Fish F armer FEBRUARY 2021
Persuading the consumer to eat more seafood
The biological battle
KELP CAN HELP
The crop that eats up carbon
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his issue of Fish Farmer contains rather a lot of Brexit-related content! And unapologe�cally so, since the end of the Brexit transi�on period and the start of the UK’s new rela�onship with Europe are proving to have many implica�ons for seafood producers. In this magazine we hear from the Sco�sh Salmon Producers Organisa�on on the importance of reliable trade for its members, and Sandy Neil looks at how the ﬁrst few weeks of this year worked out for the sector, as exporters ba�led with fresh paperwork, IT glitches and the con�nuing challenges of the Covid-19 pandemic. Nicki Holmyard also gives a ﬁrst-hand account of what it’s been like for a shellﬁsh business trying to get product across the Channel in the face of what seem to be constantly shi�ing rules, or interpreta�ons of the rules. Unlike a pandemic, the post-Brexit diﬃcul�es arise out of human decisions and it is hard What’s happening in aq to avoid asking why we only had a joint taskforce on the issue after the event. That said, we in the UK and around th can but hope that the poli�cs around this issue does not get in the way of ﬁnding prac�cal What’s happening in aquacu solu�ons to these problems. in the UK and around the w Meanwhile, the February issue also focuses land-based ﬁsh farming and hatcheries. A JENNY –– EDITOR JENNY HJUL HJULon EDITOR huge amount of investment is going into this sector worldwide, and we take a look at what HJUL JENNY HJUL –– EDITOR EDITOR is driving the rush from the sea to JENNY the land. Steve Bracken SSC’s record results Stewart Graham The ﬁnal sessions This month’s topics also include the never-ending struggle to deal with the problem of sea lice; a new campaign to get more seafood on everyone’s menu; and seaweed’s advantages Steve Bracken SSC’s record results Stewart Graham The ﬁnal sessions salmon farming sector Scotland, when it was to as a crop that can help absorb carbon and, therefore, play itsthat part inin tackling climate change. he focus this month istopictures on Europe, the internati T HE is coincidence andwhere videos of unhealthy Sno Fish Farmer went press, there was sti lltold no oﬃ cialonal be thewere subject ofScotti a be parliamentary inquiry, embraced the industry willsent soon gathering the (European salmon to news outletsfor just asjoint the Scotti sh news from the shScotland, parliamentary inquiry into salmon farming sector in when itEAS was tosalmon he focus this month istopictures on Europe, the internati T HE is coincidence that andwhere videos of unhealthy Sno Fish Farmer went press, there was sti lltold no oﬃ cialonal opportunity this would provide to explain how it month. operated. Best wishes, Aquaculture Society) and WAS (World Aquaculture Society) parliament went back to work at the start of this These farming, conducted earlier this year by the Rural Economy be thewere subject ofScotti a be parliamentary inquiry, embraced industry willsent soon gathering the EASinto (European salmon to news outletsfor just asjoint the Scotti shthe news from the sh parliamentary inquiry salmon Current trends In good Julie Hesketh-Laird The industry had nothing to hide and, if given aof fair hearing, could Meet thehealth new chief exe Robert Outram conference, to be staged over ﬁ ve days in the southern French images had litt le to do with the current state Scotland’s ﬁ sh and Connecti vity (REC) committ ee. MSPs have now held ﬁ ve opportunity this would provide explain how it month. operated. Aquaculture Society) and WAS (World Aquaculture Society) parliament back to work atto the start of this These farming, went conducted earlier this year by the Rural Economy address much of the criti cism levelled against it. city of Montpellier. As well as highlighti ng the latest technological farms where sea lice levels are in decline and, in fact, at a ﬁ vemeeti ngs, in private, to consider their report and we must be Current trends In good Julie Hesketh-Laird The had to hide and, if given fair hearing, Meet thehealth new chief executiv conference, to benothing staged over days in theaof southern images had litt le to do with theﬁve current state Scotland’s ﬁcould sh and industry Connecti vity (REC) committ ee. MSPs have now heldFrench ﬁve Fish Farmer supported this but at times salmon advances in our fast moving sector, Aqua 2018felt willthat alsohas feature year low (htt p://scotti shsalmon.co.uk/monthly-sea-lice-reports). pati ent. However, waiti ng forview, their recommendati ons been address much of the criti cism levelled against it. city ofngs, As well asare highlighti ng the latest technological farms -Montpellier. where sea lice in decline and, inwe fact, at abe ﬁvemeeti in private, tolevels consider their report and must farmers were being drowned out bywhich theREC noisier elements offarming the sessions on emerging markets and look atinvolves the role ofthe ﬁshusual This latest propaganda campaign, all made harder by leaks from within to anti -salmon Fish Farmer supported this atthe times salmon advances in our fast moving sector, Aqua 2018felt willthat alsohas feature year low (htt p://scotti shsalmon.co.uk/monthly-sea-lice-reports). pati ent. However, waiti ng forview, theirbut recommendati ons been angling lobby, which had called foras the investi gatiRural on. But asngs the farming in alleviati ng poverty. Increasingly, industry meeti anti -aquaculture suspects, came Holyrood’s Economy acti vists. The latest of these (see our news story on page 4) farmers were being drowned out bywhich theREC noisier elements offarming the sessions onpropaganda emerging markets and look atinvolves the role ﬁshusual This campaign, allofthe madelatest harder by leaks from within the to anti -salmon sessions progressed, and eventually farmers’ voices were heard, are broadening their scope, tackling subjects such asthat thethe social and Connecti vity committ ee returned the summer recess we to makes grim reading for the industry asfrom itgati suggests committ ee angling lobby, which had called for the investi on. But as farming inThe alleviati ngof poverty. Increasingly, industry ngs anti -aquaculture suspects, came as Holyrood’s Rural Economy activists. latest these (see our news story onmeeti page 4) became more opti misti c. We now believe that MSPs, perhaps with acceptability of aquaculture and the contributi on it makes towe global consider its draft report into the future of salmon farming. members have been willing to listen to those campaigning to sessions progressed, and eventually farmers’ voices were heard, are broadening their scope, tackling subjects suchsummer asthat the committ social and Connecti vity committ ee returned the recess ee to makes grim reading for the industry asfrom it suggests Serving Worldwide Aquaculture Since 1977 food security and saving the planet, aindustry move that is toanti welcomed. the excepti on ofvaluable one or two Greens cahoots with -farming Those who want toWe shut down thein asbe shut down this sector, rather than to those who operate became more misti c. now believe that MSPs, perhaps with acceptability ofopti aquaculture and the contributi on ithave, makes toexpected, global consider its draft report into the future of salmon farming. members have been willing to listen to those campaigning to Also investi gati ngacti initi aties, veswhich inregard thenow developing world, Harrison campaigners, will, on balance, the industry in a Dr favourable stepped their viti involve the within it.up food security and saving the planet, aindustry move that is tobreaching welcomed. the excepti on ofvaluable one or two Greens cahoots with anti -farming Those who want shut down thein asbe expected, shut down this sector, rather thanthe tohave, those who operate Meet the team Charo Karisa ofto WorldFish writes about farming potenti al inthe Fish Farmer: Volume 44 Number 02and, light. They will hopefully see that farmers take their environmental biosecure environments of farm sites to snatch photographs in Of course, such stories may be inaccurate in any case, Also investi gati ngacti initi aties, veswhich inregard thenow developing world, Harrison campaigners, will, on balance, the industry in a Dr favourable stepped viti involve breaching the within it.up their Editorial Advisory Board: Nigeria, both in catf ish and tilapia culti vati on. responsibiliti es seriously and that businesses will only ever invest in the hope of ﬁ nding incriminati ng evidence against farmers. One committ ee’s ﬁ ndings are not binding. Scotland’s ﬁ sh farmers Contact us Charo Karisa ofhopefully WorldFish writes about thesnatch farming potenti al inthe light. They will see that farmers take their environmental biosecure environments of farm sites to photographs ingame Of course, such stories may be inaccurate and, inof any case, Steve Bracken, Hervé Migaud, Jim Treasurer, In Scotland, the summer has been something aofwaiti ngminister, Phil Thomas What’s in a name? Dr Nick Lake growth that isﬁbeen sustainable. Tel: +44(0) 131 551 1000 campaigner lmed himself searching, unsuccessfully, for dead have always fortunate to have the support their Nigeria, both in catf ish and ti lapia culti vati on. responsibiliti seriously that will only ever invest the hope of ﬁes incriminati ng businesses evidence against farmers. Onein committ ee’s ﬁnding ndings areand not binding. Scotland’s ﬁsh farmers Chris Mitchell, Jason Cleaversmith while the parliament is in recess and the members of Holyrood’s Fax: +44(0) 131 551 7901 If the ee members, those who have yet to of Phil ﬁ sh at acommitt Marine Harvest site.especially Another said saw ‘hundreds’ Fergus Ewing, to grow sustainably. In Scotland, the summer has something ofheaof waiti ngminister, game What’s in a name? Dr Nick Lake Thomas growth that isﬁbeen sustainable. campaigner lmed himself searching, unsuccessfully, for dead have always fortunate tobeen have the support their and Hamish Macdonell Rural Economy and Connecti vity committ ee conti nue to weigh up Email: routram@ﬁ shfarmermagazine.com visit aparliament salmon farm, would like tothe learn more about the subject of infested salmon in a pen, but we only have his word against that But it should not go unchallenged that some MSPs on REC while the is in recess and members of Holyrood’s If the committ ee members, especially those who have yetdon’t tothe ﬁ sh at a Marine Harvest site. Another said he saw ‘hundreds’ of Fergus Ewing, to grow sustainably. the evidence in their inquiry into salmon farming. We expect Editor: RobertRural Outram their weConnecti have plenty of goodee stories in our May Even and vity committ conti nue weigh up Head Oﬃ ce: Special Publica� ons, Fe� esto Park, of theinquiry, professional vets and biologists who manage theissue. welfare of committ ee, with their own against the growth of visit a Economy farm, like toagendas learn more about the ofthetime infested salmon in go awould but we only have his word against that Buttheir itsalmon should not unchallenged that some MSPs onsubject the REC report unti l pen, the autumn but hope the MSPs are using the bett er, they could head to the Highlands later this month, where 496 Ferry Road, Edinburgh, EH5 2DL the evidence in their inquiry into salmon farming. We don’t expect Designer: Andrew their Balahura these farms on a daily basis. industry, are in breach of Code of Conduct for MSPs. As they wefully have plenty of good stories in ourgrowth May toinquiry, become acquainted with the facts about ﬁthe shissue. farming. of the professional vets andagendas biologists who manage welfare of committ ee, with their own against the of theEven Montpellier report Dr Marti n Jaﬀ a Doug McLeod meet the aquaculture industry en masse at Scotland’s theirthey report unti l the autumn but hope the MSPs areas using theittiis, meit Ifthey the is proud of its high standards, itsalmon says are inwill aindustry positi on to inﬂthe uence the future course of farming, Commercial Manager: bett er, could head to Highlands later this month, where This month also sees the reti rement of Marine Harvest’s longest these farms on a daily basis. industry, are in breach of Code of Conduct for MSPs. As they Subscriptions to become fully acquainted with the facts about ﬁ sh farming. biggest ﬁ sh farming show. must mount aaquaculture much more robustWe defence oftrouble itself, through its and of businesses vital toBracken. Scotland’s economy, we have a right Janice Johnston Montpellier report Dr Marti n Jaﬀ a Doug McLeod they will meet the industry en masse Scotland’s serving employee, Steve had no Subscrip� ons Fish Farmer If the isto proud ofreti itsAddress: high standards, as itsalmon says itcollecti is, it ng are in aindustry positi on inﬂthe uence the future course ofat farming, This month also sees rement of Marine Harvest’s longest will certainly be at Aquaculture UK inindustry, Aviemore and look jjohnston@ﬁshfarmermagazine.com representati ve body, the SSPO, than itthe has done tothrough date. The toWe know who they are, and weons, hope its warm tributes from his friends and colleagues to mark the biggest ﬁ sh farming show. Magazine Subscrip� Warners Group must a much more robustWe defence itself, through its and ofmount businesses vital toBracken. Scotland’s economy, we have a right serving employee, Steve had noof trouble collecti ng forward toand, seeing many of you there too. campaigners, we now see, willrest stop nothing, representati ves, will pressure the parliament toand investi gate before Publisher: Alisterrepresentati Benne� milestone along with of the industry, thefarmers team We will certainly be at Aquaculture UK inat Aviemore and look Publica� ons plc, The Mal� ngs, vethey body, the SSPO, than itthe has done tothrough date. The to know who are, and wethe hope industry, its at Fish warm tributes from his friends and colleagues to mark the should be prepared toyou ﬁBourne ght back. the to REC report isStreet, published. Farmer wish him all the very best for the future. West forward seeing many of there too. campaigners, we now see, will stop at representati ves, will pressure the parliament toand investi gateatbefore Rising stars Marti nBrown Jaﬀ a Orkney anniversary Janet milestone and, along with the rest of thenothing, industry, thefarmers team Fish Lincolnshire PE10 9PH should be prepared to ﬁ ght back. the REC report is published. Farmer wish him all the very best for the future.
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Janet Machrihanish Orkney farm Marti nBrown Jaﬀ a visit Advisory Board: Steve Contact Tel: +44(0) us 131 551 1000 MeetEditorial the team Fax: +44(0) 131 551 7901 Bracken, Scott Landsburgh, Hervé Steve Bracken, Scott HervéLandsburgh, Migaud, Editorial Advisory Board: Steve Tel: +44(0) 131 551 1000 Migaud, PatrickJim Smith and Jim Hervé Patrick Smith, PatrickMigaud, Smith, Treasurer and Fax: email: +44(0) 131 551 7901 Bracken, Scott Landsburgh, Hervé 3 Steve Bracken, Scott HervéLandsburgh, Migaud, jhjul@ﬁ shupdate.com Treasurer, Wiliam Jim Treasurer and Dowds William Dowdsemail: William Dowds Marti nofJaﬀ a era Vaccines New player Dawn new Migaud, PatrickJim Smith and Jim Hervé Patrick Smith, PatrickMigaud, Smith, Treasurer and Editor: Jenny Hjul jhjul@ﬁ shupdate.com Treasurer, Wiliam Jim Treasurer and Dowds William Dowds William Dowds Head Oﬃce: Special Publications, Dawn Marti nofJaﬀ a era Vaccines New player new Designer: Andrew Balahura Fettes Park, 496 Ferry Road, Editor: Jenny Hjul Advertising Manager: Team Leader: HeadEdinburgh, Oﬃce: Special Publications, 10/02/2021 14:14:01 EH5 2DL Designer: Andrew Balahura
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Fish F armer In the February issue... News
What’s happening in the UK and around the world
Update from the processing sector
Eat Seafood Campaign
Anti-fouling and Disinfection
Solu�ons for a perennial problem
Who’s winning the war?
Landbased Farming and Hatcheries Why so much investment is going into the sector
Monthly update on industry innova�ons and solu�ons
Management, Monitoring & Analysis Scien�ﬁc services
All the latest aquaculture events, conferences and courses
Aqua Source Directory
52-55 57 58-59
Find all you need for the industry
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United Kingdom News
Live shellﬁsh exports face ‘indeﬁnite’ EU ban
UK shellﬁsh producers are reeling, following reports that EU rules restricting the import of live mussels, oysters and other shellﬁsh are set to continue indeﬁnitely.
Above: Fresh cockles
EUROPEAN regulations forbid the import of live bivalve molluscs “not ﬁt for consumption” from “third countries” – that is, countries outside the EU single market – unless they are either harvested from the cleanest “Class A” waters or have already been “depurated”, that is cleaned by being left to stand in saltwater tanks, prior to entering the EU. UK producers previously sent their shellﬁsh for depuration at large processing plants on the Continent, so facilities for depuration in the UK are extremely limited.The rules effectively ban many UK producers from exporting their product to their traditional markets in Europe. UK producers say they had been given assurances by the UK government that the situation was being addressed and that the regulations would be lifted on 21 April. News website Politics Home reported yesterday, however, that an EU ofﬁcial
UK News.indd 6
had written to industry representatives in January to conﬁrm that the shellﬁsh regulations are to stay in place. A spokesperson for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs explained: “Live bivalve molluscs such as oysters, mussels, clams, cockles and scallops can continue to be exported to the EU if they’re harvested from Class A waters or cleaned, or have cleared end product testing in the UK. “We will continue to raise the issue of live bivalve molluscs not ready for human consumption with the EU, to ensure the trade can continue securely.” Much of Scotland’s shellﬁsh production comes from waters that meet the criteria for Class A – deﬁned as 80% of sampled shellﬁsh
having less than 230 E.coli bacteria per 100g of ﬂesh and the remaining 20% recording less than 700 E.coli per 100g – but almost all of the waters around England and Wales are Class B at best, although this does vary by the seasons. Live exports of bivalves from traditional areas such as Devon and Morecambe Bay are therefore barred from the EU, placing many producers in serious jeopardy. David Jarrad, Chief Executive of the Shellﬁsh Association of Great Britain, said: “The most proliﬁc producing areas are Class B.” He added: “It’s a big problem! There are not the scale of depuration facilities in the UK. If we invested now it would take many months and serious money to construct such tanks, but that wouldn’t solve the issue alone and the product would then have to be promoted to a different market: retail rather than bulk.” Jarrad stressed that the industry had raised this issue repeatedly in the run-up to the end of the Brexit transition period. He told Fish Farmer: “We were originally told (by DEFRA in December) that only wild [stock] would be affected, until April 2021 when the Animal Health regulations would change and this would facilitate the resumption of trade.We are now told by the EU that all live bivalves… whether they be wild or farmed, are affected and cannot be traded.” The ban affects a range of mollusc species including mussels, oysters, clams, razor clams, cockles and scallops. DEFRA said: “We are seeking a solution that will enable the trade in undepurated LBMs [live bivalve molluscs] to resume securely.To minimise delays and disruption, it is necessary for exporters to provide accurate information and to understand the requirements for the goods being exported.” The government stresses that exporters should ensure they provide certifying ofﬁcers with the correct customs codes and descriptions for all goods included in the consignment and suggests that exporters check with trading partners whether the relevant EU Member State Border Control Post is able to accept their consignment. Above: David Jarrad
All the latest industry news from the UK
Export taskforce to tackle post-Brexit issues A joint taskforce has been set up to deal with post-Brexit problems for the Scottish seafood industry, but it has already been overshadowed by friction between the UK and Scottish governments over how to handle the issue. The group will be hosted by the Office of the Secretary of State for Scotland and chaired by UK Government Minister for Scotland, David Duguid. Industry representatives and representatives of the Scottish government Left: Taylor Calon, Right: David Duguid have been invited to attend. The Scottish Salmon ProducFollowing the end of the Brexit transition ers Organisation has expressed period, seafood businesses throughout the disappointment that the Scottish Seafood UK have experienced difficulties with the Exports taskforce is to be led by the UK paperwork now required for export to the government rather than, as the industry European Union, IT system glitches, and a had requested, as a joint initiative between shortage of environmental health officers the two governments. to sign off export health certificates. Tavish Scott, Chief Executive of the David Duguid said, announcing the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation, taskforce: “I am clear about the need for welcomed the announcement but noted: action. I want the taskforce to track the “We asked for this to be jointly led by export process to identify issues stopping Fergus Ewing, Scotland’s Rural Economy or delaying export, and areas of complexiSecretary and DEFRA. Unfortunately the ty that are not yet well understood. UK government has decided to chair the “We want to seek a common undertaskforce alone and through the Scotland standing on the export process and adOffice rather than DEFRA. dress concerns by developing solutions to “We have been asking for both govbe taken forward by the UK government, ernments to work together on the red Scottish government and EU.And we want tape, extra export costs we face every to ensure there is effective communication day and the uncertainty on delivery times with the industry to ensure traders are for fish into Europe.We are at a loss to aware of issues and of solutions.” understand why this taskforce is not a The new task force will meet fortnightly. joint effort, but nevertheless we will work The Secretary of State has written to constructively with our colleagues across Fergus Ewing MSP, Cabinet Secretary for seafood to offer export solutions which Rural Economy and Tourism at Holyrood, can help.”
inviting him and officials to take part in the inaugural meeting this week. The Scottish government has questioned reports that Westminster has provided extra resources to deal with the problems in Scotland, stressing that Food Standards Scotland has played the lead role in this regard and denying that the problems were due to lack of preparation by the Scottish government. Help for Scottish exporters is being provided by Seafood Scotland in the form of an experienced logistics manager, Taylor Calon, to provide on-site support at Boulogne-sur-Mer, as well as two new appointments based in Scotland, Alastair Kennedy and Steve Galloway. Funded through the Scottish Government and Scotland’s Food and Drink’s joint Recovery Plan, the team will work closely with companies to help them better understand the new business practices to export to the EU and Northern Ireland, including the customs and export certification processes. Meanwhile, the Scottish government’s new Seafood Producers Resilience Fund has opened for applications.The £6.45m scheme is aimed at fishers and small aquaculture businesses impacted by Covid-19 and Brexit.The fund is expected to benefit up to 1,000 vessels landing shellfish such as crab, lobster, langoustines and squid, and up to 75 aquaculture businesses that produce shellfish and table trout. Information on the scheme is available on the Scottish Government website.
Grieg rolls out new sales operation GRIEG Seafood’s new fully integrated sales and marketing organisation has become fully operational and will now be used to sell its Scottish and Canadian salmon, the company has announced. Norwegian salmon is expected to follow soon. The previous sales joint venture setup, known as Ocean Quality, has subsequently been dissolved. In November Grieg said it was carrying out a strategic review of its Shetland operations with a view to a sale, possibly later this year. The company’s chief commercial officer, Erik Holvik, described the move as an exciting new part of Grieg Seafood’s growth journey. He said: “Until now, we have been a pure supplier of farmed salmon from Norway, Scotland and Canada.Towards
UK News.indd 7
2025, we will reposition Grieg Seafood in the value chain and become a partner for selected customers in our main markets.” “Our own, fully integrated sales and market organisation is the first step in this direction,” he added. Ocean Quality North America, Ocean Quality UK and Ocean Quality USA became a part of Grieg Seafood’s new sales organisation at the start of this year. All employees in these companies have been transferred to Grieg Seafood and from now on they will supply customers under the Grieg Seafood name. Grieg Seafood said it is currently building a new Norwegian sales organisation from scratch, to sell the company’s home produced salmon. The first sales of Norwegian fish are estimated to start at the end of the first
Above: Erik Holvik
quarter. Until then, the sales company Sjór, previously the Norwegian arm of Ocean Quality, will sell Grieg Seafood’s salmon from Finnmark and Rogaland.
United Kingdom News
Aquaculture UK postponed until May 2022
BRITAIN’S biggest aquaculture exhibition and conference, Aquaculture UK, has been postponed for a year because of the continuing Covid-19 pandemic. The show, which was due to take place on 19-21 May, will be deferred to the new dates of 3-5 May 2022 at the Macdonald Resort in Aviemore, Scotland. Diversified Communications, which runs the event, said that the decision was taken after close monitoring of information from the government, as well as consultation with the aquaculture community. Event director Cheri Arvonio
said: “Although all the signs are positive for a restart of events from Easter, we feel running Aquaculture UK in May is too early. We want to give everyone the best possible chance for a great show, so it is important we have a clear run into the event. “We want to make the right decision for our community and having consulted with our exhibitors, visitors and partners, we’ve decided the best action to serve everyone is to postpone the show to its regular home in the show calendar year.” She added: “We’re disap-
pointed not to be able to bring everyone together as soon as we’d hoped. But we’re committed to delivering an event in 2022 that provides the community with the most effective opportunities for networking, education, and interaction – and we’re confident that the move to next May means we’ll be able to return with the best show possible.” Diversified will be offering a virtual sustainability seminar in the coming weeks to provide an opportunity for the industry to connect, and there are also plans to launch a newsletter for the industry.
Chef ambassador gains Michelin accolade
Above: Shaun Rankin harvesting at Wester Ross Salmon
A top chef who has championed the cause of Scottish salmon has been awarded a coveted Michelin star. Shaun Rankin’s restaurant – also called Shaun Rankin – at Grantley Hall, Ripon in Yorkshire serves only UK-sourced ingredients. Rankin has been working with the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation since last year, helping the SSPO better understand the priorities of the UK’s food service sector and working with the organisation to create exclusive recipes,
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which are due to be published this spring. He uses hand-reared, hand-fed Wester Ross Salmon as a key element in several of his celebrated dishes, and last year spent a day at the Wester Ross Salmon farm at Ardessie, near Ullapool. Rankin said: “Visiting the farm in the remote Scottish Highlands allowed me to see for myself the exceptional standards to which these fish are raised. For me good food is all about locality, it’s all about the people growing it and the passion they have for their product.” “Knowing exactly where my fish is coming from and personally meeting the farmers looking after them means that my customers know they’re getting the highest quality salmon, grown in the most responsible and sustainable way.” Gilpin Bradley, Managing Director at Wester Ross Salmon, said:“We are proud to be one of [Shaun’s] suppliers; his depth of knowledge about food is remarkable, it is a privilege to witness his artistry.We wish him, and his team, many more successes in the future and look forward to welcoming him back to the Highlands very soon.”
Sea Harvest’s Skye plan knocked back INDEPENDENT producer Organic Sea Harvest has failed in its bid to secure planning permission for a new site on the Isle of Skye. Highland Council’s North Planning Application Committee denied the request, for a fish farm at Balmaqueen in the north-east of the island, at its meeting earlier today following a motion carried by eight votes to six. Organic Sea Harvest (OSH) currently operates sites in Culnacnoc and Invertote, also in the North-East of Skye. The company says the site would have released investments at £4m, earmarked for salaries, equipment and stock. Consisting of 12 120-metre cages, the Balmaqueen site would have provided direct, full-time employment for seven farm employees and two boat workers, taking the direct work force to 21 fulltime employees. OSH spokesperson and founding Director, Alex MacInnes, said: “We are disappointed that the Highland Council have not granted approval for our Balmaqueen site plans. At OSH, we are committed to farming organically, creating a world-class product for a worldwide market and investing in the local community. This would have been a fantastic opportunity for us to support our local community as we continue our mission of becoming the world’s leading organic salmon farmer.” He added that the proposed site would have enabled OSH to supply customers year-round, helping to build the brand. The OSH directors are now considering whether to seek a review of the decision though the Local Review Body or appeal to the Scottish Ministers. It is the second planning setback for OSH, which in November had its appeal over a proposed farm in Flodigarry, also on Skye, turned down.
Above: OSH’s organic salmon
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Mowi Scotland marine sites achieve Tavish Scott takes up co-chair role at aquaculture industry group ‘stewardship’ status TAVISH Scott, Chief Executive of the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation, is to take up the role of Co-Chair at the Aquaculture Industry Leadership Group (AILG). The move follows the decision by Jim Gallagher, Managing Director with Scottish Sea Farms, to step down. Gallagher will continue as a member of the group. The AILG was established by the aquaculture sector in Scotland and is supported by Cabinet Secretary for Rural Economy and Tourism Fergus Ewing and brings together industry stakeholders including Government, regulators, aquaculture producers, customers and suppliers. It meets quarterly
and its remit is to help deliver the Aquaculture Growth to 2030 strategy. The other Co-Chair of the AILG, Stewart Graham, Managing Director of the Gael Force Group, will continue in his role. Tavish Scott said: “I am delighted to take on the responsibilities of Co-Chair and I wish to thank Jim for his dedication and contribution to the AILG over the course of his chairmanship. I thoroughly look forward to working closer with Stewart to further our sector’s interests as the UK’s number one food export while our economy emerges from the Covid-19 pandemic.”
Above: Mowi’s Ben Mofﬁt at Loch Linnhe
MOWI Scotland has achieved certiﬁcation from the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) for four seawater salmon farms, bringing its total of ASC certiﬁed farms to eight. Mowi’s seawater farms at Loch Linnhe, Gorsten, Marulaig Bay and Stulaigh join Loch Leven in achieving ASC certiﬁcation. The news follows the certiﬁcation, last year, of the company’s freshwater rearing sites. The ASC standards are a result of the Aquaculture Dialogues, initiated by WWF USA, and founded the development of veriﬁable environmental and social performance levels that measurably reduce or eliminate the key impacts of salmon farming. The ASC organisation works with scientists, conservation groups, NGOs, aquaculture producers, seafood processors, retail and foodservice companies and consumers to recognise and reward responsible aquaculture. All audits were conducted remotely because of the Covid-19 pandemic. The on-site inspections had to be done via video link, supported by documentation supplied by Mowi. Sam Clegg, Certiﬁcation Manager at Mowi Scotland, said: “I’m incredibly pleased that our hard work throughout 2020 is paying off and we are now able to see the ﬁrst wave of freshly certiﬁed ASC sites in Mowi Scotland. The ASC Salmon and Freshwater Trout standards are widely recognised as the most robust and far-reaching environmental and social standards for global aquaculture.” Mowi has said it aims to achieve 100% ASC certiﬁcation for all its sites around the world. More than 10% of Mowi Scotland’s total production is now from ASC accredited sites and the company hopes that this will increase to 30% over the next 12 to 18 months. Mowi Scotland is the ﬁrst aquaculture company in the UK to achieve this certiﬁcation.
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Above: Tavish Scott
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Producers in warning over seal predation have worked so diligently to maintain an SALMON farmers have sounded the alarm excellent containment record at the site. over predation attacks by seals following The incident was reported immediately to a major incident at a Skye-based farm in Marine Scotland and other stakeholders which 52,000 juvenile salmon were lost. and we are now working closely with the The Scottish Salmon Producers Organilocal fisheries trust to record any sightings sation (SSPO) says that from May 2019 to and recapture stock wherever possible. May 2020 more than half a million farmed “We take these matters extremely salmon in Scotland died as a result of seal seriously and have invested substantially in attacks, either directly from a physical measures to ensure containment and deal attack or indirectly from stress arising with predators like seals.” from being subjected to an attack. New Recent government actions have reduced regulations have also limited the action the methods available to fish farmers to farmers can take to control seal predation. Above: Scottish salmon killed in seal predation attack. (Photo: SSPO) manage predation, including ending of the In the year to May 2020, the SSPO said, use of lethal controls by farmers, a change seal attacks resulted in the death of around which came into effect in full at the end of January 2021. 560,000 farmed salmon, with a farm gate direct loss valued at Legislation in the US, drawn up to protect marine mammals, over £13m. is also set to restrict what types of acoustic deterrent devices The Skye attack, on 31 December, was at a farm based at (ADDs) in countries expoorting to the US. Portree and managed by The Scottish Salmon Company. The site The SSPO has called for Scotland’s salmon farmers to have full was due to have new “seal proof” netting technology installed by access to all available effective non-lethal measures if they are to the end of January. fulfil their statutory duty to protect their fish. A spokesperson for The Scottish Salmon Company said: “Our Tavish Scott, Chief Executive of the SSPO said:“Salmon farms Portree site has recently been subject to persistent attacks from a and seals can co-exist quite happily in the marine environment. large group of seals which, despite our best efforts, caused signifiSeals can, however, inflict vicious and widespread damage on cant damage to one of our nets. Our staff moved quickly to repair salmon farms, killing significant numbers of fish in each attack. this damage but unfortunately a number of fish escaped. In the 12 months to May 2020, Scottish salmon farming sector “The health and welfare of our stock is very important and no investment into preventing predator attacks was £8.4m. Investfarmers want to lose their stock. All the members of our team ment into new anti-predator nets accounted for £5.3m. at Portree are extremely disappointed, particularly given they
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Grieg takes stake in Årdal Aqua RAS project
Above: The Ardal Aqua facility
GRIEG Seafood is set to become the ﬁrst mainstream salmon producer to invest in a land based site that will grow salmon to market size. The joint venture in Western Norway will be called Årdal Aqua, and will produce 3,000 tonnes of post-smolt for restocking at conventional marine sites as well as up to 2,000 tonnes of market-sized salmon. Årdal Aqua is one-third owned by Grieg Seafood, one-third by the smolt and postsmolt company Vest Havbruk and one-third by the Stavanger-based investor group Omfar. CEO Andreas Kvame said: “We are working hard to improve biology and ﬁsh welfare, and to reduce our impact. “For a long time, we have invested in postsmolt, where we keep the ﬁsh longer on land before we release it into the sea, as an important part of the solution. He added: “With Årdal Aqua we will be able to develop this farming method further. We aim for all of our ﬁsh in Rogaland to spend less than one year in the sea.
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“Through our post-smolt investments we acquire competence on how to produce larger ﬁsh on land. Based on this knowledge, Årdal Aqua will also grow ﬁsh all the way to harvest size. “We will take a step-by-step approach, as we know how complex biology is.” The project is currently in the design development phase, and the company aims to start construction during the autumn of 2021. Kvame remains convinced that different farming technologies and methods will complement each other in the future. He said: “With continuous improvements that reduce the impact from our sea farms, something we work a lot on, farming in the seas will still be the main component of the industry going forward. “Land-based farming is, however, a great supplement, and we look forward to taking part in the development of this technology. What we know for sure is that the world will need a lot more healthy and nutritious food with the lowest possible impact.”
Land-based farms to feature in Norway’s aquaculture strategy NORWAY is planning to create a new aquaculture strategy that is likely to focus on the development of more land-based RAS fish farms. Fisheries and Seafood Minister Odd Emil Ingebrigtsen said that with the Norwegian economy currently in a restructuring phase, aquaculture is expected to become an even more important industry in future years. Launching the quest, Ingebrigtsen declared: “Our goal with this strategy is to increase value creation. If the industry is to continue to grow then it must be sustainable. “The strategy will, among other things, look at infrastructure, access to feed and digitisation, and the permit system is also an important issue.” He said the industry is undergoing rapid development with new technology making it possible to produce in larger volumes both further out to sea and on land. This is one area of progress where administration of the sector must keep up, he stressed. The strategy will also address how fish farming can contribute towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other negative environmental problems, along with improving animal welfare. “I do want a good dialogue with the industry and those organisations that work within it,” he added. The minister said in a later statement that he wanted to see more fjord fish farming carried out in closed facilities in order to protect the environment. He added: “This is something that is forcing itself forward in any event.” Although salmon is one of the healthiest foods people can eat, buyers of salmon and trout were increasingly demanding documentary proof to sustainability, Ingebrigtsen said. He indicated he is looking at a new incentive scheme which would make it easier for this goal to be achieved. It is hoped to publish details of the new strategy before the end of the summer. He said aquaculture is one of the country’s most important activities, creating jobs and helping to feed an ever increasing world population with Above: Odd Emil healthy food. Ingebrigtsen
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World’s largest wellboat launches in Turkey
Above: The Gåsø Høvding
THE Gåsø Høvding, the world’s largest wellboat, has been launched at Turkey’s Seﬁne shipyard. The new vessel is 83.2 metres long and 30.9 metres wide. The boat was commissioned for Norwegian shipping operator Frøy Group and designed by Møre Maritime, using technology from Cﬂow. Einride Wingan, project manager at Frøy, said: “It is a good feeling to ﬁnally get ‘Høvdingen’ at sea. The
collaboration with shipyards and subcontractors has been good. In such projects, one always encounters some challenges, but they have been solved along the way.” Gåsø Høvding has a total well volume of 7,500 cubic metres. The wellboat is equipped with systems for sorting and removal of all types of cleaning ﬁsh, freshwater treatment with reuse, 12-line hydrolicers and an advanced and automated hygiene system.
Despite the challenges posed by the pandemic, Frøy staff worked with the shipyard in Turkey over the past year while the vessel was under construction. The group’s Operations Director, Oddleif Wigdahl, said: “There are currently no well boats to compare with. Gåsø Høvding takes the wellboat industry one step further.” Frøy has ﬁve more wellboats under construction, four of which are expected to be completed in 2021.
Alltech Coppens appoints Ronald Faber as global aquaculture lead INTERNATIONAL aquafeed group Alltech Coppens has appointed Ronald Faber as its CEO and global aquaculture lead. Faber will be based at the Alltech Coppens Aqua Centre, in the Netherlands. He has had a long career in the veterinary and aquafeed business, and joined Coppens International in 1998. He worked for the company in Europe and Thailand. Coppens was acquired by Alltech in 2016. Dr Mark Lyons, president and CEO of Alltech, said: “Alltech has significantly scaled its global aquaculture footprint in recent years. Aquaculture continues to be the fastest growing protein sector, and there are abundant opportunities for us to provide a greater level of support to producers as they seek to develop... sustainably.” Ronald Faber said: “Through continued collaboration and commitment to innovative research, our global aquaculture team is well equipped to provide our customers with a level of support and expertise that is unrivalled in our industry.” Above: Ronald Faber
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Campaigner died trying to save family pet KURT Oddekalv, the environmental campaigner who became a thorn in the side of Norway’s aquaculture industry, died in January after falling through ice, apparently while trying to save his daughter’s dog. The accident happened while he was walking on a frozen lake near his home south of the city of Bergen. The family said on Facebook that he was being accompanied by the family dog, Kompis, which belonged to one of his daughters. The dog had somehow got under the ice and Oddekalv attempted to save the animal, getting into trouble in the process. The emergency services were alerted following reports that a man had fallen into what appears to have been an ice floe. Police discovered what they first thought was an unconscious man in the water and brought back onto land, but he was declared dead by an accompanying ambulance crew. He was identified as 63-year-old Kurt Oddekalv, the popular but often controversial activist. He had been a prominent figure in the environmental movement for more than 40 years. Oddekalv broke away from the Nature
Above Kurt Oddekalv in 2010 Photo: Trondheim Havn
Conservation Association in 1993 and founded the Norwegian Environmental Protection Association, setting his sights against the country’s fish farming companies. He also directed his firepower at the energy sector. Sometimes using TV interviews abroad, he
Guðmundsson chosen to head Hábrún
Above Einar Guðmundsson
A former fishing skipper has landed a key senior management post at one of Iceland’s leading aquaculture companies. Forty-year-old Einar Guðmundsson takes over as managing director of Hábrún efh which operates rainbow trout farming in Skutulsfjörður and fish processing at its base in Hnífsdalur, a small community near the Westfjords town of Isafjord. Although the two seafood producing operations are gradually moving closer together, it is still unusual for someone from a strong conventional fishing background to switch over to fish farming. But at a relatively young age, he
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has built up considerable business experience in a number of areas. Raised in the nearby town of Bolungarvík, he holds a degree in electrical engineering and exchange management. Guðmundsson has worked as a seine net boat skipper for the last 10 years as well as running a fishing company with his family in nearby Bolungarvík. He sits on the board of Fiskmarkaður Vestjarði (Westfjords Fish Market) and was chairman of the port board of Bolungarvík for four years. He has also served on Hábrún’s board for the past two years. Hábrún’s rainbow trout farming dates back to 2013, but there was a significant increase in production in 2017. However, the farming is based on decades of experience of sea trout farming at Ísafjarðardjúp. Hábrún currently has a permit for 700 tonnes of rainbow trout farming, but has also applied for a permit from the Planning Agency for a significant expansion to further strengthen the company’s base. Despite the challenges presented by the coronavirus pandemic, sales remain strong, the company says.
fiercely criticised its use of certain chemicals to tackle salmon lice and demanded that all fish farms should be enclosed and built on land. Just a week or two before his death he went on Russian TV to take a swipe at the industry, describing it as “toxic”. In 2011 he deposited a foul smelling sludge around the conference centre in Trondheim staging the big industry trade fair Aqua Nor. The stench spread throughout the entire building. Oddekalv later threatened to adopt the same tactics against the Storting, Norway’s parliament, if it did not take action. However, his claims were always firmly rejected by the salmon companies as either untrue or over the top. Tributes have been paid to Kurt Oddekalv by politicians on both the left and right. Norway’s centre-right prime minister Erna Solberg described his commitment as tireless and genuine, adding: “He was controversial, but there is no doubt the environmental movement has lost a clear voice.” His children have also paid tribute to their father on social media, saying they had lost a beloved father and pledged to continue with his campaigns.
Skretting Italy rolls out carbon certification for feed SKRETTING Italy has become the first aquafeed producer to have the carbon footprint of its portfolio independently certified. Skretting’s Carbon Footprint Systematic Approach has been certified under ISO 14067:2018, the international standard that covers the quantification and reporting of the carbon footprint – the carbon emitted into the atmosphere from the entire production chain – of a product. Skretting Italy is now in a position, the company says, to provide certified carbon footprint figures on any of the aquaculture feed products in its portfolio.This should help fish farmers to calculate their own carbon footprint and understand ways in which it can be reduced. The certification was conducted by Norway-based risk management and assurance group DNV GL, and covers the entire production process, from raw material procurement, through formulation, and to final product despatch through the factory gates. Umberto Luzzana, Marketing Manager at Skretting Italy, said:“We have entered a critical phase of climate recovery.Through carbon neutrality, fish farmers in Italy and beyond have the opportunity to become part of the solution as climate leaders.They can accelerate progress by making these bold but essential commitments to our planet’s health and wellbeing, while at the same time establishing a platform that will enable them to increase revenues, reduce costs and risks, and engage many more consumers.” Skretting plans to roll the certification programme out on a global basis as part of its action plan for sustainability. Skretting Italy launched a carbon-neutral aquaculture feed, Feed4Future, in 2020, which is produced with 10% lower CO2 emissions.The remaining emissions are offset by carbon credits.
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Stofnfiskur rebrands as Benchmark Genetics Iceland BENCHMARK’S Iceland arm, StofnFiskur hf, is changing its name as part of the parent company’s “single brand” strategy. Stofnﬁskur will now be known as Benchmark Genetics Iceland hf and the change has been backdated to 19 January. StofnFiskur still remains the brand to be used for the Atlantic salmon breeding programme and strain operated by the Icelandic company, Benchmark said. Jonas Jonasson, CEO of Benchmark Genetics Iceland, added: “This move is a part of Benchmark’s strategy in building a strong uniﬁed brand across companies and business areas”. Benchmark Genetics has operations located in the southwest corner of Iceland, including two separate broodstock facilities, an incubation centre and a family production unit. The new Head Ofﬁce is located in Hafnarfjordur, next to the capital Reykjavik. In addition to Atlantic salmon, Benchmark Genetics Iceland also holds a facility for lumpﬁsh juveniles. Although the company’s legal name has changed, the enterprise registration number, company structure and ownership remain the same.
Photo: Benchmark Gene�cs
Skretting and Proteon team up to ﬁght harmful bacteria
FEED giant Skretting is working with Polish-based Proteon Pharmaceuticals to develop aquafeed solutions that will help protect fish from harmful bacteria. The strategic partnership involves collaboration on finding ways to use “phages”, commonly occurring viruses that attack bacteria. The two companies will work in a parallel R&D pipeline on the project, first targeting pathogenic Vibrio bacteria which represents a threat to fish health. In the initial phases of the project, Skretting will isolate the most prevalent specific strains of bacteria, while Proteon will determine the most effective complementary groups of phages. Skretting Aquaculture Research
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Centre (ARC) researchers will then examine the efficacy of the phages during challenge trials. The project is expected to take four to five years. Proteon Pharmaceuticals has been developing phage-based products for more than 10 years. Jarosław Dastych, the company’s CEO, said: “Phages are a part of the natural microecosystem. Each phage targets specific bacteria in order to keep the healthy balance in nature. They have been known for over 100 years, however, using phage technology for aquaculture is an exciting development. I am convinced that phage-based products will have a positive impact on sustainable and environmentally friendly aquaculture.” Truls Dahl, Business Developer at Skretting, said: “Having alternatives to antibiotics to support the health of fish and shrimp is a very exciting part of the development. Vaccines, antibiotics and indeed phage technologies have been around for a long time, but the use of phages is still quite new for aquaculture.”
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SalMar picks Krüger Kaldnes for Tjuin hatchery NORWEGIAN salmon giant SalMar is teaming up with recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) specialist Krüger Kaldnes to build what will be the world’s biggest smolt hatchery. The Tjuin land-based hatchery in Malm, Norway, will have a total area of 17,000 square metres and is due to start construction in May of this year. Construction business Consto is also collaborating on the project. Krüger Kaldnes and SalMar have previously worked together on the Follafoss I and Follafoss II onshore smolt hatcheries. Kent Kongsdal Rasmussen, CEO of Krüger Kaldnes, said: “I am both proud and grateful that Krüger Kaldnes was chosen to be a supplier in the Tjuin project, along with Consto. As a company, we have spent recent years improving our competence within the areas of technology, innovation, biological science, project management – in addition to developing our personnel… the fact that SalMar has chosen us to be a supplier in the Tjuin project is confirmation that we have succeeded in strengthening our company in several important areas.” Krüger Kaldnes, based in Norway, is a part of the water technology multinational Veolia. It provides a range of solutions and technologies to the aquaculture industry, including biological water treatment using the AnoxKaldnes™ MBBR process and solids removal using Hydrotech Drum filters.
Bakkafrost commissions all-electric workboat
THE Faroese salmon farming company Bakkafrost has commissioned a fully electric workboat as part of its mission to reduce the group’s carbon footprint. The groundbreaking contract with the MEST shipyard, which is also based on the Faroe Islands, was signed at Bakkafrost’s
headquarters at Glyvrar. The winning concept is a catamaran workboat solely based on electric power from batteries, said the Faroese Environment Agency, which was responsible for the tender process. It can be charged up when power is at its maximum sustainable level. The tender competition was
organised as part of a larger project by The Nordic Council of Ministers and the government of the Faroe Islands. The purpose was to find power solutions to remote areas of the Faroe Islands which has to produce and use its own green power solutions – and which is not a part of the European power supply system. Regin Jacobsen, CEO of the environmentally conscious aquaculture company, which also owns the Scottish Salmon Company, said he was pleased with the outcome. He added: “At Bakkafrost we have a goal
to reduce our GHG [greenhouse gas] emissions by 50% by 2030. We continuously set ourselves ambitious goals regarding our environmental impact, and thus we are continuously looking for visionary projects that contribute to the green transition. “With this project we hope to inspire and provide important knowledge to the industry. Ships and boats play an important role in the Faroe Islands, and it is also in this sector that we find the biggest potential to reduce the overall Faroese GHG-emissions. We hope that this project will inspire the industry to begin the green transition of the maritime sector” The vessel will be delivered by the end of the year.
Norway has recorded its first major confirmed case of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) for 2021. The outbreak has been reported at a facility run by the family firm of Emilsen Fisk at Namsos in the Trøndelag region. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority said suspicions were first raised during clinical tests taken by the company in mid-January. Follow up samples were taken for further testing and, as a result, ISA has been positively confirmed. In order to limit the spread of the infection, the usual restrictions have been imposed at the site including a ban on the movement of fish without a special permit. The salmon in the infected cages will be slaughtered, a necessary move which always results in a costly legacy for businesses affected by ISA.
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Norway’s fish farmers suffered a worryingly high number of ISA outbreaks last year and an investigation into possible causes is currently under way. The confirmation will be a setback for Emilsen Fisk, one of the lesser known salmon farmers outside Norway, but which prides itself on quality. The Emilsen family have a strong connection to the sea, hailing from a traditional fishing background. They went into salmon farming in 1975 when the industry globally was still largely in its infancy. The company says it has the financial strength to cope with the loss, stating: “We at Emilsen Fisk AS have always focused on sensible and future-oriented operations, where excess capital has been invested back into the company. “ “The investments have led to us now being a state-of-the-art company that is well equipped in both ups and downs.”
Photo: © faroephoto.com
ISA outbreak reported in Norway
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January sees fall in Norwegian seafood exports THE value of Norwegian seafood exports dropped by 16% last month, with salmon taking the biggest hit. Figures from the Norwegian Seafood Council show that the country’s fish farmers and fishing vessel owners earned NOK 8.1bn (£689m) during January. Salmon exports totalled 95,600 tonnes, a volume increase of 11%, but the revenue was down by 23 per cent or NOK 1.5bn to NOK 5.2bn (£442m). Tom-Jorgen Gangs, director of market insight at the Seafood Council, said the overall decline was primarily due to a significant drop in the export value of salmon. Norway exported seafood worth NOK 8.1bn in January.This represents a decrease of NOK 1.6bn, or 16%, compared with the same month last year. Gangs pointed to various forms of lockdown and the closure or partial closure of restaurants in many countries as a key factor. He added: “In sum, this means lower demand for a number of the most important seafood products from Norway. A small bright spot compared to the previous closure in 2020 is that in many markets it seems that the fish counters in the grocery chains have remained open.” The average price of fresh whole salmon last month was NOK 48.79 per kilo, against NOK 75.53 in January last year.The largest markets for
Photo: © faroephoto.com
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Heavy Duty and COMFORTABLE NEW ISOMAX
Above The new workboat
a 15 tonne hydraulic winch. Ólavur Asafsson Olsen, managing director and CEO of KJ, said “From day one, our catamarans have been very popular in the Faroese fish farming industry. Now, we are building catamaran number 59. “Most of our catamarans have been sold to fish farmers in the Faroe Islands, but the good reputation of the Faroese salmon industry has inspired fish farmers from abroad to take a good look at boats and other equipment used by the Faroese industry. As a result, we have exported 20% of our work boats to Orkney, Shetland and Iceland, respectively.” Arctic Fish is one of Iceland’s bigger salmon oroducers, and is 50% owned by Norway Royal Salmon. In January, Arctic Fish confirmed that it is looking to list on Oslo’s Euronext stock market around Easter time.
Catamaran workboat delivered to Arctic Fish ICELANDIC salmon farmer Arctic Fish has taken delivery of its first workboat from Faroese boatbuilder KJ. The vessel, Tannanes, is a KJ 1500-800 model and will be located on the Westfjords of Iceland. Tannanes is the sixth catamaran bult by KJ for an Icelandic customer. It is fitted with two Iveco Cursor C9-380 marine engines, a Palfinger PK50002 crane, a soundproof 115 kWa generator, two 1.2 tonne capstans, a three tonne capstan and
shown a “positive development” in recent months, with the price for fresh whole trout up 8% during January. Fresh cod sales totalled 4,000 tonnes and were worth NOK 182m (£15m), down by 34% in volume and 44% in value. Bad weather affecting the fishing grounds was the main factor behind the drop. Frozen cod fared better, charting an increase of 35% in volume to 6,900 tonnes and value up by 12% to NOK 262m (£22m), with the UK, China and Lithuania the main markets. Exports of shrimp (prawns) fell by 3% in volume and 11% in value.
Norwegian salmon are Poland, which is home to a large processing sector, along with France and the United States. Sweden was the largest growth market with Swedish consumers anxious to refill their fridges and freezers after the Christmas celebrations. Seafood Council analyst Paul T. Amdahl said that despite the fall in revenue, prices had remained relatively stable since August, and were up slightly last month compared with the December figure. Exports of farmed trout also took a big hit last month falling in volume by 32% to 3,800 tonnes and by 38% in value to NOK 218m (£18.5m). However, Amdahl said that trout prices had
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Cooke invests in Nova Scotia hatchery
COOKE Aquaculture is planning to invest almost CAN $60m dollars building a new salmon hatchery in Canada’s Nova Scotia province. Notice of the proposal from Cooke was posted by the Nova Scotia Government in January. The facility will be at Centreville on the 20-mile long Digby Neck peninsular, and about three hours’ drive from the provincial capital Halifax. The national broadcaster CBC. ca says the land based hatchery will be able to produce three million salmon a year, supplying Cooke’s 13 ﬁsh farms in the province. The total investment is thought to be around CAN $58.6m. Known as a post-smolt hatchery, the environmentally friendly facility will be able to grow ﬁsh for longer on land and release them larger into the ocean, reducing time at sea where they are more susceptible to disease and weather. Normally ﬁsh are grown to 125 grammes at hatcheries but these salmon would be around 500
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grammes before release. “Growing them larger allows them to be larger and stronger and more healthy when they’re in the ocean,” Cooke spokesperson Joel Richardson told CBC News. Digby County warden Linda Gregory told CBC News: “I feel so good about it. It’s land-based. It’s jobs. It’s generating work for years.” The company said the project was not dependent on receiving approval from the provincial Aquaculture Review Board for a major expansion at Liverpool Bay in Nova Scotia where it has applied to add 46 pens and increase capacity to 1.8 million salmon. Nova Scotia claims to be Canada’s largest seafood exporter, accounting for more than 27% of the nation’s total overseas ﬁsh and shellﬁsh sales. Although an attractive location popular with summer tourists, Digby Neck and the surrounding area has lost much of its traditional ﬁshing economy over the years, so the Cooke plan is likely to be welcomed by most locals.
Soy producers take a stand against deforestation THREE of Brazil’s leading soybean producers have agreed to put in place a 100% deforestation-free soy value chain. The move means that virtually all the soy supplied to the salmon farming industry as feed will be from sustainable sources. The three producers – CJ Selecta, Caramuru and Imcopa/ Cerverjaria Petropoli – have worked with the sustainability certification organisation ProTerra, and WWF Brazil, to develop a robust monitoring, reporting and verification system. It is expected that the three companies will be 100% deforestation-free by August 2020. The aquafeed industry has welcomed the move, which means that the whole of the European salmon farming sector and the vast majority of the global salmon industry will be sourcing its soy feed from suppliers that have banned soy from deforested areas. Morten Holdorff Møjbæk, Global Sourcing Director, BioMar Group, said at the launch: “Today’s announcement is a testament to over a decade of collaboration and shows the result of establishing longterm commitments with Brazilian soy farmers. It also demonstrates the strength of the BioMar supplier approval program (SAAT) and how working together to find solutions can result in systemic change. We hope all supply chains will be inspired to move in this direction of transparency to ensure an open and traceable aquaculture industry.” Maurício Voivodic, Executive Director WWF Brazil, said: “We see this voluntary sector-wide commitment as a benchmark to inspire other global animal protein sectors, as well as other markets linked to the soy supply chain. We celebrate together this relevant private sector led process for the protection of the unique Brazilian Cerrado.” The pledge marks the first time an industry group has voluntarily taken action against deforestation in soybean farming. Aquaculture feed only accounts for less that 0.5% of total soy production, and the pressure is now on other animal feed sectors to follow suit. Ida Breckan Claudi, Rainforest Foundation Norway, Senior Adviser, said: “The Brazilian soy suppliers and the Norwegian salmon industry show true leadership and set the new bar for sustainable supply chains. This historic commitment by their Brazilian soy suppliers will be a game changer for global supply chains. Global pork, poultry and beef producers are lagging behind, by still allowing deforestation in their supply chain. To stop being complicit... the meat industry must follow suit and require their suppliers to become fully deforestation-free.”
All the latest industry news from around the world
Atlantic Sapphire set for expansion GAA appoints Brian Perkins as COO ATLANTIC Sapphire has announced it is to scale up the second phase of its “Miami Bluehouse” salmon production at its Florida land-based farm. The move will increase annual production from 15,000 tonnes gutted weight to 25,000 tonnes. The company said the ﬁrst ﬁsh are expected to be stocked into the new ﬁrst phase facility by 2022, followed by increased harvest volumes 12 months later. It announced: “Phase 2 will be integrated with phase 1 production, as the ﬁsh will hatch and grow to smolt size in the existing phase 1 smolt facility, then be transferred to phase 2 for the mid-cycle stage (0.3 - 3.0kg) before ﬁnally being moved into the existing phase 1 grow-out tanks for the last stage of its life cycle.This is advantageous, as the existing phase 1 has sufﬁcient smolt, harvesting and ﬁlleting capacity to support the full 25,000 tonnes (heads on gutted weight). “Further, increased smolt production while phase 2 is being constructed allows for rapid utilization of the new phase 2 capacity, decreasing construction completion to harvest ramp-up by approximately 10 months.” Farm Credit – a US-based co-operative of independent lending institutions and Norwegian bank DNB are providing loan ﬁnance for the expansion. Chairman Johan E.Andreassen, said:“For Atlantic Sapphire, it is important to work with banks that truly understand the business of producing sustainable, high-quality proteins, and we believe there is no better team of industry experts than DNB and Farm Credit to partner with us on that mission.” He added: “The company’s existing US $150m credit facility has been increased to US $200m, which is comprised of a fully-drawn US $50m term loan, a US $ 20m revolving credit facility and a US $ 32m committed term loan for phase 2 capital expenditures with a US $98m uncommitted accordion facility on the same terms and conditions as the company’s committed term loans.” Earlier this year, it was reported that the company had applied to list on the US OTCQX stock market.
Construction starts on Proximar’s Mount Fuji project ISRAELI company AquaMaof Aquaculture Technologies has started work on Proximar Seafood’s land-based salmon farm in Japan. AquaMaof worked with Proximar on the design of the facility, which will include a hatchery, nursery, and full grow-out areas, as well as management, operational and processing zones.The farm will make use of RAS (recirculating aquaculture systems) technology and will be located near Japan’s iconic Mount Fuji. The announcement follows an initial public offering (IPO) by Proximar on Oslo’s Euronext market, which followed a private placement exercise in January. David Hazut, CEO of AquaMaof, said: “We would like to congratulate the Proximar team on a successful IPO.We are pleased and honoured to kick-off the construction stage and to continue to support
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the Proximar team on their visionary mission.” The Proximar project is the latest of several projects currently under development by AquaMaof in Canada, Japan, Russia, Germany, France, Chile, US and more, with a combined capacity of more than 65,000 tonnes. AquaMaof’s technology is aimed at sustainability, with water-recycling techniques producing minimum discharge and requiring low power consumption.The company also says that its RAS process does not require antibiotics or chemicals. Proximar’s facility is expected to produce its ﬁrst harvest of salmon in 2024.
Above: The new facility
Above: Brian Perkins
THE Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) has announced the appointment of Brian Perkins as Chief Operating Ofﬁcer. Perkins comes to GAA with more than 40 years’ seafood experience in the certiﬁcation space as well as in managing events and media. For the past six years, he has acted as Regional Director, Americas for the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), the world’s leading wild ﬁsheries certiﬁcation programme. Previously,
he headed seafood expositions and publications at Diversiﬁed Communications, which runs some of the industry’s biggest trade events. Over the course of 2021, GAA will be merging its operations with its sister organisation Global Seafood Assurances, which oversees standards in wild ﬁshing. The GAA also manages Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP), the leading third-party aquaculture certiﬁcation programme. GAA CEO Wally Stevens said: “The seafood community thrives on trusted personal relationships cultivated and tested over time. It beneﬁts not only when individuals do well by their company, but equally when those individuals contribute to the greater good through their involvement in pre-competitive activities. Brian Perkins’ career is an example of the attributes we look for in all our associates, and I am personally delighted that he will be joining us as our COO.”
Russian Aquaculture to report reduced harvest for 2020 RUSSIAN Aquaculture, the country’s largest salmon farming business, experienced lower harvests and earnings in 2020, the company’s – as yet unaudited – operating results for last year show. But it says the main reason for the 8% decrease was not the coronavirus pandemic, but the shift in some fish slaughtering activity to this year due to slower fish growth to its marketable weight. The company blames abnormally low water temperatures during the first half of 2020. Harvest volumes (heads on gutted) totalled 15,500 tonnes, against 16,900 tonnes in 2019, all of which was sold. Revenues for last year came out at RUB (roubles) 8,346m or around £80.7m against RUB 8,798m (£85m), down by 5% on 2019. The Murmansk region, which shares the southern Barents Sea coastline with northern Norway, is Russian Aquaculture’s largest salmon farming area and accounted for 14,200 tonnes of the 2020 harvest total. The company said the average salmon selling price increased overall by 4% to RUB 538 (NOK 61.3) per kilo, which is higher than the average price its Norwegian neighbours were earning during much of last year. Russian Aquaculture’s activities also include the production of trout and some caviar on the lakes of the Republic of Karelia. The group currently owns cultivation rights for 37 sites for farming salmon and rainbow trout. The total potential production volume for these sites is around 50,000 tonnes of salmonids. Meanwhile, the Russian government has announced plans for a £3m salmon and trout broodstock facility in the Murmansk region as part of a huge general industrial and mining investment programme in the Arctic region.
Canadian firms take farms shutdown to court
Above: Brent Island
MOWI and Cermaq are taking the Canadian government to court over its decision to force the closure of salmon farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia. Mowi’s subsidiary, Mowi Canada West, has applied to the Federal Court of Canada in Vancouver for judicial review of the decisions made by Bernadette Jordan, Minister of Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard, in December 2020 regarding licenses for salmon farms in the Discovery Islands area. Mowi is asking the courts to ﬁnd the decisions unreasonable and to set them aside. Jordan’s decision prohibits the issuance of new or replacement aquaculture licences for aquaculture sites and prohibit any ﬁsh being transferred into aquacul-
ture sites within the Discovery Islands area.They are part of a policy decision by the minister to end net pen salmon farming in the Discovery Islands by June 30, 2022. The company said:“Approximately 13-15 Mowi farms are impacted.The exact number is not known as the minister has not provided a precise listing of the affected farms, nor any details or plans beyond her initial announcement. “The decisions and related timelines and lack of precision are unreasonable, and threaten the viability of all Mowi’s operations in British Columbia.” Cermaq, which also operates net pen farms in the area, has also applied for a judicial review of the decision.The company said: “Part of the
DFO [Department of Fisheries and Oceans] decision was that Cermaq would not be able to stock our sites in the Discovery Islands region with ﬁsh, although these sites would be licensed until 2022.This decision will have immediate and detrimental effects. Before those effects are felt by Cermaq, its employees, suppliers, and customers, Cermaq believes that time for engagement should be provided, which means allowing the stocking of the sites in this interim period.” The company points out that its three farms in the Discovery Islands region account for 20% of its Canadian operations, and also that plans to stock two of the sites are well under way already.The government’s decision therefore leaves those ﬁsh “in limbo”, Cermaq added. Cermaq has been careful to point out that its legal challenge applies to the DFO decision and stressed: “We respect the opinions and the rights of the First Nations in the Discovery Islands region… Cermaq’s goal is to allow time for engagement with the local First Nations to examine opportunities to achieve mutually beneﬁcial agreements.”
AquaBounty raises $127.1m in latest share issue AQUABOUNTY, the US-based salmon farmer, has raised a further $127.1m through the latest in a series of share issues.The company, which is looking to produce the ﬁrst commercially available genetically modiﬁed (GM) salmon, issued 13 million shares on the Nasdaq stock market, priced at $8.50 per share. The company has now raised in excess of $250m in share issues over the past two years. The capital raised will be used to cover construction costs for AquaBounty’s new RAS (recirculating aquaculture system) farm in Mayﬁeld, Kentucky, as well as sales and marketing, and research and development. The company’s AquAdvantage ﬁsh are Atlantic salmon that have had elements of Chinook salmon and ocean pout added to their genetic code, with the aim of achieving faster growth.All the salmon raised will be infertile females. AquaBounty’s previous fundraising round in December 2020, raised $65.2m before expenses. Although the company is already raising non-GM salmon at its ﬁrst farm near Albany, Indiana, it has yet to make a proﬁt.
BlueNalu raises cash for ‘cellular seafood’ A new type of cultured seafood may ﬁnd its way from the laboratory to dinner plates in the next year or two thanks to a $60m ﬁnancing deal yesterday, involving the pioneering US company BlueNalu. Based in San Diego, California, BlueNalu is a leader in the development of cellular aquaculture in which living cells are isolated from ﬁsh tissue, placed into culture media for proliferation, and then assembled into popular fresh and frozen seafood products. The arrangement involves both new and existing investors, including leading names in the seafood sector such as Thai Union. The ﬁnancing will enable BlueNalu to achieve several signiﬁcant milestones over
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the coming year, including opening a nearly 40,000 square foot pilot production facility, completing the US FDA regulatory review for its ﬁrst products, and initiating marketplace testing in a variety of foodservice establishments
Above: Lou Cooperhouse
throughout the United States. Lou Cooperhouse, BlueNalu’s CEO and president, said last night: “This recent ﬁnancing will allow us to continue advancing our mission and the next phase of our commercialization plans, while we continue to develop strategic partnerships that we expect will provide us with global market reach during the coming years.” BlueNalu plans to introduce a wide variety of cell-based seafood products from its pilot production facility in San Diego.The company anticipates starting with the launch of mahi mahi (a ray ﬁnned ﬁsh found in warmer waters) later this year, followed by the launch of a premium blueﬁn tuna thereafter. Chief Financial Ofﬁcer Amir Feder explained: “The global market for seafood is highly vulnerable today and is valued at an estimated $200bn.
“With strong investor support, our innovative and visionary management team demonstrates a clear value proposition, technology, IP, and a comprehensive regulatory strategy, all of which provide a solid foundation as we move closer to our in-market launch.” BlueNalu is currently establishing joint venture partnerships within key markets where it plans to operate. These partnerships are expected to enable them to navigate regulatory pathways, lower the cost of goods, introduce new species and new product forms, and inform their global market strategy. Previously, it announced ﬁve global strategic investment partners: Nutreco, based in the Netherlands; Pulmuone, based in South Korea; Sumitomo, based in Japan; and Grifﬁth Foods and Rich Products Corporation, based in the US.
All the latest industry news from around the world
Huon warns of likely earnings hit in 2021 AUSTRALIAN salmon farmer Huon Aquaculture has warned of a likely fall in earnings for 2021, despite increased production in the ﬁrst half of its ﬁnancial year. In a stock market statement, Huon said its sales volumes for H1 2021 were around 19,290 tonnes, consistent with its stated target of 36,000 tonnes or more for the full year. The company said, however, that increased production had meant its sales were increasingly weighted to the export market, with around 40% by volume being sold into the export spot market, where prices are ;lower than the domestic market in Australia. Relative to the ﬁrst six months of 2020, international salmon prices fell by around 40% compared with the ﬁrst half of 2020, Huon said.The company estimates that the average price for its ﬁsh will be 15% lower than for the same period in its 2020 ﬁnancial year. The price fall, together with increased freight costs and global economic uncertainty, have meant that Huon’s internal projections for earnings have been revised downwards and its expected EBITDA (operational earnings) are likely to be “substantially lower” than last year’s A$47.3m. Huon is also reducing its exposure to the Chinese market, following ongoing tensions between Australia and China, and focusing more on the US. Fish losses from two unrelated incidents are estimated to have cost the company A$1.8m. Combined with losses at Huon’s Ingleburn processing plant, which have been blamed on criminal conduct by employees, the book value of Huon’s inventory and gross margins has been estimated at A$2.1m lower than it would otherwise have been.
Quality chain available for fast worldwide delivery
Øen explains:“It has been a tough year for the hotel and restaurant segment with 200,000 restaurants [in the US] having to close their doors due to the pandemic. “This also means that US $200bn in food money has shifted, from the restaurant sector to the grocery sector. “When Americans cannot get seafood served outside, they have to cook it themselves at home.At the same time as there has been a brutal decline for the hotel and restaurant segment, we have seen a nice increase in sales of seafood in the grocery trade through 2020.” She adds:“When more food is prepared at home, it has also led to a change in products that are sold. For both salmon and cod, there has been a sharp increase in frozen ﬁllets, while sales of whole fresh ﬁsh have declined.” Øen also expects restaurants to continue to endure a tough time until the outbreak in the US is brought under control.The Seafood Council plans to focus on the US market with a special webcast on 8 March.
US seafood demand shifts from salmon to whitefish MUCH of the $200bn Americans used to spend in restaurants each year is now being transferred to the nation’s kitchens, new data from the Norwegian Seafood Council suggests.The trend appears to have favoured whiteﬁsh like cod and haddock, at the expense of salmon, although frozen salmon sales have held up. Anne-Kristine Øen, the Seafood Council’s US envoy, said sales of Norwegian seafood increased by 3% to NOK 7bn in 2020, the ﬁrst year of the pandemic. Volumes rose by 7% to 85,000 tonnes. Sales were down by 4% in volume, but the value remained the same at around NOK 5bn. The big winners were the country’s whiteﬁsh exporters. Sales of cod to the United States rose by 20% in volume and 22% in value, while haddock was up by 11% in volume and 16% in value. So why this movement? Salmon is found on the menus of most restaurants in one form or another, but coronavirus has severely curtailed the hospitality business.
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Processor Marel buys stake in Stranda Marel, the Iceland based fish and food processing supplier, has acquired a 40% stake in Stranda Prolog, the Norwegian supplier of salmon processing solutions.
MAREL, which already has a growing international reach, said that the transaction is in line with its strategic objective to be a full-line supplier of advanced food processing solutions, software and solutions to the fish, meat and poultry sectors. The move also brings Marel closer to becoming a full-line provider to the global salmon industry. The two compa-
nies already have long-standing relationships with many of the world’s largest salmon processors and have successfully collaborated over the years to deliver fullline projects, “…with Marel’s overarching Innova software enabling a seamless flow across all processing stages”. Marel added: “With their combined product portfolio, the two companies will be in
a stronger position to extend their customer reach through our global sales and service network and better service their existing and future customers. “In addition, the strategic partnership will provide a forum for further collaboration on sales, and R&D fully focused on developing innovative solutions for the salmon market, and on sharing know-how and best practices.” The transaction is in two parts - the acquisition of existing shares and the injection of new equity to support future growth opportunities through the development and launch of new innovative solutions. Gudbjorg Heida Gudmundsdottir, Executive Vice President of
Marel Fish, said: “We are excited to launch this strategic partnership with Stranda Prolog, an innovative provider of solutions for primary salmon processing. “Stranda Prolog’s superior knowledge of raw material handling and quality processing solutions is mirrored in their strong presence in the market.” Klaus Hoseth, CEO of Stranda Prolog, added: “We are proud to partner formally with Marel, who with their digital solutions and global reach in sales and services, share our vision to create innovative processing solutions for an increasingly global customer base in the fish industry. “We will continue to be recognised as Stranda Prolog to our
The strategic partnership will provide a forum for further collaboration on sales
Above: René T. Hansen
existing customers, but for new customers in new markets, we will be known as a strategic partner of Marel. Together, we remain fully committed to creating value for our customers through quality processing, with a focus on fish welfare and the responsible harvesting of farmed fish.”
Eurofrigo unveils plans for new coldstore LoGISTICS service provider Eurofrigo has started the construction of a new coldstore on the Maasvlakte development, near Rotterdam. The project is expected to be completed by the middle of this year. Eurofrigo focuses on the transport and storage of veterinary products from all over the world. The new coldstore is the company’s sixth location in the Netherlands. It is located opposite the existing Eurofrigo facility in the Above: Eurofrigo’s new coldstore Maasvlakte. added services) solutions. Because Jeroen Tempels, CEo of Eurofof its expertise and adaptability rigo, said: “We have chosen to Eurofrigo adopts a dynamic attitude expand our capacity in terms of to assist customers in VAS solutions checkpoints and storage, because and to offer itself as a strong supply we want to work more customchain partner for the longer term.” er-oriented and offer more flexibiliThe new coldstore will contain ty in inspections. In recent years we cells with different, individually have seen that customer demand is adjustable temperature zones, increasingly focused on VAS (value
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New managing director for Bettcher GmbH
and will form part of a complete logistics solution, including customs clearance, inspection and storage. Eurofrigo says that its checkpoint facility at the new coldstore will help address the new post-Brexit requirements for UK exporters, and will ensure a faster and more effective flow.
US company Bettcher Industries, which specialises in high-quality cutting tools for the meat, poultry and fish industries, has appointed René T. Hansen as new Managing Director of its European subsidiary, Bettcher GmbH, based in Dierikon, Switzerland. René T. Hansen has been with Bettcher Industries since July 2018, working as International Sales Manager for Bettcher GmbH. He has more than 30 years’ experience in the protein business. Prior to joining Bettcher, he worked as Product Manager at Nemco A/S for 13 years and before that, as Consultant at the Danish Meat Research Institute working internationally. Commenting on his new role René said: “The Bettcher team is a veteran organisation with a lot of experience, outstanding performance, showing strong leadership and a world class service. That together with the Bettcher sales model creates a strong business, well positioned for the future and I am excited to be a part of it.”
Baader acquires Sweden’s SEAC FOOD processing plant group BAADER has acquired SEAC AB, the Swedish ﬁsh processing manufacturer. The move con�nues BAADER’s drive to consolidate the sector. SEAC, based in Färjestaden on the Swedish island of Öland, is a leading supplier of ﬁsh-processing machinery for small pelagic ﬁsh species. It supplies a worldwide customer base. Robert Focke, Managing Director BAADER Fish, said: “Looking into the future and the compa�ble processing solu�ons of BAADER, the SEAC technology is a perfect ﬁt for BAADER to further extend our overall product por�olio also among small ﬁsh species.” Ulf Grönqvist, the owner of SEAC, will step down as CEO and hand over his responsibili�es to Vidar Breiteig, Managing Director of BAADER in Norway who will take on the addi�onal role of Managing Director at the acquired ﬁrm. Anders Lorentzen, Managing Director of BAADER in Denmark, will become Deputy Managing Director of SEAC, and Ulf Grönqvist will assist the transi�on, working as a consultant. Grönqvist said: “Having BAADER as a backbone will ensure con�nua�on and future extension of SEAC and its technology. It will oﬀer our customers both the certainty and conﬁdence needed for current and future investments.” SEAC will con�nue to operate as an independent en�ty under the SEAC brand with all SEAC employees remaining within their roles and responsibili�es, BAADER said, and the company has stressed that SEAC’s exis�ng customer and supplier arrangements will con�nue. In October last year, BAADER announced the acquisi�on of Icelandic compe�tor Skaginn 3X, and in November it announced it was se�ng up a subsidiary in France.
Petra Baader, Execu�ve Chairwoman of BAADER, said: “By acquiring SEAC, we are further concentra�ng our leading role as a provider of complete protein-processing solu�ons. The need to meet global food demand now and in the future drives us to con�nuously improve and advance our oﬀerings. Boos�ng the sale of SEAC processing solu�ons means ensuring that more small ﬁsh species will be available for high-quality human consump�on.”
Above: Vidar Breiteig (L) with Ulf Grönqvist
Slaughterhouses face listeria checks THE Norwegian Food Safety Authority is taking action to reduce the risk of listeria by carrying out a full inspection of all salmon slaughterhouses. Elisabeth Wilmann, director of Fish and Seafood at the authority said that since a lot of salmon is eaten without heat treatment and used in readyto-eat products such as sushi or smoked fish, it is important that processors have effective measures against listeria. Listeria monocytogenes can cause listeriosis. While most people do not get sick from the bacterium, the elderly, those with weakened immune systems and pregnant women are vulnerable, and in a few cases, it has been known to lead to death. Fish is not the only food that poses a risk, but two years ago there were a number of outbreaks in EU countries which were traced back to smoked, grated and marinated fish products that had come from processing plants in Poland and Estonia. However, some of the fish may have originated in Norway, it is believed. In 2019 there was also a listeria alert after the bacteria was found on
Norwegian salmon that had been exported to Singapore. Wilmann said it is because of this and demands for tighter inspection that the Food Safety Authority has decided to act. She said Norwegian salmon slaughterhouses were generally responsible and well aware of the risks posed by listeria. She added: “The Norwegian Food Safety Authority will examine the measures in slaughterhouses, including their sampling and routines for non-conformance treatment. “We will emphasise guidance. In addition, we will clarify the regulations and the responsibility of the slaughterhouse to prevent unsafe products from entering the market. “By obtaining a better overview of the status of Listeria in salmonids, we will be in a better position to contribute to the clarification of any future disease outbreaks.” The inspection campaign runs until September and a full report will be published towards the end of the year.
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Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation
BY HAMISH MACDONELL
The Brexit fallout So-called ‘teething problems’ with UK-EU trade mask the bigger issue of reliability
e thought we knew what it would look like. The queues of trucks would stretch back from Dover through the Kent countryside, massive lorry parks would be full and there would be scuﬄes between angry hauliers and the police. We did see these things but only before Christmas, a�er the French shut the border claiming that Covid-19 had forced them to take ac�on. Since the UK le� the Brexit transi�on phase on January 1, there have not been the logjams in Kent we had braced ourselves to expect. Opera�on Brock, which we fought so hard to make sure included the priori�sa�on of seafood consignments, has not been needed. Indeed, the traﬃc is ﬂowing reasonably smoothly through to Folkestone and the Channel ports. But this serenity on the surface is masking turbulence underneath. Just because we cannot see the queues, that doesn’t mean things have been going well, on the contrary, there have been problems – serious problems – and it is diﬃcult to envisage how they will be ﬁxed. That is because the biggest issue at stake here is not speed of delivery: it is reliability. This is a point we have been making repeatedly to government ministers. We hope it is ge�ng through but it may need to be drummed in even harder. Our members were used to ge�ng salmon to the main ﬁsh market in Boulogne-sur-Mer on a day-one-to-day-two schedule. Salmon could be harvested in the early hours of one day and be in Boulogne the next. But what was most important was that this delivery schedule was reliable. Our members could guarantee delivery on a set �metable. At the moment, that crucial reliability just is not there. There have been IT problems in France, system failures in the UK, confusion over documenta�on, hard copies not matching electronic versions and delays in Scotland because of the need to process thousands of new export health cer�ﬁcates. These issues don’t plague every consignment and most get resolved within a few hours but the eﬀect is the same – exports from the UK are not as reliable as they need to be. Our members have to be able to tell their customers the ﬁsh will be with them when they want it. Telling them the ﬁsh might be with them on a certain day, but without that guarantee, is akin to an empty promise.
Hamish MacDonnell.indd 24
If the customers cannot be sure they will get Sco�sh salmon when they want it, they will just go to our compe�tors. They may feel salmon from Norway or the Faroes is not as good as ours and ﬁsh from Iceland might also take longer to arrive; but what our compe�tors can s�ll guarantee is reliability and, un�l we can get that back, the prognosis is bleak. The system needs to work well, not once or twice a week, but every day. Indeed, every day in which there is a problem sets back our eﬀorts to secure customers for the long-term. There is an added dimension here which also needs to be taken into account. There seems to be an assump�on among some in Whitehall and Holyrood that, if the “teething problems”, as they see them, can be sorted out now, everything is going to be ﬁne in the long term. What few of them realise – and which again we have tried to stress – is that the volumes of salmon being sent to France now are only a frac�on of what they will be in two, or three, months’ �me. Because of the worries over reliability, the wariness of customers and the uncertain prices, Sco�sh producers have been holding back. They have been keeping ﬁsh in the water, delaying or cancelling harvests and doing all they can to put oﬀ European exports un�l the situa�on stabilises. Some are only harves�ng half of what they would normally do in January and February. These ﬁsh will have to go to market in the Spring, along with the normal harvests of salmon due to head to the con�nent at that �me anyway. Our farmers work on a three-year cycle and there are ﬁsh being grown in hatcheries which
Above: The port of Dover
The Brexit fallout
will need to go to sea later this year. Those farms need to be empty of adult salmon for the cycle to con�nue. So its not just a ques�on of sor�ng out the current “teething problems’; it is about building in enough resilience in the system to cope with the increased produc�on we are going to see over the next few months. At the moment, there is no slack in the system. In fact, the system can barely cope. Yes, there are loads ge�ng to France on a day-one-to-day-two schedule now but only thanks to the extraordinary eﬀorts of the hauliers and the teams from Food Standards Scotland processing the export health cer�ﬁcates in Scotland. Everybody involved at the three hubs dealing with cer�ﬁcates for the EU is working ﬂat out to get trucks processed and through the depots. They are only managing to achieve day-two deliveries for Scotland’s biggest producers by priori�sing single load, single commodity consignments.
Hamish MacDonnell.indd 25
Just because we cannot see the queues, that “doesn’t mean things have been going well ” Any orders which are too small for one truck and have to be grouped with others are generally not ge�ng day-two delivery at all. So how those environmental health oﬃcers and haulage managers will cope when produc�on really does get ramped up is anybody’s guess. For the last two years, an awful lot of people have been working behind the scenes to try to mi�gate as many of the risks as possible. We all knew there would be problems and that has proved to be the case. What I think few people appreciated, par�cularly in government, was the vital role that reliability plays. There was an assump�on that Sco�sh salmon sold well because of its quality, its provenance and the speed with which it could be sent to market. These ﬁrst few weeks outside the EU have shown, in the starkest terms, that it is reliability that is the key and un�l that returns, it is going to be very hard to get back to even close to where we were before. See also Brexit feature, page 30.
BY DR MARTIN JAFFA
Can RAS be profitable? Advocates of land-based farming need to show that the costs and revenues add up
he December issue of Fish Farmer included details of a revised aquaculture strategy for England written by its architect, Tim Huntington of Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management. In his piece, Mr Huntington referred to one of my previous commentaries by saying that although he understood my scepticism of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), he is convinced that they will become an important component of English aquaculture over the next 20 years. Whether RAS becomes a key part of a developing aquaculture industry in England is a different issue, but the fundamental question is whether closed contained RAS on land will become an important element of the salmon farming industry in future. I accept that some might see me as a dinosaur in the autumn of a long career in the aquaculture industry, and that a new generation of young enthusiastic people with new ideas is now the vanguard of future development. Yet my scepticism about closed containment on land remains. I have written previously, that once one of these units has run profitably for five years, then I will hold up my hands and say I was wrong but as yet, this has still to happen. It is interesting that the idea to farm salmon on land did not originate from within the industry itself but, in Scotland at any rate, from the wild salmon sector. They argue that salmon farming has destroyed wild salmon stocks; farms should therefore be removed from the sea and placed on land where they
Martin Jaffa.indd 26
can cause no damage. A former head of the Atlantic Salmon Trust even tried to initiate the building of a farm at Tayinloan, Kintyre, but he failed to raise the capital to start the work. Of course, we now know that salmon farming is not responsible for the loss of wild fish stocks, which removes the point of moving to land. The idea of farming salmon in an environment free of sea lice might appeal to traditional salmon farmers but whilst exponents of landbased farming claim – probably more in hope – that there is no need for treatments and medications, they do face a host of other issues. No animal production is without problems. The existing salmon farming industry largely fails to see the benefits of moving to land-based production, which is why the rush to build landbased farming is driven by adventurers and investors. It might seem a good sell on paper, but the reality is likely to be very different. The other reason given for land-based farming is that fish can be produced near the markets and that consumers will be prepared to pay a premium to buy it. Atlantic Sapphire, one of the pioneering land-based farms in the US, has reported an average price of £6.90/kg for their fish with a maximum price for their best fish of £8.90/kg. Just before Christmas Norwegian salmon was selling at about £4.10/kg. The prices attained by Atlantic Sapphire might look good, but they have only harvested about 160 tonnes of fish compared to production from Norway of well over a million tonnes. Meanwhile, Atlantic Sapphire’s small production unit in Denmark harvested 340 tonnes of fish but only managed to get £4.00/kg. Of course, there are always some people who will pay a premium for products that come with a story. Atlantic Sapphire seem to have tapped into this market. However, as they ramp up production, and more importantly, as other companies come on stream, the availability of these fish will increase, which will eventually devalue their premium image. No one is willing to pay a premium for products that are produced in commodity volumes. We saw this happen during the beginnings of the salmon industry in Scotland at the end of the 1980s. Salmon farming really took off during Mrs Thatcher’s boom years. There were people who were
Above and right: New RAS facility for the production of Atlantic salmon
Can RAS be profitable?
extremely happy to splash the cash to surround themselves with the trappings of wealth. Salmon farmers beneﬁ�ed selling everything they could produce despite a high cost of produc�on. Then around 1990, the price of salmon collapsed. Producers in Scotland blamed cheap Norwegian imports into the EU which they claimed were being dumped; but the reality was that the market had evolved. Salmon had moved from high value, low volume produc�on to high volume, low margin. These pioneering producers had to ﬁnd ways to cut their cost of produc�on. Many found it a step too far and opted to sell their farms. This was the start of the consolida�on process that saw the number of Sco�sh producers fall from nearly 200 to the handful we see today.
The exis�ng salmon farming industry largely “fails to see the beneﬁts of moving to landbased produc�on ”
Martin Jaffa.indd 27
The same evolu�on will dog land-based producers, except they have a much greater problem; they have a high capital cost to service as well as high running costs. Land-based closed containment salmon farming might work for one or two but not for many. The only way to avoid this poten�al catastrophe would be to s�mulate consumer demand for a higher priced salmon, but I cannot see this happening when the current emphasis is on produc�on. The market is not the only problem that land-based producers will face. When things go wrong in closed containment, they go wrong very quickly due to the high stocking rates required to be commercially viable. Whilst land-based farming appears to be a good news story for some, others might ﬁnd that the shine fades away just as quickly. See the case for land-based farms, starting on page 52. FF
BY NICKI HOLMYARD
Mussels and Brussels One producer’s frustrating experience underlines the shellﬁsh industry’s Brexit challenges
generally class myself as an op�mist, but Brexit has rather soured my thinking, and on this subject at least, I have become a fully paid-up member of the pessimis�c society. Let me be clear about this: I did not vote for it! We had long an�cipated problems in ge�ng mussels to our con�nental customers, but the reality has turned out to be even worse. It is certainly not the “near fric�on-free” process that was promised. In an ideal world, we would have sent our last bulk load away in December, and waited while others picked their way through the mass of paperwork and red tape, and cleared the path for others to follow. But the world isn’t ideal, and Covid-19 got in the way, severely impacting on sales, and stretching our season into the New Year. This is why, in the ﬁrst week of January, we a�empted to send a trial 10-tonne load of mussels to the Netherlands, to test out the system. This used to be a simple process, with a label on each bag, one oﬃcial piece of paper from the environmental health oﬃcer to accompany it, our own delivery note, and the transport company’s interna�onal consignment note. The journey from pier to processor took around 12 hours, and losses were minimal. This journey was accompanied by 41 diﬀerent pieces of paper and took 48 hours. It needed agents in the UK, France and the Netherlands, and cost us dear in terms of addi�onal manpower and truck days, fuel to divert to the Border Inspec�on Post (BIP) in Boulogne-surMer, and stock losses of around 25 percent. The ﬁrst issue was the requirement to give the Fish Health Inspectorate ﬁve working days’ no�ce of our harvest, but in reality we usually get just a day or so’s no�ce from our customers, and the weather o�en causes us to change this at the last minute. Working 18
Below: Mussels Right: Shellﬁsh bagged
and ready for sale
miles from port and six miles oﬀshore comes with its own restric�ons. In the event, we were able to give ﬁve days’ no�ce, and received an email to say that the rules were ﬁve working days, so they could not a�end. Cue the ﬁrst bout of swearing, followed by a call to the top of the ladder, which swi�ly sorted the issue. The inspectors - one to do the paperwork and one to learn - were concerned because there were a few queenies and sea urchins in the load, which grow naturally on our longlines, whereas the manifest and invoice merely listed mussels. Would this cause French inspectors to turn it back? We would have to wait and see. Their work complete, the extensive paperwork in English, French and Dutch was signed oﬀ, a security seal witnessed on the lorry, and we waved the driver oﬀ, several hours late. She was heading to Kent, where two other drivers would transfer the trailer and face the most frustra�ng journey they had ever undertaken! There followed a long night. The ﬁrst phone call in the early hours of the morning informed us that codes generated by the UK agent did not match those expected by Customs & Excise at Border Control. And when a computer says “NO”, everything grinds to a halt. The majority of people expor�ng in the ﬁrst week came across the same “teething trouble”. Addi�onal issues were caused by the ﬁsh health inspector pu�ng the registra�on of the lorry leaving Brixham on his forms, instead of that of the cab picking it up in Kent. Cue forms having to be re-done, scanned, and sent back to the agent. Much discussion and several delays later, our load ﬁnally arrived in Boulogne-sur-Mer at 1100, awai�ng a vet inspec�on, and was
Mussels and Brussels
French inspectors to turn it back? We would have to wait and see
to purge any microbiological contamination). “Only bivalve molluscs originating from classified B areas within a Member State or between Member States can enter a depuration centre. This possibility is strictly forbidden for bivalve molluscs originating from third countries, such as the UK,” read the message from Bernard Van Goethem, Deputy Director General for Food Sustainability. We had always been aware that this was the case for third countries trading with the EU, but had repeatedly been reassured by DEFRA over the past 18 months that we would be allowed to export Grade B mussels as animals for aquaculture purposes, i.e. for relaying, and that they would travel under an Animal Health Export Certificate (AHEC), which essentially shows that they have no shellfish diseases and are suitable for relaying in EU waters. The AHEC has nothing to do with food safety, and is designed for the import of part grown stock for relaying and on-growing, and not for market sized stock which just needs a few hours in a purification plant. Under this arrangement, our market-sized mussels are exported to the EU masquerading as part-grown mussels for aquaculture purposes. Now the bad news… We always suspected that when we put this “fudged” solution to the This week everything changed. We received test, there was a risk it would not be accepted by the EU. a call from the Shellfish Association of Great Britain, with news that left us speechless, along We have asked DEFRA many times to provide documentary proof that with everyone who farms in Grade B waters or the EU would allow us to use an AHEC as an export document, but have never received that proof in writing, despite many verbal reassurances harvests wild bivalve molluscs. from them that it would be allowed. This means that either DEFRA has The European Commission had pointed out been incompetent, or has purposely misled us, or the EU has changed that we were breaking the regulations by its mind, or was never asked in the first place. At this stage we do not sending our mussels from Grade B waters to have an answer, but we are rattling a lot of cages to find out… a depuration centre in Europe (depuration inSee also Brexit, page 30. FF volves placing the shellfish in tanks of seawater not released until the following day. Again, it was an issue with paperwork, and the TRACES system which has to be filled in correctly; the agent had not done so. This turned out to be an ongoing problem. The relevant information needs to be input 24 hours in advance of arrival at the BIP, but is not provided by the fish health inspectors until they sign the load off. Our second load arrived with a mere 10 hour delay, but the process remained stressful and was certainly not hassle-free. However, we had pioneered the journey, and congratulated ourselves that we knew which issues needed to be worked on to smooth the path in future. And the relevant authorities were willing to work with us.
Extra headaches for exports EU-UK trade is proving to be problematic for seafood producers BY SANDY NEIL
BY SANDY NEIL
efore New Year’s Day 2021, when Britain lay inside the European Union’s Customs Union and Single Market, selling seafood to Madrid was as easy as selling it to Manchester. The only diﬀerence was the distance. The UK is now an external “third country” as far as the EU is concerned, and UK businesses expor�ng to Europe must now provide customs and safety declara�ons, health checks and “rules of origin” details. As Seafood Scotland’s Chief Execu�ve, Donna Fordyce, stressed, producers in the sector had already been dealing with the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. She said: “There’s no resilience le�. Whatever reserves they had have been eaten away.” No one needed another blow The Brexit deal, struck on Christmas Eve, came just a�er France had temporarily closed its ports of entry to traﬃc from the UK, to avoid the spread of a more infec�ous “Kent” strain of coronavirus. The blockade could
Brexit -Sandy.indd 30
not have come at a worse �me, as companies raced to shi� products before Brexit, and at the peak of the pre-Christmas rush. The Sco�sh Salmon Producers’ Organisa�on (SSPO) warned that the salmon farming industry was facing a poten�al loss of £6.5m in the week before Christmas. The EU-UK trade agreement avoided the catastrophe of a “no-deal” Brexit, but it did not eliminate the new red tape and charges for goods being moved across the EU-UK border. Worse s�ll, the 206-page Border Opera�ng Model was not published un�l 6pm on Hogmanay, just six hours
Above: The port of Dover Left: Donna Fordyce Opposite: Keeping salmon fresh
Extra headaches for exports
There’s no “resilience
le�. Whatever reserves they had have been eaten away
before it came into force. Importers and exporters now faced a wall of extra checks and fees. Customs clearance charges must now be paid, while many couriers now also add on postal or handling fees. Goods exported by UK businesses to the EU are zero-rated, meaning UK VAT is not charged at the point of sale, though VAT is payable by businesses bringing goods into the UK. Reports soon surfaced of EU hauliers turning their backs on UK business because they must now provide tens of thousands of pounds in guarantees to cover VAT or poten�al tariﬀs on arrival in Britain. Meanwhile, UK seafood ﬁrms must complete seven new documents just for one lorry carrying one species of ﬁsh to the EU: an export health cer�ﬁcate, a catch cer�ﬁcate, a customs export declara�on, an endangered species permit, a common health entry document, a storage document, and a processing statement. Exporters with mul�ple species from diﬀerent companies now need dozens of documents. Previously, one form did the job. The UK government’s Marine Management Organisa�on produced a lengthy 33-point ﬂowchart on how Bri�sh suppliers can export wildcaught marine ﬁsh to the EU. However, glitches quickly arose through the system, Jimmy Buchan, Chief Execu�ve of the Sco�sh Seafood Associa�on, told the Daily Mail: “It’s a tedious amount of paperwork. What was expected to take one hour now takes ﬁve or six hours. Every ﬁsh needs to be weighed and documented. Last year we didn’t need these checks. “When you start working in groupages, where you might have 10 producers and diﬀerent products sharing the same lorry, you have gone from seven documents to maybe hundreds of documents.” DFDS, the leading haulier for Sco�sh seafood, suspended its groupage service between 8-18 January. It has since resumed “albeit with a longer transit �me,” a DFDS spokesperson said. Within the ﬁrst week, the UK’s Freight Reserva�on Service was “experiencing a high volume of vehicles being refused and delayed at the Ports of Calais, Dunkerque and Dover, due to incorrect paperwork being presented at check-in.” There are disagreements over how many vehicles were turned away from the border points for having the wrong paperwork. The UK’s Department for Transport said at least 90% of lorries trying to make the Dover-Calais crossing had the correct paperwork in the ﬁrst week, while an industry lobby group, the Road Haulage Associa�on (RHA), told BBC News that about one in ﬁve trucks were being turned away. The costs of freight transport also increased. Transporeon, a company connec�ng carriers to shippers, saw spot rates - prices for on-the-spot bookings rather than long-term contracts - for last-minute shipments across the Channel reach €6 per kilometre for a full truckload at the end of 2020, compared with a usual average of €1.50-€3.
Brexit -Sandy.indd 31
For seafood importers and exporters, everything has been slowed down. This has led to empty shelves and shortages, including in Northern Ireland where goods from mainland Britain also have to go through extra checks. The problems were most acute for perishable goods, with ﬁsh and shellﬁsh bound for European markets decomposing in the back of lorries. The Food and Drink Federa�on (FDF) warned MPs that Brexit red tape would likely increase food supply chain costs. Its Chief Execu�ve Ian Wright told the Future Rela�onship with the European Union Commi�ee: “Unless the deal changes in some material way, we’re going to see the re-engineering of almost all the EU-UK and GB-NI supply chains over the next six to nine months. “In the short term there will be costs and �me wasted for supply to reach the shelves, and in the long term will be costs and changes, and fairly signiﬁcant changes, to the way in which manufacturers in the UK and in the EU interact when they are producing product.” Whether those costs would be passed onto consumers was a decision for retailers, the FDF said. Wright also cri�cised the bureaucracy his members now face when trying to export from the UK to the EU, ci�ng the example of one company that used to complete the necessary paperwork within three hours; it was now taking them ﬁve days. Expor�ng seafood to the EU had become “all but impossible”, said Seafood Scotland’s Chief Execu�ve Donna Fordyce, sta�ng: “This is a UK issue, with companies from all ﬁshing areas repor�ng issues. However, as Scotland exports a far higher volume than other areas of the UK, it is here where the impact is felt most keenly. “Many species of Sco�sh seafood have experienced a price drop of around 40-50% at market this week. This is because processors and intermediaries are not buying, as they are not guaranteed to be able to sell seafood on to EU customers because they can’t get it out the UK. In some cases the price drop has been up to 80%, but this is stabilising only because there is less ﬁsh being landed. It is not a sustainable posi�on. “Around one third of the Sco�sh ﬂeet is currently �ed up. Some boats that are s�ll ﬁshing are redirec�ng their catch landing to Denmark… this means that the Sco�sh processing sector, which employs around 10,000 people, is completely missed out of the equa�on.” She gave an example: “One Sco�sh seafood company normally sends £1m worth of product to the EU every week. Last week they managed
to get £12,000 of product into the EU. As a result, they have told the 27 boats that supply them to stop ﬁshing.” The Sco�sh salmon sector lost £3m in the ﬁrst week of January from cancelled orders, discounted ﬁsh and extra staﬃng costs of new paperwork, the SSPO es�mates. The organisa�on cited a long list of causes: “The �me it takes to process export health cer�ﬁcates for consignments of ﬁsh to the EU, the extra paperwork needed to process those cer�ﬁcates, IT problems in the UK, IT problems in France and confusion over which documents are needed (in hard copy and in an electronic form).” Seafood Scotland started campaigning for solu�ons, such as ‘conﬁrma�on of what is needed on the paperwork’. For example: “Some [forms] are to be ﬁlled in with certain colours of ink, but the instruc�on as to which isn’t clear. Lorries are being rejected because paperwork has used the wrong colour. Some commodity codes aren’t on the system and have to be overwri�en manually. Documenta�on requires pages numbered, but the computer system prints them oﬀ without numbers, so the informa�on needs to be added by hand. Lorries are being rejected for having no page numbering, or even having “Page 11” as opposed to “Page 11 of 14”.” Seafood Scotland also called for “a consistent approach to evalua�on of paperwork. Currently two forms completed in an iden�cal way could be passed at one port, and rejected at another.” Tavish Sco�, Chief Execu�ve of the SSPO, said: “A deroga�on to ﬁx problems, clarify the administra�ve anomalies and get systems and staﬀ working seamlessly seems to be a pragma�c and much needed solu�on. “Companies are indica�ng some tenta�ve signs of progress. However, we are very mindful that every day that supplies of Sco�sh salmon are delayed or compromised the valuable trading rela�onships Scotland has across European markets are vulnerable to compe��on. The Sco�sh
Brexit -Sandy.indd 32
Top: Freight transport between the EU and UK now requires much more paperwork Above: Tavish Sco� Right: French speciality, salmon steak with new potatoes
premium is highly prized but, once lost, will be hard to recover.” Echoing these calls for a streamlined bureaucracy and grace period, the Sco�sh Government also demanded the UK Government compensate companies. “As soon as the Implementa�on Period ended, customs systems failed and prevented exports,” said Rural Economy Secretary Fergus Ewing. “Fresh and live product became stranded or delayed. Orders went unfulﬁlled causing reputa�onal damage. High value product lost value making the exports pointless. Thousands of pounds of Scotland’s ﬁnest seafood was spoiled… it is impera�ve that the UK Government acts, and acts now, to provide adequate support to these businesses.” On 19 January, the UK Government announced a compensa�on package. The Secretary of State for Scotland, David Duguid, said: “The UK Government has acknowledged there have been diﬃcul�es and we want to work together to provide solu�ons and restore conﬁdence within this crucial sector so that world-class Sco�sh seafood can be harvested at sea and sped from port to plate for customers here and abroad.” On top of a previously announced post-Brexit package of £100m for the UK ﬁshing industry,
Extra headaches for exports
Our customers in Europe need to know they can rely on Scottish salmon… arriving on time
the £23m support scheme for the seafood sector will be targeted at seafood export businesses “who can evidence a genuine loss in exporting fish and shellfish to the EU”. Support will be available immediately, the government said, and paid retrospectively to cover losses incurred since 1 January. The scheme will be targeted at small and medium enterprises and the maximum claim available to individual operators will be £100,000. Welcoming the fund, Seafood Scotland’s Chief Executive Donna Fordyce said questions remained “…around the extent to which it supports the entire supply chain, from fleet to export. Larger companies and smaller shellfish boats are still vulnerable, and will be hoping that they can access support too. Money will offer a much needed sticking plaster covering the losses over the last few weeks, but to completely staunch the wound, the sector still needs a period of grace during which the systems must be overhauled so they are fit for purpose.” In February, the Scottish government also announced a £6.45m Seafood Producers’ Resilience Fund, to help trout farmers, and shellfish catchers and producers, with the financial burdens arising from the post-Brexit problems and the Covid-19 pandemic. On 28 January Cabinet Office Minister Michael Gove announced that a joint taskforce, involving the UK and Scottish governments, and industry representatives, would be set up to help deal with the administrative barriers faced by British seafood exporters. Welcoming this, the SSPO’s Chief Executive Tavish Scott said: “While the situation has improved in recent days, significant issues remain. With experts from Scotland and the UK now poised to get around the table we now need to work together as a matter of urgency to get these export issues resolved. Our customers in Europe need to know they can rely on Scottish salmon, the UK’s biggest food export, arriving on time.” Time will tell if they succeed. FF
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Brexit -Sandy.indd 33
BY VINCE MCDONAGH
National kelp service Seaweed could help to feed us all – and even combat climate change
he majority of people strolling along a beach probably look on the slimy vegeta�on washed up by the �de with li�le more than mild curiosity. For centuries, however, it has been part of the tradi�onal diet for people on the coasts of Scotland and Ireland, as well as in Japan and Korea. Now, ﬁsh farming companies and marine scien�sts in Norway believe seaweed can be a proﬁtable and sustainable source of food. Runar B Mæland, communica�ons consultant for the Ins�tute of Marine Research, believes that with new produc�on development and larger facili�es further out to sea, seaweed can present great opportuni�es. This was supported in a new report, Towards A New Marine Industry For Kelp? wri�en by researchers from Norway’s Ins�tute of Marine Research,
the Norwegian University of Life Sciences and the independent research organisa�on SINTEF and presented to the (digitally staged) Blue Forest event last November. Seaweed belongs to the algae family and carries several names – kelp, marine meadow, sea tangle or gulf weed to choose but a few. The report says the need for sustainable food produc�on and concern over climate change has led to growing interest in growing diﬀerent types of macro algae. These algae have chemical proper�es that allow them to be used as raw materials in everything
The kelp “industry is
s�ll in its infancy, but it has a lot of poten�al
Left: All smiles from an Ocean Rainforest employee Opposite: Olavur Gregersen, CEO of Ocean Rainforest
Seaweed - Vince.indd 34
National kelp service
SEAWEED CULTIVATION from food and feed to packaging. Importantly, they also bind CO2 as they grow. The report argues that Norway has the right condi�ons for algae cul�va�on, as well as competence in industry. In fact, they say, the country has the poten�al to become a leading player in kelp produc�on. Researcher Kjell Magnus Norderhaug at Norway Ins�tute of Marine Research (HI) says there is a need to develop new cul�va�on technology and explore possible products and new markets. He stresses it is also necessary to increase knowledge about the impact such an industry would have on the environment. Today, just over 110 tonnes of sugar kelp and another variant known as butare are grown in Norway, mostly in Nordland, Trøndelag and the western part of the country. In comparison, global produc�on is 32 million tonnes of macro algae, almost all of which is in Asia. Kelp could also be used in feed for livestock, as indeed it was up un�l the 1980s. Kelp contains a number of minerals, vitamins, an�oxidants and other bioac�ve substances that can have posi�ve eﬀects on meat quality. It also has a high content of organic iodine. Like forests on land, kelp and other algae absorb CO2. Some of this carbon is eaten by animals and lost through respira�on, but an unknown part is transported down into deep water and buried in the bo�om sediments. The poten�al of this “CO2 pump” is huge, but knowledge of the processes is limited. Through cul�va�on, there is an opportunity to control these processes, either to make biochar (a form of charcoal), pump CO2 into the seabed in the form of cul�vated biomass or to replace other forms of carbon that have a larger climate footprint, says SINTEF researcher Jorunn Skjermo. Currently, Norway has only small facili�es in rela�vely sheltered loca�ons, and produc�on is largely manual. The report advocates larger facili�es further out to sea, although this does entail some challenges. It recommends pilot facili�es to obtain more knowledge before embarking on large scale development. Two recent success stories surrounding seaweed cul�va�on indicate what’s possible. Angelita Eriksen gave up a secure job in Oslo to move north and launch her own company, Lofoten Seaweed. She says: “Research funding of many millions goes to the development of new technology. At the same �me, Norway’s sea areas are much larger than the land areas, so there is enough area to take oﬀ. I think that the kelp industry is s�ll in its infancy, but it has a lot of poten�al.” Many people who had never tried seaweed before are pleasantly surprised at how good it tastes, she adds. Meanwhile the Faroese seaweed farming company, Ocean Rainforest, recently secured $1.5m in funding to develop oﬀshore seaweed produc�on. This was led by the World Wildlife Fund which has commi�ed $850,000. The remainder comes from a mix of Faroese backers and board members. Carter Roberts of the WWF said: “We’re excited to support this project because seaweed cul�va�on holds the poten�al to reduce these pressures and contribute to a more balanced rela�onship with nature.” Ólavur Gregersen, CEO and project investor at Ocean Rainforest, added: “This investment by WWF and others will allow Ocean Rainforest to deploy new farms at scale, enabling the company to meet the growing demand for its products. “But most importantly, it is an aﬃrma�on of our sustainable approach to cul�va�ng seaweed in our ocean waters, improving people’s wellbeing, and making a unique and posi�ve contribu�on to our blue planet.” FF
Seaweed - Vince.indd 35
takes up CO2 and excess nutrients
Feed the world The blue economy has a critical role to play in nutrition worldwide BY VINCE MCDONAGH
HE daughter of a doctor and a civil engineer, Dr Gunhild Stordalen launched the EAT Foundation in 2013 with the idea of transforming the global food system to ensure the growing population a healthy and nutritious diet within safe environmental limits. After leaving school she enrolled at the University of Oslo medical faculty and received her MD in 2007. In 2014, together with the Stordalen Foundation and the Stockholm Resilience Centre she hosted the first EATStockholm Food Forum, dealing with the connection between food, health and sustainability.The participants included HRH The Prince of Wales who spoke via a link on the theme of the global food system. EAT believes the global food system is failing with more than 800 million people suffering from lack of proper nutrition at one end and problems with obesity and food waste at the other end. Together with her husband Petter Stordalen, she continues to work on health and nutrition issues. She has since been named as being among Norway’s most influential women. The Norwegian Seafood Council NSC) and Gunhild Stordalen, creator of the EAT foundation, have formed a strategic partnership to help bring about a change in the global food system.
Eat Seafood marketing campaign (Vince).indd 36
The first UN summit on food will take place this autumn and EAT is one of five leading global organisations which have been appointed by UN Deputy Secretary-General Amina Mohammed to lead efforts to both create demand for healthy and sustainable food and to reduce food waste. A result of the UN mandate is that EAT has invited strategic partners with a Norwegian voice who can work together on achieving this vital goal. The NSC will be one of these partners, but the move can also help to promote the role played by sustainable aquaculture and fishing wherever it is found in the world. Stordalen believes that while her native Norway is already a great power in seafood, the restructuring of the food system and the increasing focus on seafood (farmed or wild caught) presents a unique opportunity for the sector. “It is a unique opportunity for us and the Seafood Council has a key role to play,” she emphasises. She believes the need for restructuring of the global food system is vital if it is to achieve the 1.5-degree goal laid down at the Paris Agreement and along with meeting the UN’s sustainability goals. She is convinced that to do this the world needs to eat more seafood. As Stordalen puts it: “A growing world population needs food from sustainable sources, and food from the sea is pointed out as a key part of the solution. But today, this accounts for only two per cent of global calorie intake.” Renate Larsen, CEO of the NSC agreed and said: “We will help to put healthy and sustainable food on the agenda. If we are to achieve the sustainability goals by 2030, we must eat more seafood.” EAT and the Seafood Council’s strategic co-operation agreement involves the sharing of expertise and knowledge that will contribute to sustainable solutions for seafood in Norway and the world. A number of activities in connection with the UN summit are already underway, and the EAT will be at the heart of an ever-growing coalition
We look forward to sharing our knowledge and to speaking up for seafood as a key part of the solution
Feed the world
from civil society, research, business and politics. Gunhild Stordalen explained: “The goal is to build a movement for change that can continue to grow long after the summit is over. In our view, mobilizing key players in the food system is key. “The Norwegian Seafood Council has unique knowledge of consumer attitudes towards seafood all over the world. We look forward to sharing our knowledge and to speaking up for seafood as a key part of the solution for a sustainable and healthy food future.” A number of activities in connection with the UN summit are already underway and EAT is at the centre of an ever-growing alliance spanning science, politics and industry as well as civil society.” EAT and the NSC say they have a common ambition to promote seafood as an important part of the solution. “As one of the world’s leading seafood nations, we have an extra large responsibility,” Renate Larsen stressed. The NSC says it sees many opportunities in the collaboration with EAT. Larsen added: “EAT
Eat Seafood marketing campaign (Vince).indd 37
Above: Gunhild Stordalen and Renate Larsen; Opposite: Fresh seafood with spices and lime
has built up a strong position as a global platform and catalyst for change and development of sustainable food supply. “Through the collaboration, EAT’s research-based agenda to increase the proportion of food from the sea will gain even more power. “At the same time, we will get to take part in the global food conversation that EAT invites to through the UN mandate, research insights, international conversations with other food actors and workshops on the role of seafood in the food system. “This contributes to creating a common Norwegian voice that will increase the focus on food from the sea as part of the solution, and not least make the seafood nation Norway’s role visible.” EAT says aquatic food has a vital role to play in creating a global food system that supports a healthy human population on a healthy planet, yet it has been largely neglected in global efforts to chart the future of food up until now. The EAT-Lancet Commission report on healthy diets from sustainable food systems set scientific targets for healthy diets and environmentally sustainable global food systems. To accurately expand the EAT-Lancet report into a blue food context, several knowledge gaps must be filled. This scoping report constitutes a first step in outlining a holistic look at how aquatic food can contribute to healthy and sustainable diets. Commissioned by EAT and authored by three EAT-Lancet authors from the Stockholm Resilience Centre, the report aims to elaborate on the role of blue food in the future food system, including how the food system model. FF
Antifouling and disinfection
Keep it clean There are plenty of products to keep your installations safe and functioning
issues with the equipment
ne of the challenges bedevilling any marine industry is biofouling, the build-up of algae and other marine life on any structure at sea. For ﬁsh farmers, this means nets, cages and any other items of equipment need cleaning and protection. Algae, waste matter and other organic growth restrict water ﬂow, reducing oxygen levels and water quality. NLB’s 225, 325 and 605 Series water jetting pumps are speciﬁcally designed for the demanding rigours of net cleaning in the harshest of environments. Extremely reliable, these proven triplex and quintuplex pump systems are slow-running, minimising wear on internal components. Andrew Chilkiewicz, Marketing Manager at NLB, says: “A small footprint, pump reliability and serviceability were key to the development process. When you’re at the nets, miles from any port, you just can’t have issues with the equipment.” Cleaning and anti-fouling paint are the classic approaches to protect nets and other equipment. Net specialist Garware Technical Fibres, the world’s largest manufacturer and supplier of salmon cage nets, has come up with a solution in the form of an innovative composite yarn,V2, with a built-in antifouling property.V2 is a composite yarn made using a process that combines high-density polyethylene (HDPE) along with metallic copper. Biofouling resistance is achieved by the slow release through corrosion of copper ions from the surface of the copper present in the V2 composite net, when immersed in seawater. In trials,V2 achieved up to 50% reduction in in-situ cleaning frequency on the most recent versions. Disinfection out at sea can be a challenge. To address this FiiZK has developed semi-closed cages with disinfection of intake water, and closed
INTRO - Anti-fouling and Disinfection.indd 38
Above: FiiZK Certus 1000 Semi-Closed Containment System (above); Certus Harvest Cage
harvesting cages with disinfection of outlet water. The disinfection line consists of a ﬁlter and a UV-system which delivers a UV dose up to 50mJ/cm2. FiiZK’s disinfection line delivers an extra level of biosecurity in the closed harvest cage that is similar to land based production and can deal with target pathogens such as SAV (PD), ISAV, vibriosis and Aeromonas salmonicidia. Meanwhile, if you are looking for advice on bio security, the team at Bradan Ltd are happy to help, as distributors for the popular range of Virkon products, which targets a wide range of ﬁsh viruses and other pathogens. Bradan has an extensive digital library of more than 100 guidance notes covering almost all ﬁsh species, from salmon to exotic koi. FF
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un longer and stronger with NLB pumps that offer maximum uptime and easy maintenance. To learn more go to NLBCORP.COM or call (800) 227-7652 today!
BADINOTTI AND NLB: Net cleaning powerhouse. SEE VIDEO © Copyright 2020 NLB Corp. | PSaleAqua_20_008_v1
NLB Corp.indd 39
war goes on
In the battle between ﬁsh farmers and sea lice, who’s winning? BY ROBERT OUTRAM
n Lewis Carroll’s Through The Looking Glass, the Red Queen tells Alice; “Here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place.” The ongoing struggle between the ﬁsh farming industry and Lepeophtheirus salmonis can look like the Red Queen’s race at �mes. It has taken a great deal of eﬀort and a variety of treatments, and other measures, to prevent the problem of sea lice from ge�ng out of hand. There are a number of species of sea louse, but Lepeophtheirus is a speciﬁc problem for farmed salmonids. Infec�on by lice not only damages the ﬁsh’s skin but also leaves it open to other infec�ons, harming survival rates. The ques�on of whether farming has increased the threat of infec�on for wild salmonids is a controversial one. Fortunately, the numbers suggest that the industry is making progress. Annual ﬁgures published earlier this month by the Sco�sh Salmon Producers Organisa�on show that sea lice averages for the Sco�sh farmed salmon sector were 0.52 adult female lice per salmon for 2020. This represents a slight fall on 2019’s average of 0.54 and means that 2020 is the second best year on record for sea lice averages a�er 2018’s 0.46. The recorded peak, in 2016, was 1.33. The ﬁgure demonstrates the sector’s ability to keep numbers consistently low despite seasonal challenges, the SSPO says. Meanwhile the Norwegian government has imposed a general sea lice limit of a maximum 0.5 adult female lice per ﬁsh for all permits. This was further
INTRO - Sea Lice.indd 40
�ghtened in 2017, requiring levels below 0.2 in the most “vulnerable” weeks during the migra�on period for wild smolt. There is clearly s�ll a way to go, but the progress so far has been achieved through a variety of approaches. Reliance on chemical or pharmaceu�cal treatments alone has proved to be ineﬀec�ve, partly because there is an unacceptable environmental impact that goes along with these, but above all because the louse popula�on inevitably develops resistance to any given treatment, over �me. Armin Sturm, senior lecturer with the University of S�rling’s Ins�tute of Aquaculture, explains that resistance against emamec�n benzoate, cypermethrin and deltamethrin peaked between 2008 and 2011. Sturm, who has been studying the gene�cs of sea lice and how they adapt to diﬀerent treatments, says: “One thing we and other groups have found is that popula�ons of lice that are geographically far apart show surprisingly few gene�c diﬀerences, sugges�ng they are in gene�c exchange. It may be that they move
The “ current
method of managing sea lice may be making the situa�on worse for salmon
In the battle between fish farmers and sea lice, who’s winning?
around as their hosts migrate. “What we do in Scotland might poten�ally aﬀect the sea louse popula�ons elsewhere, and vice versa. It’s an interna�onal problem.” He notes that a number of methods – not just drugs – could poten�ally encourage inherited resistance. As he explains: “In principle, lice could adapt to lower salinity or deeper water [both of which are being used to protect salmon, for example with lice skirts or deeper cages]. If just one method is used, the selec�on pressure for the lice is strong. So, by using a range of diﬀerent methods we can ensure that it is diﬃcult for the lice to adapt. If drugs are used rarely, for example, they can remain eﬀec�ve.” Mechanical methods, such as the use of thermolicer or hydrolicer technology, have been shown to be eﬀec�ve. Since they involve handling the ﬁsh, however, care must be taken to reduce the risk of impac�ng welfare during the delousing process.
Left: Four-line barge in opera�on Above: Sea lice Right: Armin Sturm
INTRO - Sea Lice.indd 41
Smir’s Hydrolicer system, for example, uses a jet of water to remove the lice. Neither tempered nor fresh water, nor chemicals are used, and the system is based on a one-line delousing system that accommodates high capaci�es, with each line having a capacity of 35 to 40 tonnes per hour. Vessels can accommodate up to eight of these lines. Smir’s own ﬁsh pump, the Hydroﬂow, is specially developed to accommodate larger ﬁsh. The ejector pump has no moving parts and provides a gentler way of moving the ﬁsh through the system with no sharp edges or turns. Flatsetsund’s FLS Caligus delouser has also been designed with ﬁsh welfare in mind. It is a mechanical delouser that ﬂushes with seawater at seawater temperatures. It operates a siphon that pulls the ﬁsh from the cage and delivers it back to the cage at the same level. This means it has a low li�ing height with a low pumping pressure, so the impact on the ﬁsh is minimised. Norway’s S�ngray Marine Solu�ons avoids the need to handle ﬁsh at all. It uses a laser-based system to iden�fy, target and kill lice in the pens, without damaging the ﬁsh themselves.. Another defence against lice is to protect the cages with lice skirts. Sea lice prefer to swim nearer the surface and louse-proof skirts can protect ﬁsh in cages. Specialist manufacturers such as FiiZK, Garware and Tom Morrow have developed durable, robust skirts that can keep out parasites and their eggs. Netmakers W&J Knox have also trialled X12, a porous and robust material from GWRL, which has been shown to provide be�er oxygen exchange than with standard polyester material. The use of cleaner ﬁsh in the cages, typically lumpﬁsh or wrasse, can also help to keep lice numbers down. Of course, ensuring the health of the cleaner ﬁsh can itself be a challenge and they need to be fed. World Feeds’ Vita Aqua Feeds (VAF) feed block systems are designed to keep lumpﬁsh and wrasse healthy, and the blocks ensure that the ﬁsh can graze happily without demonstra�ng aggression, the company says. Perhaps counter-intui�vely, protec�ng salmon from lice might be achieved by taking measures against a diﬀerent biological threat; preda�on stress caused by seals. So says Steven Alevy, Managing Partner with Genuswave Ltd, which has developed a next genera�on Targeted Acous�c Startle Technology (TAST) system to keep seals away from marine farm sites. The research is clear, he says: “The salmon’s ﬁrst line of defense against parasites and pathogens is its skin and mucus. Preda�on stress causes the salmon to produce cor�sol and adrenaline – not mucus!”
now we are at “Right an equilibrium ”
Stress impairs the salmon immune system, taxes energy reserves, triggers hormones that disrupt their chemical balances, and suppresses growth rates. A recent study linked salmon stress with moribund ﬁsh, known as “drop outs” or “loser ﬁsh” that exhibit depressed-like behavior and even anorexia. In par�cular, stress makes salmon more suscep�ble to sea lice infesta�ons. Alevy says: “Our understanding is that a salmon can manage most challenges to its immune system; provided it is not overwhelmed. But, if preda�on stress is added to its load, it can be a �pping point and then the salmon’s immune system becomes compromised. “Stress is bad for ﬁsh in a number of ways, raising the level of cor�sol in blood plasma and taking up energy that could be put to be�er use like growth, diges�on or disease resistance. Even slightly elevated levels of cor�sol can suppress immune func�on by decreasing an�body produc�on and slowing the body’s response to injury and infec�on.” He adds: “Ironically, the current method of managing sea lice may be making the situa�on worse. By stripping away their mucus, some treatments make the salmon vulnerable and more suscep�ble to other infec�ons and diseases. Keeping seals away from the salmon and eliminating preda�on stress may be the ﬁrst step to restoring equilibrium to the salmon’s immune system.” Alevy says an eﬀec�ve acous�c deterrent, like GenusWave’s TAST, keeps seals away, lowering salmon stress and reduices stress on farmed salmon. It is, he adds, compliant with the goals of the MMPA legisla�on from the US on marine mammal welfare. He says: “If your salmon are panic swimming, they probably don’t need a therapist, they may just need TAST to keep the
Above: Seal underwater Above right: Lice on a salmon Right: A Plany Sea lice skirt
INTRO - Sea Lice.indd 42
seals away from their farm!” Fish stress could also be reduced through nutri�onal supplements, according to feed business Tecnovit. The company has developed a feed, SERETEC, which incorporates an extract from the prickly pear cactus. This has been shown to reduce stress biomarkers in ﬁsh. In the war against lice, there is no room for complacency. Armin Sturm warns, for example: “Sea lice could expect to beneﬁt from the eﬀects of global warming as their speed of development is aﬀected by water temperature. Right now we are at an equilibrium. We need to work constantly to preserve and improve our treatments.” Among the new approaches being considered, he says, are feed addi�ves that can either help the salmon grow more protec�ve mucus, or even change the smell of the ﬁsh to literally throw lice “oﬀ the scent”. Selec�ve breeding, using the latest genomic techniques, can also help farmers to improve disease resistance. Sturm says: “Tradi�onally, salmon has a long genera�on period so it takes �me to breed resistance, but genomic selec�on can speed up this process. Gene�c improvement is already having an eﬀect.” More controversially, some scien�sts are looking at how gene�c science could be used to transfer characteris�cs from more louse-resistant salmon species, like Chinook, to Atlan�c salmon. Like Lewis Carroll’s Red Queen, the industry is racing harder than ever to beat the sea lice problem – but now it looks as if it is actually ge�ng somewhere. FF
At the ﬁsh farmers premises:
Hydrolicer Compact Keeping levels of lice under control is one of the biggest challenges in the industry of aquaculture. An essential prerequisite for success is to have capacity available when you actually need it. Smir is now introducing a new tool to the industry,
Hydrolicer Compact a turn-key delousing vessel always available. it will allow the ﬁsh farmer to plan their own activity and handle their own ﬁsh. can be stationed at one farming site or in an area, and in that way maintain biosecurity. appr has a very low lifting height of approximately 1,2m which provides unique conditions for the ﬁsh welfare!
Please contact us for more information
Sentrumsveien 10 7160 Bjugn firstname.lastname@example.org
FLS Caligus – Advertorial
Taking care of your ﬁsh
e care about ﬁsh welfare because it is both good for the ﬁsh and economically important for the farmers. FLS has specialised in delousing for more than 10 years and has gained considerable experience in this ma�er. Salmon is a fragile bundle of muscle, and therefore our focus on innova�on has always been based on the ﬁsh’s welfare. The FLS Caligus delouser is a mechanical delouser that ﬂushes with seawater at seawater temperatures. It is organised as a siphon that pulls the ﬁsh from the cage and delivers it back to the cage at the same level. In the vacuumed pipeline this gives low li�ing height which is one of many important beneﬁts by using FLS Caligus. Pumping pressure aﬀects the ﬁsh nega�vely, therefore we aim to perform the opera�on with the lowest possible pump pressure. By using our gentle ejector to move the water and ﬁsh through the system, with zero li�ing height, we need a pumping pressure of only 0.35 – 0.45 bar to get the perfect water speed of 2-2.5 metres pr second. The ﬁsh is ﬂushed twice through our gentle full water ﬂushers, which is eﬀec�ve and gentle in delousing, and means the ﬁsh can be handled without wounds and injuries. This is achieved in a combina�on of the size of the ﬂushers, pipelines and the precisely ﬂushing nozzles. FLS Caligus ﬂushes with low pressure of only 0.55-0.85 bar, and s�ll removes about 95% of the sea lice. Low-pressure delousers FLS Weighing and Counting System
Delousing line Treated fish
Flatsetsund Engineering AS.indd 44
Photo by Henrik Svendsen
FLS Caligus is a high-performance delouser, focussed on ﬁsh welfare
To ensure an objec�ve assessment of FLS product documenta�on, we engaged veterinarian ins�tutes and other organisa�ons to document the ﬁsh welfare and product eﬃciency. Successful delousing is a combina�on of capacity (tons per hour), eﬃciency (delouse percentage) and ﬁsh welfare (minimising stress, injuries, wounds, and mortality). With FLS Caligus we have found the right combina�on to delouse the ﬁsh without harm. Our customer MV Smøla Viking, has a FLS Caligus delouser with four lines with a capacity of 200 tones per hour. They can demonstrate mortality rate as low as 0.1% and a delousing eﬀect of more than 95%. FLS Caligus delousing is a sustainable system – it treats the ﬁsh carefully and has low energy consump�on, and there are no chemicals or hot water involved. For more Information and documentation visit www.ﬂs.no E-mail: oﬃce@ﬂs.no Telephone: +47 - 71 52 94 20. FF
“Excellence in ﬁsh welfare ” Top: Salmon welfare Above: FLS Caligus delousing at MV Smøla Viking Left: FLS Caligus – highperformance delouser, focused on ﬁsh welfare
World Feeds Ltd
The innovative solution to sea lice
K-based feed manufacturer World Feeds Ltd has been going from strength to strength throughout the pandemic, with its recent factory redevelopment promising a tenfold increase in production output.This has major implications for the company’s growth and its cleaner ﬁsh feeding systems,Vita Aqua Feeds (VAF), targeted at combatting the sea lice issue. VAF’s soft, malleable feed blocks are complete diets that require no refrigeration or mixing. Highly digestible and attractive to both lumpﬁsh and wrasse, studies have demonstrated the high effectiveness and beneﬁts of the blocks when compared to other commercially available feeds. Improved efﬁcacy has been achieved by huge reductions in cataract development, with trials resulting in a 77% reduction in cataract prevalence in lumpﬁsh when compared with those fed with a pelleted diet. It has also been shown that ﬁsh fed with VAF experience improvements to general health and welfare and maintained stable, controlled growth rates – negating the symptoms of artiﬁcially high growth rates. VAF feed blocks encourage and facilitate natural grazing behaviour, allowing the larger ﬁsh to satiate before the smaller ﬁsh take their turn.This subsequently leads to reduced aggression during feeding.The beneﬁts of the diets are maximised by strategically presenting the feed blocks using the innovative MLD feeding station, bespoke designed for practicality and efﬁciency. Preparation time is all but eliminated as the feed can be deployed directly from the pack in situ at the pen, while a two-year shelf life greatly reduces storage costs. Into 2021,VAF is swiftly becoming the go-to solution for cleaner ﬁsh management and welfare with several companies already converted to 100% usage and ongoing trials with some of the biggest operations in Scotland and Norway. www.vitaquafeeds.uk
Top: A VAF cleaner ﬁsh feed block. Above: Wrasse feeding at an MLD feeding sta�on
THE SOLUTION TO SEA LICE &
CLEANER FISH MANAGEMENT
Page 46.indd 46
Garware – Advertorial
Lice skirts with built-in antifouling help to keep fish safe and well
ea lice management is one of the most complex issues to deal with at a salmon farm. Until now, there has been no silver bullet available to treat or prevent sea lice infestation sustainably. A wide spectrum of products has been used to control sea lice numbers including pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical methods. Sea lice control methods in salmon farms include oral and immersion treatments. A range of physical methods have been developed over the past decade, ranging from biological control using cleaner fish, the use of warm water in thermolicers, laser intervention and flushing with hydrolicers. In every aspect, innovators have been thinking outside the box. In a recent article it was shown quantitatively that in-feed treatments and long-term usage of skirts wrapped around the top portion of salmon pens are the most cost-effective approach for sea lice management.The use of skirts is seen by some to be one of the sustainable sea lice management strategies. One of the major limitations in terms of mass acceptance of this strategy has been the potential for reduced water exchange and hence reduction in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels inside the net. To solve this problem there are couple of innovative products in the industry that claim a healthy water permeability. However, this water permeability is limited to a few days to a few weeks depending on the intensity of biofouling at the site and the time of year. Biofouling species such as algae, hydroids etc cover the “pores” in the lice skirts, thus making them impermeable within a relatively short time.The lice skirts need to be cleaned frequently to maintain water permeability, leading to higher operational costs and possibility of wear and tear of the lice skirt fabric. Until now, there has been no solution to reduce fouling growth on the skirts. If the base material was to be coated with antifouling paint, then the “pores” of the fabric would occlude and restrict water permeation. Garware Technical Fibres Ltd. has developed the industry’s first lice skirt which is water permeable but at the same time has built-in antifouling properties. The lice skirt fabric, called X12-V2, has been woven using the patented V2 yarn which is a composite yarn comprising a polymer and metallic copper. Copper ions leach out at an extremely slow rate and discourage biofouling species from settling on the X12-V2 fabric. In a recent full-sized 120m pen trial conducted in Scotland, the X12-V2
Gareware - PED.indd 47
Until now, “there has been no solution to reduce fouling growth
Top: The X12 V2 lice skirt on cage Top right: Bio-fouling on standard lice skirt Right: Reduced biofouling on X12-V2 Lice skirt
fabric showed reduced fouling as compared to standard polyester. X12-V2 skirts have the potential to not only reduce cleaning costs, but also allow water permeability for a longer duration compared to other fabrics.The reduced cleaning frequency on the robust X12-V2 skirt makes it more durable and longer-lasting. FF
Tackling Tom Morrow Tarpaulins – Advertorial
sea lice head on Innovative products from Tom Morrow Tarpaulins lead the way
n infesta�on of sea lice can be extremely damaging in the fast-moving world of salmon farming. Although marine mortality rate from the parasi�c lice is rela�vely low, they can cause serious physical damage to the ﬁsh, aﬀec�ng their growth and rendering en�re schools unviable to bring to market. This can have a catastrophic eﬀect on proﬁt margins – especially at a �me when addi�onal external factors like the Covid-19 pandemic and Brexit are placing heavy strain on the en�re sector. As with many marine health issues, the key is to try and prevent before needing to cure; to plan ahead to avoid a major infesta�on, rather than tackling the issue once stock is heavily infected. “Having procedures in place to mi�gate the risk of a sea lice infesta�on is vital to the success of any viable salmon farming business,” explains Gary Cunningham, director of Tom Morrow Tarpaulins. “There are a number of op�ons available to those opera�ng ﬁsh farms – including lice barrier screens, treatment tarpaulins, and freshwater treatment and storage bags. Whichever methods are employed, however, it is important to ensure that the products are durable and long-las�ng – meaning you don’t end up paying more down the line for costly repairs.” With over 50 years of experience in the team, Tom Morrow Tarpaulins is a world-leader in providing sea lice preven�on solu�ons to the aquaculture in-
dustry. From its base in the Sco�sh Highlands, the ﬁrm works with clients across the UK – and around the world including Canada, Norway, Australia, Spain and Hawaii – to provide a tailored service built on a wealth of technical knowledge. The customers’ needs are always at the heart of everything the team does, and the product range has been designed in conjunc�on with industry partners who each have unique problems to solve. Director Marcus Sanctuary says: “It’s important to us that our products are strong and hard-wearing – allowing our clients the peace of mind that their salmon are safe and well protected from sea lice. “We have spent a great deal of �me and eﬀort to source the best quality components we can, to live up to the reputa�on we have built, ensuring every material – down to the thread – is rigorously tested. By sourcing our materials locally, we have been able to avoid many of the import issues that others in the industry have faced during
Left: One of Tom Morrow Tarpaulins’ freshwater bags being ﬁlled Top: A pen in Ireland wai�ng to be ﬁ�ed with one of Tom Morrow Tarpaulins’ lice barrier screens Above: 130 metre Tom Morrow Tarpaulins freshwater bags in use Right: Tom Morrow Tarpaulins’ high quality lice ﬁlter bags on board a vessel
Tom Morrow Tarpaulins.indd 48
Tackling sea lice head on
to us that our products “It’sareimportant strong and hard-wearing ”
Brexit and have con�nued to be able to make our products to the same high standard without any compromises. “We don’t believe in a ‘one size ﬁts all approach’. Instead, we work alongside our clients to ensure the design, manufacture and delivery of each product ﬁts their needs exactly. In doing this, we use no heavy machinery in the manufacturing process. Every item is handmade and closely inspected to guarantee a quality product.” Sea Lice Barrier Screens Tom Morrow Tarpaulins has been developing sea lice barrier screens for a number of years and is recognised as producing the most reliable and long-las�ng products on the market. The team has worked extensively with the industry to create products which are well constructed and simple to deploy. Their unrivalled strength and longevity ensure salmon are protected from sea lice for many cycles, reducing the requirement for regular repairs. The ﬁrm is also currently developing a new brand of freshwater screens. Taking advantage of an impermeable top layer, the new screens aﬀord the same func�onality as tradi�onal barrier screens, while also allowing the top por�on of the tank to be ﬁlled with freshwater for feeding and de-lousing.
The ﬁrm’s ﬁrst treatment cone – constructed over a decade ago – is s�ll in regular use and, thanks to quality a�ercare and service from the team, is expected to last for many more years to come. The tarpaulins are designed to be as simple as possible to use, made from high quality locally sourced materials. Freshwater Treatment and Storage Bags Tom Morrow Tarpaulins is no stranger to innova�on and is con�nuously working to create new products to sa�sfy the ever-changing demands of the salmon produc�on industry. Constructed from long-las�ng grades of PVC, the ﬁrm’s treatment and storage bags are built to last. Never res�ng on their laurels, the team is constantly on the lookout for new, innova�ve materials to work with, guaranteeing customers that their focus is always on the future of the industry. For more information about Tom Morrow Tarpaulins, and its innovative range of high-quality sea lice prevention products, visit www.tm-tarpaulins.com FF
Treatment Tarpaulins Customer tes�monials consistently show that Tom Morrow Tarpaulins’ cones and bags outlast other leading brands, providing a level of strength and durability that is unmatched in the marketplace.
Tom Morrow Tarpaulins.indd 49
Kapp – Advertorial
Increased cooling speed and shelf life with Optimice® slurry ice system
The slurry ice is liquid and is poured over the freshly caught fish.
It surrounds the fish and quickly cools it down to around -0.5°C and keeps it at this temperature during processing without freezing the fish.
reat progress has been made in the handling of fish during the last few years. Research conducted by Matís, the Icelandic food and biotech research institute, the University of Akureyri (Iceland) as well as research in other countries has shown that cooling the catch immediately is a key factor in maintaining quality and prolonging shelf life.
on board the ship, there is no need to produce flake ice on land and transport it on board. This saves both time and money and is more convenient to work with for fishermen. The ice is simply poured in liquid form over the fish, where the liquid turns into a cold slurry ice that completely surrounds the fish and stays the whole fishing trip.
Icelanders have developed Optimice® slurry ice as a replacement of traditional flake ice. Optimice® is a rapid cooling system on board the ship using seawater. The liquid slurry ice surrounds the fish, quickly cooling it down below 0°C and keeping the temperature around -0.5°C. During the whole fishing trip, landing, during transport to manufacturers and at the final consumer the fish stays at the same temperature without freezing. Therefore, the cold chain never breaks with Optimice® rapid cooling and the fish stays fresh at all times, maintaining maximum quality.
Over twenty years of worldwide experience Optimice® has been manufactured by the company KAPP ehf since 1999. Over five hundred devices have been sold worldwide and many of the largest shipping companies in Russia, Europe, the United States, Iceland and elsewhere use the equipment successfully.
Facilitates workflow and saves time As the Optimice® slurry ice is manufactured
Rapid cooling of fish worldwide since 1999 A lot of experience has been gained in the technology as over five hundred Optimice® machines have been sold in over twenty countries around the world, both for fishing vessels and for processing on land.
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Suitable for most conditions Great emphasis is placed on the quality, reliability and durability of Optimice® slurry ice machines, as conditions at sea can be very demanding. A reliable production and a long-lasting, low-maintenance machinery is key. Therefore, all production and inspection takes place at KAPP ehf in Iceland, following
The temperature of the fish stays at around -0.5°C throughout the fishing trip, during transportation on land and on his way to the final consumer.
strict quality requirements and ensuring that only best quality materials are used. The liquid ice machine is available for both cold and hot climates where the sea water temperature can vary a lot. It is also suitable for both small vessels (>10m) and large trawlers and is adapted to the daily maximum catch for each vessel. The Optimice® cooling system is suitable for most fish species and has also proven successful in cooling vegetables and dough in larger bakeries, though it has been most often used for cooling demersal fish, salmon and shrimp. Land-based fish processing In recent years, research has shown that good results have been achieved in processing fish on land using pre-coolers from Optimice® The fish is then regularly cooled during processing so it can never heat up to the critical temperature where the growth of bacteria can occur. This increases the quality and shelf life of the fish to a large extent. A new study from 2019 at the University of Akureyri shows that the shelf life of the fish increases by approximately one and a half days if the fish fillets are dipped in slurry ice for one minute before packing. In the same study, the salt uptake of cod fillets with Optimice® refrigeration was investigated, showing that there is no salt uptake at all. In the study, the fish fillets were laid in a slurry ice bath from 30 seconds up to 10 minutes. The results showed that there is no significant difference in salt content depending on how long the fish was in the slurry ice bath and the salt uptake is therefore non-existent. The cold chain may never break A new study from 2020 at the University of
Increased cooling speed Iceland examined the effect of slurry ice on the temperature in cod fillets in a fresh fish processing plant before the fish was placed into a cold storage or freezer. The temperature of the product, refrigerant and processing rooms was monitored and the result was unambiguous. Insufficient temperature control in the fresh fish cold chain before freezing has a great impact on the quality of the final product. It is therefore important that the cold chain is uninterrupted, from the sea to the final consumer, in order to maintain quality. In the processing plant, the fish must therefore be cooled down quickly to storage temperature, and kept at the same temperature, to ensure maximum quality. In another study, the temperature of the catch was studied from the sea until the catch had been processed on land. Optimice® cooling was used on board the ship. The whole catch was cooled immediately and after seven days of fishing, the catch was landed and driven by a lorry for seven hours to the processing plant. The temperature of the fish on arrival was -0.7°C and the ambient temperature in the processing house was +20°C. Before processing, the fish was put in a buffer tank with pre-cooled ice water. The fish was filleted, trimmed and eventually packed, but in between it went on a conveyor belt with built-in pre-cooling. During the whole process, the fish went from -0.7°C to +0.6°C. The increase was therefore only 0.9°C, but a lower ambient temperature would have given even better results. The cold chain was never broken, maintaining maximum product quality from fishing and throughout the processing. Happy customers Customer reviews support the research results. Here are examples from people who have used the slurry ice cooling system for many years: Ólafur Rögnvaldsson, CEO of the fish processing plant in Hellissandur. “The Optimice® equipment has proven to be excellent for our fishing vessels and our production factory on land. I recommend the equipment for everybody handling fish”. Hinrik Kristjánsson, CEO of Kambur Seafood. “Our experience of Optimice® has been very good. The cooling stays very stable through the whole process, from catch to final customer. For us this means that we get a higher price for the fish”. Pétur H. Pálsson, Director of Vísir fishing company. “We have used the Optimice® equipment in our fishing vessels for many years. Our experience has been outstanding. It gives us without a doubt better quality, longer shelf life, labour hours are reduced and we get a better price for our products” www.kapp.is
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Rapid cooling of the catch is key As soon as a fish is caught, its decay begins and the sooner it gets refrigerated, the less bacteria will grow, shelf life will be prolonged and quality maintained. The graph above shows the difference between cooling demersal fish with Optimice® slurry ice on the one hand and traditional flaked ice on the other. The Slurry Ice system cools the fish down to below 0°C in less than one hour. Using traditional flaked ice, it takes around fifteen hours to reach the same temperature. The difference in quality can be seen in the photos, taken of fish after fourteen days of cooling, where the upper one is cooled with slurry ice and the lower one with flaked ice. Numerous studies have been performed on the cooling systems and all show similar results. The graph above is from Seafish Scotland. Matís, the Icelandic Food and Biotech research institute and the University of Akureyri as well as the International Journal of Refrigeration etc. have also
researched slurry ice cooling and published similar results.
FLAKE ICE Cod after 14 days of cooling.
Visual evolution during the sampling days A study conducted at the University of Iceland clearly shows the difference in quality in fresh cod over a fourteen-day period. The difference between these cooling systems is tremendous.
Surrounded by the slurry ice, the cod is of good quality on the fourteenth day, but in the flaked ice the quality has started to decrease a lot on the sixth day and on the fourteenth day the decay has become noticeable.
The machinery that creates Optimice® slurry ice
The pre-cooler speeds up the cooling process and is both sold separately and in conjunction with the Optimice® slurry ice machine.
The Optimice® machine creates slurry ice from seawater.
The storage tank collects slurry ice and stores it so that there is always enough ice available to cool the fish.
Land-based farms and hatcheries
Land ho! An increasing amount of investment is going into the creation of fish farms on land BY ROBERT OUTRAM
he first salmon to be raised in Scottish Sea Farms’ smolt hatchery at Barcaldine, on the west coast of Scotland, were harvested in November last year from the company’s Loch Nevis C farm. It was a major milestone for Scottish Sea Farms (SSF), which had invested £58m in the Barcaldine site. Taking up 17,500 square metres, the hatchery has the capacity to produce as many as 10 million smolts annually, and crucially, it gives the freshwater team the ability to grow bigger, more robust smolts that require up to two months less at sea. For the first generation of smolts which transferred from Barcaldine in December 2019, this means they had reached an average weight of 160g on transfer, more than double the typical weight of smolts that are produced using a traditional hatchery process. For the first generation of smolts which transferred from Barcaldine in December 2019, this means they had reached an average weight of 160g on transfer, more than double the typical weight of smolts produced using a traditional hatchery process. Barcaldine represented a major investment for SSF, so what was the motivation? Pål Tangvik, Freshwater Manager at the company, explains: “Our motivation was two-fold. Firstly, we wanted to become self-sufficient in smolt production for our growing estate of marine farms. Secondly, by opting for a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), we wanted to gain more control over key factors such as water quality, temperature, oxygen levels, light and speed of flow so that we could create the optimum growing conditions.” Previously, SSF had grown its own smolts at three smaller, flow-through hatcheries in Scotland, meeting any surplus requirements via third parties. Using the latest recirculating aquacultural systems (RAS) technology, Barcaldine requires 20 times less freshwater than conventional methods
and employs a combination of energy-efficient heat pumps and heat exchangers to maintain and adjust water temperature; a system that can also recover energy from waste water so that it can be reused elsewhere in the process. Furthermore, the hatchery uses a filtration system to capture waste, which is treated and re-purposed as fertiliser for land farming rather than ending up in the marine environment. One of the toughest tasks, says Tangvik who oversaw the project to completion, was to find the right location for the land-based facility: “We wanted to be close to the sea so we could transfer the fish directly onto the wellboat then on to the marine farm, without the need for road or air transport; a key advance for fish welfare. And we needed water to be available – Barcaldine already had a hydro-electric installation which met some of our power and water needs.” He adds: “The hatchery uses a lot of energy, but it needs much less energy per fish produced than conventional hatchery methods.” Increasingly, other farming businesses are making this kind of investment, in Scotland, Norway and elsewhere. As Tangvik observes: “More and
The “ advantage is that you can have a more controlled environment
more companies are seeking to gain greater control over their production methods. We all have the same goal of giving the fish in our care the very best journey.” Recently, SalMar announced it was working with RAS specialist Krüger Kaldnes and construction firm Consto to build what it says will be the world’s biggest smolt hatchery at Tjuin in Malm, Norway. The building work begins in May of this year. Meanwhile in Canada, Cooke Aquaculture is planning to invest nearly CAN $60m dollars building a new post-smolt hatchery in Digby Neck, Nova Scotia. The land based hatchery is planned to produce three million salmon a year, supplying Cooke’s 13 fish farms in the province. Here too the fish will be kept longer before being transferred to marine sites, reaching an average 500g. One of the key benefits of a RAS hatchery is that it becomes possible to keep production going throughout the year. So says Lars Halvorsen, Project Manager with Norway’s Alvestad Marin AS. He says: “The advantage is that you can have a more controlled environment, which is less dependent on the seasons and on local water sources. It makes it possible to have continuous production.” Alvestad specialises in RAS technology for hatcheries. The company began in 2002 with salmon hatcheries using flow-through technology, before developing a fully RAS approach using more complex water treatment. The company sees significant opportunities in the growth in land-based salmon production internationally. He says: “Salmon are now being farmed in many places throughout the world, so they will need hatcheries!” The big land-based farm projects under way now have financial muscle, but they also need to make use of expertise and this typically comes from Denmark and Norway, he notes. The land-based division of aquaculture technology business AKVA group has around 300 employees, mainly based in Denmark, Norway and Chile. Jacob Bregnballe, Sales Director, Land Based
Salmon Projects, says the company has been working on RAS projects to grow salmon to harvest size for several years now. He says: “It’s a proven technology – we have shown that it works with smolts, so applying it to adult fish is more about size [of the system] than anything else”. “This market is growing. We’re working on five or six big projects, with capacities of 5,000, 10,000 or even 15,000 tonnes annually, and all of them are going through to execution.” AKVA group’s current projects include sites in Middle East, Norway, Sweden, USA and in China, where AKVA group is working with Nordic Aqua Partners and feed supplier Nutreco on an 8,000 tonne RAS facility in Ningbo. Why is there increasing interest in land-based farming worldwide? Bregnballe says there are a number of drivers. One is that, by locating large firms close to consumers, it is possible to cut the costs of transport, and also reduce CO2 emissions. With land-based farms it is possible to grow salmon in locations where the marine environment is too warm, or otherwise unsuitable, or where public policy has decreed – as in Denmark recently – that further marine fish farm development should not be allowed. Another argument is sustainability and environmental impact. AKVA group is working on a facility in Sweden that will be owned and run by Premium Svensk Lax (PSL), a Swedish company committed to a zero-emissions approach. The farm will have 88 tanks to accommodate different growth stages from first feed to big grow-out tanks, powered by renewable energy.
Opposite (top): Scottish Sea Farms, Barcaldine growing tank. (below): Pål
This page, clockwise from top right: How Kvarøy’s
flow-through site will look; working in the Barcaldine growing area; incubation; RAS technology at Barcaldine
Land-based farms and hatcheries
The fish waste will be collected and used for biogas. Bregnballe says: “10 years ago the technology focused on water treatment, such as biofilters. We have learned how to build big biofilters and we understand RAS technology. Now we are looking further than the RAS itself: for example, how do we handle large salmon? We are developing systems to move and grade fish even up to 5kg, 6kg. How do we feed the massive amounts of salmon in large RAS systems? These projects are of interest to the big feed companies because they want to gain knowledge about what is exactly needed to feed this generation of land-based salmon.” Consultants Kontali forecast that, by 2030, worldwide salmon production will go up from 2.6m tonnes to 4.5m tonnes, of which AKVA group estimates that 800,000 tonnes will be land-based. Bregnballe says: “It’s a large market. You can get a premium product this way and the cost will come down as we find ways to do it better. It’s a completely new way of looking at aquaculture, and there is a lot of interest from investors in the sector. It’s not money that’s the challenge, it’s the ability to execute.” Even now, however, not all land-based developments use RAS technology. Kvarøy Arctic operates several marine farms off Kvarøy island, part of an archipelago on the edge of the Arctic Circle. The company’s sites are located in deep water, open ocean, sites where the water quality is excellent and the temperature ideal for salmon. Under Norway’s “traffic light” system, the area is counted as “green” but even so, the capacity for any more farms in the locality is extremely limited. That’s why, according to Kvarøy’s Chief Executive Officer, Alf-Gøran Knutsen, the company is building a land-based farm. He explains: “There is no more space [at sea], but we want to produce more and we see advantages in terms of where we are located.” Logistical issues such as feed and harvesting are also easier with a farm located close to the existing sites. The solution, for Kvarøy, is a land-based farm using “flow through” technology, making use of the abundant and clean seawater in the area. The Kvarøy site will recirculate only 40-50% of the water it uses – in contrast to a RAS facility which could typically recirculate up to 98% – and it does not require expensive filtration systems and chemicals. The flow through system uses more energy than a RAS, but it is connected to a renewable hydro-electric source. Also the capital expenditure required is lower. Following “circular economy” principles, fish waste will be collected and reused to create biofuel to power Kvarøy’s wellboats and trucks. Another advantage is that the Kvarøy system can keep the fish in self-contained units, so if there is a disease outbreak in one it will not affect the others. Knutsen stresses: “We’re not in a hurry – we don’t have investors who want their money back straight away. We are on track to have the first fish in the tanks in 2023, for harvesting in late 2023 or early 2024.” Advances in land-based farming have been impressive, but it should never be forgotten that at the heart of the system is a living organism. Professor Herve Migaud, of the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture, says: “A huge amount of work has gone into developing RAS technology
Clockwise from top left: AlfGøran Knutsen, Nordic Aqua Partners’ Ningbo project; Kvarøy Arctic; SSF’s Barcaldine site
– which has been fantastic over the last 20 years – but there has not been enough study yet to understand the impact on biology.” Migaud is co-ordinator for the Robust-Smolt project. Launched in January 2019, the aim is to understand the biological implications for smolts reared in RAS facilities. It is intended to continue through 2021. The initiative is a collaboration between the University of Stirling, (which is leading the project) and academic staff at Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Exeter Universities, together with the leading players in the fish farming sector in Scotland and trade, corporate and government organisations. Migaud notes: “There are clear environmental, welfare and production benefits with RAS. For example, fish in RAS facilities are protected against pathogens, their environment is fully controlled and
It’s a completely new way of looking at aquaculture, and there is a lot of interest from investors in the sector
LET LET AutoTend TAKE CARE OF YOUR EGGS! LETAutoTend AutoTend TAKE CARE OF YOUR EGGS! TAKE CARE YOUR EGGS! TAKE CAREOF OF YOUR EGGS!
environmental impact reduced.” He adds, however: “We wanted to understand anecdotal reports that smolts transferred to sea from RAS are not doing as well as those from ambient loch systems. Practice in Scotland offers a unique opportunity given that smolts are produced in both environments. In a way it makes sense; RAS provides a very constant and consistent environment to the fish which contrasts with sea conditions characterised by daily and seasonal changes in photoperiod, with darkness not really experienced in RAS, and tides, cooler temperatures, depth. Fish would benefit from a period of acclimatisation prior to transfer as seen for other species. Careful handling of roe and Advanced machine vision which AutoTend is the first robot of fry using suctionoftoroe extract, and allows for a dual evaluation ofwhich the its kindAutoTend designedisfor automatic “Another question was whether fish immunocompetence in RAS is Careful handling Advanced machine vision the first robot of Careful handlingmove of and roethe and Advanced machine vision which AutoTend is the first robot of object before it is removed. egg and fryslight usingpressure suction totoextract, and allows for a dual evaluation This of the its fry kindtending. designed for automatic different than in ambient systems. Early results from the project show that fry using suction to extract, and allows for a dual evaluation of the its kind designed for automatic upper layers toofmove roe and means no healthy eggsThis or fry slight pressure the fry for objectthat before it is removed. egg and fry tending. slight pressure to move object before is removed. This egg and fry tending. access to the lower layer. upper layers of roe and fry forthe will be accidentally discarded. means that noit healthy eggs or fry the microbiome in RAS fish – the collection of micro-organisms on the fish uppertolayers of roe and fry for means no healthy eggs or fry the lower layer. will be that accidentally discarded. Careful handling Advanced machine vision whichaccess mucosal layers like skin, gills and intestine – is different from that of fish fromAutoTend is the first robot of access to the lower layer. of roe and will be accidentally discarded. fry using suction to extract, and allows for a dual evaluation of the its kind designed for automatic ambient loch systems. However, the potential long term effects remain to slight pressure to move the object before it is removed. This egg and fry tending. be understood and the saline environment has been shown to reset the upper layers of roe and fry for means that no healthy eggs or fry WATCH THE WATCH THE microbiome”. access to the lower layer. will be accidentally discarded. VIDEO! VIDEO! WATCH THE Migaud and his colleagues are also looking at the impact of water chemVIDEO! istry, genetic factors, diets. He says: “This is an ambitious project given the See AutoTend at at See AutoTendininaction action wide range of factors at play and it is too early for conclusions from the alvestad.com/en/produkter/autotend/ alvestad.com/en/produkter/autotend/ See AutoTend in action at project, many more questions and hypotheses remains to be studied during alvestad.com/en/produkter/autotend/ WATCH THE the years to come!” VIDEO! With the growth of land-based fish farming, aquaculture is embarking For more information please contact us today on an exciting and challenging new phase. Whether it turns out to be For more information please contact us today successful in the long term will depend on a number of factors , such as AutoTendus in action at For more information pleaseSee contact today alvestad.com/en/produkter/autotend/ technology and the price of fish, but there is no doubt at all that considerable resources are being committed to growing the sector. FF
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2020-05-29 10:41 AM
2020-05-29 10:41 AM
For more information please contact us2020-05-29 today10:41 AM
TecnoVit – Advertorial
A prickly solution for stress
SERETEC is your powerful tool for stress control in aquatic production BY MARTA ARREDONDO LUQUE & JOANA FIRMINO EMAIL: AQUACULTURE@FARMFAES.COM
ERETEC is a total extract of the fruit of Opuntia ﬁcus indica, the prickly pear cactus. It accelerates the synthesis and enables the elevated levels of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) in ﬁsh for three days following a stress episode. Studies that have been carried out showing how SERETEC enhances HSP performance yielding beneﬁcial eﬀects in aqua�c species. In one study, Atlan�c salmon smolts were transferred to an oﬀshore site via wellboat over a 10-day period. SERETEC and a control group were u�lized and the two popula�ons were kept separate throughout the trial. Salmon were kept in containment tanks prior to transport. SERETEC was applied by immersion between two and eight hours prior to handling. 50,000 salmon were precondi�oned with SERETEC and 300,000 salmon were used as a control popula�on. Mortali�es were observed during transporta�on and six-weeks post-transfer. There was 7% mortality in the control popula�on and 2.3% mortality in the SERETEC precondi�oned popula�on demonstra�ng eﬀec�ve reduc�on in mortali�es during transfer of smolts to sea. Adult gilthead seabream, with an average weight of 350g (transport density 35kg/m3; transport �me approximately ﬁve hours) were used in a transport trial. Stress biomarkers (cor�sol, glucose and lactate) were measured in blood plasma and epidermal mucus prior and posttransfer to assess ﬁsh allosta�c load and recovery to the stress episode. Survival and presence of external lesions were recorded. Results show that stress biomarkers were signiﬁcantly lower in plasma and mucus, (Figure 3) upon arrival and during the post-transport period, compared with control ﬁsh. Evidence of stress such as a darker ﬁsh skin color, erra�c Figure 3 swimming, and higher incidence of skin lesions (85%) were observed in control ﬁsh. (Figure 1). The use of SERETEC demonstrated a posi�ve strategy to a�enuate transport-derived stress in adult gilthead seabream. A study was carried out to determine the eﬀect of using SERETEC during transport of wild-caught rasbora harlequin ﬁsh. Three thousand rasbora were collected from their natural habitat in Riau Province, Indonesia. Fish were allowed to acclima�se for one week in six 45-litre aquariums. Twelve hours
Tecno Vit - PED.indd 56
prior the start of transport, ﬁve aquariums were precondi�oned with SERETEC, applied by immersion while one aquarium acted as control. All the ﬁsh from each aquarium (500 ﬁsh) were then placed in transport bags. A�er the 12h-transport by road and plane to Depok, the ﬁsh were placed into six ponds. Mortality was recorded on arrival and for a period of six days post-transfer. Due to the large number of deaths in the control ﬁsh, SERETEC was applied to both groups, precondi�oned and control ﬁsh on the fourth day (Figure 2). The results show a reduc�on in mortality of delicate wild-caught ornamental species and the prolonged three-day protec�on of SERETEC. Results from various trials including the ones described, demonstrate the importance of mi�ga�ng stress, in order to alleviate both mortality and morbidity in aquaculture. The use of eﬀec�ve health management through the applica�on of natural solu�ons can support sustainable aquaculture prac�ces. SERETEC has proven to be a powerful tool for stress control in aqua�c produc�on. www.tecnovit.net FF
Figure 1: Control group showed skin peeling and presence of small petechial areas throughout the lateral line and caudal peduncle Figure 2: Wild caught rasbora harlequin ﬁsh mortality record at arrival and during six days post transfer. SERETEC was applied 12h prior to transport and at the fourth day to precondi�oned and control ﬁsh, where a signiﬁcant decrease in mortality was observed for both groups. The prolonged 3 day protec�on of SERETEC is demonstrated Figure 3: Skin mucus stress biomarkers for gilthead seabream transported with SERETEC or without (control). Asterisks indicate signiﬁcant diﬀerences between experimental condi�ons (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01; t-test). Basal health status of ﬁsh was evaluated before ini�a�ng the transport. Stress biomarkers were recorded at arrival (0h) and 3, 19 and 38h post-transport.
Products and services
What’s NEW Monthly update on industry innovations and solutions from around the world SpectraMapper for aquaculture monitoring Ecotone is offering a novel approach for seafloor environmental assessment; SpectraMapper. We are using our unique patented technology – underwater hyperspectral imaging (UHI) – underwater vehicles and machine learning methods to deliver user-friendly digital maps of nature types (e.g. corals), species distribution and organic wastes. This award-winning solution is available and suitable for all depths, soft substrate, hard and mixed seabed, fjords and exposed fish farm locations. Through re-visitation of an area, a site’s environmental footprint can be monitored over time. SpectraMapper is your eyes underwater – an excellent tool for decision making support. For more information please visit www.ecotone.com
StofnFiskur rebrands to Benchmark Genetics Iceland JANUARY 19 marked a milestone in the long history of StofnFiskur, with the company changing its legal name to Benchmark Genetics Iceland hf. Founded in 1991, Benchmark Genetics Iceland is a long-established and trusted provider of improved genetic material to the salmon farming industry in markets worldwide, including the UK. Although the company’s legal name has changed, the enterprise registration number, company structure and ownership remain the same. The company is also maintaining the StofnFiskur brand for the genetic strain, in the knowledge that it holds significant value to the company’s customers. www.bmkgenetics.com
Microalgae holds the key to oral vaccine ISRAELI biotech company TransAlgae has announced an exclusive business development collaboration agreement with Virbac, a French company and one of the leading animal health players worldwide. The companies have signed an exclusive collaboration agreement to develop an oral vaccine based on TransAlgae’s breakthrough technology. To date, effective and efficient oral delivery in animal health has been one of the veterinary sector’s biggest challenges. TransAlgae’s technology aims to solve this challenge by utilising microalgae to both produce and deliver the vaccine, replacing injected vaccines. The microalgae are produced without any antibiotics in a process that enables rapid, low-cost production that can be practiced anywhere on the globe. www.transalgae.com Decades of expertise in nets COLLINS Nets has been hand making bespoke nets in West Dorset for over 30 years. The family run company has now grown into a market leader in expertise and quality, specialising in hand-rigged Seine nets, fyke nets, fish cages and hand nets. Collins Nets has extensive experience in designing and making nets for the Environment Agency, fish farms and various water authorities. Collins Nets has built a trusted and relied upon brand that now makes a variety of custom solutions for the fisheries industry, both in the UK and around the world. Fisheries Catalogues are available upon request. www.collinsnets.co.uk
What's New - Feb 21.indd 57
Reach out to the entire world with your new innovations on the What’s New page for only £220 (+vat) 57
Management monitoring and analysis
Appliance of science Technology is providing new ways to manage farm operations
he ﬁsh farming industry in Scotland will this year be able to beneﬁt from a centre of veterinary exper�se that has its origins in Chile. VeHiCe (Veterinary Histopathology Center) is opening a facility in Scotland in order to provide analysis for a range of ﬁsh health issues. Founded in 2014, VeHiCe is focused on animal health, delivering advice and concrete solu�ons to its customers. The company’s advanced pathology techniques allow it to evaluate the sanitary condi�on of a produc�ve broodstock, diagnosing diseases and recommending preven�ve and correc�ve measures to our customers. Digital technology allows its skilled team to work remotely from anywhere in the world, and VeHiCe currently has opera�ons in Chile, Panama, the United States, Canada, Scotland and Norway. VeHiCe’s services include pathogen detec�on, toxicology analysis, evalua�on of diets, reproduc�ve analysis, detec�on of harmful algal booms (HABs) and SCORE, a histological grading method to generate damage scales for diﬀerent organs, through which the intensity of a lesion or a pathological altera�on can be measured. Scotland itself has long been a leading centre for animal health and other branches of science. James Hu�on Limited is the commercial arm of The James Hu�on Ins�tute, which was formed through the combina�on of the Macaulay Land Use Research Ins�tute (MLURI) and SCRI (Sco�sh Crop Research Ins�tute). The new ins�tute was created on 1 April 2011. James Hu�on Limited provides a range of laboratory services for agri-
INTRO Management, Monitoring & Analysis.indd 58
culture and aquaculture, including sediment analysis – which can provide an informa�ve assessment of the environmental impact of a marine farm site – and Mylneﬁeld Lipid Analysis, a specialist lipid laboratory in Dundee established at the James Hu�on Ins�tute in 1995 by Bill Chris�e and Frank Gunstone, renowned lipid analysis experts. The current laboratory team has more than 20 years’ experience of analysing oils and fats. The laboratory has been inspected by the Medical and Healthcare products Regulatory Authority (MHRA) and is approved for analysing lipids from clinical trials to Good Clinical Prac�ce (GCP) standards. It has also been inspected by the Food and Drug Administra�on (FDA) and it is approved by the FDA and MHRA for the analysis of lipid-based pharmaceu�cal and nutraceu�cal products to Good Manufacturing Prac�ce (GMP) standards. It is also very helpful to be able to monitor farm sites in real �me. Innovasea – distributed in the UK by RS Aqua – has developed a wireless
Appliance of science aquaculture monitoring system, aquaCurrent, which allows producers to monitor environmental condi�ons online in real �me. Each farm is populated with a suite of cableless sensors called aquaMeasures, which use a unique underwater acous�c transmission protocol to send data to a central telemetry unit called the aquaHub. The aquaHub pushes the data online in real �me, over a WiFi, cellular or Iridium network. Other monitoring systems – e.g. meteorological sta�ons, current monitors and wave and �de sensors – can also be added. Last year MOWI selected Innovasea’s Aquaculture Intelligence system to monitor 20 of its Sco�sh salmon farms. The advanced environmental monitoring system will track dissolved oxygen and temperature at each farm by using cableless sensors. In turn, this will provide the farms, central management, and the MOWI ﬁsh health teams with real-�me data and alerts on changing oxygen concentra�ons. Also helping farm operators to get a clearer idea of what is happening beneath the surface is Ace Aquatec. The company’s 3D BioCam system is the world’s ﬁrst underwater Time-ofFlight camera that captures genuine 3D data to provide precise biomass readings. There are no calcula�ons or manual interven�ons required, the company says. Users get real data, in real-�me. By using real 3D images, it is possible to tell exactly how far away each ﬁsh is from the camera. Hundreds of images are captured every
Hundreds of images are captured every second
second to quickly create a comprehensive data set. The ability to manage and monitor the environment at a farm site, from biomass to dissolved oxygen levels, is cri�cal and technology is making it more and more possible to do that at a distance, from the comfort of your own home or oﬃce. FF
Above: the 3D BioCam Opposite: Lab technicians
Analysing a Cleaner Future
ike all businesses, the analytical laboratories of James Hutton Limited have felt the brunt of the COVID crisis. The commercial subsidiary of Scotland’s James Hutton Institute remains open for business, however, offering a range of techniques for sediment and water, suitable for identifying extremely low level, trace quantities of contaminant, including emamectin benzoate in sediment. James Hutton Limited is optimistic about the role it will play in the world’s ‘green economic recovery’ from COVID. Business Development Manager Rodger McGovern said: “Our researchers, analysts and UKAS accredited analytical techniques play a crucial part in monitoring many aspects of the environment, which will ensure that recovery from COVID is sustainable, mitigating any losses in biodiversity. “From marine sediments to potable water, we are in the
Left: Analysis of marine sediment is a specialty of James Hu�on Limited Right: James Hu�on Limited analyses are undertaken by experts with many years of experience in specialist techniques
INTRO Management, Monitoring & Analysis.indd 59
fantastic position of being able to harness the resources of the James Hutton Institute, including laboratories in Aberdeen and respected analysts. We also have our own highly specialised lipid laboratory in Dundee specialising in ﬁsh oils and fats. The scientists that carry out analyses for James Hutton Limited are dedicated experts in their own techniques with many years of experience, which provides a more detailed understanding and interpretation of results than would be possible with a high throughput laboratory. A small, close-knit team also means that techniques are often combined to ﬁnd the most accurate results for clients and there are extensive material libraries and experiences to draw from.” More about James Hutton Limited’s laboratory and lipid services can be found at www.huttonltd.com
Veterinary Histopathology Center SPA.indd 60
Nikos Steiropoulos November 1971 - December 2020 passion and dedication to “fishNikos’ health and welfare made him a respected and valued colleague ”
professional and a true gentleman, his drive and determination to support his customers and his team was second to none. Nikos was passionate about the aquaculture and wider animal health industry and we will miss him greatly.” Those from the wider industry have also paid tribute to Nikos. Professor Simon MacKenzie of Stirling University said: “Always positive, smiling and encouraging. Nikos was a great professional particularly at bringing people together. Our years together led to fruitful science and long-lasting friendship. He touched many people and we all benefitted from his vision. I will sorely miss our friendship, my deepest condolences to his family.” Dario Mascolo, president of the Fish Veterinary Society (FVS) to which Nikos was a former member and president said: “I and his fellow FVS members will really miss Nikos’ good-humoured input into our society and t is with great sadness we announce the passing of Nikos Steiropouhis professional approach to the issues we los who died suddenly on 27 December. worked on together. His input reflected both Nikos was born to Athanasios and Millia Steiropoulos in 1971 and his keen interest in fish health and welfare and throughout his younger years was a keen and respected learner. His his pride in his profession. We are shocked to love for books and travel inspired him and his knowledge left a have lost him.” presence wherever he went. Many others have described Nikos as “a great Nikos began his veterinary training at Aristotle University in Thessaprofessional”, “full of integrity and dedicated loniki, before moving to the UK to complete an MSc in Aquatic Veterinary at the University of Stirling and an MBA in Business Administration to his profession” and “enthusiastic with unwavering kindness”. at the University of Huddersfield. Most recently, Nikos qualified as an Nikos is survived by his wife, Christina, and Advanced Veterinary Practitioner in Fish Health and Production attained his two daughters Dafni and Aimilia. Nikos will from the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. be remembered as an accomplished proWith a career spanning more than 20 Years, Nikos has been an invalfessional, loving husband and father, whose uable member of the aquaculture industry, with roles throughout the supply chain. Most recently, Nikos led the aquaculture business at MSD determination and drive has helped to shape UK aquaculture. All his plans and dreams will Animal Health UK and expanded into the poultry and swine integrated continue to be fulfilled no matter how ambicustomer base. “Nikos’ passion and dedication to fish health and welfare made him a tious, and his presence will always remain in the thoughts of those who knew him. respected and valued colleague within MSD Animal Health’s Global If colleagues and friends desire, memorial aquaculture business. His expertise and care were recognised across contributions are to be sent to the British Red the industry as he endeavoured to deliver the best for both customers Cross in memory of Nikos. Donations can be and fish wellbeing. He will be deeply missed,” said Kasha Cox, aquaculmade via JustGiving at ture business director at MSD Animal Health Global. www.justgiving.com/fundraising/ Adding to this, Rebecca Geenty, business unit director for integrated nikossteiropoulos FF livestock at MSD Animal Health UK said, “Nikos was a consummate
Obituary Nikos Steiropoulosx.indd 61
Above: Nikos fishing in Lofoten, Norway
Industry DIARY The latest aquaculture events, conferences and courses MARCH 21
LATIN AMERICAN & CARIBBEAN AQUACULTURE 2021 (VIRTUAL EVENT)
RAStech 2021 is the venue for learning, networking and knowledge sharing on RAS technologies, design and implementation across the world.
Guayaquil, Ecuador, March 22-25, 2021
Hilton Head Island, SC, USA November 3-4, 2021
APRIL 21 AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2021 (VIRTUAL EVENT)
Aquaculture Europe 2020 will now be an ONLINE event. The basic format of the event will stay the same as “normal” Aquaculture Europe meetings, with morning plenary sessions and then breakout parallel sessions for oral and Eposter presentations.
(Previously, Cork, Ireland) April 12-15, 2021
AQUACULTURE AMERICA 2021 This show will be the largest aquaculture trade show in the Western Hemisphere and one of the largest anywhere in the world with nearly 200 booths! This is your opportunity to inspect the latest in products and services for the aquaculture industry.
San Antonio,Texas, USA August 11-14, 2021
SEPTEMBER 21 ASIAN PACIFIC AQUACULTURE 2021 Surabaya, Indonesia September 7-10, 2021
WORLD AQUACULTURE 2021
The event will be held in Singapore this year with involvement from countries throughout the Asian-Pacific region and around the world. Aquaculture is growing rapidly in the region and therefore 2021 is the perfect time for the world aquaculture community to turn its focus here. Singapore June 14-18, 2021
SEAFOOD EXPO GLOBAL www.seafoodexpo.com/global
Barcelona, Spain September7-9 2021
Merida, Mexico November 15-19, 2021
DECEMBER 21 AQUACULTURE AFRICA 2021 Alexandria, Egypt December 11-14, 2021
FEBRUARY 22 AQUACULTURE 2022 MAY 22 AQUACULTURE UK 2022
WAS NORTH AMERICA & AQUACULTURE CANADA 2021 St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, September 26-29, 2021
Seawork is Europe’s leading commercial marine OCTOBER 21 and workboat exhibition, providing businesses the opportunity to showcase their products and AQUACULTURE EUROPE services to an international audience. 2021 Southampton, Mayflower Park, UK, 15-17 June, 2021 Madeira, Portugal Visit www.seawork.com October 5-8, 2021
Industry Diary.indd 62
WORLD AQUACULTURE 2021
San Diego, California, USA February 27 - March 3, 2022
Aviemore will once again be the venue for this biennial trade fair and conference. It is undoubtedly the most important aquaculture exhibition held in the British Isles. The show has a tremendous following and with increased investment for 2022 it promises to reach even further across the broader aquaculture markets in both the UK and Europe.
Aviemore, United Kingdom May 3-5, 2022
Madeira, Portugal October 4-7, 2021
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Opinion – Inside track
Why I am still an unrepentant Leaver BY NICK JOY
K, as a Brexiteer I accept this is all my fault. I mean, the chaos for exporters and difficulty getting into Europe. But seriously, was no one expecting this? Hands up all those who weren’t expecting border difficulties as soon as Brexit occurred. What would be more interesting is to ask those who did nothing while waiting for it to happen to hold their hands up. We are business people and farmers, and our job is to predict what’s going to affect our business. So I guess I wouldn’t get too many hands up on that last question. Detaching a country from a monolith like the EU is a long and complicated process, and inevitably there will be short term difficulties until the new systems have bedded in. Especially so when a negotiation goes right down to the wire. My Remainer friends often cite the difficulty of separating with the EU to argue that Brexit would be too complex, but honestly that just doesn’t hold water. If we had stayed in, it would have become even harder to separate. It made more sense to get out while it was still possible, and we have. I am no longer an executive in this industry but I do have a small beef and sheep farm in Orkney. I made sure that all of my stock were sold before November and, perhaps surprisingly, got rather good prices. I wonder why no one else was selling and making sure that they had no stock for sale for the first months of 2021. Fish have to sell 12 months of the year but January and February are hardly our largest selling months. Maybe the hoo-ha in the media is more about things being less than perfect rather than about significant damage being done. Several articles have imputed that Scotland’s seafood industry will be permanently damaged by this hiatus. But in a world with fast declining fish stocks and continuing high consumption levels – albeit not in Britain – is it possible to believe that anyone with fish to sell will have no market, ever? Therein lies a very important point. Dr Martin Jaffa regularly raises, in this publication, the point of trying to get the UK public to eat more fish and I heartily agree that this would be a good thing. So how come in the run up to Brexit, our industry didn’t spend a huge amount of money on trying to increase the domestic consumption levels of seafood? Many people believe that the British people are hidebound in their attitude to seafood consumption but therein lies the problem. There are more people who believe that something cannot be done than those who believe it can. Our industry is no stranger to a competing industry spending huge amounts to discredit us. What I find so difficult to accept is that aquaculture, which has been going through a fairly profitable period, does not see the value in getting its act together over consumption of fish. As Dr Jaffa showed last month (“Think outside the box”, Fish Farmer January 2021), we aren’t touching the public in any meaningful way. So let me spell it out more clearly. Adverts using celebrities, saying you should eat fish, simply won’t work. Those who won’t eat fish don’t watch them. We need to get close to the young and work closely with educational facilities. The links between omega 3 and brain health are well-documented so the two things are linked. I also don’t mean that we should tell everyone in every form of
Nick Joy.indd 66
As I “ predicted more than four years ago, anyone who thinks this is going to be easy is dreaming
education how good fish is for you. We need to go in and show them. Why not go to universities and have an open barbeque, in the summer of course? Why not talk to the relevant minister about fish cookery demonstrations at the local schools? Why not supply free salmon to schools once a month or once a year if you’re worried about the expense? I am sure there are those who will argue that the above is avoiding the issue, and I should atone for the consequences of voting for Brexit. Maybe that will come, but it’s too early yet. There have been plenty of times during my career when the EU threw a spanner in the works and I and my team had to deal with those consequences. Nobody suggested we should leave the EU every time they did something idiotic or disruptive. There will be bad times, there will be good times. As I predicted more than four years ago, anyone who thinks this is going to be easy is dreaming. On the other hand, if we position our industry right and really commit to our markets, who knows how high we can fly? FF
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