Fish F armer MARCH 2021
BOATS AND BARGES
Making the seas greener
Warm water prawns in Norway
EXPORT BARRIERS Red tape at the border
Celebrating women in aquaculture
CAGES, NETS AND PENS
Half a century of Scottish salmon farming ff03 Cover.indd 1
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n this issue of Fish Farmer we look both back and forward. Our retrospec�ve special feature harks back to the origins of salmon farming in Scotland, celebra�ng the ﬁ�ieth anniversary of the ﬁrst commercial output from Marine Harvest’s pioneering site at Lochailort. In many ways, the early period of the industry was a world away from modern ﬁsh farming, but one thing that has not changed is the can-do a�tude of the people working in the sector, and their willingness to embrace new ideas, We also look forward, to the many ways in which the aquaculture industry is taking on the challenges of sustainability. From hybrid boats and barges – reducing the industry’s carbon footprint – to crea�ve ways to reuse and recycle waste, the industry is taking its responsibili�es seriously. Aquaculture can claim to be one of the most sustainable forms of producing protein to meet the world’s needs, but there is s�ll much further to go, and mee�ng this challenge will What’s happening in aq no doubt con�nue to bring about further changes in the industry over the coming decades. in the UK and around th In this issue we are also celebra�ng the role of women in aquaculture. Times have changed What’s happening in aquacu since the days when it was a given that ﬁsh farming was a male preserve, and there are in the UK and around the w inspiring stories from all over the worldJENNY to be of the women who have made their HJUL –– EDITOR JENNY HJULtold EDITOR careers in the sector. JENNY HJUL JENNYcomments HJUL –– EDITOR EDITOR on the ongoing challenges of Brexit; we Also this month, Hamish Macdonell Steve Bracken SSC’s record results Stewart Graham The ﬁnal sessions ﬁnd out about the farmer who is raising tropical shrimps in Norway; and note the latest developments in cages, nets, pens and moorings. Steve Bracken SSC’s record results Stewart Graham The ﬁnal sessions salmon farming sector in Scotland, when it was to he focus this month istopictures on Europe, the internati T HE is coincidence that andwhere videos of unhealthy Sno Fish Farmer went press, there was sti lltold no oﬃ cialonal be thewere subject ofScotti a be parliamentary inquiry, embraced the Best wishes, industry willsent soon gathering the (European salmon to news outletsfor just asjoint the Scotti sh news from the shScotland, parliamentary inquiry into salmon farming sector in when itEAS was tosalmon he focus this month istopictures on Europe, the internati T HE is coincidence that andwhere videos of unhealthy Sno Fish Farmer went press, there was sti lltold no oﬃ cialonal opportunity this would provide to explain how it month. operated. Robert Outram Aquaculture Society) and WAS (World Aquaculture Society) parliament went back to work at the start of this These farming, conducted earlier this year by the Rural Economy be thewere subject ofScotti a be parliamentary inquiry, embraced industry willsent soon gathering the EASinto (European salmon to news outletsfor just asjoint the Scotti shthe news from the sh parliamentary inquiry salmon Current trends In good Julie Hesketh-Laird The industry had nothing to hide and, if given aof fair hearing, could Meet thehealth new chief exe conference, to be staged over ﬁ ve days in the southern French images had litt le to do with the current state Scotland’s ﬁ sh and Connecti vity (REC) committ ee. MSPs have now held ﬁ ve opportunity this would provide explain how it month. operated. Aquaculture Society) and WAS (World Aquaculture Society) parliament back to work atto the start of this These farming, went conducted earlier this year by the Rural Economy address much of the criti cism levelled against it. city of Montpellier. As well as highlighti ng the latest technological farms where sea lice levels are in decline and, in fact, at a ﬁ vemeeti ngs, in private, to consider their report and we must be Current trends In good Julie Hesketh-Laird The had to hide and, if given fair hearing, Meet thehealth new chief executiv conference, to benothing staged over days in theaof southern images had litt le to do with theﬁve current state Scotland’s ﬁcould sh and industry Connecti vity (REC) committ ee. MSPs have now heldFrench ﬁve Fish Farmer supported this but at times salmon advances in our fast moving sector, Aqua 2018felt willthat alsohas feature year low (htt p://scotti shsalmon.co.uk/monthly-sea-lice-reports). pati ent. However, waiti ng forview, their recommendati ons been address much of the criti cism levelled against it. city ofngs, As well asare highlighti ng the latest technological farms -Montpellier. where sea lice in decline and, inwe fact, at abe ﬁvemeeti in private, tolevels consider their report and must farmers were being drowned out bywhich theREC noisier elements offarming the sessions on emerging markets and look atinvolves the role ofthe ﬁshusual This latest propaganda campaign, all made harder by leaks from within to anti -salmon Fish Farmer supported this atthe times salmon advances in our fast moving sector, Aqua 2018felt willthat alsohas feature year low (htt p://scotti shsalmon.co.uk/monthly-sea-lice-reports). pati ent. However, waiti ng forview, theirbut recommendati ons been angling lobby, which had called foras the investi gatiRural on. But asngs the farming in alleviati ng poverty. Increasingly, industry meeti anti -aquaculture suspects, came Holyrood’s Economy acti vists. The latest of these (see our news story on page 4) farmers were being drowned out bywhich theREC noisier elements offarming the sessions onpropaganda emerging markets and look atinvolves the role ﬁshusual This campaign, allofthe madelatest harder by leaks from within the to anti -salmon sessions progressed, and eventually farmers’ voices were heard, are broadening their scope, tackling subjects such asthat thethe social and Connecti vity committ ee returned the summer recess we to makes grim reading for the industry asfrom itgati suggests committ ee angling lobby, which had called for the investi on. But as farming inThe alleviati ngof poverty. Increasingly, industry ngs anti -aquaculture suspects, came as Holyrood’s Rural Economy activists. latest these (see our news story onmeeti page 4) became more opti misti c. We now believe that MSPs, perhaps with acceptability of aquaculture and the contributi on it makes towe global consider its draft report into the future of salmon farming. members have been willing to listen to those campaigning to sessions progressed, and eventually farmers’ voices were heard, are broadening their scope, tackling subjects suchsummer asthat the committ social and Connecti vity committ ee returned the recess ee to makes grim reading for the industry asfrom it suggests Serving Worldwide Aquaculture Since 1977 food security and saving the planet, aindustry move that is toanti welcomed. the excepti on ofvaluable one or two Greens cahoots with -farming Those who want toWe shut down thein asbe shut down this sector, rather than to those who operate became more misti c. now believe that MSPs, perhaps with acceptability ofopti aquaculture and the contributi on ithave, makes toexpected, global consider its draft report into the future of salmon farming. members have been willing to listen to those campaigning to Also investi gati ngacti initi aties, veswhich inregard thenow developing world, Harrison campaigners, will, on balance, the industry in a Dr favourable stepped their viti involve the within it.up food security and saving the planet, aindustry move that is tobreaching welcomed. the excepti on ofvaluable one or two Greens cahoots with anti -farming Those who want shut down thein asbe expected, shut down this sector, rather thanthe tohave, those who operate Meet the team Charo Karisa ofto WorldFish writes about farming potenti al inthe Fish Farmer: Volume 44 Number 03and, light. They will hopefully see that farmers take their environmental biosecure environments of farm sites to snatch photographs in Of course, such stories may be inaccurate in any case, Also investi gati ngacti initi aties, veswhich inregard thenow developing world, Harrison campaigners, will, on balance, the industry in a Dr favourable stepped viti involve breaching the within it.up their Editorial Advisory Board: Nigeria, both in catf ish and tilapia culti vati on. responsibiliti es seriously and that businesses will only ever invest in the hope of ﬁ nding incriminati ng evidence against farmers. One committ ee’s ﬁ ndings are not binding. Scotland’s ﬁ sh farmers Contact us Charo Karisa ofhopefully WorldFish writes about thesnatch farming potenti al inthe light. They will see that farmers take their environmental biosecure environments of farm sites to photographs ingame Of course, such stories may be inaccurate and, inof any case, Steve Bracken, Hervé Migaud, Jim Treasurer, In Scotland, the summer has been something aofwaiti ngminister, Phil Thomas What’s in a name? Dr Nick Lake growth that isﬁbeen sustainable. Tel: +44(0) 131 551 1000 campaigner lmed himself searching, unsuccessfully, for dead have always fortunate to have the support their Nigeria, both in catf ish and ti lapia culti vati on. responsibiliti seriously that will only ever invest the hope of ﬁes incriminati ng businesses evidence against farmers. Onein committ ee’s ﬁnding ndings areand not binding. Scotland’s ﬁsh farmers Chris Mitchell, Jason Cleaversmith while the parliament is in recess and the members of Holyrood’s Fax: +44(0) 131 551 7901 If the ee members, those who have yet to of Phil ﬁ sh at acommitt Marine Harvest site.especially Another said saw ‘hundreds’ Fergus Ewing, to grow sustainably. In Scotland, the summer has something ofheaof waiti ngminister, game What’s in a name? Dr Nick Lake Thomas growth that isﬁbeen sustainable. campaigner lmed himself searching, unsuccessfully, for dead have always fortunate tobeen have the support their and Hamish Macdonell Rural Economy and Connecti vity committ ee conti nue to weigh up Email: routram@ﬁ shfarmermagazine.com visit aparliament salmon farm, would like tothe learn more about the subject of infested salmon in a pen, but we only have his word against that But it should not go unchallenged that some MSPs on REC while the is in recess and members of Holyrood’s If the committ ee members, especially those who have yetdon’t tothe ﬁ sh at a Marine Harvest site. Another said he saw ‘hundreds’ of Fergus Ewing, to grow sustainably. the evidence in their inquiry into salmon farming. We expect Editor: RobertRural Outram their weConnecti have plenty of goodee stories in our May Even and vity committ conti nue weigh up Head Oﬃ ce: Special Publica� ons, Fe� esto Park, of theinquiry, professional vets and biologists who manage theissue. welfare of committ ee, with their own against the growth of visit a Economy farm, like toagendas learn more about the ofthetime infested salmon in go awould but we only have his word against that Buttheir itsalmon should not unchallenged that some MSPs onsubject the REC report unti l pen, the autumn but hope the MSPs are using the bett er, they could head to the Highlands later this month, where 496 Ferry Road, Edinburgh, EH5 2DL the evidence in their inquiry into salmon farming. We don’t expect Designer: Andrew their Balahura these farms on a daily basis. industry, are in breach of Code of Conduct for MSPs. As they wefully have plenty of good stories in ourgrowth May toinquiry, become acquainted with the facts about ﬁthe shissue. farming. of the professional vets andagendas biologists who manage welfare of committ ee, with their own against the of theEven Montpellier report Dr Marti n Jaﬀ a Doug McLeod meet the aquaculture industry en masse at Scotland’s theirthey report unti l the autumn but hope the MSPs areas using theittiis, meit Ifthey the is proud of its high standards, itsalmon says are inwill aindustry positi on to inﬂthe uence the future course of farming, Commercial Manager: bett er, could head to Highlands later this month, where This month also sees the reti rement of Marine Harvest’s longest these farms on a daily basis. industry, are in breach of Code of Conduct for MSPs. As they Subscriptions to become fully acquainted with the facts about ﬁ sh farming. biggest ﬁ sh farming show. must mount aaquaculture much more robustWe defence oftrouble itself, through its and of businesses vital toBracken. Scotland’s economy, we have a right Janice Johnston Montpellier report Dr Marti n Jaﬀ a Doug McLeod they will meet the industry en masse Scotland’s serving employee, Steve had no Subscrip� ons Fish Farmer If the isto proud ofreti itsAddress: high standards, as itsalmon says itcollecti is, it ng are in aindustry positi on inﬂthe uence the future course ofat farming, This month also sees rement of Marine Harvest’s longest will certainly be at Aquaculture UK inindustry, Aviemore and look jjohnston@ﬁshfarmermagazine.com representati ve body, the SSPO, than itthe has done tothrough date. The toWe know who they are, and weons, hope its warm tributes from his friends and colleagues to mark the biggest ﬁ sh farming show. Magazine Subscrip� Warners Group must a much more robustWe defence itself, through its and ofmount businesses vital toBracken. Scotland’s economy, we have a right serving employee, Steve had noof trouble collecti ng forward toand, seeing many of you there too. campaigners, we now see, willrest stop nothing, representati ves, will pressure the parliament toand investi gate before Publisher: Alisterrepresentati Benne� milestone along with of the industry, thefarmers team We will certainly be at Aquaculture UK inat Aviemore and look Publica� ons plc, The Mal� ngs, vethey body, the SSPO, than itthe has done tothrough date. The to know who are, and wethe hope industry, its at Fish warm tributes from his friends and colleagues to mark the should be prepared toyou ﬁBourne ght back. the to REC report isStreet, published. Farmer wish him all the very best for the future. West forward seeing many of there too. campaigners, we now see, will stop at representati ves, will pressure the parliament toand investi gateatbefore Rising stars Marti nBrown Jaﬀ a Orkney anniversary Janet milestone and, along with the rest of thenothing, industry, thefarmers team Fish Lincolnshire PE10 9PH should be prepared to ﬁ ght back. the REC report is published. Farmer wish him all the very best for the future.
Conte Conten 4-15 4-14 News 4-15 4-14 News
Fair hearing French connection Farmers must fight back Uphold the code Fair hearing French connection Farmers must Uphold the codefight back
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Cover: AKVA group feeding systems being run by hybrid systems help to reduce both emissions and costs.
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26 22-23 30 Shellﬁ sh Comment BTA 26 22-23 30 Shellﬁ sh Comment BTA 28-31 24-25 32-33 SSPO Comment Scottish Shellﬁ sh Sea Far 28-31 24-25 32-33 SSPO Comment Scottish Shellﬁ sh Sea Farms Rising stars Marti nBrown Jaﬀ a Orkney anniversary Janet 32-33 26-27 26-30 34-35 Shellﬁ shﬁSea Cleaner sh Far Scottish Comment 32-33 26-27 26-30 34-35 Janet Machrihanish Orkney farm Marti nBrown Jaﬀ a visit Shellﬁ shﬁSea Cleaner sh Farms Scottish Comment 13
Janet Machrihanish Orkney farm Marti nBrown Jaﬀ a visit Advisory Board: Steve Contact Tel: +44(0) us 131 551 1000 MeetEditorial the team Fax: +44(0) 131 551 7901 Bracken, Scott Landsburgh, Hervé Steve Bracken, Scott HervéLandsburgh, Migaud, Editorial Advisory Board: Steve Tel: +44(0) 131 551 1000 Migaud, PatrickJim Smith and Jim Hervé Patrick Smith, PatrickMigaud, Smith, Treasurer and Fax: email: +44(0) 131 551 7901 Bracken, Scott Landsburgh, Hervé 3 Steve Bracken, Scott HervéLandsburgh, Migaud, jhjul@ﬁ shupdate.com Treasurer, Wiliam Jim Treasurer and Dowds William Dowdsemail: William Dowds Marti nofJaﬀ a era Vaccines New player Dawn new Migaud, PatrickJim Smith and Jim Hervé Patrick Smith, PatrickMigaud, Smith, Treasurer and Editor: Jenny Hjul jhjul@ﬁ shupdate.com Treasurer, Wiliam Jim Treasurer and Dowds William Dowds William Dowds Head Oﬃce: Special Publications, Dawn Marti nofJaﬀ a era Vaccines New player new Designer: Andrew Balahura Fettes Park, 496 Ferry Road, Editor: Jenny Hjul Advertising Manager: Team Leader: HeadEdinburgh, Oﬃce: Special Publications, 08/03/2021 15:20:25 EH5 2DL Designer: Andrew Balahura
34-35 28-29 32-33 36-41 Comment Cleaner Orkneyvisitﬁsh Farm 34-35 28-29 32-33 36-41 Comment Cleaner Orkneyvisitﬁsh Farm 36-39 32-35 34-35 43-45
Fish F armer In the March issue... News
What’s happening in the UK and around the world
Update from the processing sector
Women in aquaculture
50 years of Scottish salmon farming Special feature
Ways in which the industry is becoming greener
Boats and barges All change at sea
Cages, pens, nets and moorings
Monthly update on industry innova�ons and solu�ons
Monthly update on industry innova�ons and solu�ons
All the latest aquaculture events, conferences and courses
Aqua Source Directory Opinion
40-49 50-53 54-61 62-66 67 69
ff03 Contents.indd 4
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United Kingdom News
Brexit ‘has already cost salmon producers £11m’ Red tape, delays and depressed prices following the end of the Brexit transition period have cost Scotland’s salmon producers £11m in January and February alone. That is the calculation of the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (SSPO).
From top: Scottish salmon.; Tavish Scott; David Duguid
THE losses are due, the SSPO said, to lost loads thanks to consignments being rejected or held up at customs in France; cancelled contracts because customers require speedier delivery or better reliability than UK producers can offer at present; and depressed prices, because when seafood takes longer to reach its market, it carries less of a premium. The overall ﬁgure includes an extra £200,000 in costs arising from additional export documentation, logistics, administrative and veterinary costs. The SSPO also estimates that the sector has suffered an immediate loss of sales to the tune of 1,500 tonnes of product, while producers have also delayed harvest of 700 tonnes of ﬁsh as a result of the delays and uncertainty. The ﬁgures were presented to the second meeting of the Scottish Seafood Exports Taskforce, which was set up to ﬁnd solutions to the Scottish seafood
UK News.indd 6
sector’s export problems. SSPO Chief Executive Tavish Scott is chairing a working group set up by the Taskforce to ﬁnd practical solutions. He said: “This cannot be the ‘new normal’. Our members cannot guarantee reliable delivery times to the European Union, which is our biggest overseas market. The systems need to be streamlined and a lighter touch adopted on all sides to make sure we can continue to serve our European customers as we have in the past. If not, they will go elsewhere and we will lose both trade and customers. “We are calling on both the UK and Scottish governments to work together with us and with the supply chain to make sure there are no more blockages in the system which prevent our members from getting their ﬁsh to market on time.” Meanwhile, the UK and Scottish governments are apparently at odds regarding the two respective compensation schemes
set up to help smaller producers affected by the export difﬁculties and by the Covid-19 pandemic. UK government Minister for Scotland David Duguid has written to seafood industry leaders updating them on efforts to resolve issues around exports and highlighting the ﬁnancial assistance the UK government has made available to those who have incurred losses. He said: “Ongoing engagement with the industry has helped us identify speciﬁc problems that have been causing difﬁculties since the end of the post-Brexit transition period. “We are seeing improvements as we seek to ease the journey of world-class Scottish seafood to export markets, but work continues as we try to streamline the process.” The Scottish government, however, said the UK scheme lacks clarity and has called for the UK government to consider withdrawing their scheme in Scotland, and to provide the funding to the Scottish Government to administer in a devolved area instead. Fisheries Secretary Fergus Ewing said: “I am concerned there is a lack of understanding of the handling of the two funding schemes and the real world implications in failing to discuss and align the both of them.”
Above: Fergus Ewing
All the latest industry news from the UK
Scotland shines in tough Q4 for Mowi
Above: Ivan Vindheim
MOWI has reported lower operating profits year-on-year for the final quarter of 2020. The company’s Scottish operation was one of the few bright spots, shaking off some of its earlier biological problems. The world’s largest salmon farmer reported global operational EBIT (profit) of €49m, down from €166m in Q4 2019. Despite that, Mowi achieved all-time high volumes in all divisions in 2020, harvesting 440,000 tonnes of salmon, selling 240,000 tonnes of value-added products, and producing 540,000 tonnes of feed. The company announced a dividend of NOK 0.32 per share after having suspended dividends for the first two quarters of 2020. Mowi CEO Ivan Vindheim said: “Mowi’s results in the fourth quarter were significantly impacted by Covid-19 and extensive lockdown measures, together with seasonal high supply. The company reported operational EBIT of €49m in the fourth quarter of 2020, compared with €166m in the corresponding quarter in 2019. Costs are reduced compared with the fourth quarter last year, hence the decline in results is explained by
significantly lower prices. Vindheim added: “The pandemic still impacts out-of-home consumption to a large degree, and although retail sales are strong and offset some of the demand shortfall, overall demand was down by approximately 5%. “However, we still strongly believe in the positive long-term market outlook for the industry. A significant share of new customers in retail are expected to permanently increase their retail consumption rates post Covid-19, even as the foodservice segment gradually re-opens in due course.” Mowi’s Scottish division achieved a higher Q4 operational EBIT or profit of €20.4m, against €17.4m in 2019. The average per kilo was also up at €1.57 (€1.24 in 2019). The company said the increased earn-
ings from the fourth quarter of 2019 were mainly due to lower cost following improved biological performance. The company’s Canadian operations continued to record losses, with an operational EBIT of -€14.1m compared with -€8.7m after biological problems, especially in Canada East. Vindheim said Mowi had put in place a turnaround plan, but in the meantime the Canadian government’s decision to close all salmon farms in the Discovery Islands region meant that the company had to record an asset impairment for Q4. Mowi also used the results announcement to roll out a new dividend policy. Quarterly ordinary dividends will now be based on at least 50% of underlying earnings per share, while excess capital will be paid out to shareholders as extraordinary dividends.
Above: Mowi salmon
Cooke appoints North Isles Manager
Above: Stewart Rendall
UK News.indd 7
COOKE Aquaculture Scotland has promoted Stewart Rendall to the newly created post of North Isles Manager.The move is in response to the “continued growth” of Cooke’s Orkney operations, the company said. As from today (1 March) Orkney Area Manager Robert (Timbo) Peterson will retain overall responsibility for Orkney, while Stewart Rendall will take on the new role. Stewart Rendall was previously manager of Cooke’s Westray sites, including the East Skelwick high energy site sit-
uated 2.5km from the nearest land. He will take on responsibility for the Rousay and Stronsay sites, which occupy more exposed locations around the Orkney coast with similar sea conditions to those in Westray. Colin Blair, Managing Director of Cooke Aquaculture Scotland said: “We are excited about these changes and I am confident having Timbo and Stewart in place will enable us to maximise production within our crucial Orkney operations, particularly in our organic and Label Rouge lines”.
United Kingdom News
Lobster hatchery beats target by nearly three months SSPO says ‘harmful’
seal deterrents have been dropped
ORKNEY Shellfish Hatchery (OSH) has announced the successful hatching of its first run of European clawed lobsters for 2021, almost three months earlier than initially expected. The landbased hatchery is raising lobsters to help replenish wild stocks. The hatchery, part of the Cadman Capital Group’s Aquaculture portfolio,
announced its plans to trial on-land production for lobsters in September last year, and said at the time that it expected the pilot run would complete around May 2021. Dr Nik Sachlikidis, Managing Director of the Aquaculture portfolio, said that having the lobster broodstock hatch larvae so early in the season allows the hatchery to consistently produce
greater lobster numbers annually, substantially reducing capital overheads. The trial has made use of products from OSH’s sister company, Ocean On Land Technology, including the “Hatchery-in-a-Box” concept. This is a containerised lobster hatchery system that can house and culture lobster from broodstock through to the post-larvae stage.
Mowi and SSC agree to swap Harris sites
SCOTLAND’S salmon farmers have stopped using acoustic seal deterrents that have been shown to disturb protected marine mammals.The Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation said that only acoustic deterrent devices (ADDs) that have been shown to comply with both the requirements of Marine Scotland and US regulations are now being used by its members. ADDs are used by fish farmers, as well as the offshore construction sector.There has been concern, however, that some devices can disturb and disorientate cetaceans such as whales and dolphins. Anne Anderson, Director of Sustainability for the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (SSPO) said: “Scottish salmon farmers are not using any acoustic deterrent devices that may have been considered to endanger cetaceans such as dolphins, porpoises and whales. All devices the sector does not have total confidence in, with regards to the harming of protected species, have been turned off and removed from the marine environment. “It is critical however that farmers have deterrents available to protect their livestock from seal predation. As such the Scottish salmon farming sector is committed to, where necessary, only using acoustic devices that have been scientifically proven to be compliant with the US Marine Mammals Protection Act (MMPA).” The MMMPA puts a bar on seafood imports from jurisdictions where “harmful” ADDs are operated. Marine Scotland has been asked to report to the Scottish Parliament on how it thinks Scotland should seek to comply with the US rules. The SSPO is working with Marine Scotland and academic institutions to encourage the development of effective ADDs that can protect fish without harming
Above: Loch Seaforth, Isle of Harris
TWO competitors in the Scottish salmon farming sector have reached an agreement to swap sites.The Scottish Salmon Company (SSC) and Mowi hope that consolidating their operations, located on the Isle of Harris in the Outer Hebrides, will help efficiency and sustainable health management. Ownership of SSC’s Trilleachan Mor site on Loch Seaforth, on the east of Harris, and its Scaladale shore base will pass to Mowi. In return, SSC will take
UK News.indd 8
over Mowi’s Scotasay and Raineach sites, further south on the islands, and the Mowi shore base at East Loch Tarbert. The handover and relocation of relevant infrastructure will be completed by March and all staff will be redeployed at different sites, Mowi and SSC say. By bringing their respective sites on Harris into management groups located closer together, the two companies aim to manage issues like sea lice control more efficiently.
Above: Common seals
All the latest industry news from the UK
Scottish Sea Farms smiling again
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SCOTTISH Sea Farms enjoyed a far better year in 2020, producing an operating profit of NOK 308m (£26m), up from NOK 292m (£24.6m) in 2019, the company’s accounts show. Revenues totalled NOK 1,699bn (£143.5m) against 1,834bn in Q4 2019, producing an EBIT per kg of NOK 12.9 (NOK 11.4). The company is jointly owned by SalMar and the Lerøy Seafood Group, and is known in Norway as Norskott Havbruk. For much of the previous year, the company was forced to get to grips with a number of biological issues which negatively impacted on turnover and profits margins. However, the situation has decidedly changed for the better and Scottish Sea Farms said it expects significant growth this year. It says there was good biological performance in all regions, and low sea lice levels going into 2021. Other positive factors included cost improvements in the final quarter of 2020 and expected further reductions in costs during the current quarter (Q1 2021). It said the new smolt facility
UK News.indd 9
near Oban was working well, leading to improved smolt quality and size. The highest ever release last year totalled 10 million smolts and there was significant potential for growth. The 2021 harvest is likely to total 36,000 tonnes, well up on the 2020 figure of 23,900 tonnes. Figures for the final quarter of 2020 show the company made an operating profit of NOK 76m (£6.41m), compared to NOK 49m in Q4 2019 on a harvest of 6,389 tonnes. The Q4 EBIT per kg was NOK 11.9 (NOK 9.3). SSF is also investing nearly £2m to upgrade and improve its Shetland farm infrastructure. The company says the investment will better equip its farm team to improve fish welfare and survival. The programme will involve five feed barges being upgraded at Buckie-based Macduff Shipyards, at a total cost of £750,000; a £415,000 refit for the workboat Scapa Lass, also at Macduff, ahead of its repurposing as a treatment support vessel; and new pens and moorings, worth £675,000, for the company’s Bellister farm.
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United Kingdom News
‘At least 3,000’ escaped Carradale fish made it to rivers after storm
Above: Carradale harbour
Fisheries Management Scotland (FMS) believes at least 3,000 farmed salmon may have found their way into Scottish and some northern English rivers when Storm Ellen struck the Mowi fish farm at Carradale North last August. FMS released the result of an investigation into the incident when 10 circular net pens containing 550,000 salmon shifted position after sea anchors became dislodged. Some 48,834 salmon managed to escape, but while the vast majority did not get into rivers, anglers reported catching 295 fish, while a further 171 suspected farmed salmon were caught in rivers following visual identification. The Fisheries Management Scotland report said: “[We] received reports of escaped farmed salmon from 22 rivers. Escaped farmed salmon were verified through scale reading as definitely entering 17 rivers, but the analysis demonstrates that visual identification of farmed salmon by anglers was highly accurate (95-97%). It adds: “The results demonstrate the speed and high level of dispersal with which the farmed salmon entered fresh water. The first capture was nine days after the event. It should be noted that the techniques deployed in this study cannot guarantee that all the salmon caught originated from Carradale North. “ It believes fish appeared in many rivers across the west of Scotland and north west England. The report continues: “However, given
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the timing of the captures and that the farmed salmon were all a similar size to those reported by Mowi, we are confident that the majority did come from this specific escape. “Fisheries Management Scotland is in the process of establishing a workstream with regulators and industry to assess the feasibility and practicality of recapturing escaped farmed salmon as soon as possible after an escape event and before they enter rivers.” The report concludes: “If a capture efficiency of 10% is applied, we can predict that a minimum of 3,000 farmed salmon entered Scottish rivers. It is likely that this is an underestimate of the total numbers of farmed salmon entering rivers.” The report concludes: “We welcome the open and transparent communications from Mowi surrounding the escape incident and their subsequent proactive engagement and cooperation in the monitoring phase. There have been other escape incidents in Scotland since the Carradale North event which have demonstrated the need for a more consistent and strategic approach to managing escapes and a need for more effective communications with wild fisheries managers.” Following the escape, Fisheries Management Scotland, alongside Marine Scotland Science and funded by Mowi, established a genetic monitoring project. The aim is to determine whether any impact on the genetic integrity of wild salmon populations occurred following the escape.
Loch Duart reports growth for 2019/20 Scottish salmon farmer Loch Duart saw growth in both revenue and profit for the financial year 2019/20, the company’s accounts show. Loch Duart made a profit of £1.3m (up 18% on the previous year) on revenue of £40.3m (up 16% from £34.6m in 2018/19). The company also said it had recorded its highest ever harvest tonnage, although the precise figure was not revealed. Loch Duart changed hands in February 2020 and is now owned by US venture capital firm Vision Ridge Partners. The report for 2019/20 said the company had introduced a “realignment” of its strategy to enable production to align more closely with customer demand and to facilitate future growth. The company has recently invested in new infrastructure, and will be installing a new hybrid cage system, Trident, built by Canada’s Poseidon Ocean Systems. The cages are currently being constructed and will arrive in Scotland through March, for stocking in June once they have been assembled. Loch Duart has licences to operate on Canada’s Atlantic coast, but the company said it was “not predictable” when it would be feasible to reopen operations in Canada. Loch Duart has also added a US operation to its existing French and UK sales offices. The US campaign will be led by Jim Scoon as US Vice-President, Sales, who was formerly Sales Manager for Black Pearl seafood.
Above: Jim Scoon
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Selstad acquires net supplier W&J Knox Selstad, the Norwegian aquaculture equipment and services supplier, has acquired a majority share in W&J Knox of Scotland, its competitor. Both companies said in an announcement this afternoon they aimed to build an organisation with the right competencies to serve the global aquaculture industry. W&J Knox is based in Kilbirnie, Ayrshire and supplies equipment and services to the aquaculture industry along with nets for camouflage, and sports and other industrial applications. Selstad is an international supplier of design, expertise and equipment for aquaculture and commercial fishing industry. The company CEO, Hans Petter Selstad, said the alliance offered several opportunities for the two companies and the industry. “We have known W&J Knox for over 20 years and consider their value proposition to the aquaculture industry to be very strong. In combining this with Norwegian knowledge and experience, we believe that we will see some very good synergies.” Managing Director of W&J Knox, Dave Hutchens, said he saw the move as an important chapter in the history of the company. He added: “We are looking forward to taking this business forward with the management of Selstad, adding to our portfolio of products as the integration process progresses. For both employees and customers the announcement said the change in shareholding will be seamless, with the
same Knox sales and production staff dealing with all enquiries and logistics. Finlay Oman, Commercial Director at W & J Knox, said he was glad the companies have agreed to work together: “In an ever-challenging market, driven by acquisitions and venture capitalists, it is refreshing that... two family-run companies are coming together and working with another family-run firm like Garware Technical Fibres in India to provide solutions for our customers into the future.”
Above: Hans Petter Selstad
New EU export rules require your fishing vessel to be registered and inspected by the local authority. There’s an up to date list of registered and inspected fishing vessels on our website. If your vessel is not on the list you need to act now. Get support from our site. Visit foodstandards.gov.scot/eu-exit
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Salmon exports see volumes recovering, prices stalled
NORWEGIAN salmon exports grew strongly in February, but low prices meant the country’s ﬁsh farmers were receiving less revenue than normal, the latest ﬁgures show. They totalled 95,600 tonnes for the month, a volume rise of 20%, but the value fell by 5% to NOK 5.4bn (£456m) compared to a year ago. Poland, France and the United States were the main markets for export, but there was big growth in sales to China and Italy, the two countries hardest hit and among the ﬁrst to shut down during the early days of the pandemic. Norwegian Seafood Council analyst Paul T. Aandahl said: “Here, the fear of infection led to a fall in the demand for salmon even before the coronavirus was detected in the country. “In February this year, it was precisely these two markets that showed the strongest growth in value for salmon exports.” The Seafood Council’s seafood envoy to Italy, Trym Eidem, said growth was returning to that country because some of the restrictions around shops and restaurants were starting to be lifted. Overall, Norway exported seafood worth NOK 8.7bn (£735m) in February. This represents a decline of NOK 482m (£40.7m), or 5% year on year. Seafood Council CEO Renate Larsen said: “Despite the fact that the seafood markets are still strongly affected by the corona pandemic,
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the value of seafood exports (last month) is the second highest February ever. “This is partly due to the fact that recordhigh volumes of individual species such as salmon and herring were exported.” She explained: “In February, the export value of most species fell, with the exception of king crab and herring, when we compare ﬁgures with the record-strong [performance] we had in February 2020. “Then there were historically high prices for salmon and cod, but that was before the pandemic struck and reduced the sale of seafood to hotels and restaurants globally. “It must be mentioned that the picture is nuanced and that there is still great uncertainty associated with future export development for individual species.” Farmed trout exports dropped by 20% to 3,900 tonnes last month with the value also down by a similar ﬁgure to NOK 292m (£24.6m). There was good growth (up 25%) in demand for fresh cod, which earned NOK 412m (£34.8m), but less so for frozen cod (down 19%) for which the UK is traditionally an important buyer. The February value was NOK 251m (£21m), down 34 per cent on a year ago. Volume exports of shrimp (cold water prawns) were up slightly at 843 tonnes and worth NOK 66m (£5.5m), down 3%.
Benchmark’s CleanTreat set for launch in Q2 BIOTECH group Benchmark Holdings is looking to roll out its novel sea lice treatment, CleanTreat, in the second quarter of this year.The announcement came as the group also reported increased revenue and proﬁt, year-on-year, for Q1 of its 2020 ﬁnancial year. The new treatment system combines Benchmark’s BMK08 medicine with the CleanTreat ﬁltering system, which ﬁlters out all measurable traces of the medicine after application, as well as capturing any strings of sea lice eggs. Field trials of the system in Norway have proved very successful. For Q1, the three months to 31 December 2020, Benchmark reported revenue from continuing operations of £29m (up 18% from Q1 of 2020: £24.7m) and adjusted EBITDA, before exceptional items, of £3m (Q1 2020: £0.4m). Of the group’s three main divisions,Advanced Nutrition saw revenue of £15.1m (Q1 2020: £11.4) and adjusted EBITDA of £1m (Q1 2020: a loss of -£0.3m); Genetics saw revenue of £12.6m (Q1 2020: £12.1m) and adjusted EBITDA of £3.9m (Q1 2020: £3.5m); and Health saw revenue of £1.3m (Q1 2020: 1.4m) and adjusted EBITDA of £1.1m (Q1 2020: 1.8m). As well as conﬁrming that BMK08/CleanTreat is on track for commercial launch in Q2 of calendar year 2021,“with progress towards regulatory approval and ﬁrm customer interest”, Benchmark also noted that its new genetics facility in Chile has produced its ﬁrst batch of salmon eggs and that there had been more client wins in the landbased salmon farming sector. Benchmark CEO Trond Williksen, CEO, said: “We have had a positive start to 2021 with good trading, improved Q1 proﬁtability and delivery against our strategic priorities in each of our three business areas.The beneﬁts of operating as a streamlined, increasingly integrated aquaculture business are starting to be realised. Our focus remains on becoming sustainably proﬁtable, maintaining ﬁnancial strength through the ongoing pandemic and continuing to invest selectively in our business to deliver future growth.” Above: Trond Williksen
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AKVA takes stake in AI firm Observe
Above: Observe Technologies monitoring application
AQUACULTURE tech group AKVA has taken a stake in software developer Observe Technologies. Observe uses artificial intelligence (AI) to help farmers manage automated feeding, and has been working with AKVA as a partner for more than two years. AKVA has acquired 33.7% of Observe’s equity.Andrew Campbell, COO International in AKVA group, said:“We have
been partners with Observe technologies on the development and delivery of their AI feeding solution since 2018, so it is great to be able to further strengthen the relationship by taking an equity stake. “The AI technologies of Observe and the customer base of AKVA present an exciting opportunity to bring new precision feeding solutions to fish farmers around the world to
Benchmark signs World Heritage Salmon deal
BENCHMARK Genetics has agreed a five-year deal to provide 20-25 million ova annually for World Heritage Salmon (WHS), which is developing a landbased aquaculture facility in an abandoned mine. The WHS project is based in Sunnylvsfjorden, Norway, which was once a centre for extracting the mineral olivine. WHS plans an annual production of up to 100,000 tonnes of salmon. Benchmark and WHS have also agreed to exchange experience and expertise related to landbased farming, including both the project phase and the smolt and grow-out facilities’ operational phase. The projected facility in Sunnylvsfjorden will consist of 15 tunnels with tanks. Each of them will constitute independent biological zones. Roger Hofseth, Chairman of WHS, said that biosecurity is one of the reasons for choosing BG as a supplier. help improve growth and lower He explained: “Their strategy, with land-based feed conversions.” broodstock and egg production and a compreObserve’s software works to hensive screening program gives us the security co-ordinate feed management we need for reducing the biological risks for our using cameras and other hardproduction.” ware. It works across a number of different platforms, so users do not have to replace their existing kit. The company has sold and delivered its AI feeding solution to more than 20 farm sites in five different Image: WHS planned site countries.
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SalMar reports ‘satisfactory’ Q4 although profits are down
Above Trine Romuld. Right The Ocean Farm 1
Salmon farming giant SalMar today announced a “satisfactory” final quarter operational EBIT or profit of NOK 413.8m (£35m) . The figure is down 37% on the 2019 Q4 EBIT of NOK 658m (£55m) but given the unusually low salmon prices during the period, the outcome is hardly surprising. SalMar owns a 50 per cent stake in Scottish Sea Farms (SSF) and its profit share from that business, after tax, was NOK 22m (£1.86m) against NOK 73m (£6.17m) a year ago.
SalMar’s after tax share for the full year from SSF is NOK49m (£4.14m) against NOK 106m (almost £9m) for 2019. SalMar is celebrating its 30th anniversary this year and in a relatively short time it has grown into one of the largest salmon farming companies in the world. CEO Gustav Witzøe said the company had produced three decades of fantastic results and added: “At the start of the year, few people would have dared to hope that we would post a 2020 operational result that was as good as the year before. “Nevertheless, through a strategic and operational focus, as well as employees who have demonstrated a formidable ability to adapt to new working practices, we have done just that.” The company also plans a stronger strategic focus on offshore fish farming in future. There was good news for shareholders too, with the board recommending a dividend of NOK 20 per share for the whole year. SalMar delivered a full year harvest of 161,500 tonnes (153,000 tonnes in 2019) and expected a combined Norway and Iceland
Norcod gears up for first harvest this summer
Norwegian cod farming venture Norcod is in a “strong position” to start commercial sales this summer, the company said. Reporting on results for the fourth quarter of 2020, Norcod said biological performance had been “exceptional”. Norcod has not completed its first production cycle and so reported no revenue or operating profit for 2020. The business started up 18 months ago and listed on Oslo’s Euronext stock exchange in November. Net cash flow from financing activities was NOK 420m in 2020 versus NOK 43m in 2019. The company had cash and cash equivalents of NOK 199m at the end of 2020 as against NOK 8m at the same time the previous year. Investment and financing activities
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generated positive cash flow of NOK 420.5m, up from NOK 378.9m in the previous year. During Q4 last year, Christian Riber came in as Chief Executive Officer, replacing Hilde Storhaug, who continues as Chief Sustainability Officer. Aquaculture industry veteran Marit Solberg was appointed as Chair of the Board. “We are in a very good position to continue our planned growth according to plan,” said Christian Riber. “Plus, we succeeded in keeping operating costs under budget by NOK 12m for the entire year. Our team have done a fantastic job.” Other highlights for 2020, the company said, included getting a second production cycle underway with the transfer of a new batch of fry to growth facilities, and the ordering of equipment and feeding barges. Norcod plans to use more samples of its cod to promote the product in the second quarter of this year, with its first commercial harvest taking place this summer. The company aims to produce 6,000 tonnes of fresh farmed cod in the first cycle, and a predicts a harvest volume of 10,000 tonnes in 2022.
harvest of 177,000 tonnes this year. Fourth quarter revenues totalled NOK 3,049m (£258m) against NOK 3,186m (£269m) in Q4 2019. Revenues for the full year were almost NOK 13bn (£1.1bn). Meanwhile, SalMar is strengthening its offshore drive, with group chief finance and operating officer Trine Sæther Romuld, moving take on the post of CFO and Director of Strategy at SalMar Ocean. The company reported that its Ocean Farm 1 prototype had achieved good stock growth and biological results.
French feed producers consolidate Brittany-based aquafeed business Le Gouessant Co-operative Group has announced the acquisition of competitor Aqualia.The move reinforces Le Gouessant’s position as France’s largest producer for fish farming nutrition. Aqualia, founded in 2016, has around 20 employees and a mill for manufacturing fish feeds based in Landes, in south-west France. Up until the sale to Le Gouessant on 1 March, it was owned by Maïsadour and SCAAL (Les Aquaculteurs Landais), France’s largest farmed trout producer. The move takes Le Gouessant’s production capacity to 50,000 tonnes per year and, the company says, it will also enhance its R&D capability. Rémi Cristoforetti, Managing Director of Le Gouessant, said:“We are thrilled that Maïsadour and Les Aquaculteurs Landais have chosen us to guarantee the continuity and activity of Aqualia.We will continue the development alongside them within the spirit of a co-operative partnership, which has always been the priority in our relationship.” Le Gouessant Aquaculture manufactures more than 250 floating, sinking and semi-floating fish feed formulas for trout, bass, bream, croakers, amberjack, turbot, drum fish, carp, perch, catfish, prawns, sturgeon, frogs, hobby and ornamental fish.
Left: Le Gouessant feed for fish farming
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Fjordvejs Maskinfabrik changes its name to FM Bulk Hand The company said it DANISH transport solutions has tripled growth company Fjordvejs over the past seven Maskinfabrik is changyears and, as ing its name – so part of this, its that its international customer base customers will has become find it easier to increasingly interpronounce. The national. company, which Rasmussen added: provides machinery “All the machinery for the transportation of we develop and manbulk products including Above Jeppe Bergmann ufacture is used in the fishmeal, fish feed and Rasmussen management and prograin, will now trade as cessing of bulk products: fish feed, FM Bulk Handling – Fjordvejs. fish meal, lime, grain etc. Making The company’s Chief Executive Officer Jeppe Bergmann Rasmussen ‘Bulk Handling’ part of our name is a more precise reflection of explained: “Over time we found this.” ourselves with an ever-increasing The company’s headquarters international customer base and and manufacturing facilities are in Fjordvejs Maskinfabrik can be difDenmark and it has also opened a ficult to pronounce if you’re from US sales office in Atlanta, Georgia. Chile, Morocco or Australia.”
BioMar 2020 earnings solid thanks to salmon performance
Above: Carlos Diaz
DANISH-based aquafeed business BioMar Group has reported revenue and earnings slightly up for 2020, thanks to strong performance in its salmon division. Revenue for 2020 was up 4.2% to DKK 11,649m (£1,351m) and EBITDA was DKK 972m (£112.8m, just 0.6% more than 2019). The full-year result was driven positively by increased sales volume and cost savings, while partially offset by unfavourable exchange rates and extraordinary costs related to the pandemic. Salmon feed volumes were up by 7% in 2020 compared to 2019. The company credited new product offerings, “an agile adaption to the changing market situation” and a
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new production facility in Australia. However, pressure on margins and exchange rates limited the impact on the bottom-line and kept both revenue and results broadly in line with 2019. BioMar supplies feed for the aquaculture sector in around 80 countries and for more than 45 different species. Carlos Diaz, CEO of the BioMar Group, said: “We are leaving 2020 with a very strong position in the salmon feed markets. The pandemic has demanded agile collaboration with our customers adapting feeding strategies and product solutions. We have been able to be close to the markets and took fast decisions across the globe despite travel restrictions and lockdowns.” He said that in the European markets outside salmon, and in the shrimp feed markets, customers been impacted significantly by a challenged food service sector, export restrictions and the damages of storm Gloria which affected the Mediterranean area, reducing farming capacity especially in Spain. Diaz said: “Despite the circumstances, we have realised an acceptable year in our EMEA division as well as in our shrimp feed.
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Slaughter ship Norwegian Gannet wins 10-year reprieve
Above: The Norwegian Gannet
THE owner of the salmon slaughter ship Norwegian Gannet has been granted a 10-year dispensation allowing it to work with fish outside Norway’s fish quality regulations. Built three years ago to harvest salmon before it reached processing centres in Hirtshals, Denmark, the vessel has been at the centre of a sometimes acrimonious dispute between the Norwegian Ministry of Trade and Industry and Hav Line, its Danish owners. Norway has introduced strict regulations governing its salmon, insisting any defects or quality issues must be corrected
before it is exported for further processing. Hav Line claimed the Ministry of Trade had gone back on an agreement with Hav Line allowing it to process fish with defects when the ship came into service in 2018 by suddenly changing the regulations, and last summer won its case in Bergen District Court. Despite the court’s ruling that the ministerial about-turn was “grossly unreasonable”, a standoff between the two continued until Norway’s Fisheries and Seafood Minister Odd Emil Ingebrigsten ruled that following a new overall assessment, it
had been decided to grant Hav Line a special dispensation until December 2030. The Minister said: “In the assessment, we have emphasised Norwegian Gannet’s innovative solutions and because it will take goods off the road and onto the sea. “We have also taken into account that Hav Line has invested large sums at a time when there may have been room for interpretation doubts about the requirements for domestic sorting. We hope (this decision) will provide stability for the company and for its employees.” He added it was in neither
party’s interests to further drag the case through the legal system. Hav Line chairman Carl-Erik Arnesen said he was glad for the company and its employees and customers that uncertainty had now been brought to an end, adding that the Norwegian Gannet was the first ship of its type in the world. The waiver states that the Norwegian Gannet can only deliver unsorted farmed fish to centres in Hirtshals run by the Hav Line group. The company must send in regular reports on how much fish is being sorted and corrected.
Green light for Mowi in Vega Islands World Heritage site In a region where employment opporAFTER years of wrangling, Mowi looks tunities are few, the Mowi plan has been to have ﬁnally received clearance to welcomed by local people. Ingebrigtsen carry out ﬁsh farming on a UNESCO said environmentally sound aquaculture World Heritage site in a remote region can be combined with safeguarding in northern Norway, close to the Arctic. world heritage values. Despite earlier objections from The decision should end a long-runvarious environmental groups, includning dispute between the salmon ing UNESCO, the Ministry of Trade farming giant (which began the process and Industry has granted provisional in 2016 when it was Marine Harvest), permission for work to go ahead in and a number of powerful environmenRødskjæran on the Vega Islands. tal groups. The permit is conditional on the Permission was originally granted grounds it is compatible with a new by Nordland’s county governor, but municipal plan for the Vega coastal area. in 2019 the Norwegian Environment Fisheries and Seafood Minister Odd Above: Township in the Vega Islands Directorate withdrew the permit on Emil Ingebrigtsen said: “I am glad that we the grounds that the site had World Heritage status which had not been have found a good solution that provides predictability for both the munictaken into account by the governor. Mowi was forced to put developipality and business interests, and is in line with local decisions that facilitate ment work on hold. co-existence between world heritage and new sustainable industries.”
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Warning over impact of feed on ballan wrasse health GIVING the wrong type of feed to young ballan wrasse could seriously impact their health, researchers at Nofima – the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research – have found. A study of wrasse development found that young fish fed on extruded feeds – where the feed materials are processed at high temperatures – are far more likely to develop skeletal deformities than those given soft “agglomerated” feeds, which are processed at low temperatures. In aquaculture, ballan wrasse are used as cleaner fish to help control sea lice numbers. Increasingly, because of concerns over the sustainability of using wild-caught wrasse, wrasse are being hatched and grown for commercial use. Cleaner fish health has become an important issue for the salmon farming industry. Above Ballan wrasse The CleanFeed study at Nofima, which also involved collaboration with farming group Mowi, looked at how juvenile the Norwegian University of life Sciences, the wrasse fared when they were weaned from Institute of Marine Research and leading fish live food to dry feed.
NTS doubles revenue but reports fish farming losses
NTS ASA, the integrated aquaculture and aquaculture industry services group more than doubled its operating revenues during the final quarter of 2020, the company disclosed today. Its fish farming activities turned in a deficit, however, again a victim of lower prices resulting from the coronavirus pandemic. NTS main business areas include aquaculture, shipping and service vessels, but aquaculture represents a relatively small proportion of the group’s business. Revenues totalled NOK 485m (£40.5m) against NOK 237m (£19m) in Q4 2019. This jump in earnings was mainly due to a merger with the shipping company Frøygruppen AS. Towards the end of the last year, Frøygruppen entered into an initial
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five-year chartering agreement with Cermaq Norway for a 6,000 cubic metre wellboat. NTS ASA also pointed out in, its Q4 report, that the group is involved in a number of other important deals, mainly through its support and shipping businesses. NTS is the owner of a number of farming licences and processing facilities through the Midt-Norsk Havbruk (MNH) side of the business. It is also a major shareholder in Norway Royal Salmon. The MNH salmon farming division produced a total harvest of 3,108 tonnes during the quarter, slightly up on the previous year. Despite this, the low price of salmon during the last few months of 2020 resulted in an average loss of NOK 1.18 per kilo, the company said.
Katerina Kousoulaki, feed scientist at Nofima, said: “In the first trial, ballan wrasse larvae that were weaned onto dry feeds had a good appetite for the hard, extruded feed, and we saw good survival rates. After a few weeks, however, the fish started to develop skeletal deformities. Fish that were fed a soft, agglomerated diet, a type of feed that is processed at low temperatures, appeared to have far lower deformity rates.” As many as 41% of fish fed on extruded feed developed deformities, while only 2% of those on the agglomerated feed did so. The fish on the extruded feed regime also showed lower take-up of minerals from their feed. The scientists at Nofima have developed a theory that high extrusion temperatures make feed minerals difficult to access for a fish species like ballan wrasse, which has no stomach or acid digestion. The research also found that wrasse prefer shrimp or krill-based feed to conventional fishmeal, but will accept cod as an element in feed.
Astronauts could be dining on fresh seabass FISh farming on the Moon is a possibility within decades, according a team of French scientists. Future astronauts could take with them live fish eggs and, using water which is believed to lie just under the lunar surface, cultivate them into fully grown fish, research. suggests. The British Columbia based marine science magazine hakai reports that to test this theory, scientists from the Montpellier University Space Centre and the French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER) packed seabass and related meagre fish eggs — which they felt were hardier than adult fish — into instruments that vibrated and shook them to recreate the experience of blasting off in a Russian Soyuz rocket. The results were impressive with 76% of the seabass eggs and 95% of the meagre eggs surviving the experience. IFREMER scientist and lead researcher Cyrille Przybyla told hakai: “The environment was very hard for these eggs.” The experiment has a practical side because when Moon villages are eventually established – and that could be within the next 20 to 25 years – the crews are going to need food. Przybyla and his colleagues say food autonomy represents “an essential challenge” for the future Moon Village planned by the European Space Agency (ESA).
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Norway Royal Salmon upbeat despite Covid hit
NORWAY Royal Salmon has reported much reduced operating proﬁts for the ﬁnal quarter of last year, with the fallout from the coronavirus pandemic largely to blame. The Q4 operational EBIT was NOK 17m (£1.45m) and the EBIT per kilo NOK 5.05. The corresponding ﬁgures for the same quarter in 2019 were NOK 136m (£11.6m) and NOK 17.71. The Q4 harvest was 13% lower at 7,148 tonnes gutted weight. Despite this, the board is recommending a dividend of NOK 3 per share for the whole of 2020. CEO Charles Høstlund explained: “The market price of salmon has been affected by the Covid-19 pandemic and has been low during the quarter. “Our margins in this quarter were affected by this, even though production costs have been reduced slightly from the previous quarter. “The biomass in the sea has increased during the quarter and is 15% higher than at the end of the same quarter last year. This leads to [the
fact] that NRS has almost fully utilised our licences at the end of the quarter.” NRS achieved operating revenues of NOK 5.1bn (£437m) and an operational EBIT of NOK 246m (£22m). The harvest volume for this year is expected to be around 40,000 tonnes, which is an increase of 31% on the 2020 ﬁgure of 30,509 tonnes. The CEO said NRS has a solid ﬁnancial position with NOK 1,422m (£122m) in available credit facilities at the end of the quarter. It had also strengthened its ﬁnancial capacity during the period and has been granted an increased loan facility of NOK 800m (£68m) with a sustainability loan. NRS owns a 50 per cent stake in Iceland’s Arctic Fish which will be listed on the Oslo Euronext Growth exchange on Friday, after its NOK 600m offering was several times oversubscribed yesterday. Høstlund said Arctic Fish has signiﬁcant growth potential and expects to harvest 12,000 tonnes this year, rising to around 24,000 tonnes by 2025.
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Shutdown ‘puts more than 1,500 jobs at risk’ THE Canadian federal government’s decision to close salmon farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia will put 1,535 jobs at risk and the state’s economy will take a hit of CAN $139.1m. Those are among the findings of a report from economics consultancy RIAS, commissioned by the BC Salmon Farmers Association (BCSFA). In December last year, Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard Minister Bernadette Jordan ordered all salmon farms in the region removed by June 30, 2022. The farms have also been blocked from restocking, starting immediately. The BC Salmon Farmers strongly oppose the decision, which the federal government says was taken in response to calls from local First Nations and environmental groups. Now, the report from consultants RIAS has quantified the potential effects of closing down the Discovery Islands farms, which represent nearly a quarter of BC’s salmon Above: RIAS Discovery Islands report production. The 1,500-plus jobs at risk local businesses affected by the reduction in include at least 690 people the local economy. directly employed at farms, together with an Salmon farming companies are expected to additional 630 jobs at risk for the 260-plus lose CAN $200m in ongoing annual revenue suppliers to the industry, and a further 200 at
and British Columbia’s GDP will shrink by an estimated CAN $139.1m, the researchers say. They also expect the government to lose CAN $21.5m in annual tax revenue. As many as 10.7m salmon already in production will need to be destroyed, the report adds. “Reading this report when it arrived was heart-wrenching,” said BCSFA Executive Director John Paul Fraser. “We have been speaking about the impacts of this rushed, ill-considered decision since the day it was made, but this report really captured just how widespread the human and animal welfare impacts will be. Thankfully, we are also able to offer a reasonable, respectful way forward, one consistent with genuine reconciliation with First Nations and real engagement with all parties. The ball is now in the government’s court, and we ask them to seriously, and urgently, consider this reasonable way forward.” The BCSFA is asking that the decision to shut the farms down be set aside and that the farmers be allowed to restock. The organisation proposes bringing all parties together “in an inclusive and transparent process” to find a better way forward and create unity in communities.
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All the latest industry news from around the world
Skretting plans shrimp feed research centre in Ecuador
MULTINATIONAL feed group Skretting is investing $6.1m (£4.3m) in a new shrimp research facility in Ecuador to complement the Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre (ARC) network. The Skretting ARC Guayas Research Station, will be located next to the group’s recently completed feed manufacturing plant in Ecuador. The new R&D facility, centrally coordinated by Skretting ARC in Norway,
will comprise fully equipped laboratories and state-ofthe art experimental units to carry out trials under controlled conditions. In addition, green-water tanks will ensure maximum applicability under production conditions. Alex Obach, Skretting R&D Director said: “We are committed to supporting the growth of the shrimp industry globally. We also know the importance of optimal diets, combined
Korean deal signed NORWAY’S Salmon Evolution has ﬁnally put pen to paper and signed a deal with the South Korean ﬁsheries giant Dongwon Industries to build a 20,000 tonne land-based aquaculture facility. The project will be built on the Sea of Japan coastline in Yangyang county in the province of Gangwon, not far from the border with North Korea. The joint venture deal, signed with Dongwon under the name of K-Smart, will be in two stages of 10,000 tonnes and will use Salmon Evolution’s ground-breaking hybrid ﬂow-through technology system. Salmon Evolution will have a 49% stake in the project. With construction due to start in the second part of next year, the ﬁrst production is scheduled for 2024.The ﬁrst phase will cost around NOK 1.6bn (£134m). The “Flow Through System-Reuse” technology and smart construction method is based on Salmon Evolution’s Fourth Industrial Revolution technology.
with high post-larvae quality and professional farming practices. The development of solutions requires world-class R&D facilities, combined with local expertise.” He added: “This new worldclass shrimp research facility will drive our knowledge of shrimp nutrition in Skretting and deliver new solutions to improve shrimp performance: faster growth, shorter production cycles and higher Above: Dongwon farm survival rates.”
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Aqualis Braemar to help develop aquaculture in China MARINE consultancy AqualisBraemar has signed a memorandum of understanding with a Chinese research institution to help develop offshore aquaculture. The company’s agreement with the East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute – Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (ECSFRI-CAFS) covers joint Above: Reuben Segal research and collaborative development of equipment/engineering and relevant technologies that enhance the development of offshore aquaculture. The scope of cooperation includes the research and development of equipment, engineering, ﬁsh-farming and interrelated technologies relevant to offshore aquaculture. AqualisBraemar, part of the AqualisBraemar LOC Group, is a global independent marine, engineering and adjusting consultancy that has been present in China
since 2004. Within the aquaculture sector, the company has been involved with Nordlaks’ ground-breaking 385 metre long Havfarm 1 and SalMar’s Ocean Farm 1 offshore salmon farm projects. “As the international aquaculture industry is looking to extend further offshore to develop and operate closed cage ﬁsh farms, our specialist marine and offshore engineering competence becomes more and more relevant for this industry. Partnering with a renowned research institute such as the ECSFRI-CAFS is a natural next step in our efforts to support the industrialisation and sustainability efforts of the aquaculture sector,” said Reuben Segal, Chief Operating Ofﬁcer of AqualisBraemar LOC, announcing the deal..
BioMar takes stake in Vietnamese shrimp feed business INTERNATIONAL aquafeed group BioMar has taken a controlling share of a leading Vietnamese shrimp feed business. The move gives BioMar increased access to one of the big shrimp producing economies. BioMar said its acquisition of VietUc’s feed operations: “…establishes a partnership together with one of the leading seafood groups in Vietnam active in shrimp hatcheries, ﬁsh hatcheries and shrimp farming.” Viet-Uc Seafood Corporation, which was founded in 2001, is a major producer of shrimp and shrimp larvae. Carlos Diaz, CEO, BioMar Group said: “With this partnership we open
an important door into the Vietnamese market, one of the world’s leading shrimp producing countries with a production close to 500.000 tonnes of shrimp. Considering the performance and agility of the Vietnamese shrimp industry during the last decade and not at least during this last
year of pandemic, I am sure the market holds a great potential for growth.” BioMar said it hoped to use the acquisition to deliver new, high-end products and services to the Vietnamese shrimp industry. The company is already a major supplier to shrimp farmers in Ecuador and Costa Rica.
Latest international BAP Standard issued
Above: The BAP standard is applied by the GAA worldwide
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A revised version of the Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) Farm Standard includes new requirements on the use of antibiotics, worker safety and land-based farms, among other changes. The BAP standard is issued by the Global Aquaculture Alliance and is aimed at the aquaculture sector worldwide.The new standard, issue 3.0, covers all feed-fed ﬁnﬁsh and crustacean species, as well as other “fed” molluscs and invertebrates, such as abalone and sea cucumbers, raised in land-based facilities. However, separate sets of standards continue to exist for salmonids raised in marine net pens (covered by the BAP Salmon Farm Standard) and unfed mollusc species such as mussels, clams and oysters (covered by the BAP Mollusc Standard). The latest version of the standard will be mandatory for certiﬁed operators as from 1 March 2022, Key provisions in the standard:
• A ban on antimicrobials designated as critically important for human medicine by the World Health Organisation; • Additional social accountability clauses related to equality and worker safety; • Additional wildlife protection clauses about acoustic deterrent devices (ADDs) and entanglement; • Clarity on metrics such as feed conversion ratio, ﬁsh in/ﬁsh out ratio and efﬂuent nutrient loads; and • Speciﬁc consideration for environmental requirements for reservoir/lake-based cage farms, recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and coastal ﬂowthrough farms. The GAA is an international organisation dedicated to advocacy, education and leadership in responsible aquaculture.
All the latest industry news from around the world
Loss-making Huon is potential takeover target NEW
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Above: Huon salmon
AUSTRALIA’S second largest salmon farmer, Huon Aquaculture, conﬁrmed it has received “unsolicited approaches” after announcing half year losses. The company attributed the losses to the coronavirus pandemic. The Tasmania-based business suffered a statutory loss of AUS $95.3m (£52.9m), including a non-cash impairment charge of $79.9m (£44.3m) after tax for the six months to 31 December 2020. Salmon prices fell by 15 per cent to $11.41 (£6.33) per kg. This meant the underlying loss was $15.4m (£8.5m). On an operating basis, the loss was $18.4m (£10.2m) compared to a proﬁt of $3.7m (£2.1m) for the same period last year. Huon said the two key reasons for this turnaround were the fall in salmon prices and an increase in international freight costs which effectively cost the business $38m (£21.1m) in revenue and $17m (£9.4) in additional shipment costs. The directors pointed out that had it not been for the Covid pandemic, Huon would be enjoying a bumper year with output 45% higher and sales up by 24%. The statement added: “The reduction in cash ﬂow and
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increased costs during the half, combined with the uncertain outlook, prompted a $66m (£36.6m) equity raise in August to reduce net debt and ensure the company remained well HI_ALVESTAD_CompHatch_JANFEB2021_SVA.indd capitalised during Covid. “The continued deterioration in the salmon price over the remainder of the year, however, saw the company’s market capitalisation trading below book value. “We have, as a result, written down the carrying value of assets on the balance sheet by $114m (£63.2m) and revised the terms of our banking facilities with existing bank covenants waived and new leverage covenants in place until March 2022.” Huon said it had recently ﬁelded “unsolicited approaches”, leading it to start a strategic review which will “assess the potential for corporate level transactions for the beneﬁt of shareholders”. Founded in 1986, Huon Aquaculture has grown to become a major force in Australian salmon farming, employing more than 700 people. In early December the company lost more than 50,000 salmon following a ﬁre at a farm in southern Tasmania.
2020-10-29 9:27 AM
Supermarket chain reels in Falﬁsh The Wm Morrison supermarket chain has snapped up the Cornish seafood firm Falfish, which supplies more than 50 different varieties of farmed and wild caught seafood.
Above: Falfish staff are now part of the Morrisons team
THIS highly unusual move for a national retailer means that it is now the first supermarket to own a working trawler. Morrisons, which
also owns a large seafood processing factory in Grimsby, said the acquisition will bring further improvements to its range and availability at its 497 fresh
fish counters around the UK. Its extensive farmed fish range includes more than a dozen different types of salmon and tilapia
from Lincolnshire. Falfish operates from two sites in Redruth and Falmouth docks on the south Cornish coast and is owned by the founder Ian Greet and his son Mark who is the managing director. Mark Greet and all 140 Falfish staff will join Morrisons. The business has longterm relationships with the owners and skippers of over 70 partner boats in the South West who land their total catch direct to Falfish. Around half of its £40m annual turnover is thought to come from its established links with Morrisons. Falfish’s also buys direct from the three key South West fish markets in Newlyn, Plymouth and Brixham.
Falfish is a “great fit with Morrisons ”
Its aquaculture range includes seabass and sea bream which it has been importing for over 15 years through a long standing relationship with its European farmed fish partner Ilknak. Andrew Thornber, Morrisons’ Manufacturing Director, said: “Falfish is a great fit with Morrisons; not only is it a great Brit-
ish company supplying high-quality fish and shellfish, but they also share our passion for sustainability and for local sourcing.” He added: “Bringing Falfish into Morrisons further strengthens our position as Britain’s biggest food maker. Our manufacturing operations employ 9,000 people at 19 sites throughout Britain, providing around 25% of everything that Morrisons sells.” Falfish Managing Director Mark Greet said the sale “…ensures the continuing ethos of the business in upholding our relationships and values”. Falfish processes a range of 56 wild and farmed frozen and fresh seafood from British waters and the South West coastline.
BAADER ﬁnalises Skaginn acquisition
Above: Petra Baader
FOOD processing machinery supplier BAADER has completed its acquisi�on of Icelandic compe�tor Skaginn 3X. The deal was announced in October last year. BAADER, based in Lubeck, Germany, said it had taken a majority stake in Skaginn in order to combine its own manufacturing capability with Skaginn’s innova�ve cooling,
Processing News.indd 24
freezing and processing exper�se. The two organisa�ons will now work towards crea�ng an integrated global sales force. BAADER said exis�ng sales contracts will con�nue in order to ensure con�nuity and there were no workforce reduc�ons planned for either business. Petra Baader, Execu�ve Chairwoman of BAADER, said: “Our overall mission is to be the one go-to partner for customers within the ﬁsh industry, as we have done for over 100 years. Our aim is to provide and service innova�ve stand-alone equipment and system solu�ons within all major segments of ﬁsh that are best in class, based on strong engineering and deep-rooted knowledge of the industry.”
Ingólfur Árnason, CEO of Skaginn 3X commented: “With the global BAADER distribu�on network, Skaginn 3X can con�nue to focus on innova�on and fully u�lise the manufacturing capabili�es in Iceland to serve the new BAADER sales and service network.”
The Skaginn 3X board now comprises Jeﬀrey Davis, CEO of ISEA Partners, as Chairman; Petra Baader, Execu�ve Chairwoman of BAADER; Robert Focke, Managing Director of BAADER; Una Lovísa Ingólfsdó�r, Skaginn 3X Execu�ve; and Ingólfur Árnason, CEO of Skaginn 3X.
Image: Skaginn 3X SUB-CHILLINGTM
Young’s pack redesign stresses health benefits of fish
Young’s seafood has launched a bold new packaging design across its complete chilled brand range of products, including salmon fillets. The new design will be rolled out across the range and will feature across all future products which are stocked in supermarkets including Asda. Young’s said the redesign was based on recent consumer research which demonstrated the importance of “trust, taste and expertise” to shoppers. The company found that 92% of shoppers it surveyed said that they found this new pack design appealing. The modern design features an all-new colour palette and fresh photography designed to bring a vibrant feel to the pack-
aging and improve shelf stand out, the company said. It also aims to attract health-conscious and younger shoppers, while appealing to existing Young’s customers, with clear messaging on pack regarding the health benefits of fresh fish. Marina Richardson, Marketing Controller at Young’s, said: “The branding is designed to appeal to the desires of existing customers whilst also inspiring a new audience that loves to cook healthily at home, helping them to incorporate Young’s fresh fish into their mealtimes. On pack serving suggestions have also been included to draw in these shoppers and present easy and appealing ways to enjoy fish more often.”
Bettcher appoints Kurt Miller as V-P of Operations US toolmaking corporation Bettcher Industries has appointed Kurt Miller as Vice-President of Operations. He will be responsible for directing and managing all operational activities at the company. Bettcher Above: Kurt Miller Industries Inc is a leading developer and manufacturer of innovative precision-cutting tools for food processing, industrial, medical and other applications, along with operating strategic sales and service
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partnerships with several global manufacturing firms Kurt Miller has more than 30 years of progressive experience across a wide range of operational functions in engineering and manufacturing. Before joining Bettcher, he served in leadership positions at the Swagelok Company, including engineering and quality assurance management and spearheading business systems transformation.
BY DR MARTIN JAFFA
Evolution of an industry Fifty years on, has salmon farming lived up to its promise?
iven the importance of salmon farming to Scotland, it is hard to believe that just 50 years have passed since the ﬁrst harvest of farmed salmon. It wasn’t un�l 1979, that the Sco�sh Government started to oﬃcially record and publish produc�on, and, in that year, it had grown by 15% on the previous to a grand total of 520 tonnes. Scotland now produces over 200,000 tonnes.
I might have been around for a long �me, but even I cannot claim to have seen these early harvests. My ﬁrst summer job on a trout farm was in 1974 and very few people had then heard about aquaculture. Now it features regularly in the press, albeit not always for good reasons. How �mes have changed. Industrial companies like Unilever, then owners of Marine Harvest and BP, invested in salmon farming because they perceived that it was a “green” ac�vity that might oﬀset their industrial impacts and certainly in the early days, there wasn’t any cri�cism of such good inten�ons.
Left: Loch Ailort sea farm,1977
Martin Jaffa.indd 26
Evolution of an industry
The salmon industry in Scotland was “driven by corporates from the very beginning ” These major players have all since departed the aquaculture sector, because of problems elsewhere that required them to focus on their core businesses. It is easy to forget that the salmon industry in Scotland was driven by corporates from the very beginning. There was a view that salmon farming might be integrated into local cro�ing or ﬁshing, but this was never realis�c. Salmon farming could never have been a “backyard” ac�vity or something akin to the tradi�onal agricultural family farm. Salmon farming was always going to be a large-scale venture. During the 1990s many of the small Sco�sh companies established in the Klondike years of the 1980s realised that salmon farming was not the get-rich-quick industry that they had thought it might be. They opted to get out by selling on. Unfortunately, most local companies did not have the foresight to recognise the beneﬁts of consolida�on and so it has been le� to others from elsewhere to take up the mantle. Out of more than 100 opera�ng companies during the 1980s, just a few have emerged as those who could see the way to the future. This was en�rely predictable. The key feature of the boom years of the 1980s and early 1990s were high market prices. These were high enough to oﬀset the then high produc�on costs but as the number of new entrants boosted produc�on, the market soon became saturated. There had been no considera�on of market development, and why should there have been? This was a new industry, providing a luxury food to a market boosted by Mrs Thatcher’s growing economy. In the early 1990s, however, the market for high priced luxury salmon became swamped with ﬁsh. Salmon farming changed overnight from an industry of low volume, high margin produc�on to one of low margins and high volume. This was like asking consumers to pay hundreds of thousands of pounds for a Rolls-Royce car even if it were produced in the same volume as a Ford Fiesta. This evolu�on of salmon produc�on is the main reason the industry underwent consolida�on in the ensuing years and is why the industry has so few players now. Industry cri�cs complain about foreign ownership but are happy to drive around in their foreign-produced cars; talk in their foreign-produced phones and watch their foreign-produced televisions. What has changed since the early days of the industry is the cri�cism it receives. In part, this is down to the rise of social media and the keyboard warrior. But the Sco�sh industry was free of cri�cism un�l the late 1980s when anglers started to blame salmon farms for the decline in wild ﬁsh that were available on Scotland’s west coast for them to catch and kill for sport. The fact that east coast rivers where there were no salmon farms didn’t appear to be in decline ensured that salmon farming was made into a long running scapegoat. The angling lobby ignored the fact that only 10% of Scotland’s wild salmon were caught in the west so any decline was more no�ceable than in the east. Anglers con�nue to ignore the fact that fewer than ever wild salmon now return to all Scotland’s rivers. More cri�cally, they avoid any discussion to ensure their narra�ve remains unchallenged. Whilst anglers were the ﬁrst cri�cs, a whole industry has now been built around the cri�cism of salmon farming. The reasons are manifold and mostly unjus�ﬁed. In the past producers have been too busy with produc�on to focus on such cri�cism and this might have been a feature of the last 50 years. But one of the things the industry should look forward to during the next 50 years is standing up and challenging the cri�cism. The industrial pioneers were right in their belief that aquaculture and especially salmon farming is an inherently sustainable method of food produc�on. FF
Martin Jaffa.indd 27
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Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation
BY HAMISH MACDONELL
Time for a lighter touch Agreement with the EU is needed to ﬁx the problems facing seafood exporters
ight in the middle of February, six weeks a�er the new Brexit rules came into eﬀect, a lorry full of Sco�sh salmon was stopped at the border control post in the main French ﬁsh market of Boulognesur-Mer. The customs oﬃcials refused to let the lorry travel the short distance to the market where buyers were wai�ng. Instead, the haulier was delayed for hours and then told he would have to return across the Channel and take the salmon back to where it came from – Shetland. The reason for this standoﬀ was the absence of a single line in ink crossing out one box on one page of the mul�-sheet export health cer�ﬁcate. The oﬃcial signing oﬀ the form in Shetland had not crossed out this one box, not because she forgot but because she did not know it had to be crossed out. Indeed, this par�cular truck was the eighth to travel to Boulogne-surMer with EHCs completed in this way – without the box being crossed out – and the other seven had been allowed to proceed, unhindered. The SSPO worked with Seafood Scotland, the hauliers and the French customs to try to get the situa�on resolved but the standoﬀ con�nued for hours. At last, the French oﬃcials relented – but only a�er a guarantee that a new cer�ﬁcate would be emailed over before the lorry could be released and that a hard copy cer�ﬁcate would arrive at the customs post as soon as possible.
Hamish MacDonnell.indd 28
The market was shut by the �me the lorry was released, leaving the buyers without salmon and the customers frustrated. Thankfully, this sort of episode is the excep�on, rather than the rule. Most lorries are get�ng through rela�vely speedily but that doesn’t lessen the impact of this sort of problem, when it does occur. Indeed, this incident highlighted problems which have never been resolved and which need to be sorted out if our producers are ever to get back to the sort of rela�onship they had with their European customers before Brexit. There was certainly a “jobsworth” quality to the French approach to this consignment which made it diﬃcult to resolve. Even in the world of customs, threatening to send a load of ﬁsh all the way back to Shetland because one sec�on was not crossed out does seem extreme, par�cularly as this had never been an issue before. It is that combina�on of intransigence and inconsistency that is most worrying. Inconsistency is understandable: these are new arrangements, the customs oﬃcials are overloaded with paperwork and loads to clear. Some will interpret the rules diﬀerently from their colleagues. But, if that is the case, then it would make sense to adopt a light touch approach at the same �me, recognising that there will be confusion on both sides and sending the salmon on to market while demanding a follow-up hard copy of the correct cer�ﬁcate would have been the best op�on. But adop�ng both inconsistency and inﬂexibility just leads to anger, frustra�on and further problems, on all sides. The irony is that this is salmon which would have sailed through the border posts untouched
It is that “ combina�on of intransigence and inconsistency that is most worrying
Time for a lighter touch
Above: Salmon’s value depends on its freshness Left: Getting product to Boulogne on time is vital
and unchecked before January 1. Yet now, because of Brexit, it is being treated with so much suspicion, it is a wonder it gets through at all. For the first few weeks after January 1 this year, our attention was focused on Scotland, on the hubs that had been set up to process the export health certificates – and rightly so. This was where the queues were developing, this was where the problems were occurring and this was where our member companies needed help. But now that the hubs are working more smoothly – and credit should go to both Food Standards Scotland and the hauliers for that – attention has shifted to the trickier issue of French customs. The ministerial Brexit task force, set up by the UK Government at the request of the SSPO, has started to meet and is designed to come up with practical solutions to the paperwork issues which have caused so many problems. But, at some point, the focus has to shift across the Channel and that means real, proper engagement with the European Union. We really do hope that the taskforce achieves
Hamish MacDonnell.indd 29
its objectives and eases the pressure on those pinch points that have caused so much trouble. However, it can really only do so for the UK. The next stage has to be to get the agreement of the European Union for the sort of pragmatic approach which would have released that lorry load of Shetland salmon on time to get to the market. The fear is that the UK Government, having agreed to set up the task force and to sort out the issues our sector has with Brexit, thinks this is now sorted. It is, after all, the approach politicians like to adopt: set up a working group to look into an issue. Then any criticism can be deflected by saying that it would be inappropriate to say anything until the group has done its work. That cannot happen this time. Every time one of our producer members faces a situation like the one at Boulogne last month, it is not just the price of the salmon that drops, it is the reputation for reliability that the whole sector has built up over decades. That is why it is important that the UK Government does not sit back and think – sorted. That is why the SSPO and our member companies will continue to keep the pressure on until we really do see that progress has been made. That will involve reaching an agreement with the European Union to adopt a lighter touch on customs and we will know when it has really worked. It will have worked when all of our salmon – every single load – progresses easily and swiftly to market: unhindered, untouched and on time. FF
At the crossroads How fast can the Norwegian aquaculture sector grow in future? BY VINCE MCDONAGH
orway’s salmon farming sector is poised to enter the most crucial period in its relatively short history, a new study suggests. Almost everyone agrees the industry has been a phenomenal success, bringing prosperity and employment unimagined when the ﬁrst salmon cages began appearing along the country’s fjords 50 years ago. But it has been under constant spotlight from a stream of ofﬁcial inquiries, environmental reviews and public argument. Now Odd Emil Ingebrigsten, the current seafood minister, is planning a new aquaculture strategy with a strong focus on sustainability and expanding the number of land based farms. A bit like Brenda of Bristol when told by a TV reporter a few years ago a general election was being called, some in the industry must be screaming “Not another one!” But the review will go ahead regardless and it is likely to be far reaching.To help clarify what may lie ahead, the Norwegian arm of the international consultancy ﬁrm PwC has presented its own prognosis. The PwC report, the latest version of the ﬁrm’s Seafood Barometer, casts doubt on earlier government predictions that, given the impact of coronavirus and today’s regulatory framework, aquaculture output (mostly salmon and trout) will hit ﬁve million tonnes by 2050. The best case scenario, says PwC, should be around 3.7 million tonnes with a worst case ﬁgure of 1.8 million tonnes but only if the pandemic persists which, given the success of the vaccine roll-out, is thought unlikely. Co-written by PwC Bergen partner Hanne S. Johansen and its Bergen manager Marte Vassbotten, the report also highlights some of the challenges the industry will face in the next few years – and they are formidable. They say:“In our very ﬁrst edition of PwC’s Seafood Barometer, in 2017, we discussed the Norwegian government’s ambitious vision of ﬁve million tonnes. “Only 30% of industry leaders in our seafood survey supported this vision, and our estimates indicated that a production of 3.3m tonnes would be more realistic.“ They also point out that the most important insights came from industry representatives, collected through PwC’s Seafood Survey, which was ﬁnalised in early 2020 before the coronavirus outbreak. The report describes Covid as a “black swan” for the industry which may halt the roadmap to signiﬁcant growth. A black swan is deﬁned as “…something so rare that it from a statistical point of view should not exist” yet like a global pandemic, it turns up from time to time. It continues:“In 2020, a majority of industry representatives conﬁrmed
Norway's Aquaculture Strategy (Vince).indd 30
through our survey that they would invest heavily in new technology to improve biology, sustainability and proﬁtability. “Since 2017, we’ve seen investments to decrease emissions, in feed and technology.We’ve also seen the industry becoming increasingly more focused on sustainability. “Other developments since 2017 can be seen in how the industry combats sea lice, and a new segment, called stun and bleed vessels, has sprung out of high mortality rates and the need to improve ﬁsh welfare.” The authors also ask:“Landbased aquaculture is the new ‘promised land’ but is it a risk or an opportunity for Norway as a seafood nation? And perhaps data collection and advanced analysis will create giant production leaps this decade? “In 2020, a majority of industry representatives conﬁrmed through our survey that they would invest heavily in new
Sustainable growth towards 2050 The journey so far
Left: Marte Vassbo�en (top), Hanne S. Johansen (Below) Below: The PwC Seafood Barometer 2021 Opposite: Norwegian salmon farm
PwC Seafood Baromete
Seafood Barometer 2021
At the crossroads
technology to improve biology, sustainability and profitability. Since 2017, we’ve seen investments to decrease emissions, in feed and technology.We’ve also seen the industry becoming increasingly more focused on sustainability.” The industry now views “sustainable production” as a key driver for increased seafood demand, a big shift since 2017. PwC says: • The industry is not fully mature when it comes to sustainability, but we see an overall increased focus on improving sustainability. • The industry worries about climate risk, and is already experiencing the effects of climate change • The carbon footprint of Norwegian salmon has increased, mainly due to increased mortality and reduced growth. • Sea lice are still the main reason for volume growth stagnation, but the focus has shifted from a belief in a few delousing methods to a combination of many methods. • The new segment, stun and bleed vessels, has improved value creation and sustainability, and have saved an estimated 52.5 million meals, and fish worth approximately NOK 600m in 2019. • Ambitious land-based projects close to end-markets, can represent a capital flight of NOK 65bn, and a potential threat to Norway as the global leader in salmon and trout. • A subtle change from reactive to proactive decision making by investing in data platforms and advanced analysis. PwC says it is now time to update growth scenarios as the sector moves towards 2050. “We have seen several changes since our first barometer in 2017.The traffic light system has been adjusted, including two auctions for capacity.
Norway's Aquaculture Strategy (Vince).indd 31
Land“ based aq-
uaculture is the new ‘promised land’ but is it a risk or an opportunity?
“The Directorate of Fisheries has finalised the evaluation of development licences.We have also seen the realisation and planning of new post-smolt and land-based, full-cycle projects.These adjustments call for an update on our 2050-production estimates. The report also points out that the uncertainty of predicting growth is always high because it depends on so many variables and challenges. Based on current knowledge, the authors expect volume growth to come from larger smolt and stable “traffic light” growth.As they put it:“In our base case, our updated estimate for 2050 is about 400,000 tonnes above the 2017-calculations.This is mainly due to our strengthened belief in smolt production developments which increase MAB utilisation. “However, we have calculated a considerably lower approved license volume for development licenses than estimated in 2017. “Only 77,000 tonnes MAB have been granted in this round, and although it is expected that new schemes will follow, the bar set by the Directorate of Fisheries has made us more pessimistic about growth from such schemes. “We still see a great focus on land-based, full-cycle projects, and we expect a rapid increase in land-based production this decade.” Finally, the report says climate change is one challenge keeping the seafood industry awake at night. Climate change, and society’s increased focus on it, is a risk that can affect a company’s goal achievement and has to be understood in the same way as all other business risks, it concludes. FF
Oslo pushing companies to be more sustainable
THE report says it is not just consumers who drive sustainability. Governments play an active role in disrupting the industry, sometimes with unintended effects. It notes that 2020 saw the implementation of the traffic light system (now the subject of a civil court hearing) , where two zones are forced to reduce production due to lice levels above the permitted threshold. The report says: “The government is currently reviewing the disease infection risk of holding pens next to harvesting facilities.They’re also proposing to standardise discharge regulations for fish farms, which can lead to stricter documentation requirements. “Perhaps the changes that will affect farmers the most are the proposed new regulations on lice. In addition to the existing lice limit per location, there will be a lice limit per net pen.”
Women in aquaculture
A long road to
Women are under-represented in the sector’s workforce, but moves are under way to change that BY SANDY NEIL
ust three years ago, men outnumbered women in Scotland’s aquaculture industry by almost ten to one. Is the gender imbalance improving? In 2018 women made up only 19% of the aquaculture workforce globally. In Europe that ﬁgure was 22%, according to a UN report State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. That same year in Scotland, the gender imbalance was even greater: only 11% of salmon farm workers and 15% of shellﬁsh farm workers were women, according to the Sco�sh Government. The scale of this inequality, and the challenge ahead to ﬁx it, was starkly revealed by a study published in May 2018 by Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE) for the Aquaculture Industry Leadership Group. The report, Skills Review for the Aquaculture Sector in Scotland, found a “signiﬁcant” gender imbalance in both the present workforce and in those coming into it. This was both “horizontal” (i.e. a gender division in types of roles) and “ver�cal” (i.e. a gender division based on occupa�onal levels). “Females tend to work in support roles e.g. administra�on, HR, ﬁnance, etc.,” the report explained. “Roles in aquaculture have tradi�onally been quite manual, which may have meant that women either self-exclude and also, that employers may have consciously or unconsciously been biased in their recruitment between men and women. However, innova�on and adop�on of technology and automated systems means that aquaculture roles are now, or are becoming, less labour-intensive. This may make it more a�rac�ve to a wider pool of workers, including women. “Women are under-represented in managerial posi�ons. Conversely, women are over-represented in low-skilled manual roles, for example in processing. This is an untapped resource that could have a signiﬁcant impact on skills shortages across the sector, and the roles within it. Women could also play a key role in addressing succession planning and leadership challenges.” The gender imbalance will not equalise soon, the report notes: “Males have accounted for over 85% of those enrolling on Fish Produc�on/Fisheries FE-level College courses from 2010/11 to 2015/16.” Something had to be done – but what? The solu�on, HIE advised, was “more promo�on of the sector as a career opportunity for school leavers, graduates and other poten�al recruits”. On Interna�onal Women’s Day, 8 March 2019, the Women in Sco�sh Aquaculture (WiSA) ini�a�ve was launched by Scotland’s First Minister Nicola Sturgeon and the Sco�sh Aquaculture
Women in Aquaculture - Sandy.indd 32
Innova�on Centre (SAIC). The SAIC’s CEO Heather Jones, who led the campaign to form WiSA, explained: “Our aim is to raise awareness of the opportuni�es available to women in the industry, encourage more female par�cipa�on at all levels in the sector, and provide support to those entering or already working within aquaculture. The industry is full of poten�al; however, if it isn’t a�rac�ng the best people from across the talent pool, it’s unlikely to fulﬁl that.” The pitch was succinctly made by WiSA’s co-chairs, Dr Teresa Garzon and Dr Rowena Hoare, in a blog for Marine Scotland during Scotland’s Food and Drink Fortnight in September 2020. “One main misconcep�on about a career in aquaculture is that it is a career involving ‘beefy’ physical work and that the sector is u�erly male-dominated. However, the industry is at the cu�ng edge of technology, using sophis�cated equipment to monitor livestock, feeding regimens, etc. Scotland’s aquaculture sector is full of people commi�ed to improving the sustainability of the industry with an
Above: Charlo�e Maddocks Left: Heather Jones Opposite from top: L-R Mary Fraser and Teresa Garzon of WiSA; Laura Rubio Mar�nez; Laura Tulip
A long road to equality
focus more on diversity and inclusion and build policies that represent that, and our changing workforce.” Another example is Charlo�e Maddocks, Regional Health Manager at Mowi Scotland, who holds an MSc in Aqua�c Veterinary Studies, a BSc in Marine Biology, and a veterinary degree from Bristol University. “As a vet student you are a commodity, four females to every one male,” she said. “When I went into farming and aquaculture, I quickly spo�ed a stark diﬀerence in the balance. In aquaculture it was easy to see that the majority of people in the industry happen to be male.” “This mo�vated me to bring something diﬀerent to the conversa�on, although I did take a while to ﬁnd my voice,” she added. “I soon learned that by speaking up I had lots to contribute, and the more I did the more conﬁdent I became. So now when I am in a room and happen to be the only person who is female, I see it as an opportunity to speak up. “There are �mes when inappropriate things are said. As much as possible I try to stop the conversa�on and call it out as being inappropriate or point out the fact privately one to one. Both are tough but necessary. It would be nice to get to a point where you no longer have to correct others.” An interna�onal perspec�ve was brought by Dr Laura Rubio Mar�nez, wri�ng in October 2020 about her experience coordina�ng all Mowi Feed research projects in Norway and Scotland. “In general,” she said, “Norway is a country where the gender equality is a reality that you can see, not only ‘on paper’ but also in the a�tude of most of the people I have come across since I moved in 2014.” Encouragingly, most of WiSA’s interviewees said they had not experienced any discrimina�on. WiSA also launched a Facebook networking group, and an online pla�orm hosted on SAIC’s website. The inaugural WiSA mentoring programme met in January 2020 at SAMS in Oban for a day of training sessions for mentors and
One misconcep�on about “ aquaculture is that it is a career involving ‘beefy’ physical work ”
overriding focus on ﬁsh health and welfare.” In December 2019, WiSA was granted £50,000 from the Sco�sh Government and industry sponsors to deliver a mentoring scheme to help develop the careers of women already working in the sector, and a website to promote aquaculture and job opportuni�es to women. WiSA highlights many examples of women working in diverse roles in the industry. One of those is Tracy Bryant-Shaw, Head of HR & Business Support at Sco�sh Sea Farms, who joined the company six years ago from the banking sector. “There is a gender imbalance that is not going to be changed overnight,” she said: “Certainly in Sco�sh Sea Farms we have ac�vely tried to change. That includes wri�ng job adverts that are less gender speciﬁc, and that speak to as many people as possible, changing our approach for a female audience, and showing oﬀ the success of the women we have. “As a result, we have seen more and more women come through the door and two of our female employees were named Finﬁsh Farm Manager of the Year and Rising Star in the Aquaculture UK Awards in 2018. I’m proud of the number of women who work in senior levels now, although we do need to
Women in Aquaculture - Sandy.indd 33
Women in aquaculture
mentees, with all 20 places filled. Through one-to-one sessions, it provided training and support, building up skills such as creating a network, making career decisions, cultivating leadership styles, and building confidence. Following its “huge success”, the programme returned in January 2021, to “match some of the most influential leaders, both male and female in aquaculture with aspiring women in the industry looking to develop their careers and skills”. The scheme is recommended by one of last year’s participants Laura Tulip, an Environmental Analyst at Mowi Scotland. “It enabled me to network with colleagues from a wide range of areas within the sector, and established connections with people that have continued since,” she said. In February this year, WiSA launched a new initiative to support women in rural Scotland to return to the workplace after career breaks, focusing on the range of opportunities available within the sector. Evidence suggests women still face barriers when returning to work after an extended absence, with many experiencing a “motherhood penalty” following maternity leave. The Scottish government’s Women Returners Fund was established to help address some of these issues, with a focus on rebuilding skills, knowledge and confidence.
Backed by the fund, WiSA will support up to 50 women with career coaching, confidence training, and mentoring. The month-long series of free workshops and events will kick off with an introduction to aquaculture, and later sessions will include careers and performance coaching, interview skills, CV writing and confidence building. It will also offer one-to-one mentoring sessions with experienced aquaculture professionals. WiSA’s co-chair Dr Teresa Garzon said: “Our returners programme aims to give women the skills and confidence to get back into employment, and address any of the challenges they might face on their return. “Aquaculture is a forward-thinking, innovative industry, and access to a diverse talent pool will be a crucial element of helping the sector to continue to grow. Through the WiSA network, we hope to create a positive community that supports professional development and provides women with the tools and skills needed to help build successful and rewarding careers.” “Women shouldn’t have to make a choice between taking care of family and a successful career,” added Yvonne Booth, Senior Environmental Analyst at Mowi Scotland: “Support should be given to women returning to work whether a career break
is a gender imbalance that is not “There going to be changed overnight ” 34
Women in Aquaculture - Sandy.indd 34
A long road to equality was taken to have a child or care for close rela�ves, and the WiSA ini�a�ve is a really good example of that.” There was no such WiSA network when Yvonne ﬁrst started as a farm technician a�er 19 years in the oil and gas industry. “When I ﬁrst started, there was a lack of opportuni�es to network with other women in the industry who might have been able to provide some inspira�on and mentoring, but I did work with a great team of guys on site who were really helpful. It was a welcome addi�on when we had Kendal Hunter, a female graduate, join the team and I’m really pleased to say she has progressed to being a well-respected farm manager now.” Individuals like Clara McGhee, a Mowi employee who started as a farm technician in 2018 and is now a trainee farm manager, also do a lot to inspire. “There’s s�ll work to be done but progress is deﬁnitely being made.” Yvonne told Fish Farmer. “The company is commi�ed to aligning with the UN Sustainability Development Goals including Gender Equality and has commi�ed to a 50/50 employee gender ra�o and 30% female in leadership roles by 2025,” she said. “In the 2019 annual report, Mowi reported women made up 40.3% of full-�me employees, which is rela�vely high for aquaculture. In the environment team we have 44% women. One of our previous female team members, Kate Stronach, recently progressed to the role of Compliance and Sustainability Manager. Currently our senior management team of 10 has three females (30%), including our Produc�on Director Meritxell Padrisa, who is a role model for any female either thinking of a career in aquaculture or already employed within Mowi. “It’s great to see young women successfully going through our graduate and appren�ceship programmes too. Connie Fairburn, Shannon Graham and Hilary Turnbull are now nearing the end of their 18 month graduate programme and will con�nue as assistant farm managers. Ge�ng involved in career fairs and incen�ves like the Sco�sh Appren�ce Week in March is a great pla�orm to get the message out about opportuni�es for young women and tell the story of female employees like Emily Connolly, who is successfully working through an electrical engineering appren�ceship at Mowi. “Incen�ve programmes to retrain and a�ract women from other industries are also really impor-
tant. For example, the oil and gas industry is in decline and many people have lost their jobs or have been struggling to ﬁnd new contracts in the past few years… it would be a shame to see those skills go to waste. “Finally, I think recognising and celebra�ng the achievements of women in the aquaculture industry and research would help a�ract more female talent to drive innova�on and progression of the industry.” “We are celebra�ng that [women] are here,” Dr Teresa Garzon told Fish Farmer. On WiSA’s progress so far, she said its membership had grown (its Facebook group now has over 300 members), its events have been fully booked, and it receives a lot of posi�ve feedback. One new entrant wrote: “I honestly don’t know if I would have been so open to considering entering the salmon farming industry if I didn’t know a pla�orm like this existed.” Sarah Riddle, SAIC’s Director of Business Engagement, added: “This is a fantas�c sector, whatever age or gender you are. The world is your oyster. There are so many skills these large organisa�ons require to operate. We need depth and skill coming into the industry, whether you are leaving school, returning to work, or coming from a diﬀerent sector. “Our network is cri�cal. We have over 190 companies within our consor�um. Our reach is global. WiSA is an excellent conduit for conversa�on, making a community visible and accessible. We hope WiSA is a pla�orm for knowledge: how did you get into the sector, and what would your advice be? We have all come by diﬀerent paths. That is the importance of WiSA: to make things just, and to show what is possible.” See also Nicki Holmyard, page 36. FF
Opposite: Meritxell Diez Padrisa (top), Working in a hatchery; Oyster farming (below) Above: Loch Duart opera�ons manager Hazel Wade
EMPOWERING world leader in electric underwater robotics
Women in Aquaculture - Sandy.indd 35
BY NICKI HOLMYARD
Real lives, inspiring stories
An international video competition has provided a platform for women in the seafood industry to share their experiences
ooking for a way to mark Interna�onal Women’s Day on Monday, 8 March 2021, I came across videos submi�ed for the fourth Women in Seafood annual compe��on, run by the Interna�onal Organisa�on for Women in the Seafood Industry (WSI). WSI asked women to share a short ﬁlm of their observa�ons and experiences in the industry. The ﬁlms submi�ed for judging by an interna�onal jury in 2020, are both inspira�onal and humbling. “We reached out to women right across the seafood sector, in ﬁshing, aquaculture, processing, local ﬁsh selling and interna�onal trading, quality management, cer�ﬁca�on, teaching, learning, and the wide range of services related to the industry. A new category was included this year for ‘life under Covid’, because our research shows that the virus has severely hit women seafood workers,” WSI founder and execu�ve director Marie Chris�ne Monfort told Fish Farmer. “We received 23 entries from 15 countries, all of which gave an excellent insight into the challenges being faced by women in the seafood industry, and the way they overcome them. Our panel of judges had a hard �me deciding on the winners!” Top prizes were awarded to short ﬁlms from Indonesia, the UK, Japan, Tanzania and India, but all the ﬁlms deserve wider recogni�on. The compe��on has become an important event in the calendar of WSI, which was formed to highlight the important contribu�on of women to the
Diversity - Nicki Holmyard.indd 36
Tradi�on: Nadeshico Sushi Right: Move Forward Opposite: Women in Fisheries - Our Stories (top), Move Forward (below)
seafood industry, to raise awareness of gender issues, and to promote professional equality between men and women. It has a par�cular interest in promo�ng young female professionals, who will be the leaders of tomorrow. “One seafood worker in two is a woman; they are essen�al contributors to the industry, but many remain invisible, and the video compe��on helps to give them a voice and inspire others,” Monfort said. She was delighted when the French Development Agency (Agence Française de Développement – AFD) agreed to support the compe��on. “The French Development Agency is proud to support the WSI compe��on. By making women’s experiences public and visible, these videos, which we must all share widely, should encourage decision-makers to take them into account in development policies and projects,” said Helene Gobert, of the AFD ﬁsheries experts’ team. First prize went to a ﬁlm from Indonesia, which portrays the story of Arma An�, a young woman from a remote ﬁshing village in Sulawesi. She went to college to learn about ﬁsheries management and became involved with a start-up compa-
Real lives, inspiring stories
ny, Baur, that was developing a remote learning app for people growing ﬁsh and shrimp, and farming seaweed. The prac�cal courses are now available online for students and ﬁshermen/ﬁsh farmers and have already been used to help many communi�es understand how to improve their seafood crops. Arma An� has become a coach in the region, with a stable salary, and is proud to be making a real diﬀerence in the ﬁeld. Her work is inspiring other women to follow her example. The second prize in the short ﬁlm category went to the UK’s Women in Fisheries – Our Stories, which was produced in Exeter. The team behind the video said: “We hope that achieving this interna�onal and pres�gious recogni�on from WSI will help us to push for be�er na�onal recogni�on of the work women do in UK ﬁsheries.” A ﬁlm from Japan, en�tled Changing tradition: Nadeshico Sushi, explains how ingrained prejudices impact the way in which women are treated in the Japanese seafood industry. Various beliefs about women, such as their core body temperature or their cosme�cs aﬀec�ng their sense of smell, have been used as excuses for not accep�ng them as legi�mate sushi chefs. However, Nadeshico Sushi in central Tokyo is pushing back against this exclusionary tradi�on, with an all-female team. The presenter explains how she delights in the art form of her work, turning tuna, salmon and rice into diﬀerent, beau�ful crea�ons for each customer, and how she enjoys challenging her society’s norms for women. From India came the story of Ramani Mani, a ﬁsh seller for more than 25 years. Un�l 10 years ago, she bought ﬁsh from the market and carried it from house to house in a basket on her head, but when she was no longer able to li� the basket, she learned to ride a scooter, obtained her driving licence, and took out a loan to buy her own bike. Her ac�on is a rarity even today, for a woman ﬁsh seller in India. The story doesn’t end there, however,and its real purpose was to show how hard life has been since the start of the Covid pandemic, with ﬁsh selling coming to a stands�ll for months during lockdowns, and many people – Ramani Mani included – surviving on food handouts from the government. She spoke of the hardship she con�nues to experience, of sourcing adequate ﬁsh, and of people’s fear of catching Covid from her, as she goes from house to house. Since lockdown ended, she has found more people turning to ﬁsh selling, se�ng up business in vans and targe�ng her customers. “By the �me I have ﬁnished my household chores and can visit my customers, many of them have already bought from these people, and cooked the ﬁsh. Few wait for me these days, and when I try to sell in new areas, people eye me with suspicion as I am a stranger to them,” she said. Winning ﬁrst prize in the Covid category is more than vanity to Ramani Mani; it is a lifesaver. Tilapia farming was the focus of a ﬁlm from China, submi�ed by the China
Diversity - Nicki Holmyard.indd 37
One seafood worker in two is a “ woman; they are essen�al contributors to the industry ”
Blue Sustainability Ins�tute, which showed the varied jobs undertaken by women working in Hainan, a tropical island in the South China Sea. The women work in hatcheries, tending ongrowing ponds, as ﬁsh scien�sts and technicians, and in the processing factories. Dedicated to their jobs, many of the women moved to the area to earn money to support their families, leaving children behind to be looked a�er by other family members. China is the world’s leading producer, consumer and exporter of �lapia, and produced more than 1.8 million tonnes in 2018. Since 2010, Han Han, China Blue’s Founder and Execu�ve Director, a former China Program Director with the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP), has worked with the Chinese �lapia industry to cul�vate an industry-led Aquaculture Improvement Project (AIP). It is this work that has helped Hainan to become an important produc�on area that accounts for almost 50% of Chinese �lapia exports to the EU, and reverse the slump in demand. The local industry is now a safe, green and eﬃcient model of �lapia farming, and Hainan �lapia is recognised globally as a regional brand. “The strong stories from all over the world describe struggles, discrimina�on and opportuni�es that women face in the seafood industry. All of these ﬁlms show that women play a paramount role in the seafood supply chain, so we are happy to announce that the 2021 video compe��on is now open for entries. Please spread the word,” Monfort said. The ﬁlms can be viewed at: womeninseafood.org/what-we-do/video-competition/videos-2020/ FF
BY VINCE MCDONAGH
Happy days A tropical species is now being raised in the chillier climes of Norway
hen it comes to climate, Florida and Norway are – it goes without saying – very diﬀerent. Yet a fascina�ng experiment is taking place to ﬁnd out if a king prawn, normally farmed in warm, sub-tropical waters, can be cul�vated in a country where temperatures are well below freezing for half of the year. The key players are Benchmark Gene�cs and a Norwegian business called the Happy Prawn Company. And their “laboratory” for this fascina�ng seafood adventure is located around a small harbour at Sirevåg, in southwest Norway. They say their goal is to make Litopenaeus or L. Vannamei shrimp a delicacy product for high-end restaurants and discerning grocery shoppers. The species is normally found in south and central America and along the Florida coast near the Gulf of Mexico. Global aquaculture produc�on runs to more than four million tonnes. On a freezing January day in Sirevåg, Magnar Hansen, the general
Happy Prawns - Vince.indd 38
Our goal is to produce a tasty product based on environmentally safe solu�ons manager and founder of Happy Prawns got up early to receive the ﬁrst batch of L. Vannamei shrimp larvae that had been ﬂown over from the sunshine state. The 200,000 individuals were then placed in their new home, a tub containing 11,000 litres of water that had been heated to 28 degrees Cen�grade. The project began in Hansen’s garage at his home in the town of Sola. A�er many years in the oil industry and as a supplier of coral reefs to saltwater aquariums, he decided to pursue a new career in aquaculture. He wanted to focus on a species in high demand, highly priced, and where there was a low entry barrier.
The project, based at a former shrimp packing plant in Sirevåg, has been gathering pace since last September when Norwegian salmon company Bremnes Seashore became a shareholder. This has helped Hansen acquire the capital for development and exper�se in processing and marke�ng. Hansen said he gets excited every �me he has to prepare the facility for a delivery: “Just imagine that these small creatures are able to survive such a long ﬂight. When they come to us they get a so� recep�on and are allowed to acclima�se for the ﬁrst part of the day. They are then released into the tub where they immediately absorb the feed and begin to grow.” For Hansen, it is like “…having a small kindergarten in the house”. The fry require tender loving care to ensure their survival and increased growth. A�er three weeks in the receiving tanks, they are ready to be moved over to a much larger 200,000 litre tank that looks more like a swimming pool in size and shape. The tank was designed and built based on knowledge and experience from a partner in Mexico, although many of the technical solu�ons had been designed by the Happy Prawns team. His own background as an expert in aquariums has been of great help in achieving cost-eﬀec�ve solu�ons. Unlike salmon, which have a produc�on cycle that can go on for years, the Happy Prawn Company says it can harvest adult shrimp in just three or four months a�er receiving the fry, which are only 10 to 15 millimetres long. Paal Robert Wie, Happy Prawns’ own house chef, said he has gained a great deal of knowledge about his new product, describing them as a dream to work with. “They look good and have good colour and smell,” he says. “As a chef I can say the consistency and taste are of the highest quality. They are also very useful in that they can be used raw as sashimi or as heat-treated.” Trond Williksen is CEO of Benchmark plc, a world leader in aquaculture breeding and gene�cs. He says one of the group’s missions is to help the aquaculture industry operate more sustainably. He explains: “Our shrimp programme has the status of SPR [speciﬁc pathogen resistant]
Happy Prawns - Vince.indd 39
which means they have a documented high resistance to speciﬁc disease causing viruses and bacteria. “In addi�on they are cer�ﬁed as SPF [speciﬁc pathogen free] which means they are documented as being completely free of a wide range of agents.” Disease has been one of the biggest challenges facing the global shrimp industry, with produc�on almost wiped out in some years. Williksen said: “We are making an important contribu�on by crea�ng a sustainable founda�on for this industry through a combina�on of biosafety and robustly resistant gene�cs. “We have been able to transfer our gene�cs knowledge and technology on salmon to the shrimp programme. “Our gene�cists use genomic informa�on and markets to improve disease resistance. So genomic selec�on and QTLs (quan�ta�ve trait locus) which salmon farmers are familiar with, are now also part of the toolbox for the computer industry.” Happy Prawns’ produc�on aims to be environment-friendly, with sustainable feed, robust gene�cs and a closed produc�on system which guards from the spread of disease. There are also no discharges from produc�on that can damage the environment. “Our goal is to produce a tasty product based on environmentally safe solu�ons. Proﬁt is not the most important thing,” Hansen explained. Although the shrimp are mainly fed with commercial feed, Hansen has also set up a “green diet” consis�ng of spinach. “This diet is pure shrimp-candy”, he explains. “In the long term, we also intend to experiment with a diet using seaweed and kelp as protein basis. To ensure health and well-being, probio�cs are added to the water in the shrimp tank.” The exis�ng premises have a produc�on capacity of just below 60 tonnes of shrimp, but Happy Prawns has greater ambi�ons than that. The company has scaled up its ambi�ous plans and is star�ng to build a new produc�on facility of 35,000 sq metres in a nearby industrial park, for comple�on in 2022. It will be connected to a dairy facility, and surplus heat from this will be used for hea�ng the water in the 52 tanks which are in the construc�on plans for the new facility. “With the new plant we will be able to produce approximately 500 tonnes annually, but it will take �me before we can build up a demand for such volumes”, Hansen says. With the retail market in sight, Happy Prawns looks set to reach an even wider audience in the future. FF
Opposite: Trond Williksen (le�) with Magnar Hansen Above: Chef Paal Robert Wie Below: Prawns being packed in Florida prior for shipment to Norway
50 years of salmon farming
Half a century since Marine Harvest produced the ﬁrst farmed salmon in Scotland, we look at how far the sector has come
BY ROBERT OUTRAM
There “ was a buzz
about trying to create something from nothing
almon farming is a major sector for Scotland today, but the industry began with one harvest of just 14 tonnes, half a century ago on the shores of Loch Ailort, on Scotland’s west coast. The farm at Lochailort – the spelling is diﬀerent for the sea loch and the village – was an experiment that paid oﬀ for Marine Harvest, the company now known as Mowi, the world’s largest supplier of farmed salmon. Marine Harvest had been founded in 1965 by Unilever, the UK food and domes�c products giant, with a view to securing a supply of ﬁsh at a �me when it was becoming clear that tradi�onal ﬁsheries were going to struggle to meet the demands of a growing popula�on. Unilever was involved in sea ﬁshing, freezing and processing, and also owned a number of trout farms in England. Scotland’s ﬁshing industry was concentrated on the east coast, and Marine Harvest beneﬁted from the support of Unilever’s research centre in Findon, near Aberdeen. Despite also trialling trout and halibut, it became clear that, commercially, salmon was a poten�al winner. The geography in the east did not favour ﬁsh farming, however, so the company searched for a site on the west coast, where sea lochs oﬀered shelter from wild weather.
50 years of Salmon Farming - MOWI.indd 40
Lochailort had a number of advantages, as well as its sheltered posi�on. The local landowner – Mrs Lucre�a “Putchie” Cameron-Head, the widow of the laird of Lochailort – was passionate about crea�ng jobs in the Highlands, and suppor�ve of the project. Lochailort had good road and beach access; and as it had been a commando training base, the camp buildings provided ready-made accommoda�on. Industry veteran Steve Bracken re�red from his posi�on as Business Support Manager with Marine Harvest in 2018, a�er 41 years working with the company. He started with Marine Harvest at Lochailort in 1977 and recalls: “There were no handbooks, manuals or outside experts, nor were there any environmental or ﬁsh welfare schemes.” The company had started with pens in a solid
A hatchling industry
Marine Harvest to Mowi 1965 Unilever sets up Marine Harvest 1971 First commercial harvest of salmon from Lochailort
1992 Unilever sells Marine Harvest to the UK conglomerate, Hanson
1994 Food industry giant Booker plc acquires Marine Harvest, and merges it with Booker’s McConnell Salmon to become Marine Harvest McConnell
framework, which soon ran into the problem of fouling and proved harder to clean than nets, which were introduced from 1971 onwards. Bracken says: “It was a challenge to ﬁnd equipment that could withstand bad weather.” Communica�on was another challenge. There was no remote monitoring or even mobile phones. Back then, as Bracken explains, even to talk to the sales team: “You o�en had to rely on rural call boxes.” Working at the cu�ng edge of a new industry meant the staﬀ o�en had to ﬁnd their own solu�ons to problems. Support came from Unilever’s R&D facility in Colworth, Bedfordshire, but as Bracken says: “There were no specialist supply companies and no support network for the equipment we needed. Unilever had to create a lot of it. “In the early days we were coun�ng ﬁsh with cameras and video casse�es. And to move the ﬁsh we tried a ﬁsh elevator – we had no ﬁsh pumps.” S�ll, he recalls, it was a fascina�ng industry to be in: “There was a buzz about trying to create something from nothing.” Lochailort is s�ll operated by Marine Harvest’s modern-day incarna�on, Mowi, as a state-of-the-art freshwater hatchery, opened in 2013. Nick Joy, once Managing Director and now a consultant to Loch Duart Salmon (and regular columnist with this magazine) says: “One of the challenges was mooring because the pens were made of wood and thus moorings needed to allow some ﬂex. Some of the very ﬁrst were hexagonal which proved extremely diﬃcult to moor, which maybe explains why they didn’t last long as a design. “It’s hard to imagine using eght metre pens now with ﬁve metre deep nets. In my �me the volumes in our nets and the corresponding stocking increased twenty-fold. Now it is much larger than that. we were restricted by what can be li�ed by hand, in every way from feed to nets.” The industry has also learned a lot about ﬁsh handling. Transpor�ng, grading and trea�ng ﬁsh have changed a great deal, Joy says, and the damage inadvertently done by over-handling has been greatly reduced.
1999 Dutch feed group Nutreco acquires Marine Harvest McConnell, which reverts to “Marine Harvest”
2005 Nutreco merges its ﬁsh farming
opera�ons with the seafood busines of Stolt-Nielsen. Marine Harvest is 75% owned by Nutreco and the remaining equity is held by Stolt-Nielsen.
2006 The new Marine Harvest group
is established from the merger of Pan Fish, Marine Harvest and Fjord Seafood. Marine Harvest’s UK opera�ons are spun out to a separate company, Lighthouse Caledonia, which is later acquired by the Sco�sh Salmon Company.
Opposite: Hand feeding Loch Ailort 1971 Top: Loch Ailort hand feeding pen and old wooden ﬁsh boxes 1971 Middle: Nick Joy Left: Brailer, Loch Ailort Oct 73
50 years of Salmon Farming - MOWI.indd 41
2019 Marine Harvest adopts a new name
and brand, Mowi, referencing one of the pioneers of salmon farming in Norway. The company now farms in Norway, the Faroes, Scotland, Ireland, Chile and Canada. In addi�on value added produc�on is also carried out in Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Turkey and the USA.
50 years of salmon farming
Salmon was seen as a premium ﬁsh, even more then than now, and Joy recalls: “Fishmongers used to ring us up and ask, can I have some ﬁsh? They didn’t ask the price, size or quality, there was so li�le salmon about. The price would be would be more than £6 per pound, but now it’s less than half that.” When the price eventually fell it was a problem for many operators. Joy says: “The price came down, a lot. Was that because we were producing more or did the market itself change? Probably a mix of both.” Ian Armstrong, founder of Nevis Marine, started out with Marine Harvest at Lochailort, aged 16. He says: “It was hard physical work, but thanks to the people I worked with, I enjoyed it!” He took a BSc in Wildlife and Fisheries Management at the University of Edinburgh, and returned to Marine Harvest as a graduate trainee. Apart from a two-year s�nt helping to establish the company’s Chilean opera�ons, he was based in Scotland and has seen the industry there transformed. As now, biological issues were among the most serious threats for salmon farmers. Armstrong recalls: “Furunculosis was a big challenge in those early days. There were no vaccines, so the treatment was an�bio�cs – and when that was misused by some inexperienced farmers, it led to resistance. Vaccines were a game changer.” Alex Adrian, Aquaculture Opera�ons Manager with Crown Estate Scotland – which provides necessary development rights for the industry – has more than
50 years of Salmon Farming - MOWI.indd 42
Salmon “ farming was
seen as an extension of the cro�ers’ lifestyle
30 years’ experience in ﬁrst managing, then overseeing, ﬁsh farming. He started with Lighthouse of Scotland and worked for its successor companies, joining Crown Estate Scotland in 2007. Adrian, who gained a Masters degree in Fish Biology at Plymouth University, started working in Scotland in the late 1980s. He agrees with Ian Armstrong: “The biological pressures have never gone away. When I started it was before vaccines, so bacterial diseases were a big challenge, not least furunculosis. You would dread the summer because you know mortali�es would rise.” One thing that has changed, he notes, is that biological problems have become less seasonal: “We used to get a break – sea lice, for example, didn’t seem to be so ac�ve un�l the late spring, early summer. Now, it seems to be a constant threat.” This may be due, he thinks, to warmer sea temperatures during the winter months. Another change, he says, is that roles in the industry have become more specialised as ﬁsh farming has become ever more reliant on specialist
A hatchling industry
knowledge. As he puts it: “There is no such thing as a ‘salmon farmer’ any more. There are a number of jobs that, collec�vely, make up salmon farming. I was, variously, a technical manager or ﬁsh health manager, but now those roles are increasingly split.” Another change in the industry has been consolida�on. The success of Lochailort was followed by a prolifera�on of ﬁsh farming businesses along the west coast and the islands, including Orkney and Shetland. Since then, however, hundreds of businesses have been whi�led down to just eight, most of which are part of interna�onal businesses. David Sandison is Chair of Shetland UHI and a trustee of the NAFC Marine Centre in Shetland UHI, a leading educa�onal ins�tu�on for training in ﬁsh farming and ﬁsheries. Prior to that he managed the Shetland arm of the Sco�sh Salmon Producers Organisa�on. He says: “Ini�ally, salmon farming was seen as an extension of the cro�ers’ lifestyle. It was available to anyone who held cro� land, on a suitable coastline. The Shetland Islands Council had powers to develop a Works Licence Policy and this provided the ﬁrst permissions to farm in the islands. “There were probably more than 60 ﬁsh farming businesses in Shetland, at its height. Even in the late 1990s there were more than 40. Now there are three companies opera�ng here.” How did that happen? Sandison says: “The biggest driver for that is scale. If you grow any business to a certain scale, you need to ﬁnance it. Salmon farming is a capital-intensive business and you have to have deep pockets, and the ability to invest for the long term.” The salmon industry in Scotland has also seen rising cri�cism from some quarters. While it has long beneﬁted from encouragement from government and state agencies, the industry’s interac�on with the environment – especially wild salmon – and issues of ﬁsh welfare have increasingly come under scru�ny. Alex Adrian suggests: “There was always an�-salmon farming ac�vism, but now there is a diﬀerent set of scru�neers, around the community, who are be�er informed. It reﬂects the fact that, around the world and par�cularly in Scotland,
50 years of Salmon Farming - MOWI.indd 43
Specialist Air Soluaons
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Opposite - clockwise from top: Loch Ailort July 1972; John Russell and John Hughes Ardnish seaweed boat c.1978;
Alex Adrian; Brian O’Hara net cleaning Loch Ailort
Above from top left: Peter Bridge and Basil lorry loading Loch Ailort c.1977; Peter Bridge Loch Ailort Butler building c.1977; Ian Armstrong; David
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50 years of salmon farming people are far more proprietorial about the marine environment. “Previously, by far the biggest reason given for rejec�ng proposal for a new ﬁsh farming site was its visual impact. That’s s�ll important, but I think it reﬂected at the �me that people were more concerned about what was going on, the top of the water rather than underneath. Now, people are very much concerned with what’s going on underneath.” The industry now faces an impera�ve, not only to con�nue to ﬁnd new ways to operate sustainably, but to ensure that it is seen to be doing so. Ian Armstrong believes the salmon industry in Scotland has a very bright future, but argues that it needs to maintain its own niche in a global market. He says: “It’s got to be about provenance and sustainable produc�on. Scotland won’t compete by going to the lowest common denominator. Sco�sh producers will con�nue to develop the highest standards of ﬁsh welfare and they will grow ﬁsh which have excellent taste and texture. And we need to do that on a scale that remains cost-compe��ve. The Sco�sh governmnet and regulators have to deliver on their responsibili�es to the modern Sco�sh economy.” Would he advise a young person now to go into today’s salmon farming
Above: Steve Bracken Left: Mowi feed
industry? “Yes, yes and yes!” he says. So would Alex Adrian. As he puts it: “It’s aqua�c food produc�on, and we all realise that is where a lot of the world’s protein needs to come from.” David Sandison also sees great opportuni�es as the industry con�nues to ﬁnd new ways to work and thrive. He says: “The industry has never stood s�ll for ﬁve minutes. Technological advancement has been the key to how things have moved along. It was always not just about becoming bigger, it was about being smarter.” Archive photographs are by kind permission of Mowi Scotland. FF
New look for an old tradition
2020 turned out to be the ideal year to launch a refreshed brand of premium fresh and smoked trout
ames is the oldest family-run ﬁsh farm in Scotland, established in 1972 by Stuart Cannon, a farmer’s son from Lincolnshire in search of his own adventure. Stuart always had a passion for trout and was the ﬁrst to pioneer putting them into freshwater at Loch Melfort. His understanding of how ﬁsh create their own ﬂow, and thrive in fresh and sea lochs, shaped the aquaculture industry as we know it today. Now Kames only farms the Steelhead – the rainbow trout that naturally migrates to the sea, where it loves to swim against a huge volume of mineral-rich Atlantic water in our unique location. The Steelhead grows bigger and it is more athletic and silvery than the rainbow, with a delicate ﬂavour and ﬁrm texture that’s just exceptional. As Kames approaches its 50th year, it has found strength in its small size and structure. Its highly skilled and passionate workforce focus on the very highest welfare standards and waste solutions, and the trout industry continues to improve its already excellent protein efﬁciency even further. 2020, for all its chaos, seemed the right time to introduce the world to a refreshed Kames brand, launching their own product range of Kames Fresh and Smoked Steelhead Trout – bringing outstanding quality Scottish Steelhead Trout directly to the consumer for the ﬁrst time. Available online at kames.co.uk and through select retailers.
Clockwise from top: Kames has remained a family business, and looks to its ethos of excellence, welfare, sustainability and community to guide it into the future; Kames launches its own-brand range a�er nearly 50 years of pioneering the excep�onal Steelhead Trout Steve - Main Feature.indd 16
www.fishfarmermagazine.com 08/08/2018 15:14:17
50 years of Salmon Farming - MOWI.indd 44
The Scottish Salmon Company – Advertorial
The future of Scottish
SSC’s ambitious plans for growth are underpinned by respect for heritage and environment
ince the ﬁrst harvest in 1951, the Sco�sh salmon farming sector has gone from strength to strength. 50 years on and Sco�sh salmon is the UK and Scotland’s biggest food export and is recognised around the world for its quality. In 2019 salmon farming was indicated to be worth more than £2bn to the Sco�sh economy, providing extensive employment and accelera�ng investment in rural economies. The Sco�sh Salmon Company (SSC) is one of Scotland’s leading salmon producers and is part of the Bakkafrost Group. With more than 60 sites across the West Coast and Hebrides, it employs over 650 people in remote and rural communi�es crea�ng value and suppor�ng economic growth. SSC has an ambi�ous long-term strategy for responsible growth. Ian Laister, Managing Director of The Sco�sh Salmon Company, said: “I’m delighted to be leading the business through the next stages of our ‘Fresh Approach’ programme. This is focused on biology, simplifying processes and strengthening opera�ons with a substan�al investment programme across the whole value chain in 2021, including the comple�on of new Recircula�on Aquaculture Systems.” Salmon is not only Scotland’s largest food export and an interna�onal success story; it is also one of the most energy-eﬃcient and sustainable sources of protein. SSC says that sustainability is the founda�on of its strategy for responsible growth and underpins the company’s core values: pride in its Sco�sh salmon; the passion of its people and provenance, the gi� of its environment. Sco�sh provenance is fundamental to the company’s Clan of Brands and SSC takes its responsibility as a custodian of the natural environment in which it operates very seriously. This responsibility aligns with the Sco�sh salmon farming sector’s vision for a more sustainable future, as laid out in the Sco�sh Salmon Producers Organisa�on’s charter A Be�er Future For Us All. This ambi�ous roadmap will take the sector forward for the next 50 years to ensure its environmental and sustainability creden�als remain the best in the world. The cool, natural waters of the Hebrides are home to a very special and unique strain of salmon – one which perfectly exempliﬁes SSC’s approach to sustainability. While SSC may be a rela�vely young business, the heritage of Na�ve Hebridean Salmon stretch back millennia. Descending from the wild salmon of North Uist, this award-winning breed is the result of a ten-year broodstock programme. Reared in its natural environment and fully traceable to the Hebrides, Na�ve Hebridean Salmon is naturally robust, lean and no�ceably ﬁrmer oﬀering a dis�nc�ve succulent and sea fresh taste of the Sco�sh Hebridean Islands. With more than 220 staﬀ across 25 sites in the Hebrides, SSC is one of the largest private employers in the Hebrides. Na�ve Hebridean Salmon is about much more than developing a commercially successful strain of salmon. It is about protec�ng Hebridean provenance and ensuring true
Scottish Salmon Co - PED.indd 45
Sustainability is the founda�on of “ SSC’s strategy for responsible growth ”
sustainability by crea�ng and retaining value locally, crea�ng skilled, long term employment and ensuring the long-term resilience and growth of the business whilst maintaining its roots in remote and rural communi�es for many years to come. www.sco�shsalmon.com FF
Above: SSC Marine Team at Gravir, Isle of Lewis Below: Na�ve Hebridean Salmon
Landcatch – Advertorial
Right from the start Landcatch’s heritage goes back to the earliest days of salmon farming
hile the marine salmon farming industry in Scotland is celebrating its 50-year anniversary, egg and smolt producer Landcatch can trace its origins back much further, to the early 20th Century and a visionary Highland laird: Col Sir James Lithgow. Landcatch, the salmon gene�c brand of Hendrix Gene�cs, produces eggs and smolts for customers – who are primarily in Scotland – from its principal sites at Ormsary, Clachbreac and Gairloch, all in Scotland. Its sister company, Hendrix Gene�cs Aqua S.A. in Chile serves the rest of the world with high-quality salmon gene�cs. The company uses the latest advances in genomics to select and breed ﬁsh to meet the highest standards. The story began in 1919 when Colonel Lithgow established a hydro-electric scheme at Ormsary House, making it the ﬁrst house in Britain
UPDATED Landcatch - PED.indd 46
to run en�rely on electricity from renewable sources. As an oﬀshoot from the hydro scheme, a hatchery was built to help stock the local burn with salmon. In the 1970s the old hydro system was replaced with a larger salmon hatchery and smolt unit, fed with fresh water from another brand new hydro scheme. The smolt unit was set up in its own covered building with hatchery and oﬃces en suite, designed to be both ﬁsh and operator friendly with many novel features. These were quickly copied by others in an emerging industry which, at the �me, had a poor understanding of physics and hydraulics. The ﬁrst ”Swirlpool” seawater tanks in 1981 were 12 meters in diameter and are s�ll in use today, supplemented by 25 meters of vitreous protected steel farm slurry tanks. A con�nuous supply of clean sea water remains at the heart of the technology. This is made possible by the unusual �dal condi�ons at the site, which has the lowest mean �dal range in the UK and where the direc�on of current past Ormsary is inherently always south. The seawater pumping sta�on is located to the north in a sheltered place, separated from the ou�all discharge in
Right from the start
the south bay by a long peninsula. In 1985, Saga Seafood – a company created by Thor Mowinkle, who with his father had co-founded Mowi – acquired a 50% stake in Landcatch. The company started growing salmon in sea cages in Loch Caolisport and Loch Fyne, with a packing sta�on in Tarbert. Lithgow bought out all the interest in Landcatch in the mid-1990s. At this point Landcatch exited from produc�on of salmon for the table to concentrate on supplying smolts and eggs to salmon farmers. In order to do so, the company acquired facili�es in Gairloch and Foyers, and a combined hydro scheme and smolt farm was built at Clachbreac. By now the company was selling eggs and smolts to customers as far away as South Africa, North Korea, Russia and Chile. Landcatch Chile was set up in 1998, although the introduc�on of a ban on imported eggs following outbreaks of infec�ous salmon anaemia led to the sale of the subsidiary in 2009. In 2011, Lithgows sold Landcatch to Hendrix Gene�cs, a business at the cu�ng edge of gene�cs and selec�on in sustainable animal breed-
ing. The Lithgow family now focuses on renewable energy at Ormsary and Jura, including wind turbines as well as the hydro plant. It was the ﬁrst foray into aquaculture for Hendrix Gene�cs, which now also breeds trout and shrimp as well as salmon. As part of a mul�-species group, Landcatch now enjoys the beneﬁts, not only of leading R&D and infrastructure, but also of collabora�on in ideas and technology. To take a couple of examples of how this technology has helped the industry: ﬁrst, the R&D team at Hendrix Gene�cs (at the �me, Landcatch Natural selec�on) discovered a very strong indicator for IPN (Infec�ous Pancrea�c Necrosis) resistance. This means that Hendrix Gene�cs can iden�fy and use elite broodstock that are resistant to IPN. Another ﬁrst for Hendrix Gene�cs was the SNP (Single Nucleo�de Polymorphisms) chip. This piece of genomic technology is used to analyse varia�ons in DNA sequences, which can be used as biological markers to locate genes associated with various traits including disease resistance and use them as the basis for selec�on. Landcatch also takes the training and development of its staﬀ seriously, and has been accredited under the Investors in People and Investors in Young People schemes. From small beginnings, Landcatch has grown into a business helping producers around the world to grow high-quality, disease-resistant ﬁsh. Jarl van den Berg, General Manager, says: “We might have changed owners, missions and visions but one thing is unchanged: our pride, love and care for farming our ﬁsh. All this couldn’t have been achieved without the dedica�on of all our team members. Having been in business for 40 years, I am proud to see that Landcatch has been on the resumés of many industry colleagues. “I look forward to what the future will bring. We will con�nue the trend to develop the salmon aquaculture industry by working together with friends and colleagues in Scotland, the wider Hendrix Gene�cs team and, of course, all our customers along the west coast and isles.” FF h�ps://salmon.hendrix-gene�cs.co.uk/en/ www.hendrix-gene�cs.com
Opposite, clockwise from top right: Kasi at Broodstock; Carol holding broodstock; Kasi Rajan at Hatchery; Smolt Building Construc�on. This page, clockwise from top left: Ma� at hydropower; Broodstock team; Jarl van den Berg at Ormsary entrance; Chopper transporta�on; Euan at broodstock; Proud of large broodstock; Broodstock tanks; Euan and Mark at Smolts Unit.
One thing is unchanged: “our pride, love and care for farming our ﬁsh ” www.fishfarmermagazine.com
UPDATED Landcatch - PED.indd 47
Institute of Aquaculture – Advertorial
50 years of research
and teaching excellence The Institute of Aquaculture is celebrating a half century at the cutting edge
Photo: ©Mahmoud Eltholth
n 1971 Prof Ron Roberts was awarded Nuﬃeld Founda�on funding to establish a Unit of Aqua�c Pathobiology focusing on ﬁsh disease. This formed the nucleus of what, in 1980, formally became the Ins�tute of Aquaculture (IoA). This year, along with the aquaculture industry in Scotland, it celebrates its 50th anniversary, having grown to become the leading Aquaculture Centre and one of the largest concentra�ons of exper�se dedicated to aquaculture in the world. The Ins�tute works with ﬁsh farmers, governments, regulatory bodies, industry, pharmaceu�cal companies, supply chains, veterinarians, and other academic ins�tu�ons to tackle global problems of food security, hunger, and sustainability through aquaculture. Over the last 50 years, a number of deﬁned research facili�es have been established, to organise and manage the complexity of work in par�cular areas of the Ins�tute, as well as to house the increasing sophis�ca�on of technology. Global Reach: With an early focus on Sco�sh and UK trout and salmon aquaculture, IoA soon widened its scope interna�onally. Longterm exper�se and support have been provided to ODA, (now DFID) FAO, Bri�sh Council, Worldﬁsh and other aid agency projects meaning that IoA has had a powerful input to global aquaculture development. Work on tropical aquaculture developments began early on and was expanded with major funding from ODA in 1977. This enabled appropriate research facili�es to be established in the Ins�tute and, at the same �me, projects in Israel, Kenya, Bangladesh, Mexico, etc, to be further developed. By 1978 IoA was able to oﬃcially open a large tropical aquarium to maintain broodstock, a �lapia reference collec�on, to produce large quan��es of ﬁsh fry for research and to house numbers of ﬁnely controlled experimental tank systems.
Above: Working with ﬁsh farmers in Bangladesh
Industry support: IoA has maintained a close working rela�onship with industry throughout the 50 years. The Ins�tute’s research and business hub oﬀers consultancy and exper�se in developing technology and prac�ce, built on expert staﬀ, facili�es and networks. These services are delivered through a range of units tailored to the requirements
Institute of Aquaculture - PED NEW.indd 48
Below: Machrihanish Environmental Research Laboratory
of industry (see website). The opening of Machrihanish Marine Environmental Research Laboratory enabled large-scale work with industry, pioneering produc�on of triploid salmon, cod, halibut and wrasse. Research Excellence: IoA research has generated thousands of scien�ﬁc publica�ons, innumerable books and specialist reports. This high quality, high impact work has been recognised in successive Research Quality Assessments (RAE and REF) - the IoA consistently ranked very highly in the UK agriculture unit of assessment. One of the many reasons for this success has been the Ins�tute’s mul�disciplinary approach to ﬁnding solu�ons to problems in aquaculture. IoA has a policy of mixing and integra�ng experts in all disciplines rela�ng to the whole subject area of aquaculture. Teaching and Training: IoA is the only interna�onal postgraduate Ins�tute covering tropical and temperate ﬁnﬁsh and shellﬁsh in extensive and intensive culture. The Ins�tute oﬀers a Masters and Postgraduate Diploma in Sustainable Aquaculture, and a unique Masters in Aqua�c Veterinary Studies and Aqua�c Pathobiology. Doctoral training is a key part of the Ins�tute’s research por�olio, genera�ng 300 PhD graduates who, together with 1100 Masters graduates are to be found in senior roles throughout world aquaculture. Industry, producer, and regulator-focused short courses at all levels have been a key feature since 1972 and con�nue to provide a targeted, upskilling CPD resource for aquaculturalists and veterinarians. IoA also oﬀers specialist in situ training and extension in many diﬀerent countries through courses and workshops. This a�racts students from around the world to S�rling, developing long-term rela�onships, to oﬀer overseas placements at Masters and PhD levels – a feature that is very a�rac�ve to poten�al students.
50 years of research and teaching excellence
• Establishment of the Nuffield Unit of Aquatic Pathobiology • First MSc in Aquatic Veterinary Studies/Aquatic Pathobiology • First PhD students registered • First Short Course launched for fish farmers and for those involved in water use and management • Masters and Postgraduate Diploma in Aquaculture and Fisheries management launched • Launch of Journal of Fish Disease. Eds: Ron Roberts & Rod Wootton • Tropical aquaculture facility funded by ODA, opened by Dr Dennis Hall [Chief Fisheries Officer, ODA] • University purchased Howietoun to be run commercially
• Inauguration of The Institute of Aquaculture [IoA] • Howietoun produces first Ballantine trout • NERC Aquatic Biochemistry Unit merges with IoA • Unit of Aquaculture Nutrition established • Launch of the Institute’s newspaper Aquaculture News distributed to present and past members of the Institute and to industry • IoA Tilapia Research Team nominated for UNESCO Science Prize • DFID Prawn Unit opened by Minister for Overseas Development, Timothy Raison who also visits Howietoun • Howietoun Sea Farm opens at Dunstaffnage • Aquatic Vaccine Unit established • STAQ, Stirling Aquaculture, consultancy established • Launch of BSc Aquaculture programme • Opening of DFID Tropical Fish Virology Unit by Chris Patten MP, Minister for Overseas Development • Stirling Aquatic Technology begins trading (5 Farmocean cages, Firth of Lorne) • The Princess Royal, Princess Anne, visits Tarbert Fine Foods to see Institute Salmon being processed • IoA gains top 4* rating in first UGC Research Selectivity Exercise • IoA appointed to run ODA Aquatic Research Programme
• IoA awarded Queen’s Award for Export Achievement • Aquatic Systems Group established • HRH Princess of Wales, Lady Diana, opens Wolfson Aquatic Biotechnology Laboratories • Launch of Journal of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management – later Aquaculture Research • NERC Aquatic Biochemistry Unit merges with IoA • South East Asian Health Program established, jointly funded by Royal Thai government and ODA • Environment and Aquaculture Systems Group consolidated as Sustainable Aquaculture Research Grp • GLP compliance established in the Institute • IoA celebrates its Silver Jubilee • Founder Director of the Institute Ron Roberts retires
• Institute awarded 5* rating in Research Assessment Exercise • The Princess Royal, Princess Anne, visits Machrihanish Marine Environmental Research Laboratory • Machrihanish develops commercial marine fish hatchery • Niall Bromage Freshwater Research Unit established
50 YEARS OF MILESTONES
• Institute awarded 4* in Research Excellence Framework • Project focus on Food Security and Sustainability • STAQ completes 150 projects worldwide • Institute awarded Queen’s Anniversary Prize for Research Excellence
Above: Pioneering and commercially relevant research in partnership with leading aquaculture companies
A Strategic Future: IoA has an international reputation for teaching, world-class research, technological innovation and consultancy in aquaculture. The Institute leads the world in their vision to tackle global problems of food security, hunger and sustainability through aquaculture. IoA’s impact and international reach over 50 years has been recognised through a recent award of the Queen’s Anniversary Prize, the UK’s most prestigious academic honour. What about the future? Consolidation into three interconnected research groups - Production, Health and Environment – will allow IoA to enhance its strategic aims. IoA’s mission is to deliver the research and innovative solutions to transform the global aquaculture sector to achieve greater sustainability, enhance food security and deliver resilience of aquatic ecosystems in a changing world. Recent infrastructure investment of £17m from the City Regional Deal and £1.7m from the University of Stirling, for new facilities, position the Institute to lead the National Aquaculture Technology and Innovation Hub, based at Stirling. This provides IoA with the opportunity to promote aquaculture innovation, training and research for the future needs of industry and for sustainable aquatic food production. FF W: www.stir.ac.uk/about/faculties/naturalsciences/aquaculture E: email@example.com
One of the many reasons for this success has been the Institute’s multidisciplinary approach
Institute of Aquaculture - PED NEW.indd 49
• 40th anniversary of the Institute • Institute awarded £17m in Stirling’s City Deal • 50th anniversary of our aquaculture research and training
A greener world The quest for greater sustainability includes everything from clean energy to ﬁsh feed BY ROBERT OUTRAM
ish farming arguably represents one of the most sustainable and climate-friendly op�ons for producing the protein that a growing world popula�on needs. But there is a long way to go before the industry can call itself truly “sustainable”. The Sco�sh Salmon Producers Organisa�on (SSPO) set out a number of pledges in its document A Better Future For Us All (November 2020), including some speciﬁcally linked to sustainability, such as aiming at net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; introducing reusable, recyclable or biodegradable packaging; and ensuring feed is sourced only from sustainable sources. Switching to hybrid, or ideally electric, vehicles for transport on land looks compara�vely straigh�orward. More challenging is ensuring that marine transport is also running on cleaner power. Also, farm sites require power for ligh�ng and equipment and this is o�en s�ll provided by diesel generators. Farm operators are well aware of the impera�ve. Last year, for example two new “super green” wellboats were ordered to support Mowi’s sites in Norway. The boats are being built by DESS Aquaculture Shipping and once completed they will be on long term lease to Mowi. Each wellboat has a very large capacity and will be equipped with four dual-fuel generator sets which will be able to operate on liqueﬁed natural gas (LNG), biogas or new types of ammonia fuel that are currently under development. Øyvind Oaland, the day manager at Mowi’s Norwegian ﬁsh farming business, said: “We have worked closely with DESS on the op�misa�on of our boats to meet precisely these [environmental] needs. I am sure they will
INTRO Sustainability.indd 50
be a success when we put them on the assignments in Norway. We are especially pleased with the LNG solu�on.” Earlier this month saw the laying of the longest electric cable so far to a ﬁsh farm in the Faroe Islands. The cable was provided for Bakkafrost by local supplier JT Electric, which has been working in close collabora�on with Faroese electricity provider SEV. The sea cable runs 5.6km and is part of Bakkafrost’s aim to achieve more sustainable power consump�on.
A greener world
SSPO’s sustainability pledges THE Sco�sh Salmon Producers Organisa�on document, A Better Future For Us All includes - as well as pledges on issues such as ﬁsh welfare, inves�ng in people and social engagement - important and challenging sustainability pledges. The SSPO says it and its members will: • Work towards 100 per cent renewable energy use, collabora�ng on the research, development and delivery of ways to power farms, facili�es and modes of transport • Introduce electric vehicle charging points to enable more drivers – staﬀ, suppliers and the local community – to transi�on to renewable energy • Pursue ways to divert poten�al waste, be it organic ma�er from freshwater hatcheries or obsolete farm infrastructure, into valuable by-products • Work with public and private sector partners alike to establish a circular economy for organic waste • Obtain 100 per cent of feed ingredients from sustainable sources • Work towards using 100 per cent reusable, recyclable or biodegradable packaging
goal “is toOurreduce our CO2 emissions by 50%
• Future-proof freshwater hatcheries to be able to withstand projected drought condi�ons brought about by climate change • Develop new water treatment technologies, backed by innova�ve regula�on, to help in the use of veterinary medicine
INTRO Sustainability.indd 51
• Containment • Fish Health and Welfare • Training and Careers • Processing and Traceability For more information on opportunities for advertising with editorial content around these subjects please contact: Janice Johnston 0044 (0) 131 551 7925 jjohnston@ﬁshfarmermagazine.com Booking deadline - Friday 2nd April Copy deadline - Monday 5th April
• Explore the poten�al of new technologies to capture ﬁsh waste from marine farms • Take every step possible to avoid marine debris from farms and recover any items promptly regardless of their origin
Top left: The DESS wellboats Left: JT Electric’s Ocean cables Right: Fish hatchery
Coming in the next issue...
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Fish Farmer 51
The majority of Bakkafrost’s feeding barges in the Faroe Islands are powered by sea cables from land, whilst the remaining are in the process of shi�ing to electric. Jón Purkhús, Farming Manager for Bakkafrost North, said: “Our goal is to reduce our CO2 emissions by 50%, by 2030. By using sea cables to supply our feeding barges with electricity from land we are reducing oil usage and thereby signiﬁcantly reducing emissions from our ﬁsh farms.” Thought for feed While stocks of salmon and other farmed ﬁsh can be replenished, it is also important that harves�ng for aquafeed does not run down wild stocks. Last December, the krill ﬁshing industry and a coali�on of non-governmental organisa�ons (NGOs) agreed to stop krill harves�ng in a massive area of the Antarc�c Ocean. Krill, which is used as a component in ﬁshmeal for feed as well as pet food and nutri�onal supplements for humans, is a key part of the diet for penguins in the Antarc�c and over-ﬁshing could endanger their survival. The closure is year-round and permanent, aﬀec�ng a 4,500km² area of ocean around Hope Bay in the northern Antarc�c Peninsula. The move was supported by the Associa�on of Responsible Krill harves�ng companies (ARK) and an NGO coali�on of Greenpeace, Pew, WWF and Oceanites. Plant-based food can also be problema�c if it comes from land cleared through deforesta�on. For ﬁsh farming this is par�cularly an issue for soy. Leading feed companies have pledged only to use soy product from sustainable sources, and in January three of Brazil’s leading soybean producers agreed to put in place a 100% deforesta�on-free soy value chain. The move means that virtually all the soy supplied to the salmon farming industry as feed will be obtained from
Every day we strive to reduce our footprint
Top: Krill underwater. Above Andreas Kvame Left: Devastated Rainforest
INTRO Sustainability.indd 52
sustainable sources and, importantly, that a robust monitoring, repor�ng and veriﬁca�on system will be developed to ensure the pledge is kept. The aquafeed industry has welcomed the move, which means that the whole of the European salmon farming sector and the vast majority of the global salmon industry will be sourcing its soy feed from suppliers that have banned soy from deforested areas. Fish waste from farms can be a problem for the marine environment, but it can also be an asset if it can be collected. In Norway, signiﬁcant resources are being invested in the large Biokra� biofuel plant near the town of Skogn. The plant, which uses waste from salmon farms and �mber mills to create biofuel, might soon even be powering jet aircra�. The project is being carried out in collabora�on with the Norwegian research and innova�on organisa�on SINTEF and it is also thought to involve a German partner with considerable experience in producing aircra� grade fuel from organic materials. The name’s bond As an incen�ve, proving the sustainability of a project could help gain access to ﬁnance. Green bonds have become a signiﬁcant op�on for businesses looking to raise cash for large-scale investment. Accountancy ﬁrm PwC deﬁnes the instruments in this way: “Green bonds raise funds for new and exis�ng projects which deliver environmental beneﬁts, and a more sustainable economy. ‘Green’ can include renewable energy, sustainable resource use, conserva�on, clean transporta�on and adapta�on to climate change.” Green bonds represent a route already being adopted by ﬁsh farmers and feed companies. Grieg Seafood recently successfully extended a large unsecured green bond from NOK 1bn to NOK 1.5 bn (£127m). The company told the Oslo Stock Exchange the addi�onal NOK 500bn (£42.5bn) will be used to ﬁnance environment-related projects. The issue will mature in June 2025. Grieg says sustainable farming prac�ces are the founda�on of its opera�ons. The company adds: “The lowest possible environmental impact and the best possible ﬁsh welfare drive economic proﬁtability. “Towards 2025, we aim for global growth, cost leadership in each region and to evolve from a pure salmon supplier to an innova�on partner for selected customers.” CEO Andreas Kvame said: “We farm the ocean responsibly and with as li�le impact as possible. Every day we strive to reduce our footprint and farm in co-existence with nature and wild species.” FF
AKVA group – Advertorial
Investing in a diesel-electric hybrid system for feed barges means major savings
dvancements in technology can bring about exci�ng innova�ons that can change the gold standard in various industries. Advancements in ba�ery technology are expected to make an impact in many areas, aquaculture being one of them, and AKVA group want to ensure that no one misses out. AKVA group’s hybrid solu�on can be ﬁ�ed on to new barges and retroﬁ�ed to older barges to reduce produc�on costs and emissions. The beneﬁts of running hybrid technology on feeding barges range from reducing CO2 emissions to reduc�ons in noise pollu�on. Diesel generators running idle are a very ineﬃcient way of producing electricity. Nevertheless, this is the reality on most feed barges today. Even though the power demand is low for much of the day, the main generator is running, and only a small amount of its capacity is being used. This means that most of the diesel consump�on is wasted, and both the crew and the local environment are being exposed to noise and emissions that could easily have been avoided. A hybrid energy solu�on on the feed barge will rely on ba�ery power throughout most of the day, using diesel generators to recharge the ba�eries only when necessary. For a feed barge in full opera�on, this means that diesel generators will be running up to four hours a day. They are automa�cally switched on when required and the operator can easily keep track of energy management from a tablet or smartphone. The reduc�on in the use of diesel generators also leads to big reduc�ons in running costs. With a hybrid solu�on, you will reduce diesel consump�on by 70–80%. An approximate calcula�on predicts that you will recover the investment in a ba�ery pack in two ﬁsh stocking cycles , depending on site usage pa�ern. Akva group’s smart system u�lising Tesvolt with Samsung technology is warran�ed for 6000 charging cycles. The expected opera�onal life is around 20 years, so the return on investment will be signiﬁcant. On feed barges that
AKVA Group - PED.indd 53
can accommodate solar panels or access a shore connec�on the poten�al gain is even bigger, both ﬁnancially and environmentally. The ba�ery packs will be charged by oﬀpeak power or from solar cells when the weather permits, and from generators when necessary. This will all take place seamlessly without any interference from the operator. In principle every barge is retroﬁ�able which means that there is huge amount of both savings and reduced emissions that can be realized. The AKVA group solu�on is turnkey. No eﬀort is required from the customer before installa�on. The process starts with an assessment in which we analyse the opera�onal energy use case at the loca�on. Based on this, we specify whether a small, medium, or large hybrid solu�on is the op�mum choice. We also calculate the poten�al savings from conver�ng to hybrid opera�on, from which we can predict the payback period for the investment. Approximately 12 weeks a�er the comple�on of signing a contract the system can be set up and running, reducing both emissions and costs. If you would like more information, please contact Donald Fowler at firstname.lastname@example.org FF
In “ principle
every barge is retroﬁ�able
Top: AKVA group barge opera�on a fully hybrid system. These systems can also be retro ﬁ�ed on to older barges. Above: AKVA group hybrid cabinet’s also let you track your energy use to show the diﬀerence the system is making.
Boats and barges
ahead The working vessels of the future are set to be larger, quieter and greener
n January of this year the biggest wellboat yet constructed was launched at the Seﬁne Shipyard, in Turkey. The Gåsø Høvding is 83.2 metres long and 30.9 metres wide, with a total well volume of 7,500 cubic metres. It was commissioned for Norwegian shipping operator Frøy Group and designed by Møre Mari�me, using technology from Cﬂow. The Gåsø Høvding, which is equipped to transport large volumes of ﬁsh as well as carrying out delousing, is indica�ve of one trend in the vessels being built to service aquaculture: size. Farm units themselves are becoming ever more ambi�ous in terms of volume, and the vessels that serve them have had to follow suit. But size is not the only factor that is changing in today’s boats and barges. Another is func�on. AquaShip UK’s Aqua Solundoy arrived in Shetland earlier this month following a major reﬁt in Norway. The former wellboat has been converted to a dedicated harvest vessel capable of harves�ng ﬁsh on site at a
INTRO Boats and Barges.indd 54
farm, rather than requiring the stock to be transported to a land-based facility. Alan Bourhill, General Manager at AquaShip UK, says: “We have been championing the use of onsite harves�ng for some �me, and the concept has been progressively developed over �me with regards to the capacity and design. There are significant, well-established beneﬁts to onsite harves�ng compared with live transport of ﬁsh. Over the last 12-18 months the concept and use of onsite harves�ng has really gained momentum in Norway and we’re seeing growth in other markets too.” AquaShip UK operates seven onsite harves�ng
Top: Gaso Hovding shipyard Above left: The Aqua Solundoy Above: Sco�sh Sea Farms Spelve Farm Manager Alan Tangny Right: Unst Flugga Boat Far right: Aqua Solundoy at farm
Full steam ahead
“It’s a step change in standards”
vessels in UK waters and through a group company, GripShip SPA now has two systems in use on vessels in Chile. AquaShip was created In July 2018, when Shetland based Johnson Marine Ltd, and Norwegian wellboat operator GripShip AS merged to form a new world class company with the express inten�on of crea�ng an innova�on-led global shipping company in the mari�me aqua service sector. On the Aqua Solundoy there is a fully enclosed processing unit on board the vessel, with stunning and bleeding technology. The harvest system was designed and fabricated by AquaShip UK, in Shetland where the company employs a team of 13 engineers and fabricators. The extensive reﬁt included ﬁ�ng a shelter deck to house the harvest system, plus new generators and compressors, control systems, new live ﬁsh and vaccum pumps and hygiene systems such as ozone for disinfec�ng holds and pipework. Bourhill says: “It’s a step change in standards. The capacity and technology on the Aqua Solundoy will mean reduced �me at the cage and, most importantly, delivers the highest standards of welfare, quality and safety.” AquaShip operates vessels for Cooke Aquaculture in Orkney and Shetland. The Aqua Solundoy u�lises electrical backup stunning as well as the primary percussive stun and bleed machines, to guarantee welfare standards and the conﬁdence of stakeholders. The industry has also had to adjust to Covid-19 condi�ons. Every vessel needs an anchor – not to men�on chains and shackles – and Saxton Marine Supplies is oﬀering a video consulta�on service to help customers select and order these essen�als, without any obliga�on Another change taking place in the mari�me world is being driven by new regula�ons on emissions from the Interna�onal Mari�me Organisa�on (IMO). As from January 2021, IMO Tier III regula�ons for commercial vessels with diesel engines came into force. These apply to vessels with a total power of more than 130 kW, whose keel laying date came a�er 1 January 2021. The regula�ons limit emissions from diesel engines on vessels built from this year onwards. They will need cleaner diesel engines, and a�er-treatment systems to minimise nitrogen, sulphur oxide and par�culate ma�er emissions. Throughout the past year, many shipbuilders have ensured that the vessels they are building are capable of being retroﬁ�ed with the emissions-abatement technology needed to comply with the IMO rules. This has certainly been the policy of Neptune Marine, based in the
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INTRO Boats and Barges.indd 55
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Boats and barges
Netherlands, which builds a wide range of boats from dredgers to tugs and workboats, including vessels speciﬁcally designed for the aquaculture industry. Neptune applied many years’ experience developing EuroCarriers and delousing barges, to develop the EuroSupporter series, an all-round support vessel for the aquaculture industry. With free deck space that is remarkable for vessels of this length, these workboats oﬀer excep�onal value for their size when it comes to their ability to house equipment such as delousing installa�ons or operate as working pla�orms for mooring opera�ons or maintenance of ﬁsh farms. The EuroSupporter series delivers comfortable facili�es onboard, whilst minimizing harm to the well-being of ﬁsh. Importantly, the EuroSupporter series can be made IMO Tier III compliant. This not only meets the IMO’s criteria and reduces emissions, but also results in eﬃcient opera�ons. Fuel eﬃciency was also a key considera�on for Shetland-based Flugga Boats, which recently built six workboats for Grieg Seafood. The boats – which are made of aluminium with a high density polyethylene (HDPE) collar – are ﬁ�ed with OXE diesel outboard engines, which combine economy with reliability and endurance. The OXE outboards not only save on fuel but extend endurance. Shipbuilders and operators are increasingly looking at alterna�ves such as electric boats or electric/diesel hybrids. Torﬁnn Hansvik, Technical Manager with Moen Marin, notes that interest in this is gathering pace. Hansvik says: “The demand is signiﬁcantly rising. In 2019 we delivered two vessels, 2020 we also delivered two, while in 2021 we will probably deliver six vessels. That is approximately 20% of our annual produc�on. The number of requests from the market are also signiﬁcantly increasing, so for sure we will deliver more and more electric and hybrid boats in the coming years.” Is it all about customers ‘going green’? Hansvik says: “A lot of them are choosing this to reduce their carbon footprint, and to achieve a be�er work environment for their staﬀ with reduced noise, vibra�on and exhaust gases. It means a completely diﬀerent everyday life for the people onboard. The reduc�on of fuel cost and maintenance cost is a posi�ve contribu�on on top of that.” Sco�sh Sea Farms is also pilo�ng an innova�ve hybrid power system aboard one of its feed barges, drama�cally reducing fuel consump�on, carbon emissions and opera�ng costs. Designed, built and monitored by Aqua Power Technologies, the hybrid concept has been shown to oﬀset 32,408kg in carbon since the pilot began in September, comparable to the weight of a standard fuel tanker of 32,000 litres. The barge is based at SSF’s Spelve site. The results, a�er just four months, have been “fantas�c”, achieving cost
INTRO Boats and Barges.indd 56
savings as well as environmental beneﬁts, according to Spelve Farm Manager Alan Tangny. He said: “We used to be ﬁlling our diesel tank at least once a week and now we’re probably ge�ng four �mes longer between ﬁlls.” The hybrid system switches between diesel and ba�ery power, using the former only at �mes of highest demand and running on the ba�eries the rest of the �me. Hybrid technology is now established for road vehicles, but SSF believes this is the ﬁrst �me it has been deployed at a salmon farm. All-electric boats are certainly on the horizon, but we’re likely to see this ﬁrst for smaller workboats which require a shorter range. Moen Marin’s Hansvik says that, for now at least, his company recommends that even electric boats carry a small generator for emergencies and longer trips, such as when the boats have to go a yard for maintenance. AquaShip’s Alan Bourhill concludes: “At AquaShip we are driven by our ESG [environmental, social and governance] policies and ambi�ons. There is a trend to look at these op�ons, as for electric vehicles generally. “It is a process – these vessels are huge investments and have a long lifespan, so as older vessels are phased out, alterna�ves like hybrid power will become a growing feature.” FF
Top: NC1512 ELECTRIC Montasje Lofoten Above: Moen Marin NabWork 1250 electric
For sure, we will deliver more and “more electric and hybrid boats in the coming years ”
Strong and sustainable
Flugga Boats - Advertorial
lugga Boats, based in Shetland, has focused on sustainability, safety and useability to create workboats that are efﬁcient and practical. The company has built six boats for Grieg Seafood, four with a forward cabin and two with an open aft cuddy. The boats use OXE diesel outboards which are remarkably fuel-efﬁcient. Farm operators rate the workboats highly for their safety, seakeeping and comfort. They are also pleased with the boats’ versatility and low maintenance costs. The rib-like workboats make use of an innovative design. Made of aluminium with a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) collar – which is ﬂexible but highly durable – they have a very low cost throughout the life of the boat. The efﬁciency of the OXE outboard also contributes to this. The boats are currently on target to do about 1,000 hours per annum against a viability standard based on 800 hours. The six newbuilds are capable of maximum speeds in excess of 30 knots and a cruising speed of 25 knots, helping to make them light on fuel consumption. The boats are supplied fully coded and operational on delivery. All have Raymarine electronics and Cat 3 safety equipment. Cabin boats are even equipped with engine-run heaters, which are very welcome in winter weather. The team at Flugga are conﬁdent that their customers are increasingly looking at sustainability and environmental impact when it comes to choosing workboats, and this includes the manufacturing process itself. Flugga Boats has its own wind turbine which can power the whole workshop most days, as Shetland is rarely short of wind! www.ﬂuggaboats.co.uk
Customers are increasingly looking at sustainability and environmental impact
Above: The twin engine cabin boat. Right: Single engine open cuddy.
ALL THE ADVANTAGES OF A RIB, JUST HARDER
Featured: 8.5m, aluminium and HDPE collar. Specifically designed for Salmon farm work, with heated cabin, twin Oxe diesel outboards. Coded MCA Cat 3 on delivery.
Built in Shetland and designed to withstand the harshest sea conditions, Flugga Boats utilise an HDPE collar and aluminium materials for strength, low maintenance and a long-life hull. Flugga Boats, Hagdale Industrial Estate, Baltasound, Unst, Shetland ZE2 9TW Tel: (+44)1957 711 881 Email:firstname.lastname@example.org www.fluggaboats.co.uk
Page 57.indd 57
OXE Marine – Advertorial
Power, durability and economy One company is changing the outboard market by lowering emissions and costs
ature is a force of its own, and to operate within it requires both trust in onboard crew, but also trust in the equipment used. More importantly, commercial users in aquaculture depend on their gear to ensure that they can perform their daily opera�ons. OXE Marine AB, are the innovators behind OXE Diesel, a diesel outboard developed speciﬁcally for commercial users. OXE Diesel combines the reliability and endurance of marine inboards with the ﬂexibility and agility of outboard engines. Today, the market for outboards consists of mostly gasoline-fuelled, pleasure cra� products, built for leisure use. Gasoline is a poor choice for the planet as it has low eﬃciency and in the non-regulated outboard market contributes to high emissions, but also for the crew as high fuel consump�on and spark-ignited engines result in a need for a high-volume fuel tank with highly explosive contents. The 100-year-old transmission technology with dog clutches and bevel gears, as used in most outboard designs today, wasn’t developed to endure the long hours, nor to transfer the amount of torque needed for commercial applica�ons. It is safe to say that equipment designed to endure only 350
OXE diesel outboards - PED.indd 58
hours, as stated by the CE standard, hardly lives up to the demands of a commercial user. Commercial users operate on a day-to-day basis no ma�er the condi�ons. The units are o�en run for more than 1,000 hours a year. The endurance of the unit in use is not the only issue, however. Eﬃciency, serviceability, and emission levels also play a huge part in the commercial user’s environment. The Uncompromised Solu�on The OXE Diesel outboard is built with commercial users in mind: those who require high durability, units that are easy to service and require minimal maintenance yet provide maximal range. By transforming the outboard motor, a new segment in the marine industry has been created, while also taking the industry further along the journey towards a more sustainable and ecologically posi�ve marine environment, without compro-
OXE Diesel drama�cally cuts opera�ng costs and greenhouse gas emissions
Power, durability and economy
endurance, reliability, and strength demanded from a commercial user, the bevel gears system, found in both outboard and stern drive solu�ons, has been replaced with a belt propulsor system. The dog clutch used mainly on outboard systems is subs�tuted with an electro-hydraulically operated gearbox, placed over the waterline. From a safety aspect, this allows for seamless engaging speed, trolling capability, and crash stop capability without risking gearbox failure, signiﬁcantly increasing crew safety. From the gearbox, a poly-chain carbon ﬁbre belt transfers the power directly to the propeller sha�, elimina�ng the need for a conven�onal bevel gear system. This patented, modular system delivers high eﬃciency, low fuel consump�on, and high torque, enabling increased func�onality for ﬁshing opera�ons, crew transporta�on, and other applica�ons. • Reduced fuel consump�on means more range and longer distances to be covered. • Increased power outlet (180 AMP) eliminates the need for a separate generator to power onboard equipment and the closed coolant system facilitates a hea�ng system withdrawal from the engines to the cabin which extends the endurance of the crew. • High torque means that more weight can be transported with minimal eﬀect on performance.
mising on reliability, endurance, power, or control. The reduced fuel consump�on of an OXE Diesel and the extended service intervals have shown that a commercial user, opera�ng in the United Kingdom and switching from a leisure outboard to OXE Diesel, saves an average of £20,000 per year. The powerful high torque delivery of the diesel engine manifests itself throughout the OXE Diesel engine series. Together with a robust transmission and interchangeable gear ra�os, it provides the users with reliable op�ons to use the engine both as a powerful workhorse and a high-speed solu�on.
Opposite (top) The OXE Diesel – Safer for people and planet. Opposite (below): OXE200 delivers 200hp and 415NM of torque, mee�ng the demands of users who require high-speed capacity, while maintaining durability and reliability. Top: OXE Diesel used in Search and Rescue applica�ons. Here shown on a Polarcirkel 685 open work boat. Left OXE Diesel combines the reliability of marine inboards with the ﬂexibility and agility of outboard engines.
Engineering the Future The OXE200 Diesel reduces fuel consump�on by more than 42%, CO2 emissions by more than 35.5%, harmful CO by more than 99.7%, and HC+NOx by up to 70%, compared to an average gasoline outboard. This not only makes the OXE Diesel environmentally favourable, but also allows its users to go more than 680% further on one tank. This means less down�me �me at the refuelling sta�on and more �me on the water. OXE Diesel models are also compliant with stringent environmental regula�ons like EPA Tier III, IMO Tier II, and RCD, a ﬁrst for outboard combus�on engines. By focusing on reducing complexity, environmental impacts, and fuel consump�on to increase serviceability, reliability, torque, and range, OXE Diesel drama�cally cuts opera�ng costs and greenhouse gas emissions, to the beneﬁt of people and the planet. www.oxe-diesel.com FF
The OXE Diesel The powerhead on the OXE Diesel is a robust solu�on adopted from the automo�ve industry. It has been horizontally mounted to reduce wear, all the while improving heat dissipa�on. The power is transferred to the gearbox through the primary transmission, which can be posi�oned in either a high speed or high torque se�ng. To increase the
OXE diesel outboards - PED.indd 59
– High comfort, practical solutions and good technical quality
A single-hull multifunctional service vessel for demanding jobs. Designed for use in various aquaculture operations, and for heavier operations. NabWork 2411 has great traction and good positioning ability. For a greener solution the NabWork 2411 can be delivered with electric hybrid propulsion.
Moen Marin AS.indd 60
NabWork 2411 with Skamik 1.5 mounted on board – A flexible, gentle and effective delousing solution!
SkaMik ensures good capacity, high efficiency and excellent fish welfare. A NabWork 2411 and SkaMik 1.5 combination gives you a delousing capacity of up to 150 tonnes per hour. The delousing system is mobile and can be dismantled the boat when not in delousing season. Then the boat can be used as a pure service vessel for demanding operations.
Efficient, high capacity, excellent fish welfare, low mortality, low energy consumption and in terms of economics – the solution is a winner.
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Cages, pens, nets and moorings
Net positives The aquaculture industry is beneﬁting from fresh thinking on containment BY ROBERT OUTRAM
hange is under way in the sector that supplies ﬁsh farmers with nets and cages, both in terms of technology and ownership. Earlier this month, for example, it was reported that Selstad, the Norwegian aquaculture equipment and services supplier, has acquired a majority share in W&J Knox of Scotland, its compe�tor. Both companies said they aimed to build an organisa�on with the right competencies to serve the global aquaculture industry, and vowed that secure employment of the workforce would con�nue to be a priority. W&J Knox is based in Kilbirnie, Ayrshire and supplies equipment and services to the aquaculture industry along with nets for camouﬂage, and sports and other industrial applica�ons.
INTRO Cages, Nets, Pens and Moorings.indd 62
Selstad is an interna�onal supplier of design, exper�se and equipment for aquaculture and the commercial ﬁshing industry. The company CEO, Hans Pe�er Selstad, said the alliance oﬀered several opportuni�es for the two companies and the industry. “We have known W&J Knox for over 20 years and consider their value proposi�on to the aquaculture industry to be very strong. In combining this with Norwegian knowledge and experience, we believe that we will see some
Above: The Neptune tank Right: Hans Pe�er
Selstad Far right: Loch Long
Net positives very good synergies.” Managing Director of W&J Knox, Dave Hutchens, said he saw the move as an important chapter in the history of the company: “We are looking forward to taking this business forward with the management of Selstad, adding to our por�olio of products as the integra�on process progresses. “For both employees and customers the announcement said the change in shareholding will be seamless, with the same Knox sales and produc�on staﬀ dealing with all enquiries and logis�cs.” Finlay Oman, Commercial Director at W & J Knox, said he was glad the companies have agreed to work together: “In an ever-challenging market, driven by acquisi�ons and venture capitalists, it is refreshing that eﬀec�vely two family-run companies are coming together and working with another family-run ﬁrm like Garware Technical Fibres in India to provide solu�ons for our customers into the future.” For Selstad, the acquisi�on is part of a global group strategy. Last year, the group obtained majority ownership in its Icelandic partner Isfell Ehf, making the group among the top ﬁve suppliers worldwide within its ﬁeld of exper�se. Marine supplies remains a compe��ve market and other players in this ﬁeld include Tom Morrow, Collins Nets, NetKem and Boris Net. For netmakers, the challenge is to supply nets that not only keep the seals in, but keep predators out. This is par�cularly important for sites aﬀected by seal preda�on. John Howard, Chief Execu�ve Oﬃcer with Boris Net, says the threat from seals has led to an increase in demand for kno�ed HDPE (high density polyethylene) nets. Tradi�onally the “knotless” kni�ed nylon net, manufactured on raschel machinery, was the norm for ﬁsh farmers in Scotland. As Howard explains: “Kno�ed nets are more labour intensive to manufacture and therefore more expensive.” Kno�ed nets have a rougher ﬁnish and seem to be be�er at deterring seals, but they can also cause damage to the ﬁsh if they swim up to the net. Howard notes: “That is less of a problem for larger pens because the ﬁsh are less likely to be up against the net. Smaller farmers tend to s�ck with nylon nets, which are easier to handle. Nylon can be an�-fouled, if required, whereas HDPE cannot. Also, HDPE tends to ﬂoat more
INTRO Cages, Nets, Pens and Moorings.indd 63
readily than nylon, which can also be a challenge for handling the nets. Boris Net can supply either, as the company manufactures knotless nylon nets in the UK and sources kno�ed HDPE nets from its partner organisa�on Fibras Industriales (FISA) in Peru. Salmon are also at risk of preda�on from above, and one recent project for Boris Net was the crea�on of a bird net light enough to go above a pen, but strong enough to resist or deter seabird a�acks. It was also a criterion that the net should be grey, so that the farm site did not stand out too starkly! Meanwhile, the Technical Standard for Sco�sh Finﬁsh Aquaculture, issued by Marine Scotland, is in the process of being updated. This sets the required standard for, among other things, pen and net design and construc�on, and moorings. The standard was last issued in 2015 but the Covid-19 pandemic has delayed the next version. Howard, who is on the working group, hopes this will come out later this year and expects that the revised standard will not be a problem for those operators and suppliers who have already adopted good working prac�ces. Open, closed or semi-closed? Increasingly, technology is providing alterna�ves to the tradi�onal netpen structures for ﬁsh farming at sea. Independent salmon farmer Loch Duart will be the ﬁrst in Scotland to install a new hybrid cage system designed to cope with the harshest condi�ons. The Trident™ Hybrid Steel Cage combines a tough steel cage with ﬂexible HDPE (high-density polyethylene) pipes to improve safety and stability. It has been developed in Bri�sh Columbia, Canada by Poseidon Ocean Systems, a full-service aquaculture engineering and support company. The bid was secured through Trimara Services, a Scotland-based global distributor of aquaculture systems, services, and products. The Trident system is designed to survive high-energy sites and is also customised to integrate farm opera�ons. For example, feed pipes and other supply lines can be recessed below the walkway, reducing trip hazards. The units are in the process of delivery and are expected to be ready for stocking in June. Increasingly, farmers and marine technology businesses are looking at alterna�ves to net-pen farms, in the form of closed and semi-closed cages. Research carried out at the University of Bergen (Growth performance and welfare of post-smolt reared in semi closed containment systems (S-CCS) – a comparative study by Tarald Kleppa Øvrebø, May 2020) suggests that post-smolts reared in closed and semi-closed cages achieved higher growth ﬁgures and a reduced level of biological issues, such as sea lice infesta�on. Such systems carry higher capital costs than net-pen farm infrastruc-
We “ believe
that we will see some very good synergies
Cages, pens, nets and moorings
ture, but should be less costly in terms of treatments and mortalities, not to mention potentially faster growth and therefore, enabling a quicker time to market. Loch Long Salmon (LLS) is a start-up salmon farming company, created and jointly owned by aquaculture supplier Trimara Services and Simply Blue Aquaculture, an arm of the blue economy developer Simply Blue Energy. The business is still going through a fundraising process, but aims to farm in Loch Long on Scotland’s west coast, using a semi-closed system to raise stock in a protected environment.. This, the company says, will not only protect the stock from biological threats such as sea lice, but also make it possible to collect the waste generated by the farm and turn it into valuable resource, either as fertiliser for agriculture or, using anaerobic digestion, to generate electricity. The system uses flow-through technology to ensure the environment for the fish has sufficient oxygen at all times. Other projects go even further, trialling completely closed systems that essentially apply the concepts of land-based fish farming, but applying the concept to sites at sea. It was reported in November that Mowi intends to seek permission for four potential sites in Scotland using closed tanks to grow post-smolts, following the final harvest from its farm at Loch Ewe.
INTRO Cages, Nets, Pens and Moorings.indd 64
The Neptune tank technology was developed by Aquafarm Equipment and has already been trialled successfully in Norway. The solid tank enables fish farmers to better control water inputs and outputs, thereby avoiding intake of potentially harmful phytoplankton and sea lice and eliminating unwanted interactions between farm-raised and wild fish. Measuring 40 metres in diameter, the Neptune tanks will grow salmon after their initial freshwater phase – from 120 to 800 grams – before ongrowing at sea pens. Implementation of a Neptune tank is estimated to reduce the duration of a salmon grown in net pens by eight months. The Aquafarm closed cages can contain one million fish of up to one kilogram each. The company says it has approached Wester Ross Area Salmon Fishery Board to discuss the potential for installation of one tank at Loch Ewe, and will soon approach stakeholders at other locations. Mowi will seek permissions for
Above: Trident system complete BC Canada Top right: FishGLOBE’s closed containment unit
the deployment of four tanks in Scotland. The proposal follows successful trials of the Neptune system in Norway for post-smolts. Aquafarm now says it is working to establish test facili�es for produc�on of both brood ﬁsh and market-ready ﬁsh.
The solid “ tank enables ﬁsh farmers to be�er control water inputs and outputs
Cages for ﬁsh treatment Also exploring the possibili�es of a wholly closed cage is FishGLOBE, whose system is designed both as a containment op�on to grow post-smolts and as an aid for health treatments, since the ﬁsh can be safely conﬁned. The FishGLOBE cage can be easily moved between loca�ons. FishGLOBE V5 was built in 2019 and is now in opera�on in the Lyse�ord, Norway. FishGLOBE has now started producing its second globe and hopes to complete construc�on this year. High oxygena�on during normal opera�on is not needed, the company says, since oxygen in the form of seawater is transported to the ﬁsh constantly. There is a pipe for waste water in the centre of the globe, and many water feed pipes. The feed pipes are placed with correct distance from the outer wall, to ensure op�mal ﬂow within the globe. These pipes are at the same �me girders that s�ﬀen the structure. FishGLOBE oﬀers treatment of ﬁsh in a closed system. Since the top is closed, it is possible to create an overpressure or underpressure within the globe, which gently moves ﬁsh in and out. It neither needs pumps nor physical components that ﬁsh can get in touch with. The ﬁsh will ﬂow freely through pipes and hoses in and out of the globe. The FishGLOBE solu�on is also designed for taking bath treatments such as hydrogen peroxide, as well as fresh water treatments. FIIZK also produces closed and semi-closed cages , including the Certus series of cages for post-smolts, and the Certus Harvest wai�ng cage for holding harvest ﬁsh with sea lice, bacterial or viral infec�ons. The company com-
INTRO Cages, Nets, Pens and Moorings.indd 65
pleted three new installa�ons of closed cages for ﬁsh farmers in Norway during 2020. The Certus 15000, FiiZK’s newest closed post-smolt cage, can hold up to 750 tons biomass. A heavy duty industrial PVC bag closes the produc�on volume. Four independent water intakes deliver 18.000m3/h of seawater into the cage. Oxygen is inserted directly into the intake water, securing a stable O2 level throughout produc�on. Waste is collected in the sludge-collector in the bo�om of the bag. The ﬁsh farm of the near future may have a very diﬀerent look from the containment systems typically used today. FF
FishGLOBE – Advertorial
All the advantages of land-based farming – at sea Here’s how to increase the production of your farm – and do it sustainably
he beneﬁts of closed containment for ﬁsh farming are well known. The risk of ﬁsh escaping is minimal, thanks to hard walls and double barriers, compared with the typical nets and pens used in aquaculture. Because water comes in through a deep inlet, the salmon are protected from sea lice, which swim nearer the surface. A closed cage also has less environmental impact because sedimental waste can be collected rather than allowing it to fall to the seabed. In addition to the points above, FishGLOBE’s closed containment unit has some unique features that separates it from other technologies. Sales Director Tor Magne Madsen says: “We have an easily movable unit, which can be moved from location to location within only a few days. This gives the farmers a unique ﬂexibility to produce super smolts in different sites within the same cage, instead of moving the ﬁsh. We deliver the ﬁsh with a gentle, unique and patented method by lifting the globe, without using pens or nets.” FishGLOBE has now started producing globe number two and we will have a brand-new globe producing premium, sustainable, environment-friendly post-smolts during the calendar year 2021. Even in the Top: The ﬁrst globe in opera�on in Lyse�orden close to Stavanger are now in it’s 3rd genera�on of premium post-smolt cycle. Left: With a patented gentle delivery the ﬁsh are delivered to a well boat with no pens or nets Right: The globe can easily be moved from loca�on to loca�on and now they are building a new one again.
Fishglobe - PED.indd 66
We are proving our “technology works every day ”
global pandemic, aquaculture clients in Norway, as well as in Scotland and Canada, are showing great interest in the technology. “We are proving our technology works every day. This shows that closed containment is not a technology for the future; it’s a 100% functional and commercial technology right now,” adds Madsen. www.FishGLOBE.no FF
Products and services
What’s NEW Monthly update on industry innovations and solutions from around the world Sail through 2021 with expert technical support EVER had a call from your crew letting you know that they don’t have the right shackle to go with the stud link chain you’ve ordered? Covid-19 places new challenges on technical and purchasing professionals, and Saxton Marine now offers a no-obligation video consultation to discuss your technical requirements safely and ensure your procurement process is as smooth as possible. Contact Saxton Marine to book a mutually convenient time slot. Tel: +44 (0)1446 781092 or +44 (0)7974 208 373 Email email@example.com
Aqua Terminator - the biting robot
SEALS and sea lions are constantly evolving and finding new ways to target salmon farms. It is imperative, to innovate continually, not only in products but also in application-focused testing solutions. Garware Technical Fibres Ltd has pushed the boundaries to make the industry’s first bite force robot. The biting robot is able to simulate bite forces of different predators such as sea lions, seals or dogfish. Not only can the robot simulate bites but it is also able to push and pull in the bite position, emulating the real life scenario. For enquiries contact: Mr. Finlay Oman | Mr. Kanwal Malik +44 7721 466604 | ﬁnlay.firstname.lastname@example.org +44 7799 531020 | kmalik@garwareﬁbres.com Innovative pond ventilation AIR Active’s OxyFlow is a versatile, adjustable water aerator which is compact, powerful and visually appealing. This floating pond aerator offers built-in, switchable LED lighting and easy handling for maximum comfort and flexibility. Axial propeller technology and optimised motor technology ensure high performance with economical energy consumption. The integrated control allows the motor power to be easily regulated. The OxyFlow is a fully ready-to-connect set for ventilation of aquaculture, fish ponds and recirculation systems. It is also suitable for golf and park facilities as well as many other applications. www.ﬁap.com
What's New - Mar 21.indd 67
Net beneﬁts for cleaner ﬁsh
FOLLOWING work with the staff at Loch Duart and Scottish Sea Farms, Boris Nets have delivered the first nets for a wrasse acclimatisation project. The nets are made in 2 x 2 metre cubes which have proved to be the ideal size and type to keep the stock comfortable and cut down on mortalities. A raised bad weather wash out panel can be fitted which prevents fish wash out and can also give further protection against birds. Also included in this project has been the development of cylindrical lantern-shaped nets, which will make the deployment and removal of the stock on and off site much easier and kinder on the fish. These have also now gone into full production. www.borisnet.co.uk
Specialist air products and solutions ONSHORE and offshore aquaculture applications depend on a reliable, quality supply of compressed air and low pressure air for a variety of equipment, systems and processes. Even a short period of downtime for critical equipment, causing an interruption to the air supply, can lead to major issues and potentially mass stock mortalities. A range of reliable KAESER air products are specifically designed and built to provide maximum durability in aquaculture environments and ensure optimum process reliability, minimising the risk of downtime. Kerr Compressor Engineers is the sole Scottish Authorised Distributor of KAESER HPC air products and an established and experienced supplier to the Scottish aquaculture community. www.kerr-compressors. com/aquaculture.php
European Aquaculture Society
Meeting of minds The AE2020 event will be online – and with a new emphasis on RAS farms
Vendors and “media partners
will have a dedicated place online
UiT The Arctic University of Norway/ Noﬁma, Norway.) Session topics for the three days of the main conference (13-15 April) include: • Circular economy; • Emerging species; • Hatchery practices; • Disease prevention and treatment; • IMTA and aquaponics; • Offshore aquaculture and multi-use; • Nutrition • Climate change; • Fish welfare; • Shellﬁsh; • Micro- and macro-algae; • Product quality • Selective breeding; and • Genomics.
quaculture Europe 2020 – originally planned as a face to face event in Cork, Ireland – will take place online from April 12-15, 2021. The basic format of the event will stay the same as ‘normal’ Aquaculture Europe meetings, with morning plenary sessions and then breakout parallel sessions for oral and Eposter presentations. The parallel sessions will be made up of shorter slots for pre-recorded video presentations of the oral presentations and with time allocated to review Eposters and for Q&A. This year’s event also features., for the ﬁrst time, a one-day RAS@ EAS Workshop on 12 April. The ﬁrst RAS@EAS event is entitled “Creating an Optimal Environment” and three panel discussions will address key questions related to this: Session 1: How do we best approach disinfection? (Moderated by Jaap van Rijn of The Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences in Eilat (IUI), Israel and with introductory presentation by Chris Good of The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute, USA.) Session 2: Where are we going with monitoring & autonomy? (Moderated by Øyvind Fylling-Jensen of Noﬁma, Norway and with introductory presentation by Bård Skjelstad of ScaleAQ, Norway.) Session 3: What are the most challenging interactions between ﬁsh & RAS environment? (Moderated by Damien Toner of Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), Ireland and with introductory presentation by Jelena Kolarevic of
EAS Preview.indd 68
From the top: Ecoﬁsk’s fully integrated salmon farm; Jelena Kolarevic; Øyvind Fylling Jensen
The event also includes the announcement and presentation of the EAS Student Spotlight Award. AE2020 ONLINE will also feature an e-Market, where vendors and media partners will have a dedicated place online to present their products, link to their website and have a chat-box to interact with attendees and set up meetings. Find out more at www.aquaeas.org/ Meeting/AE2020 FF
Industry DIARY The latest aquaculture events, conferences and courses MARCH 21 LATIN AMERICAN & CARIBBEAN AQUACULTURE 2021 (VIRTUAL EVENT) Guayaquil, Ecuador, March 22-25, 2021
APRIL 21 AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2021 (VIRTUAL EVENT)
Trondheim, Norway August 24-27, 2021
Barcelona, Spain September7-9, 2021
WORLD AQUACULTURE 2021
JUNE 21 WAS NORTH AMERICA & AQUACULTURE CANADA 2021 St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, September 26-29, 2021
(Previously, Cork, Ireland) April 12-15, 2021
Seawork is Europe’s leading commercial marine and workboat exhibition, providing businesses the opportunity to showcase their products and services to an international audience. Southampton, Mayflower Park, UK, 15-17 June, 2021 Visit www.seawork.com
Merida, Mexico November 15-19, 2021
SEAFOOD EXPO GLOBAL
Aquaculture Europe 2020 will now be an ONLINE event. The basic format of the event will stay the same as “normal” Aquaculture Europe meetings, with morning plenary sessions and then breakout parallel sessions for oral and Eposter presentations.
WORLD AQUACULTURE 2021
AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2021 Madeira, Portugal October 5-8, 2021
NOVEMBER 21 RASTECH CONFERENCE
RAStech 2021 is the venue for learning, networking and knowledge sharing on RAS technologies, design and implementation across the world.
The event will be held in Singapore this year with involvement from countries throughout the Asian-Pacific region and around the world. Aquaculture is growing rapidly in the region and therefore 2021 is the perfect time for the world aquaculture community to turn its focus here. Singapore December 5-8, 2021
AQUACULTURE AFRICA 2021 Alexandria, Egypt December 11-14, 2021
FEBRUARY 22 AQUACULTURE 2022 San Diego, California, USA February 27 - March 3, 2022
MAY 22 AQUACULTURE UK 2022
Hilton Head Island, SC, USA November 3-4, 2021
AQUACULTURE AMERICA 2021 This show will be the largest aquaculture trade show in the Western Hemisphere and one of the largest anywhere in the world with nearly 200 booths! This is your opportunity to inspect the latest in products and services for the aquaculture industry.
San Antonio,Texas, USA August 11-14, 2021
Industry Diary.indd 69
Aviemore will once again be the venue for this biennial trade fair and conference. It is undoubtedly the most important aquaculture exhibition held in the British Isles. The show has a tremendous following and with increased investment for 2022 it promises to reach even further across the broader aquaculture markets in both the UK and Europe.
Aviemore, United Kingdom May 3-5, 2022
15JUNE Southampton 172021 United Kingdom TO
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Aqua Source Directory.indd 73
Opinion – Inside track
The Old Man
and the Sea BY NICK JOY
uch is the title of a magnificent book by Ernest Hemingway. For those who haven’t read it, it details the story of an old man who catches a huge tuna, which is slowly eaten by sharks as he tries to get it home. It is a triumph of human endeavour – and a bit like the development of salmon farming since I did my training in Inverness in 1979. I am glad to say that we have had a considerably better outcome than the book. It is a bad idea to ask an old man to reminisce! Yet if the early days of this industry aren’t recorded somewhere, then no one will know quite how insane it all was. You would think the people who created the businesses would mostly be people who had a passion for fish but in fact the motive was more often financial. From retired army captains to pop stars, there were many idiosyncratic characters. One of the guys I worked for lost his extremely expensive Rolex on the pens and it sank over 20m into mud. The next day he hired a team of divers to try to find it, having been told by everyone it was a waste of time. It was, and expensive too. Most of the owners I knew in the early days understood very little of the sea and the risks involved in working with it Many of the people I worked with, not for, were ex-fishermen. Almost nobody had been trained in marine biology, let alone aquaculture. Murdo Maclean, who taught me how to repair nets and regaled me endlessly with stories, had been a whaler in his youth. I can’t say I had a longing to have followed in his footsteps! Working with characters like this made up for the deficiencies in the equipment we had to work in or on. Pens were made of wood and regularly broke. Many people from my era will remember dancing across bits of broken walkway or trying to lash them in a storm to stop the group breaking up. One group – which I did not moor – started to drift off in a huge easterly with three members of staff aboard. Luckily the anchors caught on a bar and the pens didn’t break up. We had already taken the guys off! Boats were extremely dodgy as nothing was designed for the industry, and nearly always carried too much. I was once crossing a bay in a northerly gale, driving an ex-army riveted assault craft, which leaked like a sieve and rattled as all of the rivets were worn loose. The half-ton of feed it carried was way too much and water was slopping over the bow. As I reached the middle of the bay, I became concerned that I might not make it to the pens. Having just completed one of the first safety at sea courses I stopped, stood up and raised my arms, giving the emergency signal as one should. It was very pleasing to note that everyone on the pens could see me, as they very kindly waved back, which was not entirely what I was looking for! Those who worked on the pens had to be multi-skilled. From mooring work to net mending or feeding to smolt transfer, every day was different. There was a level of fitness required. I remember a competition to see who could carry the most feed bags onto the pens from a barge. A guy from New Zealand won with nine 25kg bags.Yes, that is 225kg! I don’t decry the changes; in fact I am extremely glad of them. Salmon farming is infinitely safer and I hope that I contributed to some of the improvements in my time. It is also a matter of great pride to me that we
Nick Joy.indd 74
Pens were “ made of wood and regularly broke
never lost anyone though it did come close. In fact if it was not for the bravery of a number of people, the outcomes might have been very different. One chap, Duncan Grant, leapt into the water to rescue a colleague who had fallen into the water with an ice bin, which also knocked him out. If Duncan had not done what he did, one young man would not have survived. People like him made decisions that were selfless. So here I am after 40 years, the old man in the story. The tuna is landed and though not much remains, I have been lucky enough to live through these many years in an enthralling profession. I still love it and admire the many people who have joined it and continue to advance our skills and knowledge. We are still a young industry with a few rough spots to paper down but I have always believed that what we do is terribly important for the future of our species. If we do not learn to farm the seas, as we have learnt to farm the land, then we will fail to feed everyone. I have kids and grandkids and I would prefer that they had something to eat when I am long gone! FF
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