Fish Farmer VOLUME 40
Serving worldwide aquaculture since 1977
Innovations in ingredients from maggot meal to microalgae
Seeking solutions to major health challenge for salmon
Norwegian seafood financiers talk about growth
Scottish industry surveyed over research needs
January Cover.indd 3
If you need protection* against Pancreas Disease, Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis and Furunculosis Here´s our new innovation:
* For active immunisation of Atlantic salmon to reduce clinical signs (heart lesions and pancreas lesions), viremia, viral shedding and mortality from infection with SPDV (Pancreas disease) and to reduce mortality from infections with IPNV (Infectious pancreatic necrosis) and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (furunculosis).
Use medicines responsibly. For more information visit www.noah.co.uk/responsible AquaVac® PD3 is only available via your animal prescriber or veterinary surgeon from whom advice should be sought. AQUAVAC PD3 contains Salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV), Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Legal category POM-V AquaVac® PD3 is the property of Intervet International B.V. or affiliated companies or licensors and is protected by copyrights, trademark and other intellectual property laws. Copyright © 2016 Intervet International B.V. All rights reserved. Further information is available from: MSD Animal Health, Walton Manor, Walton, Milton Keynes MK7 7AJ Tel: 0370 060 3380 • email@example.com • www.msd-animal-health.co.uk
Contents 4-15 News
What’s happening in aquaculture in the UK and around the world JENNY HJUL – EDITOR
Happy New Year
e start the New Year with a look at some innovations in ﬁsh feed from across the world. The last time we talked to the Drew brothers of Cape Town about their black soldier ﬂy product they had just scaled up from a pilot project. Since then they have undergone a rapid expansion on their home turf and are launching into other markets, including Europe, which has at last changed its legislation on insect feed. A joint venture between American and Brazilian entrepreneurs resulted in another exciting development in ﬁsh feed, microalgae produced in commercial quantities from sugar cane and distributed through one of the big players in the salmon feed business, BioMar. Meanwhile, Aller Aqua is building on its success in Egypt with a new factory beside Lake Kariba in Zambia, an emerging hub of sub-Saharan Africa’s aquaculture industry. Oﬀering insights closer to home, experts from Norway’s DNB Bank talk to Fish Farmer about super cycles and growing the salmon sector - in Iceland. In Scotland, this year could prove to be a turning point as the industry’s vision, made public last October, is transformed, we hope, into action by the powers that be. The team here will begin 2017 without, at least for a couple of months, our colleague William Dowds, who will be convalescing after an operation. I’m sure all his industry friends will wish him, as we do, a very speedy recovery.
Meet the team
Editorial Advisory Board: Steve Bracken, Scott Landsburgh, Hervé Migaud, Patrick Smith and Jim Treasurer Editor: Jenny Hjul Designer: Andrew Balahura Advertising Manager: William Dowds wdowds@ﬁshupdate.com Advertising Executive: Dave Edler dedler@ﬁshupdate.com Publisher: Alister Bennett
Tel: +44(0) 131 551 1000 Fax: +44(0) 131 551 7901 email: jhjul@ﬁshupdate.com
Cover: Feeding time: Glenarm Organic Salmon farm manager Nigel McClure.
Tel: +44 (0) 1371 851868 UK Subscriptions: £75 a year ROW Subscriptions: £95 a year including postage- All Air Mail
Head Oﬃce: Special Publications, Fettes Park, 496 Ferry Road, Edinburgh, EH5 2DL
Welcome - Jan.indd 3
Danes in Zambia
Feed in the Falklands
24-25 SSPO 26 BTA
54-57 Gill Health
Industry meets in Oban
62 Processing News Trout treat
63-65 Aqua Source Directory
Subscriptions Address: Wyvex
Media, FREEPOST RTEY YUBG TYUB, Trinity House, Sculpins Lane, Wethersﬁeld, Braintree, Essex CM7 4AY
Printed in Great Britain for the proprietors Wyvex Media Ltd by Headley Brothers Ltd, Ashford, Kent ISSN 0262-9615
16-17 Centre of excellence
Spreading the word
Fish Farmer is now on Facebook and Twitter
Contents – Editor’s Welcome
Find all you need for the industry
By Nick Joy
United Kingdom News
Scotland could scrap biomass limits BIOMASS limits on Scottish fish farms could be scrapped if proposals by Sepa (the Scottish Environment Protection Agency) are approved. Sepa is due to launch a public consultation in the next few weeks on how it regulates fish farming, according to a recent submission the agency made to the Scottish parliament. This will include plans to drop biomass limits.
Above: Permission to grow
The proposals follow the launch of the industry’s vision for growth late last year, which would
see the country’s aquaculture sector double production by 2030 and increase its value to
New test to detect costly salmon disease SCIENTISTS from the University of Glasgow have discovered a simple test to aid the diagnosis of a significant salmon disease. Working with industry partners BioMar and Marine Harvest Scotland, the group has shown that a simple measurement procedure could be used to detect Atlantic salmon infected with salmonid
alpha virus, which causes pancreas disease. Pancreas disease can cause significant losses in farmed Atlantic salmon due to morbidity, mortality and reduced production. The researchers, who published their findings in a study in the Journal of Fish Diseases, found that salmon with pancreas disease had a major change in the proteins present in the blood, and that these protein
Above: Atlantic salmon
UK news.indd 4
changes could be detected using a simple procedure. The test, called a selective precipitation reaction (SPR), has been patented by the team and could potentially be developed into a rapid analysis system allowing the disease to be diagnosed much earlier at fish farms. Current testing requires samples being sent to laboratories. Professor David Eckersall, Professor of Veterinary Biochemistry and leader of the research team, said: ‘The serendipitous discovery of the SPR has allowed a potentially powerful diagnostic test to be developed that could have significant applications in the future.’
the Scottish economy from around £1.8 billion to £3.6 billion. The plan – published in the Vision 2030 report in October - was backed by the Scottish government, which promised to set up an ‘industry leadership group’. Sepa said the aim
was to ensure that ‘the regulatory framework more closely matches the growth agenda pursued by the industry by removing imposition of a limit on biomass’. This would enable operators ‘to increase biomass where environmental monitoring demon-
strates that the location is able to cope’, and it would put responsibility for day-to-day management of sites into the hands of ‘responsible fish farmers’. Environmental campaigners, however, say the move would increase disease, worsen pollution and harm wild fish.
Support for young rugby talent A LEADING Scottish ﬁsh farmer is helping to fund a new rugby youth academy on the west coast, reported the Oban Times. The £2,000 cash grant from Scottish Sea Farms will help to keep young players engaged with the sport from their late teens to early twenties. The new academy is being established by Oban Lorne RFC to create a link between players leaving high school and starting to play senior rugby. This is a period when many talented players often lose contact with the sport. The Scottish Sea Farms Heart of the Community funding will help to provide specialised coaching sessions, strength and conditioning programmes, cover
some travel costs and assist with new kit and equipment. Jonathan Sayer, an environmental scientist with Scottish Sea Farms, based at South Shian, has been involved with the Oban Lorne RFC - a community club run by volunteers - as fundraising convener and said: ‘This will really help young people stay active and involved with the sport of rugby and means we will have an increase in young players entering the senior squads.’ Murray Hamilton, youth convener of Oban Lorne and PE teacher at Oban High school, said: ‘The idea behind the academy would not just be for students who leave school; we would also like to tackle the drop-off in players from 15 to 21.’
All the latest industry news from the UK
Blueshell grows its mussel business SHETLAND’S Blueshell Mussels has secured ownership of SI Seafarms, adding 15 sea leases and approximately 1,500 tonnes of mussel growing capacity and equipment to its existing capacity. Managing director of Blueshell Michael Laurenson said: ‘We have, since 2010, been carrying out the practical operations for SI Seafarms, Shetland, on behalf of its UK shareholders. ‘We have now fulfilled our long term aspirations to purchase this successful business and ensure the long term security of our workforce.’ The family owned company is based in Brae, while SI Seafarms sites are located mainly off the west side of Shetland, including Walls, Aith, Clift Sound, Weisdale and Tresta. There are two additional sites on the east side. ‘We are pleased to be bucking the trend of recent years, where ownership of many Shetland aquaculture sites has left the islands,’ said Laurenson. ‘By operating the business in tandem with Blueshell, we look forward to achieving significant efficiencies and benefits in the future.’ David Fell, executive chairman of SI Seafarms, said he was very pleased with the sale
Above: More mussels
of SI Seafarms to Blueshell Mussels. ‘The sale of the business to Blueshell is in the best interests of SI Seafarms and its shareholders. Under Blueshell’s control, SI Seafarms will continue to thrive, support jobs in Shetland, and supply an increased quantity of quality
mussels to its customers.’ Although it will be business as usual for both companies, Laurenson will now become managing director of SI Seafarms, which will have its business address relocated to Sparl, Brae.
PROUDLY PARTNERED BY
CELEBRATE SCOTLAND’S COUNTRYSIDE AT THE
2017 SCOTTISH RURAL AWARDS CEREMONY & GALA DINNER THURSDAY 16TH MARCH 2017 AT DYNAMIC EARTH, EDINBURGH TICKETS ON SALE NOW! VISIT
UK news.indd 5
Scottish Rural Awards
United Kingdom News
SSF reports early success with Thermolicer
Above: The Thermolicer in Shetland waters in July
SCOTLAND’S ﬁrst Thermolicer has proved highly effective in removing sea lice, achieving 95 per cent clearance, reports a leading salmon farmer. Scottish Sea Farms has treated more than six million fish since acquiring the £4 million Norwegian made technology earlier this year. The company spent months researching and training staff in Norway to use the
UK news.indd 6
system and is now cooperating with other fish farmers, sharing the use and knowledge of best practice and reducing the requirement for medicinal treatments in Scotland. The Thermolicer has been used across the industry by salmon farmers including Cooke Aquaculture and Grieg Seafood. Marine Harvest Scotland also has one of the machines, made by Steinsvik.
Dr Ralph Bickerdike, SSF head of fish health, said: ‘This has been a real breakthrough in the fight against sea lice – having access to a new tool, which works in a completely different way to our other control measures, is a major achievement for the Scottish Industry. ‘It complements the other innovative solutions we are employing, such as biological control.’ The Thermolicer is a machine that uses zero therapeutants in the treatment of sea lice. The lice have a low tolerance for changes in temperature and the new device uses this fact to use water temperatures to eradicate the parasite. It is a simple and environmentally friendly method that goes beyond the traditional treatments. Assessing the
health status of fish prior to a Thermolicer treatment is an essential part of the decision making process for fish health and welfare. If there is an underlying health issue, due to previous environmental challenges, then other control measures are considered. This strict best practice ensures high standards of fish welfare. The Thermolicer is being used as part of an integrated sea lice management strategy whereby prevention is the priority, together with cycling of different treatments when intervention is required in order to avoid resistance developing to a speciﬁc control measure. The machine was bought with funding support from Marine Scotland and the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC), with partners
Norwegian Veterinary Institute. More than 30 of the machines are currently in use, most of them in Norway. Meanwhile, Marine Harvest Scotland has defended its use of a Thermolicer following reports that ﬁsh at one of its Scottish sites had been ‘poached alive’ as the water overheated. The stories, the company said, were ‘completely misleading’. Fish are only exposed to a maximum temperature of 34 deg C for 25 to 30 seconds. ‘It is extremely regrettable we lost ﬁsh at Greshornish [Isle of Skye], which we believe was the result Cooke and Grieg, as of treating ﬁsh that part of an ongoing had been weakened initiative to deliver from other treatnon-medicinal apments, particularly proaches to control for Amoebic Gill Dissea lice. ease, in the preceding Cabinet Secretary two months. for the Rural Econo‘Human error my Fergus Ewing said: played a part in this ‘I am pleased to see incident. Howevthe impact our super, these earlier port is having – inno- treatments had saved vation in this ﬁeld is many ﬁsh suffering exactly what we want from this environto encourage.’ mental gill challenge.’ Thermolicer The experience technology has been highlights the ﬁne tested over a nineline in judgement year period and is required on how, and recommended by the when, to treat ﬁsh.
Aquaculture pioneer dies GRAEME Gordon, one of the founding fathers of the UK aquaculture industry, has died at the age of 86. He was a wellknown and widely respected figure in the industry, the owner of Kenmure Fish Farm on Loch Ken in Galloway, and also instrumental in setting up Scot Trout, later sold to Dawnfresh. Stuart Cannon of Kames Fish Farm described him as the ‘grandfather’ of modern aquaculture and a leading pioneer. The funeral took place on January 12 and an obituary will appear in the February issue of Fish Farmer.
All the latest industry news from the UK
Student ACES master new skills AN international group of students on a prestigious Masters Degree at the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS UHI) in Oban is catching the eye of the aquaculture industry. The 25 students, who come from all corners of the globe, are the second cohort to join the Erasmus Mundus Joint Masters Degree (EMJMD) in Aquaculture, Environment and Society (ACES), awarded jointly by the University of the Highlands and Islands and University of Crete. The group, all based in and around Oban for an initial six months, represent 19 countries, including New Zealand, Jamaica, Peru, Brazil, Pakistan, China, Colombia and the US. As part of the two-year ACES programme they will continue their studies in Crete next February and in autumn 2017 will move on to Nantes in France, before spending the final six months of their Masters at one of the three partner organisations. The academic course will cover industry relevant aspects of aquaculture, such as environmental issues, governance, technology, life cycles and feed production. Course leader Dr Elizabeth Cottier-Cook, a senior researcher at SAMS, said: ‘The ACES programme provides fully funded scholarships for EU and non-EU students in a bid to
Above: The latest cohort
attract the very best aquaculture students from around the world.’ Marine Harvest sponsors a scholarship for one EU based student, who will go on to complete their studies with the company. The company’s business support manager, Steve Bracken, said: ‘Courses like EMJMD ACES are an important vector to bridge the gap between education, research and development, and applied industry techniques and knowledge.’ Applications are being taken for the third ACES cohort (2017/18).
First in aquaculture management A NEW course in aquaculture management is to be introduced by the NAFC Marine Centre in Shetland, which developed the programme in response to industry demand. The technical apprenticeship the first of its kind in the UK for the aquaculture sector - is aimed at experienced aquaculture staff, to provide them with the opportunity to gain a qualification in senior management while working in the aquaculture industry. The training programme will require up to 24 months of study by online distance learning, supported and assessed by staff at
UK news.indd 7
the NAFC Marine Centre, part of the University of the Highlands of the Islands (UHI). The study and assessment methods allow flexibility to fit with candidates’ work and other responsibilities. The programme has been approved by the Scottish Qualifications Agency through the UHI and is certificated by Lantra. It has also been approved for funding from Skills Development Scotland. The new training programme has been developed by staff at the NAFC Marine Centre. Course leader Stuart Fitzsimmons said: ‘Following the successful introduction of our Modern Apprenticeships in aquaculture for new and experienced fish farm staff, we have had a lot of interest from companies in a training programme for their managers. This programme has been designed to meet that need.’
British Made Cage Nets In Nylon & Dyneema Predator Exclusion Nets Anti Foul Coatings Ropes - Large Stock All Sizes Floats, Buoys, Cushion Buoys Chain & Chain Weights Tarpaulins QUALITY NETS FOR FISH FARMING 01253 874891 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org web: www.borisnet.co.uk Tel:
Norway 2016 salmon exports hit record high NORWAY’S fish farmers exported salmon worth 61.4 billion kroners (around £6 billion sterling) in 2016, according to the latest figures out today - and on lower volumes. This is the highest export figure ever. The Norwegian Seafood Council said the value of salmon has never been higher. Trout exports also performed well. Analyst Paul T Aandahl said there was a strong demand for Norwegian salmon during the period, mainly from
markets within Europe, the United States and Asia. The average export price for fresh whole salmon was NOK 60.11
New CFO in BioMar Group MOGENS Stentebjerg, CFO in BioMar Group, will retire after more than 30 years in the company. Group finance manager Claus Eskildsen has been appointed the new CFO and assumed his role on January 1. Above: Claus Eskildsen Stentebjerg has for more than 25 years been a key figure in placing BioMar on the map as one of the world’s leading suppliers of high performance feed for aquaculture, first as finance manager in BioMar, Denmark, and since 1995 as CFO in the BioMar Group. ‘I am very pleased that we have managed to grow a strong internal successor for this important change in our executive committee,’ said Carlos Diaz, CEO of the BioMar Group. ‘Claus Eskildsen has during the last four years been working closely together with Mogens Stentebjerg and has proven to be a very strong contributor to our strategic development. ‘I am confident that Claus Eskildsen will be an asset reaching our strategic objectives.’ Stentebjerg will continue working for BioMar during a period of transition to ensure continuity in the handover of his responsibilities, BioMar said.
European News.indd 8
per kilo in 2016 - NOK 17.26 million or 40 per cent higher than in 2015, which was also a record year. The average export
price for fresh whole salmon during 2016 varied between 54.34 kroners per kilogram in September and 69.36 million in December.
The average export price in December was incidentally the highest average price ever recorded for a single month. Norway exported 749,000 tonnes of salmon to the EU in 2016, with a value of NOK 45.3 billion, down by 5.5 per cent (43,000 tonnes) in volume terms. In fact, approximately 76 per cent of all Norwegian salmon exports, measured in product weight, went to the EU last year. The biggest markets
were Poland and France, but the largest growth country was Greece. Exports to the US were worth NOK 3.4 billion up by six per cent. Sales to Asia were worth NOK 10.5 billion - up by 39 per cent. Norway exported 68,227 tonnes of trout worth NOK 3.9 billion last year. This is an increase of 29 per cent or 15 400 tonnes, and 69 per cent or NOK 1.6 billion from 2015. The export price for fresh whole trout, increased by 16.14 per kg.
Sea lice laser technology secures $5.2m in funding NORWEGIAN firm Stingray Marine Solutions, which makes a novel sea lice deterrant, has secured NOK 45 million ($5.2m) in funding via a share issue carried out by Pareto Securities, it was announced last month. The money comes from Norwegian investors based in Trondheim, Bergen, Stavanger and Oslo, all of them represented by the investment company Altitude Capital. Stingray Marine Solutions is based on entrepreneur Esben Beck’s patented idea from 2010 for the removal of sea lice by means of camera vision and laser. The company is a subsidiary of Beck Engineering, and, from
2013 onwards, it developed independently the technology to combat sea lice. Since then the company has sold more than 50 units, mainly to Norwegian fish farms. The submersible laser fires pulses that kill salmon lice without harming the fish swimming past. Stingray had wished to raise NOK 20-30 million, ‘to strengthen its investments in
technology for the aquaculture industry’, but the issue was increased due to great interest, it said. The Stingray consists of two main parts: a buoy that floats on the surface, and a submersible laser unit attached to the bottom of the buoy. It operates automatically and can be immersed to a depth of 30m. Stingray has also developed a database containing millions of images of salmon
lice from all the units placed in ﬁsh cages. This continuously transmit images back to the database. ‘In that way we have developed a generic network, in which the nodes [units] are becoming steadily more effective.,’ said general manager John Breivik. ’Today the nodes are already capable of killing up to 10,000 salmon lice a day. We have not had a single case in which the laser has harmed or stressed the ﬁsh.’
DESIGN • SERVICE • EQUIPMENT Today’s modern aquaculture farmer needs a partner that is able to help with the scope and variety of challenges they face every day. That is why Pentair AES has assembled a team of experts with diverse backgrounds in aquaculture, biological and technological engineering that is grounded in decades of research and commercial industry application experience. We help our customers run successful operations by providing the design expertise they need, a responsive service team and the largest selection of equipment and supplies in the industry. Trust in a team that’s here to help you—ASK US!
PentairAES.com • +1 407.886.3939
© 2017 Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
New group to review Irish aqua licences IRELAND has set up a new body to review the process of licensing for aquaculture and its associated legal framework. Irish fisheries minister Michael Creed announced the establishment of the independent Aquaculture Licensing Review Group Above: Michael Creed last month, as part of its Food Wise 2025 in- said Creed. ‘Ireland’s National itiative and Ireland’s Strategic Plan for National Strategic Sustainable AquaPlan for Sustainable Aquaculture Develop- culture Development aims to sustainably ment. grow our production ‘Our aquaculture across all species by sector has enor45,000 tonnes. mous potential to ‘To achieve that sustainably grow its production of seafood ambition, we need to revamp our aquaculto meet the opporture licensing process tunities presented and its associated from growing world legal frameworks, so demand for safe, sustainable seafood,’ that an operator can
have a decision on an aquaculture licence application within timeframes that compare favourably to our competitors. ‘ But any changes must ensure that all stakeholders can participate in a transparent licensing process and have confidence that any licensing decision complies with all EU and national legal requirements and protects our oceans for future generations.’ Both Food Wise 2025 and the National Strategic Plan identified issues with the current licensing system and recommended an independent review to examine the existing challenges.
Phishing warning from Troutex THE Danish company Troutex reports that it has been targeted by IT criminals attempting to lure customers into pre-paying for fertilised trout eggs. After the launch of its website in 2015, Trouex said the growing number of visits and activity on the site caught the attention of rogue elements. Troutex issued a statement last month saying: ‘The criminals recently launched a fake webpage with a complete copy of the design of our own www.troutex. dk – and in response to inquiries have distributed false offers for fertilised trout eggs using a false email address and our names. ‘In Troutex we take this matter
very seriously. We have contacted the host of the false domain and had the fake homepage and email addresses shut down – and we have also reported this criminal offence to the police. ‘Troutex acted immediately after the fraud came to our attention. We would like to emphasise that this criminal activity is not related to weak IT systems at Troutex.’ The company has asked customers to be alert. ‘Make sure to have the correct contact data of your suppliers. Be aware of any suspicious changes in phone numbers, email addresses and particularly bank account data.’
Funding boost for by-products project A FEED project to exploit the potential of marine by-products has secured NOK 16 million in funding, announced BioMar, a partner in the scheme. The QMAR
project – ‘unlocking the nutritional and technical quality potential of marine by-products in sustainable salmonid feeds’ – starts in January and is funded for four years. According to Hanne Jorun Sixten (pictured), senior researcher at
BioMar’s global R&D Nutrition Requirements Group and QMAR project manager, the project will enable BioMar and its partners to develop ingredients and feed products based on by-products of marine raw materials. In addition, work
on the project, which is supported by the Research Council of Norway, will be conducted on understanding the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of components based on marine raw materials. ‘The project will strengthen BioMar’s
work on sustainability,’ said Sixten. ‘Moreover, it will play a part in increasing the sustainability of both fisheries and aquaculture by creating incentives and solutions for fully exploiting the entire catch.’ Feed feature: page 31
Cermaq backs technology transfer NORWEGIAN salmon farmer Cermaq took part in the recent 2016 Fortune and Time Global Forum in Rome, along with other business leaders, members of the Time 100 and Fortune 500 lists of the world’s most influential people. The forum was inspired by Pope Francis’ call for encouraging an economic system that
European News.indd 10
both promotes growth and spreads its benefits more broadly. Cermaq said it endorses initiatives where partnerships can be a driving force for meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Aquaculture, said the company, is a part of the solution, not only in areas of salmon farming, but in general. ‘I have had the unique opportunity to talk with
global influencers of the benefits of aquaculture and the enormous potential for technology transfer to other species and regions,’ said Cermaq CEO Geir Molvik when he returned from Rome. ‘Farmed salmon has a very small ecological footprint compared to agriculture, and we must continue to grow the volumes of this climate friendly
food production in the regions where natural conditions for salmon farming are suited, recognising that salmon is a healthy food and that replacing meat with seafood is good for health as well as climate.’ Only seven per cent of global protein consumption comes from seafood, while the oceans cover 70 per cent of the earth’s surface.
Above: Cermaq CEO Geir Molvik (left) at the Fortune and Time Global Forum in Rome
All the latest industry news from Europe
Gene discovery to tackle trout disease GENE markers to improve the resistance of rainbow trout to a major disease will be available in the UK, Norway and Chile in early 2017. Identified by AquaGen, the genetic markers (QTLs) have significant correlation to flavobacteriosis resistance. Also known as Rainbow Trout Fry Syndrome (RTFS), it is a major problem in rainbow trout production worldwide. It is widespread, occurs frequently, and can cause high mortality and wounds in fry and larger fish in freshwater hatcheries and on-growing sites. Antibiotics are often used to treat stock. AquaGen has identified and implemented several gene markers for disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. They are currently employed to produce salmon with increased resistance to the viral diseases IPN, PD and CMS. Gene markers for resistance to the bacterial disease SRS and to
sea lice have also been identified and put to use. In rainbow trout, AquaGen has found gene markers for IPN - and now flavobacteriosis resistance. AquaGen has implemented a genomic tool that uses thousands of markers in order to select for disease resistance in rainbow trout. In collaboration with Affymetrix and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), a high density SNP-chip capable of genotyping 55,000 SNP markers from one individual fish in one analysis has been developed. It is through the use of this SNP-chip that gene markers for IPN and flavobacteriosis resistance could be identified. In 2014, AquaGen started its work on resistance to flavobacteriosis. A crucial part of this work was the availability of an experimental challenge model developed by a group of scientists at the University of Stirling. Selection for improved resistance to flavobacteriosis is
of relevance to all the major markets for AquaGen rainbow trout. Andrew Reeve, AquaGen sales manager UK/Ireland, said:
â€˜The new product for significantly increased resistance to RTFS will deliver value by reducing the economic impact for the farmer.â€™
Since 1958 Faivre company develops and manufactures high quality equipments for the aquaculture industry PUB Fish Farmer 2013 1-2 PAGE 190WMMX130HMM.indd 1
European News.indd 11
www.faivre.fr 6/11/13 14:15:00
Tanzania to double tilapia production
Above: Ambitious plans to grow aquaculture industry
TANZANIA has ambitious plans to develop a better aquaculture sector by doubling its production of tilapia. Tilapia, second only to carp as the world’s most frequently
farmed fish, live in huge numbers in the Great Lakes (Victoria, Tanganyika, Malawi/ Nyasa) that cover six per cent of the country. But at the moment,
tilapia farming in Tanzania is mostly for subsistence or for small-scale markets and often uses non-native species, such as Nile tilapia. To develop an aqua-
culture strategy, 30 scientists representing Tanzanian stakeholders, as well as international research organisations, met for a three-day workshop in Zanzibar.
The main outcome was a new consortium, committed to establishing a National Aquaculture Development Centre (NADC). The NADC could help triple the contribution that aquaculture makes to the economy, double the production of fish in the country by 2025 and improve access to fish as a protein source - especially for women. Tilapia species from a broad range of ecosystems - including lakes, river systems, reservoirs and fish ponds across the country - will form the focus of the research.
Genetic analysis of 31 species, including 26 that are found nowhere else on the planet, could reveal important traits for creating the country’s own commercial broodstock. Charles Mahika, of Tanzania’s Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, said: ‘We have a chance to increase our country’s share in aquaculture’s blue revolution, an industry growing faster than any other food production sector in the world. ‘Tilapia production could help meet the nutritional demands of our growing population.’
US to open Pacific to farmers AMERICAN officials are reportedly working on a plan to expand fish farming into federal waters around the Pacific Ocean. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is creating a plan to manage commercial fish farms in federal waters, the area of ocean from three to 200 miles offshore, around Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The programme is similar to one recently implemented by NOAA in the Gulf of Mexico and would help the US reduce its dependence on imported seafood, which currently accounts for more than 90 pent of fish and shellfish consumed in the States. New technologies are being developed for open-ocean aquaculture, but many US companies are having to go overseas to farm, according to NOAA officials. ‘The US’s view is we’d rather have these US companies pursuing these opportunities in a sustainable, environmentally sound way in the US,’ said Michael Tosatto, NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service regional administrator. The NOAA plan would create a regulatory and
World News.indd 12
permitting scheme for the industry. ‘It’s reasonably common knowledge that the environmental laws are less where aquaculture occurs the most, (that) being China and other South-East Asia countries,’ Tosatto said. Many foreign operations have US companies supplying the breed stock, then the fish are grown and sold back to the US as imported seafood. Farmed fish in 2014 was valued at $1.3 billion, Tosatto said, and constitutes just 19 per cent of the nation’s seafood production. That amounts to only one per cent of the global farmed product. NOAA has been trying to establish an aquaculture industry in federal waters for many years,
but attempts to get legislation to implement open-sea aquaculture have failed. ‘All forms of aquaculture can be done responsibly or irresponsibly,’ said Michael Rubino, NOAA aquaculture programme director. ‘We will need all forms done well to meet seafood demand and healthy ocean objectives.’
All the latest industry news from around the world
Are perch the new wrasse?
PACIFIC perch are proving to be efficient cleaner fish in trials with farmed Atlantic salmon in British Columbia, according to Aquaculture North America. Research so far has produced promising results, said Dr Shannon Balfry, who leads a team investigating the use of local perch as cleaner fish. ‘We expected our
first trial to last two to three months. When we checked back after five days, the sea lice were all gone and so was the evidence [that they were ever there]. ‘We now have so much evidence that the perch eat the sea lice,’ said Balfry. ‘We find the lice in their stomachs and we have video of the
perch picking lice off the salmon.’ This research, at the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Centre for Aquatic and Environmental Research in West Vancouver, is the first of its kind on the west coast. ‘Marine Harvest (BC) phoned and asked if I knew about salmon
farmers in Norway using lumpfish and wrasse as cleaner fish in their net pens,’ said Balfry. ‘We don’t have wrasse or lumpfish in BC, but when I went back through the literature I found several reports from the 70s, of researchers observing cleaning behaviour in local
kelp perch (Brachyistius frenatus) and pile perch (Rhacochilus vacca).’ Balfry says her next work will be in deployment research to determine the optimal stocking ratio of perch to salmon and how to scale up the culture of perch. ‘A perch breeding programme and
hatchery will be needed to stock the net pens, so there is lots of work to do with the perch.’ There is much to learn as well about perch physiology, health and nutrition, she said. The team expects to start cage studies in 2018. Above: Paciﬁc pearch
QUALITY FOR LAND AND SEA Storvik Aqua Ltd Equipment and Technology for Aquaculture Serving the industry for 30 years Providing support and solutions
www.storvikaqua.co.uk email@example.com Tel: 01546 603989
World News.indd 13
Six-year fish plan to feed the poor
Above: Addressing food security in the developing world
THE international research organisation WorldFish has launched a sixyear strategy to boost sustainable aquaculture production and smallscale fisheries in developing countries. The UN backed group will focus on improving breeding and fish feeds, and strengthening fisheries governance. There is increasing acknowledgement that addressing fish supply in developing countries is essential for global food and nutrition security. The UN High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) recently concluded that fish is ‘crucial to any debate and action to reduce poverty and improve food security and nutrition’. The new strategy (2017-2022) outlines how WorldFish will achieve its mission of strengthening livelihoods, food and nutrition security by improving fisheries and aquaculture. Aquaculture is a growth industry, with more than 100 million people, most in the developing world, depending on it for their livelihoods. However, farmers often use poor quality seed, resulting in low productivity. To boost yields, WorldFish will build on its long-running tilapia and carp breeding programmes to develop new knowledge and technology in improved breeds, fish health, aquafeeds and management practices. Projections are that this will directly benefit five million producer households, with targets of increasing sustainable production by another 4.8 million tonnes annually in some of the world’s poorest countries. Nigel Preston, director general of WorldFish, said: ‘Sustainable aqua-
Marine Harvest to resume exports to China MARINE Harvest is to resume exports to China in the first or second quarter of 2017 following the normalisation of trade between the countries, according to Reuters. CEO Alf-Helge Aarskog said: ‘It’s a market with great potential, so we have high hopes for China.’ He forecast that global salmon supply would rise by about three per cent in 2017, and noted that the price of Norwegian farmed salmon hasn’t hit an upper limit, despite the surges seen in 2016. Shares in Marine Harvest rose as much as 2.3 per cent in December, a 13-year high.
World News.indd 14
Above: Alf-Helge Aarskog
culture practices offer water, energy, and feed conversion efficiencies superior to any other domesticated animal food production system— and fish is the only animal source food that can be produced in saltwater, offering unique advantages for climate resilient production. ‘The new WorldFish strategy outlines ambitious targets that will maximise the nutritional and livelihood benefits for millions of the world’s most vulnerable people.’ Consumption of fish – a rich source of micronutrients and essential fatty acids – has a critical role to play in boosting dietary diversity. WorldFish will develop and implement novel aquaculture and fisheries production systems, in particular fish-rice systems, research methods to reduce post-harvest waste and losses and continue to develop novel fish based products such as the fish chutney piloted in Bangladesh. The aim is that this work will result in 2.4 million fewer people suffering from micronutrient deficiencies and help 4.7 million more women of reproductive age achieve a more balanced diet. Blake Ratner, director general designate of WorldFish, said: ‘Our strategy focuses on the three interlinked challenges of sustainable aquaculture, resilient small-scale fisheries and enhancing the contributions of fish to nutrition of the poor in the places where we can make the most difference. ‘These challenges will only be met by partnering with the communities, research innovators, entrepreneurs and investors who give fisheries and aquaculture its dynamism and promise.’
Plan to cut antibiotic use in Chile Marine Harvest aims to reduce the use of antibiotics on its Chilean farms by 70 per cent over the coming year, according to reports. The firm plans to decrease the use of antibiotics from 450g per tonne of harvested salmon, to 150g. It will vaccinate all species with a new drug produced by Pharmaq, which has given
positive results, Marine Harvest’s health and nutrition manager in Chile, Jorge Mancilla, said. ‘Marine Harvest is the company in Chile that produces [salmon] with the lowest densities compared to other producers.’ The Norwegian owned firm has also implemented a programme to discover salmon’s
resistance to sea lice drugs. Sea lice cost the Chilean industry an estimated $700 million per year.
All the latest industry news from around the world
Marine Harvest grows Canada business MARINE Harvest has expanded its Canadian operation to Newfoundland and Labrador after acquiring Gray Aqua Group, according to reports. The $15 million deal includes seven farming licences in Newfoundland and Labrador and a processing plant. Newfoundland fisheries minister Steve Crocker said: ‘This is significant news for our province’s seafood industry and for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians. ‘Marine Harvest is one of the
largest seafood companies in the world, and is the world’s largest producer of Atlantic salmon. This is a company that did $4.5 billion in business worldwide last year. ‘We have committed to growing our salmon aquaculture industry to 50,000 tonnes … We welcome Marine Harvest’s interest as yet another testament to the potential for growth in our seafood sector.’ The Marine Harvest investment also includes 17 site applications throughout the province.
Oman to develop aquaculture projects OMAN’S Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries is due to announce the winners of largescale commercial aquaculture projects at eight sites, the Times of Oman reported earlier this month. The ministry selected the sites for development in June 2016 and sought applications from potential investors. ‘We will tell investors about the successful applications, and then these companies can start their feasibility studies and apply for environmental permits,’ said Dr Hamed Said Al Oufi, undersecretary of fisheries wealth at the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. He said that commercial licences will then be awarded to the winning companies, which were chosen from 40 applications. ‘We are aiming for 200,000 tonnes of high-value fish per annum from aquaculture projects by 2030. These are mostly for export and the local market,’ said Dr Al Oufi. Once the projects begin operating, it will help to eliminate the
The world moves forward
gap in supply and demand in the domestic market as well. He also said that five companies have already received commercial licences for starting aquaculture projects, and these ventures are coming up in different places, including Quriyyat, Sharqiya and Dhofar region. One farm is raising abalone in Dhofar region, another is a shrimp project in Jaalan (Sharqiya) and another is planned in Quriyyat. The shrimp project is expected to produce between 3,000 tonnes and 4,000 tonnes of shrimp per annum. ‘Now they are obtaining equipment, importing cages, and so on,’ said Dr Al Oufi. These five are among 18 projects that received an initial ministry clearance and environmental permits.
Feeding is the most important task in aquaculture. Therefore, you should choose the best and most advanced tool. We in Steinsvik have worked with feeding systems since the 80s. Time after time, systems like Are 126, MultiFeeder, GMT Feeder and FeedStation have set the standard for what is possible to achieve with a central feeding system. Around the world, our solutions are used both for land and sea based farming. Now we are getting ready to raise the bar once again.
World News.indd 15
Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre – Survey
Excellent idea? Plug research gaps but invest in existing facilities ﬁrst, report ﬁnds
SURVEY to gauge support for a Scottish aquaculture centre of excellence found that investment should be channelled into existing institutions ﬁrst and foremost. But there was also ‘strong’ backing for a network of facilities that makes better use of current provision and addresses any gaps that exist. The study, commissioned by the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) and conducted by former Marine Harvest Scotland managing director Alan Sutherland, took views from across the industry. There was a response rate of more than 50 per cent (‘over 100 industry members’) to SAIC’s survey, with respondents coming from senior management, academia, industry bodies and government agencies, said SAIC. The ﬁve key ﬁndings of the report– Exploring the concept of a centre of innovation excellence for Scottish aquaculture – were: • The sector is strongly in favour of a centre of innovation excellence – or network of innovation excellence – for Scottish aquaculture; • Investment should be channelled into existing facilities ﬁrst and foremost, supported where appropriate by new infrastructure to address any gaps in provision; • Provision of facilities should be coordinated by a single entity, ideally an existing organisation; • Respondents favoured a consortium leadership model with strong industry representation; • Initially, the centre of innovation excellence will require public sector pump-prime funding, but should over time become commercially self-sustaining. Sutherland said: ‘The idea of having a dedicated centre of innovation excellence for Scottish aquaculture has been discussed for several years now, albeit at an informal level. ‘This early-stage study makes the informal formal, conﬁrming that there is
Left: Alan Sutherland. Opposite - Table: 5 Priority Areas chart
indeed strong cross-sector support for such a concept and identifying perceived gaps in the existing R&D infrastructure.’ Compared to Scotland, many of the other leading aquaculture producing countries have considerably more in the way of support for innovating eﬀective solutions to technical challenges, both in terms of R&D activity and infrastructure, the report found. Norway has a wealth of internationally renowned organisations providing dedicated support, including the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture (Noﬁma); the Centre for Research based Innovation in Aquaculture Technology (Create); and aquatic research facility, Veso Vikan. Chile, the world’s second biggest salmon exporter after Norway, is home to a number of R&D institutions including AVS Chile, the Instituto de Fomento Pesquero and Intesal, while in British Columbia the BC Centre for Aquatic Health Sciences is currently developing the concept of a BC salmon centre of excellence. In Scotland, there are various research facilities doing groundbreaking work in the area, mostly within higher education institutions and government laboratories. As a whole, however, current R&D capacity is limited compared to the ambition of industry and ingenuity of academia, according to the study. One result of this is that many of the multi-nationals operating in Scotland undertake their R&D elsewhere. ‘While much of the resulting insights and output can still be used in Scotland, it’s important to recognise that there are signiﬁcant diﬀerences between countries in terms of the marine environment, biological and disease challenges, and the regulatory environment. ‘Add to this the fact that outsourcing R&D to international providers both reduces the supply chain beneﬁts and the innovative capacity of Scotland, and there is a clear case to be made for ensuring that the Scottish aquaculture industry has the capability and critical facilities necessary to test new approaches in the environments for which they are intended.’ All three leading feed ﬁrms with a presence in Scotland have research facilities located elsewhere: Skretting in Lerang, Norway; Cargill in Dirdal and Lønningdal, Norway, and Colaco, Chile; and BioMar in Hirtshals, Denmark, and Patagonia, Chile.
The issues of sea lice and gill health emerged as a clear priority for producers, suppliers and academics. Environmental challenges were also high on the list, as was sharing best practice and knowledge exchange.
Mortality reduction/improved smoltification
Genetics/breeding for health and quality
Addressing regulatory and planning challenges
Development of new species.
TABLE 5: PRIORITY AREAS
What do you see as being the top 3 priorities?
Suppliers (%) Academics (%)
Sea lice and gill health
Cleaner fish production
Vaccine and medicines
Production in more exposed locations
The highlighted numbers indicate the highest responses in each category. Note that the responses do not add up to 100% because some respondents were in favour of more than one approach.
‘Yet each has expressed an explicit desire for R&D infrastructure in Scotland that would enable trials of feed related products, in order to support new product development for the local market.’ The report asks if the time is ripe for a Scottish centre of aquaculture “Priorities be aligned to theor a coordinated excellence, be it one should facility comprising different specialisms network of specialist facilities, capable of: industry growth strategy; the focus • Helping develop and test technological solutions that remove the challeng‘We will also offer the study as advisory input to the newly formed Industry es and bottlenecks inhibiting growth in the sector; should becurrently broader than primary Leadership Group tasked with overseeing the actions set out in the recently • Supporting evidence based improvements to the oversight regime under production.” launched Aquaculture Growth to 2030 strategy.’ which Scottish aquaculture currently operates. Download a copy of the report at www.scottishaquaculture.com. FF Respondents thought there was a lack of existing infrastructure to support feed trials and studies for fish in the second half of their growth cycle. A key ‘ask’, therefore, in terms of which facilities would most help Scottish aquaculture businesses to grow, was for the centre of excellence to include seawater and freshwater field trial facilities. TO TAKE THE IDEA FORWARD, THE REPORT While existing tanks, pens, lab space and consents would be utilised wherRECOMMENDS THE FOLLOWING: ever possible, it is likely that new infrastructure would be required in order to 1. Establish a steering group of supportive parties to support industry ambition in this area. explore how best to take the centre of excellence concept Respondents were asked to identify their three main priorities for a centre of excellence, selecting from an eight-strong list of major industry issues. Sea to the next stage, as a precursor to lice and gill health emerged as a clear priority for producers, suppliers and any further commitment; academics. Environmental challenges were also high on the list, as was sharing 2. Conduct a gap analysis to identify and map existing best practice and knowledge exchange.
I think we might find another name for the initiative that better describes what is required
research facilities in Scotland that could potentially support centre of excellence activities; Funding challenges 3. Review existing UK/Norwegian centre of excellence While there was cross-sector enthusiasm for a centre of excellence, equally models, as well as Scottish industry leadership groups, there was cross-sector concern that it might duplicate existing activity, involve expensive new facilities or structures, or dilute existing investment in Scotland. seeking any lessons that can be learned; There was also concern about the sustainability of funding – possibly in the 4. Prepare a database to identify companies and individuals absence of EU support; that the centre of excellence, once established, might who stated a willingness to collaborate in developing the face future challenges in meeting ongoing running costs. new infrastructure required to support a One (anonymous) respondent said: ‘If you could link together better the centre of excellence; existing facilities, you could have a real powerhouse.’ 5. Draw up a list of commercial projects for the Another (also anonymous) said: ‘There are a number of organisations activecentre of excellence; ly and successfully delivering relevant work, and it may be more appropriate to look at linkages and profile.’ 6. Create a list of companies requiring resources for While a third said: ‘I think we might find another name for the initiative that innovation activities, then cross-reference with those better describes what is required, that is a network of facilities and compeoffering the relevant resources to enable SAIC to tencies that enhances opportunities for applied research and development investigate opportunities for collaboration; relevant to the needs of a growing aquaculture sector.’ 7. Identify candidate sites/facilities suitable for SAIC CEO Heather Jones said: ‘The report recommends establishing a steeracquisition or lease; ing group of supportive parties to explore how best to take the centre of excellence concept to the next stage, as a precursor to any further commitment. 8. Write a business plan for the centre of excellence and ‘We look forward to contributing to the work of that steering group wherevexplore possible funding opportunities. er we can, further helping ensure that industry priorities are addressed.
Trade Associations – SSPO Comment
BY BY PROFESSOR PROFESSOR PHIL PHIL THOMAS THOMAS
Underpinning Here’s to provenance the future Do we think gives the Scotland mustenough not clingabout to thewhat political industry its edge inworld key markets? past in a post-Brexit
unning andcally overcorrect the holiday t may not up be to politi to sayperiod so at three but particular caught my eye and present farmeditems Atlanti c salmon would me to reflect. notcaused have become Scotland’s leading food Thewithout first item ‘Exploring thepositi Con-ve export thewas Crown Estate’s cept of a Centre of Innovation Excellence for engagement with aquaculture development Scottish Aquaculture’, an independent scoping back in the 1980s. study Alan Sutherland, former MD of Marine Now,byaquaculture is a signiﬁ cant part of the Harvest Scotland. agency’s marine leasing portfolio and is reguThiscelebrated report, published SAICEstate’s (the Scottish larly by the by Crown Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre), provided a Marine Aquaculture Awards event. This year’s highly significant statement of the Scottish inevent in Edinburgh on the 11 June was the dustry’s commitment to a long-term strategy of usual highly successful showcase for Scottish developmental research, based on ‘science into aquaculture and a rare opportunity for induspractice’ and a national investment in the retry to join together to mark its success. sources necessary to drive that process forward. The Crown Estate is presently at the centre Inevitably, there is a lot of work still to be done of further devolution discussions between the before the concepts expressed in the report can UK government and Scottish government. The be fully reflected in action on the ground. long-term future of key Scottish functions reHowever, the confidence and commitment set mains unclear and professional expertise could out in the document provided a strong insight be squandered in the process of organisational into the Scottish industry’s vision for the future change. and reflected a mature and highly encouraging Bothofthe Crown and Estate’s core expertise and sense direction purpose. the Marine Aquaculture Awards are imporScotland’s politicians and development agentant in maintaining the disti ncti ve coherence cies should take heed: Scotland needs strong of Scotland’s aquaculture and it would be a industrial growth sectors and aquaculture tragedy if to they casualties ofnational political continues be became a high public-return change. development opportunity. Thissecond year’s Awards wasreport hostedofby The item wasevent an early the triactress, writer and comedian Jo Caulﬁ eld,also an als being conducted by Scottish Sea Farms, inspired choice by whoever madeAquaculture, the booking. involving Grieg Seafood and Cooke She was thermolicer, very funny and entertaining and kept of a new introduced to Scotland in the proceedings going with a swing. Only once summer 2016. did she studies, stray, when she wondered what ‘proveThese which reflect the kind of innonancedevelopment actually meant’. vative highlighted in Sutherland’s In a room full of folk livelihoods report, are looking verywhose promising. The unit, which treats fish through a 30-second exposure 12 above sea temperature water, is reported with
18 SSPO.indd 12 Phil Thomas.indd 18
The slow “process
whereby the should EU We negotiates be organdeals isingwith our other training and tradingon educati blocks has provisions caused much widespread better frustration
depend on the provenance of their products she quickly sensed an audience response and moved to safer comedic material: there are some things you just don’t joke about! However, her remark left me asking myself whether we think enough about the underpinning of the provenance of Scottish farmed ﬁsh – and for me that’s farmed salmon. There is no doubt that Scottish provenance is important to our industry – it gives us the edge in all our key markets. Provenance can be deﬁned in various ways but most people will agree that it goes beyond the appearance and sensory qualities of the ﬁnal product: ﬂavour, texture, visual presentation and product consistency are always key factors in consumer appeal but provenance is about tomuch remove 95 to 98 per cent of sea lice and allow the treatment of about more. 40 It tonnes of per hour. reﬂects fish a wider concept of consumer quality assurance, including: No one should ever anticipate a magic bullet technology for dealing the place where the ﬁsh is grown and processed; the professional with sea lice. However, coupled with the new developments in cleaner integrity of the production and processing methods; and the quality, fish technology and other engineering solutions, such as freshwater hycommitment and care of the people involved – the professional skills, drolicer technology, the thermolicer looks to add significantly to the toolexpertise, passion and dedication of the producers themselves. box of sea lice treatments, and to support the industry’s drive towards In Scotland our ‘place of production’ gives us a huge natural advanbiological sea lice control. tage because we grow ﬁsh in the pristine coastal waters of some of The information on the trials released to date represents good news; the most beautiful and wild scenic areas of the world, and our brand is further publication of results from the trials in 2017 will be awaited with protected by its PGI status. considerable interest. Likewise, adoption of the Scottish Finﬁsh Code of Good Practice The third and most high profile item was ‘Scotland’s Place in Europe’, allied with the industry’s deep commitment to a range of independent the much trumpeted Scottish government analysis of options following farm assurance programmes, RSPCA sh welfare the EU quality referendum. This document was including essentiallythe political inﬁpurpose scheme, builds on the underlying strength of our statutory regulatory and it gained some justifiable praise for being the first such document systems to assure our producti on systems. produced by any tier of government in the UK. Disappointingly though, Finally,the thesharp skills,analysis expertiand se, passion and detail dedicati on of our farmers it lacked quantitative needed to contribute can be demonstrated in abundance day in and day out – and they were more than a punctuation mark in the ongoing Brexit debate. showcased by the recent awards event. Unfortunately, it also suggested a persisting Scottish government tendenHowever, being wholly objecti ve than and forward looking, it is the thisnew third cy to cling to the political past, rather moving on to address area of provenance where the Scotti sh industry has greatest scope circumstances and potential opportunities presented by the Brexit result.for systemati c development. is not say that skills It is stating the obvious to That say that thetopublic can our onlyindustry’s address the and professional experti se are not of the highest calibre, but it is to specific question asked in a referendum, and a majority of Scots were recognise our vocati onal educati onal than and training clearly savvythat enough to vote ‘remain’ rather ‘leave’ instructures, the EU and referendum. www.fishfarmer-magazine.com But now that the UK as a whole has voted to leave, the questions to be
www.fishfarmer-magazine.com 03/07/2015 14:31:33 16/01/2017 11:04:15
Here’s to the future
asked have changed and the public’s options and choices are potentially wider and subtler. Faced with this new situation there seems a good prospect that the best options for negotiation post-Brexit will find substantial convergence of interest across industry sectors and among the general public throughout the constituent countries of the UK. On the objective of gaining best possible access to the EU single market, dissent between UK countries is unlikely, although the terms and barriers related to any agreement will remain critical areas for the post-Brexit negotiations. Full engagement in the EU customs union – to ensure that no customs tariffs are levied within the EU area and common tariffs are levied on all goods entering the area – is a different matter because it incurs a prohibition on the UK establishing any independent trade deals with other countries. The cumbersome and painfully slow process whereby the EU negotiates comprehensive all-sector trading deals with other international blocks has caused widespread frustrations in parts of UK industry, Above: Post-Brexit including aquaculture. opportunities for On this, the benefits of separate UK bilateral negotiations may be aquaculture significant but, if so, they are likely to apply equally across all UK constituent countries. On the wide range of other trade, environmental, social and other policies that might be affected post-Brexit, it is difficult to identify areas where Scottish and UK policies differ fundamentally in their primary objectives, although there are some devolved policy differences, and
Phil Thomas.indd 19
differences at the technical or institutional levels. Fishing policy may be a special case since Scotland will have such large fisheries under its potential control post-Brexit. However, this will generally be seen as a significant Scottish opportunity. Finally, Scotland is distinctive because of its low population density, ageing population and need to address specific skills gaps, including in a growing aquaculture sector. But any immigration policy that is developed for the UK must take into account both the development needs of different parts of the country and the essential requirement for continued free movement within the UK as a whole. Thus, while the need to develop rational policies for the international movement of labour and for broader immigration are a challenging priority, the policies developed can only be sensibly conceived on a UK basis, unless we are prepared to accept regional employment constraints. Unquestionably, 2017 is likely to bring interesting times. Let’s hope they are also rewarding and profitable! FF
BY DR MARTIN JAFFA
Drop in the ocean Solution to sea bass and sea bream crisis is in hands of producers
alling prices, ruthless competition and markets flooded with too many fish will characterise yet another difficult year for the Mediterranean sea bass and sea bream industry, the web-based news service Intrafish predicts. According to the Federation of European Aquaculture Producers, production of both species totalled just over 300,000 tonnes across eight different countries. Compared to salmon production, this is just a drop in the ocean and it seems absurd, given the popularity of both species, especially for eating out in restaurants, that sea bass and sea bream producers cannot get on an even keel. Many years ago, when the salmon industry in Scotland was in a trade war with Norwegian producers, I suggested that the problem then was not caused by over production but rather under marketing. Sea bass and sea bream now reminds me of the salmon industry of the time although sea bass and sea bream production has had the added burden of the financial crisis that has crippled much of the Mediterranean region. Although the sea bass and bream industry has been damaged by the financial crisis, the solution to the cyclical nature of sea bass and sea bream farming is largely in the hands of the producers themselves. Investment needs to be made to address the under marketing and bring the industry out of these cycles. Back in 2014, Bjorn Myrseth, then president elect of the European Aquaculture Society, spoke at a workshop organised by FEAP about the differences between marketing salmon and sea bass and sea bream. He said that 90 per cent of sea bass and sea bream are sold in domestic or local markets while only 20 per cent of salmon is consumed locally. Norwegian salmon is now present in 160 markets worldwide, including most of those countries producing sea bass. He noted that across Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain, salmon had achieved 15 per cent growth (2010-2012), while seabass and sea bream had achieved only eight per cent in these markets. He also pointed out the importance of Brazilian, Russian, Indian and Chinese markets, with salmon reaching a total of 300,000 tonnes compared to just 6,000 tonnes for sea bass and sea bream (mainly in Russia). He said that, put simply, salmon has become a global commodity, while sea bass and sea bream have not. Finally, he said that whole fish represent only five to ten per cent of the salmon market, compared to more than 90 per cent for sea bass and sea bream. I am not so convinced that it is so simple to compare the salmon market with that for sea bass and sea bream because there are some major differences between the two. For example, the market for salmon is for
Martin jaffa.indd 20
portions because consumers donâ€™t necessarily want to buy a whole 4kg salmon when they are making just a meal for two. By comparison, most sea bass and sea bream are sold whole because the fish are typically 300-400 g in size. I am a great advocate of added value but when the fillet yield on sea bass/ bream is just 45 per cent, the opportunities for adding value to sea bass and sea bream are limited. Mr Myrseth argued that generic marketing has helped the salmon industry and would do so for sea bass and bream producers. I am not so convinced. Generic marketing Is not the solution for sea bass and sea bream simply because there are too many countries involved in production and marketing across borders is fraught with difficulty. I believe that the real opportunities for sea
Above: Sea bass. Opposite: Sea bream
bass and sea bream lie in changes to the industry’s approach to production. The Times newspaper recently reported that ﬁsheries ministers across the EU have agreed to combat a sharp decline in wild sea bass populations, which have halved since 2010. Consequently, the Times says that sea bass are now oﬀ the menu. This is a typical response resulting from an ill informed media and environmental sector. Sea bass are not oﬀ the menu at all, only wild sea bass. Yet because the environmentalists who have campaigned for a stop to the ﬁshing of wild sea bass are not supportive of the aquaculture industry, there is an absence of encouragement to ensure that the sea bass that consumers buy is farmed. Fortunately, the reality is that most sea bass bought from the retail sector anyway is farmed. The wild catch goes mainly to specialist ﬁsh-
Martin jaffa.indd 21
mongers and restaurants for one simple reason and that is the wild ﬁsh tends to be much larger than farmed. This means that it can be ﬁlleted or steaked or served as a centrepiece for more than one person. The farmed alternative is usually a one portion sized whole ﬁsh. Although there has always been an opportunity to farm larger sized sea bass, the loss of the wild ﬁsh means that this opportunity is greater than ever. In addition, the production of larger ﬁsh opens up the potential to produce a greater range of added value products. This is a clear win-win situation, especially as larger ﬁsh brings greater revenue. Moving away from one portion sized ﬁsh also widens the market since there are many people who simply don’t like being presented with a whole ﬁsh complete with head, eyes and ﬁns.
Although there “ has always been an
opportunity to farm larger sea bass, the loss of the wild ﬁsh means this opportunity is greater than ever
The solution to the sea bass and sea bream crisis is about investing in what the consumer wants, not what the producers think the consumer wants. FF
Trade Associations – ASSG
BY NICK LAKE
What a year!
ability to cross check any spurious results, and based on historic data would indicate a potential downgrading of some classiﬁcations but with no direct link to food safety as it is just that - historic data. Hence we are currently in discussion with FSS to ensure a robust system can be developed prior to going ‘live’ and causing issues for industry. The advice from Seaﬁsh regarding the introduction of Codex standards into shellﬁsh harvesting waters classiﬁcations only applies to other areas of the UK and not Scotland. This will be subject to further consultation by FSS with the Scottish industry.
Shellﬁsh sector conﬁdent of growth at this critical stage of development
imagine that over the quiet periods of the festive season many pollsters will have been looking for other work opportunities, given the tumultuous year we have just experienced. The week after Brexit I was contacted by a French journalist to comment on the impact expected for the Scottish shellﬁsh production industry. My response was simply that we had no information upon which to make a judgement. Suﬃce to say, the position is the same now as it was then. The one point I am clear on is that whatever system of trade and engagement emerges, we need to ﬁnd the opportunities for our sector to develop. Interestingly, the outcome of the US elections puts another potential perspective on Brexit. Will we be at the back of the trade queue as previously suggested or, under the new regime, be invited to the front? I suspect neither but it does raise the question of where cultivated Scottish shellﬁsh may ﬁnd its market interests lying in the years to come. This has implications for the technical details and controls we may need to implement at the farm level to access markets. What are the requirements of the US Food and Drugs Administration in allowing live or processed Scottish shellﬁsh into North America? Surely it has to be more straightforward than the years it has taken to get haggis back on the menu stateside. I will come back to the question of exports but it does relate to our EU focused provisions for bivalve mollusc food safety which we are discussing with our own Food Standards Agency. Codex The word Codex may not have meant much to producers in the past but has now been brought into sharp focus. The advice collated by Seaﬁsh in relation to the new testing standards for E.coli under Codex should have been received by all members ahead of the January 1, 2017, UK implementation. (See the following link http://www.seaﬁsh.org/media/publications/ LBM_End_Product_Testing_2016-11-28.pdf ) It should be stressed that Codex introduces an international standard of testing into the EU legislative framework for bivalve mollusc food safety, and in this respect should present opportunities to access markets in countries both within and outwith the EU. While the introduction of Codex standards for End Product Testing is at an EU level, it is for the various competent authorities in member states to determine the process required for the classiﬁcation of shellﬁsh harvesting waters. Within the UK, the FSA has opted to implement the Codex standard as part of the shellﬁsh harvesting waters classiﬁcation system. In Scotland, the importance of maintaining class ‘A’ shellﬁsh harvesting waters cannot be under estimated, especially for product supplied to the multiple retail sector. Food Standards Scotland (FSS) has brought forward such a revised system based on the Codex standard. However, this has raised issues regarding the
Investment While on the EU theme it is always good to see that use is being made by our sector of the structural funding opportunities coming through the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF). Brexit seemed likely to have a negative impact on access to this funding back in June but recent announcements from the Scottish government and the Treasury have clariﬁed that this scheme will be honoured through to the intended completion date of 2020. This is welcomed as we are at a critical stage of development in our industry and conﬁdent we can push up outputs both from existing farm sites and also new ones.
Opposite: Small but
Shellﬁsh forum Not only is public sector investment required, but also private ﬁnance through the commercial banking system and investors equity. This was an issue raised back in September at the Scottish Government Shellﬁsh Forum convened by Fergus Ewing, Minister for the Rural Economy and Connectivity. The need for access to commercial funds recognising that shellﬁsh stock and equipment in the water are tangible assets and that the growout duration in Scotland is lengthy are issues the minister subsequently discussed with a group of high street banks. The door is now ajar for our sector to discuss in greater detail both our operational needs and our growth prospects with those investment institutions. We have moved on considerably as a sector over the last couple of decades and possibly we have not spent enough time assuring potential investors of the professional status of the current industry. We operate as food businesses under a stringent set of regulations which provide consumer
What a year! conﬁdence in our products. The controls and status of our market and supply chains should also give investors conﬁdence in our ‘green’ and ethical sector. What is daunting to those from outside the industry is the wait to see returns and the perceived risks of leaving all your investment hanging on a piece of rope unguarded in the sea. We have to become more eﬀective at explaining our industry to the private sector. The public sector has understood for a long time that it means jobs in the rural economy and increasingly in supply, distribution and processing sectors. Other investors either don’t have us on the radar as a business opportunity or perceive a risk proﬁle which exceeds other, safer places to make money. The shellﬁsh summit was a good venue to better explain the workings of our industry and we were able to present the development message to both the minister and representatives of the Scottish Investment Bank. What we will now be undertaking is a follow up meeting with those high street banks which have an interest in listening. Vision 2030 In line with the wider development opportunities for aquaculture recognised by the Scottish government, the industry has launched an ambitious growth strategy. This is not just from a producer’s perspective, but recognises the important role to play of all the associated support industries and the infrastructure requirements. The headline grabbing theme is the desire to see what is currently a £1.8 billion industry of salmon, trout and shellﬁsh double its value by 2030. Obviously, we are a small but none the less signiﬁcant part of this ﬁgure and through reviews already undertaken we are well on the way to achieving a shellﬁsh output target of 13,000 tonnes by 2020. The Vision 2030 report has recommendations covering six themes of industry leadership, regulation, innovation, skills, investment and infrastructure.
The most prominent recommendation, and one which has already been adopted by the minister, is for the creation of a new Industry Leadership Group (ILG) to drive alignment between industry and government in order to deliver growth. Industry Leadership Groups already exist for other sectors and so the process is formalised and seen to be an eﬀective way of operating. From our own viewpoint, the success of this initiative should see a greater alignment of government agencies and the roles of bodies such as Marine Scotland, SEPA, FSS and SNH, with the objective of enabling rather than disabling sustainable growth for the beneﬁt of Scotland plc and the rural economy. The question This brings me neatly back to the question of whether we will or, in fact, can currently export Scottish shellﬁsh to the US. If so, what are the export requirements of the US Food and Drugs Administration or indeed other administrations around the world? Currently, it appears that not one body within the UK can answer this question for us! If we want to develop our sector we need to be far smarter at developing our trading links and ensure our regulatory controls are ﬁt for purpose. Changes afoot One institution which has supported our industry from its inception has been the Crown Estate. As it is responsible for granting and agreeing lease conditions, development of the devolution of powers in Scotland is of direct interest and commercial signiﬁcance to growers. The formation of an interim body to manage the assets of the Crown Estate in Scotland has recently taken a step forward with the appointment of an interim chair. Next year should see a review of our rents, which has previously been undertaken on a ﬁve-yearly basis. This process has been fair and transparent, with wider economic factors taken into account in the setting of lease rates. It is reassuring to know that the primary principle established by Scottish government for the transfer process is continuity and stability, with existing staﬀ and resources transferred to the new interim body. We will obviously be keen to continue working with the new Crown Estate Interim Body which takes over control of the management of the Scottish assets in April 2017. There will be a further consultation on how the assets of the Crown will be managed in Scotland in the longer term. It will be important that shellﬁsh businesses respond to this as it will form part of the future of our sector. Nick Lake is CEO of the Association of Scottish Shellﬁsh Growers. FF
enough time assuring potential investors of the professional status of the industry
Trade Associations – SSPO
New leaders learn the signiﬁcance of Scottish salmon farming
he Scottish parliamentary elections last year and the reshuﬄe of the SNP cabinet saw several new MSPs enter oﬃce for the ﬁrst time in 2016. In response to such a signiﬁcant change in structure, the Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation (SSPO) took the opportunity to hold a week-long exhibition in the Scottish parliament at the end of November to promote the importance and value of farmed salmon to Scotland. Tavish Scott, MSP for Shetland and long-time supporter of the salmon farming industry, sponsored the exhibition, which was ideally positioned in the members’ lobby, immediately outside the debating chamber. The exhibition stand - manned throughout the week by the SSPO’s technical and communications teams, along with Scott Landsburgh, SSPO chief executive, and Anne MacColl SSPO chair - provided a focal point where
SSPO - Freshwater Workshop.indd 24
MSPs could learn more about the industry and its importance to Scotland. As well as the opportunity to engage with SSPO personnel, the exhibit allowed MSPs and parliamentary staﬀ to see the industry’s latest promotional video, ﬁlmed in Orkney and showcasing the entire value chain, from production to retailer. This was complemented by a number of short cookery ﬁlms featuring a selection of recipes made from Scotland’s number one food export. There was the opportunity to discuss the industry with MSPs from all political parties, including those who are members of current parliamentary committees relevant to salmon farming. Those who came to talk to the team included, among many others, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon, Deputy First Minister John Swinney, Cabinet Secretary for the Environment Roseanna Cunningham, Leader of the Scottish Labour Party Kezia Dugdale and Presiding Oﬃcer Ken MacIntosh. Iain Berrill, research and data manager for the SSPO, said: ‘There was good overall support for the industry, with MSPs acknowledging the key contribution salmon farming makes to the Scottish economy, in particular in rural areas. ‘Questions set to the SSPO team covered the industry’s plans for sustainable growth, the importance of safeguarding jobs, especially in rural areas, and the industry’s views on Brexit. ‘Of course, no one knows exactly how Brexit will impact Scotland, the UK or, for that matter,
the salmon farming sector. ‘The exhibition was a big success and has helped the industry forge greater relationships with key MSPs for the sector. ‘Importantly, it has also helped us to engage with those MSPs who reside outwith traditional ﬁsh farming regions, but who should still be kept abreast of developments within the industry.’ FF
Taking a stand
VITAL LINK WITH EUROPE ‘Blue Growth’ is ﬁrmly on the agenda thanks to the formation of the long awaited Aquaculture Advisory Council (AAC), providing a direct link between aquaculture specialists and the European Commission (EC) and Parliament. The role of the new group is to provide information and advice regarding issues aﬀecting ﬁnﬁsh and shellﬁsh farming and on policy areas such as blue innovation, circular economy, bio economy, food 2030 and climate change. The ﬁrst meeting and oﬃcial launch of the AAC took place at the organisation’s general assembly in Paris last month. The council will operate in three working groups, meeting regularly to prioritise and complete a work plan. Some 60 per cent of the AAC comprises operators who represent diﬀerent stages of the aquaculture value chain, including primary producers in the shellﬁsh and ﬁnﬁsh sector, ﬁsh feed manufacturers, processors and distributors. The remaining 40 per cent is made up of representatives from non-governmental organisations (NGOs) with an interest in aquaculture, such as Seas at Risk, Client Earth, Birdlife Europe and Compassion in World Farming. All members will agree information and advice put forward to the EU commission and parliament. Richie Flynn, from Irish Farmers Association Executive responsible for aquaculture, has been elected chairman. He has 20 years’ experience in the sector representing shellﬁsh and ﬁnﬁsh farmers. Jamie Smith, executive committee member of the AAC and technical executive of the Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation, said: ‘It has been a complex group to set up and we’ve faced some hurdles along the way, but now it has launched, we anticipate it will operate similarly to the Regional Advisory Councils for Capture Fisheries. ‘Establishing formal communication channels will make it easier to promote the industry and acknowledge the community and social beneﬁts which sustainable aquaculture brings. ‘We hope this will encourage the future development of policy at a European level, with the aim of increasing responsible sustainable aquaculture production in the EU.’ All members of the council are from EU member states. Above: Jamie Smith Below: The group’s launch in December
The exhibition has helped the industry forge greater relationships with key MSPs
SSPO - Freshwater Workshop.indd 25
Clockwise from above: Scott Landsburgh with Roseanna Cunningham; and with Tavish Scott; the SSPO’s Iain Berrill; Landsburgh and the First Minister
Trade Associations – British Trout Association
Super strategy Sector combines high welfare standards with low antibiotic use BY DOUG MCLEOD
ntimicrobial Resistance (AMR) happens when microorganisms- such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites- change after exposure to antimicrobial drugs (antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics). Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as ‘superbugs’. As a result, the medicines become ineﬀective and infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others. New resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our ability to treat common infectious diseases, resulting in prolonged illness, disability, and death. Without eﬀective antimicrobials for prevention and treatment of infections, medical procedures such as organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy, diabetes management and major surgery (for example, hip replacements) become very high risk. Welcome to what is probably the number one issue for health and disease treatment in this (relatively) new century. The above description is courtesy of the World Health Organisation (WHO), but could have been taken from almost any relevant governmental website in recent years, as there is global concern at the highest level, transcending politics, over AMR. The WHO also notes: Antimicrobial resistance occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. However, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials is accelerating this process. Antimicrobial resistant-microbes are found in people, animals, food, and the environment (in water, soil and air). They can spread between people and animals, and from person to person. Poor infection control, inadequate sanitary conditions and inappropriate food handling encourage the spread of antimicrobial resistance. AMR- and antibiotic resistance in particular – is therefore an issue of great concern to all food producers, including those involved in aquaculture. Narrowing our focus down to the UK, there is great interest in the annual release of the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) survey ‘Veterinary Antibiotic Resistance and Sales Surveillance Report’. I believe that the latest publication for 2015 data includes a good news story for the aquaculture sector, certainly in comparison with other food pro-
Here is “ certainly one food issue where the aquaculture industry should be applauded
Left: Good news story for aquaculture
ducing sectors. Firstly, it reports that the ﬁsh sector consumed no more than 700kg of antibiotics, placing it way below the main agricultural sectors of cattle, poultry, pigs, as shown in Figure 1. The reduction in the ﬁsh sector from the 2014 level of 2.4 tonnes was some 71 per cent, the highest percentage reduction of any sector. The 2014 usage for ﬁsh was actually the highest of the previous ﬁve years, indicating that 2014 and 2015 were not exceptional years of low use, but pretty typical of current use in UK aquaculture. The data shows that the aquaculture industry’s strategy of focusing on vaccine development, stress management, stocking density and feed management has been remarkably successful in reducing antibiotic use to levels below virtually all other food producing industries – a record of which I believe the sector should be proud. However, it is clear that having reduced antibiotic use to an extremely low level, any crisis in ﬁsh health would show a signiﬁcant increase in consumption. There are some members of the industry who feel this would generate negative publicity, but I don’t believe this should be a major concern for operators; short-term use for health/welfare/survival of the ﬁsh in their care is totally defendable, in contrast to prophylactic and/or indiscriminate use of these veterinary medicines. To advocate or guarantee a nil use policy would be indefensible on welfare grounds alone – acceptance of a roller coaster level of annual usage is required, and should be defended as the corollary of the hugely successful strategy of securing ﬁsh health through the development of vaccines and medicated feed. We have a solid, positive story here, one that clearly oﬀsets some of the negative spin that swirls around the industry – here is certainly one food issue where the aquaculture industry should be applauded for its leadership and concerns about the impact on human health of its products, along with the welfare of the animals under its care. And hopefully 2017 will continue to illustrate the beneﬁts of the long-term strategy of the sector, combining high welfare standards for the animals under care with the expansion of the sector, while continuing the current low-level use of antibiotics. FF
S O AV VE E R
Subscribe to an online version of Fish Farmer magazine for one year and save over 35%
Fish FarmerFish Farmer VOLUME 39
DON’T WAIT FOR YOUR ISSUE ANY LONGER! GET ACCESS AS SOON AS IT IS PROVIDED!
Serving worldwide aquaculture since 1977
Prince Charles drops in on Marine Harvest
Industry launches long awaited Vision for 2030
Time to comply with the Scottish Technical Standard
Serving worldwide aquaculture since 1977
next A new way to recruit theTRAINING generation Aquaculture courses that bridge the skills gap
Special focus on a fast growing industry
Preview of Seafood Expo Global in Brussels
Harvesting sea cucumbers in Madagascan villages
SUBSCRIBE ONLINE ONLY
For more information visit:
001_ff03.indd 4 06/03/2015 14:28:03
07/11/2016 12:50:03 November Cover.indd 4
Fish Farmer Magazine ADVERTISING SALES EXECUTIVE (PRINT AND ONLINE SALES) EDINBURGH OR OBAN Basic salary to £23K + bonus (OTE £32K) + good holiday entitlement + other beneﬁts + Monthly incentives. An exciting opportunity has arisen for a talented and self motivated advertising sales executive to join the marine sales team at Wyvex Media working on their core B2B title Fish Farmer magazine and Fishupdate.com Fish Farmer is a monthly business to business title with strong readership across the European Aquaculture industry. An understanding or experience of this industry would be beneﬁcial but not essential
CANDIDATE The ideal candidate will have some experience of sales (across any medium) or come from a B2B background. They must be able to demonstrate a clear grasp of time and territory management and be able to work to strict targets and deadlines. A good track record in developing new business in a competitive market would be advantageous.
ROLE Working to targets and monthly deadlines you will sell advertising space and creative solutions to a range of B2B clients across a wide spectrum of suppliers to the aquaculture industry in Scotland and Europe. The role is largely oﬃce based although some ﬁeld sales activity and overseas travel can be expected. Building new business and retaining existing client spend is a key requisite along with the ability to deliver creative solutions.
THE PACKAGE In return you will receive a fantastic opportunity to work in a friendly team orientated environment where genuine opportunities exist for personal development. Basic salary to £23K + bonus (OTE £32K) + good holiday entitlement + private healthcare + pension + monthly incentives To apply please send a CV and covering letter by email to: recruitment@ﬁshupdate.com or by post to Brian Cameron, Fish Farmer magazine, Fettes Park, Ferry Road, Edinburgh, EH5 2DL. Closing date: Friday 3 February 2017
P 27.indd 27
Interview – DNB Bank
Price of success
Norway’s salmon sector has seen a new dynamic but financiers find fresh frontiers
onfidence in the Norwegian seafood industry is a given for the country’s senior bankers and it’s not hard to see why. Last year turned out to be a bonanza for the sector, with seafood exports exceeding NOK 90 billion (£8.47 billion) for the first time and salmon exports up by 29 per cent to NOK 61.4 billion. With the price of salmon at unprecedented levels throughout 2016, the banks acknowledge that the former cyclical nature of this business has been replaced by a new dynamic. The average price for whole fresh salmon in November was NOK 61.90 (£5.83) per kg, compared to NOK 44.86 (£4.22) per kg in the same month last year, but ‘that doesn’t mean things will be super duper forever’, said Dag Sletmo, senior analyst at DNB Bank. Sletmo, who joined DNB from Cermaq, and Anne Hvistendahl, head of seafood, bring a wealth of experience to their bank, which is among the world’s leaders in the fisheries market. Their extensive knowledge and what DNB calls ‘obligation’ to the seafood industry afford them a commanding view of the sector globally. In aquaculture, Hvistendahl notes the shift in government support in others countries. In 2016, DNB lost one of its Scottish clients when the Scottish Salmon Company announced a refinancing deal with the Bank of Scotland. ‘We have such a large part of the UK market because we finance the big players there, and it is good for the industry if the local banks also take part,’ Hvistendahl told Fish Farmer. ‘I can’t comment on client relationships but it is a huge difference in knowledge between DNB and most other banks when it comes to seafood, that’s for sure. But banks don’t compete
only on industry knowledge, we also compete on prices and terms . In that respect they have got a better package than they had at our bank. ‘Our selling point is that as industry specialists we can help find good solutions tailored to each client’s unique business profile and that we keep our heads cool also if things turn out less well than planned. ‘We have seen upturns and downturns many times before and know how to get through the difficult times in a constructive way.’ She has observed a political change in Scotland lately, and in Canada, which may lead to more local financing in fish farming. ‘The politicians are much more in favour of this industry than they used to be and that also influences the local banks. ‘It’s always been a factor that the government in Norway has been very much behind the development of the industry and your government has been slower to catch up.’ She said politicians have traditionally favoured older industries in Norway and to an even larger extent in the UK and Chile. But the downturn in the oil industry has forced a rethink. ‘I think the change is based on the oil price. It has hit our bank and I suppose the Scottish banks too if they are into the offshore industry. So it’s good to have a balanced portfolio. ‘Even in our bank, the Norwegian kroner is so linked to the oil price so when there is a weak oil price there is a weak kroner, which is extremely good for the seafood industry, both the fish farming and the wild catch. ‘And that makes this industry counter cyclical; when oil is down fish is good! That makes it a good industry for our bank to take part in.’ The recent agreement between OPEC and non-OPEC oil producing countries to cut output is expected to strengthen the oil price and ease the slump. DNB Bank, said Hvistendahl, predicted oil could soon rise to $60 a barrel, ‘and that could of course strengthen the kroner a bit’ during 2017. But there is no immediate reason for concern in the aquaculture market: today they earn so much money, she said, that it’s a question of earning a huge amount or a really huge amount! With reduced production in 2016, and low production expected in 2017 too, ‘whatever happens to the currency it will still be good or extremely good for them for the next year and part of 2018’. ‘But I think in the long run things will normalise. The price of salmon is linked to other sources of protein. Now we have a kind of super cycle but growth will come sooner or later and then you will have another kind of
Above: Anne Hvistendahl and Dag Sletmo (inset)
Price of success
balance between supply and demand.’ The Norwegian target for growth is even more ambitious than Scotland’s – it is expected to grow ﬁve-fold by 2050, according to a 2012 report by Sintef - but this won’t be achieved overnight. ‘Growth takes time because you have to plan and get an okay from the authorities and then you have to build and it takes time before the salmon is ready to be harvested,’ Hvistendahl points out. The whole industry is eagerly awaiting the outcome of the new government scheme for development licences. If all the applications for these were granted, the increase in production would be 25 per cent of the current capacity, Sletmo estimates. ‘Of course, that will not happen but it could add a couple of percentage points of growth maybe for a few years. ‘The big question is, if one or several of these concepts truly work in addressing sustainability issues, then there could be much higher growth because the government could start increasing the number of licences on a more general basis,’ he said. Only a handful of licences have been approved so far, including Marine Harvest’s ‘egg’ concept. They have an ‘okay but in a smaller scale than they applied for’, said Hvistendahl. As for ﬁnancing the new developments – the applications amount to a total of around NOK 15 billion in investment so far – the companies are in very good shape. ‘They are generating so much cash now it is not diﬃcult to ﬁnance these investments,’ said Hvistendahl. ‘It is the big players with inherent cash ﬂow that are applying so it is not tricky for a bank; it is just part of the general ﬁnancing. ‘This is still a young industry, which is why we are excited here. This move from the government may move the industry into an even better position.’ Hvistendahl has said before that the bank is in the backseat, it doesn’t
there is a weak oil price there “isWhen a weak kroner, which is extremely good for the seafood industry ”
drive growth. But in the past year ‘there have been other types of growth which will be more challenging to banks ‘. These mostly involve new geographical regions, such as Iceland, where four Norwegian salmon farmers have recently become part owners of Icelandic companies. ‘We’ve done a lot of ﬁnancing of the wild catch sector in Iceland but we had to wait to see if the industrial players invested, and that we have seen throughout this year,’ she said. ‘Of course, if they are our customers we would like to help.’ With growth restricted elsewhere, Hvistendahl said it’s natural to look at other countries like Iceland, which was described as the ‘new frontier in salmon farming’ by Norway Royal Salmon’s CEO Charles Hostlund, now co-owner of Iceland’s Arctic Fish. Iceland could one day become the new Scotland, with the large Norwegian companies forming subsidiaries there and sharing their expertise. ‘Salmon farming has been tested in Iceland before and it hasn’t been successful,’ said Hvistendahl. ‘Why do we think things are diﬀerent now? We used to say up north in Norway, in Finnmark, it was also impossible to do salmon farming and now that is one of the most proﬁtable areas.‘ The fact that farmers are putting bigger smolts into sea pens has
Interview – DNB Bank
made it possible to farm in the colder waters of Iceland, and in Finnmark and in region 12 in Chile too. Iceland can also provide energy quite cheaply, which makes the land farming stage of production more cost eﬃcient. Arctic Fish is now building a new hatchery with a capacity of seven million smolts a year of 300 to 500g. ‘The current is stronger and the water is colder there, things that can be challenging, But the technology and the way ﬁsh is farmed is better now than it was some years ago, so Iceland could be doable,’ said Hvistendahl, adding that Icelanders are very good at marketing their ﬁsh, thanks to their ﬁshing experience. Salmon production is small at around 10,000 to 20,000 tonnes, said Sletmo, but he predicts this could rise to 100,000 tonnes with Norwegian involvement – ‘some players are talking even bigger but then you have to open up new areas in Iceland’. Hvistendahl said: ‘You have to invest and wait for a long time before you get the salmon. The cash ﬂow out today is next to nothing but it will grow gradually before it reaches 100,000 tonnes, we think in ﬁve years.’ DNB has a longer established interest in North America, with an oﬃce in New York, and has ﬁnanced ﬁsh farming for most of the salmon companies in Canada. ‘We have done some new ﬁnancing in Canada this year but we have been with some of the Canadian players for a long time and the Norwegian owned ones,’ said Hvistendahl. The Canadian government is now promoting investment in the sector, a relatively recent development and, as in Scotland, one that is linked to the oil industry. The market potential for suppliers worldwide to the ﬁsh farming industry is large. There are many markets that could be developed
over time. One example is Iran, which Norwegian ﬁsheries minister Per Sandberg visited in September. His Iranian counterpart said: ‘We have had 80 per cent ﬁsheries and 20 per cent aquaculture. Now we want 50/50 and we need help from Norwegian companies. You are pioneers and very good at technology.’ Hvistendahl and Sletmo said they are not currently engaged with Iran, though that might change. Two Norwegian companies, AKVA Group and Aqualine, have signed a deal to supply technical equipment to help Iran expand its aquaculture production. ‘Iran is eager to increase their ﬁsh farm sector. In order to do so they would like to have a lot of good equipment,’ said Hvistendahl. ‘They are interested in Norwegian technology and competencies – if you are a country that wants to develop this area it’s natural to look for Norwegian suppliers.’ There is also huge investor interest from Asia to buy Norwegian companies, following the acquisition of Cermaq by the Mitsubishi Corporation in 2014. Hvistendahl said: ‘It is diﬃcult for us to ﬁnd a lot of Asian companies where we can be relevant as a bank to ﬁnance. But we have a lot of contact the other way round.’ FF
we “haveNowa kind of super cycle but growth will come sooner or later
Feed – Introduction
What’s the alternative?
Industry meeting demand for new ingredients
HE growth of the global aquaculture industry provides obvious commercial opportunities for ﬁsh feed manufacturers but also challenges. Further expansion depends on the sustainability of the sector and that involves a search for high quality alternatives to ﬁnite marine ingredients. Fishmeal and ﬁsh oil remain essential compo- Right: Finite resources nents of aquafeeds for most fed species for at least some part of the production cycle, as Neil Auchterlonie of IFFO, the Marine Ingredients Organisation, points out (page 40). But all the big feed companies have embraced research into other sources of nutrition and many of these innovations are now being put to the test. Following the groundbreaking production of omega-3 ﬁsh oils from genetically modiﬁed camelina plants – by scientists at Stirling University and Rothamsted Research in 2015, a new GM feed trial was launched last year. Feed giant Cargill believes it could provide a sustainable alternative source of EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acids from a type of canola. In feeding trials conducted with salmon in Chile, Cargill was able to completely replace ﬁsh oil in feed rations with oil from EPA/DHA canola. ‘As a ﬁsh feed producer, we need to reduce our dependency on marine resources,’ said Einar Wathne, president of Cargill Aqua Nutrition. ‘This new canola can create tremendous opportunities across the global food and feed markets, and we believe it is critical for the growth of aquaculture.’ The new canola, which is genetically engi-
We “ believe this
new canola is critical for the growth of aquaculture
neered to make long chain omega-3 fatty acids, will oﬀer a more sustainable alternative as it eases pressure on marine resources. Testing and regulatory approval for both the canola and the EPA/DHA enhanced canola oil is underway and it is expected to reach the market some time after 2020. ‘Cargill’s EPA/DHA omega-3 plant based product is the only one we know of with a clear path to commercialisation in the industry,’ said Mark Christiansen, managing director for Global Edible Oil Solutions-Specialties at Cargill. Wathne said trials using feeds containing the GM oil have been positive. ‘We have made full-scale tests throughout the life cycle of salmon in Chile. It has worked well and, more importantly, is safe and good for the ﬁsh,’ he said. Cargill, which took over the feed company Ewos in 2015, is also collaborating with the US biotech company Calysta to produce the novel protein FeedKind. Over the following pages we look at some of the other exciting developments in the feed market, from maggot meal to microalgae, as well as cutting edge research from our leading scientists. FF
HIGH PERFORMING FISHFEED 100% free of Fish meal & fish oil
Feed - Intro.indd 31
Feed – Insects
Lift off for
Waste not want not say brothers behind alternative protein source
he search for alternative sources of protein has created a new breed of entrepreneurs, whose business acumen is matched by their eco passion. Fitting this mould perfectly is Jason Drew, co-founder of a fast growing South African based venture that makes feed from black soldier ﬂies. Described by his brother and partner David as ‘a militant environmentalist’, Jason said he prefers ‘environmental capitalist’. ‘In the industrial revolution you had to be schizophrenic to be an environmentalist and a capitalist. In the sustainability revolution, which we’re in, you need to be both. ‘Any environmentalist who doesn’t understand the markets will fail in their endeavours…and any business person who doesn’t understand that their business is subservient to the environment will fail in their ambitions.’ The Drews set up their insects for feed enterprise AgiProtein in 2009, to produce protein for poultry and ﬁsh, and since then it has evolved from a laboratory pilot to an expanding international concern, with the prospect of ﬂy factories on almost every continent. Jason is probably not exaggerating when he says: ‘I think we’re in with a chance of causing quite a revolution as an industry in the protein supply side.’ His company, which began commercial production last year, is certainly in the forefront of the insect meal revolution. AgiProtein’s factory north of Cape Town is the world’s largest ﬂy farm, using 8.5 billion ﬂies to turn 250 tonnes of waste a day into 14 tonnes of MagMeal and six tonnes MagOil, just over 5,000 tonnes a year. Last month, further investment of US$17.5 million increased the company’s worth to $117 million, making it the most valuable in its sector, and enabling its further global expansion. ‘Other people are doing things in diﬀerent parts
Feed - Insects.indd 32
of the world,’ said Jason, ‘but we just got to the point where we were conﬁdent enough to be able to scale.’ He said they are using their 9,000sq ft factory in South Africa as a model, rolling it out to a number of diﬀerent locations, mainly through licensing. The ﬁrm now has a presence in North and South America, Asia and Europe, with another three plants under licence in Africa, and has recently granted the Australian Twynam Group licences to build 20 ﬂy factories across the Australasian region. The brothers also won an AUD 450,000 environmental award in Australia, which David
Clockwise from above: Jason (top) and David Drew; maggots; cage of black soldier ﬂies.
Lift off for flies
accepted on behalf of the company in December. They will put the money into ﬁsh farming trials and product development in shrimp and various ﬁnﬁsh species in the region, around the Indian Ocean and up to Vietnam. ‘The seas are really challenged there because people are extracting far too many ﬁsh and using them not only for human consumption but also for ﬁshmeal production, putting it into shrimp farms and so on,’ said Jason, Progress in Europe until now has been hampered by regulations over the use of insects in feed but a change in legislation last month lifts this restriction, opening the door to development for pioneers such as AgiProtein.
Feed - Insects.indd 33
we’re in with a chance of causing “I think quite a revolution as an industry ”
Jason said the move ‘brings insect protein into the mainstream of ingredients permitted in animal feed. This is a big step forward for the environment and for world food security’. David Drew told Fish Farmer last year they would ‘follow friendly legislation around the world’ and perhaps in anticipation of a change in EU thinking, he relocated from South Africa to Frankfurt in December, to head up the ﬁrm’s European operations.
Jason said AgiProtein’s factories in Europe will initially feed protein into the pet food markets, then ‘as soon as the legislation catches up we’ll divert it into production for the human food chain’. The company’s timing is spot on because some of the big feed companies have been talking recently about insect meal as a viable source of protein for farmed salmon. A scientist at Cargill, which owns Ewos, sug-
Feed – Insects gested recently that the UK and Norway could be feeding salmon diets containing insects by 2018. At a Network on Insects in the Circular Economy (NICE) meeting in Bergen in December, May-Helen Holme said Cargill is looking at several new ingredients to meet the increasing demand for sustainable aquafeeds. ‘Insects are suited for salmon farming in Europe,’ she said, but the regulations would have to be in place, and so would the appropriate volumes. ‘We would need at least 40,000 tonnes [of insect meal] before we can look at it,’ she said, adding that Cargill would like to participate in developing such feeds. Jason Drew has no doubt that the capacity is possible. ‘Really, 40,000 tonnes isn’t that much and I think we as an industry will get there within the next ﬁve years,’ he said. ‘The salmon industry is very important, it’s a key part of the food chain and very technically and scientiﬁcally advanced as an industry, and we would like to supply into that industry over time and build partnerships with the industry for diﬀerent types of ﬁsh and life stage feeds. ‘We’re not interested in making feeds, we’re just interested in supplying the protein into those feeds. ‘One of my ambitions is to help build the ﬁrst zero ﬁsh in to ﬁsh out ﬁsh farm, replacing ﬁshmeal with insect meal.’ He believes he and David have established the beginnings of ‘a well-structured industry’. Meeting South Africa’s regulatory standards and completing the EIAs (Environmental Impact Assessments) ‘took a long, long time – I think our submission was 800 pages’. ‘Now we’ve got not only that documented evidence of what we’ve done but we’ve also got a site we can show people. They can walk around and see what a ﬂy factory looks like. The roof isn’t going to blow oﬀ and infest central Berlin, or wherever it might be, with billions of ﬂies!’ He said they have made a lot of mistakes along the way but have worked through them and now feel they are ‘beginning to make a diﬀerence’. ‘We’re not making a diﬀerence in the feed market yet – we would need three or four factories here to begin to have an impact on the protein side. But on the waste side there’s a huge amount of waste that’s not now going into landﬁll.’
Feed - Insects.indd 34
WHAT IS IT?
Black soldier ﬂy eggs collected from AgiProtein’s ﬂy rooms are sprinkled on to organic waste, and the maggots are then dried and defatted and ground into a high quality protein meal that can replace up to 100 per cent of ﬁshmeal. This MagMeal can be blended into a variety of animal feeds, can lead to a reduction in required antibiotic use, and has been shown to result in healthy ﬁsh
“is aEUbigmove step
forward for the environment and for world food security
and poultry. It also results in improved feed conversion rates compared to ﬁshmeal and soymeal, and can nutritionally replace both in monogastric animal diets, including chickens, pigs, ﬁsh, and companion animals. MagMeal larvae are washed and dried under strict environmental conditions to yield the highest quality protein. The protein content of the ﬁnal product is higher than whole dried larvae with a fat content below 10 per cent. MagOil is a natural fat extracted from whole dried larvae, and is highly palatable to animals. It is produced when whole dried larvae go through the extrusion process and becomes MagMeal. The extruded fat is puriﬁed and available as a feed ingredient.
‘It’s an extraordinarily circular business. We take waste and convert it back into protein and use up all the nutrients we would otherwise throw away. We have a very positive impact on landﬁll.’ Wherever they set up factories they try to make protein sourced from local organic waste. ‘Organic matter going into landﬁll is a disaster,’ said Jason, ‘because you don’t have ﬂies in the ground, you just have bacteria, and that’s why you end up with bacterial soups. Landﬁlls do eventually leak because nothing lasts forever. ‘Around the world they are increasingly banning organics in landﬁll. In the Middle East they are doing it hard and fast because much of their drinking water comes from their ground water. And they are ﬁnding that their landﬁlls are posing a risk to their water tables. So they’re very keen to take the organics out. ‘And that’s where we come in – there are really only two things you can do with organics, one is to make biogas and the other is to recycle the nutrients into usable protein. ‘I think our real challenge is more food security based than energy based as we move forward into the next decades. People can live without a bit of air con and light but they can’t live without food.’ AgiProtein has conducted extensive trials feeding its MagMeal to tilapia, abalone and trout in southern Africa, and it is also looking at salmon trial opportunities in Chile. It ships products to various diﬀerent places to help develop local markets before people build plants so that when a factory comes on line it can start to make a dent. But the brothers agree that selling MagMeal is easier than making it. ‘If we had ten times our production we could sell it all the same day,’ said Jason. ‘It is about making it. One part is the biology part and we’ve got that well under control. Our engineering side we couldn’t get right at ﬁrst. ‘We’ve now got it right and we’ve got more work to do in terms of product ﬁnishing and polishing so we can make a product with diﬀerent levels of protein in it, from 55 per cent up to 68 per cent, by using diﬀerent processes to extract more oil. ‘We have to ﬁnd out exactly what our customers want and then make our products to meet those requirements. We are using production to
Lift off for flies
do trials and come up with variations. And as our next plants come on line we’ll know exactly what we want to do and how we want to present that ﬁnished product.’ AgiProtein employs about 80 people in the factory in South Africa and about 20 in research and in the international development team. ‘We’re adding people in Europe and in Asia - in Hong Kong and in two key factories that are going up in Vietnam and Indonesia,’ said Jason. ‘We’re having a lovely time building a great business. Every day when I get up I see the trucks arriving and think, great, some stuﬀ not going to landﬁll. And every time I see a truck going out I think, great, there’s some alternative protein starting to happen in the food chain. It’s just exciting.’. FF
Feed - Insects.indd 35
Left: Nutritional qualities. Top: The black soldier ﬂy. Opposite: Trucks load up with MagMeal.
Maggot meal is not only rich in omega 3, it also has healing properties, said Jason Drew, who has written two books on the broader subject, The Story of the Fly and How It Could Save The World and The Protein Crunch. ‘Larvae, of course, have the world’s most up to date antibiotics. Genghis Khan knew very well he would never go into battle without ﬂies. They would lay eggs on the rotting material on the back of his wagons and he’d take the larvae, put them on to the wounds of his soldiers, and they would disinfect them and clean them up.’ Part of AgiProtein’s mission is ongoing research, with a commitment to understanding the antibiotic nature of larvae in feed. ‘If larvae are processed carefully so as not to denature the proteins that cause the antibiotic eﬀect, that’s quite interesting. We’ve noticed quite a lot less mortality in chickens fed with larvae (MagMeal) rather than ﬁshmeal.’ With research partners at Guelph University in Ontario and at Stellenbosch in South Africa, the company’s scientists are exploring the antibiotic qualities of feed and the genetics – ‘how we maintain genetic diversity without losing the traits we’ve bred for’. ‘We breed ﬂies for egg laying, size of the oﬀspring, speed of growth of the oﬀspring, all that type of thing,’ said Jason. ‘We can see a path of eight to ten years. If you look at an eﬃcient industry such as the salmon industry, their biological eﬃciency is quite high and ours is still quite low. ‘We’re making some quite interesting breakthroughs quite often, which I suppose is easy because we’re such a new industry and we have so much to learn. We don’ even know what we don’t know yet!’ To ﬁnd out more, they attract students doing their masters or PhDs by helping out with their fees. Dr Cameron Richards, AgiProtein’s head of research, currently has ten students working on various projects.
Feed – AlgaPrime
Micro matters Salmon bosses impressed by new alternative marine ingredient say joint venture team
new microalgae feed ingredient high in omega-3 was launched in 2016 after years of research, a joint venture agreement and getting the right experts together at the right time - ‘an alignment of the planets’, no less, according to its creators. AlgaPrime DHA can be produced in large-scale commercial quantities at competitive prices, setting it apart from other alternatives to marine ingredients. It is now being fed to salmon in Scotland, Norway and Chile through BioMar, whose global sustainability director, Vidar Gundersen, said he considers microalgae ‘to be the most sustainable raw material available for the production of salmon feed’. The companies behind the plant-based algae oil feed are Terravia, a former biofuel business based in San Francisco, and Bunge of Brazil, which produces sugar cane alongside its microalgae fermentation tanks in San Paulo. Here, Terravia’s Dr Walt Rakitsky and Bunge’s Dr Miguel Oliveira explain the product’s development and potential to Fish Farmer. Was farmed salmon the target market when you developed the product? Walt: From the beginning we intended to attack the aquaculture market with this product because
Feed - Terravia.indd 36
we felt there was a real need for a new alternative source of omega-3 at a scale that we could deliver on, based on our factory in Brazil.
Above: Dr Miguel Oliveira. Left: AlgaPrime barrels. Opposite: Bunge’s fermentation tanks
Did the idea come from Brazil or from San Francisco? Miguel: It’s something that has been going along for a while but as we evolved into the joint venture with Terravia in 2012 we were looking for other markets where we could use the capability that we had. I’ve worked for Bunge for a long time and have a PhD in ﬁsh feed production from Norway. We have over the years worked on many projects trying to address the needs of that industry and this one ﬁt perfectly because Terravia also had inherited a lot of great people who had experience with DHA – like Walt – so all the planets lined up about two years ago when we started this project. You launched this into the UK very recently. Is AlgaPrime at a fully commercial level now? Miguel: Since the middle of 2016 it’s been a commercial product. Walt: As we speak we are running our joint venture factory in Brazil rmaking product. Delivering on the promise of omega-3 means making it available at a scale that makes sense to the industry, in particular to the salmonid industry. My background is a combination of business and technology and my expertise in algae fermentation dates back to the early 1990s when a previous company I was with actually started the ﬁrst large scale industrial fermentation experiment. Is BioMar an exclusive distributor for AlgaPrime? Walt: We recognised that we needed to align ourselves with a key
Micro matters partner to help drive the penetration of AlgaPrime DHA into the salmonid industry so we went out and researched the major players in the industry and decided that BioMar by far was the key strategic partner for us, that shared our aspirations for bringing new sources of omega-3 to the industry. They take our product and incorporate it into their salmon feed formulation with a number of other ingredients. Miguel: We have a developing relationship that allows us to sell to them and eventually to sell to others through other agreements. BioMar is using it in feeds with speciﬁc farmers. How has the product been received? Walt: We’ve had very positive feedback about how well the product has been received, from both a sustainability aspect as well as an enhanced nutrition aspect. Work done at the University of Stirling showed that omega-3 levels in farmed salmon have dropped oﬀ considerably over the last ﬁve to ten years as the industry has had to make do with a static supply of ﬁsh oil and an ever increasing demand. We’re introducing, at a relevant scale, a new source of omega-3 that can help with this falling oﬀ of levels in farmed salmon. You claim your product could completely replace marine ingredients and ﬁsh would still get the same levels of omega-3? Walt: We can deliver omega-3 from our product in the same way that marine products like ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil deliver omega-3. We look at this as a complementary product to what’s already out there because the industry is expanding and it needs more new sources of omega-3. Some alternative ingredients people say they look forward to the day of zero ﬁsh in feed. Do you? Miguel: There are sustainable ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil products being made today and this industry is going to be around for a very, very long time. Trying to take a whole industry out doesn’t sound very achievable. But we have to reduce the pressure on the resources and that’s what we’re trying to do. Walt: There are people experimenting with the idea of using the algal
We’ve been to many meetings in Norway and Chile and you can see people’s eyes light up
Feed - Terravia.indd 37
Feed – AlgaPrime
derived source of omega-3 to provide all of the omega-3s in the feed and that work is ongoing and we’re optimistic that they’ll get good results. But right now, based on what we know, our objective here is twofold: to allow the industry to continue to expand in a responsible manner by providing a new alternative source of omega-3, and for those who are concerned about the falling omega-3 levels in farmed salmon, to provide a responsible way for them to enhance nutrition. Can you compete in costs with other alternative ingredients, such as soy? Walt: The two omega-3s that are very beneﬁcial to ﬁsh and us are the long chain omega-3s, ETA and DHA, which are found almost exclusively in seafood products or seafood ingredients. There are other omega-3s, like ALA, that are found in plants but they are short chain omega-3. Our focus is on providing a new source of long chain omega-3s that are found pretty much only in the seafood type ingredients. There are three things we think about related to cost: one is the eﬃciency of the AlgaPrime DHA product. This has 30 per cent DHA in it which is signiﬁcantly higher than other new sources of omega-3s in terms of DHA content. The second thing we have is a large scale plant capable of producing tens of thousands of tonnes, which gives us a scale that is un-
Feed - Terravia.indd 38
are other people trying to do the “Theresame thing but usually on a smaller scale ”
Clockwise from above: Fish farm; BioMar’s boat; Walt Rakitsky with BioMar sales director Hans HalleKnutzen and global sustainability director Vidar Gundersen at Aquaculture Europe 2016 in Edinburgh; AlgaPrime; oils plant.
matched in the industry today. And the third is that our plant is located adjacent to Bunge’s ﬂagship sugar mill in Brazil which gives us a dedicated supply of sugar at absolutely the best possible cost, given that we’re growing it right around the plant. All of those things contribute to what we believe is having the best cost structure of any new source of omega-3 being oﬀered to the industry. Miguel: Our joint venture sits beside our biggest and most modern sugar mill in Brazil, the Moema mill. Bunge manages all the cane that is used in the process – plants it, raises it, harvests it and uses it to make sugar and ethanol and energy. The joint venture is using the sugar from the cane, but also all the heat and all the electrical power that we need comes from the biogas, from the same cane. The system runs on 100 per cent renewable energy – that is why it is unique. Why has nobody thought of doing this before? Miguel: You need the people that know the stuﬀ; you have to have one of the largest fermentation facilities in the world; you have to be sitting with that fermentation facility at the most sensible and reasonable place which is raising your own cane and using it to produce all the
energy and the steam. There are other people trying to do the same thing but usually on a smaller scale and they’re sitting in the mid-west of the US using coal and gas and GM corn and all sorts of other things and would not be able to replicate this without massive investments. Many people are trying to get into this market but we have a factory that is running now and producing in signiﬁcant large commercial quantities a product that is unique. We already have a leg up on the market. Would it be possible to add capacity at the Brazil facility or would you have to build elsewhere? Miguel: We can add capacity there – we have the energy, the sugar and the space to do so and that would likely be the most reasonable option. But we can also replicate the design now that we know that it works and it functions and we can do that in other places that we have. At the moment we only have sugar mills like that in Brazil but we have eight of them so we could do it elsewhere too. What is your current production? Miguel: Our rate is 10,000 tonnes a year production, but we haven’t sold that yet. How long before you’re up to full capacity? Walt: When Bunge and Terravia ﬁrst designed the plant in Brazil our main target capacity was 100,000 tonnes. As we’re now using a diﬀerent
Feed - Terravia.indd 39
microalgae than we were originally using to make the oil, the capacity really depends on how good the microalgae is and how you feed it and everything. So rather than talk about 100,000 tonnes of capacity for the AlgaPrime DHA, I think we’re more comfortable talking about being able to make tens of thousands of tonnes in that factory today. If BioMar, or another company, said they wanted more, could you ramp up production quickly? Walt: We have the plant, we have a number of fermenters. It just depends on how many we’re going to run on the AlgaPrime versus other products that we’re making for other customers. Miguel: We have ﬁve fermenters that are seven storeys tall each, 625,000 litres each, 625 cubic metres each. There is nothing like that anywhere else. Walt: In summary, we are making AlgaPrime DHA at commercial scale today. We are shipping the product to be incorporated into aquaculture feeds via our partner BioMar. We are not thinking about it, we’re not planning to
do it, we’re doing it! Miguel: Walt and I have been to many, many meetings – in Norway and Chile - and you can see people’s eyes light up. Walt: As part of our strategic relationship with BioMar we have been invited by them to participate in very high level meetings with their customers, which I think is the ultimate sign of mutual respect and enthusiasm on both of our parts. In my conversations with some of the CEOs of the largest salmon farmers in the world, they are impressed by the fact that we’re ready to go. We will work together to drive the incorporation of this new algal source of omega-3 as broadly as we can to meet their needs as well as the needs of their customers and consumers. FF
Feed – IFFO
BY DR NEIL AUCHTERLONIE
Balanced diet Marine ingredients get a bad press but they are important in past, present and future ﬁsh farming
t IFFO, the Marine Ingredients Organisation, we have seen a representation of marine ingredients in the media, especially for ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil, that has been largely negative over 2016. In some instances, re-hashed arguments and criticisms which go back decades have again been given attention, despite the fact that they were proven to be inaccurate many years ago. Even the once common criticism of ‘how many kilograms of wild ﬁsh does it take to grow a kilogram of farmed salmon’, encapsulated in the Fish In:Fish Out ratio (FIFO), raised its head recently, along with the recurrence of statements of a ratio of 5:1, which had years previously been shown to be incorrect. Why is a sector that can show something approaching 45 per cent of global annual supply to be independently certiﬁed – a percentage volume well in excess of other animal feed ingredients- the continuing subject of negative stories when the reality is very far from the accusations? Fishmeal and ﬁsh oil were the major ingredients in aquafeeds for several decades, and thus the mainstay of diets supporting the development of the fed aquaculture industry. There is a long history of their use in aquafeeds. In the early years of modern aquaculture, feed was manufactured predominantly from these two ingredients only. Feeds for the cultivation of carnivorous ﬁsh species such as salmon, bass, bream and shrimp in particular, were regarded as being reliant on marine ingredients to provide the species’ nutritional needs, and logically it is easy to understand why ﬁshmeal may be regarded as ‘nutritionally complete’ for carnivorous species. Marine ingredients are therefore the foundation of modern fed aquaculture, and hold
Feed - IFFO.indd 40
Below: Strategic ingredients. Opposite: There is some pressure on supply of marine ingredients into aquafeed
an important position in past, present and future farmed ﬁsh cultivation. Some authors had pointed out the potential risks that were associated with this situation as it is well understood that global annual supply of marine ingredients is ﬁnite. In fact, a restriction to global aquaculture growth through the constrained supply of marine ingredients has not happened principally because the use of ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil has been optimised through their partial substitution with alternative feed ingredients. The partial substitution of both ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil has mitigated the risk of the ‘ﬁshmeal trap’ occurring, where aquaculture development was predicted to stall due to the lack of marine ingredients. Fishmeal and ﬁsh oil remain essential components of aquafeeds for most fed species for at least some part of the production cycle. At IFFO we recognise that continued aquaculture growth cannot be achieved with marine ingredients alone, because there just isn’t enough of these high quality materials to go around. We note that there is a strong case for other aquafeed ingredients supporting aquaculture development, but we say ‘as well as’ rather than ‘instead of’. IFFO has been describing ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil as strategic ingredients rather than commodities for more than 10 years, implying their targeted use at key points in production cycles to optimise performance from growth, quality and health perspectives. These are high-value materials and their use in aquafeeds remains essential from a nutritional perspective. Including ﬁshmeal in aquafeed is much more than merely a supply of crude protein and fat, as it provides an excellent amino acid proﬁle for carnivorous ﬁsh as well as a range of important vitamins and micronutrients. Fish oil provides the omega-3 fatty acids essential to the health of farmed salmonids, and ultimately the health of the consumer. There is also ﬁsh oil present in ﬁshmeal at a level dependent on ﬁsh species but commonly between eight per cent and 12 per cent. The reduction in marine ingredients in aquafeed associated with the development of the salmon industry since the 1990s is well documented, and salmon feed manufacturers now often quote percentage inclusion rates for ﬁshmeal in single digits for a grower diet. For salmon production in Europe, the alternative ingredient focus to date has largely been on materials of vegetable origin. In 2013, Norwegian salmon diets were reported as being comprised of vegetable origin materials showing approximately 67 per cent of the total feed composition. The vegetable material included in European
The partial “substi tution
of both ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil has mitigated the risk of the ﬁshmeal trap
salmon feed recently includes soy meals, corn gluten meal, sunﬂower meal and wheat gluten meal, so it is clear that a range of products are being used. In regions outside of Europe, animal (avian) protein sources have been included as alternative ingredients for salmon and farmed ﬁsh species. Clearly, all these ingredients have diﬀerent nutritional proﬁles, diﬀerent digestibilities, and notably for some of the vegetable based ingredients, potentially the presence of Anti-Nutritional Factors (ANFs), all of which can aﬀect the performance of ﬁsh feeds. At least some inclusion of ﬁshmeal is still required in grower diets, however, to support the farmed ﬁsh’s supply of essential nutritional requirements. Science is advancing knowledge in this area all the time- for example, a threshold level of 15 per cent ﬁshmeal has been suggested for another farmed carnivorous species, barramundi, Lates calcarifer, and more recently revised to 10 per cent, but the point is that it is an important constituent of the diet for that species. It may well be the case that commercial grower feeds for Atlantic salmon are generally near the threshold for the species as well, and there are some interesting technical discussions developing around the inﬂuence of feed composition on the gut microbiome and subsequent eﬀects on ﬁsh physiology, including immuno-competence and the ability to cope with disease challenge. In the Faroe Islands, there is at least an association between higher level marine ingredient inclusion in salmon feed and good biological performance, and where this is not an important factor it is clear that some farmed salmon standards and markets, for example Label Rouge, still call for premium quality salmon produced with a high(-er) marine ingredient inclusion feed. Fish oil is certainly near the threshold of its inclusion in European salmon feeds, and a focus on the omega-3 content of farmed Scottish salmon prompted by a recent scientiﬁc publication from Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture has brought the issue into the media spotlight. Of the ﬁsh oil volume that is available annually, IFFO estimates about 200,000 tonnes comprises the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid
Feed - IFFO.indd 41
(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), so it is understandable that there is more pressure on this resource. Although a proportion of this supply goes to direct human consumption in the form of nutraceuticals (IFFO estimates 21 per cent in 2015), aquaculture in general and the salmon farming industry in particular takes a major share (approximately 58 per cent of the aquaculture share in 2015). Somewhere, the message about continuing and optimising utilisation of marine ingredients has become confused. We have seen many instances of the academic community, in particular, providing statements on ﬁsh-free diets in press releases, such as outputs from published papers, funding awards for new science projects, or even in competition awards for producing ﬁsh-free feed of commercial quantities. This probably grabs an (uninformed) reader’s attention, but is not constructive in achieving a balanced and optimal supply of feed ingredients for aquaculture in the future. It is clear that there is some pressure on supply of marine ingredients into aquafeed, and this pressure will continue until novel sources, such as insect meal or vegetable oils containing EPA and DHA derived from GM technology, become a commercial reality. Even when that occurs, the next point is to provide commercially relevant volumes, and for the foreseeable future that is the sole domain of marine ingredients. Dr Neil Auchterlonie is technical director of IFFO, the Marine Ingredients Organisation. FF
Feed – Research
BY DOUGLAS R TOCHER, MICHAEL CLARKSON AND JOHN F TAYLOR
Off to a good start Programming salmon to improve utilisation of sustainable feeds
tudies in mammals and humans have shown that dietary inﬂuences exerted at critical developmental stages in early life, such as neonatal and weaning nutrition, may have long-term consequences on physiological functions in later life. This phenomenon is known as ‘nutritional programming’ and has been studied mainly in mammalian models in relation to diseases that are currently prevalent, such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes. However, the concept of metabolic programming was also likely to exist in ﬁsh as it was known that the function of some metabolic pathways in juveniles depended upon speciﬁc nutritional signals during early larval stages. This, therefore, raised the possibility of being able to inﬂuence speciﬁc key metabolic pathways or functions in juvenile ﬁsh, for example to improve the use of alternative feed ingredients and thus promote the development and application of sustainable feeds in aquaculture. As a consequence, validating the concept of nutritional or metabolic programming in farmed ﬁsh species became an important part of the recently completed EU FP7 project, ARRAINA (Advanced Research Initiatives for Nutrition and Aquaculture). In practical terms, nutritional programming involves giving the ﬁsh a nutritional ‘stimulus’ early in life that will enable the ﬁsh to have an improved response to a similar ‘challenge’ later in life. Figures (Nutritional programming) At the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, we investigated the concept in Atlantic salmon with our stimulus/challenge being a feed with very low levels of the marine ingredients, ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil, and, consequently, very low levels of the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DHA. The trial design involved initially feeding two triplicated groups of salmon fry for three weeks from ﬁrst feeding with either a stimulus diet (V),
Below: Identical diets after the ﬁrst three weeks
Diet M Diet V
6 weeks Fig. 1
42 Fig.1. Trial design
Feed - Douglas Tocher.indd 42
containing just 10 per cent ﬁshmeal and no ﬁsh oil, or a marine diet (M), containing 80 per cent ﬁshmeal and four per cent ﬁsh oil (Fig. 1). The isoenergetic feeds were both 57 per cent crude protein and 12 per cent crude lipid, formulated by Dan Leeming (BioMar UK) and manufactured at the BioMar TechCentre, in Brande. After the short stimulus phase, all ﬁsh were fed the marine M diet for 15 weeks (marine phase) before all ﬁsh were challenged by being fed the V diet for a further six weeks (challenge phase) (Fig. 1). Therefore, it is important to note that in the entire six-month trial the ﬁsh had almost identical nutritional histories apart from the ﬁrst three-week period when they were fed either the M or V diets, termed M-ﬁsh or V-ﬁsh, respectively. Growth performance, feed intake, feed efﬁciency, and nutrient retentions were determined in the marine and challenge phases of the trial. The early nutritional stimulus had clear, significant eﬀects on ﬁsh growth and feed eﬃciency. In the marine phase, the M-ﬁsh showed the higher thermal growth coeﬃcient and feed eﬃciency but, in the challenge phase, this was completely reversed with the V-ﬁsh showing signiﬁcantly higher growth and feed eﬃciency (Fig. 2). The eﬀects on growth were not dependent upon feed intake, which was not diﬀerent between the M- and V-ﬁsh during either marine or challenge phases. However, protein, lipid and energy retentions were all signiﬁcantly higher in V-ﬁsh during the challenge phase (Fig. 3). This was the reverse of that observed during the marine phase when protein, lipid and energy retentions were all greater in the M-ﬁsh. It should be noted that the stimulus/challenge
(a) Growth Rate
0.8 0.6 0.4
Thermal Growth Coefficient (TGC)
Off to a good start
diets were not essential fatty acid (EFA) deﬁcient as they were formulated with rapeseed oil and so the levels of linolenic (18:3n-3) and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids far exceeded the reported EFA requirement levels (~ 1 g/ Kg diet) of Atlantic salmon. However, the V diets contained only very low levels of EPA and DHA, around 0.3 g/Kg, tenfold lower than in the M diet (3 g/Kg).
(b) Feed Efficiency
At this point it is important to remind ourselves that the only diﬀerence between V- and M-ﬁsh is that the V-ﬁsh were exposed to this low level for just three weeks at the beginning of the trial. However, this short exposure had a huge impact on fatty acid metabolism in the ﬁsh, with EPA and DHA retentions being considerably higher in V-ﬁsh compared to M-ﬁsh in the challenge phase (Fig.4.). As expected, retention of DHA was far greater than that of EPA, irrespective of dietary history. The results of this study suggested that the ability of salmon to grow and thrive on a diet with very high levels of substitution of ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil, far exceeding current replacement levels, was improved by exposing the ﬁsh very brieﬂy to this feed early in life, speciﬁcally ﬁrst feeding. The fact that growth and feed eﬃciency were both affected without any signiﬁcant eﬀects on feed intake highlights that this was not due simply to diﬀerences in palatability and/or eﬀects on appetite between the diets. This, and the results of the nutrient retention analyses, clearly suggested that the eﬀects were at a metabolic and/ or physiological level and, therefore, would appear to validate the concept of nutritional programming. The precise biological mechanisms whereby the nutritional programming event can be eﬀectively ‘stored’ until later in life could
Fig. 2. Growth rate and feed efficiency during the marine and challenge phases.
means ± SEM 3) based nutritional history during the stimulus phase (M-fish Theare early nutriti onal(nsti=mulus hadonclear, “Data signiﬁcant eﬀects on ﬁsh growth and or V-fish). Superscripts denote significant differences (p 0.05) between dietary history and feed eﬃciency ” asterisks denote significant differences between feeding phases.
Feed - Douglas Tocher.indd 43
Above: The early stimulus had clear eﬀects. Left: Feed
Feed – research 140
Retention (% intake) Retention (% intake)
120 100 140 80 120 60 100 40 80 20 60 0 40
‘programmed’ fish, and with retentions of theEnergy Fig. 3. Nutrient and energy retentions duringthethe marine challenge phases. Data are Protein Lipid important omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, being particularly Challenge enhanced. phase While these results are highly positive and means ± SEM (n = 3) based on nutritional history during the stimulus phase (M-fish or Vencouraging, there is still a need for further re-
include adaptive changes inProtein gene expression such as epigenetic (non-geLipid Energy netic) phenomenon such as DNA methylation, histone modification, or microRNA, preferential clonal selection of adapted cells or programmed Marine phase differential proliferation of tissue cell types. In the present study, liver gene expression was examined using microarray technology in fish at the end of the challenge phase. Preliminary data have indicated that V-fish showed up-regulation of pathways of intermediary metabolism, such as oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and amino acid metabolism, as well as key pathways of lipid metabolism, including polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation, antioxidant defence and immune system. Epigenetic analysis is currently in progress and will hopefully provide further insight into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of nutritional programming. Overall, the present study confirmed that nutritional programming can operate in Atlantic salmon and lead to metabolic adaptations that 800 the capability of the fish to utilise alternative, non-marine may enhance a dietary ingredients. These adaptations led to improved nutrient and energy retentions in
search into the concept of nutritional program-
Fig. 3. Nutrient and energy retentions during marine and challenge Data are Other ming the in farmed fish. For instance, other results phases. fish). Superscripts denote significant differences (p < 0.05) between dietary history and from within the ARRAINA project have indicated
Retention (% intake) Retention (% intake)
results have means ± SEM (n = 3) based on nutritional history during the stimulus phase (M-fish or Vindicated asterisks denote significant differences between feeding phases. that the fish). Superscripts denote significant differences (p < 0.05) between dietaryinitial history and stimulus asterisks denote significant differences between feeding phases. phase can be much shorter 600 800 400
200 -200 0 -200
that the initial stimulus phase can be much shorter than that used in the present study, perhaps only three to six days. This would minimise the potential for the stimulus phase itself to induce any phenotypic changes in programmed fish, and could facilitate the application of the nutritional programming concept in commercial farming operations. Douglas R Tocher, Michael Clarkson and John F Taylor, Institute of Aquaculture, University of M-fish Stirling. FF
Above: Protein, lipid
and energy retentions were all significantly higher in V-fish during the challenge phase. Left: Retention of DHA was far greater than EPA as expected.
EPA DHA Fig. 4. EPA and DHA retentions during the challenge period. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3) 44 www.fishfarmer-magazine.com
based on nutritional history during the stimulus phase (M-fish or V-fish). Superscripts Feed - Douglas Tocher.indd 44
FishMagazine Farmer Fish FarmerFish Farmer VOLUME 39
All well and good
All well and good
Wellboats play an increasingly important role in the running of marine salmon farms, from the beginning through to the end of the production cycle
Serving worldwide aquaculture since
Prince Charles drops in on Marine Harvest
Industry launches long awaited Vision for 2030
Serving worldwide aquaculture since 1977
Time to comply with the Scottish Technical Standard
the next TRAINING A new way to recruit Aquaculture courses that bridge generation the skills gap
Special focus on a fast growing industry
Preview of Seafood Expo Global in Brussels
Harvesting sea cucumbers in Madagascan villages
s the salmon industry becomes more consolidated, and vertically integrated, wellboats are now being used routinely for a variety of essential tasks that help with the eﬃcient running of salmon farms. Custom designed, wellboats are used to transfer smolts to sea water sites, to grade ﬁsh, transfer ﬁsh between seawater sites and to carry ﬁsh to harvest. Wellboats are also sometimes used to carry out bath treatments for sea lice.
dead-haul of ﬁsh to processing plants should be treated on-shore; that all water should be ﬁltered prior to discharge into the sea; and that of wellboat transport water be proposed as a priority for the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre. For their part, the wellboat manufacturers are already working hard to address these issues, and the modern wellboat is a technically sophisticated piece of kit, with a number of features that address issues of biosecurity. For
There are a number of risks associated with the use of wellboats, in particular the transfer of pathogens to live ﬁsh within the wellboat, and into the sea as a result of discharging potentially infected water. In Scotland, these issues have been acknowledged with the establishment of the Wellboat Technical Standards Working Group in 2013. Amongst its recommendations include: that all marine vessels should log and record their position and the status of their valves; that all water from
example, Sølvtrans, the world leading company within transport of live salmon uses a closed valves system, ensuring that when they transport live ﬁsh, no water is loaded or discharged to the sea during transportation or unloading. Its new vessels are also equipped with lice ﬁlters with 150 μ for circulated water, which collect lice and other organic materials from the water, minimising the risk of any transported ﬁsh being contaminated by diseases, infection, sea lice etc from the nearby ﬁsh farms. FF
Norway – Research Council
The environment is more stable and the ﬁsh use less energy adapting to it
Above: Project participants at the centre’s opening. Right: CtrlAQUA scientists. Photos by Terje Aamodt/Noﬁma.
Joint approach between scientists and industry to address challenges of closed-containment systems
our Norwegian research institutions, two outside Norway and several industry partners from technology and the aquaculture industry have started operations at a centre for innovation in closed-containment systems. The centre, CtrlAQUA, has been given NOK 200 million and eight years to reach its goal of making closed-containment systems for salmon up to one kilogram. Innovations in closed-containment, where the salmon is separated from the outside environment by a tight barrier, can be important for the further development of the industry,
helping to address challenges such as sea lice, diseases and escapes, as well as reduce production times. Closed systems can be land-based, where water is recycled, or sea-based, in which large ﬂoating tanks receive clean water from depth. In CtrlAQUA, the research will deal with both approaches. The main focus of the centre is innovation in closed-containment systems for the most vulnerable periods of the salmon production cycle, such as the ﬁrst sea water, post-smolt, phase. The centre will also contribute to better production control, ﬁsh welfare and sustainability
in closed-containment farms. This will happen through the development of new and reliable sensors, minimising environmental impact through recycling of nutrients and reducing the risk of escape, and diseases transmission to wild stocks. Senior scientist Bendik Fyhn Terjesen, from Noﬁma, who is the director of the centre, said that closed-containment systems for salmon up to one kilogram have further advantages than simply preventing lice and escapes. ‘We can control the environment in which the ﬁsh lives in a closed-containment system. The environment is more stable and the ﬁsh
use less energy adapting to it. This means that the salmon has more energy available for growth and good health.’ Closed systems for strategic phases in salmon farming can help to make the Norwegian vision of an eight-fold growth in value creation from aquaculture possible, and lead to an increased number of jobs and the production of healthy seafood. In the centre there will be three departments: technology and environment, led by Dr Fyhn Terjesen; preventative ﬁsh health, led by Harald Takle, also from Noﬁma; and ﬁsh production and welfare, led by Lars Ebbesson of Uni Research. CtrlAQUA is one of 17 Centres for Research-Based Innovation (SFI), a major programme created by the Research Council of Norway. The primary goal of the SFI programme is to strengthen companies’ capacity for innovation, and to develop leading industry relevant research. Noﬁma is accompanied by ﬁve solid institutions in CtrlAQUA: Uni Research, the University of Bergen, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Freshwater Institute in the US and the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. The University of Bergen will have principal responsibility for research education at the centre. The total budget for CtrlAQUA will be
NOK 196 million, spread over eight years. Industrial partners from the supplier industry are Krüger Kaldnes AS, Pharmaq Analytiq, Pharmaq AS, Oslofjord Ressurspark AS, Storvik Aqua AS and Aquafarm Equipment AS. Participants from the aquaculture industry are Marine Harvest ASA, Grieg Seafood ASA, Lerøy Vest AS, Cermaq Norway AS, Bremnes Seashore AS, Smøla klekkeri og setteﬁskanlegg AS, Marine producers Norway AS and Firda sjøfarmer AS. The formal opening by the Research Council took place at the end of May at Noﬁma, Sunndalsøra. Norwegian ﬁsheries minister Elisabeth Aspaker, present at the ceremony, said the goal of the CtrlAQUA SFI is perfectly compatible with the government’s ambitions for the aquaculture industry. ‘I have great expectations for the achievements of CtrlAQUA. Even though eight years is a long time, it is urgent that we ﬁnd solutions to reach the goals. CtrlAQUA is an important part of this.’ The director of innovation in the Research Council, Eirik Normann, presented the SFI plaque to Fyhn Terjesen, saying: ‘You have put together a very strong consortium. I want to point out that the committee that evaluated the application was fascinated by the innovation that the concept brings with it, and it believes that the centre will probably produce important innovations within aquaculture.’ FF
NOFIMA FACTS With 360 employees and customers from 49 different countries, Nofima’s turnover in 2014 was £527 million The company is currently engaged in 620 projects worldwide. Nofima has several laboratories and pilot plants, which it uses for research, including: BioLab – an accredited contract and research laboratory; NAMAB – a flexible minifactory; and Patogen Pilot Plant – Europe’s first highsecurity production hall. Noﬁma carries out research for the ﬁsheries, aquaculture and food industries, including: breeding and genetics; capture-based aquaculture; ﬁsh health; and consumer and sensory sciences. Each year Nofima organises several symposia, courses and seminars in which its scientists share their expertise.
06/03/2015 14:28:03 Research Councilt.indd All Pages
07/11/2016 12:50:03 November Cover.indd 4
2 FOR 1 - SPECIAL OFFER -
DELIVERED TO DIFFERENT ADDRESSES
£95 Rest of World (inc P&P)
For more information visit:www.wyvexmedia.co.uk/subscribe E: firstname.lastname@example.org
FF Subs.indd 45
+44 (0) 1371 851868 16/01/2017 11:48:28
Feed – Lake Kariba
Danish firm builds Zambian factory to supply tilapia farmers
LLER Aqua is expanding its African business with the construction of a new feed plant in the Zambian town of Siavonga, on the shores of Lake Kariba. The Danish feed firm has already established a firm foothold on the continent, with a fast growing operation in Egypt, and sales bases in Nigeria, Kenya and Ghana. The family owned group, with headquarters in Christiansfeld, exports to more than 60 countries worldwide, from factories in Denmark, Poland and Germany, as well as the facility in Egypt. It is also building a US$10 million feed factory in China, due to be completed this year. The latest development in landlocked Zambia follows an agreement with the country’s biggest tilapia producer, Yalelo, owned by Oakfield Holdings, which has a licence to farm 30,000 tonnes over the next few years. This will provide a base for the feed plant to grow and supply the surrounding area. With a production capacity of 50,000 tonnes a year, it will be the most technically advanced fish feed factory in Southern Africa, says Aller Aqua. Zambia has the resources to be the leader in regional fish production, according to Yalelo, and Siavonga could emerge as the aquaculture capital of sub-Saharan Africa. Henrik T. Halken, vice chair of Aller Aqua Zambia, said the group has a clear and expansive strategy for Africa. The company has invested US$10 million in the African factory, which should be completed by September
Feed - Aller.indd 46
this year. ‘With the investment in Zambia, we will be the market leader in Africa in terms of modern and environmentally friendly fish feeds for aquaculture,’ he said. ‘This will enable us to expand our sales not only in Zambia but also the surrounding countries.’ Aquaculture in Zambia is developing at a rapid pace, backed by government support, with the creation of the new Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, as well as the Aquaculture Development Association of Zambia. But exporting feed from Europe is ‘simply too expensive’, so it made sense to supply the burgeoning industry from a local source. About 95 per cent of the raw material – mainly soy and corn - for the feed facility is produced in Zambia, said Halken. ‘There are a lot of smallholders in Zambia but the problem is there is no good quality of fish feed and if there is no good feed then you are not able to grow many fish. ‘The Zambian government has a huge focus on growing more fish because there are a lot of imports coming from China and they want to produce their own in Zambia. ‘They prefer to have fresh fish rather than frozen – that’s their market. And if you can grow more fish you can put more people into work, if you can get more people out of poverty then I think we have a very good case in Zambia. ‘The country has about 15 million inhabitants but the surrounding countries will also be served from the new factory.’
Above: The first board meeting of Aller Aqua Zambia. The meeting took place at IFU’s (Investment Fund for Developing Countries) headquarters. From left to right: Adam Taylor (CEO of Oakfield Holdings and chair of Aller Aqua Zambia), Henrik T. Halken (group vice president, Aller Aqua Group), Johnny Hansen (IFU regional director, Africa) and Carsten Jørgensen (group vice president, Aller Aqua Group). © Aller Aqua Group A/S
Zambia aims to be self-sufficient with farmed fish and also export to neighbouring countries such as Angola, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, Namibia, Malawi, Tanzania and Congo. Aquaculture is expected to play a significant role in African food security and lakes such as Kariba, Victoria and Volta offer great potential. The African market is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. The number of inhabitants is rising quickly and the population will need healthy food which is high in protein. Fish farming and locally produced fish is part of the solution for this, and fish farming can further help people get a livelihood and get out of poverty. Based on their success in Egypt, Aller Aqua Zambia will demonstrate the cost efficiency of its extruded feed to potential clients. ‘Our feed is better but it’s more expensive and you have to utilise it in the best possible way,’ said Halken. ‘We meet the clients and explain how things work. We have to do the calculations for them and show that maybe instead of growing x amount per hectare of ponds
Feed - Aller.indd 47
The “ government has a huge focus on growing more fish
they can grow x times two if they have the right feed. ‘In Egypt we have set up a trial farm testing our feeds against the less environmentally friendly feeds and showing that it’s worthwhile investing more money in the feed because they can grow fish faster.’ Aller Aqua will also set up a trial farm in Zambia and people are welcome to see the Yalelo farm in action, said Halken. ‘In Egypt we are growing capacity with a third feed line. We have been training people and supporting the clients, we have been able to produce more fish with less feed. It’s more cost efficient. The way we are working in Egypt, and the way we are working in Africa in general, is exactly the same as what
Feed – Lake Kariba
we’re going to do in Zambia. ‘There is a lot of direct contact with clients, a lot of seminars and basic training to bring them up date and to use the feed in the right way.’ He said the construction of the Zambia factory is on schedule and ‘a fantastic team’ is in place, including a manager from South Africa, Leon Gunter, who will oversee 70 to 80 employees. ‘Obviously, there are many challenges when building in Africa compared to Denmark,’ said Halken, pointing out the political problems in neighbouring Zimbabwe. ‘It’s not a walk on the beach! There was a huge devaluation of the currency in Egypt, and also a big devaluation in Nigeria. People don’t have enough foreign currency to pay out for raw materials.
Above: Visualisation of the ﬁnished factory - © Aller Aqua Group A/S. Left: The Zambian factory under construction, December 2016 - © Aller Aqua Group A/S
Feed - Aller.indd 48
SKRETTING INCREASES AFRICAN STAKE
see opportunities “Ifwewetake them...we are quick in making decisions
‘But the strength of the Aller Aqua Group is if we see opportunities we take them. We are quick in making decisions. ‘There will be some bumps on the road but we will overcome these. Bear in mind that when we started in Egypt we had a revolution a few years later!’ Africa is going to be a core market for the Aller Aqua Group in the future, he said. ‘We are quite certain, as in Egypt, if you produce the right quality, support your clients and teach them how to use the feed, then we will be successful. I’m quite convinced this is going to take place in Zambia as well.’ FF
Feed - Aller.indd 49
NUTRECO, owner of Skretting, is also building a feed plant in Zambia in conjunction with London based investor Africa Century Foods (ACF). Skretting Zambia, which will produce tilapia feed, is believed to have started construction on the new facility. The lack of high quality feed has been a bottleneck in the further development of the Zambian industry, which is primarily tilapia. The Skretting plant will also be located in Siavonga, which is where the major ﬁsh farms in Zambia are based, and with an initial capacity of 25,000 tonnes, will be on a smaller scale than Aller Aqua’s factory. A substantial part of the capacity will be used to supply the Zambian and Zimbabwean tilapia farms of joint venture partner ACF, Africa’s largest ﬁsh producer with tilapia farms in Zambia, Zimbabwe and Uganda. Plant capacity will be expanded in a second phase, with the aim of supplying the wider south-east African region. Harm de Wildt, managing director for Nutreco´s operations in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, said when announcing the new venture last year: ‘This joint venture is a new step in our commitment to the African market, adding to recent ﬁsh feed investments in Egypt and Nigeria. ‘The production of high quality, extruded ﬁsh feed will further support the development of aquaculture in this region. ‘It will help our customers to increase eﬃciency and proﬁtability, and as a result will also mitigate the environmental footprint of the sector. ‘In ACF we have found the right partner to establish a strong foothold in the south-east African market.’ Henry Pitman, CEO of ACF, said: ‘Having consistent supplies of high quality feed is critical to the success of our aquaculture operations in Zambia and Zimbabwe. ‘This new feed mill will allow us to expand our operations from the current production levels of 10,000 tonnes and help to reduce our cost of production in line with our strategy to become the lowest cost producer of tilapia in the region. ‘Furthermore, we will be able to increase our support to the development of aquaculture across the region. In Skretting, ACF is partnering with a worldwide leader in aquaculture feed.’ Skretting has also been expanding in Egypt, and is producing around 150,000 tonnes of tilapia feed a year. ‘Tilapia farmers are professionalising at a rapid pace, which is increasing demand for extruded ﬁsh feed,’ a spokesman said. ‘Through the investment in extruded ﬁsh feed capacity and regional R&D, we can support more customers in increasing their eﬃciency and proﬁtability.’ Egypt is the second largest producer of tilapia in the world, and the government has a target to increase total aquaculture production by around 35 per cent by 2018 to 1.8 million tonnes.
Feed – Research
Glasgow launches artificial fish gut trials
CIENTISTS and industry leaders are embarking on a new project to build an artiﬁcial salmon gut with a view to better understanding ﬁsh digestion. Launched last month and led by scientists at the University of Glasgow, the three-year project, named SalmoSim, will work in collaboration with the Marine Institute and University College Cork (Ireland), Noﬁma (Norway), Alltech and Marine Harvest. SalmoSim’s aim is to explore the link between gut microbiota and the development and digestion of salmon. Gut microbiota, the bacteria that colonise the intestine, are known to play a vital role in digestion and nutrient absorption across a wide variety of diﬀerent organisms. Understanding how these microbes can facilitate the eﬃcient absorption of novel feeds in salmon is of vital importance. Dr Martin Llewellyn, from the University of Glasgow’s School of Life Sciences, said: ‘The experimental gut system, once established, will represent a powerful tool for carrying out basic and applied research into ﬁsh digestion. We’re really excited that it will be based here at Glasgow.’ Alltech already operates a successful equivalent ex vivo gut model for dairy cows and a number of nutrigenomic platforms in its applied research capacity. However, there is currently no system available for ﬁsh. Alltech’s international project manager for aquaculture, John Sweetman, said: ‘The combined forces of customer demands for sustainable and ethically reared ﬁsh, proﬁtability and regulatory pressure for therapeutic free aquaculture drives this research initiative. ‘The potential for improving feed eﬃciency and maintaining optimal health status will beneﬁt the industry and consumer alike.’ The initial project will run for just over three years. However, the tool that will be established should be a valuable test-bed for novel feeds and feed formulations for many years to come. The work will take place in state-of-the-art bioengineering laboratories in Glasgow, and at marine aquaculture trial centres in Norway, as well as in a unique experimental river system at Burri-
Feed - News.indd 50
shoole, County Mayo, Ireland. The project has several components funded variously by the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC), Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), and Science Foundation Ireland (SFI). SAIC announced funding for the project last summer, along with another feed research initiative, spearheaded by BioMar, the University of Stirling, the supermarket Morrisons and food company Saria.
This will investigate avian derived protein as an alternative feed ingredient, which could signiﬁcantly reduce feed costs and, therefore, overall production costs. Although Chilean and Australian salmon farming sectors have been using avian proteins for more than a decade, there are still some challenges around consumer acceptance of introducing these products into the UK’s food chain. Avian products are also used across Europe in feeds for species such as sea bream, sea bass and trout. Morrisons’ ﬁsheries and aquaculture manager Huw Thomas said at the project’s launch: ‘This will explore decreasing our reliance on marine resources for ﬁsh feed. If this concept proves acceptable to our customers, we could change our feed ingredient policy.’ During the ﬁrst phase of the project, the focus will be on collecting data from retailers and consumers to identify the issues related to adopting avian proteins. If consumer perception around avian proteins is found to be positive, later phases of the project could comprise nutritional and ﬁsh quality analysis. FF
The potential for improving “feed eﬃciency will beneﬁt the industry ” www.fishfarmer-magazine.com
Feed – Advertorial
Functional feed additives a must-have in today’s aquaculture
BY DR PETER COUTTEAU
QUACULTURE is the fastest growing industry producing animal protein. Still, aquafeed production only represents four to ﬁve per cent of global animal feed production and is fragmented over many species and countries around the globe. This lack of critical mass limits research developments, particularly for tropical species of ﬁsh and shrimp. At the same time, the young aquaculture industry suﬀers from several bottlenecks. Strong ﬂuctuations of feed ingredient prices, in combination with low market prices for farmed products, have repeatedly aﬀected the proﬁtability of all bulk species. As a result, optimising cost-eﬃciency of feed is a major issue for aquaculture producers. Formulating feed using increasingly reduced levels of ﬁshmeal and ﬁsh oil is proving to be a challenge for carnivorous species. And the proﬁtability of all major species is threatened by a wide range of viral, bacterial and/or parasitic diseases. Solving these bottlenecks requires multi-disciplinary work and combined progress on diﬀerent areas, including breeding programmes, vaccine development, farm technology, husbandry, zonal hygiene management, and nutrition. At Nutriad, we believe that functional feed additives, powered by natural, bio-active compounds with speciﬁc functional properties, are an important component of any solution for these key issues in aquaculture. Functional feed additives that enhance digestive and metabolic processes are crucial to make novel feed formulations work within the limitations of the digestive system of ﬁsh and shrimp. Also, a wide range of natural compounds with bactericidal or gut modulating capabilities have shown to be an important component of many disease prevention strategies. Functional feeds containing gut health promotors deliver with every meal
team “Our of aqua
experts works handin-hand with producers around the globe
an adequate concentration of natural antimicrobial activities into the digestive system. However, the success of this approach will depend on the eﬃcacy of the gut health promotor. Natural feed additives combining diﬀerent action mechanisms, such as direct bactericide/bacteriostatic properties as well as Quorum Sensing inhibition properties at concentrations below MIC, are most promising to reduce the impact from opportunistic bacterial diseases. At Nutriad, our team of aqua experts works hand-in-hand with producers around the globe to identify and resolve bottlenecks in productivity by the application of our innovative functional feed additives. We deliver products and services to more than 80 countries, supported by four application laboratories and ﬁve manufacturing facilities on three continents. www.nutriad.com FF
Nutriad. Helping companies (and fish) grow. DISCOVER OUR AQUACULTURE RANGE Nutriad’s multidisciplinary team of nutritionists, micro-biologists and feed technologists focuses on understanding species-specific problems in fish and shrimp. That is the starting point of true innovation. Our senior aqua feed experts have farm-to-fork insight in the aquaculture food chain. They provide world-wide expertise in formulation and processing of aqua feeds. Nutriad’s aqua additives directly contribute to improved productivity and profitability for producers of (feed for) fish and shrimp. Interested? Let’s get in touch: visit nutriad.com for your local contact.
Feed - News.indd 51
Archive – September/October 1986
A special salmon diet for the Falklands
Research at Stirling is leading to tailor-made rations based on local resources in the South Atlantic cost of ongrowing feeds would be critical in proving viability. Fortunately, by that time more had been found out about the local fishery resources, and although preliminary trials by DAFS Pitlochry showed that Falkland mutton meal could be fed to young salmon, there was a better chance of using more fish-based diets. Drs Ross and Muir report that another factor quite clear from the outset was that a dry meal-based diet, although easier to use, was unlikely to be technically or economically suitable, particularly on the small scale anticipated for initial production. Apart from peat, all fuel has to be imported. Additionally, the capital costs involved, and the skill required to make meals, blend and pellet, would be outside those of a small fish farming operator. On the other hand, a silage-based operation would allow collection of raw materials at any time of the year, a low-energy means of preparation and stabilisation, and a relatively simple form of pellet production, by adding an imported binder/supplement mix to make moist pellets as needed, and within the cost constraints. In early 1985 Simon Hardcastle arrived from the Falklands to work with Aquaculture Nutrition staff in testing out diets. He was fresh from a summer of fishing ‘mullet’ (Eleginops maclovinus) for sale to the Stanley fish and chip shop, and brought with him copious supplies of these fish, which are caught readily in the summer months in the numerous estuaries around the islands. The FIDC, who were by now sponsoring the work and supporting Simon, made arrangements to supply the Institute with other materials, such as lobster krill, which were being caught by the local fishing survey. Local ADAS (Agricultural Development and Advisory Service) staff in Scotland, who had direct experience of sheep rearing in the Falklands, advised the researchers of suitable Scots mutton, equivalent to the cast ewes which are surplus in the Falklands. ‘Our suspicions of the unsuitability of the mutton were confirmed when we tried to ensile it,’ report the Institute researchers. ‘Firstly, everything had to be deboned, giving a very poor meat yield. The flesh would not ensile propHELLFISH from the Falklands was available to a select few – mainly erly using conventional formic and proprionic acid treatment. Fat content pressmen – in London during July, and if plans materialise, Atlantic was very high, and inappropriate to the needs of the fish. salmon from the same area could be on sale here in a year or so, ‘Although enzymes could possibly be used to break down the material, and thanks largely to research help from Stirling University. fat could be skimmed, the processes would be too expensive for the relativeThe seafood came from a first trial cargo sent from the Southern Atlantic ly poor product obtained. and the press conference was called by the Falkland Islands Development ‘The mullet proved far better: it ensiled easily, and could be combined with Corporation (FIDC) to announce the results of its first full year of operaa mix of wheat bran, minerals, vitamins and binder, plus supplementary fish tion, during which financial assistance was approved for 86 individuals and and bloodmeal, to produce a diet which performed well with the initial trials. companies. Total investment in projects approved reached £1.26 million. In ‘With krill, however, the high calcium content of the shell buffered the acid addition, investment worth £1.8 million in tangible assets or wholly owned mix, requiring excessive amounts of strong acid to lower pH to allow ensiling. subsidiaries was approved. Finance is provided by the Overseas Development A beautiful pink-red meal was then made of the complete krill, promising Administration. excellent pigmentation, but initial trials showed diminishing growth at more than 10 per cent inclusion, and strangely, little colouration. Question of feeds ‘If it becomes possible to separate the krill flesh cheaply (eg through a Drs Barbara Ross and James Muir of the Institute of Aquaculture, University meat/bone separator), there may be some further potential in this food of Stirling, report that from the outset of plans for salmon production in the source. Falklands the question of feed was critical. Initial studies, by Dr John Thorpe, of DAFS Pitlochry, aiming to produce young fish for release in salmon ranchFishmeal ing operations took up the idea of local raw materials. Mutton was the most ‘By the latter part of the year, the availability of onboard-processed easily identifiable source, as the cost, as well as the practical difficulties, of fishmeal from the international fleet, then fishing mainly squid and hake, beimporting substantial quantities of feeds could substantially affect viability. came apparent. This rapidly changed the situation, as not only could a local As the idea for salmon farming developed, so the importance of local feeds silage be produced, but the fishmeal supplementation could be obtained at increased. When the Institute was asked to investigate the prospects, their relatively good prices. initial studies indicated that although hatchery feeds could be brought in, the ‘An analysis of meal quality indicated satisfactory conditions, and provid-
Archive - Jan.indd 52
Archive – September/October 1986
Our suspicions of the unsuitability of the mutton were conﬁrmed when we tried to ensile it
ed this was reasonably consistent, and would continue to be available, the prospects for locally based feed production looked good.’ It is now time to move away from laboratory work. Simon Hardcastle has returned to the Falklands to set up ‘FISH’ (Falkland Islands Salmon Hatchery), a small unit at Fox Bay, West Falklands, which he and Roy Clarke from Stirling built in June this year. The ﬁrst of the Falkland Islands salmon, now ﬁrst feeding, will, it is hoped, overcome seasonal confusion, and be ready for the ﬁrst production trials on the local feeds by next year.
Unit of Aquaculture Nutrition WHILE the Institute of Aquaculture at Stirling University has long been involved in aspects of the nutrition of ﬁnﬁsh and shellﬁsh, the formation of an identiﬁable, and fairly autonomous, ‘Unit of Aquaculture Nutrition’ within the department is a very recent development. In fact, the new unit oﬃcially came into being on August 1. At the same time, Professor Allen J. Matty was appointed Professor of Applied Fish Nutrition. The nutrition group currently consists of three academic staﬀ, Prof Matty being the most recent appointment. He was previously head of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Aston in Birmingham and was responsible for the establishment of the ﬁsh culture group there. Dr Kim Jauncey has been supported by the ODA (Overseas Development Administration) working on ﬁsh nutrition at Stirling since 1979. Dr Barbara Ross has been at the Institute since 1978. She was previously supported by Blue Circle and ODA and is currently supported by MAFF.
Prof Matty’s appointment to this group reﬂects his fairly long term relationship with the department in which he will now be involved on a part-time basis. Nutrition teaching, research and consultancy at the Institute of Aquaculture have been, and continue to be, supported in part by research grants from ODA, MAFF and, more recently, the EEC and also by direct UGC funding as well as contract research income. Grants from the Wolfson Foundation and the BP Educational Trust made possible the establishment of the new unit. The nutrition group is already undertaking a fairly steady stream of contract work for a variety of commercial sponsors. Current nutrition research embraces studies on species as diverse as salmonids, tilapias, catfish, carp and prawns. Experience has shown that the best way of obtaining data of value to the industry is to run fundamental nutrition studies and applied research programmes concurrently. It is also apparent that nutritional questions cannot be considered in isolation from other factors, such as husbandry conditions and health status. Other groups within the Institute handle these disciplines and equip it, perhaps uniquely, for a multidisciplinary approach. The Institute of Aquaculture possesses both temperate and tropical ﬁsh holding facilities on the Stirling campus and also has access to the university ﬁsh farm at Howietoun for experimental studies. The nutrition group has produced numerous publications in scientiﬁc and technical journals as well as a practical handbook on tilapia feed production shortly to be issued in its second edition. In terms of support to the temperate ﬁsh culture industry the Institute has already studied outbreaks of nutritional disease, prepared literate reviews of feed formulation proﬁles for feed producers and conducted nutritional analyses of ﬁsh, ﬁsh feeds and feedstuﬀs so as to advise on their nutritional state and/or quality. The new Unit of Aquaculture Nutrition is expected to allow the group to undertake even more publicity and commercially sponsored work in support of both temperate and tropical aquaculture operations.
Beltfilters, end of pipe solution for RAS and other fishfarms, take care of sludge from microscreens, high dry matter content in drained sludge.
HEX DRUMFILTERS HEX Drumfilter
• Ditch the chain • Highly efficient ■ New better lters,• using own design. • New Gearand Wheel Drivendrumfi Drumfilters HELIOSnatures UV • No maintenance • PEHD contact chambers ■ new generation of drumfi lters, • No The corrosion • No corrosion is built proven • No oil bath on well-known and Full range of product
technologies, however the HEX Drumfi lter have been improved on several critical point.
HEX BeeCell™ panel, standard size of 1200 x 400 mm: • Higher capacity. • Easy to install. • Less backwash water.
Aquaculture and watertreatment specialists in 30 years.
CM Aqua Technologies ApS CM Aqua Technologies ApS www.cmaqua.dk www.cmaqua.dk Your independent supplier! Your independent supplier! www.fishfarmer-magazine.com
Archive - Jan.indd 53
OXYWISE OXYGEN GENERATOR PSA generators, units up to 150 nm3/h SEP: new system for more efficient production, 20 % more on same zeolite Reliabe production of oxygen 24/7
Gill health – Workshop
Know the enemy Scottish industry tries to tackle problem ‘bigger than sea lice’
hen the Scottish salmon industry met in Oban last month to discuss the challenge of gill disease, there was consensus over the scale of the problem and the priorities for research into its causes. Hamish Rodger of the Fish Vet Group spelt out the seriousness of the issue, saying it was something that needed to be addressed urgently as ‘globally it has an impact as significant if not more significant than sea lice’ in salmonid aquaculture. The workshop, organised by the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC), assembled about 65 representatives from faming companies, academic institutions, government bodies, feed and pharmaceutical firms at the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) on December 8.
Gill Workshop.indd 54
Above: The workshop discusses research priorities. Opposite Top: Science update. Middle:SAIC CEO Heather Jones. Bottom: The SSPO’s Iain Berrill
The purpose was to generate research ideas to take to SAIC for funding and there was no shortage of opinions on how that finance should be spent. In three break-out sessions following the main presentations, there was general agreement that the industry needs to ‘know the enemy’ better and understand what exactly is killing the fish. Health managers and fish vets said what they were seeing was such a complex picture that any investigation must be a broad scale project that looks at all the elements together – what’s going on in the environment, what’s going on in the gills, what’s going on with the post immune response, and diets. A big, multi-discipline body of work is called for. There was consensus, too, that relatively recent changes in farming protocols should be examined, especially in relation to biofouling, and also freshwater practice. John Webster, of the Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation, pointed out that ten years ago the industry ‘wouldn’t be sitting in this room discussing this issue so something or some things have changed’. ‘We should rewind the clock and look to see whether there were significant changes in the way fish were produced over that ten-year period.’
Know the enemy
Norway, Chile and Australia, Sandra Adams of the IoA told the SAIC meeting. ‘From the discussions, people felt that although there was a lot of work going on there was still a lot to be done,’ she said. ‘There was much discussion between the different countries to try to collaborate with each other and not duplicate eﬀorts.’
The meeting was opened by Heather Jones, CEO of SAIC, who said gill diseases were in need of solutions and encouraged the experts from across Scotland to apply for research funding. ‘We’re 40 per cent through our project ﬁnance so there’s plenty of money left in the pot. That money is there to help the industry to grow by working collaboratively with academic researchers.’ Such is the gravity of gill disease that two recent workshops on the subject had been held before SAIC’s, the ﬁrst by the SSPO last spring, which was followed by a meeting at Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture (IoA) in June. Iain Berrill, giving an update on the SSPO gill workshop, said since AGD emerged in Scotland around 2011 the organisation had set up a database, collected weekly and circulated to members. It has also established ‘a very active’ health managers’ group, made up of senior health managers from the leading companies. Berrill said the heightened focus on gills had highlighted ‘health complexes’ and that is what innovation must target, rather than individual health challenges. Stirling’s fourth Gill Health Initiative had attracted 165 participants from Scotland, Ireland,
Gill Workshop.indd 55
A list of what needed to be done included standardisation of diagnostic and monitoring methods, linking environmental factors to gill problems, and the need for standardisation of treatments. And it was decided there was a need for the development of a platform for information exchange between both academia and industry and across industry itself; ‘I guess SAIC is providing part of that with this workshop today,’ said Adams. Hamish Rodger, presenting an overview of gill health, said it has a direct impact and an indirect impact in that people can’t manage and control sea lice and other parasites because of gill problems. He provided an update on the diﬀerent types of gill disease, from AGD, which most companies know how to control, to Proliferative Gill Disease (PGD), gill disease caused by harmful algae and possibly by biofouling agents as well – something he said needed to be further investigated, and bleeding gill disease. Complex Gill Disease (CGD), the term the industry now uses when more than one gill disease is detected, can be a combination of AGD and PGD. Many cases that vets are dealing with on a regular basis have a CGD problem. Gill disease is ‘dynamic’, he said, changing all the time, and there are many knowledge gaps. We know a lot more about AGD and how to control it but there are gaps in our knowledge of PGD and CGD. Scientists have good molecular microbiology ‘tools’ at their disposal, but don’t necessarily know how to use them to eﬀectively control disease outbreaks. We need to know why CGD is happening, and what the risk factors are; and pathogens need to be identiﬁed and isolated so vaccines can be developed, he said. We also need to know more about biofouling risks. ‘We’ve changed the way we clean nets in the
Gill health – Workshop
last few years and it may be that these methods are contributing to the problem.’ Why chronic disease is developing - and why gills are not getting a chance to repair - must be investigated too. Finally, the industry needs to know how to control and treat these conditions quite urgently. Karin Pittman, from the University of Bergen, addressed the issue of healthy mucosa, emphasising the importance of the protective barrier of skin, gills and gut in ﬁsh health.
Gill Workshop.indd 56
Top: Oban. Above: Delegates arrive at SAMS. Opposite top: Karin Pittman from the University of Bergen. Opposite below: Networking.
Farmers know that some feeds make skin slimier and better able to deal with parasites, but have not been able to measure the slime. ‘Despite our knowledge of the mucous layer of ﬁsh as a key indicator for stress and ﬁsh health, a comparative method for the quantiﬁcation and use of such data was lacking.’ So what she has developed is a method of assessing the status of mucous cells in response to treatments. Called mucosal mapping, it can measure samples from skin, gills and gut and document slime production for the ﬁrst time. Pittman’s company, Quantidoc, says: ‘With our method we can document whether the immune defence of the ﬁsh is strengthened or weakened at any stage of its lifecycle. ‘Knowledge about the status of the mucous cells and the protection that the slimelayer actually gives will be valuable as a decision tool when ﬁsh handling is planned or if unforeseen problems arise.’ The workshop also heard about ongoing research into ﬁnding autogenous vaccines to control AGD, presented by Sophie Fridman from Stirling, while Callum Whyte of SAMS talked about harmful algal blooms and monitoring measures. He said they can develop enhanced surveillance but the industry must talk to researchers and say what they need. There was an update on selective breeding from Diego Robledo of the Roslin Institute, and an explanation, by Ross Davidson of Scotland’s Rural College, of how models can be used to inform disease management. Delegates were put into groups to decide collectively what the research priorities should be in tackling gill disease, ahead of funding proposals being submitted to SAIC in the New Year. Discussion ranged from the role of freshwater production and smolt transfer to seawater; the
Know the enemy
impact of biofouling organisms on cages and cage cleaning practices – and whether there was more than anecdotal evidence that net cleaning in situ is having a harmful eﬀect; the relationship with treatments, and the number of treatments (it is getting more diﬃcult to choose when and which treatment, the health managers present agreed); and changes in water temperatures and the abundance of plankton; One feed company representative said feed has a role to play ‘but it’s not going to be the 100 per cent, magic wand cure. We will be part of the solution’. He also said there was a lot of pressure on feed companies’ R&D facilities because of increased health problems and in the future there would be more emphasis on commercial trials, conducted in tandem with customers. The overall research priorities identiﬁed by the SAIC workshop were: Know your enemy – there is not enough information out there about what the pathogens are and how the host responds to them; Changing production protocols over the years, including net practices – what has changed in husbandry practice in last 10 years; Changes in freshwater practice and whether any of these compromised the health of the ﬁsh transferred into saltwater; Environmental surveillance and monitoring, treatment and mitigation measures; Stress related to handling and treatment. The longer term beneﬁts of selective breeding were also mentioned but it was agreed that this was perhaps a commercial activity already embarked upon by companies. SAIC is now looking for key themes arising from the workshop and asked for full proposals for its gill health funding call to be submitted by January 31, 2017.
Gill Workshop.indd 57
A decision will be made on which projects to support by February 22 and, said SAIC’s Jason Cleaversmith, vital research could be underway by Easter. FF
We should “rewind the clock to see whether there were signiﬁcant changes in the way ﬁsh were produced ten years ago
World – India
Freshwater aquaculture sees its future in genetically improved ‘Jayanti’ rohu
BY BASUDEV MAHAPATRA
olding a matured rohu ﬁsh, Labeo rohita, of the genetically improved variety named Jayanti, breeder Debajit Barman has a smile of contentment. This ﬁsh has taken his business in the north-eastern state of Assam in India to new heights and brought him several accolades. The species could also revolutionise freshwater aquaculture in India and bring better dividends for farmers, Debajit believes. For Indian consumers, rohu is the most favoured ﬁsh among the three major carps, the other two being catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). The popularity and importance of rohu in India and its ﬁshery are evident from mention of the species in ancient Indian literature of 300 AD. Indigenous to northern and central India, this graceful Indo-Gangetic species has been transplanted into almost all riverine systems, including the freshwaters of Andaman. Because of the compatibility of rohu with other Indian major carps, this species is an ideal choice for inclusion in a carp polyculture system.
For hundreds of years, it has been cultured in freshwater ponds of the north-eastern, eastern and southern states of India. According to available data, while Indian major carps contribute the lion’s share of freshwater aquaculture production - around 80 per cent by volume - rohu alone has a share of about 35 per cent. But despite its popularity, the species has a slower growth rate and higher disease susceptibility compared to the two other Indian carps. So, these two traits needed to be dealt with scientiﬁcally to make the culture of rohu - and, also, the future of Indian freshwater aquaculture more proﬁtable. In 1992, India embarked on a programme for selective breeding of rohu under a collaborative project between India’s Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA) and Akvaforsk of Norway. ‘Growth is the economic trait. It is also susceptible to diseases. So the main objective has been to develop a disease resistant, fast growing rohu,’ said CIFA director Dr P Jayasankar while showing the farm ponds of the institution, where the programme is being carried out. ‘Take a good male and a good female and then breed, so that the seeds are healthier,’ Jayasankar said, emphasising that the programme is for genetic improvement only and not for genetic modiﬁcation or engineering. Under the selective breeding programme, the seeds of rohu are produced from the best of the species collected from different riverine sources. According to the scientists, multi-location ﬁeld trials in different states have conﬁrmed that the improved variety rohu developed at CIFA grows much faster than the local rohu. Dr Kanta Das Mahapatra, principal scientist in charge of the programme at CIFA, said: ‘Everywhere we have found its growth supremacy, and marked 18 per cent faster growth per generation on average.’ The eighth generation seeds produced through selective breeding
main objective has been to “The develop a disease resistant, fast growing ﬁsh ” 58
Queen of carp
are now being made available to the farmers. This generation has shown 100 per cent faster growth in many cases, according to the scientists. This improved variety of rohu is named ‘Jayanti’ as its ﬁrst release in 1997 coincided with the ‘Swarn Jayanti’ or golden jubilee year of Indian independence, attained in 1947. The beneﬁt of Jayanti rohu is that it attains the marketable size – that is, between 1 and 1.5 kg - at least two months earlier than the normal rohu, says Jayasankar, highlighting that ‘by this, the farmer saves the feed bill for two months’. It also offers the farmer an opportunity to start growing the next crop two months earlier than usual, he adds. With disease resilience and a faster growth potential, the improved Jayanti rohu certainly boosts India’s blue economy aspirations. CIFA predicts that, 10 years down the line, at least 30 per cent of rohu cultured in India will be Jayanti rohu. But supplying the farmers with genuine good quality seeds still remains a challenge. Morphologically, the seeds of Jayanti and normal rohu
Clockwise from above: Fish breeder Debajit Barman of Assam holds a wellgrown Jayanti rohu; catching of Indian carps (source: ICAR); Jayanti rohu (source: ICAR); Dr P Jayasankar, director, CIFA; Jayanti rohu in a culture pond (source: ICAR).
look quite similar. It is even difﬁcult to differentiate or segregate seeds where hatcheries breed Jayanti rohu along with normal rohu. In order to ensure that farmers get quality seed, CIFA has recently signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with specialised breeders to set up multiplier units to breed Jayanti rohu exclusively. ‘We hope this will ensure supply of good quality seeds of the improved variety and help in reducing risk on the part of the farmers,’ said Mahapatra. Because there is a constant demand for rohu in the market and the Jayanti rohu grows faster and is less susceptible to diseases, it brings huge possibilities for freshwater aquaculture in India, said Denajit Barman, who has recently signed the MoU with CIFA for a multiplier unit in Assam’s Nalbari district. Seed supplier Nayanmani Talukdar, an associate of Debajit, said: ‘I recently supplied seeds to farmers in Manipur and Maharashtra and there is still more demand.’ The demand is not limited to India alone. South Asian countries such as Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Sri Lanka have also shown interest in Jayanti rohu. But, according to experts, it cannot be supplied to any foreign country without certiﬁcation from the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) as it is a genetically improved variety. Once the NBA certiﬁcation is obtained, Jayanti rohu can become the queen of freshwater aquaculture in the subcontinent, Mahapatra hopes. FF
Advertorial – MSD Animal Health
Survey designed to improve future health of ﬁsh
SD Animal Health, the market leader in aquaculture welfare (known as Merck Animal Health in the United States and Canada), has created its own ﬁsh survey to help further develop industry insight and improve its customer relationships. More than 350 customers of the ﬁsh health experts have received the survey in a bid to improve the service and products provided by the aquaculture team at MSD Animal Health. In addition to working closely with Scotland’s leading salmon producers, the team want to ﬁnd out ﬁrst-hand how they can further improve the services provided and learn about what additional support their customers want. The aquaculture team used their knowledge from all sides of the business, including veterinary, sales and overall industry expertise, to create a survey that will highlight areas of suggested improvement or changes that might help make using the products more eﬃcient for ﬁsh farmers. Questions in the survey include assessment of product value, health challenges, technology development, customer service from the MSD team, most eﬀective communication methods and areas in which MSD could provide further input to help improve the overall service provided. Dafydd Morris, business manager of aquaculture at MSD Animal Health, said: ‘We invest heavily in research and development and this survey plays an important part in allowing us to continually improve our services. ‘As a team we decided to create a survey that would go out to people working in the industry
way of collecting information about potential challenges
Top: MSD’s Dafydd Morris. Above right: Preventative measures
to try and further understand how we can improve our oﬀering and learn more about what the future looks like for our customers. ‘Our team works with ﬁsh farmers on a daily basis, but we are always looking to continually improve what we can do for the people that matter most in our organisation, our customers. ‘The survey is an eﬀective way of collecting information about potential health challenges that the people working on the front-line are concerned about over the coming years. ‘This allows us to work on the possibility of preventative measures and ultimately improve the future health of ﬁsh.’ The deadline for completed surveys to be returned to the MSD team is the end of January. Following this, MSD will analyse the data in early 2017 and, as a team, act accordingly to address any areas of potential improvement. FF
Markets & Retail News
Fish smoker signs Sainsbury’s deal ONE of Scotland’s oldest fishmongers, RR Spink & Sons, is moving into supermarkets for the first time following an initial £60,000 deal with Sainsbury’s. Currently available in a number of high end food halls and luxury delis, the new listing will see the firm’s Hot Smoked Salmon and Hot Smoked Rainbow Trout products hit 30 Sainsbury’s stores across Scotland. Founded in 1715 in Arbroath, RR Spink has been smoking fish by hand for more than 300 years. Many of the techniques used today, including curing and hand finishing, remain as they were in the 1700s. The firm has a large production facility in Arbroath, employing 190 people - an increase of 60 workers since last year. The firm also holds a Royal Warrant as fishmonger to the Queen.
Above: Spink’s sales executive Alisha Goodwin by Arbroath harbour
The company is part of trout farmer Dawnfresh Seafood, and its trout is sourced from Loch Etive on the west coast near Oban. All the firm’s salmon is sourced from Scottish companies. Danny Cairney, sales manager at RR Spink & Sons, said: ‘We are delighted to see our Hot Smoked Salmon and Rainbow Trout products in Sains-
Scottish source to “seeWeourareHotdelighted Smoked Salmon and Rainbow Trout products in Sainsbury’s
bury’s stores across Scotland. ‘Rainbow trout, in particular, has often been underrated and eclipsed by the popularity of smoked salmon, but in fact our hot smoked trout is delicate in flavour, high in protein and high in omega 3 – it is a tasty and healthy addition to any meal, be it breakfast, lunch or dinner.’
New ﬁsh sustainability chief at Co-op
New boss for Seafood Scotland SEAFOOD Scotland, the organisation that promotes the industry in the global market, has appointed a new chief. Patrick Hughes, who takes up his new role this month, joins from Above: Patrick Hughes SAC Consulting, part of Scotland’s Rural College, where he was senior food and drink consultant. Of his new role at Seafood Scotland, he said: ‘I am particularly looking forward to tackling some of the significant challenges facing the seafood sector over the next couple of years. ‘In an ever changing landscape, we don’t yet know what form these challenges will take, so we will need to be adaptable, nimble and receptive to the opportunities that change could bring. ‘My remit is to transform Seafood Scotland into a sustainable organisation that will continue to support and grow the sector.’
Family ﬁrm lands bumper Aldi deal AN Aberdeenshire family firm has secured a £50,000 deal to supply Aldi stores in Scotland with freshly prepared cullen skink. Downies of Whitehills will supply its chilled cullen skink from now until April and has already picked up a national Gold Quality Food Award in the Prepared Fish Category. Managing director Alan Downie said: ‘We’re especially proud of this cullen skink and all that goes into it.’
Top of the fish and chip shops
The Co-op has appointed a new fish sustainability manager, with responsibility for wild caught and farmed fish AISLA Jones, who has an MSc in Marine Biology from Bangor University, previously worked for the World Wildlife Fund, with experience in a number of seafood sustainability initiatives, particularly Above: Aisla Jones tuna. Jones, from Flintshire, North Wales, said: ‘The Co-op’s reputation in responsible sourcing is second to none, so I’m very excited to be joining such a well established team that has a proven
Retail News.indd 61
track record in helping deliver ethically produced food.’ Ciara Gorst, the Co-op’s senior agriculture manager, said: ‘Aisla is a genuine expert in the ﬁeld of sustainable seafood and marine life and has a global perspective, having worked in several developing countries, particularly in Africa. ‘We’re delighted to welcome her to the Co-op and are conﬁdent that with her extensive knowledge we will continue to lead the way in ﬁsh sustainability.’ The Co-op constantly monitors its own-brand fresh and frozen ﬁsh ranges and says it uses the latest scientiﬁc advice on the stocks of wild ﬁsh, as well as independent assurance schemes for farmed ﬁsh, to ensure they are sourced from well managed ﬁsheries and farms. The retail chain has been a member of the Sustainable Seafood Coalition (SSC) since 2011.
THE National Fish & Chip Awards, celebrating some of the UK’s best seafood businesses, will be announced this month at a ceremony in London. Now in their 29th year, the awards encompass more than a dozen categories, recognising everything from traditional takeaways to mobile operators, and from young fish friers to excellence in staff training and responsible sourcing. Marcus Coleman, chief executive of awards sponsor Seafish, said: ‘The fish and chip trade continues to go from strength to strength.’ The Park Plaza ceremony is on January 26.
Grimsby area processor closes AT least 50 people are feared to have lost their jobs after the Lincolnshire fish processing company Fishgate closed down over the festive period.
THE company is located on a former RAF jet fighter air base at Binbrook, near Grimsby, which has been turned into a trading estate with a
large fish processing operation. The staff received the bombshell as they were preparing to close for the Christmas holiday. They
were given the news by a note on the door as they turned up for work; it said further details would be sent by first class post. They were then asked
to contact their line managers. Fishgate is a seafood supplier to the Iceland frozen food retail chain, which has confirmed that the site is no longer producing for them. Fishgate is thought to have lost more than £200,000 last year. It mainly makes prepared fish meals and dishes. Cash reserves are also thought to have fallen since a year ago. West Lindsey, the local district council that helps companies set up on the Binbrook trading estate, said it had a team able to offer advice and assistance. No one from the company was avail-
Staﬀ were given the news by a note on the door as they turned up for work
able for comment over the Christmas and New Year period. One of the directors is thought to be Ken Bottomley, who is well known in the seafood business in the Grimsby area and a former director of Young’s and Sealord. He was also unavailable for comment.
Hopes rise in Icelandic Trout tasting treat for residents fish strike HOPES were rising as Fish Farmer went to press that a solution to the long running Icelandic ﬁshing dispute could at last be in sight. Above: Sxxxx A spokesman for one Above: Heiðrún Lind Marteinsdóttir of the unions described a meeting held on January 10, which was lobbied by dozens of protesting ﬁshermen, as friendly, with both sides negotiating on good terms. The strike involving larger trawlers began on December 14. Heiðrún Lind Marteinsdóttir, director of the Icelandic Federation of Fisheries, said the fact that the two sides were still talking was a positive development. ‘In that sense, we can be optimistic,’ she said. The strike has brought serious problems for ﬁsh processors at home and abroad, and already workers in Iceland are being threatened with lay-oﬀs. There is also a shortage of popular varieties such as cod and haddock.
Processing News.indd 62
SOME 40 residents from Oban and around Loch Etive took part in a trout tasting event last month, sampling ﬁsh farmed locally by Dawnfresh. A range of hot and cold trout products were provided, all prepared onsite by a Dawnfresh chef at North Connel Village Hall. All of the trout was farmed from one of Dawnfresh’s nearby sites on Loch Etive. Dawnfresh has ﬁve sites at diﬀerent points in Loch Etive, from Port na Mine in the east to Ardchattan House in the west.
Above: Dawnfresh dishes on display
Tributes to seafood expert
The company, which employs more than 550 full time staﬀ, with up to 200 additional temporary workers at key periods, is Scotland’s largest trout producer. It supplies major UK retailers as well as exporting across the globe. Stewart Hawthorn, farming director, said after the tasting session: ‘It was fantastic to see so many people take time out of their evening to come and sample some of the products made from fresh ﬁsh produced right on their doorstep on Loch Etive.’
TRIBUTES have been paid to the internationally renowned seafood expert Peter Howgate, who died on Christmas Eve. Howgate joined the Torry Research Station in Aberdeen in 1955 and was instrumental in helping to establish Torry as one of the leading global institutions in ﬁsh processing and quality. Research activities in this ﬁeld included the development of methods for measurement of quality by sensory, chemical and physical methods; the measurement of storage lives of chilled, frozen, and pre-packed products; the study of sensory properties of ﬁsh and ﬁshery products and the eﬀects of storage and processing on sensory properties. After the Torry years Howgate carried out many consultancies, working for UN agencies in Africa, South America, and the Far East. He saved a good part of the Torry library, and most recently he created FishTechDB, an online bibliographical database of topics related to ﬁsh technology. The database is now available as a public service to the global seafood community via Seafood Network Information Centre.
WWW.SOTRA.NET TEL: +47 56 32 68 50 E-mail: email@example.com
Suppliers of Coatings and Anti Fouling Paints
WWW.SOTRA.NET TEL: +47 56 32 68 50 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.aquascan.com www.aquascan.com
Tel:+47 +4751 5148 4833 3395 95 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Tel:
• Less Energy Consumption
• +47 Longer Tel: 51 48 33Life-time 95 email@example.com •www.aquascan.com Higher Intensity over time • More Light per Watt • Less CO2 Footprint
DIVING CAGESSERVICES & NETS
A powerful disinfection option
THE NET RESULT IS QUALITY Custom manufacture of all types of nets.
Net sterilising, washing, repair, renovation and antifoulant Environmentally friendly | Approved by DEFRAretreatment. | NoMA accredited | Proven
Fish grading, Counting Specialise in the manufacture and supply of: & Size Fish grading, Counting Aeration Equipment - Estimation Fish Feeders
Bureau Veritas Certification
Buffodine Egg Disinfectant
a Net ster renov •
efficacy | Removes light biofilm Nathan Moreland, Aquatic Hygiene Ph: +44 1463 718735 Mob: +44 7818 483043 e-mail: Nathan@aquatic.as
• High • Dedicate
M Dive Ltd Isle of
t: 01680 e:
AKVA group capability of Based Aqua technical so
.C O M
Fish grading, Counting Net NetInspection/Cleaning/Repair Inspection/Cleaning/Repair & Size Estimation Fish••grading, Counting
A Anew newgeneration generationDive DiveCompany Companybased basedononIsle IsleofofMull Mullworking workingtogether togethertotoraise raise Customer CustomerService, Service,Productivity Productivity&&Safety SafetyStandards StandardsininCommercial CommercialDiving Diving specialising specialisingininbut butnot notlimited limitedtotothetheFish FishFarm Farmindustry. industry.
THE I •N
A new generation Dive Customer Service, P specialisin
THE NET RESULT IS QUALITY
Other equipment available on request. MOHN GROUPin TheAquaculture Enterprise Park, Forres, IV36 2AB, Scotland, UK YourAQUA partner Technology
Tel +44 (0) 1309 678270 Fax +44 (0) 1309 673615 firstname.lastname@example.org
GENETICSUPPLIEER SERVICES EQUIPMENT
• DNA sex testing • Triploidy testing • DNA pedigree assignment Tel.: +45 97180690 www.apollo.dk email: email@example.com
Aqua Source Directory.indd 63
Egg Eggpickers pickers Egg pickers Fish counters Fish counters Fish counters Fish pumps Fish pumps CAGE NETS Fish pumps
Tel: +45 33 Tel: +45 8686 9292 3131 MOORINGS Tel:Email: +45 86 92 31 3333 firstname.lastname@example.org Email: email@example.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.impexagency.dk www.impexagency.dk www.impexagency.dk vonin.com
HATCHERIES GENETIC SERVICES
Tel: +45 +45 97181977 97181977 Tel: Fax: +45 +45 9642 9642 5278 5278 Fax: Email: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Email:
IMPE Expe Exper IMP
s • Marke • DNAE s
F • Triploi Fi F • DNAFip
Tel: + Tel: +45 Tel:Email +45 Email: im Email: im www. www.im www.im
www.wintec.dk www.wintec.dk www.xelect.co.uk
www.fishfarmer-magazine.com 82 82
082-083_ff07.indd 82 049-051_ff11.indd 49 APOLLO A/S T TE Expert genetic services at IMPEX IMPEXAGENCY AGENCY Graders forprices live fish IMPEX AGENCY since 1965 affordable NT since 1965 Drumfilters since 1965 TY/PRICE • Marker assisted selection
•Other DNA pedigreeavailable assignment equipment available onrequest. request. Other equipment on
Manufacturer and and dealer dealer ofof fish fish Manufacturer farming equipment. ROBUST farming equipment.
ExpertAND genetic services ACCURATE WINTEC AND HYDROTECH DRUMat FILTERS ••WINTEC HYDROTECH DRUM FILTERS • MILANESE GRADING MACHINES affordable prices INTELLIGENT • MILANESE GRADING MACHINES VENERONIQUALITY/PRICE PROPELLERPUMPS PUMPS ••VENERONI PROPELLER BEST •THE Marker assisted selection •WINTEC WINTECFISH FISHVACUUM VACUUMPUMPS PUMPS4-10” 4-10” • • DNA sex testing INLETAND ANDOUTLET OUTLETGRILLS GRILLS ••INLET • Triploidy testing DAMMING ANDSLUICE SLUICEGATES GATES ••DAMMING AND
AKVA group is a unique supplier with the +45both 97181977 capabilityTel: of offering Sea and Land Based Aquaculture with complete Fax: +45operations 9642 5278 technical solutions and local support. Email: email@example.com
AKVA group is a unique supplier with the Tel: +45 97181977 capability of offering both Sea and Land Fax: +45operations 5278 David Jarron /9642 firstname.lastname@example.org Based Aquaculture with complete technical solutions local0117 support.117 Email: email@example.com Tel: +44 (0)and747 14 Rutland Square, Edinburgh, Scotland
Mobile: 07715 007964 w: m-dive.co.uk E: firstname.lastname@example.org e: email@example.com t: 01680 812913/07585 801906 W: www.AquacultureEquipment.co.uk
• WINTEC AND HYDROTECH DRUM FILTERS INTELLIGENT • MILANESE GRADING MACHINES THE•BEST VENERONIQUALITY/PRICE PROPELLER PUMPS • WINTEC FISH VACUUM PUMPS 4-10” • INLET AND OUTLET GRILLS • DAMMING AND SLUICE GATES Your partner in Aquaculture Technology Other equipment available on request.
GENETIC SERVICES EQUIPMENT FISH SUPPLIEER COUNTERS EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER
Fish grading,DRUM Counting • WINTEC AND HYDROTECH FILTERS & Size Estimation Fish GRADING Counting • MILANESE MACHINES • VENERONI PUMPS and SizePROPELLER Estimation • WINTEC FISH VACUUM PUMPS 4-10” pumping - grading - feeding • INLET AND OUTLET GRILLS • DAMMING AND SLUICE GATES
Manufacturer and dealer of fish ROBUST farming equipment.
EXTRUDERS & EXPANDERS
Middleton, 1QG 35869 07964 uipment.co.uk uipment.co.uk
• Sea Bed Surveys Aeration Equipment - Fish Feeders • Cleaning of Sub Surface Structures - Oxygen Monitoring Systems • Mooring Inspections/maintenance/installation Round•PE Rearing Tanks Detailed Reporting Fabricated •Bespoke High Spec video evidence ofTanks every dive • Emergency Call Outs - Depuration Equipment - Lobster • Well Boat Attendance Holding Systems - Oyster Baskets • Cavi-Blasting Aquaculture• Salvage Equipment Ltd • Bespoke Dive Drills 36, Foxdenton Lane, Middleton, • Boat Hire Skipper Manchesterwith M24 1QG • Dedicated, professional & highly trained Tel: +44(0)161 6835869 permanent teams
FISHSUPPLIEER COUNTERS EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER
Fish Feeders Systems g Tanks d Tanks nt - Lobster ster Baskets
• Routine & Non Routine Fish Farm Site Dives
Specialise in the• manufacture Prop Clearanceand supply of:
Manufacturer and dealer of fish farming equipment.
e and supply of:
The new generation Dive Company based on Isle of Mull & working throughout Scotland to raise Customer Service, Productivity & Safety Standards in Commercial Diving specializing in but not limited to the Fish Farm Industry.
EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER EQUIPMENTSUPPLIEER SUPPLIEER
EQUIPMENT DIVINGSUPPLIEER SERVICES
B M A RIN
Demonstrate your Commitment to Sustainability • Partner with Bureau Veritas Fish grading, Counting Specialise in the manufacture and supply of: Certification to prove your & Size Estimation Custom manufacture of Aeration Equipment - Fish Feeders Fish grading, commitment to Counting sustainability. ••Sock/Side Sock/SideWeight WeightRemoval Removal&&Attachment Attachment & Size Estimation - Oxygen Monitoring Systems We offer a large range of & Size Estimation - Oxygen Monitoring Systems all types of nets. & Size Estimation ••Cavi CaviBlasting Blasting certification i.a. Round PE Rearing Tanks Round PE Rearing Tanks • Moorings/Inspections/Reports • Moorings/Inspections/Reports Net sterilising, washing, repair, Bespoke Fabricated Tanks ASC • MSC • Global Gap Bespoke Fabricated Tanks ••Barge Barge&&Hull HullCleaning Cleaning - Depuration Equipment - Lobster renovation and antifoulant - Depuration Equipment - Lobster ••Dive DiveDrills Drills Please contact us for- further Holding Systems - Oyster Baskets Holding Systems Oyster Baskets retreatment. information. ••High HighSpec’ Spec’Video VideoFootage Footageofofevery everydive dive Aquaculture Equipment Ltd Aquaculture Equipment Ltd Bureau Veritas Certification professional &&highly trained teams MOHN• AQUA GROUP The Enterprise Park, Forres, IV36 2AB, Scotland, UK • Dedicated, Dedicated, professional highly trained teams 6 576280 G B M A RI MOHN36, AQUAFoxdenton GROUP The The Enterprise Enterprise Park,Middleton, Forres, IV36 IV36 2AB, 2AB, Scotland, Scotland, UK UK MOHN AQUA GROUP Park, Forres, Lane, MOHN AQUAFoxdenton GROUP The Enterprise Park,Middleton, Forres, IV36 2AB, Scotland, UK .B Tel +44 (0) 1309 678270 Fax +44 (0) 1309 673615 firstname.lastname@example.org 36, Lane, 47 Denmark Tel +44 +44 (0) (0) 1309 1309 678270 678270 Fax Fax +44 +44 (0) (0) 1309 1309 673615 673615 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Tel Tel +44 (0) 1309 678270 Fax +44 (0) 1309 673615 email@example.com Manchester M24 1QG Manchester M24 1QG + 45 77311000 Tel: +44(0)161 6835869 www.bureauveritas.dk MOHN GROUP Tel: +44(0)161 6835869 M Java Craignure MDive DiveLtd. Ltd.11 11AQUA JavaHouses, Houses, Craignure MOHN GROUP +44 AQUA (0)1772 322200 MOHN AQUA GROUP MOHN AQUA GROUP The Enterprise Park, Forres,PA65 IV36 2AB, Scotland, UK 07715 007964 Isle of Argyll 6BE Isle ofMull, Mull, Argyll PA65 6BE MOHN AQUA GROUP TheMobile: Enterprise Park, Forres, IV36 2AB, Scotland, UK Mobile: 07715 007964 MOHN AQUA GROUP The Enterprise Park, Forres, IV36 2AB, Scotland, UK TelFax+44 (0) Tel +44 (0) 1309 678270 +44 (0) 13091309 673615 678270 firstname.lastname@example.org Tel +44 (0) email@example.com Tel +44 (0) 1309E: 678270 Fax +44 (0) 13091309 673615 678270 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com www.egersundnet.no TelFax+44 (0) Tel +44 (0) 1309E: 678270 +44 (0) 13091309 673615 678270 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com t: 01680 812 420 m: 07585 801 906 t: 01680 812 420 m: 07585 801 906 firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.AquacultureEquipment.co.uk email@example.com www. evansvanodine.co.uk e:e:firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.AquacultureEquipment.co.uk email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER & NETS DIVINGCAGES SERVICES
CAGES NETS CAGE&LIGHTING
Submersible luminaries, cables, cameras & feed monitoring systems for the aquaculture industry
tradition quality co-operation Egersund +47Net 56AS 32 68 50 SvanavŒgen, N-4370 Egersund email@example.com Tel.: +47 51 46 29 00 www.sotra.net Fax: +47 51 46 29 01 firstname.lastname@example.org www.egersundnet.no
SAFE SUPPLIER OF NEW NET TECHNOLOGY AND PROFESSIONAL SERVICE
Developed and tested through generations
Egersund Net AS Tel: +47 80 82 15 SvanavŒgen, N-437066 Egersund Tel.: +47 51 +47 46 29 00 Fax: 66 80 25 21 Fax: +47 51 46 29 01 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Nets from Egersund Net
Suppliers of Coatings and tradition Anti quality Fouling co-operation Paints
Tel: +47 51 48 33 95 WWW.JT.FO email@example.com
CAGES &&NETS CAGESBIO NETS SECRUITY
Developed and tested through generations
Tel: +4 aquas
EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER SUPPLIEER EQUIPMENT
A.NET 68 50 otra.net
www.steen-hansen.com EFFICIENT. www.bookonfouling.com
Nets from Egersund Net
EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER EGG DISINFECTANT
Aqua Source Directory
EQUIPMENTCERTIFICATION SUPPLIEER EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER EQUIPMENT SUPPLIEER
AquaNet - anti fouling NetCoatingIN UNDERWATER Biological info LIGHTING Fouling management ACCURATE. RELIABLE.
Tel: +47 +47 51 51 48 48 33 33 95 95 Tel: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
CAGES && NETS NETS CAGES ANCHORS & CHAINS
The (anti) fouling experts
CAGESANTI-FOULING NETS CAGES NETS CAGES &&&NETS
LIGHTING BIO MASCAGE ESTIMATORS ANTI-FOULING
Tel: +47 66 80 82 15 Fax: +47 66 80 25 21 firstname.lastname@example.org www.netkem.no
Tel: +47 51 4
» Expander12:08:50 14/11/2014
High capacity extruders and expanders
High capacity extruders and expanders.
High capacity extruderswww.almex.nl and expanders. Almex B.V. - ZUTPHEN, The Netherlands tel. +31 (0)575 572666 e-mail email@example.com
Almex B.V. - ZUTPHEN, The Netherlands tel. +31 (0)575 572666 e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
• • • •
Longer Life-time Higher Intensity over time More Light per Watt Less CO2 Footprint
Aqua Source DirectoryWWW.JT.FO
Custom manufacture of all types of nets.
e fi o r c. m te n vo ar ar Le w. w w
Net sterilising, washing, repair, renovation and antifoulant retreatment.
Their Working health together is your – For a better tomorrow wealth.
Feeding robots Single feeders Centralised THE NET RESULT feeding IS QUALITY
EQUIPMENT FEEDSUPPLIEER & NUTRITION
CAGES & NETS FEEDING
Storvik LTD Lochgilphead, Scotland Tel: +44 (0) 1546603989 email@example.com
Tel: +47 51 48 33 95 firstname.lastname@example.org
ICE & PACKAGING
HYGIENE & CLEANLINESS
EQUIPMENT GLASS SUPPLIEER FIBRE
GRP Tank Manufacture Tank Construction Transport Tanks – in stock YourOn-site partner in Aquaculture Technology Repair Service
AKVA group is a unique supplier with the capability of offering both Sea and Land Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, 4SG Based Aquaculture operations withAB51 complete technicalTel solutions local support. : +44 and (0)1467 621907
TRANSPORT & SHIPPING
EEE SSS TTT AA 119 99555 ABB BLL LI IISS D NN 1 999 SHH HEE ED D II IN
AVAILABLE FOR LONG-TERM, LOGISTIC SOLUTIONS, LOGISTIC SOLUTIONS, LOGISTIC SOLUTIONS, SUCCESSFULWITH WITH PARTNERS PARTNERS SUCCESSFUL SUCCESSFUL WITH PARTNERS SHORT-TERM AND ONE OFF SHIPPING CONTRACTS • Road Haulage • Shipping • Port Facilities • Storage & Warehousing • Craneage •
• Road Haulage • Shipping • Port Facilities • Storage & Warehousing • Craneage • • Road Haulage • Shipping • Port Facilities • Storage & Warehousing • Craneage •
TRANSPORT & SHIPPING FERGUSON FERGUSON FERGUSON TRANSPORT TRANSPORT & & SHIPPING SHIPPING
EEE SSS TTT AA 119 99555 ABB BLL LI IISS D NN 1 999 SHH HEE ED D II IN
FERGUSON FERGUSON FERGUSON TRANSPORT TRANSPORT & & SHIPPING SHIPPING
Keeeep pititcoofrl,esh k
+31 (0)6 28483405 WWW.ICEPACKXL.NL
(+47) 415 73 980 email@example.com
RECIRCULATION MARINE EQUIPMENT
www.akvagroup.com Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
T INSTAICNE GEL CK PA
WORLD LEADERS IN PROPELLER PUMPS
Ferguson Transport & Shipping offers a comprehensive range of distribution services by road, rail and sea, covering the whole of the
Ferguson Transport & Shipping offers a comprehensive range of Ferguson Transport & Shipping a comprehensive range of UK for general haulage, plantoffers and machinery movements. distribution services by road, rail and sea, covering the whole of the distribution services by road, rail and sea, covering the whole of the UK for established general haulage, plant and machinery movements. A long family-run business with industry experienced UK for general haulage, plant and machinery movements. and competent staff throughout all divisions of the company, working A long established with industry experienced hours a day andfamily-run 365 days abusiness year to provide long-term, short-term A24long established family-run business with industry experienced and competent staff throughout all divisions of the company, and ad hoc solutions. of the company,working and competent staff throughout all divisions working 24 hours a day and 365 days a year to provide long-term, short-term 24 hours a day and 365 daysFreight a yearServices to provide long-term, short-term Corpach Intermodal – Road / Rail / Sea and ad hoc solutions. ad hoc solutions.& Logistic Services Kishorn Port Seaand Freight, Warehousing Mallaig Port Sea Freight, Warehousing Logistic Services Corpach Intermodal Freight Services – & Road / Rail / Sea Corpach Intermodal Freight Services – Road / Rail / Sea Kishorn Port Sea Freight, Warehousing & Logistic Services Kishorn Port Sea Freight, Warehousing & Logistic Services Mallaig Port Sea Freight, Warehousing & Logistic Services Mallaig Port Sea Freight, Warehousing & Logistic Services
Road, Rail, Sea & Port Facilities
r Hire from
rine.com 426 000
Integrated Freight Facility, Annat, Corpach, Fort William PH33 7NN
www.fergusontransport.co.uk 18/02/2015 www.fergusontransport.co.uk www.fergusontransport.co.uk www.fergusontransport.co.uk www.fergusontransport.co.uk
+45 65 98 13 16 www.lykkegaard-as.dk
Email: email@example.com Tel +45 9758 4055
T: 01397 773840 F: 01397 773850 E: firstname.lastname@example.org T: 01397 773 840 www.fergusontransport.co.uk E: email@example.com
Integrated Freight Facility, Annat, Corpach, Fort William PH33 7NN Integrated Freight Facility, Annat, Corpach, Fort William PH33 7NN T: 01397 773840 F: 01397 773850 E: firstname.lastname@example.org T: 01397 773840 F: 01397 773850 E: email@example.com Ferguson.indd 1
Low Energy Pumps with Large Capacity
www.rkbioelements.dk Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
www.rkbioelements.dk Email: email@example.com Tel +45 9758 4055 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel +45 9758 4055 Tel +45 9758 4055 www.rkbioelements.dk
TURN-KEY RAS SUPPLIER
-Design -Supply -After Sales Service/Management Muslingevej 36 B, 8250 Egå, Denmark T: (+45) 38 41 48 00 email@example.com www.interaqua.dk
Aqua Source Directory.indd 64
INTER AQUA ADVANCE A/S
RECIRCUL ATION AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS SINCE 1978
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.fishfarmer-magazine.com Tel +45 9758 4055
Water treatment for aquaculture / Ozone / Propeller pumps / Oxygenation systems / Biofiltration / Degassing / Aeration / UV / Hydraulic diagnosis and technical assistance. Tel: +33 253 558 552 Email: email@example.com www.acui-t.com
• A wide range
SYSTEMS RAS DESIGN EQUIPMENT SUPPORT
of applications, including lobster, oyster, mussel and prawn cultivation • Artificial seawater free from bacteria, algae and toxic detritus found in seawater
Peacock Salt North Harbour Ayr KA8 8AE Tel: 01292 292000 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.peacocksalt.com
RAS DESIGN DESIGN RAS
FOR VALVES AND PENSTOCK
Aqua Source Directory
Reusable Fresh Fish Packaging
WATER QUALITY WATER TREATMENT WATER TREATMENT
THE STRONGEST &Premier BESTSupplier DE-LICING Of TREATMENT The Aquaculture Float TARPAULINS ON Available In 3 Sizes THE MARKET
BroadSea ROV GET Tom Morrow Tom Morrow ..supply the all year yearEarth round! ..supply all round! that doesn’t Cost GETNOTICED YOUR YOUR BUSINESS Expert ROV ROV services services Expert Tarpaulins Tarpaulins and equipment to to the the and equipment TROUT EGGS UV STERILIZERS
Gem Plastics Ltd. Ireland Visit: www.gemplastics.ie Call: +353 49 433 1077 Email: email@example.com
TARPAULINS ROV SERVICES TARPAULINS
Tom Morrow Tarpaulins
TwinSafe 325N 325N TwinSafe Inflatable buoyancy buoyancy Inflatable
TwinSafe 325N 325N TwinSafe Inflatable buoyancy buoyancy Inflatable t: 01346 01346 516310 516310 t: m: 07920 07920 426790 426790 m: e: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com e: PPS East East A5 A5 2013_Layout 2013_Layout 11 04/12/2013 04/12/2013 09:18 09:18 Page Page 11 PPS www.broadsearov.co.uk www.broadsearov.co.uk +1.360.734.7964 AQUACARE.COM AQUACARE.COM +1.360.734.7964 www.don-mor.co.uk
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Email: www.ria-aquatech.com www.ria-aquatech.com
BUSINESS NOTICED - ONLY £626
UV & Triogen O3 FOR A WHOLETriogen YEAR LIVE RAINBOW Disinfection Systems TROUT EGGS
PPS East East with with over over 25 25 years years experience experience servicing servicing the the needs needs of of the the fishing fishing industry, industry, PPS
Aquaculture industry. Aquaculture industry. provide ‘one-stop’ source source for for the the supply supply of of quality quality returnable returnable plastic plastic fish fish boxes, boxes, provide aa ‘one-stop’ crates, bins and and pallets, pallets, rental, rental, pool pool management management and and washing washing services services to to BRC BRC crates, bins THE STRONGEST THE STRONGEST Mooring inspections •• Mooring inspections accreditation. accreditation. Net inspections inspections Net &&••BEST DE-LICING BEST DE-LICING Our fish boxes boxes are are designed designed for for today’s today’s chilled chilled fish Seabed Our surveys. •• Seabed surveys.
supply chain, chain, and and can can provide provide aa safe safe and and supply TREATMENT TREATMENT FOR A WHOLE YEAR! integrated handling handling system system to to support support logistics logistics integrated whilst contributing contributingON to protecting the the freshness freshness whilst to protecting TARPAULINS TARPAULINS ON and quality quality of of the the catch. catch. and ADVERTISE IN THE AQUA-SOURCE OR THE THEIfIfMARKET MARKET you are are wanting wanting to to lower lower your your costs costs and and also also you
14 Henderson Henderson Road, Road, Longman Longman 14 Industrial Estate, Estate, Inverness Inverness IV1 IV1 1SN 1SN Industrial
reduce your your waste waste packaging, packaging, let let PPS PPS introduce introduce reduce 14 Henderson Road, Longman 14 Road, you to to returnable plastic packaging packaging –– leaving leaving you you 14Henderson Henderson Road,Longman Longman you returnable plastic PPS East A5 2013_Layout 1 04/12/2013 09:18 Page 1 PPS East A5 2013_Layout 1 04/12/2013 09:18 Page 1 to concentrate on your primary core business! to concentrate on your primary core business! Industrial Estate, Inverness IV1 1SN Industrial Estate, Inverness IV1 1SN Industrial Estate, Inverness IV1 1SN t: 01346 01346 516310 t: 516310
Telephone: 01463 01463 220 220 862 862 Telephone: Fax: 01463 01463 243 243 110 110 Fax: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Email:
Every fish counts! £626 Call GREG on 0131 551 7921 or
0131 551 Call 7921 GREG on
• Hatcheries • Fish farms • Well boats
• Fish processing • Shellfish depuration • Waste water m: 07920 426790 m: 07920 426790 For further information For further information Telephone: 01463 220 862 Telephone: 01463 220 Telephone: 01463 220862 862 Call GREG on or firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Telephone: +44 +44 (0) (0) 1472 1472 245554 245554 Telephone: e: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com e: Fax: 01463 243 110 Fax: Fax:01463 01463243 243110 110 www.aquasearch.dk www.aquasearch.dk w w w. p p s e q u i p m e n t . c o . u k w w w. p p s e q u i p m e n t . c o . u k www.broadsearov.co.uk www.broadsearov.co.uk Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Email: email@example.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email: email@example.com
Reusable Fresh Fish Packaging that doesn’t Cost the Earth
0131 551 7921
UNIT 14 LANGLANDS PLACE - EAST KILBRIDE - G75 0YF - SCOTLAND - UK OFFICE: +44 1355 220 598 FAX: +44 1355 570 058 EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
PROCESSING SOURCE DIRECTORY www.fishfarmer-magazine.com PROCESSING SOURCE DIRECTORY Reusable Fresh Fish Fish Packaging Packaging Reusable Fresh that doesn’t doesn’t Cost Cost the the Earth Earth that
PPS East East with with over over 25 25 years years experience experience servicing servicing the the needs needs of of the the fishing fishing industry, industry, PPS provide aa ‘one-stop’ ‘one-stop’ source source for for the the 60x40add.indd supply of of quality quality returnable plastic plastic fish boxes, boxes, provide supply fish 60x40add.indd 14-08-2014 10:29:48 11 returnable 14-08-2014 10:29:48 crates, bins bins and and pallets, pallets, rental, rental, pool pool management management and and washing washing services services to to BRC BRC crates, accreditation. accreditation.
you are are wanting wanting to to lower lower your your costs costs and and also also IfIf you reduce your your waste waste packaging, packaging, let let PPS PPS introduce introduce reduce you to to returnable returnable plastic plastic packaging packaging –– leaving leaving you you you to concentrate concentrate on on your your primary primary core core business! business! to
MEETING ALL YOUR PACKAGING NEEDS
Optimar Iceland Iceland Stangarhyl Stangarhyl 66 Optimar 110 Reykjavik, Reykjavik, Iceland Iceland 110
PPS East East with with over over 25 25 years years experience experience servicing servicing the the needs needs of of the the fishing fishing industry, industry, PPS provide aa ‘one-stop’ ‘one-stop’ source source for for the the supply supply of of quality quality returnable returnable plastic plastic fish fish boxes, boxes, provide crates, bins bins and and pallets, pallets, rental, rental, pool pool management management and and washing washing services services to to BRC BRC crates, accreditation. accreditation.
Our fish fish boxes boxes are are designed designed for for today’s today’s chilled chilled Our supply chain, chain, and and can can provide provide aa safe safe and and supply integrated handling handling system system to to support support logistics logistics integrated whilst contributing contributing to to protecting protecting the the freshness freshness whilst andquality qualityof ofthe thecatch. catch. and youare arewanting wantingto tolower loweryour yourcosts costsand andalso also IfIfyou reduceyour yourwaste wastepackaging, packaging,let letPPS PPSintroduce introduce reduce youto toreturnable returnableplastic plasticpackaging packaging––leaving leavingyou you you toconcentrate concentrateon onyour yourprimary primarycore corebusiness! business! to
SALES AND SERVICE OF LIQUID ICE MACHINES
Forfurther furtherinformation information For Telephone:+44 +44(0) (0)1472 1472245554 245554 Telephone:
ww ww. w.ppppsseeqquuiippm meenntt..ccoo..uukk w
T: +354 587 1300 F: +354 587 1301 For further further information information For E: email@example.com EAST EAST Telephone: +44 +44 (0) (0) 1472 1472 245554 245554 Telephone: www.optimar.is Unit Omega Business Business Park, Estate Estate Road 6, 6, Grimsby, Grimsby, DN31 DN31 2TG 2TG Park, Road For further further information For information ww ww. w.ppppsseeqquuiippm meenntt..ccooUnit k Omega w ..uu1, k1, Optimar Iceland, Midhraun 2 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Email: email@example.com Telephone: +44 (0) (0) 1472 1472 245554 245554 Telephone: +44 210 Gardabaer Iceland
IMPROVE YOUR PACKAGING PROCESS
The worlds worlds most most innovative innovative and and The reliable ﬁﬁsh sh processing processing solutions! solutions! reliable
RegistrationNo: No: Registration QAICL/UK/BRC/351 QAICL/UK/BRC/351
Unit 1, 1, Omega Omega Business Business Park, Park, Unit Estate Road Road 6, 6, Grimsby, Grimsby, DN31 DN31 2TG 2TG Estate
Fax: +49 +49 451 451 5302 5302 492 492 Fax:
EAST EAST Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Email: RegistrationNo: No: Registration QAICL/UK/BRC/351 QAICL/UK/BRC/351
Start talking to VC999
www.baader.com www.baader.com Special Fish Farmer Packaging Presentation Nordischer Maschinenbau Maschinenbau Nordischer 18th - 20th June ‘15 Rud.Baader GmbH+Co.KG GmbH+Co.KG Rud.Baader Ask for details Tel.: +49 +49 451 451 53020 53020 Tel.:
10 North North Portway Portway Close, Close, Round Round 10 MARELEC Technologies Spinney NN3 NN3 8RQ 8RQ Food Northampton Spinney Northampton Tel +44 +44 1604 firstname.lastname@example.org 643999 Tel 643999 Fax +44 +44 1604 1604www.marelec.com 499994 Fax 499994 email@example.com www.vc999.co.uk www.vc999.co.uk firstname.lastname@example.org
14/11/2014 14:07:41 12:13:35 15/09/2014
HO C9 M 9 201 E-SHO 9 5 W
T: +354 +354 587 587 1300 1300 T: F: +354 +354 587 587 1301 1301 F: E: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org E: www.optimar.is www.optimar.is
Our fish fish boxes boxes are are designed designed for for today’s today’s chilled chilled Our supply chain, chain, and and can can provide provide aa safe safe and and supply integrated handling handling system system to to support support logistics logistics integrated intelligent whilst contributing contributing to to protecting protecting the the freshness freshness whilst portion and quality quality of of the the catch. catch. and
PROCESSING MACHINERY PACKAGING SYSTEMS
SALES AND SERVICE OF LIQUID ICE MACHINES
PLASTIC BOXES ICE MACHINERY
049-051_ff11.indd 82 50 081-083_ff09.indd
SYSTEMS FOODPACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES
ICE MACHINERY WATER QUALITY
PPSEast EastA5 A52013_Layout 2013_Layout11 04/12/2013 04/12/2013 09:18 09:18 Page Page11 PPS
e-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org e-mail: Tel. 01604 644 086
Unit1, 1,Omega OmegaBusiness BusinessPark, Park,Estate EstateRoad Road6, 6,Grimsby, Grimsby,DN31 DN312TG 2TG Unit Email:email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Email:
Manufacturer of: - Fish skinning machines - Washing & drying systems
Please visit us at stand A126
RegistrationNo: No: Registration QAICL/UK/BRC/351 QAICL/UK/BRC/351
Unit 1, 1, Omega Omega Business Business Park, Park, Estate Estate Road Road 6, 6, Grimsby, Grimsby, DN31 DN31 2TG 2TG Unit Email: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Email:
C R E T E L nv Gentsesteenweg 77A 9900 EEKLO - BELGIUM Tel. +32 (0)9 376 95 95 email@example.com www.cretel.com www.eliona-industrial.com
• Fish Farm Construction/Management • Fish Farm Support • Feeding & Harvest • Moorings & Piling • Shallow Draught • Road Transportable • Rapid mob/demob between sites • Dry & Liquid Cargo
082-083_ff07.indd 83 83 082-083_ff07.indd
14/07/2014 14:54:48 14:54:48 14/07/2014
The worlds most innovative and reliable ﬁsh processing solutions!
www.baader.com Nordischer Maschinenbau Rud.Baader GmbH+Co.KG Tel.: +49 451 53020 Fax: +49 451 5302 492 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
SAVE OVER 35% www.fishfarmer-magazine.com/digital www.fishfarmer-magazine.com
Aqua Source Directory.indd 65
GET YOUR BUSINESS NOTICED FOR AususWHOLE YEAR! Please visit at stand Please visitA126 at
12 MAGA ZINES AQUA-SOURCE OR FOR PROCESSING-SOURCE DIRECTORIES Please visit us at stand A126 A126 stand ADVERTISE IN THE
0131 551 7924
Call Dave on or email: email@example.com
Opinion – Inside track
A reminder for New Year BY NICK JOY
o another year passes and what a year! Brexit, Trump and a host of changes in a fast moving world. Who knows what this one will bring, maybe an independence referendum….no, I really doubt that. Nonetheless, our industry has seen a very high price period with little sign that the market is contracting. Too often we forget that we are competing in a world with declining sources of seafood. When I look at the prices of other ﬁsh in the ﬁshmongers, I am often shocked. Beef prices are up and lamb. The naysayers suggest that we will see a market contraction but they have said that every time the price has risen. I am sure we will lose some sales but I doubt it will be hugely signiﬁcant. So here’s hoping for a great 2017 with less sea lice, less AGD and good prices for all ﬁsh farmers. Looking back (and I hope you will allow me that) at the extraordinary development of an extraordinary industry, we have come an enormous distance in a very short time. I got my ﬁrst job on a salmon farm in 1983 and, apart from two brief periods, have never been out of work in an industry that makes every day interesting, though not always in ways that we wish! I was recently looking up the production when I started and it was 4,000 tonnes a year. It is so low that on the modern graphs of salmon production history it barely shows as a blip. There are sites now producing that much, which is an incredible feat of engineering let alone farming. Pen sizes then were tiny. We thought that an 8m pen was difﬁcult to handle and feed hoppers carried 50kg and were pulled out into the middle of the pen every day. A bit later on I operated a 250-tonne farm with a landing craft with a two-tonne payload. Even I am stunned by that now. We worked with equipment that was from other industries and that was often ill suited to our needs. The guys I knew then were multi-skilled and trained in other industries. I have worked with people who have worked in the whaling industry, sheep farming, ﬁshing and even a doctor who wanted a change. The skills required then were mostly problem solving. We had to mend our own nets, make dip nets, repair pens (wooden), rig and set moorings and all of the other normal every day skills of going to sea. Smolts were delivered and transferred into nets and towed to site, a difﬁcult, risky and extremely slow task. It often led to health issues and made it hard to get the smolt to start feeding. Having said that, diets were hardly what they are now and growth to 3kg was slow and many farms would happily have taken an annual average of 3.5kg. I don’t write this with a sense of nostalgia. I was incredibly lucky to get into this industry then. The economy was not doing well and there were very few jobs in a tiny industry. It was hard work, very poorly paid and often quite dangerous. For someone like me, who was primarily trained in agriculture, the
Opinion - January.indd 66
industry, the investment, the sheer will of the people involved boggles the mind
sea was exciting and different and I knew then that we were at the cutting edge. Now we exist in an established, mature industry, which has professional people and equipment. I ﬁnd it extraordinary to see the developments that have come. From 160m circles to 400-tonne capacity barges, the size of this industry, the investment, the sheer will of the people involved boggles the mind. Yes, we have still got some problems, some that we had then, but it is hardly surprising considering the speed by which we have got here. Salmon farming is a phenomenal success story. Scottish salmon is something that we should be truly proud of. So, as we encounter 2017, let’s try to remember our roots and how far we have come. We still have a long way to go to achieve the sort of potential that this industry could really have. FF
Ace Aquatec.indd 67
Forging New Frontiers
Aquaculture AMERICA 2017 February 19 - 22, 2017 San Antonio Marriott Rivercenter San Antonio, Texas SPONSORED BY:
Associate Sponsors American Tilapia Association • American Veterinary Medical Association Aquacultural Engineering Society • Aquaculture Association of Canada Asian Fisheries Society • Catfish Farmers of America Global Aquaculture Alliance International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management Latin American Chapter WAS • Striped Bass Growers Association US Marine Shrimp Farming Association • US Trout Farmers Association
In Cooperation with: Texas Aquaculture Association
For More Information Contact:
Conference Manager P.O. Box 2302 | Valley Center, CA 92082 USA Tel: +1.760.751.5005 | Fax: +1.760.751.5003 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org | www.was.org
Serving Worldwide Aquaculture Since 1977