peacekeeping: U.N., EU and French Operations in Africa.” Following a lively Q&A, the director of the
center, Robin Smith, provided a tour of the facility on the eve of the 70th anniversary of the Normandy landing.
The Fletcher Club of Miami hosted a happy hour at the Butcher Shop, a German Beer Garden in Wynwood, Miami, on 12 June. Attendees included, below from left, Saba Haq, F08, Aaron Delano-Johnson, F12, and Brian Doench, F06.
The newly relaunched Boston Club had three great events last spring — the first was an off-the-record conversation with Dean Stavridis, F83, F84, and Tufts Provost David Harris in April, then casual happy hours in May and June which were attended by alumni from the ’70s, ’80s, ’90s, ’00s and ’10s! Hoping some alumni from the ’60s, ’50s, ’40s(?) will join soon! We anticipate doing these informal happy hours the last Wednesday of each month, so mark your calendars. Planning is under way for several more events this fall. It would be interesting to highlight an alum or two each month. Please let us know if you’re willing to be that person and write a paragraph about what you’re up to. Boston alumni, in particular, are spread across so many fields and industries, this would be an interesting, non-overwhelming way to hear about some. If you have event suggestions or opportunities, or would like to join the event notification list, please email firstname.lastname@example.org. We also encourage you to join the Facebook group at http://on.fb.me/1nufWYC and LinkedIn group at linkd.in/1nNVvTH. fall 2014
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Fletcher Women’s Network
Fletcher women love to network and take on new projects. The D.C. group has been particularly active. Back in October 2013, when many alumnae were expected to attend Fletcher’s 80th Anniversary Gala, the FWN organized a Sunday brunch at the home of Andy and Wendy Swire, F90, that drew 30 participants. There were great networking opportunities for a couple of new graduates to connect with more “mature” alumnae, and enthusiastic response to a report about Fletcher Women on Boards (FWOB). The next month, the FWN-DC organized a panel discussion at the World Bank. “China and the Chinese in Africa: What Do We Know?” featured two Fletcher alumnae: Dr. Deborah Brautigam, F87, who is a professor Johns Hopkins’ School of Advanced International Studies and director of its International Development Program, and Dr. Yoon Jung Park, F91, who is a nonresident senior research associate at Rhodes University and author of A Matter of Honour: Being Chinese in South Africa. In February 2014, the FWN-DC hosted its eighth annual FWNGlobal Women Career Panel during the D.C. career trip. With 60 attendees, it was a sellout crowd! This year, Fletcher’s women students asked to discuss landing the first job out of Fletcher, salary negotiations, finding worthwhile summer internships, and maintaining work/life balance. The alumnae panelists were Erin Nicholson Pacific, F00, who joined USAID Dulce Carrillo, F01, and as a private enterprise officer Rebeca Sanchez de Tagle White, F02 and served in missions including Central Asia and Southern Africa regional offices and Afghanistan and is just starting as deputy mission director in Mali; Mariana Polo-Herrera, F02, a project management specialist with the Department of Planning and Evaluation at the Organization of American States; Dayna Brown, F88, director of the Listening Program at CDA Collaborative Learning Project; Andrea Walther-Puri, F09, coordinator for the U.S. State Department’s Counterterrorism Programs in the Bureau of African Affairs; and Juliana Bedoya Carmona, F13, who works as an M&E analyst at the Public Private
Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), a World Bank Trust Fund focused on enhancing private sector investment in infrastructure in developing countries. Karen Hendrixson, F83, F89, organized and moderated the session.
Amy Senier, F08, and Rebecca Richards, F13
Meanwhile, the Fletcher Women on Boards (FWOB) initiative is making progress toward our goal of placing Fletcher alumnae on major corporate boards around the globe. Major efforts targeting Fletcher alumni and prominent executive search firms have resulted in requests for candidates for 14 board of director positions. FWOB urges qualified women to join our board-ready FWOB database (note: most boards seek candidates with at least 20 years of experience) and all members of the Fletcher community to reach out to us if you know of “influencers” who can help us get our candidates onto slates for board opportunities. Please contact us at email@example.com. FWOB is delighted by Dean Stavridis’s support, including his agreement to co-publish an op-ed about women’s financial and corporate leadership. In “Less Talk and More Action: Expand Women’s Corporate Leadership,” published on Time.com, the dean states The Fletcher School’s commitment to increasing prominent leadership roles of Fletcher alumnae globally, particularly at the World Economic Forum and on boards of directors. Last, but certainly not least, on 7 March, representatives of FWOB and FWN were privileged to attend the first Fletcher Women’s Leadership Award ceremony in honor of Connie Schneider, F06. Like everyone who met Connie and heard her speak about building a girls’ school in Afghanistan and leading the UNDP Justice Project in Goma, Africa, we were awed by her great achievements, which reflect her intelligence, strength of character, proactive approach, and resilience. She is an extraordinary example of Fletcher alumnae committed to changing the world for the better. (See article on page 8.)
São Paulo, Brazil
The Fletcher Club of Brazil hosted James Stavridis, dean; Deborah Winslow Nutter, senior associate dean and professor of practice; Bhaskar Chakravorti, senior associate dean, International Business & Finance and executive director, Institute for Business in the Global Context; and their team for a series of events from 23–26 April in São Paulo. Memorandums of understanding (MoUs) were signed with Institute Fernando Henrique Cardoso and the Institute of International Relations, University of São Paulo. More information and pictures at fletcherbrasil. wordpress.com/.
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Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former president of Brazil, and Dean Stavridis
Mauricio Folkerts, F11, Pablo Rabczuk, F11, Deborah Winslow Nutter, Dean Stavridis, and Geri Smith, F07
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International Afghanistan* Kabul Ted Achilles, F62 firstname.lastname@example.org Marta Mendes, F09 marta.abrantes.mendes@ gmail.com Argentina* Buenos Aires Luis Rosales, F98 email@example.com Armenia Arusyak Mirzakhanyan, F04 firstname.lastname@example.org Australia Melissa Conley Tyler, F96 email@example.com Austria Rainer Staub, F96 firstname.lastname@example.org Jonathan Tirone, F00 email@example.com Bangladesh Dhaka Sarwar Sultana, F98 firstname.lastname@example.org Belgium Brussels Katrina Destree, F95 email@example.com Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Haris Mesinovic, F00 firstname.lastname@example.org Brazil São Paulo Paulo Bilyk, F92 email@example.com Alberto Pfeifer, F02 firstname.lastname@example.org Bulgaria Nadja Milanova, F12 email@example.com Radka Betcheva, F11 firstname.lastname@example.org Cambodia* Sarah Sitts, F09 email@example.com Canada* Toronto Aziza Mohammed, F12 firstname.lastname@example.org
* Change or addition since the last edition of Fletcher News Chile Andres Montero, F85 email@example.com German Olave, F97 firstname.lastname@example.org China Beijing Stephane Grand, F98 email@example.com Hong Kong Dorothy Chan, F03 firstname.lastname@example.org Alicia Eastman, F04 email@example.com Shanghai* Sara Yun, F04 firstname.lastname@example.org Colombia Stella Cuevas, F95 email@example.com Costa Rica Mariano Batalla, F11 firstname.lastname@example.org Ecuador Quito Genevieve Abraham, F11 genevieve.abraham@ gmail.com
India Delhi John Floretta, F11 email@example.com Mumbai Vikram Chhatwal, F01 firstname.lastname@example.org Iraq Baghdad Needs new leadership Israel* Cecilia Sibony, F13 email@example.com Jordan Herzberg, F98 jordan@ herzbergmanagement.com Japan Tokyo Mariko Noda, F90 firstname.lastname@example.org Kenya Nairobi Anne Angwenyi, F02 anne_angwenyi@ alumni.tufts.edu Stella Ngumuta, F06 stella.ngumuta@ alumni.tufts.edu Kosovo Needs new leadership
Romania Sinziana Frangeti, F07 email@example.com Saudi Arabia Jamil Al Dandany, F87 firstname.lastname@example.org Singapore Kim Odhner, F03 email@example.com South Africa Jacques Roussellier, F01 jacques_roussellier@ alumni.tufts.edu South Korea Seoul Sukhee Han, F94 firstname.lastname@example.org Switzerland Geneva Anand Balachandran, F02 email@example.com fletcher.tufts.edu/ fletcherclubofswitzerland Zurich* Lisa Levasseur Berlinger, F95 lisa.levasseurberlinger@ bluewin.ch Susan Shin, F05 firstname.lastname@example.org
England* London Tannaz Banisadre, F06 fletcherclublondon@ gmail.com
Lebanon Mindy Burrell, F98 email@example.com
Finland* Ilena Patti, F01 firstname.lastname@example.org
Malaysia Shahryn Azmi, F86 email@example.com
France Paris William Holmberg, F05 fletcherclubofparis@ gmail.com fletcher.tufts.edu/ fletcherclubofparis
Mexico* Gustavo E. Aceves Rivera, F12 firstname.lastname@example.org Enrique Alanis, F12 enriqueraul.alanisd@cemex. com
Turkey Nesli Tombul, F12 email@example.com
Morocco Needs new leadership
United Arab Emirates Dubai Paul Bagatelas, F87 Christine Lauper Bagatelas, F87 firstname.lastname@example.org
Germany Berlin Paul Maidowski, F13 email@example.com Tihomir Tsenkulovski, F09 firstname.lastname@example.org Greece* Gregory Dimitriadis, F06 email@example.com Thomas Varvitsiotis, F99 firstname.lastname@example.org Haiti Amy Patanasinth, F12 email@example.com Hungary Budapest Anita Orban, F01 firstname.lastname@example.org
Nepal Ram Thapaliya, F02 email@example.com Saurav Thapa, F10 firstname.lastname@example.org Netherlands Jennifer Croft, F99 email@example.com Pakistan* Mumtaz Baloch, F13 firstname.lastname@example.org Philippines Catherine Hartigan-Go, F92 email@example.com Poland* Warsaw Nicolas Fierens Gevaert, F09 firstname.lastname@example.org
Taiwan Ted I, F64 email@example.com Thailand Bangkok Ekachai Chainuvati, F03 firstname.lastname@example.org
Uganda Hilda Birungi, F02 email@example.com
Vietnam* Needs new leadership
Shared Interest Fletcher Alumni of Color Association Kelly Smith, F03 firstname.lastname@example.org Fletcher Women’s Network Marcia Greenberg, F91 email@example.com
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Jane Martin Hanna, F42, died on 16 November 2013, in Palo Alto, California, after a long illness. She was born in Detroit, the only child of George and Jessie Reeves Martin. She attended Denison University, where she was awarded a Phi Beta Kappa her junior year, and graduated in 1941. In 1942 she graduated from The Fletcher School with a master’s degree in international economics. During her freshman year at Denison she met Stanley Hanna at an evening astronomy class. They married on 27 December 1942. They remained married and in love until Stanley’s death 70 years later in 2012. She is survived by a son, David, a daughter, Susan Spalding, four grandchildren, and three greatgrandchildren. A son, Peter, died in 1992. Malcolm Douglas Crawford, F44, J85P, died peacefully on 6 May 2014, after a long illness. Born in Nashville, Tennessee, on 29 August 1920, he spent his first year on the family farm in Corydon, Kentucky. After his father’s death, he and his mother moved to Denver, where they had family. He attended South High and UC Boulder, majoring in economics. Inspired by the era’s geopolitical events, he enrolled in The Fletcher School, receiving an M.A. in 1944. He then went to Yale Law School, graduating with honors in 1947. He served as a consular official at the U.S. embassies in London and Paris after the war, working on postwar reconstruction efforts. He spent most of his professional life working as a securities and corporate attorney in Denver, working well into his late 80s. He is survived by his wife of 56 years, Sheila Eigeman Crawford, five children, and seven grandchildren. Myrtle Gill Nelson, F44, formerly of Bethesda, Maryland, died on 21 February 2014, at her home in Rutland, Vermont. She grew up in Long Branch, New Jersey, the daughter of Myrtle Sickles Gill and Thomas Grant Gill. She attended Rutgers University, majoring in economics. In the summer of 1942, while a junior in college, she was selected for an educational program at Campobello Island, the summer residence 32
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of President Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt. She attended seminars with many teachers, including Mrs. Roosevelt. She received a master’s degree in international relations from The Fletcher School, then moved to Washington, D.C., and began work at the Budget Bureau, where she met her husband, Roger Sherwood Nelson. They lived in Sweden, where her husband worked for the Economic Cooperation Administration, administering the Marshall Plan; and Turkey, where he worked for the U.S. Aid mission. She returned to work at the Budget Bureau in November 1963. Her husband died in 1997, after 50 years of marriage. In 2004, she moved to Rutland to be near her daughters and their families. Survivors include three daughters: Karen Nelson Moore of Cleveland, Ohio; Margaret Nelson Schultz of North Pomfret, Vermont; and Judy Nelson of Rutland, Vermont; seven grandchildren; and one great-granddaughter. In addition to her husband, she was predeceased by three brothers, David, Richard, and Joseph Gill. Robert “Bob” A. Ackerman, Esq., F45, A46, A73P, died on 23 April 2014, at his home in Washington, D.C. He was born in Buffalo, New York, and raised in Medford, Massachusetts. Ackerman served as a lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps during World War II, then attended Columbia Law School, and became a case officer for the Central Intelligence Agency. That service took him first to Norway, then to Berlin, Germany, and finally to Taipei, Taiwan. During the 1960s he moved to the Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department, where he participated in many prosecutions of the KKK. Retiring from the federal government in the early 1970s, Ackerman devoted himself to private law practice, including helping those of limited means. He was active in the alumni affairs of Tufts and Columbia universities, mentoring young graduates. He valued intellectual integrity as among the highest ideals. He is survived by his sons Eric (Ginger) and Konrad; former wife, Helen; two grandchildren; and one great-grandson.
William Healy Sullivan, F47, died on 11 October 2013. He was an American Foreign Service career officer who served as ambassador to Laos from 1964 to 1969, the Philippines from 1973 to 1977, and Iran from 1977 to 1979. He was born on 12 October 1922, in Rhode Island, and graduated from Brown University as salutatorian and class orator of the class of 1943. His senior address was on America’s duty to “aid in repairing not only the damage suffered by our Allies, but also that sustained by our enemies.” After graduation, he entered the Navy and served as a gunnery officer on a destroyer, the USS Hambleton, which participated in the D-Day invasion of Normandy. He had the senior watch on the Hambleton when it entered Yokohama harbor for the Japanese surrender. After obtaining a Master of Arts from The Fletcher School in 1947 under the GI Bill, Sullivan joined the Foreign Service and was posted to Bangkok, Thailand. His subsequent assignments were to Calcutta, India; Tokyo, Japan; Naples and Rome, Italy; and The Hague, The Netherlands. Sullivan served as Averell Harriman’s deputy at Geneva negotiations about the future of Laos in 1961 and during the Cuban Missile Crisis. When the Vietnam War heated up, he served briefly as deputy chief of mission to the U.S. Embassy in Saigon. In 1964, Sullivan began his tenure as ambassador to Laos. There he broached negotiations with the North Vietnamese, capitalizing on his prior contacts with the Viet Cong in Thailand nearly 20 years previously, for the initiation of the Paris Peace Talks that ended the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Pursuant to an order by President Kennedy, all U.S. military operations in Laos were under the direct supervision of the ambassador. Sullivan personally directed the bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in order to minimize civilian casualties. After he left Laos, Sullivan returned to Washington to coordinate the U.S. participation in the Paris Peace Talks. Thereafter, he was appointed ambassador to the Philippines. South Vietnam fell while he was in the
Philippines, and Sullivan orchestrated the evacuation of hundreds of thousands of people through that nation. Sullivan next served as U.S. Ambassador to Iran, arriving just before President Jimmy Carter’s visit to the Shah of Iran in December 1977. In 1979, Iran officially became an Islamic state. The embassy staff was briefly taken hostage. After Sullivan left Iran, 52 Americans were held hostage by militant Iranian students. Sullivan headed the American Assembly at Columbia University from 1979 to 1986. In 1981, Sullivan published Mission to Iran, a memoir of his time as ambassador. His autobiography, Obbligato: Notes on a Foreign Service Career, was published in 1984. He later served on the boards of the Lincoln Center, the International Center, and the U.S.-Vietnam Trade Council. Following retirement, he lived a quiet life in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and later, Washington, D.C. He is survived by four children and six grandchildren. Rufus J. Wysor, F47, died on 1 March 2013. He graduated from Amherst College in 1942 and was immediately commissioned with the Army-Air Force in Italy. Upon his return he married Martha Bieler in 1948 and began a family. He and his wife were avid travelers to Europe, Asia, and South America, in addition to many U.S. destinations. He opened Ambassador Travel Service in 1972. He was most happy at home or at his beloved farm in Mars, Pennsylvania, when planting his vegetable or flower gardens. Wysor was husband of the late Martha (Bieler); father of Charles J. (Patricia) Wysor; Betsy (Kirk) Wassmann of Leeds, Massachusetts; James (Katherine) Wysor of Sandusky, Ohio; and Martha Wysor of Bend, Oregon; grandfather of seven; and brother of the late Jeanne Wysor and Carolyn Wysor Beck. Edward E. Masters, F49, died at his home in Washington, D.C., on 21 March 2014, after a long illness. He held senior posts in government and the private sector. He was U.S. ambassador to Indonesia (1977–1981), to Bangladesh (1976–1977), deputy chief of mission in Thailand (1971–1975), director of
Indonesian affairs in the Department of State, and political counselor at the embassy in Jakarta. His 30-year career in the Foreign Service, in which he reached the senior rank of career minister, also included posts in India and Pakistan and an assignment as director of the State Department’s Office of East Asian Regional Affairs, which involved policy coordination for the entire area. Immediately following his retirement from the Foreign Service, Masters was adjunct professor of Asian Studies at The Fletcher School (1981–1982) and later at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (2000–2003). In 1982 he joined the San Francisco–based Natomas Company, a Fortune 500 energy and shipping firm, as senior vice president for international affairs. He left the company after a hostile takeover and was elected president of the National Policy Association. In 1994, he founded The United States-Indonesia Society, which he led as president until 2001, after which he served as co-chair and later co-chair emeritus. Masters held degrees from The George Washington University (with distinction) and The Fletcher School. He was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and was also a graduate of the National Defense University in Washington, D.C. He was decorated by the Government of Indonesia with the Bintang Jasa Utama, the highest award given to a foreigner. He was born in Columbus, Ohio, on 21 June 1924, and was raised in northern Ohio, alternating between his grandfather’s farm and the small town nearby where his parents lived. He graduated from high school in 1942, started college at Denison University but left to enlist in the Army, where he spent the next three years. He leaves his wife of nearly 58 years, Allene; a daughter, Julie (Robert) Hellman; son Edward R. Masters; and two grandsons. William B. Edmondson, F51, a retired Foreign Service officer and former U.S. ambassador to South Africa, died on 5 December 2013, in Prescott, Arizona. Edmondson was born in St. Joseph, Missouri, in 1927, but spent his formative years in Nebraska. He joined
the Army upon graduation from high school in 1944 and served for three years, reaching the rank of first lieutenant. After leaving the Army, he attended the University of Nebraska, where he graduated with high distinction and was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. In 1951, he earned a master’s degree in international affairs at The Fletcher School and later that same year was married to the former Donna Kiechel, whom he had met at the University of Nebraska. Edmondson joined the Foreign Service in 1952, and in 1953 left for his first overseas assignment as vice consul in Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika (now Tanzania). In 1955 he was assigned to the U.S. embassy in Bern, Switzerland, for two years. He then returned to the States where he took African area studies at Northwestern University. Afterward he served in embassies in Ghana, Zambia, and South Africa as well as various offices within the Department of State in Washington. In 1978, President Carter appointed him ambassador to the Republic of South Africa, at a time when tensions were high, given the U.S. government’s condemnation of South Africa’s apartheid laws and support for civil rights and democratic reform. Despite these challenging circumstances, Edmondson effectively represented American interests and established strong relationships with many South Africans, of all races and political persuasions. After returning from South Africa in 1981, he was assigned to the Inspector General’s office in the State Department, eventually serving as deputy inspector general. Upon retirement in 1986, he received the Wilbur J. Carr Award (the Secretary of State’s career service award). After retirement, Edmondson was president of Diplomatic & Consular Officers, Retired (DACOR), an association of foreign affairs professionals. He later served as a volunteer for 10 years at the Library of Congress in Washington. Edmondson is survived by his wife of 62 years, Donna; his daughter, Barbara (Richard) Schneider of Prescott; his son Paul (Susan) Edmondson of Washington, D.C.; and four grandchildren.
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Keith L. Ronan, F51, of South Haven, Michigan, died on 23 February 2014, at the South Haven Nursing and Rehabilitation Community. Born on 4 June 1926, to Kenneth and Phoebe Ronan in Cleveland, Ohio, Ronan was raised in rural Michigan. As a youth, he was a member of the debate team. He graduated from high school in June 1944 and joined the Army the next day, serving in the 306 Regiment as part of the 77th Division. In April 1945, he was awarded the Bronze Star for his heroic actions during battle on Okinawa. Honorably discharged in 1945, he went on to graduate from Albion College with additional education at The Fletcher School. He studied history, law, and international diplomacy. Ronan retired in 1998 after a successful career in business that included partial ownership and management of Alwyn Downs Golf Club in Marshall, Michigan. He was a member of various organizations, including the Moose Lodge in Marshall, a board member with Friends of the Orchestra in Battle Creek, and an active member in the VFW in South Haven. Keith loved to travel with his wife, Dolores, including excursions to Egypt, Africa, Spain, and throughout Europe. He enjoyed all things sports, including golf, as well as being an avid Michigan Wolverines and Detroit Lions fan. As a voracious reader, Ronan was rarely seen without a book (particularly history), in addition to a plethora of newspapers. Ronan was predeceased by his parents, Phoebe (Miller) Ronan and Kenneth Ronan; brother Martin; and sister Julia. He is survived by his wife of 40 years, Dolores Ronan of South Haven; children from his first marriage: daughters Anne (Larry) Heathcote of Wyoming Michigan, and Cynthia (Terry) Spalding of Batavia, Illinois; son Ken (Christina) Ronan of Battle Creek; stepson Mark (Mary) Dillon of Houston, Texas; four grandchildren; sister-in-law, JoAnn Beattie; three nephews, one niece, and one grandniece. Shijuro Ogata, F55, died on 14 April 2014. Educated at the University of Tokyo, Ogata received a bachelor’s degree 34
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in 1950 and a master’s degree from The Fletcher School in 1955. He served the Bank of Japan from 1950 to 1986 in Tokyo, Osaka, London, Okayama, and New York. Ogata rose to become deputy governor for international relations at the Bank of Japan. He joined the Group of 30 in 1986 and was an active member and emeritus member until recently, when his health would not allow travel. From 1986 to 1991, he was deputy governor of the Japan Development Bank. After his retirement from the Bank of Japan, Ogata served in many positions, including non-executive director of Barclays Bank plc, non-executive chairman of its trust bank subsidiary in Japan, co-chairman of the Advisory Group of UN Financing, member of the Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education, non-executive director of Fuji Xerox, and member of the International Council of JP Morgan Chase. At the time of his death, he was deputy chairman of the Pacific Asia Region for the Trilateral Commission, non-executive director of Horiba Ltd., Kyoto, and vice president of the America-Japan Society, Tokyo. Ogata was the author of “International Finance Integration: The Policy Challenges” (with Richard N. Cooper and Horst Schulmann, 1989), “Yen and Bank of Japan” (1996), and “Harukanaru Showa (Show Years in Reminiscence)” (2005), and many other articles on international issues. He is survived by his wife, Sadako Ogata, a former U.N. high commissioner for refugees. Dr. Elizabeth Anne Bridges Sass, F55, died on 31 March 2014, in Toronto, Canada, with her three children by her side. Sass was born in Des Moines, Iowa, on 13 November 1929, the oldest child of Wilbur and Lillian Bridges. Known as Betty Bridges as a child, she was often called “Banged Up Betty” for the bruises she collected on her arms and legs while roller-skating outdoors. She always had an adventurous, independent, and pioneering spirit. She left Des Moines in 1948 to attend the University of Michigan, where she studied political science. She excelled academically and was the president of
her sorority, Kappa Alpha Theta; she was also selected for Mortar Board. She then earned her master’s degree at The Fletcher School. She studied at the Sorbonne in Paris and became fluent in French. She traveled to the then Soviet Union as part of the first group of students allowed entry. Returning to the United States, she enrolled in a Ph.D. program in political science at Stanford University. She later transferred to the University of California, Berkeley and completed her Ph.D. in 1972. While at Stanford University, she met Donald Sass, a medical student. They married in 1959 and had three children, divorcing in 1972. Elizabeth Sass taught political science for many years at St. Olaf College in Minnesota, then at the University of New Brunswick in St. John. Following her teaching career, she launched her own management consulting firm in Toronto in the 1980s. In Toronto, she was active as a volunteer in municipal political campaigns. She was a lifelong member of the national women’s leadership group P.E.O. She was also a strong advocate for those with mental health challenges. She is survived by three children: David Jostin Sass and his wife, Hiroko; Christin Lee Sass Davidson and her husband, Scott; and Elizabeth Allison Sass, all of Toronto. She is also survived by four grandchildren and her brother, Robert Bridges of Des Moines, Iowa, his wife Anne, their two children and their four grandchildren. Douglas Bailey, F57, F61, died on 10 June 2013, at his home in Arlington, Virginia, at the age of 79. He was a pioneering political consultant who had a key role in crafting Gerald Ford’s message in the 1976 presidential campaign and who later helped launch the first electronically distributed digest of national political news. Throughout his long career, Bailey often seemed to be at the forefront of political and technological trends. In 1967, he and John Deardourff formed one of Washington’s first major political consulting firms, Bailey, Deardourff & Associates, to champion moderate Republican candidates across the country. They devised an advertising campaign that almost got
Ford elected, despite trailing Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter by 33 points in August. Ford lost the popular vote, 50 to 48 percent, in what Washington Post political reporter Lou Cannon called ‘’the most remarkable comeback in the history of American presidential politics.’’ Robert C. Bennett, F58, died peacefully, surrounded by his family, on 19 February 2014. He was 82 years old. He was born in Long Branch, New Jersey. Both his parents died when he was a child and he and his brother were raised by his godmother, Elvira Houston Jones. With her encouragement and support, Bennett obtained scholarships to both Kent School and Princeton University, where he earned his bachelor’s degree. Following military service as a commissioned officer in the Navy, including duty as an admiral’s aide, he obtained a master’s degree from The Fletcher School. He then joined the Overseas Division of Citibank, N.A., and began a banking career that lasted 33½ years and took him on assignments to Singapore, India, Brazil, Finland, and both coasts of the United States. He married Jane Earl Davis in 1965. In the early 1970s he was appointed president of Citibank’s Edge Act entity in San Francisco. In 1979, he and his family were reassigned to San Francisco, where he launched Citibank’s private banking presence in Northern California. On retirement from Citibank, he pursued a variety of art, music, and computerrelated courses at a local community college. He enjoyed travel and sports and was an avid jogger and skier. He did a bungee jump at the age of 67 while on a trip to New Zealand. He was known for his fun jokes and stories. In April 2000, he and his wife moved to the University Retirement Community at Davis. At Princeton, he rowed in the 150-pound crew, was a member of the Princeton Quadrangle Club, the University Glee Club, and the Varsity Lightweight Crew. He also was a member of Costco and the Stock Exchange and Banker’s Clubs in San Francisco. Bennett is survived by his wife of 48 years, Jane Bennett; his son Robert (Merritt) Bennett; daughter Sarah
(Vince) Bennett; four grandchildren; sisters-in-law Sally (Tom) Patterson, Mary (Mac) Dewart, and Jeanne Hall; and two nieces. He was predeceased by his brother, James Cleveland Bennett, and his godmother, Elvira Houston Jones. Bruce Duval Bent, F60, of Palm Beach, Florida, and Cape Elizabeth, Maine, died on 23 June 2013. He was 76. Born on 10 June 1937, he was the son of Gordon and Margaret Bent of Denver. He graduated cum laude from Amherst College in Massachusetts, where he was a member of Chi Psi fraternity, and received his master’s degree from The Fletcher School. He served in the U.S. Army Intelligence, which was connected with the National Security Agency. He joined the Mobil Oil Corp. and was assigned to an executive capacity in Nigeria. Later, he went into finance in New York and became a managing director of John W. Bristol Co., which provided investment management of college and university endowment funds. He established his own investment advisory firm, Bruce Bent Associates, in 1985. He served on the boards of the Palm Beaches-Treasure Coast Region of the American Red Cross and the English-Speaking Union, Palm Beach branch. He was chairman of the board of the Palm Beach Symphony and served as the chairman of the 2012 Cleveland Clinic Florida Charity Ball at Mar-aLago. He hosted many charity events at his home, Hogarcito. Designed by Marion Sims Wyeth and built in 1921, the house was once the residence of Marjorie Merriweather Post and her second husband, financier E. F. Hutton. Bent was a member of the Racquet and Tennis Club and the Brook Club in New York City, and the Everglades Club. He was a longtime fellow of the Duke of Edinburgh’s International Foundation, a member of the Society of Colonial Wars, and commander in the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. He served Amherst College as president of the alumni association and later on the executive committee of the alumni council. He is survived by his companion of 43 years, Van Stewart.
James Andrew Rotherham, A60, F61, F70, of Crozet, Virginia, died on 12 January 2014, of cancer. Born on 4 January 1939, in Melrose, Massachusetts, he was the son of Richard and Virginia Rotherham. He attended Northfield Mount Hermon in Massachusetts, and then Tufts University, where he earned a bachelor’s degree, two master’s degrees, and a Ph.D. In addition, he served at the Central Intelligence Agency and as a United States Air Force officer during that time. He went to Washington in the late 1960s to work in the Executive Office of the President at the Office of Management and Budget, and in the 1970s, moved to the United States Congress as one of the original staffers for the House Budget Committee. After more than 14 years on Capitol Hill in various roles, he retired to private consulting and graduate school teaching. He consulted on public finance issues domestically and internationally, and was active in a variety of volunteer organizations, including his church. He also published articles and taught throughout his career. He is survived by his wife of more than 25 years, Beverly Thierwechter of Crozet, Virginia; a son, Andrew James Rotherham of Arlington, Virginia; a sister, Caryl Stevens of Jacksonville, Florida; and two grandchildren. He is also survived by his first wife, Barbara La Rock, the mother of his son. Tsung-Kuang “T.K.” Lin, F65, F74, died on 21 December 2013, surrounded by his family. Born on 14 January 1940, in Tainan, Taiwan, he was the youngest of 10 children. At a young age, he showed more promise athletically than academically. He was best known in Taiwan as an elite baseball pitcher, but he represented his province and island in soccer, track and field, and basketball as well. Despite spending most of his time on the field, he matured enough academically to matriculate to Tunghai University. He earned an international scholarship to Pomona College before he earned both his M.A.L.D. in 1966 and Ph.D. in 1974 from The Fletcher School. He studied both economics and international relations with an emphasis on fall 2014
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Asian studies. He married his wife, Suzu, in Berkeley, California, in 1964. After finishing his degrees at Fletcher, he was offered a position at Drake University in Des Moines, Iowa, in 1970, where he stayed for 36 years before retiring. He maintained an emeritus position there but he spent most of his time pursuing his favorite pastimes of travel, classical music, photography, tennis, chasing grandchildren, spending time with his friends, carrying on the works of his father, and treasuring his moments with his wife of 50 years. His family was well known in Taiwan and internationally for their work on Taiwan’s independence movement. Leading the charge was his father, Bo-Seng Lin, who was assassinated when T.K. Lin was only seven years old. Lin was also the former president of NATPA (North American Taiwanese Professors Association). He will be remembered as a strong leader in the organization and a passionate advocate of the Taiwanese democratic movement since the 1970s. Upon being diagnosed with cancer, Lin elevated his level of travel around the world, having hit every continent, around 20 countries, sans Antarctica. His greatest and perhaps proudest trip came in 2012, when all three sons, seven grandchildren, and two daughters-in-law joined him and Suzu for a 10-day, family-only bus tour around Taiwan. He is survived by his wife, Suzu, of Clive, Iowa; three children, Hoyt of Chaska, Minnesota; Ian (Danielle) of Des Moines; Jim (Sarah) of Poulsbo, Washington; and seven grandchildren. He is also survived by his sister, Yung-Mei. Joseph J. Shattan, F72, F77, of Silver Spring, Maryland, died on 7 June 2014. Beloved husband of Jaine Shattan. Devoted father of Lewis and Phillip Shattan. Loving son of William and the late Irene Shattan. Shattan was a speech writer for Presidents Reagan, George H. W. Bush, as well as George W. Bush. He wrote for various newspapers, magazines, and think tanks, including the Wall Street Journal, The American Spectator, and The Heritage Foundation. He also was the author of Architects of Victory: Six Heroes of the Cold War. 36
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Philip W. Michelini, F73, died 21 January 2014, at the age of 70. He was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, the son of Dorando P. and Helen Alvezi Michelini. The family moved to Marshfield, Massachusetts, in 1947. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Georgetown University and a master’s degree in history from the University of Wisconsin. In 1968, Michelini joined the Peace Corps; he served in Sierra Leone, Africa, for three years, teaching at the university there and doing outreach in the slums of Freetown. In 1971–73, he became a fellow at the Fletcher School, receiving an M.A. in 1973. At Fletcher, he worked as assistant to noted historian John Lukacs, a life-long friend. In 1974, Michelini joined the U.S. Department of Commerce in Washington, where he served as specialist for Central Africa, later becoming desk officer for 36 African countries, and acting director of the EastWest Africa Division. He retired in 2007, after 38 years of government service, and returned to Marshfield. Among his many interests in his retirement were traveling to historical sites, classical music, reading history, gardening, contributing to Catholic and environmental charities, following the Red Sox, and bird watching on the marshlands around his home. He enjoyed concerts at the Boston Symphony, ball games at Fenway, and entertaining friends at the Harvard Club of Boston. He was predeceased by his wife, Britta Sundman Michelini, with whom he lived for many years in Alexandria, Virginia. John R. Lacey, F76, of Fenwick, Connecticut; Killington, Vermont; and Washington, D.C., died on 1 December 2013. Born on 28 June 1945, he was the son of the Honorable J. Robert Lacey and Marie McNerney Lacey of Southington, Connecticut. A graduate of the Robinson School, he went on to Georgetown University, where he received a B.S.F.S. from the School of Foreign Service. While at Georgetown, he became an original F.O.B., and remained a lifelong friend of President Clinton. Lacey received his J.D. from the University of Virginia Law School and an M.A.L.D.
from The Fletcher School. He practiced corporate and international business law as a partner in the Hartford firm of Copp, Berall & Hempstead and was a founding partner of Lacey, Meissel, Koven & Kaufman. In 1994, he was nominated by President Clinton to serve on the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission. In January 2001, he was elevated to chairman. In 2002, he was appointed as an appellate hearing examiner for the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund. Throughout his service, Lacey was a kind and compassionate voice in the adjudication of claims of suffering families. Lacey was a passionate reader since his childhood. In his early teens, he caught the ski bug. He skied Killington from its inception and was a part-time ski instructor there for many years. He delighted in working the British Programs, teaching hundreds of young Brits to ski, and sharing stories of their first ski experiences and impressions of the New World. He also loved Fenwick. During summers, he would be seen out on the golf course uttering classic Laceyisms like: “Just missed that one,” or after his playing partner hit a particularly poor shot: “Why don’t you swing a little faster?” Anthony “Tony” A. Das, F77, died on 28 April 2014. He was born on 2 April 1954. The president and COO of Global Markets Consulting Group LLC (GMCG), he had spent his entire career in international affairs as a foreign correspondent, U.S. diplomat, business executive, and consultant. In 1978, Das was appointed Voice of America Radio’s bureau chief for West and Central Africa, based in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, where he learned to speak French. He eventually reported from all 50 nations of what was then the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union). Upon returning to the United States, he served as VOA’s bureau chief at the United Nations during a time that included the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, wars in Nicaragua and El Salvador, and global efforts to end apartheid in South Africa. When the National Security Council mandated the creation of a
VOA broadcast service aimed at Angola and Mozambique, he was tapped to lead that operation. Das then was assigned to VOA’s parent agency—the United States Information Agency—where he was deputy director for Southern Africa and director of the agency’s Fast Policy Guidance unit, which provided real-time public affairs support to U.S. embassies around the world on critical foreign policy issues. He then moved to the State Department as director of public communication and was assigned to provide public communications support to the office of then-Vice President Dan Quayle during the latter’s foreign travels. Das ended his public service career as executive secretary of the U.S. Department of Commerce under the late Commerce Secretary Ron Brown, where he helped plan the secretary’s foreign trade and investment missions, including the first such trip to South Africa after the fall of apartheid. Das earned Superior Honor Awards at the United States Information Agency, for his role in the 1985 Reagan-Gorbachev summit in Iceland and from the State Department for his management of global public communications. After Secretary Brown’s tragic death in a plane crash, Das retired from the federal government and entered the private sector as a consultant with Armitage Associates, where he supported a U.S.-based international telecommunications client, Startec Global Communications. Das was later hired by Startec as part of the team that took the company public and held positions as a division COO and corporate EVP responsible for negotiating international telecommunications agreements primarily in Africa, the Middle East, India, China, and Southeast Asia. He was the first U.S. executive to close telecommunications operating agreements in Palestine and North Korea. He ran five in-language “ethnic portals”: Indian (English and Hindi), Chinese, Turkish, Russian, and Arabic. In 2002, he helped arrange the sale of Startec’s subsidiary on Guam and joined the new company as CEO, establishing relationships in the Philippines, South
Korea, and the Mariana Islands. During that time he was a regular contributor on foreign policy issues to the Pacific Daily News, the Gannett newspaper in the western Pacific, and a talk show guest and host on K-57 (Sorenson Broadcasting). Prior to becoming president of GMCG, Das held positions as managing director for consulting at a service disabled veteran-owned small business in the IT arena and as senior director for Africa at a major U.S. defense contractor. His degrees included an M.A. in communications from Michigan State University, an M.A. in international relations and an M.A.L.D. from The Fletcher School. Das was an avid motorcyclist and was a certified Master Scuba and Rescue Diver. He is survived by his wife, Nan Ellen Ducklow; his mother, Dr. Lakshmi Das; brother, David Das and his wife, Jane Costlow; and their two children. Christopher “Chris” M. Brown, F80, F89, lifelong international development specialist and advocate for human rights, died peacefully at his home with family and friends in Lake Placid, New York, on 23 March 2014. Brown was born on 7 March 1957. He received his B.A. from Occidental College, and his master’s and doctorate in agricultural economics (based on extensive field work in Liberia) from The Fletcher School. Shortly after graduating from The Fletcher School, Brown began, with his wife, Betsy, a remarkable more-than-20-year joint career with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Together, they worked in more than 50 countries across Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the former Soviet Union on issues of democracy, economic growth, health, food and hunger, and strategic planning. The son of Vince Brown, a senior USAID mission director, and Francoise Brown, from France, Brown was in many ways born into international development. Raised in Islamabad and Kabul, he learned Urdu and Dari as well as French and English, and mastered at least seven languages over his lifetime. His
childhood was wonderful preparation for one of the greatest contributions of his career, putting schoolbooks in the hands of millions of children across Afghanistan immediately after the fall of the Taliban in fall 2001. Brown was devoted to educational opportunities in Afghanistan, including the reconstruction of the American University of Afghanistan, which was built on the rubble of his former high school. Brown had an infectious zest for life and demonstrated how it is possible to thrive while living with cancer for 23 years. He worked throughout his life to build a sense of community, bringing people together in celebration with food, music, and poetry. He loved the outdoors and had a passion for new adventures. An accomplished skier, snowboarder, water skier, wakeboarder, rock climber, and kayaker, he even took up ballet and gave his first (and only) recital at the age of 50. A devout Christian Scientist, he embraced Judaism as part of his family faith. Chis is survived by his wife of 34 years, Betsy Hulnick Brown, CEO and president of Planned Parenthood of the North Country New York; his son, Michael Lawrence Brown; his daughter, Danielle Raymonde Brown; his mother, Francoise Brown; brother, Gregory Brown; sister, Valerie Brown Ewins; father-in-law and mother-in-law Don and Barbara Hulnick of Tupper Lake, New York; and extensive family in the United States and France. John C. Palenberg, Esq., F81, died peacefully on 6 January 2014. Born on 13 September 1956, in Richardton, North Dakota, he graduated from the University of North Dakota and from Harvard Law School and the Fletcher School through their J.D./M.A.L.D. joint degree program and was a Fulbright Scholar. He joined the law firm of Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton, LLP in 1983 and had an illustrious career in six of the firm’s offices around the world. He is survived by his wife, Chieko, his children, Henry and Sophia, his mother, Theresa, his sisters, Fay and Jan, and by many friends.
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Simulating Disaster In a high-stakes exercise, humanitarian aid students spend a weekend in the woods overcoming obstacles and learning about themselves By Taylor McNeil
Swatting gnats, the students lined up outside an open-air building deep in the sprawling Harold Parker State Forest in North Andover, Mass. They waited with their bags to go through “customs” in the fictional country of Worani, and just like at many airports in developing countries, things weren’t going smoothly. It was an early foreshadowing of the days to follow: Don’t expect things to go according to plan. The students were entering a three-day simulation of an international refugee crisis, the capstone in a course meant to teach the next generation of humanitarian aid workers how to be effective in responding to natural and manmade disasters. The simulation is part of the Humanitarian Response Intensive Course that has been Watch a video of Fletcher students participating in the humanitarian simulation exercise at now.tufts.edu/articles/ simulating-disaster.
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co-led by faculty at Tufts and Harvard for the past 11 years. About a third of the 100 or so participants were from The Fletcher School and other graduate programs at Tufts: the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, the School of Medicine, and Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine. The rest were students from Harvard and MIT, as well as professionals in medicine, humanitarian assistance, and the military. They faced an elaborate setup: Over three days, former students, teachers and their family members, and actors played such roles as customs officials, refugees, soldiers, media crews—and even grandstanding celebrities. There’s a different scenario every year, but some elements are constants: setting up tents rain or shine, working day and night on sometimes tedious tasks, and overcoming obstacles— lots of obstacles. Contradictory information, conflicts with “host country” officials, and things like militia checkpoints impede the students’ progress. Participants must make quick, value-based judgments and apply their critical thinking skills on the ground. Chris Paci, F14, found he thrived in a situation where ambiguity and confusion reigned. “It was a test run to find out whether I could handle the work,” he says. “I think the course showed me that I can.”
Photo: Dominick Reuter for Tufts University
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