Fish Farmer 2021 Year Book

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK

CONTENTS

3

50 years of Aquaculture

Foreword

PRODUCTION SURVEYS

PAGES 42-79

NEWS REVIEW PAGES

6-9 Innovation

80-117

28-31 Diversified Communications

6 122-127 8-11 Benchmark 10-11 12 ContentsContent 4-15 48-49 4-14 4-15 32-37 4-14 41-43 42-44 38-39 14-15 26-27 Brussels News News Aqua 2018 Innovatio Aquaculture Iceland 18-23 IFarm 50-55 44-46 46-49 40-41 16-21 16-17 16-22 16-21 16-17 16-22 Brussels Aqua 2018 Innovatio Aquaculture Industry pioneer News Extra platform inquiry Industry pioneer News Extra platform Parliamentary inquiry Parliamentary 26-27 Fair hearing French connection Farmers must Uphold the codefight back French connection Farmers must fighthearing back Uphold the codeFair 22-23 18-19 24-27 22-23 18-19 24-27 28-31 TIA TIA Salmon market SSPO Salmon market SSPO 32-37 56 48-49 50-58 42-45 Book review Training Aqua 2018 Innovatio Aquaculture 38-41 57 53-55 60-63 48-49 24 20 20-21 28-29 24 20 20-21 28-29 Aquaculture Nor Fishing Aqua 2018 UK Net cleaning 118-121 BTA Shellfish Comment BTA Shellfish Comment 118-121 122-127 40-41 58-59 60-63 68-69 51 26 22-23 30 26 22-23 30 Aquaculture Australia Training Seashbass UK Shellfi Comment Shellfi sh Scottish BTA Comment BTA 128-132 Salmon Co. 28-31 24-25 32-33 28-31 24-25 32-33 SSPO Comment Scottish Shellfi sh Sea Farms 134-135 SSPO Comment Scottish Shellfi sh Sea Farms 32-33 26-27 26-30 34-35 32-33 26-27 26-30 138-IBC 34-35 69 64-67 70-73 52-54 Shellfi shfiSea Cleaner sh Farms Scottish Comment Shellfi shfiSea Cleaner sh Farms Scottish Comment

WELCOME From the Editor Foreword - SSPO Hamish Macdonell Overview Robert Outram Comment Dave Edler Elanco Vaccine breakthrough The Scottish Salmon Co. Farming responsibly Benchmark Biosecure egg supply 50 Years of Fish Farming Vince McDonagh Diversified Communications The Late Show Ifarm Vince McDonagh Iceland Vince McDonagh Innovation Chris Mitchell Events Your guide to next year From the Archive A look back 2021 Year planner Plan for the year ahead

Contents – Editor’s Welco

JENNY JENNY HJUL HJUL –– EDITOR EDITOR

Salmon market What’s happening aquaculture Montpellier preview From shrimp toinrobust salmon Investor advice in the UK and around the world

Steve Bracken SSC’s record results Stewart Graham The final sessions

New processors’ groupon Sti rling course Pictures atmarket the exhibiti Insurance Steve Bracken SSC’s record results Stewart Graham The final sessions

JENNY JENNY HJUL HJUL –– EDITOR EDITOR

salmon farming sector in Scotland, when it was to salmon farming sector in Scotland, when told itwent was to he focus month istopictures on Europe, the internati T HE is no coincidence that andwhere videos of unhealthy Svideos Fish Farmer press, there was sti lltold no offi cialonal he focus this month istopictures on Europe, where the internati onal T HE is coincidence that and of unhealthy Sno Fish Farmer went press, there was sti llthis no offi cial be the subject of athe parliamentary inquiry, embraced be thewere subject ofScotti a be parliamentary inquiry, embraced industry will soon be gathering the EASinto (European salmon were sent to news outletsfor just asjoint the Scotti shthe news from the sh parliamentary inquiry salmon industry willsent soon gathering the EAS (European salmon to news outletsfor just asjoint the Scotti shScotti news from the sh parliamentary inquiry into salmon opportunity this would provide explain how it month. operated. opportunity this would provide explain how it operated. Aquaculture Society) and WAS (World Aquaculture Society) parliament went back to work atto the start of this These farming, conducted earlier this year by the Rural Economy Aquaculture Society) and WAS (World Aquaculture Society) parliament back to work atto the start of this month. These farming, went conducted earlier this year by the Rural Economy The had nothing and, ifgood given aof fair hearing, Current trends In health Julie Hesketh-Laird The had to hide and, ifindustry given fair could Meet the new chief conference, to behearing, staged over days in the southern French images had litt le to doFrench with thefive current state Scotland’s ficould shve and Connecti vity (REC) ee. MSPs have now heldexecuti five conference, to benothing staged over days in theaof southern images had litt le to do with thefive current state Scotland’s fito shhide and industry Connecti vity (REC) committ ee. MSPs have now held ficommitt ve address much of the criti levelled against it. address much of the criti cism levelled against it. city of As well asare highlighti ng the latest technological farms -Montpellier. where sea lice in decline and, inwe fact, at abe fivemeeti ngs, in private, to consider their report and must city ofngs, As well asare highlighti ng the latest technological farms -Montpellier. where sea lice in decline and, in fact, atlevels acism fivemeeti in private, tolevels consider their report and we must be Fish Farmer supported this at times salmon Fish Farmer supported this at times that salmon advances in felt our fast moving sector, Aqua 2018felt willthat alsohas feature year low (htt p://scotti shsalmon.co.uk/monthly-sea-lice-reports). pati ent. However, waiti ng forview, theirbut recommendati ons been advances in our fast moving sector, Aqua 2018 will also feature year low (htt p://scotti shsalmon.co.uk/monthly-sea-lice-reports). pati ent. However, waiti ng forview, theirbut recommendati ons has been farmers were being drowned out bywhich theREC noisier elements offarming the farmers were being drowned out by thelatest noisier elements ofcampaign, thewithin sessions on emerging markets and look atinvolves the role fishusual This allofthe made harder by-salmon leaks from the to anti -salmon sessions onpropaganda emerging markets and look at the role ofthe fish This campaign, which involves all usual madelatest harder by leaks from within the REC topropaganda anti farming angling lobby, which had called foras the investi gatiRural on. But asngs angling lobby, which had called foras the investi gati on. But as farming in alleviati ng poverty. Increasingly, industry anti -aquaculture suspects, came Holyrood’s Economy acti vists. The latest of these (see our news story onmeeti page 4)the farming inThe alleviati ngof poverty. Increasingly, industry ngs anti -aquaculture suspects, came Holyrood’s Rural Economy activists. latest these (see our news story onmeeti page 4)the sessions progressed, and eventually voices were heard, sessions progressed, and eventually farmers’ voices were heard, we are their scope, subjects such asthat the committ social and Connecti vity committ eetackling returned the summer recess we to makes reading the industry asfrom it suggests ee are broadening their scope, subjects such as thefor social and Connecti vity committ eetackling returned from the summer recess to farmers’ makes grim reading for the industry asbroadening it grim suggests that committ ee became more misti c.tointo We now believe MSPs, perhaps with acceptability ofopti and the contributi on it farming. makes toto global became more misti c.into Weand now believe MSPs, perhaps with acceptability ofopti aquaculture the contributi on itaquaculture makes global consider its draft report the future ofthat salmon members have been willing to listen to those campaigning consider its draft report the future ofthat salmon farming. members have been willing to listen to those campaigning to food security and saving the planet, aindustry move is toanti welcomed. the excepti on ofvaluable one or two Greens cahoots with -farming food security and saving the planet, aThose move that is to be welcomed. the excepti on ofvaluable one two Greens in cahoots with anti -farming who want to shut down thein asbe expected, shut down this sector, rather thanthat tohave, those who operate Those who want toor shut down the industry have, as expected, shut down this sector, rather than to those who operate Also investi gati initi ati veswhich inregard thenow developing world, Harrison will, balance, the industry in a Dr favourable Also investi gati ngacti initi aties, veswhich inregard thecampaigners, developing world, Dr Harrison campaigners, will, on balance, the industry inngacti aon favourable stepped viti es, involve breaching the within it.up their stepped viti now involve breaching the within it.up their Charo Karisa ofphotographs WorldFish writes thesnatch farming al inthe Charo Karisa ofhopefully WorldFish writes the farming potenti alsee inthe light. They will hopefully that farmers take their environmental light. They will that farmers take their environmental biosecure environments of farm sites to photographs in Of to course, such stories may beabout inaccurate and, inpotenti any case, biosecure environments of farm sites snatch in Of course, such storiessee may beabout inaccurate and, in any case, Nigeria, both catf ish and tilapia culti vati on.against Nigeria, catfish and tilapia culti vati on. responsibiliti and that will only ever invest responsibiliti seriously and that will only ever invest in the hope of fies nding incriminati ng businesses evidence farmers. Onein committ ee’s fiin ndings are not binding. Scotland’s fish farmers the hopeboth of fies nding incriminati ng businesses evidence against farmers. One committ ee’s fiin ndings are not binding. Scotland’s fiseriously sh farmers In Scotland, the summer has aofwaiti ngminister, game In Scotland, the summer something of aofwaiti ngminister, game What’s in aofname? Dr Nick Lake growth that is sustainable. Phil Thomas growth that isfibeen sustainable. campaigner fibeen lmed himself searching, unsuccessfully, for dead have always fortunate tobeen havesomething the support their campaigner lmed himselfhas searching, unsuccessfully, for dead have always fortunate tobeen have the support their while the parliament is into recess and thethose members of Holyrood’s while the parliament is in recess and members of Holyrood’s Ifthe the ee members, yet to of If the ee members, those have yet fi sh at acommitt Marine Harvest site.ofespecially Another said hewho sawhave ‘hundreds’ Fergus Ewing, to grow sustainably. fi sh at acommitt Marine Harvest site.especially Another said hewho saw ‘hundreds’ Fergus Ewing, to grow sustainably. Ruralamore Economy and Connecti vity ee conti nue tosubject weigh up Rurala Economy and Connecti vity ee conti nue weighlike up visit farm, tocommitt learn more about the of visit farm, like tocommitt learn about the subject ofwe infested salmon into awould pen, only have his word against that But itsalmon should not go unchallenged that some MSPs on the REC infested salmon in go awould pen, but we only have his word against that But itsalmon should not unchallenged that some MSPs on the but REC the evidence in We their inquiry into salmon farming. We don’t expect the evidence in their inquiry into salmon farming. don’t expect their inquiry, we have plenty of good stories ourgrowth May their we have plenty of good stories in our May issue. Even of the professional vets and biologists who in manage theissue. welfare of committ ee, with their own agendas against the of theEven of theinquiry, professional vets andagendas biologists who manage the welfare of committ ee, with their own against the growth of the theirthe report unti l the autumn but hope the MSPs are using the time their report until the autumn but hope MSPs are using thethe time bett er, they could head to Highlands later this month, where bett er, they could head to the Highlands later this month, where these farms on aacquainted daily basis. industry, are in breach of Code Conduct As they these farms on aacquainted daily basis. industry, are in breach of with Code of Conduct for MSPs. As they to become fully with the of facts about for fishMSPs. farming. Editor: Dave Edler to become fully the facts about fish farming. Montpellier report Dr en Marti n Jaff asalmon Doug McLeod they will meet the aquaculture industry masse at Scotland’s they will meeton the aquaculture industry en masse at Scotland’s If the industry is proud of its high standards, as it says it is, it are in a positi on to infl uence the future course of farming, If the industry is proud of its high standards, as it says it is, it are in a positi to infl uence the future course of salmon farming, This month also sees the retirement of Marine Harvest’s longest This month also sees the retirement of Marine Harvest’s longest Andrew Balahura biggest fiof sh itself, farming show. biggest fish farming show. must awe much more robustWe defence itself, through its andeconomy, ofmount businesses vital Scotland’s economy, we have a right must aDesigner: much more robust defence through its and ofmount businesses vital toBracken. Scotland’s have a to right serving employee, Steve Bracken. had nooftrouble collecti ng serving employee, Steve We had no trouble collecti ng We will certainly be at Aquaculture UK inindustry, Aviemore and will certainly be at Aquaculture UK in Aviemore and look Advertising: Janice Johnston representati body, the SSPO, than itthe has done tothrough date. The to know who are, and weand hope its representati ve body, the SSPO, than itthe has done to date. The toWe know who they are, and weand hope industry, through its warm tributes from his friends colleagues to mark thelook warm tributes from his friends colleagues tovethey mark the forward to seeing many of you there too. forward to seeing many of you there too. campaigners, we now see, will stop at nothing, and farmers representati ves, will pressure the parliament to investi gate campaigners, we now see, will stop at nothing, and farmers representati ves, will pressure the parliament to investi gate before Alister Bennett milestone and, along withatthe rest of the industry, the team atbefore Fish milestone and, Publisher: along with the rest of the industry, the team Fish should be prepared to fivery ght back. thethe REC report published. should prepared to fivery ght back. the RECbe report published. Farmer wish himisall the best for the future. Farmer wish himisall the best for future. Rising stars Marti nBrown Jaff a Orkney anniversary Janet

Current trends In good Julie Hesketh-Laird Meet thehealth new chief executive

Focus cleaner fish Martyn Haines Conference round-up Best ofonthe start-ups

Introducti onons Farming angle Focus Africa Robot on soluti Phil Thomas What’s in a name? Dr Nick Lake

Chris Mitchell Barramundi boom Martyn Haines European leaders Montpellier report Dr Marti n Jaff a Doug McLeod

Rising stars Marti nBrown Jaff a Orkney anniversary Janet

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Meet the us team Contact Meet the team Editorial Advisory Board: Steve Editorial Advisory Board: Steve Publications, Tel: +44(0) 131Fettes 551 1000Park, Head Office: Special Fax: +44(0) 131 551Landsburgh, 7901 Scott Landsburgh, Hervé Steve Bracken, Scott Hervé Migaud, Bracken, Scott Landsburgh, Hervé Bracken, Steve Bracken, Scott HervéLandsburgh, Migaud, 496Jim Ferry Road, EH5 2DL email:Migaud, Migaud, Patrick Smith and Jim Hervé Patrick Smith, Patrick Smith, Jim Treasurer and Migaud, Patrick Smith and Jim Hervé Patrick Smith, PatrickMigaud, Smith, Treasurer and Edinburgh,

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What’s happening in aquaculture in the UK and around the world

Treasurer, Wiliam Jim Treasurer and Dowds William Dowds William Dowds Editor: Jenny Hjul Designer: Andrew Balahura Advertising Manager: Team Leader: Dave Edler dedler@fishupdate.com Advertising Executive: Scott Binnie sbinnie@fishupdate.com Publisher: Alister Bennett

Janet Machrihanish Orkney farm Marti nBrown Jaff a visit

Contact us

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18-23

Tel: +44(0) 131 551 1000 Fax: +44(0) 131 551 7901 email: jhjul@fishupdate.com Marti nofJaff a era Vaccines New player Dawn new Head Office: Special Publications, Fettes Park, 496 Ferry Road, Edinburgh, EH5 2DL

Aquaculture Nigeria Networking Research UK 13

Janet Machrihanish Orkney farm Marti nBrown Jaff a visit Meet the team on Boosti ng producti Dave Chris Conley Mitchell

34-35 28-29 32-33 36-41 Comment Cleaner Orkneyvisitfish Farm

34-35 28-29 32-33 36-41 81-82 76-77 56-59 Comment Cleaner sh Archive Orkney Farm visitfithe Aquaculture UK From Value chains

36-39 32-35 34-35 43-45 Wild salmon Cleaner fish decline Orkney IoA careers

36-39 32-35 34-35 43-45 91 78-79 63salmon Wild decline Cleaner fi&shMarketing Orkney IoA careers Retail Processing & Retail Ne

jhjul@fi shupdate.com Treasurer, Wiliam Jim Treasurer and Dowds William Dowds William Dowds Marti nofJaff a era Vaccines New player Dawn new Awards David LittinleChina reports Growth Developing trends Editor: Jenny Hjul Head OffiAndrew ce: Special Publications, Designer: Balahura Fettes Park, 496 Ferry Road, Advertising Manager: Team2DL Leader: Edinburgh, EH5 Dave Edler Figure 9. Development Figure 9. Development of salmon nominal catch in southern and northern NEAC 1971 to 2016. of salmon nominal catch in southern and northern N dedler@fishupdate.com Text at top inserted by author. Filled symbols and darker line southern NEA Text at top inserted by author. Filled symbols and darker line southern NEAC. The mackerel hypothesis Transport Leask Marine Sti rling students The mackerel hypothesis Transport Leask Marine Sti rling students Adverti sing Executive: Eat more fishchallenges Save Pinneys jobs Carlisle jobs Subscriptions Recruitment Subscriptions Scott Binnie Subscriptions Address: Wyvex Subscriptions Address: Wyvex sbinnie@fishupdate.com Media, Media, FREEPOST FREEPOST RTEY RTEY YUBG YUBG TYUB, TYUB,

Publisher: Alister Bennett

01/12/2020 Media, TYUB, Media, FREEPOST FREEPOST RTEY RTEY YUBG YUBG TYUB, Trinity House, Sculpins Lane, Wethers-

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 5

WELCOME By DAVE EDLER

W

as disease control and escapes, and plans were being made for a full schedule of events and exhibitions over the course of the year. The most startling thing, I think, is how detached we have now all become from that ‘normality’ and how hard it is to even remember what it felt like back at the start of the year.

elcome to the third edition of the Fish Farmer Year Book, which as usual is being included inside the December edition of Fish Farmer Magazine. As ever it is intended to be kept as a reference point for the duration of 2021 (and perhaps beyond for your archive!).

Let us hope that when we put together the fourth edition of this I would again like to start by publication, that we will be doing so thanking our excellent contributors sitting in a very different place! and of course our advertisers, without whom we would be unable to As usual the Year Book contains produce this annual publication. This all the statistics you need from the year in particular we are very grateyear just ended with enough facts ful of your continued support when and stats to satisfy even the most there were obviously budget pulls in mathematically obsessed. And as all sorts of other areas. We are ever the publication is intended WHAT glad that you see the value, as to be used as a reference point we do, of setting down for SEEMS STRIKING for all those new to fish and posterity the events of the shellfish farming and to look NOW, ALMOST previous 12 months. And at how businesses progress what a 12 months! UNIMAGINABLE IS and respond to the challenges they may face. As usual we have a JUST HOW ‘NORMAL’ So, 2020 is ending but the month by month section A YEAR 2020 chronicling the events from industry endures. At least January through to Decemwe only have the tiny matter STARTED OUT ber and what seems striking of Brexit to deal with this time TO BE now, almost unimaginable even, around! What could possibly go when you look through these wrong? Whatever does, you can be pages, is just how ‘normal’ a year sure that we will be there across our 2020 started out to be. The usual magazine, website and year book to issues were there in January such cover it all. Sponsored by

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6

HAMISH MACDONELL

FOREWORD By HAMISH MACDONELL Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation

I

n any normal year, this sort of annual roundup would be fairly routine: there would be successes and challenges to discuss, innovations and new markets to champion and performance to assess. But not this year. This past year has been so unusual, so unexpected and so challenging that we will be talking about it and analysing the fallout for many decades to come. It has tested our member companies in so many ways: from the sudden imposition of new work patterns to the

virtual collapse of previously solid foreign markets. But through everything, one feature has remained constant – the extraordinary resilience of our sector. As is well known, the vast majority of the Scottish salmon that goes out to long-haul markets travels in the bellies of passenger aircraft. Suddenly, with very little warning, those routes were all but curtailed. Most passenger flights stopped operating from the end of March to our second and third biggest export markets, the US and China.

Above left: Hamish Macdonell. Left: Working on a salmon farm. Above right: Salmon up close

At about the same time, food service effectively shut down across large parts of the world. And yet everyone in our sector moved swiftly and efficiently to prevent a crisis. The SSPO’s sustainability team secured extra flexibility from the regulators. This meant our farmers could keep fish in the water for longer than planned. That in itself helped prevent fish being harvested with no markets to go to. We put early pressure on the Scottish Government to ensure salmon farmers

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK

were identified as essential workers. This meant they could get emergency childcare and travel to work unhindered.

For those of us who have watched the glacial pace of government business with mounting frustration over the years, it was refreshing to see how fast the wheels of the state could turn, when they had to.

Indeed, what was really gratifying through those early weeks of the crisis was how responsive and amenable governments were.

Despite this help, those first few months were difficult, very difficult. Some of our export markets dropped significantly but increasing domestic consumption, primarily through the supermarkets, and exports to Europe kept the sector going.

7

It can often take weeks to secure a meeting with Contingency plans were put in place. The a senior government SSPO worked with the Scottish Government WE PUT minister. Within days secure funding for a back-up freezing EARLY PRESSURE toand of the lockdown, storage scheme, in case the market ON THE SCOTTISH became so overloaded that companies we were on weekly needed to keep product back for more calls with cabinet GOVERNMENT TO buoyant times. ministers in ScotENSURE SALMON land, fortnightly But these largely remained as concalls with UK FARMERS WERE tingencies. Salmon farming in Scotland ministers in London had changed: skeleton crews worked IDENTIFIED AS and having daily the farms, shift patterns were changed to ESSENTIAL briefings with senior avoid unnecessary contacts, see-through officials. screens appeared all through production lines WORKERS It wasn’t just talk, either.

SSPO.indd 7

and fish had to be diverted from long-haul mar-

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8

HAMISH MACDONELL

kets to outlets closer to home. But the sector didn’t just survive, it adapted and developed and drove forward through the challenges. A very small number of head office staff were furloughed in only a couple of companies and one of these companies later returned the furlough cash to the government, so it could be spent elsewhere.

Scottish Salmon A Better Future For Us All

November 2020

There were blips. Just when the Chinese market looked like getting back towards normality, a food scare in Beijing was erroneously linked to imported salmon and it went backwards again. But there were boosts too. The UK Government’s decision to subsidise eating out in July and August gave a much-needed fillip to domestic food service.

SSPO.indd 8

Top: Grilled salmon steak. Above: The SSPO document “A Better Future For Us All”

It was hard, understandably, for other plans to continue as normal. A big campaign to invite the public to Scotland’s salmon farms, timed for May, had to be abandoned as did ambitious SSPO plans for a major school education programme in June. But an initiative to map out a sustainability charter for the Scottish salmon sector, although delayed, did emerge this year. Originally planned for a launch in April, the document – A Better Future For Us All – was published in November. Setting out clear targets across a range of agendas, from fish health to the environment, the charter will provide the sector with a roadmap for future development for many years to come. Actually, the sustainability char-

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK

9

THE UK GOVERNMENT’S DECISION TO SUBSIDISE EATING OUT IN JULY AND AUGUST GAVE A MUCH-NEEDED FILLIP TO DOMESTIC FOOD SERVICE ter’s November launch gave it added resonance. By that point, the Scottish Government was not just talking up the concept of a Green Recovery to lead the country out of austerity but it was emphasising the now familiar idea of the Blue Economy leading that charge. The sustainability charter took both those ideas, brought them together and showed how salmon farming sector could lead the way. By the end of 2020, the position was looking much better. Exports hadn’t quite recovered to 2019 levels but they were doing well. The domestic market was reassuring-

SSPO.indd 9

ly solid and all our member companies had moved so efficiently into the new ways of working that it was almost as if nothing had changed. But that’s not to say that there aren’t concerns on the horizon. As we approach the end of 2020, we have Brexit to think about. However, given what our farmers have gone through and how they have adapted, there is definitely a sense that – having got through this year, we can cope with anything Brexit throws at us. Are we right to be that confident? We will have to wait until next year to find out.

Below: Scottish salmon farm

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10 COMMENT

Threats and opportunities Robert Outram gives his review of 2020 and looks forward to the New Year ahead

O

ver the past 12 months we have continued to see the aquaculture sector battling against both the intrinsic challenges of the industry – storms, warming seas and biological hazards – as well as challenges from its vocal critics. Denmark was the latest country to see tighter legislation proposed which, if adopted, would virtually see an end to any expansion in offshore net-pen fish farming. Meanwhile in Canada, the re-elected Trudeau federal government has set out its aim of transitioning away from net-pen farming at sea by 2025 – although it now seems the

Overview - Robert O.indd 10

proposal is to set out an alternative regime by that time rather than see an end to all existing offshore farms. Meanwhile in Scotland, two years after a fairly critical report on salmon farming from the Scottish Parliament’s Rural Economy and Connectivity committee, MSPs returned to the topic in late 2020 to ask what had happened since then. Above: Robert Outram The members were told that many Left: Shopping during of the issues they raised are in the lockdown process of being addressed, with great progress in areas such as fish handling and tackling sea lice, for example. Work is continuing on understanding the interaction between farmed and wild salmon – although there is still a wide gulf in perception beCOVID-19 tween fish farmers and the wild salmon lobby – and HAS BEEN A Mowi, for example, has MAJOR already put in motion DISRUPTOR plans to relocate one of its facilities, at Loch WORLDWIDE Ewe, to minimise any AND FOR THE impact on wild salmon. AQUACULTURE New threats are emergINDUSTRY ing, however. Warmer temperatures appear to be

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 11

behind algal blooms that have caused mortalities for farmed salmon around the world and we are also seeing outbreaks of diseases such as infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). The biggest economic challenge for the industry in 2020, however, has come not from a marine infection but from a human disease. Covid-19 has been a major disruptor worldwide and for the aquaculture industry the lockdown of foodservice outlets has severely affected demand. Many of the big producers have continued to harvest at high volumes, but the prices they are getting for their product have been drastically reduced. 2020 has been a challenging year and, if it has in some cases driven change and adaptation in the industry

Overview - Robert O.indd 11

it has also put a number of investment decisions on hold. So how is 2021 likely to shape up? Hopes for an effective Covid-19 vaccine – in fact, for the several vaccines that have been developed in parallel – are high and it does not seem unrealistic to hope that life will begin return to something like normal over the next year. The ongoing scrutiny over the role of aquaculture is not going away any time soon, however. Fortunately, the industry has many good arguments on its side, not least the fact that no other form of animal protein beats farmed fish for its low contribution for greenhouse gases. In the debate on fish farming’s future, the environmental arguments are not all on one side.

Above: Salmon farm

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12 COMMENT

No Predictions After 2020 all bets are off By DAVE EDLER

A

t the time of writing this editorial the Brexit negotiations were entering their final phase and we were all waiting to see what the UK’s final departure from the European Union (EU) would look like. Fishing seemed to be the major stumbling block to finding a solution, and it was long expected to be a problematic part of the equation. Pleasing both the EU and the fishing communities was always going to be a tall order and I suspect what we might end up with is something which isn’t really particularly palatable for either side. It is somewhat ironic that what has probably been the most talked about and debated issue in our own publications and throughout the rest of the British media over the past four years, has struggled to get a serious mention in the press as it approaches its denouement. Coronavirus has swamped away everything else in its path to completely dominate the news agenda. Funnily enough, I think this lack of forensic attention might actually prove to be a godsend to the negotiating teams as they have managed to conduct most of their discussions away from the full glare of media attention that might otherwise have been expected, and so less posturing for soundbites, never helpful in serious negotiations, has been the result. Let us hope for something that

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helps rather than hinders our industry to emerge. Salmon has certainly proved its worth during the pandemic. With vitamin D now being seriously touted as a major tool in the prevention of Covid 19, it has proved to be the right food in the right place at the right time. The industry now needs to press on and face down its detractors, safe in the knowledge that it has a bright future if it can keep its nerve, keep innovating, and avoid trying to fight battles that it doesn’t even need to win. It remains to be seen how ‘normal’ a year 2021 will turn out to be. We are unlikely to see a return to the exhibition circuit in any meaningful way until late Spring at the earliest, and probably not until the Summer. Countries which have adopted policies of total isolation during the pandemic may find that these decisions come back to bite them as, with the rest of the world opening up, they will be unable to. An inability to travel abroad will prove a major stumbling block for the development of the industry in the areas affected. Here in Scotland one of the key moments of the year is likely to be a political one. May 2021 will see new elections for the Scottish parliament in Holyrood. At the time of writing the ruling Scottish National Party (SNP) seems on course for a return to majority government, no longer needing the support of the other pro-independence party the Greens. It could be argued that without the pressure to appease their coalition partner, such a result might prove generally beneficial for the fish farming industry. However, as we all know a week is a long time in politics and in the current climate even 24 hours feels like an age. There is plenty that can still go wrong with vaccine rollouts and ‘third waves’ of the virus, and if the country finds itself still locked down in May then the current high levels of personal support for the First Minister Nicola Sturgeon might be in danger of evaporating. Anyone that claims they can now predict what will happen in any given year clearly wasn’t watching 2020! Dave Edler

01/12/2020 13:34:09


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01/12/2020 10:11:08


14 ELANCO ADVERTORIAL

Vaccine breakthrough Clynav is a novel long-acting, intra-muscular PD vaccine with fewer side effects

E

lanco’s DNA vaccine, Clynav, has been extensively adopted in Norway as an effective means of protecting against salmon alphavirus (SAV) infections. In recent years, pancreatic disease (PD) caused by these viruses has become an increasingly serious threat to the sustainability of salmon production in Norwegian waters. In fact, PD has been the most costly clinical disease in the Norwegian salmon industry1 in recent years despite widespread use of oil-adjuvanted PD vaccines2. When Clynav was launched in 2018 for immunisation against salmonid alphavirus, it was the first DNA vaccine ever authorised by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for any species. Clynav’s DNA plasmid technology presents the virus antigen to the immune system in such a way that it doesn’t require an adjuvant to boost immune response. This has the resulting benefit that Clynav does not induce side effects commonly associated with the use of oil adjuvants.

At the time of its launch Clynav had a label duration of immunity (DOI) of 3 months. However, in the past 2 years Clynav has been used extensively by Norwegian salmon producers with positive outcomes. Earlier in 2020, the EMA granted an extension to Clynav’s duration of immunity up to 12 months for reducing impaired daily weight gains as well as reducing cardiac, pancreatic and skeletal muscle lesions. Norwegian producers certainly appear to be achieving good results with Clynav. To date in 2020, of the 77 million units of the vaccine sold in Norway 66 million (86%) were supplied to repeat Clynav customers.

No. PD cases (sites)

Figure 1: PD cases in Norway prior, and post, the introduction of Clynav in 2018 (sites)2,3 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20 3

Year

ELANCO - PED Template.indd 14 All Pages FISH FARMER Advertorial.indd

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 15

Vaccine

Spinal deformity cases

Cross-stitch cases

59

37

AQUAVAC PD7 ALPHA JECT micro 1 PD

11

3

CLYNAV

0*

0

NORVAX COMPACT PD

6

6

Total

76

46

Table 1: Number of spinal deformities or cross-stitch vertebrae per vaccine product reported to the Norwegian Medicines Agency between 01.01.2016 13.08.20204

*One case, potential spinal deformity, not yet concluded

Important PD vaccine related side effects In contrast to other PD vaccines, Clynav is administered via the intramuscular route which reduces the risk of organ damage. In addition, the lack of adjuvant means that Clynav does not contribute to the incidence of side effects related to oil adjuvants such as melanin deposits and visceral adherences. Recently the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI) conducted a review of a manifestation of vertebral deformity that, data to date suggests, is associated with inactivated PD vaccines, especially multivalent ones. These deformities are known as ‘cross-stitch’ vertebrae based on their appearance and are more commonly found in harvest sized fish (refer Table 1). As a result of these findings the manufacturers of AQUAVAC PD7 (MSD) and ALPHA JECT micro 1 PD (Pharmaq) are changing their package inserts, which the Norwegian Medicines Agency (NoMA) stated shows that they accept that their products are associated with the cross-stitch side effect4.

Figure 2: Images of normal spine (top) and spine with cross-stitch pathology (bottom)5*

*Images captured by the Institute of Marine Research, Matre, Norway. © 2020 Elanco

There is much to learn about the pathology of pancreatic disease and the best means to mitigate its negative impact on salmon production in Norway, the UK and Ireland. Elanco remain at the forefront of research and committed to trailblazing innovative solutions, now and in the future.

References: 1. Pettersen, J.M. et al., 2015. The economic benefits of disease triggered early harvest: A case study of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon from Norway. Preventive veterinary medicine. 121, 314-324. Annual fish health report 2019, NVI, Oslo, Norway. 2. Annual fish health report 2019, NVI, Oslo, Norway. Accessed at: https://www.vetinst.no/rapporter-og-publikasjoner/rapporter/2020/fish-health-report-2019. 3. As of end Sept. 2020; https://www.vetinst.no/dyr/oppdrettsfisk/pankreassykdom-pd-utbrudd-og-statistikk. 4. As of Oct. 2020; https://www.vetinst.no/rapporter-og-publikasjoner/ faglige-vurderinger-og-horingssvar. 5. Thorarinsson, R., et al. Effect of a DNA and oil-adjuvanted vaccines for pancreas disease on spinal cross-stitch pathology development, growth and economic impact of commercially reared Atlantic salmon. 2020. ACFFA’s Aquaculture Research, Science and Technology Forum. Clynav contains pUK-SPDVpoly2#1 DNA plasmid coding for salmon pancreas disease virus proteins: 5.1 – 9.4 μg. Legal category POM-V in UK. For further information contact Elanco Animal Health. Use medicines responsibly www.noah.co.uk/responsible. Advice should be sought from the Medicine Prescriber. Clynav, Elanco and the diagonal bar logo are trademarks of Elanco or its affiliates. © 2020 Elanco PM-UK-20-1017

ELANCO - PED Template.indd 15

07/12/2020 10:47:36 07/12/2020 10:26


Reputation Built on Trust

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01/12/2020 10:12:12


+44 (0) 1463 229400 ✉ aquaculture@gaelforcegroup.com

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01/12/2020 10:12:31


18 THE SCOTTISH SALMON COMPANY - ADVERTORIAL

Farming responsibly

I

The Scottish Salmon Company – a responsible salmon farmer

t is in the fresh lochs and cold stormy waters of the West Coast and Hebrides where we rear our finest Scottish Salmon which is enjoyed the world over. The Scottish Salmon Company (SSC) is the leading producer of the finest quality Scottish Salmon, headquartered in Edinburgh and part of the Bakkafrost Group, with more than 60 sites across the West Coast of Scotland and Hebrides, employing over 650 people in rural, and often economically fragile, communities. We are passionately committed to the environmental, cultural and economic sustainability of rural Scotland.

We hold national and international accreditations and certifications across the value chain. Earlier this year we achieved the milestone of becoming the first salmon producer in Europe to be awarded a four-star Best Aquaculture Practice (BAP) certification for all our freshwater, marine and processing sites. BAP is the world’s most trusted and comprehensive third-party aquaculture certification programme. Mirroring our commitment to environmental stewardship, sustainability and producing the finest quality Scottish Salmon, BAP operates according to ‘Four Pillars of Responsible Aquaculture’ – food safety, social welfare, environmental and fish health.

Quality While SSC is recognised nationally and internationally for the quality of our salmon, we seek to go above and beyond to commit ourselves to the highest possible standards of quality, welfare and sustainability.

Sustainability In Scotland, salmon farming provides local employment, accelerating investment in local economies. Salmon is not only Scotland and the UK’s largest food export and an international success story; it is also

SSC.indd 18

Above: TrilleachanMor, Isle of Harris

01/12/2020 15:55:03


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 19

one of the most energy-eďŹƒcient and sustainable sources of protein. Maintaining and leading the way with consistently high standards and practices is vital to the salmon farming industry and to our business. Our commitment to responsible farming practices is unwavering, but to be truly responsible a business

“Sustainability is the

foundation of our strategy for business growth�

SSC.indd 19

must be sustainable. It is not good enough to simply be a producer of premium Scottish Salmon. We recognise this. Our communities recognise it. Our customers recognise it. And our consumers demand it. Sustainability is the foundation of our strategy for business growth and underpins our core values which guide everything we do: Pride in the quality of our Scottish Salmon, the Passion of our people, and the Provenance of our natural environment. These values shape our approach and drive the way the business is managed. Our future growth and business development will never be at their expense. At the heart of this is our commitment

01/12/2020 15:55:23


20 THE SCOTTISH SALMON COMPANY - ADVERTORIAL

across the entire value chain, which is critically important to maintain not only the highest quality standards and value chain integrity, but the highest sustainability standards too. To ensure it is robust, we have aligned our responsible business approach to the relevant UN Sustainable Development Goals to provide healthy and nutritious food, offer attractive, safe and meaningful jobs and create efficient and sustainable food, using resources responsibly.

Above: One of SSC’s Senior Marine Operatives with Native Hebridean salmon in North Uist Right: SSC staff at Gravir, Isle of Lewis

SSC.indd 20

to Scottish Provenance Guaranteed, and key to this promise is our natural environment. Responsibility for the natural environment in which we operate is fundamental to the salmon we produce. We take our responsibility as a custodian of this very seriously, placing an emphasis on minimising any potential impact on local ecosystems, biodiversity and wildlife. We are fully engaged in all stages of the value chain; from broodstock through freshwater development and marine farming through to processing and sales. By integrating each step of production and actively managing each stage of the value chain, we can ensure that our product is fully traceable, from egg to plate. This also means we can deliver consistent responsible management processes

Health & Welfare Fish health and welfare are intrinsically linked to the natural environment and fundamental to responsible salmon farming. Healthy fish, reared responsibly in the waters of our surrounding Scottish freshwater and sea-lochs, is the key to the quality of our Scottish Salmon. As an industry leader with continuous improvement integral to our business, we are also going beyond adherence to external accreditation by developing our own SSC Fish Welfare Standard, audited by an independent third party. Focused on delivering our goal of producing finest quality Scottish Salmon to the highest standards of animal welfare, this comprehensive Standard acts as a complete best practice welfare guide for our teams and will generate further transparency, identify areas for further development and refine our processes to remain at the top of the industry. We have a team of highly motivated and professional veterinarians, biologists and farmers who consider the welfare of the stock under their care to be their primary priority. We have designed our

WE HAVE A TEAM OF HIGHLY MOTIVATED AND PROFESSIONAL VETERINARIANS, BIOLOGISTS AND FARMERS

01/12/2020 15:55:46


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 21

entire approach to fish welfare to ensure we deliver operating excellence as well as a quality product. We go above and beyond to commit ourselves to the highest possible standards of animal husbandry. It is through our rigorous health management programmes, investment in our people and processes, commitment to innovation and collaboration with the best in the business that we maintain the highest standards of fish health and welfare. People Our people are the beating heart of SSC. While the coronavirus pandemic has brought challenges, we are incredibly proud of how our team has adapted. As key workers with an important part to play, we kept growing, harvesting and producing salmon throughout 2020, supporting those throughout our

SSC.indd 21

supply chain to continue to feed the nation. Community Charter Our Community Charter brings our values of Pride, Passion & Provenance to life, outlining our commitments to working closely with the people, suppliers and the communities where we operate. From providing long-term, yearround employment in remote areas, to supporting local suppliers where possible and providing sponsorship for grassroots sport and cultural events. Our Community Fund supports health and wellbeing in our local communities, giving our staff the opportunity to nominate local initiatives and good causes for funding. Since its launch in 2017, over 80 members of our staff have nominated community groups such as sports teams, charities and social

01/12/2020 15:56:06


22 THE SCOTTISH SALMON COMPANY - ADVERTORIAL

enterprises for funding. Throughout the coronavirus pandemic we have extended our Community Fund further, giving our staff the opportunity to offer funding to the causes in their local area which needed support during a challenging time.

SSC.indd 22

Outer Hebrides Local Energy Hub Collaboration with partners is also a key part of SSC‘s strategy for delivering sustainable practices. An example of this was our award-winning work in partnership with Pure Energy Centre (PEC), Community Energy Scotland (CES) and Comhairle nan Eilean Siar (CnES) and funded by the Scottish Government Local Energy Challenge Fund, on the unique Outer Hebrides Local Energy Hub (OHLEH) project. The first of its kind in Scotland, the OHLEH project involves the transfer of waste from our processing site on the Isle of Lewis, which is then integrated with other local household and garden waste and broken down to produce biogas at the CnES

01/12/2020 15:56:24


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 23

“Native Hebridean Salmon

offers the distinctive succulent and sea fresh taste of the Scottish Hebridean Islands”

Household Waste and Recycling Centre near Stornoway, Isle of Lewis. This successful and innovative partnership was recognised by the prestigious Aquaculture Awards earlier this year, where we were crowned winner of the Community Initiative Award. Native Hebridean Salmon Our award-winning Native Hebridean Salmon is the culmination of our approach to sustainability. The result of a ten year-year broodstock programme, this award-winning salmon is descended from the wild salmon of North Uist and reared in their native environment and traceable to the Hebridean islands. Native Hebridean Salmon offers the distinctive succulent and sea fresh taste of the Scottish Heb-

SSC.indd 23

ridean Islands. Its outstanding quality and firmness contribute to improved handling, which is why it has become a sought-after product for some of Scotland’s leading chefs and was recognised this year by being awarded a Great Taste award, with judges commending its quality, finish and flavour. With over 280 staff across 27 sites in the Hebrides, SSC is one of the largest private employers in the Hebrides. Native Hebridean is about much more than developing a unique strain of salmon. It is about protecting Hebridean provenance and ensuring true sustainability by creating and retaining value in remote and rural communities, creating specialist, skilled, long term employment in an area classified by Highlands & Islands Enterprise as fragile.

Top: Isle of Harris Brownies were awarded a Community Fund donation in 2019 Far left: Native Hebridean smoked salmon, winner of a Great Taste Award Below: Aquaculture Awards Community Initiative Winner

01/12/2020 15:56:39


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01/12/2020 10:13:39


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01/12/2020 10:14:00


26 BENCHMARK GENETICS PED

Award winning

eggselence Year-round biosecure egg supply

B

enchmark Genetics is a leading genetics provider to the global aquaculture industry. This year, approximately every second farmed salmon in Europe originates from eggs with robust genetic traits from Benchmark. The salmon producers appreciate that Benchmark is in position to supply salmon eggs all year round. The production has the highest level of biosecurity, and the products contain genetic traits carefully selected to meet the client’s local needs. Today, the Company exports eggs to 22 countries around the world, including Scotland. In September, Benchmark Genetics was awarded ‘Supplier of the Year’ by the Scottish salmon industry at the UK Aquaculture Awards. ‘It is a great honour that the industry has recognised our work here in Scotland. We have a strong commitment to the quality of our products

Benchmark - PED.indd 26

Above: Ben Perry, Sales and Technical Support Manager, Scotland Right: Salmon Ova, hatching stage

and services, and we have a fantastic team to help deliver this’, says Ben Perry, UK and North America Sales and Technical Support Manager. Based at sites in Iceland, Norway and Chile, the key to Benchmark Genetics success is a land-based business model; integrated with a team of world-leading experts in genetics and R&D. ‘We work across country boundaries, sharing experiences and competences of genetics technologies, breeding program management and production of broodstock and ova. We aim to continuously improve the performance and quality of our products to the benefit of the industry’, Perry concludes. Contact: Ben Perry UK and North America Sales and Technical Support Manager Mobile: +44 7880 092017 E-mail: ben.perry@bmkgenetics.com

01/12/2020 13:41:54


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 27

“It is a great honour that the industry has recognised our work here in Scotland”

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01/12/2020 13:42:40


28 50 YEARS OF FISH FARMING

50 Years of

Fish Farming A chronological spin through the years By VINCE MCDONAGH

M Right: The Norwegian island of Hitra. Opposite - top: Scottish salmon farm, Argyll. - below: Early 1970s Scottish Salmon farm.

50 Years of Fish Farming.indd 28

AY 1970 – the supermodel and actress Naomi Campbell was born; Feyenoord of Rotterdam beat Glasgow Celtic 2-1 to win the European Cup; the Beatles premiered their new film ‘Let It Be’ while the US and France were continuing to test nuclear weapons. But, unnoticed by the rest of the world, on the remote island of Hitra off the Norwegian coast two brothers, Ove and Sivert Grøntvedt, placed a floating open net pen which a year later would lead to the first successful generation of farmed Atlantic salmon. Little did they know then that in just 600 short months it would become an industry worth £7 billion a year to the country. Others would soon join the club; Chile, Canada, the Faroe Islands and, of course,

Scotland where the industry is now worth £2 billion a year to the regional economy, delivering £50 million in corporate taxes and around £80 million in salaries. In the past year Iceland and the US have emerged as the latest competitors. Salmon farming has become one of the world’s fastest growing means of food production – and one with arguably the lowest carbon footprint. While it has become something of a cliché, farmed salmon has established itself as an affordable, healthy and nutritious natural food. It has also been the spur for impressive growth in other types of fish seafood cultivation, notably prawns, mussels, seabass, tilapia, turbot – and caviar. Aquaculture has its critics, often misinformed, and it continues to face more than a few biological challenges. But it is easy to forget that from an almost standing start

01/12/2020 13:44:15


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 29

“Salmon farming has become one of the world’s fastest growing means of food production” in 1970, the industry now provides more than half the global seafood consumption. It has created thousands of jobs, revived many flagging coastal communities and is spearheading new stateof-the-art technologies. It is also surprising how little the public know about fish farming. There are more than a few consumers who still think the Scottish salmon they buy in the shop has been pulled out of the water by a man in waders using rod and line on some fast flowing river near Balmoral. But the history of salmon as a mainstream year-round food staple is a relatively new one, and one which perhaps wouldn’t have been if it weren’t for two seafood loving entrepreneurs. Norway is clearly the global leader in this remarkable story. It not only produces more than half the world’s Atlantic salmon output, but it also

50 Years of Fish Farming.indd 29

owns a large chunk of operations overseas, particularly in Scotland and Canada. The story of the Grøntvedt brothers on Hitra surely has all the trappings of a traditional Nordic fairytale. Here is part of that timetable:-

1971:

The brothers Grøntvedt harvest the very first generation of successfully farmed salmon. Several other salmon farms follow suit.

01/12/2020 13:44:35


30 50 YEARS OF FISH FARMING

1973:

The Norwegian parliament introduces a new law for salmon farms, to regulate fish welfare and quality. It also aims to ensure the growing new industry would benefit small communities along the coast, and not just a few big commercial players.

“From an

1970s:

Norwegian aquaculture is growing at a rapid pace, approximately 40 per cent every year between 1972 and 1975. Salmon is becoming profitable, selling at prices equivalent to up to 10 times of today’s salmon price.

1978:

Salmon farming is growing so fast that a temporary stop to new locations is introduced

1980s:

There are now salmon farms along the entire Norwegian coastline, from Rogaland in the South to Finnmark in the North. Salmon from Norway is conquering the European and US markets.

1986-1991:

1981:

Norwegian salmon exports grow 250 percent in this period, far exceeding Listhaug’s ambitions. The introduction of salmon in sushi plays a major role, in 1980 Norway exported 2 tonnes of salmon to Japan, 20 years later the volume reached 40,000 tonnes.

1983:

Total production has reached 170 000 tonnes, compared with 8 000 tonnes in 1980 and 500 tonnes in 1970.

The responsibility for the ever-growing industry is moved from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry for Fisheries. With rapid growth comes big challenges. Illness is a problem for many salmon farms, and the fish farmers’ sales organisation establishes a joint project to work on fish welfare and research into fish health.

1986:

The global sushi trend is born: ‘Project Japan’ headed by pioneer Thor Listhaug aims to double Norwegian exports of salmon. It marks the start of salmon in sushi – a Norwegian invention!

50 Years of Fish Farming.indd 30

1990:

1990s:

Scientists together with the industry introduce some of the first vaccines for fish. Several new vaccines are developed making the use of antibiotics in Norwegian salmon farming almost obsolete.

TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES ARE MAKING SALMON FARMS SAFER AND MORE PRODUCTIVE

2005:

The Norwegian parliament passes the ‘Aquaculture Law’, aiming to support profitability of the sector whilst safeguarding sustainable development.

almost standing start in 1970, the industry now provides more than half the global seafood consumption”

01/12/2020 13:44:57


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 31

2015:

Norway is the largest producer of Atlantic salmon in the world, 53 percent of all farmed salmon comes from Norwegian fjords.

2017:

Technological advances are making salmon farms safer and more productive. ‘Ocean farm 1’ becomes the world’s first remotely operated ocean farm with space for up to 1.5 million salmon. The farm is equipped with state-of-the-art sensors and digital systems to control fish health and the environment.

2018:

Effective vaccination programs means the use of antibiotics in Norwegian salmon farming has been reduced by 99 per cent since 1987. Less than 2 percent of Norwegian salmon has been treated with antibiotics.

50 Years of Fish Farming.indd 31

2020:

More offshore salmon farms are starting production, representing a new era for the industry.

2020:

14 million meals of Norwegian salmon are eaten every day around the world. The Norwegian Seafood Council says: ‘It is hard to imagine a world where salmon, whether served in sushi and sashimi, smoked, grilled or pan-fried, did not exist on menus or dinner plates across the world. ‘Norwegian salmon as a mainstream year-round food staple would not have come about if not for two seafood-loving entrepreneurial brothers,’ the Seafood Council points out. Ove and Sivert Grøntvedt are unlikely to become as familiar as most of the great international innovators. But on that day in May 1970 they surely laid the foundation of an industry that is playing a huge role in feeding an ever hungry world. We should be grateful to them.

Opposite & left: Fish farming through the 1980s & 1990s Top: Ocean Farm 1 Above: Salmon

01/12/2020 13:45:16


32 DIVERSIFIED COMMUNICATIONS

‘The best of times, the worst of times’ Diversified’s UK chief reflects on a frustrating year By DAVE EDLER

W

hen Carsten Holm, the Managing Director of Diversified Communications UK, put his signature on the document to complete the acquisition of Aquaculture UK last year from 5m, he could never have imagined how turbulent the attempts to stage the first exhibition under his company’s stewardship would prove.

Right: Carsten Holm proudly displays his ‘Fishing News’ mug

Diversified.indd 32

I catch up with Holm, virtually of course, at his base near Brighton in West Sussex. He is both excited and frustrated. The sort of frustration that comes after taking delivery of a wonderful new toy, only to be told that it has to remain inside its box for at least a year. As the screen opens for our call, Holm is proudly holding aloft a commemorative mug produced to celebrate the 75th anniversary of Fishing News, the publication that first started his connection to our industry when he took on the role as their Sales Manager. As well as Fishing News the company also had Fish Farming International as part of its portfolio, which gave Holm his first introduction to aquaculture. However, the connections don’t end there. During this time his Editorial Director was Peter Hjul, whose daughter Jenny will be well known to most of you as the most recent previous editor of this very magazine. These were heady days for the fishing industry, with the weekly edition of Fishing News sometimes running to as many as 180 pages. It is a period that Holm looks back on with great fondness.

01/12/2020 13:49:43


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 33

He says: ‘They were some of the best days of my life. I learnt so much about the importance of the relationships that you have with your customers, and also I really loved the fishing industry’. After that The Fishing Exhibition in Glasgow was launched in 1987 and grew to become one of the biggest trade shows ever staged at the SECC. The gala dinner connected to the event was so popular that it had to be run over two nights, with 800 attending each evening at the biggest venue available in Glasgow at the time. These were hectic times for Holm and his team: ‘I remember during one four day period in Glasgow, I managed a total of about five hours sleep! It was just crazy, but that was in a way what actually attracted me to this industry. It’s full of really genuine people and a really strong sense of community. So, when the

Diversified.indd 33

opportunity came up to get involved in the fish farming industry, it really felt like going back in time to these great days’. Holm joined Diversified Communications UK fifteen years ago. The company is part of a group which has its roots firmly in the fishing industry. It is a family owned business based in Portland, Maine, an area very well known for its lobster industry. The company’s first publication, which is still published to this day, was the National Fisherman. It then grew organically to include the seafood sector, launching a seafood exhibition in the US. Because of this success they were the natural ‘go to’ company when a similar exhibition

“I remember

during one four day period in Glasgow, I managed a total of about five hours sleep!”

01/12/2020 13:50:04


34 DIVERSIFIED COMMUNICATIONS

was muted for Europe. Fast forward to today, and the Global Seafood Expo in Brussels (now Barcelona) has become the biggest event on the continent and part of the staple diet of ‘must attend’ exhibitions for everyone working in the industry. The company continued to grow organically as their expertise in staging successful events became recognised, and they were subsequently invited to organise events in the medical and food sectors, and even one on buses! Eventually an approach to take over an event in the UK saw the

Diversified.indd 34

birth of the British company, and it has grown to now employ over 100 staff with a portfolio of 20 events and dinners, as well as a handful of publications. However, Holm says that the company often prefers to be ‘media neutral’, which was a factor behind Diversified declining the invitation to also take on board the media wing of 5m, The Fish Site, when they picked up Aquaculture UK. He also says that the fact they are part of a family owned company contributes to the overall philosophy of the group: ‘I think that’s maybe the difference

01/12/2020 13:50:25


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 35

I THINK THAT’S MAYBE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OURSELVES AND A LARGER PLC TYPE COMPANY WHERE THE PRESSURE IS VERY MUCH ON SHORT TERM PROFITABILITY

Aquaculture UK came about when Benchmark, the parent company of 5m, made an approach to Holm’s colleague Cheri Arvonio. Arvonio is the Event Director for Ocean Business, the leading bi-annual event for oceanology, which has quite a crossover with the aquaculture industry. Holm said that when he found out about the approach he was ‘cock-a-hoop’. He says: ‘I want to first pay tribute to Benchmark themselves. I think they have done a brilliant job with Aquaculture UK and turned it into a far more professional event and added to its depth. So, when Cheri called me up my initial reaction was “this is fantastic, I’d love to get

between ourselves and a larger PLC type company where the pressure is very much on short term profitability and making sure you maximise value year on year, whereas we tend to be able to take a longer term view and look at the sustainability of the products in the longer term, and in order to do that the customers very much come first. So, we spend a lot of time talking to them, whether they are exhibitors or not, and playing a very active part in the communities in which we work’. The opportunity to acquire

Diversified.indd 35

Opposite top: Global Seafood Expo. Left: Archive photo of The National Fisherman. Opposite: Cheri Arvonio

01/12/2020 13:50:45


36 DIVERSIFIED COMMUNICATIONS

“To go

involved This was not just from a personal point of view but also as a business because our roots lie so firmly within the fishing industry. That’s where we come from. It just seemed like a natural thing to do. ‘Since then it’s all been a bit of a rollercoaster, although I have to say that 5m have been great throughout and really easy to work with. The initial plan was that we were going to take a ‘back seat’ at the 2020 event and observe and learn as 5m completed the handover. We would come to the event and meet people, listen, sit back and learn and start

Diversified.indd 36

to understand in what direction the industry really wants to go, because I think that’s so important. We are mere facilitators. ‘But of course that didn’t happen. Covid came and we were forced to cancel. First of all we postponed until September, thinking that this would surely give us enough time to get back to normality, but how wrong we all were! It quickly became clear that we were increasingly unlikely to be able to welcome back international exhibitors and so we reluctantly took the decision to postpone to 2021. ‘The difficulty with that of course

four years without an event in the UK with the community having a chance to come together was just far too long”

01/12/2020 13:51:11


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 37

is that we move into an AquaNor year, but we spoke to exhibitors who agreed that to go four years without an event in the UK with the community having a chance to come together was just far too long. So, we agreed it would be fine if we staged it in May, there would still be enough space in between the two events for it not to impact either significantly’. Arvonio agrees but says that there is a need to continually keep an eye on the developing worldwide situation. He says: ‘Obviously we are still ten months out from the scheduled event right now, so there is an element of “wait and see”. But everyone is remaining really positive and we’ve been able to transfer virtually everyone over to the new dates next year and so we are optimistic it will go ahead as planned’. I ask Holm, once the event does go ahead, about his plans for taking it forward and how Diversified see it developing in the future. His answer is perhaps surprising: ‘It might sound awful, but you know I really haven’t the foggiest. And that’s because we really do see ourselves just as facilitators. Everything has to be industry led. So, that’s why this period has been so difficult for us. Normally we would be talking to people and really getting a sense of what is going on. But what I think we will do is to set up an advisory panel made up of key people from within the industry so that they can give their input into where they would like to see the show going in the future. ‘We’re not “uber ambitious” in terms of growth, we need to grow with the industry in line with its own needs. But we will do everything we can to build on the sound foundations laid by 5m and we will move forward to make the show even better, whatever that may mean, and the only way we can find that out is by listening and understanding

Diversified.indd 37

and reacting.’ That listening will also extend to decisions about the future of the event in Aviemore itself. Holm has already seen first hand one of the group’s events in Brussels outgrow its location, as Global Seafood Expo has moved to Barcelona, and he agrees that capacity in Aviemore is a potential problem, especially if more and more visitors cannot find accommodation locally and have to be ‘bussed in’ from places like Inverness. However, he is also aware of the unique intimacy that comes with staging an event at a ‘resort’ and what could potentially be lost by taking it elsewhere. But that is a decision for another day. In the here and now, Holm is very bullish about the future prospects for the aquaculture industry more generally post Covid. He says: ‘I have absolutely no doubt that aquaculture is going to become ever more important for the planet. We need to feed people, we need protein, and we need to do these things sustainably in a way that doesn’t harm the planet – and aquaculture is an answer to all of these problems’. That seems to be the perfect note on which to end, as Holm looks forward to the day when he can finally take that shiny new toy out of the box!

Opposite: Seafood Expo

01/12/2020 13:51:29


38 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Can machines

think? Artificial Intelligence in aquaculture By VINCE MCDONAGH

T

his was a question posed more than 70 years ago by Alan Turing, the brilliant mathematician who broke the Nazi Enigma encryption machine and thus shortened the war. It was also a question which must have appeared slightly odd at the time. Despite this tantalising glimpse into the future, artificial intelligence (AI) has remained largely the stuff of science fiction – until fairly recently. Now AI – the art of making smart

Left: Transfer of smolt in iFarm Top right: The iFarm Right: The iFarm project has received approval to proceed with four licenses in Steigen, Norway

AI Feature.indd 38

machines behave like humans – is playing an increasing role in the future development of fish farming with several leading companies working on a variety of projects. Among them is Cermaq, which is looking to advance and improve fish farming technology and practices in the oceans to improve overall health for both wild and farmed fish. It believes this can be done while still being able to utilise the benefits of farming in the oceans to produce a sustainable and healthy protein, such as having one of the lowest carbon footprint of any farmed protein, and the need for large amounts of fresh water, and land. Cermaq says the new iFarm system is revolutionary, and if successful, will be a game changer for the entire salmon farming industry. iFarm is based on a technology that makes it possible to recognise, record and track each fish in the system, and maintain an individualised health

01/12/2020 13:53:06


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 39

record, while allowing for targeted health interventions, as and when required. Cermaq believes it will provide better fish health and welfare and will be a significant leap forward for the aquaculture industry. Each iFarm system can house approximately 150,000 fish. The salmon is kept lower in the pen by means of a net roof. When a fish rises to the

AI Feature.indd 39

surface to fill its swim bladder with air, it is guided through the iFarm sensor, which scans each fish and uses automatic image processing to recognise each individual fish. The company explains: ‘The new system uses image recognition technology to identify each individual salmon in the pen to allow for individualised fish tracking in regards to growth, health and performance. ‘It will also allow for targeted treatment options by identifying and then sorting out fish who require treatment for things such as sea lice or bacterial infections. This will reduce the amount of medications used and will allow for treating only those fish who require aid. At the same time, the need to handle the fish is significantly reduced, thus improving fish health and welfare’. Last December, Cermaq Norway was awarded four development

“The new system uses image recognition technology to identify each individual salmon”

01/12/2020 13:53:25


40 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

licences for the iFarm, and preparation work started in January. Since then, thanks to the efforts and support of many people across Cermaq, BioSort – the developer of the technology – and ScaleAQ, which has supported the delivery of the system, the various components of iFarm are taking shape and Cermaq has been able to successfully install the system. The project recently reached a major milestone when

“Individualised farming, which is at the heart of iFarm, truly addresses animal welfare”

AI Feature.indd 40

the first smolt was transferred in the iFarm pens. Cermaq, BioSort and the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries have agreed on a path forward to establish a trial of the technology. BioSort, the company which develops the sensor-based solutions in iFarm, has already conducted several tests at the Institute of Marine Research at their research centre at Matre, Norway. Norwegian Food Safety Authority Chief Veterinary Officer Kristina Landsverk says: ‘The key in iFarm is that we monitor each salmon using machine vision, establishing a health record for each individual fish and can thereby sort aside the fish that re-

01/12/2020 13:53:42


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 41

quire treatment or follow up. This will be useful not only for farmers, but also for authorities and consumers. ‘Individualised farming, which is at the heart of iFarm, truly addresses animal welfare. If successful, this could have a great potential for the authorities if the administrations will have access to real-time information about our fish such as current growth and potential health concerns in each system.’ Cermaq Norway is investing around NOK 580 million into the development of these four iFarms. Construction will begin in January, with the planned transfer of fish into the systems in the fall of 2020 and trials will continue for approximately six years.

AI Feature.indd 41

‘The iFarm project will be built in the region which will help to build the required capacity and skills set in the area. This is a great build-up for Cermaq in Nordland and for the entire aquaculture industry,’ says Cermaq Norway’s Regional Director Snorre Jonassen, who has been central to the design of the iFarm project. Cermaq is not the only company working on AI. Norway Royal Salmon has partnered with Microsoft to use artificial intelligence to streamline salmon farming operations. The two companies, plus the technology company ABB, have been developing a project that uses underwater cameras to collect images of salmon in their pens, then counts them automatically with an artificial intelligence algorithm. The new technology also spares workers from travelling kilometres offshore to monitor the salmon, allowing them to observe fish growth from afar. These projects are just the beginning. From the work now under way, it is clear artificial intelligence is going to play an increasing role taking fish farming into an exciting new era.

Left and below: iFarm will transform fish farming from stock management to individualised farming

01/12/2020 13:54:00


42 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

Scottish Fish Farm Surveys 2019

Production Survey.indd 42

01/12/2020 13:58:37


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 43

Figures released in the annual Fish Farm Production Survey, released in October, showed that in 2019 there had been an increase in Atlantic salmon production compared to the 2018 total. The tonnage of 203,881 represented an increase of 30.7% and represented the highest ever level of production recorded in Scotland. Smolt production also increased by 9% compared to the 2018 figure. The full report is summarised below, with full analysis over the next few pages of the Year Book.

Atlantic salmon

I

n 2019, the total production of Atlantic salmon increased by 47,856 tonnes to 203,881 tonnes, a 30.7% increase on the 2018 production total. The survey shows increases in the production of grilse, pre-salmon and year 2 salmon. The number of staff directly employed on the farms increased by 185. Overall, there was an increase in the productivity of tonnes produced per person from 106.4 to 123.5. The estimated harvest forecast for 2020 is 207,630 tonnes. The trend towards concentrating production in larger sites was maintained with 87.1% of production being concentrated in the sites producing over 1,000 tonnes per annum. During 2019, there was a decrease in the number of ova produced to 11.6 million. The number of ova laid down to hatch increased by 1.1% to 71.2 million. This highlights the trend towards using foreign ova sources with 89.7% of the ova laid down to hatch being imported and only 10.3% derived from GB sources. Smolt production increased to 51.4 million, with 49.8% being produced as S½ smolts and the remainder as S1 smolts (50.2%). The number of staff directly employed on freshwater sites increased by three in 2019 to 281 staff while productivity increased to 183,000 smolts per person. Projections for 2020 suggest that more smolts will be produced than was seen in 2019, followed by a further increase in 2021.

Production Survey.indd 43

Rainbow trout

T

ne production of rainbow trout increased by 15% in 2019 to 7,405 tonnes and was directed at the table (93%) and restocking (7%) markets. The total numbers of staff employed by the sector increased by eight to 144. There was an overall increase in the productivity of the industry to 51.4 tonnes per person. In 2019, the number of eyed ova laid down to hatch (6.6 million) increased by 0.2 million and was mainly triploid stock (82%). The proportion of ova from GB broodstock decreased to 0.5%. Denmark was the largest source of imported ova with 86.5% of the total, this was an increase proportionally from 2018. The Scottish rainbow trout industry continues to be highly dependent on imported ova. Additionally, imports of part grown rainbow trout from Northern Ireland continued in 2019.

T

Other species

THE NUMBER OF STAFF DIRECTLY EMPLOYED ON THE FARMS INCREASED BY 185

here was an increase in the production of brown/sea trout from 20 tonnes in 2018 to 25 tonnes in 2019. Halibut production occurred in 2019 but the figure cannot be shown without revealing the production of an individual company. Lumpsucker and wrasse were produced for use as biological controls for parasites in the marine Atlantic salmon farming industry. In 2019, the total number of staff employed in the production of other species decreased by seven to 53.

01/12/2020 13:59:01


44 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

1..Ra Raiinbow nbow trout trout (Oncorhynchus (Oncorhynchus mykiss) mykiss) //// 1

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Production survey survey information information was was collected collected from from all all 22 22 companies companies Production actively involved in rainbow trout production, farming 52 active sites. roduction surveyin information collected from allfarming 22 companies activelysites. involved actively involved rainbow was trout production, 52 active Thisin figure represents the entire entire industry operating Scotland. rainbow trout production, farming 52 active sites. This in fiingure represents the This figure represents the industry operating Scotland. entire industry operating in Scotland.

P

Production Production

Table 1a: 1a: Annual Annual production production (tonnes) (tonnes) of of rainbow rainbow trout trout during during 2005-2019 2005-2019 PRODUCTION Table Table 1a: Annual production (tonnes) and projected projected production in 2020 2020of rainbow trout during 2005-2019 and production in and projected production in 2020 Year Year

Tonnes Tonnes

2005 2005 2006 2006

6,989 6,989 7,492 7,492

2007 2007 2008 2008

7,414 7,414 7,670 7,670

2009 2009 2010 2010

6,766 6,766 5,139 5,139

2011 2011 2012 2012

4,619 4,619 5,670 5,670

Percentage Percentage difference difference 10 10

Year Year

Tonnes Tonnes

2013 2013 2014 2014

5,611 5,611 5,882 5,882

33 -12 -12 -24 -24

2015 2015 2016 2016

8,588 8,588 8,096 8,096

2017 2017 2018 2018

7,637 7,637 6,413 6,413

-10 -10 23 23

2019 2019 2020 2020

77 -1 -1

7,405 7,405 10,011* 10,011* Industry estimate estimate based based on on stocks stocks currently currently being being on-grown. on-grown. ** Industry

Percentage Percentage difference difference -1 -1 55 46 46 -6 -6 -6 -6 -16 -16 15 15

Production increased increased in in 2019 by by 992 992 tonnes, tonnes, an an increase increase of 15%, to Production Production increased in 20192019 by 992 tonnes, an increase of 15%, to of 15%, to 7,405 tonnes. tonnes. 7,405 7,405 tonnes. Table 1b: 1b: Production Production (tonnes) fortable the table table trade2010-2019 during 2010-2019 2010-2019 Table (tonnes) for the trade during Table 1b: Production (tonnes) for the trade during according to weight category according toto weight category according weight category Year Year

<450 gg <450

450-900 gg 450-900

>900 gg >900

Total Total

<1 lb lb <1

1-2 lbs lbs 1-2

>2 lbs lbs >2

Tonnes Tonnes

2010 2010 2011 2011

2,125 2,125 1,421 1,421

727 727 1,004 1,004

1,606 1,606 1,433 1,433

4,458 4,458 3,858 3,858

2012 2012 2013 2013

1,195 1,195 1,908 1,908

1,655 1,655 825 825

2,209 2,209 2,268 2,268

5,059 5,059 5,001 5,001

2014 2014 2015 2015

2,334 2,334 2,299 2,299

290 290 258 258

2,704 2,704 5,476 5,476

5,328 5,328 8,033 8,033

2016 2016 2017 2017

2,393 2,393 2,000 2,000

234 234 544 544

4,810 4,810 4,453 4,453

7,437 7,437 6,997 6,997

2018 2018 2019 2019

803 803 343 343

223 223 228 228

4,848 4,848 6,335 6,335

5,874 5,874 6,906 6,906

Above: Rainbow trout

Production for the table in 2019 was 6,906 tonnes, an increase of 1,032 tonnes (18%) on the 2018 total. This accounted for 93% of the total rainbow trout production, an increase on the proportion to that produced in 2018. Also, an increase in the number of fish in the large and medium size ranges and a decrease in the number of fish in the 44 small size range were highlighted.

Production Survey.indd 44

01/12/2020 13:59:36


Production for the table in 2019 was 6,906 tonnes, an increase of 1,032 tonnes (18%) on the 2018 total. This accounted for 93% of the total 2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 45 rainbow trout production, an increase on the proportion to that produced in 2018. Also, an increase in the number of fish in the large and medium size ranges and a decrease in the number of fish in the small size range were highlighted. Table 1c: Production (tonnes) for the restocking trade during 2010-2019 Table 1c: Production (tonnes) for the restocking trade during 2010-2019 according to according to weight category weight category Year

<450 g

450-900 g

>900 g

Total

<1 lb

1-2 lbs

>2 lbs

Tonnes

2010

19

201

461

681

2011

8

419

334

761

2012

22

266

323

611

2013

24

221

365

610

2014

28

256

270

554

2015

15

158

382

555

2016

35

183

441

659

2017

10

150

480

640

2018

14

143

382

539

2019

16

113

370

499

In 2019, production for the restocking of angling waters decreased to 499 tonnes In 2019, production for the restocking of angling waters decreased to representing a decrease of 40 tonnes (7%) on the 2018 total. This accounted for 7% 499 tonnes representing a decrease of 40 tonnes (7%) on the 2018 total. of total rainbow trout production in 2019. These figures represent the tonnage of fish This accounted 7% of rainbow troutthey production in 2019. These supplied to anglingfor waters for total restocking purposes; do not account for the catch figures tonnage fish supplied to angling waters for taken by represent anglers. Thethe production of of medium and large sized fish showed decreases restocking purposes; they do production not account for the while there was an increase in the of small sizedcatch fish. taken by anglers. The production of medium and large sized fish showed decreases while Production Site there was an by increase the production of small sized fish. PRODUCTION BY in SITE Table 2: Number Numberofof sites grouped by tonnage produced during 2010Table 2: sites grouped by tonnage produced during 20102019 2019 Number of sites per production tonnage <1-25

26-100

101-200

>200

Total number of sites

2010

7

13

9

7

36

2011

9

10

6

8

33

2012

10

10

6

8

34

2013

6

11

5

8

30

2014

6

11

5

9

31

2015

4

10

5

11

30

2016

6

10

3

13

32

2017

4

8

5

11

28

2018

5

10

3

11

29

2019

5

9

4

10

28

Year

5

Production was reported fromfrom 28 of 28 the of 52 the active Thesites. number of number producers in Production was reported 52sites. active The theproducers 101-200 tonnes size101-200 bracket increased whilebracket those in the 26-100 and >200 tonnes of in the tonnes size increased while those sizethe brackets decreased. Thetonnes number size of producers in decreased. the <1-25 tonnes size bracket in 26-100 and >200 brackets The number remained the same as in 2018.tonnes These fisize guresbracket do not include thosethe sitessame specialising in of producers in the <1-25 remained as the2018. production of ova or young fishinclude for on-growing. in These figures do not those sites specialising in the production of ova or young fish for on-growing.

PRODUCTION IN 2019 WAS 6,906 TONNES, AN INCREASE OF 1,032 TONNES

Above: Trout farm

Production by Method Table 3: Grouping of rainbow trout sites by production tonnages, main in 2019 and comparison with production in 2018

methods of45production Production Survey.indd

01/12/2020 14:00:04


2011

9

10

6

8

33

2012

10

10

6

8

34

2013

6

11

5

8

30

2014

6

11

5

9

31

10

5

11

30

SURVEY42019 46 PRODUCTION 2015 2016

6

10

3

13

32

2017

4

8

5

11

28

2018

5

10

3

11

29

2019

5

9

4

10

28

Production was reported from 28 of the 52 active sites. The number of producers in the 101-200 tonnes size bracket increased while those in the 26-100 and >200 tonnes size brackets decreased. The number of producers in the <1-25 tonnes size bracket remained the same as in 2018. These figures do not include those sites specialising in the production of ova or young fish for on-growing.

Production by Method

PRODUCTION BYrainbow METHOD Table 3: Grouping of trout sites by production tonnages, main

Table 3: Grouping of rainbow trout sites by production tonnages, main methods of methods of production in 2019 and comparison with production in 2018 production in 2019 and comparison with production in 2018. Production grouping (tonnes) in 2019

Production method

<10

FW cages FW ponds and raceways FW tanks and hatcheries

10-25

26-50

51-100

Total tonnage and (%) by method

>100

2018

2019

1,838 (28.7%) 1,142 (17.8%)

2,273 (30.7%) 971 (13.1%)

Number of sites 2018

2019

6

6

14

12

1

0

0

0

5

0

1

5

3

3

3

0

0

1

0

70 (1.1%)

78 (1.1%)

3

4

6

3,363 (52.4%)

4,083 (55.1%)

6

6

SW cages

0

0

0

0

SW tanks

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

4

1

5

4

14

6,413

7,405

29

28

Seawater production accounted for 4,083 tonnes (55.1%) and freshwater production Seawater production accounted for 4,083 from tonnes (55.1%) and freshwater the remaining 3,322 tonnes (44.9%). Production freshwater cages, freshwater production the remaining 3,322 tonnes (44.9%). Production from tanks and hatcheries and seawater cages all increased during 2019 while production freshwater cages, tanks and hatcheries and seawater cages from freshwater pondsfreshwater and raceways decreased. all increasedand during Company Site2019 Datawhile production from freshwater ponds and COMPANY AND SITE DATA raceways decreased. Table 4: Number of companies and sites in production during 2010-2019 6 in production during 2010-2019. Table 4: Number of companies and sites Year

No. of companies

No. of sites

2010

25

51

2011

23

48

2012

25

48

2013

24

46

2014

24

46

2015

24

45

2016

24

44

2017

23

44

2018

23

53

2019

22

52

PRODUCTIVITY, MEASURED AS TONNES PRODUCED PER PERSON, INCREASED BY 8.9% IN 2019

In 2019, 2019,the the number of companies authorised by theGovernment Scottish and activeIn number of companies authorised by the Scottish ly engaged in rainbow trout production was The number sites registered Government and actively engaged in 22. rainbow trout of production wasand 22.in production wasof 52.sites registered and in production was 52. The number

Staffing and Productivity Table 5: Number of staff employed and productivity per person during 2010-2019 Production Survey.indd 46

01/12/2020 14:00:36


2018

23

53

2019

22

52

In 2019, the number of companies authorised by the Scottish 2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 47 Government and actively engaged in rainbow trout production was 22. The number of sites registered and in production was 52.

Staffing and Productivity Table 5: Number of staff employed and productivity per person during STAFFING AND PRODUCTIVITY 2010-2019 Table 5: Number of staff employed and productivity per person during 2010-2019. Year

Full-time Male

Full-time Female

Total Full-time

Part-time Male

Part-time Female

Total Part-time

Total Staff

Productivity (tonnes/ person)

2010

95

3

98

24

7

31

129

39.8

2011

90

5

95

16

7

23

118

39.1

2012

74

5

79

23

5

28

107

53.0

2013

85

4

89

16

5

21

110

51.0

2014

86

7

93

13

7

20

113

52.1

2015

100

10

110

10

6

16

126

68.2

2016

90

10

100

15

6

21

121

66.9

2017

98

12

110

15

7

22

132

57.9

2018

103

8

111

17

8

25

136

47.2

2019

103

11

114

21

9

30

144

51.4

The overall number of staff employed in 2019 increased by eight to 144. The The overall number staff employed in 2019 increased by eight to number of full-time staffof increased by three while the number of part-time staff 144. Theby number of full-time staff increased by threeper while theincreased number increased five. Productivity, measured as tonnes produced person, of part-time staff by between five. Productivity, measured as tonnes by 8.9% in 2019 withincreased no distinction full and part-time employees being produced per person, increased by 8.9% in 2019 with no distinction made for this calculation. between full and employees being made for this calculation. Production by part-time Area

PRODUCTION AREA Table 6: ProductionBY and staffing by area in 2019 Table 6: Production and staffing by area in 2019.

Productivity (tonnes/ person)

Area

No. of sites

Table production (tonnes)

Restocking production 7 (tonnes)

Mean tonnes per site

F/T

P/T

Total

North*

13

122

29

11.6

5

7

12

12.6

East

13

1,030

232

97.1

33

10

43

29.3

West

16

5,312

18

333.1

62

4

66

80.8

South

10

442

220

66.2

14

9

23

28.8

All

52

6,906

499

142.4

114

30

144

51.4

Staffing

*From 2018, the North area also included production and staff from the Western Isles

Productivity was greatest in the West at 333.1 tonnes per site and 80.8 tonnes per Productivity was greatest in the West at 333.1 tonnes per site and 80.8 person. tonnes per person.

Top: Moving fish on trout farm Left and above: Rainbow trout

Production Survey.indd 47

01/12/2020 14:01:00


48 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

Figure 1: The regional distribution of active rainbow trout sites in 2019.

North

East

West

South 0

20

40

60

80

Miles 100

Figure 1: The regional distribution of active rainbow trout sites in 2019 Š Crown copyright and database Production Survey.indd 48 rights 2020 OS (100024655)

01/12/2020 14:02:44


Type of Ova Laid Down

2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 49 Table 7: Number (000’s) and proportions (%) of eyed ova types laid down to hatch during 2010-2019

Type of Ova Laid Down

TYPE OVA (000’s) LAID and DOWN Table 7:OF Number proportions (%) of eyed ova types laid down to Table 7: Number (000’s) and proportions (%) of eyed ova types All female Mixed sexlaid down to hatch Triploid no. (%) Total ova hatchYear during 2010-2019 diploid no. (%) during 2010-2019. diploid no. (%) 2010

13,352 (89) All female 12,673no. (84) diploid (%) 10,967 (85) 13,352 (89) 7,857 (80) 12,673 (84) 8,321 (75) 10,967 (85) 10,245 (85) 7,857 (80) 7,986 (80) 8,321 (75) 2,366 (34) 10,245 (85) 1,460 (23) 7,986 (80) 1,077 (16) 2,366 (34)

Year 2011 2012 2010 2013 2011 2014 2012 2015 2013 2016 2014 2017 2015 2018 2016 2019 2017

1,052 (7) Triploid 2,254 no. (15)(%) 2,005 (15) 1,052 (7) 1,955 (20) 2,254 (15) 2,710 (25) 2,005 (15) 1,800 (15) 1,955 (20) 1,943 (20) 2,710 (25) 4,670 (66) 1,800 (15) 4,843 (77) 1,943 (20) 5,369 (82) 4,670 (66)

675 (4) Mixed sex 215 no. (1) (%) diploid 7 (<1) 675 (4) 77 (<1) 215 (1) 9 (<1) 7 (<1) 76 (<1) 77 (<1) 5 (<1) 9 (<1) 5 (<1) 76 (<1) 15 (<1) 5 (<1) 105 (2) 5 (<1)

15,079 Total ova 15,142 12,979 15,079 9,889 15,142 11,040 12,979 12,121 9,889 9,934 11,040 7,041 12,121 6,318 9,934 6,551 7,041

2018

1,460 (23)

4,843 (77)

15 (<1)

6,318

2019

1,077 (16)

5,369 (82)

105 (2)

6,551

Source of Ova Laid Down

Table 8: Number (000’s) and sources of eyed ova laid down to hatch in

SOURCE OF OVA LAID DOWN 2010-2019

Source of Ova(000’s) Laidand Down Table 8: Number sources of eyed ova laid down to hatch in 2010-2019. Table 8: Number (000’s) and sources of eyed ova laid down to hatch in Ova produced in Total imported 2010-2019 Great Britain (GB) ova Year

2010 Year 2011 2012 2010 2013 2011 2014 2012 2015 2013 2016 2014 2017 2015 2018 2016 2019 2017

Own stock 415 Own 215 stock 14 415 77 215 9 14 6 77 35 9 20 6 15 35 10 20

Other stock Ova produced in Great Britain (GB) 50 Other 189 stock 230 50 537 189 655 230 888 537 349 655 547 888 495 349 22 547

Total 465 404 Total 244 465 614 404 664 244 894 614 384 664 567 894 510 384 32 567

Northern hemisphere Total imported ova 14,614 Northern 14,738 hemisphere 12,735 14,614 9,275 14,738 10,376 12,735 11,227 9,275 9,550 10,376 6,474 11,227 5,808 9,550 6,519 6,474

Total

15,079 Total 15,142 12,979 15,079 9,889 15,142 11,040 12,979 12,121 9,889 9,934 11,040 7,041 12,121 6,318 9,934 6,551 7,041

IN 2019, THE TOTAL NUMBER OF EYED OVA LAID DOWN TO HATCH INCREASED BY 0.2 MILLION (4%) ON THE 2018 FIGURE

15 number495 510down to hatch 5,808 In2018 2019, the total of eyed ova laid increased by 0.2 6,318 million In 2019, the total number of eyed ova laid down to hatch increased by 0.2 2019on the 10 22ova were imported 32 6,519 6,551The (4%) 2018 figure. All from the northern hemisphere. million (4%) on the 2018 figure. All ova were imported from the Northern proportion of ova from GB broodstock decreased (0.5% of the total) and the rainbow hemisphere. The proportion of ova from GB broodstock decreased (0.5% trout industry reliant on ova. Data on the of ova into In 2019, theremained total number of imported eyed ova laid down to importation hatch increased by 0.2 of the total) and the rainbow industry remained reliant on imported Scotland are also from thetrout health certifi cates and are shown Table 9a. Any million (4%) onavailable the 2018 figure. All ova were imported frominthe Northern ova. Data on the importation of ova8into are also available from discrepancy between the figures inof Tables and Scotland 9a isbroodstock due to data being obtained from hemisphere. The proportion ova from GB decreased (0.5% the independent health certificates and are shown in Table 9a. Any discrepancy between two sources. of the total) and the rainbow trout industry remained reliant on imported the figures in Tables 8 and 9a is due to data being obtained from two ova. Data on the importation of ova into Scotland are also available from independent sources. the health certificates and are shown in Table 9a. Any discrepancy between the figures in Tables 8 and 9a is due to data being obtained from two 10 independent sources.

Left: Rainbow trout 10

Production Survey.indd 49

01/12/2020 14:03:12


PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019 Import Health Certificates 50 Imports from Official Table 9a: Number (000’s) and sources of ova imported into Scotland from outwith GBOfficial during 2010-2019 Imports from Import Health Certificates Source 2010 2011 2012 2014 2015 2016 into 2017Scotland 2018 2019 Table 9a: Number (000’s) and 2013 sources of ova imported IMPORTS FROM OFFICIAL IMPORT HEALTH from outwith GB during 2010-2019 1,715 5,250 1,950 1,315 2,500 2,330 5,535 3,518 3,728 5,567 Denmark Imports from Official Import Health Certificates CERTIFICATES

Source 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 1,400 (000’s) 520 and 300 800of ova 1,000 175 20 300from 0 0GB Isle of9a: ManNumber Table sources imported into Scotland outwith 9a: Number (000’s) and sources of ova imported into Scotland during 2010-2019. 9,247 7,320 1,950 8,332 5,125 2,500 4,780 2,330 6,535 5,535 3,040 3,518 1,240 3,728 1,085 5,567 380 from outwith GB during 2010-2019 N. Ireland 1,715 5,250 1,315 Denmark 1,400 Isle of Man 2010 Source 200 Norway

520 2011 130

300 2012

800 2013 175

1,000 2014 710

175 2015 670

20 2016 500

300 2017 774

0 2018

0 2019

N. Ireland Denmark Spain

9,247 1,715 0

7,320 5,250 0

8,332 1,950 0

5,125 1,315 0

4,780 2,500 0

6,535 2,330 0

3,040 5,535 0

1,240 3,518 0

1,085 3,728 0

380 5,567 60

200 Norway Isle 2,340 USAof Man 1,400

130 520 1,580

300 1,800

175 800 2,350

710 1,000 1,700

670 175 1,675

500 20 750

774 300 0

0 855

0 430

1,240 5,832 0

1,085 5,668 0

380 6,437 60

N. Ireland Totals Spain USA Norway Totals Spain

9,247 7,320 8,332 5,125 4,780 6,535 3,040 14,902 14,800 12,682 9,765 10,690 11,385 9,845 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,340 200

1,580 130

1,800 300

2,350 175

1,700 710

1,675 670

750 500

14,902 14,800 12,682 9,765 10,690 11,385 9,845 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 774

855 0

430 0

5,832 0

5,668 0

6,437 60

Table variation numbers of855 ova 2,340 1,580 1,800 in2,350 1,700(000’s) 1,675 and 750sources 0 USA 9b: Seasonal imported into Scotland from outwith GB during 2019 14,902 14,800 12,682 9,765 10,690 11,385 9,845 5,832 5,668 Totals

430 6,437

Table 9b: Seasonal variation in numbers (000’s) and sources of ova Table 9b: Seasonal variation in numbers (000’s) and sources of ova imported into Month Denmark N. Ireland Norway USA imported into Scotland from outwith GB during 2019 Scotland from outwith GB during 2019. January 805 0 Table 9b: Seasonal variation in numbers (000’s) and0 sources of ova0 Month Denmark N. Ireland Norway USA February into Scotland 558from outwith 0GB during 2019 0 0 imported March January

1,099 805

30 0

0

0

April February Month

595 558 Denmark

0 N. Ireland

0 Norway

150 0 USA

May March January June April February

870 1,099 805 0 595 558

0 30 0 0

0 0 0

July May March August June April

0 870 1,099 0 595

50 0 30 300 0

September July May October August June

0 870 980 0

0 50 0 0 300 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 150 0 0 0 0 150 130 0

November September July December October August

660 0 0 980 0 5,567 660 0

0 50 0 300 380 0

0 0 60 0

0 150 0 130 0

0 0 60 0

430 0 130

Totals November September

Top: Rainbow trout fillets Above: Trout farm Below: Rainbow trout

0 0

December October

0 980

0

0

0

Totals November

5,567 660

380 0

60

430 0

Table 9c: Number (000’s) and sources into Scotland December 0 0 of fish imported 0 0 from Table 9c:GB Number (000’s) and sources of fish imported into Scotland from outwith GB outwith during 2010-2019 Totals2010-2019. 5,567 380 60 430 during Table 9c: Number (000’s) and sources of fish imported into Scotland from Source GB 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 outwith during2011 2010-2019 N. Ireland <1 72 155 537 674 592 into 486Scotland 391 935 Table 9c: Number (000’s) and sources of fish746 imported from Republic GB 2010 Source 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 outwith during 2010-2019 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 of Ireland N. Ireland

<1

72

155

537

674

746

592

486

391

935

Suppliers the European Union2013 (EU) accounted for 93.3% of ova imported into Republic within Source 2010 2011 2012 2014 2015 2016 2018 2019 2 0 European 0 0 0 0 0 for2017 0 0 ova 0 Suppliers within the Union (EU) accounted 93.3% of of Ireland Scotland during 2019 with the USA accounting for the remaining 6.7%. In recent years N. Ireland into <1 Scotland 72 155 537 674 the 746 486 391the 935 imported during 2019 with USA 592 accounting for there has been a trend for producers to import part grown rainbow trout into Scotland Republic remaining 6.7%. In recent has been Suppliers the accounted 93.3% of 2 0 European 0yearsUnion 0there(EU) 0 0 a trend 0 forfor 0 producers 0 ova to 0 from outwithwithin GB. of Ireland import part grown rainbow trout into Scotland from outwith GB. imported into Scotland during 2019 with the USA accounting for the remainingwithin 6.7%. In recent yearsUnion there (EU) has been a trend producers Suppliers the European accounted forfor 93.3% of ova to 11 import part grown rainbow trout into Scotland from outwith GB. imported into Scotland during 2019 with the USA accounting for the remaining 6.7%. In recent years there has been a trend for producers to import part grown rainbow trout 11 into Scotland from outwith GB. 11

Production Survey.indd 50

01/12/2020 14:04:28


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 51

Trade in Fry and Fingerlings Table 10: Number (000’s) of fry and fingerlings traded during 2010-2019

Trade in Fry and Fingerlings

TRADE FRYFry AND FINGERLINGS and fingerlings bought Table 10: IN Number (000’s) of fry and fingerlings traded during 2010-2019 Total Table 10: Number (000’s) of fry and fingerlings traded during 2010-2019. Year

All female Triploid no. Mixed sex Fry bought diploid no. (%)and fingerlings (%) diploid no. (%)

Year 2010

All female 15,539 (95) diploid no. (%) 16,288 (88.5) 15,539 12,543 (95) (91)

Triploid no. 585 (4) (%) 1,970 (10.7) 585 (4) 1,226 (9)

Mixed sex 141 (1) diploid no. (%) 138 (0.8) 1410 (1)

16,288 6,734(88.5) (84) 12,543 (91) 5,911 (81)

1,970 1,239(10.7) (16) 1,226 (19) (9) 1,423

138 0(0.8)

6,734 (87) (84) 6,104 5,911 (81) 6,452 (85)

1,239 (16) 598 (9) 1,423 1,125 (19) (15)

6,104 3,989 (87) (73) 6,452 (85) 979 (42)

598 (9) 1,446 (27) 1,125 (15) 1,361 (58)

0 0 2900 (4) 0 0

3,989 (73) 861 (25) 979 (42)

1,446 (75) (27) 2,532 1,361 (58)

0 0 0

2011 2010 2012 2011 2013 2012 2014 2013 2015 2014 2016 2015 2017 2016 2018 2017 2019 2018

number bought Total number 16,265 bought 18,396 16,265 13,769

Total number sold Total number 14,686 sold 16,612 14,686 12,088

18,396 7,973 13,769 7,334 7,973 6,992

16,612 6,749 12,088 6,719 6,749 6,971

7,334 7,577 6,992 5,435

6,719 6,779 6,971 4,145

7,577 2,340 5,435 3,393

6,779 2,383 4,145 2,832

2,340

2,383

0 0 0 (4) 290

Above: Rainbow trout fingerlings

2019 861 (25) 2,532 (75) 3,393 farms 2,832 The established trade between hatcheries0and on-growing continued in 2019. Some companies specialised in fry and fingerling The established trade between hatcheries farms continued in 2019. production. The total number ofhatcheries fry and andon-growing fingerlings bought increased by The established trade between and on-growing farms Some specialised fry and fingerling Thedisparity totalfingerling number of 45.0%companies while number sold increased byproduction. 18.8%. between continued in the 2019. Somein companies specialised inThe fry and fry and fiand ngerlings increased 45.0% the number sold increased increased byby supply demand due to trade with England and Wales. production. The bought totalisnumber ofbyfry and while fingerlings bought 18.8%. The disparity betweensold supply and demand is due toThe trade with England and 45.0% while the number increased by 18.8%. disparity between Wales. Use ofand Vaccines supply demand is due to trade with England and Wales.

Table 11: Number of sites rearing fish vaccinated against enteric

USE OF VACCINES redmouth disease (ERM) and number of fish vaccinated (millions) during Use of Vaccines

Table 11: Number of sites rearing fish vaccinated against enteric redmouth disease 2010-2019 Table 11: Number of sites rearing fish vaccinated against enteric (ERM) and number of fish vaccinated (millions) during 2010-2019. redmouth disease (ERM) and number of fish vaccinated (millions) during 2010-2019 Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 No. of Year sites

27 2010

26 2011

24 2012

19 2013

21 2014

17 2015

18 2016

18 2017

17 2018

21 2019

No. No. of of sites fish

27 20.0

26 20.3

24 20.4

19 9.9

21 10.0

17 8.3

18 7.3

18 5.4

17 3.4

21 3.4

No. of

20.0 20.3 20.4 as a9.9 10.0 treatment 8.3 7.3 3.4 Vaccines continued to be used preventative against5.4 enteric3.4 fish Vaccines continued to be used as a preventative treatment against redmouth disease (ERM), a potentially serious bacterial infection, caused enteric redmouth disease (ERM), a potentially serious bacterial infection, by Yersinia ruckeri. Vaccination is generally carried out as a bath treatcaused bycontinued ruckeri. Vaccination is generally carried out as a Vaccines to bealthough used assome a preventative against ment at the fiYersinia ngerling stage, vaccines are treatment adminisbath by treatment at disease theinjection. fingerling stage, although some vaccines are enteric redmouth (ERM), a potentially infection, tered intra-peritoneal A total of 3.4 millionserious fish werebacterial administered by intra-peritoneal injection. A total of 3.4 million fish caused by Yersinia ruckeri. Vaccination is generally carried out as a were vaccinated on 21 sites. vaccinated on 21 bath treatment at sites. the fingerling stage, although some vaccines are administeredPRODUCTION by intra-peritoneal injection. A total of 3.4 million fish were ORGANIC vaccinated onrecorded 21 sites. Of the 52 sites as being active in rainbow trout production in 2019, none were certified as organic.

ESCAPES

12

There were three incidents involving the loss of 37,372 fish from 12 rainbow trout sites in 2019.

Production Survey.indd 51

THE TOTAL NUMBER OF FRY AND FINGERLINGS BOUGHT INCREASED BY 45.0% 01/12/2020 14:04:46


52 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

// 2 . At la nt ic sal mon ( Salmo salar ) – a nd mol ts ( Salmo salar ) – // 2 . ova At la nt ic ssal mon ova a nd s mol ts Production survey information was collected from all 23 companies actively involved in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon,

Production survey information wasrepresents collected from all)23 freshwater companies Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farming 76 active sites. This figure the entire actively involved in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon, industry operating in Scotland. –ova and farming 76 activesmolts sites. This figure represents the entire freshwater

Production survey information was collected from all 23 companies actively involved industry operating in Data Scotland. Company and Site in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon, farming 76 active sites. This figure Table 12: the Number of companies and sites in production during 2010represents entireSite freshwater Company and Data industry operating in Scotland. 2019 Table 12: Number of companies and sites in production during 2010COMPANY AND SITE DATA 2019 Year No.sites of companies No. of sites Table 12: Number of companies and in production during 2010-2019. 2010 Year 2011 2010 2012 2011 2013 2012 2014 2013 2015 2014 2016 2015 2017 2016 2018 2017 2019 2018

31 No. of companies 28 31 28 28 27 28 26 27 25 26 26 25 24 26 24 24 23 24

104 No. of sites 98 104 100 98 102 100 96 102 87 96 87 87 79 87 71 79 76 71

2019 23 In 2019, the number of companies authorised by the Scottish 76 Government for freshwater production of Atlantic salmon decreased In2019, 2019, the number of 76 companies authorised by the Government Scottish In the number of companies authorised by the Scottish for freshby one to 23. A total of sites were actively engaged in commercial Government for freshwater production Atlantic salmon water production of Atlantic of salmon decreased by onefigure. to 23. A total decreased of 76 sites were production, an increase five from theof 2018 actively commercial production, increaseengaged of five from the 2018 figure. by oneengaged to 23. Aintotal of 76 sites were an actively in commercial production, an increase of five from the 2018 figure. Production and Staffing

PRODUCTION AND STAFFING Table 13: Number (000’s) of smolts produced, staff employed and smolt

Table 13: Number of smolts produced, staff employed and smolt productivity Production and(000’s) Staffing productivity during 2010-2019 during Table 2010-2019. 13: Number (000’s) of smolts produced, staff employed and smolt productivity during 2010-2019 Number Year Year 2010 2011

(000’s) Full-time Full-time Total Part-time Part-time Total Total Staff of Smolts Male Female Full-time Male Female Part-time Number produced (000’s) Full-time Full-time Total Part-time Part-time Total Total Staff 36,872 213 20 233 42 14 56 289 of Smolts Male Female Full-time Male Female Part-time produced 43,626 207 18 225 45 23 68 293

Productivity, (000’s) smolts per person Productivity, (000’s) smolts 127.6 per person

148.9

2012 2010 2013 2011

44,324 36,872 40,457 43,626

218 213 226 207

17 20 11 18

235 233 237 225

60 42 29 45

33 14 19 23

93 56 48 68

328 289 285 293

135.1 127.6 142.0 148.9

2014 2012 2015 2013

45,004 44,324 44,571 40,457

226 218 208 226

18 17 31 11

244 235 239 237

42 60 41 29

23 33 14 19

65 93 55 48

309 328 294 285

145.6 135.1 151.6 142.0

2016 2014 2017 2015

42,894 45,004 46,152 44,571

225 226 219 208

27 18 31 31

252 244 250 239

35 42 33 41

7 23 8 14

42 65 41 55

294 309 291 294

145.9 145.6 158.6 151.6

2018 2016 2019 2017

47,097 42,894 51,430 46,152

210 225 215 219

29 27 32 31

239 252 247 250

30 35 26 33

9 7 8 8

39 42 34 41

278 294 281 291

169.4 145.9 183.0 158.6

2018

47,097

210

29

239

30

9

39

278

169.4

From the top: Atlantic salmon, salmon fillets, Scottish salmon

Smolt in215 2019 increased by to8 2018. 34 The number 2019 production 51,430 32 2479% compared 26 281 of staff 183.0 employed in 2019 increased by three and 14 productivity increased by 8% to a figure of 183,000 smolts produced per person. Data for staffing and productivity in 2013 are 14with these data due to consolidation within shown, however, there are uncertainties the industry.

Production Survey.indd 52

01/12/2020 14:07:44


Smolt production in 2019 increased by 9% compared to 2018. The Smolt production in 2019 increased by 9% compared 2018. The number of staff employed in 2019 increased by threeto and productivity number of staff employed in 2019 increased by three and productivity increased by 8% to a figure of 183,000 smolts produced per person. increased by 8% to a figure of 183,000 smolts produced per person. 2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 53 Data for staffing and productivity in 2013 are shown, however, there are Data for staffing and productivity in consolidation 2013 are shown, however, there are uncertainties with these data due to within the industry. uncertainties with these data due to consolidation within the industry.

Smolts by Age Group Smolts Age Group Table 14:by Number of smolts (000’s) produced by type during 2010-2019

SMOLTS BY AGE GROUP Table 14: Number of smolts (000’s) produced by type during 2010-2019 Table 14: Number of smolts (000’s) produced by type during 2010-2019. Year Year 2010 2010 2011

S½ S½ 14,116 14,116 17,233

S1 S1 22,756 22,756 26,393

2011 2012 2012 2013

17,233 18,795 18,795 19,024

26,393 25,239 25,239 21,279

2013 2014 2014 2015 2015 2016

19,024 22,367 22,367 23,850 23,850 25,072

21,279 22,473 22,473 20,711 20,711 17,822

2016 2017 2017 2018

25,072 28,072 28,072 24,058

17,822 18,080 18,080 23,039

2018 2019 2019

24,058 25,607 25,607

23,039 25,823 25,823

S1½ S1½ 0

Total Total 36,872 36,872 43,626

0 0 290 290 154

43,626 44,324 44,324 40,457

154 164 164 10

Above: Salmon smolt

40,457 45,004 45,004 44,571 44,571 42,894

10 0 0 0 0

42,894 46,152 46,152 47,097 47,097 51,430

0

51,430

In 2019, there were increases in the numbers of S½ (6.4%) and S1 (12.1%) In 2019,produced. there were increases in the numbers of S½ and S1 in (12.1%) In 2019, there were increases the numbers of S½ (6.4%) and S1smolts (12.1%) smolts There was noin production of(6.4%) S1½ smolts 2019. produced. There wasThere no production S1½ smolts of in 2019. smolts produced. was noofproduction S1½ smolts in 2019.

Production Systems PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Production Systems Table 15: Number and capacity of production systems during 2015-2019

Table 15: 15: Number Number and capacity of production systemssystems during 2015-2019. Table and capacity of production during 2015-2019 System

No. of sites with system

Total capacity, 000’s cubic metres

System Year

No.2016 of sites with 2018 system2019 2015 2017

Total 000’s cubic 2015 capacity, 2016 2017 2018 metres 2019

Year Cages

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2015

2016

400

357

346

351

Cages Tanks and Raceways Tanks and Raceways Total

38 49

38 49

36 43

27 44

27 49

355 47

400 46

357 55

346 54

351 68

49 87

49 87

43 79

44 71

49 76

47 402

46 446

55 412

54 400

68 419

Total

87

87

79

71

76

402

446

412

400

419

38

38

36

27

27

355

2017

2018

2019

The types typesofof facility for the production smolts in are freshwater are The facility usedused for the production of smoltsof in freshwater cages or tanks and raceways. 2019,raceways. the number farms using cages remained same as inare cages or tanks and Inof2019, the number of farms using cages The types of In facility used for the production of smolts in the freshwater 2018 and number using tanks and raceways by fiusing ve. In cages terms remained the same asfarms in 2018 the number ofincreased farms using tanks andof cages or the tanks and of raceways. Inand 2019, the number of farms volume, cage capacity by m³ tank and raceway capacity increased raceways increased byinfive. In 5,000 terms ofand volume, cage capacity increased remained the same increased as 2018 and the number of farms using tanks and by This in araceway net increase volume ofcage 19,000 m³14,000 available for the by14,000 5,000m³. m³ and resulted tank capacity increased by m³. raceways increased byand five. In terms ofinvolume, capacity increased production of smolts in Scotland during 2019. This resulted in atank net increase in volume of 19,000 m³by available by 5,000 m³ and and raceway capacity increased 14,000for m³.the Table 16: Number (000’s) of smolts produced and stocking densities by production ofinsmolts Scotland This resulted a net in increase in during volume2019. of 19,000 m³ available for the Table 16: Number (000’s) of smolts produced and stocking densities by production production system during 2015-2019 production of smolts in Scotland during 2019. system during 2015-2019. Number of smolts produced (000’s) Year

2015

2016

2017

2018 15

2019

Stocking densities (smolts/m3) 2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

Cages

15 18,964 18,135 15,884 17,207 21,771

51

40

48

63

54

All others

26,436 27,010 28,945 25,326 32,466

562

587

526

469

477

Total

44,571 42,894 46,152 47,097 51,430

-

-

-

-

-

SMOLT PRODUCTION IN 2019 INCREASED BY 9% COMPARED TO 2018

The average stocking densities of cages decreased from 63 to 54 smolts per m³ in The densities of cages from 63 to 54 smolts 2019average comparedstocking to 2018, while densities in tanksdecreased and raceways decreased from 469 to per m³ in 2019 compared to 2018, while densities in tanks and raceways 477 smolts per m³. decreased from 469 to 477 smolts per m³.

Ova Production Table 17: Number (000’s) of salmon ova produced during 2010-2019 Production Survey.indd 53

01/12/2020 14:08:05


Total

44,571 42,894 46,152 47,097 51,430

-

-

-

-

-

The average stocking densities of cages decreased from 63 to 54 smolts per m³ in 2019 compared to 2018, while densities in tanks and raceways The average stocking densities of cages decreased from 63 to 54 smolts decreased from 469 to 477 smolts per m³. per m³ in 2019 compared to 2018, while densities in tanks and raceways decreased from 469 to 477 smolts per m³. Ova Production SURVEY 2019 54 PRODUCTION Table 17: Number (000’s) of salmon ova produced during 2010-2019

Ova Production

OVA PRODUCTION Table 17: Number (000’s) of 2013 salmon2014 ova produced during 2010-2019 2010 2011 2012 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Year

Table 17: Number (000’s) of salmon ova produced during 2010-2019. No. of ova Year No. of ova

91,655

78,208

57,489

56,904

33,450

11,605

13,689

12,631

15,228

11,618

91,655

78,208

57,489

56,904

33,450

11,605

13,689

12,631

15,228

11,618

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

In 2019, 11.6 million ova were stripped, a decrease of 24% from the In 2019, 11.6 million ova wereinstripped, number of ova produced 2018. a decrease of 24% from the number of ova In 2019,in11.6 million ova were stripped, a decrease of 24% from the produced 2018. number of ova produced in 2018. Table 18: Source, number (000’s), previous year’s estimate of ova laid Table Source,during number (000’s), previous estimate of ova laidfor down to hatch down 18: to hatch 2010-2019 and year’s projected production 2020 Table 2010-2019 18: Source, number (000’s), previous year’s estimate of ova laid during and projected production for 2020. down to hatch during 2010-2019 and projected production for 2020 Year

In-house broodstock

Year 2010

In-house 13,744 broodstock

Outsourced GB broodstock Out-

sourced 26,220GB broodstock

GB wild broodstock

Foreign ova

Total

GB wild 0 broodstock

Previous year's estimate Previous

Foreign ova 29,657

Total 69,621

year's 61,011 estimate

2011 15,664 14,630 0 34,322 64,616 54,526 2010 13,744 26,220 0 29,657 69,621 61,011 2012 18,556 9,981 0 34,700 63,237 55,723 2011 15,664 14,630 0 34,322 64,616 54,526 2013 16,996 8,263 0 41,315 66,573 49,249 2012 18,556 9,981 0 34,700 63,237 55,723 2014 14,418 2,725 10 53,684 70,837 48,149 2013 16,996 8,263 0 41,315 66,573 49,249 2015 6,479 223 10 61,463 68,175 65,284 2014 14,418 2,725 10 53,684 70,837 48,149 2016 5,884 4 0 58,458 64,346 59,604 2015 6,479 223 10 61,463 68,175 65,284 2017 0 was 71.2 59,158 65,746 60,673 The number6,228 of ova laid 360 down to hatch million, an increase of 2016 5,884 4 0 58,458 64,346 59,604 8,780 on the 200 0 The majority 61,499 of the 70,479 67,374 0.82018 million (1.1%) 2018 figure. ova (89.7%) 2017 6,228 360 0 59,158 65,746 60,673 2019 5,516 1,724sources,75 63,931 71,246 were derived from foreign this being an increase of 2.4 71,571 2018 8,780 200 0 61,499 70,479 67,374 million 2020 (4.0%) on the 2018 figure. Supplies derived from GB broodstock 70,598 2019 5,516 1,724 75 63,931 71,246 71,571

decreased by 1.7 million, an 18.5% decrease on the 2018 figure. In 70,598 The2020 number of ova laid down to hatch was 71.2 million, an increase of 0.8 million 2019, 75,000 ova from GB wild broodstock were laid down to hatch, (1.1%) on the 2018 figure. The majority of the ova (89.7%) were derived from foreign ova derived from wild stocks are generally held and hatched for wild sources, this being an increase of 2.4 million (4.0%) on the 2018 figure. Supplies stock enhancement by the aquaculture industry in cooperation with wild derived from GB broodstock decreased by 1.7 million, an 18.5% decrease on the 2018 fisheries managers. fi gure. In 2019, 75,000 ova from GB wild 16broodstock were laid down to hatch, ova derived from wild stocks are generally held and hatched for wild stock enhancement Smolts Produced andin Put to 16 Seawith wild fisheries managers. by the aquaculture industry cooperation Table 19: Actual and projected smolt production and smolts put to sea (millions) during 2010-2021 SMOLTS PRODUCED AND PUT TO SEA Table 19: Actual and projected smolt production and smolts put to sea (millions) during 2010-2021. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Actual smolts put to sea

38.5

42.7

41.1

40.9

48.1

45.5

43.0

46.1

45.4

53.0

Smolts produced

36.9

43.6

44.3

40.5

45.0

44.6

42.9

46.2

47.1

51.4

Estimated production

28.7

35.9

31.3

28.1

39.9

43.4

36.6

39.3

46.1

38.6

1.9

1.5

1.4

1.6

1.6

1.5

1.5

1.4

1.5

1.4

Ratio of ova laid down to smolts produced

52.1

Top: Salmon ova Above: Salmon smolt

56.6

The figure for the number of smolts put to sea includes smolts produced in England The smolts figureimported for the from number of smolts putsmolt to sea includesdata smolts and elsewhere, whereas production relate only to produced in England andSmolt smolts imported from elsewhere, whereas those produced in Scotland. producers estimate putting 52.1 million smolts to smolt production relate onlytotohatch those in Scotland. Smolt sea in 2020. The ratiodata of ova laid down to produced smolts produced in 2019 was less than the ratioestimate in 2018. putting 52.1 million smolts to sea in 2020. The ratio producers of ova laid down to hatch to smolts produced in 2019 was less than the ratio in 2018. Production Survey.indd 54

01/12/2020 14:08:33


Scale of Production

2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 55 Table 20: Smolt-producing sites grouped by numbers (000’s) of smolts produced during 2010-2019 Scale of Production

SCALE OF PRODUCTION

Table 20: Smolt-producing sites grouped by numbers (000’s) of smolts Table 20: Smolt-producing sites grouped by numbers (000’s) of smolts produced Scale of production produced during 2010-2019 No. of Total during 2010-2019. Year

1-10 11-25

2010 1 0 Year 2011 1-10 1 11-25 0

26- 51- 101- 25150 Scale 100of production 250 500 4 4 16 15 26- 51- 101- 2514 5 11 14 50 100 250 500

2012 2010 2013 2011

10 11

00 00

41 41

43 57

19 16 14 11

14 15 14 14

2014 2012 2015 2013

00 11

00 01

12 12

31 74

11 19 9 14

9 14 11 14

2016 2014 2017 2015

01 11

01 10

20 20

13 42

7 11 96

11 9 11 11

5011,000

10 5019 1,000 11 10 97 14 11 16 7 13 14 10 16

sites in smolts >1,000 production produced No. of Total 14 64in 36,872 sites smolts >1,000 produced 17 production 61 43,626 13 14 14 17

61 64 58 61

44,324 36,872 40,457 43,626

13 13 11 14

50 61 55 58

45,004 44,324 44,571 40,457

12 13 15 11 12 12

48 50 45 55 42 48

42,894 45,004 46,152 44,571 47,097 42,894

2018 10 9 14 2016 11 00 30 76 11 13 2019 11 8 10 16 45 51,430 2017 00 00 22 68 11 10 15 45 46,152 Note: These data refer only to sites producing smolts. The sites holding only ova, fry or 2018 0 1 0 0 6 9 14 12 42 47,097 parr are excluded. 2019 1 0 0 2 8 8 10 16 45 51,430 Note: These data refer only to sites producing smolts. The sites holding only ova, fry or

Theare number of parr excluded.

sites producing smolts in 2019 was 45. The number of sites producing than 101,000 smolts by two and producing there has The number of sitesless producing smolts in 2019 wasincreased 45. The number of sites alsothan been anof increase of four in the of sites producing in excess The number sites smolts in there 2019 was The offour less 101,000 smoltsproducing increased by two number and has also45. been annumber increase of ofthe one million per101,000 year. Thesmolts number of sites producing between sites producing lessproducing than by two and there has in number of smolts sites in excess of oneincreased million smolts per year. The number 101,000 and one million smolts per year decreased by three. of sites producing between one million smolts perproducing year decreased by also been an increase of101,000 four inand the number of sites in excess three. of one million smolts per year. The number of sites producing between Production of Ova and Smolt Production 101,000 and one million smolts perby year decreased Area by three. Table 21: Staffing in laid SMOLT down to hatch in 2018-2019, smolt PRODUCTION OF2019, OVAova AND BY PRODUCTION AREA production inof 2018-2019 estimated productionArea in 2020-2021 by Production Ova and and Smolt by Production Table 21: Staffing Staffing inin 2019, ovaova laid down to hatch 2018-2019, smolt production region21: Table 2019, laid down to in hatch in 2018-2019, smoltin 2018-2019 and estimated production in 2020-2021 by region. production in 2018-2019 and estimated production in 2020-2021 by Number region of staff Ova laid down to Smolt production Estimated smolt Region

Region North West

employed in 2019 Number of staff F/T P/T employed in 2019 15 130

hatch (000’s)

(000’s)

production (000’s)

Ova laid down to 2018 2019 hatch (000’s) 41,362 34,519

Smolt 2018production 2019 (000’s) 28,975 29,660

Estimated smolt 2020 2021 production (000’s) 25,397 29,896

Orkney

F/T 1

P/T 2

2018 0

2019 0

2018 108

2019 102

2020 100

2021 140

North West Shetland

130 25

15 1

41,362 5,708

34,519 6,512

28,975 3,287

29,660 4,560

25,397 4,350

29,896 4,500 140 17,059

Orkney West

1 56

2 11

0 16,673

0 23,221

108 10,451

102 11,772

100 17,799

Shetland Western Isles

25 31

12

5,708 6,694

6,512 6,952

3,287 3,514

4,560 4,362

4,350 3,835

4,500 4,285

West East and South

56 4

11 3

16,673 42

23,221 42

10,451 762

11,772 974

17,799 616

17,059 700

Western Isles All Scotland

31 247

2 34

6,694 70,479

6,952 71,246

3,514 47,097

4,362 51,430

3,835 52,097

4,285 56,580

East and South 4 42 762 974 616 700 In 2019, the North West3 and the42West were the main areas where ova were laid down All hatch. Scotland 247 West 34 and70,479 47,097 51,430 56,580 to The North the West71,246 were the main smolt producing52,097 areas. The greatest number of staff were employed in the North West region.

18

THE NUMBER OF OVA LAID DOWN TO HATCH WAS 71.2 MILLION, AN INCREASE OF 0.8 MILLION (1.1%) ON THE 2018 FIGURE

Left: Salmon smolt

18

Production Survey.indd 55

01/12/2020 14:08:52


56 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

Figure 2: The regional distribution of active Atlantic salmon smolt sites in 2019.

Âľ

Shetland

Orkney

Western Isles

North West

East & South West

0

20

40

60

80

Miles 100

Figure 2: The regional distribution of active atlantic salmon smolt sites in 2019 Production Survey.indd 56

Š Crown copyright and database rights 2020 OS (100024655)

01/12/2020 14:09:15


International Trade in Ova Since the introduction of the EU single market on 1st January 1993 and the associated Fish Health Regulations common to all EU member 2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 57 states, a trade in live salmon and ova has been established. In addition, the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement allows trade between the EU and the member states of the European Free Trade Association INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN OVA (EFTA). Trade is based on the same rules as are established within the EU Since the introduction of the EU single market on 1st January 1993 and the associated regarding compartments andtozones declared free afrom diseases. Fish Health Regulations common all EU member states, tradelisted in live salmon and

ova has been established. In addition, the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement Tradetrade withbetween Third Countries been established, but only allows the EU andhas the also member states of the European Free from Trade sites that have (EFTA). met the same health as are established the Association Trade is based onstandards the same rules as are established within within the EUregarding regarding the approval farms and zones forlisted listed diseases. Exports EU compartments andof zones declared free from diseases. Trade with to countries are subject to the health conditions Third Countriesoutside has also the beenEU established, but only from sites that have metplaced the same health as are established within the EU regarding approval of farms and by thestandards importing country. Marine Scotland Sciencethe advises potential zones for listed diseases. Exports to countries outside the EUany are subject tohealth the health exporters to ascertain with the importing country specific conditions placed by the importing country. Marine Scotland Science advises potential testing requirements that may be a condition of import. exporters to ascertain with the importing country any specific health testing requirements that may be a condition of import.

Imports and Exports

IMPORTS ANDand EXPORTS Table 22a: Source number (000’s) of salmon ova, fry, parr and smolts Table 22a:during Source and number (000’s) of salmon ova, fry,certificates parr and smolts imported imported 2010-2019 derived from health during 2010-2019 derived from health certificates. Ova

Fry, Parr and Smolts

Import Year

EU Member States

Iceland

Norway

2010

2,150

0

2011

3,400

0

2012

10,134

0

23,849

2013

10,700

2,719

35,044

2014

5,218

3,813

49,831

2015

4,815

8,978

2016

5,444

5,324

2017

7,000

2018 2019

EFTA

Total

EU Member States

EFTANorway

26,533

28,683

452

0

35,851

39,251

800

0

33,983

0

0

48,463

55

0

58,862

1,602

1,748

45,926

59,719

2,118

365

38,602

49,370

1,956

0

13,883

37,025

57,908

2,012

0

7,250

10,116

48,430

65,796

1,700

0

10,184

26,352

23,673

60,209

297

0

The numbers of ova imported decreased by 8.5%. The number of fry, parr and smolts The numbers of ova decreased by 8.5%. The number of fry, imported decreased fromimported that observed in 2018, with 0.3 million imported from EUparr and smolts imported decreased from that observed in 2018, with 0.3 member states. million imported from EU member states.

21

Production Survey.indd 57

Above and left: Salmon ova

01/12/2020 14:09:45


58 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019 Table 22b: Destination and number (000’s) of salmon ova, fry, parr and smolts exported during and 2010-2019 from health certificates Table 22b: Destination number derived (000’s) of salmon ova, fry, parr and Table 22b: Destination and 2010-2019 number (000’s) of salmon ova,health fry, parrcertificates and smolts exported during derived from smolts exported during 2010-2019 derived from health certificates. Export year

EU

Farmed origin ova

Total

Fry, Parr and Smolts

Farmed origin ova Norway Others

Total

Fry, Parr and Smolts

Export year 2010

EU 189

Norway 600

2010 2011

189 0

600 0

0 820

Others 0

789

130

789 820

130 183

2011 2012

00

00

820 0

820 0

183 55

2012 2013

0 650

00

00

0 650

55 404

2013 2014

650 0

00

00

650 0

404 259

2014 2015

0 93

00

20

0 95

259 8

2015 2016

93 335

00

2 23

95 358

8 173

2016 2017

335 16

00

23 323

358 339

173 206

2017 2018

16 23

00

323 0

339 23

206 71

2018 2019

23 0

00

00

23 0

71 263

2019

0

0

0

0

263

In 2019, no ova were exported. Fry, parr and smolt exports increased by In nofish ovaova were exported. Fry, parr and smolt exports 192,000 fish 192,000 on the 2018 figure. In2019, 2019, no were exported. Fry, parr and smoltincreased exportsbyincreased by on the 2018fish figure. 192,000 on the 2018 figure.

Vaccines

VACCINES Table 23: Number of sites using vaccines and number (millions) of fish Vaccines

Table sites using vaccines and number (millions)(millions) of fish vaccinated vaccinated duringof2010-2019 Table23: 23:Number Number of sites using vaccines and number of fish during 2010-2019. vaccinated during 2010-2019 Year

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

Year No. of sites

2010 70

2011 67

2012 63

2013 63

2014 56

2015 55

2016 47

2017 46

2018 43

2019 46

70 67 63 63 56 55 47 46 43 46 No. of sites fish 42.6 49.2 48.1 47.5 44.7 48.0 42.6 58.4 51.0 52.4 (millions) No. of fish vaccinated 42.6 49.2 48.1 47.5 44.7 48.0 42.6 58.4 51.0 52.4 (millions) vaccinated Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, infectious pancreatic

Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, necrosis (IPN), ERM, vibriosis and salmonid alphavirus (SAV). The majority infectious of fish were pancreatic necrosis (IPN), ERM, vibriosis and salmonid alphavirus Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, infectious vaccinated against furunculosis, vibriosis and IPN, with smaller numbers of fi sh(SAV). being The majority of ERM fish (IPN), were vaccinated against vibriosis and46 pancreatic necrosis ERM, vibriosis and furunculosis, salmonid (SAV). vaccinated against and SAV. A total of 52.4 million fish were alphavirus vaccinated across IPN, with smaller numbers of fish being vaccinated against vibriosis ERM andand SAV. sites. The majority of fish were vaccinated against furunculosis, A total of 52.4 million fish were vaccinated across 46 sites. ERM and SAV. IPN, with smaller numbers of fish being vaccinated against ESCAPES A total of 52.4 million fish were vaccinated across 46 sites. In 2019, there was one incident involving the loss of 4,465 fish from a Escapes site rearingthere freshwater Atlantic salmon.involving the loss of 4,465 fish from a In 2019, was one incident Escapes site rearing freshwater In 2019, there was one Atlantic incidentsalmon. involving the loss of 4,465 fish from a site rearing freshwater Atlantic salmon.

THE TOTAL PRODUCTION OF ATLANTIC SALMON IN 2019 WAS 203,881 TONNES, AN INCREASE OF 47,856 TONNES ON 2018 Below: Ink study of salmon

22 22

Production Survey.indd 58

01/12/2020 14:10:09


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 59

// 3. Atl an t i c sa l m on – Prod u ct i o n

Atlantic salmon – Production Production

PRODUCTION Production survey information was collected from all 11 companies

Production survey information wassalmon collectedproduction, from all 11 companies involved in actively involved in Atlantic farming actively 226 active sites. Atlantic salmon production,the farming 226industry active sites. This figure This figure represents entire operating in represents Scotland.the entire industry operating in Scotland. Table 24: Annual production of salmon (tonnes) during 1999-2019 and Table 24: Annual production of salmon (tonnes) during 1999-2019 and projected production in 2020 projected production in 2020. Year

Tonnes

Percentage difference

1999

126,686

14

Year 2010

Tonnes

Percentage difference

154,164

6.9

2000

128,959

2

2011

158,018

2.5

2001

138,519

7

2012

162,223

2.7 0.6

2002

144,589

4

2013

163,234

2003

169,736

17

2014

179,022

9.7

2004

158,099

-7

2015

171,722

-4.1

2005

129,588

-18

2016

162,817

-5.2

2006

131,847

2

2017

189,707

16.5

2007

129,930

-1.4

2018

156,025

-17.8 30.7

2008

128,606

-1

2019

203,881

2009

144,247

12

2020

207,630*

Top: Salmon in ice Above: Salmon farming

*industry estimate of projected tonnage based on stocks currently being on-grown.

The of Atlantic salmonsalmon during 2019 was2019 203,881 tonnes, an increase Thetotal totalproduction production of Atlantic during was 203,881 tonnes, of tonnes the 2018 total and the highest ever level production an47,856 increase of (30.7%) 47,856 on tonnes (30.7%) on the 2018 total and of the highest recorded in Scotland. ever level of production recorded in Scotland.

Production Survey.indd 59

01/12/2020 14:10:30


60 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019 Table 25: Number (000’s), production (tonnes) of salmon harvested and Table 25: Number (000’s), production (tonnes) of salmon harvested and mean fish mean fish weight (kg) per year class during 2010-2019 weight (kg) per year class during 2010-2019.

Harvest in year 0 (i.e. in year of input)

Harvest in year 1

Harvest in year 2

Year of smolt input

Year of harvest

Number (000’s)

Production (tonnes)

Mean weight at harvest (kg)

2010

2010

128

268

2.1

2011

2011

109

307

2.8

2012

2012

127

301

2.4

2013

2013

0

0

-

2014

2014

286

720

2.5

2015

2015

223

626

2.8

2016

2016

114

333

2.9

2017

2017

0

0

-

2018

2018

84

247

2.9

2019

2019

319

931

2.9

2009

2010

18,266

85,826

4.7

2010

2011

18,694

91,105

4.9

2011

2012

21,502

97,744

4.5

2012

2013

21,264

106,161

5.0

2013

2014

20,316

101,997

5.0

2014

2015

24,038

114,112

4.7

2015

2016

24,633

111,163

4.5

2016

2017

25,596

126,445

4.9

2017

2018

21,825

110,554

5.1

2018

2019

26,324

132,090

5.0

2008

2010

13,666

68,070

5.0

2009

2011

13,772

66,606

4.8

2010

2012

13,053

64,178

4.9

2011

2013

11,283

57,073

5.1

2012

2014

13,712

76,305

5.6

2013

2015

10,910

56,984

5.2

2014

2016

10,940

51,321

4.7

2015

2017

11,094

63,262

5.7

2016

2018

7,165

45,224

6.3

2017

2019

12,212

70,860

5.8

Above: Salmon fillets Below: Salmon farm

24

Production Survey.indd 60

01/12/2020 14:11:21


Table 26: Number (000’s) and production (tonnes) of grilse and presalmon harvested during 2010-2019 Grilse (January-August)

2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 61

Pre-salmon (September-December)

Table (tonnes) of grilse and preYear 26: Number (000’s) and production Average Table 26: Number (000’s) and2010-2019 production (tonnes)Number of grilse andTonnes pre-salmon Average harvested Number Tonnes salmon harvested during weight (kg) weight (kg) during 2010-2019. 2010

6,877

2011 Year 2012

7,604 35,146 4.6 Grilse (January-August)

29,733

4.3

11,389

56,093

4.9

11,090 55,959 5.0 Pre-salmon (September-December)

11,337 Number 9,618

53,216 Tonnes 47,496

4.7 Average weight 4.9 (kg)

10,165 Number 11,646

44,528 Tonnes 58,665

4.4 Average 5.0 (kg) weight

2010 2014

6,877 9,048

29,733 46,686

4.3 5.2

11,389 11,268

56,093 55,311

4.9

2011 2015

7,604 11,243

35,146 53,930

4.6 4.8

11,090 12,795

55,959 60,182

5.0 4.7

2012 2016

11,337 13,463

53,216 59,853

4.7 4.4

10,165 11,170

44,528 51,310

4.4 4.6

2013 2017

9,618 13,523

47,496 68,116

4.9 5.0

11,646 12,073

58,665 58,329

5.0 4.8

2014 2018

9,048 10,815

46,686 53,244

5.2 4.9

11,268 11,010

55,311 57,310

4.9 5.2

2015 2019

11,243 14,495

53,930 72,243

4.8 5.0

12,795 11,829

60,182 59,847

4.7 5.1

2016

13,463

59,853

4.4

11,170

51,310

4.6

2017

13,523

68,116

5.0

12,073

58,329

4.8

2018

10,815

53,244

4.9

11,010

57,310

5.2

2019

14,495

72,243

5.0

11,829

59,847

5.1

2013

Table 27: Percentage (by weight) of annual production by growth stage Table 27: Percentage (by weight) of annual production by growth stage harvested harvested during 2010-2019 during 2010-2019 Year

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

Table Percentage (by weight) of Growth27: stage - annual - production - by growth - stageharvested during 2010-2019 Input year fish <1 <1 <1 0 <1 <1 <1 0 <1 <1

Grilse 19 22 33 29 26 31 37 36 34 35 Year 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Pre-salmon 36 35 27 36 31 35 31 31 36 29 Growth stage Year 2 salmon 44 42 39 35 42 33 31 33 29 35 Input year fish <1 <1 <1 0 <1 <1 <1 0 <1 <1 Survival and Production in Smolt Year Classes

Table and in smolt year during Grilse28: Survival AND 19 production 22 33 29 classes 26 SMOLT 31 2000-2019 37 36 CLASSES 34 35 SURVIVAL PRODUCTION IN YEAR

Table 28: Survival Pre-salmon 36and production 35 27 in smolt 36 year 31classes 35 during 312000-2019. 31 36 Year 2 salmon Year of smolt input

Smolt input (000’s)

44

Harvest year 0

42

Mean % Number Weight weight (000’s) (tonnes) harvest (kg)

39

Harvest year 1

35

42

33

Number (000’s)

Weight (tonnes)

Mean weight (kg)

harvest

%

Number (000’s)

Harvest year 2 31 33 Weight (tonnes)

Above: Young salmon

29

29Total % of 35

Mean weight (kg)

%

year class harvested

harvest

(survival)

Year class weight (tonnes)

Yield per smolt (kg)

26

2000 45,185

765

2,673

3.5

1.7

22,726

96,539

4.2

50.3

11,354 53,535

4.7

25.1

77.1

152,747

3.38

2001 48,643

557

1,227

2.2

1.1

23,528

90,230

3.8

48.4

15,619 73,255

4.7

32.1

81.6

164,712

3.39

2002 50,086

272

824

3.0

0.5

22,602

96,205

4.3

45.1

15,555 71,988

4.6

31.1

76.7

169,017

3.37

2003 43,083

82

276

3.4

0.2

19,596

85,792

4.4

45.5

13,920 61,850

4.4

32.3

78.0

147,918

3.43

2004 39,041

168

319

1.9

0.4

15,075

67,738

4.5

38.6

14,237 67,537

4.7

36.5

75.5

135,594

3.47

2005 37,168

0

0

-

0

14,036

64,099

4.6

37.8

14,999 69,000

4.6

40.3

78.1

133,099

3.58

2006 41,091

115

211

1.8

0.3

13,787

60,890

4.4

33.5

15,881 73,631

4.6

38.6

72.5

134,732

3.28

2007 37,853

23

40

1.7

0.06

13,011

54,759

4.2

34.4

14,133 66,448

4.7

37.3

71.8

121,247

3.20

2008 36,662

116

216

1.9

0.3

16,338

77,621

4.7

44.6

13,666 68,070

5.0

37.3

82.2

145,907

3.98

2009 38,548

81

178

2.2

0.2

18,266

85,826

4.7

47.4

13,772 66,606

4.8

35.7

83.3

152,610

3.96

2010 38,490

128

268

2.1

0.3

18,694

91,105

4.9

48.6

13,053 64,178

4.9

33.9

82.8

155,551

4.04

2011 42,733

109

307

2.8

0.3

21,502

97,744

4.5

50.3

11,283 57,073

5.1

26.4

77.0

155,124

3.63

2012 41,094

127

301

2.4

0.3

21,264

106,161

5.0

51.7

13,712 76,305

5.6

33.4

85.4

182,767

4.45

2013 40,936

0

0

-

0

20,316

101,997

5.0

49.6

10,910 56,984

5.2

26.7

76.3

158,981

3.88

25

2014 48,112

286

720

2.5

0.6

24,038

114,112

4.7

50.0

10,940 51,321

4.7

22.7

73.3

166,153

3.45

2015 45,465

223

626

2.8

0.5

24,633

111,163

4.5

54.2

11,094 63,262

5.7

24.4

79.1

175,051

3.85

2016 42,957

114

333

2.9

0.3

25,596

126,445

4.9

59.6

45,224

6.3

16.7

76.6

172,002

4.00

2017 46,116

0

0

-

0

21,825

110,554

5.1

47.3

12,212 70,860

5.8

26.5

73.8

181,414

3.93

2018 45,375

84

247

2.9

0.2

26,324

132,090

5.0

58.0

2019 52,990

319

931

2.9

0.6

25

7,165

26

Production Survey.indd 61

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62 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

In 2017, the last year for which survival can be calculated, the survival rate from smolt input to harvest decreased to 73.8%. Of the 2018 year class, 58.2% of the input has been harvested, 10.9% higher than the average harvest offor fish onesurvival year after in thethe 2017 year class. In 2017, the last year which can beinput calculated, survival rate from In smolt input to0.6% harvest to 73.8%. Of the 2018 58.2% of This the input 2019, ofdecreased the fish were harvested fromyear theclass, 2019 input. washas an been harvested, 10.9%with higher than the averageofharvest of fish one from year after increase compared the proportion fish harvested the input same in the class 2017 year class. In 2019, 0.6% of the fish were harvested from the 2019 input. year in 2018. This was an increase compared with the proportion of fish harvested from the same year class to in 2018. Smolts Sea Table 29: Number (000’s) and origin of smolts put to sea during 2010-

SMOLTS TO SEA 2019

Table 29: Number (000’s) and origin of smolts put to sea during 2010-2019. Smolts put to sea (000’s)

Year S½ 2010

14,069

S1

S1½

24,421

0

Total (000’s) 38,490

Scottish Origin

English Origin

Other Origin

%

(000’s)

%

(000’s)

%

95

1,541

4

120

<1

2011

17,721

25,012

0

42,733

96

1,765

4

0

0

2012

17,334

23,480

280

41,094

96

1,510

4

0

0

2013

19,262

21,534

140

40,936

97

1,169

3

0

0

2014

23,758

24,212

142

48,112

94

893

2

2,072

4

2015

22,886

22,569

10

45,465

96

938

2

1,082

2

2016

22,052

20,905

0

42,957

97

1,048

2

611

1

2017

25,490

20,626

0

46,116

97

976

2

300

<1

2018

21,629

23,746

0

45,375

96

1,318

3

364

<1

2019

24,525

28,465

0

52,990

98

751

1

297

<1

The total number of smolts put to sea in 2019 was almost 53.0 million. This smolt The total number of smolts put to sea in 2019 was almost 53.0 million. input comprised S½s (46.3%) and S1s (53.7%). Two percent of the smolts stocked This smolt inputfarms comprised S½s (46.3%) and S1s (53.7%). Two 1% percent of to Scottish salmon were sourced from outwith Scotland, less than of which the smolts stocked to Scottish farms were outwith came from sources outwith GB. Thissalmon was a decrease of 2% sourced comparedfrom with the proporScotland, less than 1% of which came from sources outwith GB. This was tion observed in 2018. a decrease of 2% compared with the proportion observed in 2018.

Production Survey.indd 62

THE TOTAL NUMBER OF SMOLTS PUT TO SEA IN 2019 WAS ALMOST 53.0 MILLION

Top: Salmon fillets Above: Salmon smolts

01/12/2020 14:12:14


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 63

Survival and Production in Smolt Classes by CLASSES Production Area SURVIVAL AND PRODUCTION INYear SMOLT YEAR BY PRODUCTION AREA Table 30: Number (000’s) of smolts put to sea and year class survival by area Table Number (000’s) of smolts put to sea and year class survival by area during during30: 2008-2019 2008-2019. Region

North West

Orkney

Shetland

South West

Western Isles

Smolts put to sea (000’s) Year No

Year

No

%

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

116 42 117 53 127 0 191 223 114 0 84 205 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 29 0 49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 114 0 10 12 0 0 0 95 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1.3 0.4 1.2 0.4 1.1 0 1.1 2.6 0.8 0 0.6 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0.1 0.2 0 0 0 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

9,099 9,986 9,924 12,605 11,588 10,975 17,543 8,646 14,534 9,527 15,177 15,071 1,912 1,154 2,557 2,718 2,727 2,104 2,829 3,266 3,050 3,524 3,478 4,670 13,929 10,031 11,573 11,206 11,389 9,956 11,309 9,040 10,640 8,539 11,312 7,613 6,507 8,200 6,565 7,493 7,363 7,801 6,981 11,156 8,093 11,106 7,177 11,100 5,214 9,177 7,870 8,711 8,027 10,100 9,451 13,357 6,640 13,420 8,231 14,536

Harvest in year 0

Harvest in year 1 Year

No

Harvest in year 2

Total Harvest

%

Year

No

%

No

%

2009 4,897 2010 7,045 2011 6,324 2012 7,937 2013 7,179 2014 6,549 2015 9,649 2016 6,122 2017 9,711 2018 3,809 2019 10,947

53.8 70.5 63.7 63.0 62.0 59.7 55.0 70.8 66.8 40.0 72.1

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2,687 2,003 2,802 1,744 2,623 1,695 3,768 1,695 1,882 1,739

29.5 20.1 28.2 13.8 22.6 15.4 21.5 19.6 12.9 18.3

7,700 9,090 9,243 9,734 9,929 8,244 13,608 8,040 11,707 5,548

84.6 91.0 93.1 77.2 85.7 75.1 77.6 93.0 80.5 58.2

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

507 741 1,126 1,203 1,422 1,023 1,412 1,580 1,184 1,699 2,068

26.5 64.2 44.0 44.3 52.1 48.6 49.9 48.4 38.8 48.2 59.5

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

1,120 95 936 765 1,167 512 1,244 1,521 1,571 835

58.6 8.2 36.6 28.1 42.8 24.3 44.0 46.6 51.5 23.7

1,627 836 2,062 1,968 2,589 1,535 2,656 3,101 2,755 2,534

85.1 72.4 80.6 72.4 94.9 72.9 93.9 95.0 90.3 71.9

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

4,992 4,201 4,134 4,911 4,995 4,289 5,042 5,322 6,012 4,579 4,430

35.8 41.9 35.7 43.8 43.9 43.1 44.6 58.9 56.5 53.6 39.2

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

4,659 3,234 4,292 2,709 4,022 3,034 2,663 1,592 1,723 2,005

33.4 32.2 37.1 24.2 35.3 30.5 23.5 17.6 16.2 23.5

9,651 7,464 8,426 7,669 9,017 7,323 7,705 6,914 7,735 6,584

69.2 74.4 72.8 68.4 79.2 73.6 68.1 76.5 72.7 77.1

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

4,153 2,700 3,000 2,673 2,841 3,202 3,771 4,944 4,643 5,330 4,799

63.8 32.9 45.7 35.7 38.6 41.0 54.0 44.3 57.4 48.0 66.9

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2,969 4,697 2,648 3,706 3,863 3,564 2,023 3,643 1,622 3,648

45.6 57.3 40.3 49.4 52.5 45.7 29.0 32.7 20.0 32.8

7,122 109.4* 7,407 90.3 5,660 86.2 6,379 85.1 6,704 91.1 6,766 86.7 5,889 84.4 8,587 77.0 6,265 77.4 8,978 80.8

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

1,789 3,579 4,110 4,778 4,827 5,254 4,164 6,665 4,046 6,408 4,080

34.3 39.0 52.2 54.9 60.1 52.0 44.1 49.9 60.9 47.7 49.6

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2,231 3,743 2,375 2,358 2,037 2,105 1,242 2,643 367 3,985

42.8 40.8 30.2 27.1 25.4 20.8 13.1 19.8 5.5 29.7

4,020 7,322 6,485 7,143 6,864 7,359 5,406 9,308 4,413 10,393

77.1 79.8 82.4 82.0 85.5 72.8 57.2 69.7 66.4 77.4

* The survival of the 2008 smolt input in the South West is over 100% due to the practice of putting smolts to sea in one region and subsequently moving them to another sea water site in another region for harvest.

Production Survey.indd 63

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64 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019 Figure 3: The regional distribution of active atlantic salmon production sites in 2019 .

Shetland

Orkney

Western Isles

East & South South West

0

20

40

60

80

Miles 100

Figure 3: The regional distribution of active atlantic salmon production sites in 2019 Š Crown copyright and database rights 2020 OS (100024655) Production Survey.indd 64

01/12/2020 14:13:20


// 4.Ot her Spe cies 2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 65 The Scottish aquaculture industry has continued to farm other species of fish during 2019. The production of brown/sea trout (Salmo trutta) showed an increase, with the majority of production being for the angling restocking market. Inhas 2019 there to was production of of halibut The Scottish aquaculture industry continued farm other species fish during (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) but the(Salmo figuretrutta cannot be published without 2019. The production of brown/sea trout ) showed an increase, with the revealing the production from an individual company. majority of production being for the angling restocking market. InLumpsucker 2019 there was (Cyclopterus lumpus) and several species of wrasse (Labridae) were production of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus ) but the figure cannot be published also produced The from production of lumpsucker and wrasse are without revealing in the2019. production an individual company. Lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus and marine several species of wrasse also they produced 2019. targeted at) the Atlantic salmon(Labridae) industrywere where are in used as a The production of lumpsucker and wrasse are targeted at the marine Atlantic salmon biological control for parasites. industry where they are used as a biological control for parasites.

Other Species

Company, Site and Production Data

COMPANY, SITE AND PRODUCTION DATAother species in Table 40: Number of companies and sites producing

Table Number of companies and sites producing other during species in 2019, annualand 2019,40: annual production of other species (tonnes) 2016-2019 production of other species (tonnes) during 2016-2019 and projected production in projected production in 2020 2020. Species

2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 No. of No. of Production Production Production Production Production companies sites tonnage tonnage tonnage tonnage tonnage*

Brown trout/ Sea trout

8

9

41

61

20

25

24

Halibut

1

3

67

Lumpsucker

2

3

10

26

14

13

21

Wrasse spp.

2

3

4

4

6

3

10

* Industry estimates based on stocks currently being on-grown. † Production occurred but this cannot be shown without revealing the figure for an individual company. ‡ Estimate provided but cannot be shown without revealing the figure for an individual

THE PRODUCTION OF BROWN/ SEA TROUT SHOWED AN INCREASE

company. Staffing

Table 41: Number of staff employed in farming other species during 2010-

STAFFING 2019

Table 41: Number of staff employed in farming other species during 2010-2019. Year

Full-time Male

Full-time Female

Total Fulltime

Part-time Male

Part-time Female

Total Parttime

Total Staff

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

18 22 22 26 25 33 38 37 37 32

1 2 3 3 4 2 5 8 8 6

19 24 25 29 29 35 43 45 45 38

20 17 19 17 17 11 14 13 11 10

4 2 2 4 3 4 6 4 4 5

24 19 21 21 20 15 20 17 15 15

43 43 46 50 49 50 63 62 60 53

In 2019, the overall number of staff employed in the production of other species 36 In 2019, the overall number decreased by seven, to 53 staff. of staff employed in the production of other species decreased by seven, to 53 staff.

Production of Cleaner fish

Above: Juvenile halibut Left: Warasse

Table 42: Number (000’s) of cleaner fish produced during 2015-2019 Number of fish produced (000’s) Species

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

Lumpsucker

235

262

925

553

660

Wrasse spp.

75

118

58

103

59

Production Survey.indd 65

In recent years lumpsucker and wrasse spp. have been produced for use

01/12/2020 14:13:48


2019 32 6 38 10 5 15 53 2017 37 8 45 13 4 17 62 2018 37 8 45 11 4 15 60 In 2019, number of 38 staff employed in the of other 2019 the overall 32 6 10 5 production 15 53

species decreased by seven, to 53 staff.

In 2019, the overall number of staff employed in the production of other

2019 66 PRODUCTION SURVEY Production of Cleaner fish species decreased by seven, to 53 staff.

Table 42: Number (000’s) of cleaner fish produced during 2015-2019

Production of Cleaner fish

PRODUCTION OF CLEANER FISH Number of fish produced (000’s)during 2015-2019 Table 42: Number (000’s) of cleaner fish produced Table 42: Number2015 (000’s) of cleaner fish produced during 2015-2019. Species 2016 2017 2018 Lumpsucker

235

Wrasse Species spp.

75 2015

Lumpsucker

235

262 925 (000’s) Number of fish produced 118 58 2016 2017 262

925

2019

553

660

103 2018

59 2019

553

660

Wrasse spp. 75 118 In recent years lumpsucker and wrasse spp.58have been 103 produced for 59 use as a biological control for parasites in the marine Atlantic salmon industry. In recent years lumpsucker and wrasse spp. have been produced for use as a biologiData on the number ofthe fish produced only been collected since 2015. In recent years lumpsucker and wrasse spp. have been produced for use cal control for parasites in marine Atlantichas salmon industry. Data on the number of As data for future is collected it2015. will show in cleaner fish as biological for parasites the marine Atlantic salmon industry. fi sha produced hascontrol onlyyears been collected sincein As datatrends for future years is collected it production. Data on trends the number of fifish produced has only been collected since 2015. will show in cleaner sh production.

As data forDown future to years is collected it will show trends in cleaner fish Ova Laid Hatch

production. OVA LAID DOWN HATCH Table 43: Source of ovaTO from other species laid down to hatch during 2019 Table 43: Source of ova from other species laid down to hatch during 2019.

Ova Laid Down to Hatch

of ova down hatch (000’s) Table 43: Source of ova from otherSource species laidlaid down totohatch during 2019 Species

Own Other GB Foreign ova broodstock Source of ovabroodstock laid down to hatch (000’s)

Species Brown/sea trout

10 0 GB 57 Own Other Foreign ova broodstock broodstock Halibut § 0 0 Brown/sea trout 10 0 57 Lumpsucker 0 0 1,200 Halibut § 0 0 Wrasse spp. 12,000 6,500 0 0 but this cannot 0 be shown without 1,200 §Lumpsucker Own broodstock ova was laid down to hatch revealing the figure for an individual company. Wrasse spp. 12,000 6,500 0 §Trade Own broodstock ovaFish was laid down to hatch but this cannot be shown without revealing in Small 37 the figure for individual FISH company. TRADE INanSMALL

Table 44: Trade in small fish of other species in 2019 Table 44: Trade in small fish of other species in 2019. 37 Species

Bought (000’s)

Sold (000’s)

Halibut

#

#

57

18

Brown /sea trout

# During 2019 there was trade of small halibut but figures cannot be shown without revealing the figure for an individual company.

There also a small amount of production of brook of charr (Salvelinus ) and Therewas was also a small amount of production brook charr fontinalis (Salvelinus tiger trout (Salmo trutta trout x Salvelinus fontinalis duefontinalis). to the small However, number of fontinalis) and tiger (Salmo trutta).xHowever, Salvelinus companies production, it is not possible to summarise these data revealing due to theinsmall number of companies in production, it iswithout not possible the production ofthese individual companies. to summarise data without revealing the production of individual

From the Top: Lumpsucker, wrasse

companies.

ORGANIC PRODUCTION

Of the 20 sites recorded as producing other species in 2019, no organic production was Organic Production reported. Of the 20 sites recorded as producing other species in 2019, no organic production was reported. ESCAPES There were no reported escapes from sites rearing other species during 2019. Escapes

There were no reported escapes from sites rearing other species during 2019.

Production Survey.indd 66

01/12/2020 14:16:10


Argyll & Clyde and the North Coast & West Highlands have been merged. Other finfish species including brown/sea trout, rainbow trout, cod, halibut and cleaner fish were produced, however these figures cannot be FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 67 attributed to Scottish Marine Regions due to commercial2021 confidentiality.

Scottish marine regions Figure 4: Scottish Marine regions.

The Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 integrated management of Scotland’s seas. Figure 4:introduces Scottish Marine regions The creation of a National Marine Plan, as required by the Act, sets the wider context for planning within Scotland including what 39should be considered when creating regional marine plans. Eleven Scottish Marine Regions have been created under the Act (see Figure 4) which cover sea areas extending out to 12 nautical miles.

THERE WAS ALSO A SMALL AMOUNT OF PRODUCTION OF BROOK CHARR AND TIGER TROUT

To support the development of Regional Marine Plans by Regional Marine Planning Partnerships, tonnages and financial values of annual finfish production have been calculated for the regions defined under the Act. In order to maintain commercial confidentiality salmon production figures for Argyll & Clyde and the North Coast & West Highlands have been merged. Other finfish species including brown/sea trout, rainbow trout, cod, halibut and cleaner fish were produced, however these figures cannot be attributed to Scottish Marine Regions due to commercial confidentiality.

Production Survey.indd 67

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68 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

Scottish Shellfish Farm Surveys 2019

Production Survey - Shellfish.indd 68

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 69

OVERVIEW

• In 2019, 6,699 tonnes of mussels were produced for the table market;

www.gov.scot/policies/fish-health-inspectorate/surveillance-programme/;

• Mussel and Pacific oyster remain the main species produced in terms of value and tonnage. Mussel production decreased by 3% and Pacific oyster production increased by 14% during 2019;

• Movement restrictions remain in place for the presence of Bonamia ostreae at Loch Sunart, Highland and West Loch Tarbert, Argyll;

• During 2019, over 2.5 million Pacific oyster shells were produced for on-growing showing that markets both home and abroad are well established; • Queen scallop production figures were not able to be updated for 2019. There was a decrease in scallop production, from 31,000 to 26,000 shells, since 2018; • There was a decrease in the production of native oyster from 142,000 to 103,000 shells in 2019. This sector continues to target a strong niche market;

• Movement restrictions for Bonamia ostreae were placed on the Dornoch Firth, Highland and an area covering the Lynn of Lorne, Loch Creran and Loch Etive, Strathclyde; • The UK maintained disease free status with regard to bonamiasis, marteiliasis and OsHV-1 µvar, with the exception of specific compartments under movement restrictions. Immediate notification of increased mortality on farm sites must be reported to Marine Scotland Science, Fish Health Inspectorate.

Left: Oysters Below: Mussels Above: Scallop

• Employment levels decreased by 7% from the previous year, with 277 full, part-time and casual staff being employed during 2019. • The Scottish shellfish farming industry is estimated to be worth approximately £7.9 million at first sale value, a decrease of 17% on the 2018 figure. • Active surveillance for bonamiasis, marteiliasis and OsHV1 µvar continued in 2019; • For shellfish health purposes, 59 out of 329 sites were inspected during 2019 as part of a risk based surveillance programme implemented under Council Directive 2006/88/ EC. Details of this can be found at https://

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// P R O D U C T I O N 70 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

The survey reports that the shellfish species cultivated in Scottish waters in // PRODUCTIO N 2019 were:

PRODUCTION

T

The he survey reports the shellfish cultivated in Scottish waters in Mussel: Mytilus spp. species survey reports that thethat shellfish species cultivated in Scottish waters in 2019 were: 2019Pacific were:oyster: Crassostrea gigas1 Native oyster:

Ostrea edulis

Queen scallop: Mussel:

Aequipecten Mytilusopercularis spp.

Scallop: Pacific oyster:

Pecten maximus gigas1 Crassostrea

Ostrea edulis

Native oyster:

Queen Aequipecten Production wasscallop: dominated by mussel and Pacificopercularis oyster, although small quantities of scallop, queen scallop (queen) and native oyster were also Scallop: Pecten maximus produced. The 2019, production data for each species by region are given in Production dominated byin mussel andthere Pacific oyster, although smallof quantities of periwinkle Table 1. was Additionally 2019, was cultivation common scallop, queenlittorea) scallop (queen) and native weresmall also produced. The pro-species being (Littorina however, dueoyster to the number of2019, these Production was dominated Pacific oyster, duction data for each species by region are by givenmussel in Table 1. and Additionally in 2019, there although small produced it is not possible to summarise these without revealing commercially was cultivation of common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) however, due to the small quantities of scallop, queen scallop (queen) and native oyster were also sensitive information. number of these species being produced it is not possible to summarise these without

produced. The 2019, production data for each species by region are given in revealing commercially sensitive information. TABLE 1 Table 1. Additionally in 2019, there was cultivation of common periwinkle TABLE 1 SCOTTISH SHELLFISH PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2019. (Littorina however, Scottish shellfishlittorea) production by region, 2019.due to the small number of these species being

produced it is not possible toPacific summarise these without revealing commercially Businesses Region Mussel oyster Native oyster Queen Scallop sensitive information. (tonnes) (000s) (000s) (000s) (000s) On-

Table

growing

Table

Ongrowing

Table

Ongrowing

Table

TABLE 1 Highland 44 468 36 1,760 2,000 0 5 SCOTTISH SHELLFISH PRODUCTION Orkney 5 0 0 0 BY REGION, 0 0 2019. 0 Shetland Strathclyde Region Western Isles All Scotland

23

5,324

43 363 Businesses 14 129

Weight (Tonnes)

544

2,869

0

0

0

570 2,439 Pacific 530 oyster 103 Mussel 18 (tonnes)

411

6,699

3,493 On4,610

6,699

3,493growing 369

Table

0 (000s) 2,530

Table

0 103 On-

growing 8

0

Ongrowing

Table

Ongrowing

1

0

26

0

0

0

0 0

0

0

0

0

322 17 Native oyster

0

0 Queen

0

Scallop

0 (000s) 0

0

0 (000s)

0

(000s)

327

Table

18 Ongrowing 1

0

Table

26 On-

0

growing 3

Table

Highland 44 468 36 1,760 2,000 0 5 1 0 NB: report lists regions active shellfi sh farms operated by Authorised aquaculNB:This THIS REPORT LISTSwith REGIONS WITH ACTIVE SHELLFISH FARMS OPERATED BY Orkney 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ture production businesses. AUTHORISED AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION BUSINESSES. Shetland 23 5,324 2,869 0 0 0 0 0 0 Conversion to weight used the following assumptions (based on industry figures): Strathclyde 43 363 570 2,439 530 103 322 17 0 CONVERSION TO WEIGHT USED THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS (BASED ON INDUSTRY Individual oysters averaged 80g. FIGURES): INDIVIDUAL OYSTERS 80g; INDIVIDUAL AVERAGED Westernscallops Isles 14 120g. 544 AVERAGED 18 411 0 0SCALLOPS 0 0 0 Individual averaged 120g; INDIVIDUAL QUEENS AVERAGED Individual queens averaged 40g.6,699 All Scotland 129 3,493 40g. 4,610 2,530 103 327 18 0 Weight (Tonnes) 3,493 369 8 Table = sales directly for human6,699 consumption. TABLE = SALES DIRECTLY FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION; On-growing = sales to other businesses for on-growing. ON-GROWING = SALES TO OTHER BUSINESSES FOR ON-GROWING.

On-

growing

26

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

26

0

1

3

NB: THIS REPORT LISTS REGIONS WITH ACTIVE SHELLFISH FARMS Above:OPERATED Native Table production by species is illustrated in Figure 1, while trends oysters AUTHORISED AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION BUSINESSES. ¹ Aproduction proposed name to Magallana gigas remains controversial (Bayne etinal. 2007, Journal of Shellfish in for thechange table market and on-growing in Scotland are presented Opposite: Scallops, Research. Table 2. 36, 545-547) Mussel farm

BY

CONVERSION TO WEIGHT USED THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS (BASED ON INDUSTRY FIGURES): INDIVIDUAL OYSTERS AVERAGED 80g; INDIVIDUAL SCALLOPS AVERAGED 120g; INDIVIDUAL QUEENS AVERAGED 40g. 2

Production Survey - Shellfish.indd 70

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Table production by species is illustrated in Figure 1 (see page 4), while trends in production for the table market and on-growing in Scotland are presented inFISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 71 2021 Table 2.

TABLE TABLE 22 Trends inIN production data DATA for the table and on-growing 2010-2019.2010-2019. TRENDS PRODUCTION FOR THE TABLE AND ON-GROWING For the table Pacific oyster (000s) Native oyster (000s) Queen (000s)

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 3,008 3,136 2,706 1,891 3,392 2,693 3,534 5,034 4,031 4,610 350

350

317

260

242

200

201

200

142

103

% change 18-19

14 -27

184

27

9

33

18

33

155

273

18

18

0

64

78

58

40

48

30

35

47

31

26

-16

Mussel (tonnes)

7,199 6,996 6,277 6,757 7,683 7,270 7,732 8,232 6,874 6,699

-3

For on-growing

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Scallop (000s)

Pacific oyster (000s) Native oyster (000s)

2018 2019

1,633 1,400 3,190 6,216 6,792 5,864 4,584 3,849 4,240 2,530 300

1

677 1,015

749

13

323

481

344

327

% change 18-19

-40 -5

Queen (000s)

0

0

0 1,490

500

900

17

300

0

0

0

Scallop (000s)

0

104

16 1,470

136

49

23

9

4

0

-100

175

282

309 1,281 1,263 1,841 2,619 4,437 2,137 3,493

63

Mussel (tonnes)

Mussel production, for the table, decreased by 3% in 2019 (see figure Mussel production, for the table, decreased by 3% in 2019 (see figure 1) to 1) to 6,699 tonnes. The greatest contribution in regional mussel pro6,699 tonnes. The greatest contribution in regional mussel production was from duction was from Shetland, accounting foror5,324 or 79%total. of Pacific oyster Shetland, accounting for 5,324 tonnes 79% tonnes of Scotland’s Scotland’s total. Pacific oyster production increased by 14% from production increased by 14% from 2018. The Strathclyde region produced 2018. The Strathclyde regionPacific produced 53% The of Scotland’s farmedproduction figure 53% of Scotland’s farmed oysters. queen scallop Pacifi c oysters. The queen scallop production figurenot hasbe notcollected during the has not been updated from 2018 as data could been updated from 2018 as data could not be collected duringscallops decreased by COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The production of farmed the COVID-19 pandemic The of farmed 16%. Both these sectorslockdown. continuing toproduction target small niche markets. Production of scallops decreased by 16%.by Both these sectors to production accounts native oysters decreased 27% from 2018.continuing Native oyster target small percentage niche markets. Production native oysters decreased for a small of total oysterofproduction, however, demand for this by 27% from 2018.to Native oyster production accounts a smallspecies show that species continues be high. Historical data for all for shellfish percentage total vary oysteryear production, spe- of different productionof levels on year.however, This candemand be due for to athis number cies continues to poor be high. data for allpoor shellfi sh species show weather factors such as spatHistorical fall, algal toxins, growth, adverse that levels vary year on year. This can be due to was a number of and production fluctuations in market prices. However, production not affected by diff erent factors such as poor spat fall, algal toxins, growth, weather COVID-19 restrictions, as the survey covers the poor period prior adverse to the pandemic. and fluctuations in market prices. However, production was not affected by COVID-19 restrictions, as the survey covers the period prior to the pandemic.

NATIVE OYSTER PRODUCTION ACCOUNTS FOR A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL OYSTER PRODUCTION

3

Production Survey - Shellfish.indd 71

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72 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

10,000 8,000

Tonnes

6,000 4,000 2,000 0 6,000

Mussel (tonnes) '10

'11

'12

'13

'14

'15

'16

'17

'15

'16

'17

'18

'19

Pacific oyster (000s)

5,000

Queen (000s) Native oyster (000s)

Number (000s)

4,000

Scallop (000s)

3,000 2,000 1,000 0 '10

'11

'12

'13

'14

'18

'19

FIGURE 1 TABLE PRODUCTION BY SPECIES 2010-2019. FIGURE 1 Table production by species 2010-2019.

Prices of farmed shellfish fluctuated throughout the year. Their value at first sale

Prices of farmed shellfish fluctuated throughout the year. Their value at first was estimated from the following figures obtained from the shellfish farming indussaletry. was estimated thelevel following figures from shellfish These vary with from demand, of production andobtained geographical areathe of origin. farming industry. These vary with demand, level of production and The average price of Pacific oyster was £0.34 per shell; native oyster, £0.60 pergeographical shell; scallop, The £1.84average per shell;price queenof scallop, £0.13 per shell mussel £920 per native area of origin. Pacific oyster wasand £0.34 per shell; tonne. The value the table trade£1.84 is estimated from the production figures shown oyster, £0.60 per of shell; scallop, per shell; queen scallop, £0.13 per shell Table 1. £920 per tonne. The value of the table trade is estimated from the andinmussel production figures shown in Table 1 (see page 2). Mussel: £6.2 million Native oyster: £0.06 million Mussel: £6.2 million Queen: £0.002 million

Pacific oyster: £1.6 million Scallop: £0.05 million

Pacific oyster: £1.6 million Native oyster: £0.06 million Scallop: £0.05 million In 2019, the total value atmillion first sale for all species was calculated at approximately Queen: £0.002 £7.9 million, a decrease of 17% from the £9.5 million estimated in 2018. This decline is largely due to a decrease in the average price estimate for mussels in In 2019, the total value at first sale for all species was calculated at 2019, see Appendix 2 for more details.

Above: Oyster farm, scallops Opposite: Mussel farming

approximately £7.9 million, a decrease of 17% from the £9.5 million estimated in 2018. This decline is largely due to a decrease in the average price estimate for mussels in 2019, see Appendix 2 for more details.

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 73

/ / S I TES A N D BUSI NESSES numbers of authorised, active businesses and sites in operation are / / The S ITE S A N D BUSI NESSES presented in Tables 3 and 4. There are many sites that held stock not yet ready for market, others were fallow, and some were located in remote The numbers of authorised, active businesses and sites in operation are areas where cost-effective production and marketing of shellfish proved presented in Tables 3 and 4. There are many sites that held stock not yet difficult. In 2019, 165 sites produced shellfish for sale, an increase of ready market, others were fallow, and some were located in remote SITESfor AND BUSINESSES 3% since 2018,ofand 56% ofactive these sites were located in Shetland. numbers authorised, businesses and sites in operation are areashewhere cost-effective production and marketing of shellfish proved presented in Tables 3 and 4. There are many sites that held stock not yet difficult. In 2019, 165 sites produced shellfish for sale, an increase of ready for market, others were fallow, and some were located in remote areas 3% since 2018, 56% of sites in cult. Shetland. where cost-eff ectiveand production andthese marketing of were shellfishlocated proved diffi In 2019,

T

TABLE 3 165 sites produced shellfi sh for BUSINESSES sale, an increase of 3% since 2018, and 56% of AUTHORISED AND ACTIVE 2010-2019. these sites were located in Shetland. TABLE 3 Number of Businesses TABLE 3 AUTHORISED AND ACTIVE BUSINESSES 2010-2019. Authorised and 2010 active businesses 2010-2019. 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Active

Active

164

153

153 Number 142 of Businesses 144 144

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

164

153

153

142

144

2018

2019

138

132

130

129

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

144

138

130

129

132

TABLE 4 TABLE 4 ACTIVE AND PRODUCING FARM SITES BY REGION 2019. Active and producing farm sites by region 2019. TABLE 4 Region ACTIVE AND PRODUCING FARM SITES BY REGION 2019. Highland

Orkney

Producing Sites

Strathclyde

Region

Sites Active

Shetland

Western Isles

All Scotland

Highland 73

Orkney 5

Shetland 137

Strathclyde 62

Western 49 Isles

All Scotland 326

27

0

93

32

13

165

Active = Farms in a 73 5 137may contain62 49 326 ACTIVE production growing cycle which stock Or be fallow. ACTIVE = FARMS 27 IN A PRODUCTION GROWING MAY CONTAIN STOCK Producing 0 93 CYCLE WHICH 32 13 165 OR BE FALLOW. Producing = placing on the market for the table and/or on-growing. ACTIVE = FARMS IN A PRODUCTION GROWING CYCLE WHICH MAY CONTAIN STOCK PRODUCING = PLACING ON THE MARKET FOR THE TABLE AND/OR ON-GROWING. NB: A business more than one species and in more than one region. ORmay BE produce FALLOW.

NB: A BUSINESS MAY PRODUCE MORE THAN ONE SPECIES AND IN MORE THAN ONE PRODUCING = PLACING ON THE MARKET FOR THE TABLE AND/OR ON-GROWING. REGION. NB: A BUSINESS MAY PRODUCE MORE THAN ONE SPECIES AND IN MORE THAN ONE 01/12/2020

Production Survey - Shellfish.indd 73

14:28:21


74 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019 FIGURE 2

FIGURE 2 REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE SHELLFISH SITES IN 2019 (NUMBER PRODUCING Regional distribution of active sh sites 2019 (number producing BY REGION/SPECIES. GIVEN IN BRACKETS) AND shellfi NUMBER OF in PRODUCING BUSINESSES given in brackets) and number of producing businesses by region/species.

! ●

#

Shetland Shetland 137 (93) Shetland 137 (93) 120 (71)

Active shellfish site

Active shellfish site

Active shellfish sites Several Order Several Order

Several Order

! ! ! ! !! ! !! ! !! ! ! !! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! !!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Producing businesses Producing businesses by region/species

Orkney Orkney Orkney 5 (0) 6 (2) 5 (0) !

Western Isles Western Isles 49 (13) Western Isles 49 (13) 49 (19)

SHETLAND

Highland Highland Highland 73 73 (27) (27) 71 (27) ! ! !! !

! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! !

! ! !!

by region/species

! !

! !

!

! !! !

!! ! !!

WESTERN ISLES

! ! ! !!

!! ! ! # ## !

!

! ! !

! !

!

! !

! ! !

!! # !! # ! !!

!! ! ! ! ! !!

HIGHLAND

! ! !!!! !! ! !! !! ! !!! ! ! !!!!! !

! !

!!! ! ! !!

! !! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! !

Strathclyde Strathclyde Strathclyde 62 (32)

STRATHCLYDE

Pacific oyster

Pacific oyster Native oyster

!

Native oyster

(32) 8262(39)

Scallop

Scallop Queen

!

Queen

Mussel

Mussel

There were five Several Orders in place for scallop fisheries in 2019 (see Fig. 2). all of which are in the Highland region. There were five Several Orders in place for scallop fisheries in 2019 (see Fig. 2). all of which are in the Highland region.

6 Production Survey - Shellfish.indd 74

01/12/2020 14:29:54


Table 5 depicts the number of businesses by region and by species: A) in table 2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 75 production, B) inthe on-growing production and showing Many Table 5 depicts number of businesses byC) region and no by production. species: A) in table businesses more than one species onC)site, a practice made possible by production,cultivate B) in on-growing production and showing no production. Many Table 55cultivation depicts number of businesses byregion regionand andbe bygrown species: table Table depicts the thetechniques. number of businesses by by species: A)A) inintable similar example, together with businesses cultivate more thanFor one species scallop on site, can a practice made possible by production, B)oyster inon-growing on-growing production and C)showing showing no production. Many queen, with native oyster, and mussel with Pacific oyster. The production, B) in production and C) no production. Many similarPacific cultivation techniques. For example, scallop can be grown together with businesses cultivate more than onespecies species site, a practice made possible highest proportion of Pacific oyster businesses arealocated inmade Strathclyde while businesses cultivate more one onon site, practice possible by by queen, Pacific oyster withthan native oyster, and mussel with Pacific oyster. The similar cultivation techniques. For example, scallop can grown together with the highest proportion of mussel businesses are are incan Shetland. similar cultivation techniques. For example, scallop be be grown together with highest proportion of Pacific oyster businesses located in Strathclyde while queen, Pacifi Pacific oysterwith withnative native oyster, and mussel with Pacific oyster. queen, c oyster oyster, and mussel Pacifi c oyster. TheThe highest the highest proportion of mussel businesses are inwith Shetland. highest Pacific oyster businesses are located in Strathclyde while TABLE 5 proportion proportion of Pacific of oyster businesses are located in Strathclyde while the highest the highest proportion of are in2019. Shetland. NUMBER OF BUSINESSES BYmussel REGIONbusinesses AND BY SPECIES TABLE 5 of mussel businesses are in Shetland. proportion

NUMBER OF BUSINESSES BY REGION AND BY SPECIES 2019. TABLE 5

TABLE 5 OF BUSINESSES NUMBER BY REGION AND BY SPECIES 2019. A) PRODUCTION FOR THE TABLE Number of businesses by region and by species 2019. A) PRODUCTION FOR THE TABLE

A) for theTHE table Highland Orkney A) Production PRODUCTION FOR TABLE Pacific oyster

7 Highland

0 Orkney

Native Pacificoyster oyster

07 Highland 30 7 13 0 51 3 16 5 1

Total Mussel Total

Scallop Native oyster Pacific oyster Queen Scallop Native oyster Mussel Queen Scallop Total Mussel Queen

Region Shetland

Region

Strathclyde

Western Isles

All Scotland

0 Shetland

22 Strathclyde

2 Isles Western

31 All Scotland

00 Orkney 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0

00 Shetland 00 0 00 0 17 0 0 17 17 0

1 22 Strathclyde 01 22 10 1 41 0 28 4 1

02 Western Isles 00 2 00 0 50 0 75 0

1 31 All Scotland 31 31 23 1 31 2 3 68 31 2

16 5

0 0

17 17

28 4

7 5

68 31

16

0

17

28

7

68

Region

B) PRODUCTION FOR ON-GROWING TO OTHER PRODUCERS B) Production PRODUCTION ON-GROWING TO OTHER PRODUCERS B) forFOR on-growing to other producers Region Highland Orkney TO OTHER ShetlandPRODUCERS Strathclyde B) PRODUCTION FOR ON-GROWING

Region

Western Isles

All Scotland

Pacific oyster

1 Highland

0 Orkney

0 Shetland

3 Strathclyde

0 Isles Western

4 All Scotland

Native Pacificoyster oyster

21 Highland 02 1 00 2 10 0 41 0 4 1

00 Orkney 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0 0

0 Shetland 00 0 00 0 14 0 0 14 14 0 14 14

23 Strathclyde 02 3 00 2 20 0 72 0 7 2

00 Western Isles 00 0 00 0 20 0 22 0 2 2

44 All Scotland 04 4 00 4 19 0 0 27 19 0 27 19

4

0

14

7

2

27

Western Isles

All Scotland

Scallop Native oyster Pacific oyster Queen Scallop Native oyster Mussel Queen Scallop Total Mussel Queen Total Mussel Total

Region 0

C) NO PRODUCTION, ACTIVELY ON-GROWING OR FALLOW

C) No production, actively on-growing or fallow

C) NO PRODUCTION, ACTIVELY ON-GROWING OR FALLOW Region

Highland Orkney Shetland Strathclyde C) NO PRODUCTION, ACTIVELY ON-GROWING OR FALLOW

Region

Pacific oyster

11 Highland

2 Orkney

0 Shetland

9 Strathclyde

3 Isles Western

25 All Scotland

Native Pacificoyster oyster

3 11 Highland 63 11 26 3 15 2 6 37 15 2

12 Orkney 01 2 00 1 20 0 52 0

0 Shetland 00 0 00 0 40 0 44 0

29 Strathclyde 32 9 13 2 61 3 21 6 1

03 Western Isles 00 3 00 0 50 0 85 0

6 25 All Scotland 96 25 39 6 32 3 9 75 32 3

Total Mussel

37 15

5 2

4 4

21 6

8 5

75 32

Total

37

5

4

21

8

75

Scallop Native oyster Pacific oyster Queen Scallop Native oyster Mussel Queen Scallop Total Mussel Queen

Region 0

7 7

THE HIGHEST PROPORTION OF PACIFIC OYSTER BUSINESSES ARE LOCATED IN STRATHCLYDE WHILE THE HIGHEST PROPORTION OF MUSSEL BUSINESSES ARE IN SHETLAND

Left: Oyster, mussels

7

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76 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019 Business production levels species are shown in Table 6. There were Business production levels by by species are shown in Table 6. There were 15 busi-15 businesses producing more than 100 tonnes of mussels, this remained the nesses producing more than 100 tonnes of mussels, this remained the same as in same as in 2018. of15 these 15 businesses, nine produced than 200 tonnes. 2018. Out ofOut these businesses, nine produced more thanmore 200 tonnes. These These nine businesses 78% of mussel the total mussel production Scotland. nine businesses producedproduced 78% of the total production in Scotland. in There There werebusinesses seven businesses that produced than 200,000 Pacific were seven that produced more thanmore 200,000 Pacifi c oysters. The oysters. The production from businesses these businesses accounted 87% of thePacifi Scottish Pacific production from these accounted for 87% for of the Scottish c oyster oyster total. total. TABLE TABLE 66 BUSINESS PRODUCTION LEVELS BY SPECIES Business production levels by species 2019. 2019. Species

110

1120

2130

3140

4150

5160

6170

7180

8190

Pacific oyster (000s)

13

1

2

2

4

0

0

0

0

0

2

7

31

Native oyster (000s)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

Scallop (000s)

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

Queen (000s)

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

Mussel (tonnes)

3

0

3

3

3

1

0

2

0

1

6

9

31

19

3

5

5

7

1

0

2

0

1

9

16

68

Total

91- 101>200 Total 100 200

SPAT SETTLEMENT

F

ollowing anecdotal industry reports of poor spat settlement and mortality in 2010, Marine Scotland Science developed a questionnaire which was sent to all authorised aquaculture production businesses farming mussels. The results of this 2011 investigation indicated that poor spat settlement and mortality were not widespread in Scottish waters, although they had major impacts on certain individual producers. The causes were associated with environmental variables, guiding the industry to consider focused spat fall monitoring. As a result of talks between the Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers, Marine Scotland policy and Marine Scotland scientists, to determine the focus of possible research and development, a spat collection question was introduced to the 2013 survey. This question focused on mussel spat collection and was presented in two parts: is this a spat collection site; if yes, was spat settlement sufficient for production purposes?

THE RESULTS OF THIS 2011 INVESTIGATION INDICATED THAT POOR SPAT SETTLEMENT AND MORTALITY WERE NOT WIDESPREAD IN SCOTTISH WATERS

Responses were received from 235 (100%) of the sites authorised for mussel production in 2019. One hundred and twenty eight (54%) of these were spat collection sites, 41 (32%) of which reported that they had sufficient spat settlement for production purposes. To identify statistically significant trends a longer time series is required.

Above: Mussels

EMPLOYMENT

T

he industry employed 136 full-time and 141 part-time and casual workers during 2019. The number of full-time staff decreased by one and the number of part-time and casual employees decreased by 20 compared with 2018. The regional breakdown of employment is given in Table 7. The number of people

Production Survey - Shellfish.indd 76

8

01/12/2020 14:30:34


// E M PLOYMEN T 2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 77 The industry employed 136 full-time and 141 part-time and casual workers during 2019. The number of full-time staff decreased by one and the number of part-time and casual employees decreased by 20 compared with 2018. The employedbreakdown by the shellfi farming industry in Scotland by 7% the regional ofsh employment is given in Table decreased 7. The number offrom people 2018 total of employed by298. the shellfish farming industry in Scotland decreased by 7% from the 2018 total of 298. TABLE 7 7 TABLE REGIONALemployment EMPLOYMENT 2019. Regional 2019. Staff Full-time

Full-time

Part-time

Part-time

Casual

Casual

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

44

14

1

31

4

7

2

5

3

1

0

0

3

0

7

Shetland

23

56

2

7

9

14

1

89

Strathclyde

43

36

7

21

8

20

2

94

Western Isles

14

16

0

7

2

2

1

28

129

125

11

66

23

46

6

277

Region Highland Orkney

Scotland

Businesses

Total

59

SCOTTISH MARINE REGIONS

T

he Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 introduced integrated management of Scotland’s seas. The creation of a National Marine Plan, as required by the Act, sets the wider context for planning within Scotland including what should be considered when creating regional marine plans. Eleven Scottish Marine Regions have been created under the Act (see Appendix 2 map, page 22) which cover sea areas extending out to 12 nautical miles. To support the development of Regional Marine Plans by Regional Marine Planning Partnerships, tonnages/shell numbers and financial values of annual shellfish production for mussels and Pacific oysters have been calculated for the regions defined under the Act. In order to maintain commercial confidentiality mussel production figures for Argyll & Clyde, and the West Highlands, Moray Firth & the North Coast were merged. Pacific oyster production for the West Highlands & the North Coast also required to be merged to maintain commercial confidentiality. Other shellfish species including native oyster (Argyll & Solway), scallop (Argyll & West Highlands) and queen scallop (Clyde & West Highlands) were produced, however these figures cannot be attributed to Scottish Marine Regions due to commercial confidentiality.

HEALTH INFLUENCES ON THE INDUSTRY

I

n accordance with Council Directive 2006/88/EC, a risk based surveillance programme targeting 59 shellfish site inspections was undertaken during 2019. On these visits, facilities, stock health, bio-security measures plans, movement records and details required for authorisation were checked. Diagnostic samples 10 were taken from 4 sites. Statutory samples were taken from five sites as part of an investigation following notification of the suspicion of the presence of Bonamia ostreae.

Above: Oyster and mussel farming

Movement restrictions placed due to confirmation of the presence of Bonamia ostreae, remained in force in Loch Sunart, Highland and in West Loch Tarbert, Argyll during 2019. In addition, movement restrictions were placed on the Dornoch Firth, Highland and an area covering the Lynn of Lorne, Loch Creran and

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78 PRODUCTION SURVEY 2019

Loch Etive, Strathclyde following confirmation of the presence of Bonamia ostreae. Movement restrictions covering these areas prevent the relaying of native oyster from them. Approved zone status for bonamiasis, marteiliasis and Ostreid Herpes Virus-1 Microvariant (OsHV-1 μvar) continued to protect the health of both wild and farmed susceptible shellfish stocks for the remainder of Scotland’s waters (https://www.gov.scot/policies/fish-health-inspectorate/movement-restrictions-on-fish-and-shellfish/). Most of the reported mortalities during 2019 were attributed to: predation from wild ducks, starfish, crabs and oyster catchers; fouling by sea squirts; adverse weather conditions including storms and temperature extremes; damage due to grading and handling and from natural causes. Reports of high, unexplained shellfish mortalities generated three shellfish diagnostic cases during 2019, at sites holding Pacific oysters. Results of diagnostic investigations showed no association with listed (notifiable) diseases. It is the responsibility of shellfish farmers to inform Marine Scotland of any abnormal or unexplained shellfish mortality on their sites. In 2019 there was a continued demand for imported mussel and Pacific oyster spat in Scotland. The industry should be aware of the increased disease risk with the introduction, movement and deposit of stock on site and the importance of ensuring good bio-security practices when sourcing shellfish from other areas. In addition, consignments imported from outside Great Britain are required to be accompanied by a health certificate. The whole coastline of Great Britain is recognised as free from infection with Marteilia refringens although there are movement restrictions in place on the River Tamar in Cornwall and Devon. Guernsey, Jersey, Herm and the Isle of Man are all recognised as Marteilia refringens free areas. The whole coastline

Production Survey - Shellfish.indd 78

Above: Oysters Opposite: Scallops, Oyster farming, Mussels

01/12/2020 14:31:10


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 79 of Northern Ireland is recognised as free from Marteilia refringens apart from Belfast Lough and Dundrum Bay. The whole coastline of Great Britain is recognised as free from infection with Bonamia ostreae except the following areas which are covered by movement restrictions: • the south coast of Cornwall from Lizard to Start Point; • the coast of Dorset, Hampshire and Sussex from Portland Bill to Selsey Bill; • the area along the coast of North Kent and Essex from North Foreland to Felixstowe; • the area along the coast in south-west Wales from Wooltack Point to St Govan’s Head, including Milford Haven and the tidal waters of the East and West Cleddau river; • Loch Sunart, Highland; • West Loch Tarbert, Argyll; • Dornoch Firth, Highland; • Lynn of Lorne, Loch Creran and Loch Etive, Strathclyde; • Menai Strait. Guernsey, Herm and the Isle of Man are all recognised as Bonamia ostreae free areas. The whole coastline of Northern Ireland is recognised as free from Bonamia ostreae apart from Lough Foyle and Strangford Lough. Jersey is no longer recognised as free from Bonamia ostreae. The whole coastline of Great Britain is recognised as free from OsHV-1 μvar except for the following areas: • River Roach, River Crouch, Blackwater Estuary and River Colne in Essex; • the north Kent coast; • Poole Harbour in Dorset; • the River Teign in Devon. Guernsey is also recognised as free from OsHV-1 μvar. In the territory of Northern Ireland, Belfast Lough is the only area approved as free from OsHV-1 μvar. Movements of shellfish species susceptible to infection by Marteilia refringens, Bonamia ostreae and OsHV1 μvar, into the Great Britain health zone, must originate from another zone or country recognised as free of that disease. Movements are allowed from disease free areas to non-approved areas, as wellas those for direct human consumption without re-immersion in any other sea water areas.

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80 NEWS REVIEW

2020 News

REVIEW A look at some of the key aquaculture stories from the past 12 months

T

he year started with the news that fresh salmon prices had climbed to an all time high. The figure was in complete contrast to the situation the previous summer when prices dropped close to production cost levels, due mainly to higher output from rival countries. At the time the industry was worried about a slump in fortunes, but it never materialised. Nevertheless, a price level of NOK 77.04 per kilo in the week after Christmas, when demand was

2020 News review - EDIT.indd 80

Above: Norwegian salmon farm

supposed to have cooled off, is not only remarkable but was the highest so far recorded. Seafood analysts were predicting record profits for the salmon farming industry in 2020, which were predicted to also benefit operations in nearby countries such as Scotland and the Faroe Islands. However, a similar situation was predicted this time in 2019, but few predicted the mid-summer prices slump waiting around the corner. And were the current upward price trend to continue, it was likely to strengthen demand from economists and politicians on the left in Norway to impose higher taxes on the industry. The Norwegian Seafood Council was expected to publish the 2019 earnings figure later this month, but they had already passed the much heralded 100 billion kroner barrier at the end of November. Elsewhere Mowi Scotland an-

THE ASC COMMITMENT WAS PART OF A WIDER MOWI GROUP ‘BLUE REVOLUTION’ SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGY

01/12/2020 14:43:08


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 81

nounced plans to achieve Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification at all its freshwater loch sites during 2020. Until the ASC revised its salmon standard last year, many farms in Scotland could not comply because the ASC did not allow the production of salmon smolts in freshwater lochs. Mowi said in the January issue of its newsletter, The Scoop: ‘Although there are alternative environments for the smolt production at this stage, such as recirculation units, freshwater lochs are still a big part of our farming business and production strategy in Scotland. ‘Now that the standard that governed freshwater trout production will allow the production of salmon smolts in freshwater lochs, Mowi Scotland can put a plan in place to achieve ASC certification for all of its sites.’ The ASC commitment was part of a wider Mowi group ‘Blue Revolution’ sustainability strategy, launched at the end of 2019, which set ambitious targets to reduce medicinal treatments, antibiotics, plastic use, waste, and fish escapes, and improve sea survival rates. The ASC standards address the key environmental impacts of farming, set requirements for workers’ rights

2020 News review - EDIT.indd 81

and protect communities surrounding certified farms. Mowi Scotland technical manager Rory Campbell said: ‘The ASC Salmon and Freshwater Trout standards are the most robust and far reaching environmental and social standards for global aquaculture. ‘As a business, Mowi has globally committed to achieving 100 per cent ASC certification for all our farms. ‘This is a long-term objective and I’m proud to say that in Scotland we have a plan in place for 2020 to expedite certification at a number of our sites and play our part in achieving this vision.’ Following the first round of audits early this year in freshwater, several other farms were to be added to the audit schedule throughout 2020. The number of farms put forward for ASC certification will increase through 2021, and the plan is for 100 per cent of Mowi Scotland’s sites to be certified by the ASC. Meanwhile a trading update from new owners Bakkafrost showed that The Scottish Salmon Company was on course to produce a healthy ten per cent plus increase on its harvest volumes for 2019. In the update by Bakkafrost, the har-

Top: Cutting MOWI salmon Above: Rory Campbell

01/12/2020 14:44:41


82 NEWS REVIEW

vest output for the final quarter of the year was 7,900 tonnes gutted weight, an increase of around 900 tonnes on Q4 in 2018. The total for the entire year would be around 33,800 tonnes, compared with 29,900 tonnes 12 months earlier. The Scottish Salmon Company was acquired by Bakkafrost three months earlier in a deal worth well in excess of £550 million. The Edinburgh based company’s operating revenues in 2018 came to almost £44.5 million with an EBIT or operating profit before fair value adjustment of just over £8 million, but as yet no figures were available for the last 12 months. Bakkafrost was also forecasting a much stronger performance for its Faroe Islands based operations, with harvest volume for 2019 up from 44,500 tonnes to 57,200 tonnes, gutted weight. The figure was about 3,000 tonnes higher than forecast this time last year. The Faroes based harvest for the final quarter would be 18,000 tonnes, well up on the 2018 Q4 figure of 12,200 tonnes, and feed sales in Q4 2019 were 28,400 tonnes. And there was more good news from Norway as the seafood industry enjoyed its best ever export year in 2019 with sales hitting a record 107.3 billion kroner (£9.25 billion) despite hitting slightly lower volumes. It was clear that had salmon prices not dipped during the summer, the total would have been even more impressive.

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Tom-Jørgen Gangsø, director of market insight and market access at the Norwegian Seafood Council, said: ‘We have seen an increase in prices for several of our most important commercial species, in addition to the weak Norwegian krone and market access being relatively good. ‘In short, this has led to strong demand and higher prices for Norwegian seafood.’ The council’s CEO, Renate Larsen, added: ‘Consumers all over the world want healthy, sustainable food with good taste, and it answers Norwegian seafood in a very good way. Both the aquaculture and fisheries sectors have contributed to a record high export value for 2019.’ The relationship between aquaculture and fisheries had changed little from last year. The value from aquaculture was 71 per cent of total sales, while the volume was less than half at 44.6 per cent. The value rose by eight per cent or NOK 5.6 billion. Conventional fishing accounted for 29 per cent or NOK 30.8 billion (up 10 per cent on 2018) of the total seafood export value and 55.4 per cent in volume (down 10 per cent), reflecting a sharp increase in cod prices. Salmon netted the largest revenues at NOK 72.5 billion (almost £6.3 billion) on volumes of 1.1 million tonnes, up in value by seven per cent and six per cent higher in volume. Analyst Paul T. Aandahl said: ‘In 2019, we saw significant growth in seafood trade between Norway and China. Led by a doubling in the export of fresh salmon, this represents a value increase of NOK 1.5 billion.’ Trout was the second major aquaculture species. In 2019, some 59,600 tonnes of trout were exported with a value of NOK 3.7 billion. Volume

Top left: Scottish Salmon Company salmon Above right: Renate Larsen; Tom-Jørgen Gangsø Above: Rainbow Trout Right: Cod

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 83 increased by 29 per cent, while value increased by NOK 707 million, or 24 per cent from 2018. ‘In the big picture, the trout price follows the price of salmon. That is why the price of trout remained at almost the same level as in 2018, despite relatively large volume growth,’ Aandahl added. For the catching sector, cod was the largest species measured in value. Cod exports totalled 181,000 tonnes, while the value was NOK 10.1 billion. The volume fell by eight per cent, while the value increased by NOK 660 million, or seven per cent. Analyst Ingrid K. Pettersen said: ‘The reason for the decline in the export volume for cod has been reduced quotas since the peak year 2013. ‘A significant rise in prices for all the major cod products is therefore an important reason for the growth in value. ‘The fall in volume, well helped by a

weak Norwegian krone and growth in demand, explains the price increase.’ Hans Frode Kielland Asmyhr, the Norwegian Seafood council’s envoy to Britain, said: ‘In the UK, there has been significant demand growth for Norwegian sea frozen cod throughout the year, and we clearly see that the market is willing to pay more for the quality offered by Norwegian exporters.’

FEBRUARY

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he month started with news that the developing Coronavirus outbreak in China was having its first effects on our industry, as salmon prices fell back sharply in Norway. China is a major and expanding market for Norwegian frozen salmon but with the city of Wuhan, population 11 million, where the virus first hit, in virtual lockdown and travel severely restricted in many other cities and regions, demand for seafood had slumped. With no sign of a let up in the disease, there were already more than 8,000 confirmed or suspected cases and at least 80 deaths in China.

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It was only three weeks earlier that salmon prices in both Norway and Scotland soared to record levels on the back of strong global demand and a wave of optimism within the industry. At one point, fresh large salmon was selling at well over NOK 80 a kilo. At the weekend, five to six kilo salmon had dropped to below NOK 70, a figure not seen since early November. The reversal also had a dampening effect on the Oslo Stock Exchange seafood index. The industry was expecting salmon prices to fall even further if the coronavirus outbreak in China worsened or

Above: Scottish salmon Left: Chinese fish market

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84 NEWS REVIEW took hold in other large salmon buying countries in Asia. So far, there had only been isolated cases in neighbouring Japan and South Korea. News was also announced this month of a drive to improve standards across the seafood processing sector in Scotland. Nine companies had achieved the new Scottish Seafood Association (SSA) Standard and of those, six were being assessed for SALSA (Safe and Local Supplier Approval) accreditation. The SSA Standard is an initiative that involves the training of staff, guidance on aspects of the business, factory audits and mentoring. SSA chief executive Jimmy Buchan said: ‘A significant part of the remit of the SSA is to drive up standards across the sector in Scotland – putting the pro- in processing if you like. ‘We are determined that all of our processor members will gain the SSA Standard, giving seafood consumers the confidence that the highest standards of food hygiene and processing practices are being upheld. ‘We are dedicated to improving the quality and safety of workplaces and investing in people who work in the sector to improve their skills.’ Suzanne Robertson, business development executive of Aberdeenshire Council, who had been closely involved in the project, said: ‘Through the SALSA and SSA accreditation, the Scottish Seafood Association is ensuring the industry is improving both its skills base and standards. ‘It is also making the seafood industry a far more attractive

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career choice for many within our communities. ‘The wider seafood sector is already a vitally important part of the local economy and Aberdeenshire Council is delighted to help drive its continuing economic growth through this initiative.’ The SSA Standard is being funded by the industry, Aberdeenshire Council, Scotland Food and Drink, North East of Scotland Fisheries Local Action Group, European Maritime and Fisheries Fund, and Seafish. The nine successful companies were: Seafood Sourcing; Enterfoods; Jack Taylor; GMR Seafoods; Braehead (SFO Enterprises); J H Milne Peterhead; Sustainable Seafoods Peterhead; Jack Fish Co; and Messers J Smith. The first six of these are awaiting the results of their SALSA audits. Elsewhere Scotland’s newest salmon farmer, Organic Sea Harvest, announced that it had signed a deal with feed giant Cargill to supply its two Skye sites. The farms at Invertote and Clunacnoc, which won planning approval in 2018, were due to be stocked with smolts this year. The consents were for two 12 x 400ft pen sites producing a total of 5,000 tonnes of organic salmon. The company had hoped to double that capacity, but its proposals for another two locations – at Flodigarry in northeast Skye – were rejected by Highland council, following local opposition. The feed contract with Cargill was based on shared

Top: Scottish Seafood Association (SSA). Above: Suzanne Robertson. Left: Jimmy Buchan

WE ARE DEDICATED TO IMPROVING THE QUALITY AND SAFETY OF WORK PLACES

01/12/2020 14:49:57


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 85 knowledge, experience, innovation and connection to the local community, said the feed company. ‘At Cargill, we are passionate about the sustainable development of Scottish salmon farming,’ said James Deverill, commercial director at Cargill Aqua Nutrition in Scotland. ‘Through our EWOS Harmony feeds, we are one of the world’s largest suppliers of feed for organically farmed salmon. ‘We are extremely excited for the opportunity to collaborate with Organic Sea Harvest to support the production of high quality, high welfare, organically farmed salmon from the Isle of Skye.’ Alex MacInnes, director of Organic Sea Harvest (OSH), said: ‘Throughout our discussions with the team from Cargill, whom we

have known for many years, it has been very clear how much they value the importance of working with Organic Sea Harvest and contributing to the local community. ‘For our employees and the local communities in which we are present this is terrific news because the Cargill team will bring a wealth of knowledge and understanding with them. ‘It means a huge amount to us that we have been able to source the highest quality fish feed diets and the competence that goes with this critical element of the life cycle. ‘Cargill has shown the enthusiasm and motivation to grow with us and help Organic Sea Harvest in our objective to support the local communities of Staffin.’ MacInnes said he set up Organic Sea Harvest because he wanted to deliver a world class product

Top: James Deverill Above: Alex MacInnes

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86 NEWS REVIEW from a small scale independent fish farming operation, a vision shared by his colleagues and founding shareholders, Robert Gray, Alister Mackinnon and Villa UK. ‘Organic Sea Harvest’s creation was undertaken with a genuine desire to work with the local communities and the local opportunities that could be created, as there have been very few opportunities for significant projects to be developed in north-east Skye, an area classed by Highlands and Islands Enterprise as fragile,’ the company said. ‘Organic Sea Harvest’s vision and strategy plan has always been to establish four new sites dedicated to growing high quality, high welfare organically farmed salmon from the Isle of Skye.’ Last August, OSH signed a £4 million contract with Gael Force to equip its two approved Skye sites. The deal included SeaMate 350-tonne capacity feed barges and SeaFeed feeding systems, SeaQurePen fish pens, SeaQureMoor moorings, and underwater technology. In Scotland there was a significant development on the aquaculture exhibitions front, as it emerged that the UK’s largest event in the industry, Aquaculture UK, had been purchased by Diversified Communications, the events company behind the Brussels and Boston seafood shows. Current owner, 5M Enterprises, said Aquaculture UK 2020 and the Aquaculture Awards 2020 would continue to be managed by the 5M team for the next event, in Aviemore from May 19-21. ‘The Aquaculture UK 2020 event will be the biggest and best show ever and the show will be delivered by staff who have run the event in previous years,’ said 5M. ‘Any arrangements already made for the 2020 event will be honoured

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in full. The new owners, Diversified Communications, share our vision and excitement about the Aquaculture UK series of events.’ This year’s edition of the biennial exhibition was expected to attract more than 3,000 visitors and 200 exhibitors. The Scottish show was to complement Diversified’s international events and publishing portfolio, which includes the annual Seafood Expo Global and Seafood Processing Global, which moves from Brussels to Barcelona in 2021. Diversified UK’s managing director, Carsten Holm, said: ‘It’s great to be welcoming Aquaculture UK to Diversified Communications. ‘We have been watching the growing success of the event and believe that its focus and subject matter complements our, already substantial, international presence in the sector extremely well. ‘We also feel that the sense of community, customer focus, long-term vision and attention to detail, is very similar to how we approach our events. ‘I also have a personal interest, having spent my early years working on Fishing News and Fish Farming International, so I really look forward to getting involved again. ‘We have a great team here, who are looking forward to getting to know the sector, so it already feels like a perfect fit for our business and is an important development for Diversified’s UK division.’ ‘It feels like the perfect home for the event, and a natural development that will ensure the show continues to fulfil its potential and role as the leading forum for the UK’s aquaculture industry.’

WE HAVE A GREAT TEAM HERE, WHO ARE LOOKING FORWARD TO GETTING TO KNOW THE SECTOR

Above: OSH signed a £4 million contract with Gael Force in 2019. Below: Carsten Holm; Aqua UK

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here was drama at the start of the month as Norway’s new seafood and fisheries minister, Geir Inge Sivertsen, asked to step down after just five weeks in the role. Siversten was appointed in late January following a political bust-up within the Conservative coalition government. But he had already attracted controversy over his links with Masonic and business interests and for accepting severance pay from his local government posts while a minister – money he has since paid back. He issued a statement at the start of March saying that these issues had taken away all the focus from the job he wanted to do, developing Norway’s most important industry. ‘The industry deserves a minister who can focus fully on the tasks that need to be done to achieve this. The cases have also become a burden to the government

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and to my party.’ The statement continued: ‘I have resigned from all board positions and regretted the application for severance pay. ‘The severance pay I received is also fully paid back to Senja municipality. I have cleaned up, but feel that these matters are still attracting a lot of attention. ‘It therefore becomes difficult to do a good job as minister of seafood and fisheries. These have weighed on me so much that I have asked the prime minister [for permission] to resign. ‘The fishing and seafood industry has a fantastic future in Norway. It is a strong, outgoing industry that has great potential for creating value and jobs along the coast in Norway. ‘The industry is crucial for people who live along large parts of our coast. I have aspired to, and look forward to, collaborate with the industry to facilitate strong and sustainable growth in the

Above: Geir Inge Sivertsen

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88 NEWS REVIEW years ahead. Now there will be others who can take the baton further.’ With issues such as the fish fraud, salmon tax and coronavirus hitting seafood exports, this political crisis had thrown the entire fishing and aquaculture industry into further uncertainty. Norway’s embattled prime minister, Erna Solberg, had yet to respond to Siversten’s request. There was tragedy in Denmark with the news that some 227,000 salmon had died at the site of land based farming pioneer Atlantic Sapphire. The company lost the fish at its commercial pilot facility, according to a statement posted on the Oslo Stock Exchange. ‘Preliminary analysis, subject to further verification over the next days, indicates higher nitrogen levels than desired as the cause of the event, which has been addressed in design modification,’ the company wrote. The rest of the Langsand Laks farm, which produces in total about 3,000 tonnes a year, was unaffected ‘due to the segregation design to have various independent systems’. Atlantic Sapphire, which is developing the world’s largest RAS (recirculating aquaculture system) salmon farm in Miami, Florida, said the mass mortality in Denmark had pushed back harvesting by four months. The incident in Denmark saw the company’s share price drop by more than 16 per cent within hours of trading, wiping millions off the value of the group, Intrafish reported. Atlantic Sapphire’s shares fell to NOK 93.40 ($9.97) on the Oslo Stock Exchange by 11:30am today, putting its market capitalisation at NOK 7.912 billion ($846 million), more than $155 million off its Friday close. Today’s share price is the lowest since September last year. As coronavirus started to bite, The Boston Seafood Expo became the first national event to be postponed because of safety fears. Sadly, it would not be the last.

In Scotland it was announced that the average monthly survival rate for Scottish farmed salmon in 2019 was 98.6%. The total was slightly down on the previous year’s average of 98.83 due to environmental challenges seen at some farms during the third and fourth quarters of 2019, the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (SSPO) said. From August onwards, salmon farmers worked hard to overcome planktonic blooms and increased water temperatures. These directly and indirectly impacted on the health of some fish, with the largest reported cause of premature mortality among stocks resulting from gill health issues. Hamish Macdonell, director of Strategic Engagement at the SSPO, said: ‘The Scottish salmon farming sector continues to invest and innovate in the management of such challenges. Fish health and welfare will always be our members’ top priority. ‘There are a number of initiatives underway to increase the health management toolbox available to Scotland’s fish farmers. ‘These are being complemented by focused research into understanding the impacts of recent environmental challenges, the Scottish 10-year Farmed Fish Health Framework and increased sector wide information sharing.’ Scotland was due to host the next Gill Health Initiative meeting in April, with representatives from Chile, Norway, the Faroes and Ireland expected to attend alongside their Scottish salmon farming counterparts. Sea lice averages for 2019 were 0.54 adult female lice per salmon, up slightly from a seven year low in 2018 of 0.46. The Scottish salmon sector was continuing to adopt a preventative approach to sea lice management, with medicinal

FROM AUGUST ONWARDS, SALMON FARMERS WORKED HARD TO OVERCOME PLANKTONIC BLOOMS

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Top: Erna Solberg Middle: Boston show cancelled Above: Sea lice

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 89 spending decreasing in favour of an increase in the use of cleaner fish and mechanical treatments. Investment in sea lice management more than doubled from 2015 to 2018, from £26 million to £61.7 million. In the same period, the cost of medicinal treatments fell from £18.4 million to £9.7 million. Last year, the SSPO moved from a three-monthly to monthly publication of survivability and sea lice averages. The SSPO also announced the Scotland’s salmon farmers were to offset market challenges caused by coronavirus restrictions by delaying their harvests. ‘As the UK’s top food export, Scottish salmon is prominent in a number of key markets which are now facing restrictions – of various sorts – because of the coronavirus outbreak,’ said Hamish Macdonell, SSPO director of strategic engagement. ‘This has led to problems in getting salmon to our customers in different parts of the world, problems which are likely to get worse before they get better.

‘As a result, we are working with the Scottish and UK governments and environmental regulators to keep fish in the water for longer, where this is appropriate, and looking at other measures to give our members more flexibility in dealing with these market disruptions.’ He added: ‘It has so far been relatively straightforward working through these measures as the preparatory work was done ahead of a possible ‘no deal’ Brexit last year, when similar market problems were anticipated. ‘It is worth noting, however, that the UK market for salmon remains strong at the moment as customers stock up in anticipation of further restrictions at home and some of our member companies are looking actively at market substitution as a way of coping with the ongoing drop off in demand from other parts of the world. ‘We will continue to monitor the situation very closely and work with the authorities to do all we can to minimise the disruption caused by this worldwide crisis.’

Above: Strong UK market for salmon

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BE THE DIFFERENCE

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90 NEWS REVIEW

APRIL

T

he month started with a grim warning from European fish processors about the ‘dire consequences’ for the EU supply chain being caused by the developing Covid-19 pandemic. The sector was dealing with a general disruption of demand that had resulted in disruption in the supply chain of fresh fish, said the body representing EU processors, AIPCE CEP. Businesses active in frozen seafood and ‘shelf stable’ (or ambient) products were facing strong demand at present but were able to provide the market. But even they might face problems in the near future if the raw materials were not available, and there were problems with logistics, the processing body warned in a press release. While processors and traders welcomed EU and individual member state economic measures to counter the impact of Covid-19, they were demanding more action to lessen the impact of the crisis. The European Maritime and Fisheries Fund must include the processing part of the value chain in its extraordinary measures; and import procedures have to be ‘agile and flexible’, said AIPCE, which represents more than 128,000 jobs and over 3,900 companies in the sector. ‘In these past weeks, the industry has been dealing with a combination of issues that may lead to closures of production sites in the EU and loss of many, in particular, small businesses, with severe consequences for the employment in, for example, coastal areas,’ AIPCE added.

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In what it described as a ‘negative demand shock’, the organisation highlighted the sharp decrease, or no demand at all, in the food service industry. It also said the market for fresh fish and seafood products had ‘gone down dramatically’, with the partial closing of fresh fish counters at retail in some member states. Logistics were being hit by reinstated border checks within the internal market; delays at border sites; the unavailability of vehicles due to the delays produced at border sites; and a possible lack of the usual restaurant services and showering at highway gas stations for truck drivers. ‘The Commission has adopted guidelines to ensure the flows of basic goods, but the situation on the ground remains problematic,’ said AIPCE. ‘For example, the green lanes for food are not a solution, if packaging material is stuck at border sites. ‘Furthermore, a closed EU border for delivery of fresh fish like salmon from Norway, via Denmark into the EU, would be seriously damaging fresh fish sales and create disruption of, for instance, smoking activities in the EU.’ There was better news in the UK, where salmon giant Mowi Scotland said that it was managing to deliver a steady supply of salmon to retailers, providing more than 500,000 meals a day during the crisis. Although many of its employees were working remotely, the

Top: Covid-19 virus Above: Closed borders Below: Salmon on ice

FOR EXAMPLE, THE GREEN LANES FOR FOOD ARE NOT A SOLUTION, IF PACKAGING MATERIAL IS STUCK AT BORDER SITES 01/12/2020 15:32:56


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Pharmaq, which is part of the Zoetis Group, has decades of experience in fish health and the development of vaccines and therapeutics for the aquaculture sector. Pharmaq is one of the world’s leading suppliers of vaccines for farmed fish, and offers numerous vaccines that protect both cold and warm water fish species against viral and bacterial infections. Our production facilities, administration and R&D operations are based in Norway, and we have subsidiaries around the world. A high percentage of Pharmaq’s annual revenues are re-invested in research into emerging diseases and the development of innovative fish health products and vaccines. The key to our success is our continued focus on high quality with the aim of ensuring that we supply the safe and effective products that are essential to sustainable fish farming.

01/12/2020 14:59:00


92 NEWS REVIEW company, as a food producer, had and development.’ a number of ‘key workers’ across He added: ‘As AKVA group is operits different departments. ating in a very attractive industry, Additional health and safety with increasing focus on costs, techmeasures had been put in place for nology, sustainability, fish welfare, these employees, such as adjustas well as improved and new farmments to shift start and finish ing methods, I strongly believe that times, so there was a clear break AKVA group has a unique position between one group of people leavthat can yield profitable growth for ing and the next arriving. the future. Other new arrangements includ‘To obtain such we will step up our ed break adjustments to enable efforts within innovation, in partsocial distancing to be practised in nership with our customers – our communal areas, such as kitchens position needs to be deserved.’ and canteens; and installing addiBack in the UK, the Scottish tional hand sanitisers to enhance government announced a £10 existing handwashing facilities. million funding package to help There were regular team briefseafood businesses weather the ings, with updated information coronavirus storm. and health posters on display With many firms fighting for across all sites. survival, and in turn threatening The company said it was supportlivelihoods in coastal communiing individual working arrangeties, the Scottish Seafood Business ments for key workers who have Resilience Fund would provide a no access to childcare, and offering combination of grants and loans to support for those who usually car businesses, it was revealed in the share on their commute. announcement. As annual results started to get Rural Economy Secretary Fergus published, the AKVA Group anEwing said: ‘The Scottish governnounced that 2019 had been a ‘sigment is working flat out to support nificant year’ in its development. businesses which are adversely Top: Knut Nesse CEO Knut Nesse described 2019 affected by the Covid-19 outbreak. Middle: Fergus Ewing as a year of ‘significant milestones’ ‘Parts of the seafood sector have Above: Donna with revenues of more than NOK been decimated by the collapse of Fordyce 3 billion (£233 million), which has the export and hospitality markets, helped bring about significant and are now struggling to survive. growth since 2016. ‘Our seafood processors are the The group now had a record high lifeblood of many rural and coastPARTS OF backlog of orders in the pipeline, al communities, supporting worth some NOK 2.3 billion THE SEAFOOD thousands of local jobs and (£179 million). producing some of the finSECTOR But there was also a note est seafood in the world. of criticism from the CEO, ‘The industry has been HAVE BEEN who said: ‘However, as very clear that cash flow DECIMATED BY the fourth quarter results is the critical issue facing THE COLLAPSE OF businesses and this new revealed, our project execution capabilities have not THE EXPORT AND fund seeks to inject capital been at the highest standinto businesses to help HOSPITALITY them meet their ongoing ards – improvement initiatives are, and will be, in focus going costs, keep the business solvent MARKETS forward within the areas of project and keep people on the payroll.’ management as well as learning ‘We will now move to get these

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 93 funds out of the door as quickly as possible to assist a sector which has been a real success story for the Scottish economy.’ Donna Fordyce, interim head of Seafood Scotland said: ‘Following the Scottish government’s recent announcement of financial aid for the fishing sector, this package of support for the wider seafood industry is critical to its survival, and very much welcome. ‘We have spent the last two weeks speaking to seafood businesses all over Scotland, and these measures are just what they have been asking for. ‘The sector is one of the most fragile areas of Scotland’s economy, yet delivers so much in terms of employment and export effort. ‘With most export routes almost entirely closed off and around 80 per cent of shellfish and seafood

normally destined for international markets, the industry is currently on its knees, but this package will help many seafood businesses live beyond the impact of Covid-19.’

Above: Scottish salmon

T

here was drama at the start of the month, with the news that the offices of Cermaq Chile had been burned to the ground in an arson attack after four armed intruders raided the Coipue site in the country’s La Araucania region. The masked gunmen set fire to the premises before firing off ten rounds of bullets at the site. They left behind pamphlets protesting against the construction of the Freire-Villarrica highway. Three local emergency fire units were unable to prevent the total loss of office buildings, the report said. Cermaq announced in April that it would close two of its Chilean processing plants as part of a restructuring process to adjust capacity in Chilean salmon farming Region X. The company said it would close two plants on Chiloe island, one in Ancud

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and the other in Dalcahue. The company currently operated four processing plants in Region X, with the capacity to process 120,000 metric tons annually. Cermaq’s salmon production volume in regions X and XI had declined significantly in recent years as a result of regulatory changes in the country, and less than 60 percent of the company’s overall capacity had been used over the past year.

Above: Cermaq, Chile

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94 NEWS REVIEW

In the UK Seafood Scotland had written to the Chief Executives of all the main UK supermarket retailers, on behalf of the Scottish seafood sector, urging them to reopen their fresh fish counters. With international markets closed off, and the UK restaurant/catering sector largely shut down, the entire sector was relying on retail for survival, but most of the fresh fish counters in major multiple retailers had been closed for weeks. Only Morrisons had reopened its fresh counters in recent days, in a welcome move to support the meat and fish sectors. In the letter, sent to the leaders of ASDA, Sainsbury’s and Tesco, Donna Fordyce, Head of Seafood Scotland, said: ‘It is imperative that fish counters are reopened to allow consumers access to fresh, locally caught seafood from the domestic market as part of their essential shop.’ The Scottish seafood sector had been devastated by the impact of the coronavirus. The Scottish seafood industry landed around 450,000 tonnes of sea fish and shellfish from around 2000 vessels. 150 processing sites employ over 13,000 staff. With an estimated 60% drop in demand, the industry is suffering, and fishing families and the

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Top: Supermarket fish counter. Middle: Oysters. Right: Algae

wider communities that rely on the sector are facing real economic hardship. Pre-coronavirus, 80% of Scottish seafood and shellfish was exported, with the remaining 20% destined for UK food service and retail. With the export market at a standstill, the sector was now completely reliant on the UK market to keep afloat, and even within this segment the food service sector is operating at minimal levels due to the UK lockdown. This meant UK multiple retailers and some independents were now at the front line of supplying the nation with locally caught seafood. Some fishing businesses were selling direct to the public, but this trade was contained within small pockets, and amounted to a drop in the ocean. Also in Scotland Mowi’s Scottish operations cited continuing challenging biological issues as the main factor which had led to a large drop in operational EBIT or profits in the first three months of 2020, as it announced its Q1 results. The Scottish operational EBIT was 5.7 million euros compared with €35.8 million 12 months ago, and the equivalent of €0.63 per kg (€2.27 in 2019). Mowi said earnings were affected ‘by a prolonged period of challenging biology in our Scottish operations, which has impacted volumes and costs in the quarter’. Harvest volumes dropped from 15,787 tonnes in Q1 2019 to 9,036 tonnes this year. The regional report said: ‘The full cost per kg increased by as much as 33 per cent compared with the first quarter of 2019. The large increase was due to negative scale effects and increased biological costs and mortality costs. The biological situation in our Scottish farming

01/12/2020 15:01:39


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 95 operations has been challenging since mid-2019, with several issues including Pasteurella Skyensis, PD, algal bloom and sea lice. ‘This has coincided with a period of record high sea water temperatures and many winter storms. Consequently, costs for the harvested generation were high. Production has also been lower than in the first quarter of 2019 due to the biological situation and increased number of treatments. Incident based mortality losses amounted to EUR 2.7 million mainly related to AGD and treatment losses (EUR 0.2 million in the first quarter of 2019). ‘Although somewhat improved, the biological situation still requires close monitoring, especially related to sea lice. In relation to Pasteurella Skyensis, a vaccine has been developed and is undergoing field trials. Going forward, costs are expected

to improve as volumes recover and the company starts harvesting from a new generation.’ Globally, Mowi’s results in the first quarter were impacted by falling prices as Covid-19 escalated into a world-spanning pandemic with extensive lockdown measures in most countries. The operational EBIT came to €109 million against €196 million in 2019. Mowi CEO, Ivan Vindheim, said: ‘Despite Covid-19 currently causing substantial market and logistical disruptions, our operations are running close to normal. At the same time we are maintaining the safety and well-being of our employees. We will do whatever we can to keep operations running without compromising health and safety. I am extremely proud of all Mowi’s employees for making this possible.’

WE WILL DO WHATEVER WE CAN TO KEEP OPERATIONS RUNNING

Above: Ivan Vindheim

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Mowi reported operational revenues of €885 million in the first quarter of 2020 (€979 million). Total harvest volume in the quarter of 83,119 tonnes (104,118) was approximately in line with guidance. Harvest guidance for 2020 was unchanged at 450,000 tonnes. And, as expected, Aquaculture UK became the latest victim of the coronavirus pandemic as organisers Diversified Communications and 5m reluctantly pulled the plug on the showpiece Aviemore event. With no end in sight to the lockdown restrictions in Scotland significantly

easing, and with foreign travel expected to be one of the last prohibitions to be removed, it became inevitable that the flagship event would not be able to go ahead on its provisionally re-arranged dates in September. The event would now take place from the 18th-20th May 2021, adding to what was already becoming a packed exhibitions calendar for next year. Earlier this month the European Aquaculture Society (EAS) announced that their event in Cork later this year had been cancelled and moved to next year. There would now be two EAS events next year, with Cork taking place in April and the originally scheduled 2021 event in Madeira still going ahead in October.

Left: Aquaculture UK Above: Cork, Ireland

JUNE

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he month started with the news that Mowi Scotland was to become the first aquaculture company in the UK to trial an innovative new sea lice avoidance system developed by AKVA Group. Mowi Scotland’s farm at Port na Cro (Argyll and Bute) was the first farm in the UK to install new and innovative technology specifically designed to proactively avoid a tiny fish parasite that is found commonly on many marine fish. Known as the Tubenet, the project is part of a commercial-scale validation that follows successful trials carried out at Mowi’s research centre in Norway. The Tubenet, produced by AKVA group, is a lice prevention concept that works by keeping fish well below the traditional sea lice belt that is in the upper water column (top

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Top: The Tubenet Above: The Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management team

5-10m). This is achieved by installing a large cylindrical passageway in the centre of a cage, from which tarpaulin hangs and protects our salmon from lice infestations when they swim to the surface to fill their swim-bladders. Fish feed is delivered by way of subsurface feeding tubes, and cleaner fish welfare is safeguarded by using tailor-made hides specifically for Tubenets. In the case of Port na Cro, the tarpaulin hangs to a 14m depth and the feeders are placed at 13m. The inner cylinder is 60m in circumference. Also in June, a new strategy was launched to expand aquaculture in England over the next 20 years. Poseidon Aquatic Resource Management Ltd had been appointed to develop the strategy and will work with the Seafood 2040 Aquaculture Leadership Group to shape the pro-

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98 NEWS REVIEW ject and the means to deliver it. But Scottish salmon farmers were unlikely to face competition from south of the border. The English terrain and climate is generally not suitable for that type of aquaculture. However, a Seafish report from four years ago found there was significant potential for the development of mussel, clam and scallop farming, already well established in the south-west, along with oyster growing in parts of the south-east. It also highlighted other specialist seafood farming possibilities. Elsewhere, Havfarm 1, the giant offshore salmon farming platform, finally arrived at its new home in Norway after a voyage of almost 15,000 nautical miles. Strapped to the equally large cargo carrier BOKA Vanguard the 33,000 tonne vessel sailed into her new base near the port of Hadsel in northern Norway, two months after leaving the Yantai Raffles yard in eastern China. Officially named ‘Jostein Albert’ after the company’s former chairman Josten Albert Refnes, it is one of two such 385 metre long vessels ordered by the Norwegian salmon farming company Nordlaks and is capable of holding up to 10,000 tonnes of salmon. Work had now begin preparing it for that daunting role. Trond Haakstad from Sea Systems AS, one of the companies tasked with getting it ready, said: ‘Our job is to anchor the Havfarm 1 at a final location five kilometres off Ytre Hadseløya.’ In an operation expected to last at least 48 hours and using several small vessels, the task of floating it off the cargo vessel and into the water began. Nordlaks hoped that it could recoup some of its huge investment by September when

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Havfarm1 should start to produce fish. The company said the development will herald a new era in offshore aquaculture and should lead to fewer escapes and a reduction in lice, two issues which have dogged the industry in recent years. Designed by NSK Ship Design, its Sales and Marketing Manager Thomas Myhre described the vessel as unique and one of the largest sea transport voyages of its kind. The Jostein Albert was greeted by a cheering crowd which included Norway’s Fisheries Minister Odd Emil Ingebrigsten, who congratulated Nordlaks on the project. But not everyone is so enthusiastic. Local fishermen and environmental groups have publicly expressed concerns about the long term impact such a large structure will have on this scenic but wildlife rich area of Norway. Meanwhile, Seafood shares on the Norwegian Stock Market fell sharply following reports that a number of supermarkets in the Chinese capital Beijing had removed salmon from their counters after a chopping board at a wholesale market used to portion the fish was found to be infected with coronavirus. Mowi stocks were down by 5.2 per cent, SalMar by 5.6 per cent and Lerøy Seafood by 4.39 per cent. The Norwegian Seafood Council also said that orders from China were being cancelled. It is not known how the chopping board became infected, and inspectors think it may be due to an employee already with the virus using it at some point rather than through infected fish. The authorities in Beijing had closed this and a number of other wholesale

Top: Mussel farm Above: The Jostein Albert. Right: Odd Emil Ingebrigsten

THE JOSTEIN ALBERT WAS GREETED BY A CHEERING CROWD

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 99 produce markets in the city while inspections were carried out. But the scare had led to some retail supermarkets taking no chances by cancelling orders for imported salmon. China buys salmon from several northern hemisphere countries, mainly Norway, Canada, Australia, the Faroe islands and, to a lesser extent, from Scotland. Bakkafrost said it would await updates from China before sending any more salmon. It also stated every company employee had been tested over the past eight weeks without resulting in any positive cases. The Norwegian Seafood Council said there were doubts if salmon was the source of this new infection, but it was keeping a close watch on the situation. It also warned exporters that there may be short term logistical food challenges.

Commenting on the outbreak, Hamish Macdonell, Director of Strategic Engagement for Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (SSPO) said: ‘While the outbreak of coronavirus in a busy wholesale market in China is a worrying development, there is no credible evidence linking it to any imported food products. ‘As proven by several scientific studies, including one by University College London in the past few weeks and the Asian Fisheries Society, salmon can neither be infected with, nor spread, coronavirus. ‘The emerging evidence, supported by Chinese experts in virology and infectious disease, points to cross-contamination from a local infected source. ‘There have been no recorded cases of coronavirus among Scottish salmon sector employees.’

Above: Norwegian salmon

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100 NEWS REVIEW

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here was a surprise at the start of the month as it was announced that the Chief Executive of the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (SSPO), Julie Hesketh-Laird, was to step down in the autumn. Hesketh-Laird was appointed to her role in February 2018. She had led the organisation during a period of great change and success for the sector. Under her leadership, the SSPO had established itself as a prominent and credible voice in the Scottish food and drink sector, putting Scotland and the UK’s No.1 food export in sharp focus for stakeholders and in the media. Hesketh-Laird had built firm foundations for stronger relationships between the SSPO and salmon farming sector with important stakeholders, from the government to regulators and environmental organisations. She said: ‘I have greatly enjoyed working with my team at the SSPO and taking forward the cause of the salmon farming sector which is so important to Scotland and highly regarded in overseas markets. We have come a very long way in recent years, and I am proud to have achieved such good progress. As the sector emerges from the challenges of the Covid-19 crisis, it is a good time to move on and take on fresh challenges. Salmon farming is now strongly positioned to play a central role in Scotland’s economic recovery’. SSPO Chair Atholl Duncan Said: ‘We are very grateful to Julie for all the progress that has been made under her leadership. We wish her well for the future and we are now well positioned to build on the stability and strategic focus which she has brought to the SSPO.’ Her departure would take place in September 2020. Elsewhere, it wasn’t only sea lice that caused problems for fish farms during 2020, as the disease infectious salmon

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anemia (ISA) was proving to be a costly headache for at least two big players in the fish farming sector in Norway. The country’s Food Safety Authority said it had been notified by farming giant Cermaq that it discovered evidence this month compatible with ISA at its Marøya site in the Troms region. The company stated the suspicion was based on the results of histopathological examinations carried out by the Veterinary Institute, along with other results. The Food Safety Authority planned an early inspection and tests at the facility to enable the Veterinary Institute to confirm if it was ISA. In order to limit the spread of infection, the site had been subject to the usual restrictions, including prohibiting the relocation of fish without special permission. If the suspicion was confirmed the Food Safety Authority may have ordered the site to be completely cleared. Meanwhile, it had already done just that in the case of an ISA outbreak at the end of May at a Salaks company site in Bjørga, south of Tromso in the Solbergfjord area. Two news organisations, Nordlys and Folkebladet, said that the authority had now ordered the company to slaughter all the salmon at the site which may number up to 750,000 fish, currently weighing about a kilo each. With salmon selling at around NOK 60 a kilo on the export market, the eventual cost to Salaks, if the fish had been allowed to reach maturity, was likely to be considerable – possibly in the order of NOK 45-million or £3.8 million. While ISA is not harmful to humans, it is regarded as a serious and contagious

Above: Julie HeskethLaird. Left: Atholl Duncan. Below: The presence of ISA virus in the kidney cells of salmon

WE ARE VERY GRATEFUL TO JULIE FOR ALL THE PROGRESS THAT HAS BEEN MADE UNDER HER LEADERSHIP

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 101 viral disease in salmon. Back in Scotland there was exciting news that the Scottish tech entrepreneurs Chris van der Kuyl and Paddy Burns had invested in Dundee headquartered aquaculture technology specialist Ace Aquatec. Founded in 1999, Ace Aquatec is a double Queen’s Award for Enterprise winner that develops acoustic deterrent devices and electric stunners that are used by fish farm operators in the UK and across the globe. The investment by the tech duo, who run the game development group 4J Studios that is best known for developing the Minecraft Console edition, follows a funding round last year led by Dutch investment fund AquaSpark. AquaSpark specialises in sustainable aquaculture and the 2019 investment was consistent with Ace Aquatec’s mission to use technology to accelerate the adoption of responsible marine practices. The investment by van der Kuyl and Burns would also see van der Kuyl join the board of Ace Aquatec as the company enters its next phase of growth. The company’s management team, led by CEO Nathan Pyne-Carter, planned to grow its team and regional support network over the coming months as ethical farming and food insecurity move up the global agenda in the wake of the Covid-19 crisis. Nathan Pyne-Carter, CEO, Ace Aquatec said: ‘Aquaculture is set to grow even quicker post-Covid and is seen by many commentators as one of the key drivers to address the onset of a global food crisis. As the industry grows, we are helping our customers support their own growth with the most sustainable and ethical products in the market.’ On the investment by van der Kuyl and Burns, Nathan Pyne-Carter added: ‘Chris and Paddy’s experience growing digital businesses will be a significant asset to our team as we strive to blend the best of physical and digital technologies to help our customers produce environmentally sustainable seafood.’

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Above: Chris van der Kuyl (L) and Nathan Pyne-Carter (R). Below: Scottish salmon farm

Chris van der Kuyl said: ‘Paddy and I are delighted to invest in such a fantastic technology, manufacturing and innovation driven company. Ace Aquatec has shown phenomenal global growth and ambition and I hope we can help bring our technology expertise to this world class organisation. Investing alongside management and an aquaculture specialist investor in Aqua-Spark gives us cause for great optimism and excitement for future developments.’ Ace Aquatec was on track for record domestic and international revenues in 2020 and had a series of product, partnership and customer announcements in the pipeline. Finally this month, The Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) launched an open, ongoing rapid-response funding call to support Scotland’s growing aquaculture sector through the continuing impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. The innovation centre was welcoming applications from collaborative partnerships between businesses and academic researchers, for a fast-tracked process that would help the aquaculture sector adapt to a new commercial and operational reality in the months and years ahead. SAIC were to provide a package of up to £50,000 to successful applicants, with business partners expected to match or exceed the investment through financial and in-kind contributions. The rapid

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102 NEWS REVIEW response projects should have a duration of less than one year, with at least one consortium partner based in Scotland. All of the projects should align with one of SAIC’s priority areas, which support enhancements to fish health and welfare, strengthening the market for shellfish and other non-finfish species, and unlocking the sector’s capacity for development. Sarah Riddle, director of business engagement at SAIC, said: ‘The outbreak of Covid-19 has been a significant challenge to the entire economy and aquaculture is no different. However, the sector is beginning to turn the corner towards recovery and there’s a real opportunity to introduce new, inno-

vative ways of working. The sector can use this time as a catalyst for change – whether it is the development of more efficient processes or amplifying the ongoing focus on sustainability. ‘Our new rapid-response funding call will support the sector through the months ahead, remaining open to allow for new projects and ideas as the situation evolves. A decision on each initiative will be made within 10 weeks of submission and we’re particularly keen to hear from SMEs with ideas in the sector and supply chain. SAIC has a core commitment to encouraging collaboration and there has never been a more important time for the sector to come together and work towards a successful, sustainable future.’

THE OUTBREAK OF COVID-19 HAS BEEN A SIGNIFICANT CHALLENGE TO THE ENTIRE ECONOMY AND AQUACULTURE IS NO DIFFERENT Left: Sarah Riddle

AUGUST

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he month started with news that just six week after completing its epic 15,000 mile voyage from China to Norway, the first salmon had been released into HavFarm1, the giant Nordlaks fish farming platform. Nordlaks said preparations for receiving the fish had gone according to plan. Spokesman Captain André Grøtta said: ‘Until now, it has been a hectic period with a lot of personnel on board preparing for completion. We have given priority to getting

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Above: The HavFarm1

the fish in, and we are on track to finish the release by September’. The salmon that had so far been released into HavFarm1, also called Jostein Albert after a former Nordlaks chairman, were moved from 100 metre cages at a nursery at Grøtøya and weighed an average of two kilos. Good weather and calm seas helped to make it a smooth operation. Capt Grøtta added: ‘So far, the fish have been moved into two of the six units on Havfram1. There are now about 20 people working on board, and there will be extra service people on board for some time to come. There is still a lot of work left before the vessel is completely ready and we have put all the fish in place, but now we are approaching more and more a normal operating situation’. Trude Lind, head of the Nordlaks operations centre, said the fish had responded well to feeding

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 103 with every indication they would thrive. The platform also gave them a lot more room to move around. The aim is to move around 2.3 million salmon onto the platform over the next month, with the first harvest taking place around New Year. There was good news as it was reported that Norway’s seafood exports, including salmon, held up surprisingly well in July, given the turbulent state of global markets in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, latest figures from the Norwegian Seafood Council showed. They totalled 7.9 billion kroner (£664 million) in July, the same level as July last year. The country’s fish farmers exported 94,800 tonnes of salmon worth NOK 5.6 billion (£471 million) last month, a volume increase of

six per cent, but a reduction in value of two per cent or NOK 132 million (£11 million). The average price for whole, fresh salmon was NOK 54.43 per kilo against NOK 59.60 12 months earlier. Seafood Council analyst Paul T. Aandahl said: ‘Weakened demand for Norwegian salmon, especially in Asia, as a result of Covid-19, is the reason for the decline in value for salmon in July. Markets that have bought significantly smaller volumes (in the past month) are China, Hong Kong and Sweden. But the supply of salmon to Poland, France and Germany, on the other hand, increased sharply.” So far this year, Norway had exported 595,000 tonnes of salmon worth NOK 40.6 billion (around £3.4 billion). Volumes and value

SO FAR THIS YEAR, NORWAY HAD EXPORTED 595,000 TONNES OF SALMON WORTH NOK 40.6 BILLION

Above: Norwegian salmon

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104 NEWS REVIEW were running at the same level as last year. Farmed trout sales performed well in July, totalling 7,200 tonnes and were worth NOK 345 million (£29 million), a volume rise of 43 per cent and the value up by 15 per cent. Exports for the year so far were also well up with the Ukraine, the United States and Finland the largest markets. Exports of both fresh and frozen cod also rose last month despite it being the low season for whitefish. Seafood Council analyst Tom-Jørgen Gangsø said sales were helped by a weaker Norwegian krone with species such as saithe and herring performing better in price compared to more expensive species such as salmon and cod. Sales of salmon had still not normalised following the infection scare at a Beijing food market in June. while tourism (and subsequently catering) continued to be affected by the pandemic. There was more good news elsewhere as BioMar unveiled its best ever half year results. The Q2 report for BioMar was released by its parent company, Schouw & Co. The report underlined the sustainable growth of BioMar as increased volumes and revenue were accompanied by strong earnings. Following an impressive Q1, BioMar Group continued to deliver solid financial results. The sales volume increased by 9%, while the revenue increased by 7% compared to Q2 last year. The growth was mainly delivered by robust performance in the salmon markets across geographies, supported by the new salmon business in Australia. A strong product portfolio, competitive product offerings and close collaboration with customers fighting the challenges of the pandemic had been some of the factors driving the results.

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WE HAVE SEEN THAT IN TIMES OF CRISIS, SOLUTIONS ARE TO BE FOUND WORKING TOGETHER ACROSS THE VALUE CHAIN

Top: Rainbow trout Above: Carlos Diaz

BioMar Group CEO Carlos Diaz commented: ‘We have seen that in times of crisis, solutions are to be found working together across the value chain. During the last months we have collaborated with suppliers and customers ensuring business continuity and a stable food supply to the end-consumers. At the same time, we have experienced an immense dedication from our employees engaging in delivering high quality products and very competitive product solutions to our customers despite lockdowns and market challenges’. However it was not such a good month for Mowi Scotland as their fish farm site as Carradale North was hit by Storm Ellen, dislodging 10 circular pens containing over 550,000 salmon. The company issued the following statement following the losses: ‘Mowi Scotland’s salmon farm at Carradale North, consisting of 10 circular net pens containing 550,700 salmon (@~4.2kgs), shifted its position after becoming detached from its seabed anchors during Storm Ellen and strong tides in Kilbrannan Sound on August 20th, 2020. ‘The company immediately informed Marine Scotland of the event and the potential for fish escape. Key stakeholders and media were informed of the event within 12 hours. ‘The company’s immediate priority was to secure the fish pens in place until Storm Ellen subsided, and to safeguard staff, contractors and fish stock – this was achieved by August 22nd. ‘By August 25th, 2020, the farm was secured back in its proper location and all 10 pens either visually inspected for integrity and/or inventoried. The recovery operation was completed by teams of

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 105 trained staff and service contractors without injury or incident. ‘Following thorough inspection by dive teams, the root cause of the incident appears to be breakage of mooring ropes that attach to the main system seabed anchors. The farm was installed five years ago according to the Marine Scotland A Technical Standard for Scottish Finfish Aquaculture, and the infrastructure inspected three months ago. The rope type is marine grade, 4.8cm in diameter with a break strength of 89.5 ton – roughly twice the maximum strength required for its application (ranging from 33t to 51t). The rope has been sent to third-party testing facilities in

T

he month started with the news that Norwegian salmon exports had taken a big Covid hit during August, the latest figures showed. Overseas sales fell by seven per cent in volume terms to 95,100 tonnes and were down 13 per cent in value to NOK 5.3 billion (£448 million) on the same month last year. Paul T. Aandahl, analyst at the Norwegian Seafood Council, said: ‘During the corona pandemic, an increasing proportion of salmon has been consumed at home instead of in restaurants. This has led to a sharp increase in sales of salmon in the grocery trade. One consequence of this

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Aberdeen, with further investigation to follow. ‘Of the 10 pens, six were found to be structurally sound with fish in good condition and are now secured back in their original position. The remaining four pens were structurally compromised (two of which experienced torn netting), and the salmon contained within the four pens have now either been harvested (125,900), removed as mortality (30,616), or escaped (48,834).

Above: salmon

is that an increasing share of salmon exports now goes to Poland, which is the most important processing country for salmon.’ Poland, France and Denmark were the largest markets for Norwegian salmon in August. In fact a total of of 15,885 tonnes of salmon products were exported to Poland in August, which accounts for just under 17 per cent of total exports. The export volume was 76 per cent higher than to Denmark, which is the second largest market. In fact the EU is now becoming an increasingly important market for Norwegian salmon with the value share increasing from 69 to 74 per cent. Also in Norway, the land based aquaculture company Salmon Evolution looked set to raise 500 million kroner – or more than £42 million – in new capital following a private placement of shares that was several times over subscribed. It was announced only a few days earlier that Salmon Evolution was partnering Dongwon Industries, South Korea’s largest fishing company, in

DURING THE CORONA PANDEMIC, AN INCREASING PROPORTION OF SALMON HAS BEEN CONSUMED AT HOME INSTEAD OF IN RESTAURANTS

Above: Salmon Evolution Left: Norwegian salmon steaks

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a £130 million project to build one of the world’s most environmentally advanced land farms on the Korean peninsular. But in a private placement of shares in Oslo, the company received subscriptions for 100 million shares at five kroner each. Salmon Evolution said: ‘The Private Placement attracted very strong interest from Norwegian, Nordic and international high-quality institutional investors and was more than nine times oversubscribed, excluding shares pre-allocated to cornerstone investors.’ The net proceeds from this private placement were to be used to THE partly fund the first construcPRIVATE tion phase of the compaPLACEMENT ny’s land based salmon ATTRACTED VERY farming facility at Indre STRONG INTEREST Harøy near Alesund in FROM NORWEGIAN, Central Norway and to further develop the NORDIC AND project and for general INTERNATIONAL corporate purposes. HIGH-QUALITY The farm will use a INSTITUTIONAL through-fl ow system taking INVESTORS seawater, much of which can be re-used and filtered. Salmon Evolution chairman Tore Tønseth said a strong stock exchange listing was absolutely crucial for the future growth of the business, adding: Above: Indre Harøy location. Right: Tore Tønseth. Below: Grieg Seafood salmon

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‘We have always said that we will use the capital market actively and it is reassuring that such heavy investors come in with significant amounts’. Salmon Evolution, which has also attracted investment worth NOK 50 million from South Korea’s Dongwon Industries, hoped to start trading on the Oslo Stock Exchange’s Merkur Market later in the month. In Scotland Grieg Seafood announced it was to cease operations at its five farms on the Isle of Skye in Scotland, because of the long distance between the island and its main base on Shetland. The company said the distance was too great to operate the two areas as one unit, and the Skye operation too small to be worked as a separate unit. As supportive resources and equipment for the Skye operations have had to travel all the way from Shetland, Grieg Seafood said it has regrettably not been able to maintain the fish welfare and production standards that it has for the rest of the company. The transportation of resources and fish between Skye and Shetland has also had a high carbon footprint in comparison to other salmon farming operations. Two years ago (August 2019) Grieg initiated a strategic evaluation of its Skye base. The company had now concluded that it would end its operations on the five farms in Skye, and look for alternative set-ups for these farms

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 107 outside the company. The decision was expedited due to an incident of high mortality at three of the Skye farms between late July and early-September 2020, mainly caused by abnormal levels of jellyfish. Unfortunately, 627 000 fish (approximately 1,500 tonnes) were lost. Operations at the impacted sites had been discontinued immediately, while operations at the two remaining farms would end after harvest in the next few months. Grieg Seafood had 25 employees on Skye, and the company said the decision was expected to result in the loss of eight of those jobs. Some of the employees would be able to continue working for Grieg Seafood should they want to relocate to Shetland. Grieg CEO Andreas Kvame said: “As we have had to move supportive equipment and resources for our Skye farms back and forth from the Shetland isles, we have regrettably not been able to maintain the fish welfare and production standards that we have in the rest of the company. Therefore, we have decided to end our operations in Skye and will look for alternatives for the farms and the remaining employees outside the company.” He added: “I regret to say that the decision per now is expected to cause the loss of eight jobs in Skye, and we are in dialogue with our staff about that. Grieg Seafood is grateful to our Skye employees for the tremendous job they have done, especially over the last months with uncertainty due to our strategic evaluation and a challenging biology in the sea. I want to thank them for their dedication to our livestock and to Grieg Seafood.” The month ended with the news that Tavish Scott, the former Scottish Government minister and Shetland MSP, had been appointed as the new Chief Executive of the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (SSPO). The trade body, which represents Scotland’s salmon producers, moved

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Top: Andreas Kvame. Above: Tavish Scott

SCOTTISH SALMON IS THE UK’S BIGGEST FOOD EXPORT. ITS VALUE TO THE ECONOMY IS IMMENSE

quickly to fill the vacancy left by the departing Julie Hesketh-Laird, who left at the end of September. Mr Scott comes from Scottish Rugby, where he had been Head of External Affairs. The former Liberal Democrat MSP knows the farmed salmon sector extremely well, having represented Shetland for 20 years, since the Scottish Parliament’s inception in 1999 to his departure from the legislature in 2019. Shetland remains one of the sector’s strongest and most vibrant farming locations and Mr Scott was a vocal champion for salmon farming during his time as an MSP. He brings a formidable knowledge of politics and the political process with him to his new job (having served in the Scottish Cabinet and been leader of the Scottish Liberal Democrats). Mr Scott said he was delighted to be taking on such an important role at a key time for the sector. He said: “Scottish salmon is the UK’s biggest food export. Its value to the economy is immense and it has the ability to help lead Scotland out of the Covid crisis, building on its sustainable foundations and driving a green recovery.” Atholl Duncan, Chair of the SSPO, said: “We are delighted to have secured someone as knowledgeable and experienced as Tavish to help lead our sector. “His passion for salmon farming and his deep roots in our salmon communities are well known. “There is a great opportunity right now for the Scottish salmon sector to thrive and to create more jobs and prosperity in our rural and island communities. “Tavish has the skills to help us all to realise this potential for the greater good of Scotland.”

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OCTOBER

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he month started with news of a major new seafood giant being created in Norway. Nergård and Norsk Sjømat were to join forces into a giant group with the prime goal of creating greater value and new opportunities in the industry. Together they would become a fully integrated seafood operation. Norsk Sjømat og Nergård Holding AS are owned by Per Magne Grøndahl and Bjarte Tunold. Both are major players in their respective spheres. Norsk Sjømat AS is a business involved in the farming and processing of salmon and trout, and was founded in 1996. The company is one of Europe’s leading salmon producers, with a well-known focus on quality and innovation. Nergård is the second largest fishing company in Norway and since the 1980s they have secured a significant share of Norway’s fishing rights and create value through fish processing. The new company was to be called Norwegian Seafood and would have offices in Tromsø and on Stranda. They said in a joint statement: ‘We will build a strong common corporate culture and a solid platform for growth, with more than 500 dedicated employees on land and at sea. This is a move that will bring out synergies between the wild fish and aquaculture industry’. ‘We have great ambitions for increased processing of raw materials in Norway. We are actually able to make money from it today, and we will build on that. The market is growing rapidly and we have leading expertise in both product development and

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sales’, says CEO of Norwegian Seafood, Per Magne Grøndahl, who will be chairman of the board of the new group while The current CEO of Nergård, Tommy Torvanger, will be the lead manager of the new group. Investment of at least NOK 1.2 billion (£100 million plus) is planned Other developments included the production of larger smolts on the aquaculture side and fleet renewal in its fishing operation. A new filleting plant was to be built. Per Magne Grøndahl who is to be chairman of the new group, said: ‘A possible stock exchange listing will give Norwegian investors

Above: Nergård farm off the coast of Northern Norway. Below: Salmon smolts

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 109 the opportunity to participate in developing a new locomotive in the Norwegian seafood industry. It is a matter of course that we ensure a Norwegian majority of owners who comply with the current regulations for ownership of fishing vessels. We are humbled to manage part of society’s resource, the fish in the sea. Then it is obvious that we secure a Norwegian ownership majority for these resources.’ The Icelandic seafood company Samherj has a 39.9 per cent stake in Nergård which it was expected to sell. Also in Norway, fish farmers were told they would have to shoulder a larger share of the bill for recovering escaped salmon in future. Fisheries and Seafood Minister Odd Emil Ingebrigtsen announced a crackdown following a large number of escapes in the last two years. Companies had been accused by politicians on all sides of not doing enough to prevent salmon and trout from leaving their cages. He said: ‘The farmers will now have to pay when fish escape. We are tightening the requirements to ensure they pick up a large part of the bill.’ Companies would now be required to report to the Directorate of Fisheries as soon as they suspect an escape. They would also have a legal duty to imple-

ment measures to catch any escaped salmon. Scottish Sea Farms said goodbye to one of their ‘stars’ this month, with the announcement that Pal Tangvik, Head of Freshwater Farming, was to return to his Norwegian homeland after achieving his mission of delivering the company’s first full generation of RAS grown smolts. The veteran Norwegian fish farmer joined the company in December 2014 from Lerøy Seafood Group, which coowns Scottish Sea Farms along with SalMar ASA, tasked with overhauling the company’s freshwater production strategy, including the creation of a new state-of-the-art RAS hatchery. In six short years, he had overseen the design, location and build of the new hatchery at Barcaldine; streamlined the company’s pre-existing freshwater estate in preparation for its opening; and brought together a sector-leading team that is now delivering the full smolt requirement of SSF’s 42-strong estate of marine farms. The first generation of RAS-grown smolts had been transferred to sea at double the average weights achieved via traditional hatchery methods and are showing excellent post-transfer performance. Meanwhile, the freshwater team were now

Top: Pal Tangvik Above: RAS-grown smolts

THE FARMERS WILL NOW HAVE TO PAY WHEN FISH ESCAPE

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110 NEWS REVIEW starting to deliver from the second generation of smolts reared at Barcaldine Hatchery. Said Tangvik: ‘My whole reason for coming to Scotland was to help Scottish Sea Farms bring Barcaldine Hatchery into being and see the finished facility deliver its first generation of smolts. With that now achieved, and with five young grandchildren having arrived while I have been here in Scotland, now feels like the right time to return to Norway where I can be closer to my family, young and old, and be part of the day-to-day once again.’ Tangvik would continue to lead and manage the freshwater team until a suitable replacement is found, ensuring a smooth handover across all activities. Staying in Scotland, University of Stirling postdoctoral researcher Simão Zacarias was this month named as the winner of the Global Aquaculture Alliance’s Innovation Award for 2020. Zacarias edged out two other finalists — Pablo Berner of Nuseed and Mark Luecke of Prairie AquaTech — to win the competition, which was sponsored by Lineage Logistics. All three finalists were featured in GAA’s Global Aquaculture Advocate in September and presented on October 8 at GAA’s GOAL 2020 conference, held virtually for the first time ever this year. Zacarias’ work zeroed in on the common — and, in animal-welfare circles, contentious — shrimp-hatchery practice of unilateral eyestalk ablation. His research debunked the notion

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that the practice results in higher egg production and showed that it actually escalates disease vulnerability. Zacarias proved in laboratory testing that postlarvae and juveniles from non-ablated Pacific white shrimp broodstock showed higher survival rates when they were challenged with two key diseases. He also proved that a similar egg production rate can be attained without resorting to eyestalk ablation by giving broodstock, in their pre-maturation stage, high quality, nutritious feed. ‘It is an honour to win this prestigious award, mainly as the first African to get it. This award reminds me to never give up in chasing my dreams even when they seem impossible,’ said Zacarias. ‘I also think that this award is a direct message to the shrimp and aquaculture industry as a whole to keep adopting stronger animal welfare practices.’

IT IS AN HONOUR TO WIN THIS PRESTIGIOUS AWARD, MAINLY AS THE FIRST AFRICAN TO GET IT

Left: Simão Zacarias Below: Shrimp farming

01/12/2020 15:19:59


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T

he month started with Norway’s salmon and trout farmers anxiously awaiting the results of an inquiry into future taxation plans for the industry. An independent committee, chaired by economics professor Karen Helene Ulltveit-Moe and set up in 2018, was thought to be ready to present a new tax model for aquaculture, and possibly the catching sector too. And already there were fears that companies may be hit hard. There was also speculation in the Norwegian press that the Aquaculture Fund, which had paid out hundreds of millions of kroner to fish farming com-

munities in return for the granting of licences, may be scrapped and replaced by payments from the central state. Geir Ove Ystmark, head of the fishing and aquaculture employers body Seafood Norway, said he feared that the Marine Tax Committee would propose tax streamlining measures similar to those that recently hit the oil and power industry. This tax scheme brought strong criticism from the industry and those parts

HE FEARED THE MARINE TAX COMMITTEE WOULD PROPOSE TAX STREAMLINING MEASURES Top left: Karen Helene Ulltveit-MoeKvame. Left: Geir Ove Ystmark

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SEPTEMBER 2020

A PASSION FOR SALMON

SSPO Chair Atholl Duncan

EASTERN PROMISE

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112 NEWS REVIEW of the country where power facilities were based. Ystmark warned that while power stations and the like are difficult to move to countries with a lower tax burden, this is not the case for aquaculture. ‘If aquaculture is taxed too highly, businesses will move out,’ he said, citing the case of the Norwegian company Vikings Label, which planned to build an aquaculture plant in the Middle East. There is no doubt that politicians had cast envious eyes on the high profits from fish farming over the past few years, although these had slowed down recently due the fall in salmon prices and high costs involved in dealing with problems like salmon lice and algae. One news headline in Norway said, somewhat crudely: ‘After the power tax bombshell, fish farmers should tremble in their pants.’ Meanwhile, there was news that the CEO of Norwegian aquaculture equipment supplier Akva was to stand down, with immediate effect. Hallvard Muri, who took up the post in November 2016, had resigned. He was to be be replaced by an interim leader, Knut Nesse, current chair of the Akva board and until last year CEO of feed giant Nutreco. Nesse would be resigning from the board of directors, who had elected Hans Kristian Mong as the new chair, also with immediate effect. Mong was previously chair of the Akva board, stepping down earlier this year after six years, to be succeeded by Nesse. He had since remained as a board member. Elsewhere, there was good news this month for Grieg Seafood, as it reported that survival rates had been increasing at it’s Shetland operation,

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where it had previously been experiencing ongoing biological problems. The announcement was made as the world’s seventh largest fish farmer presented its 2019 third quarter results, which delivered solid earnings on the back of a strong performance from Norway. In August, Grieg suggested it may sell its operations on Skye. It had not added to that speculation this time except to say that its Skye strategic evaluation was continuing. Grieg Shetland made a Q3 operating EBIT or loss of 13.6 million kroner (NOK) compared with a loss of NOK 5.5 million this time last year. However, the figure is an improvement on the Q2 loss of NOK 19.8 million announced in August. Harvest volumes fell by 15 per cent to 3,856 tonnes, but Shetland expected to produce a total harvest of 12,000 tonnes this year, rising impressively to 17,000 tonnes in 2021. The company said that while costs in Shetland were not yet at target level because of the gill disease biological issues, survival rates were increasing and this was expected to bring down costs ‘going forward’. Revenues fell from NOK 274.6 million

SHETLAND EXPECTED TO PRODUCE A TOTAL HARVEST OF 12,000 TONNES THIS YEAR, RISING IMPRESSIVELY TO 17,000 TONNES IN 2021

Above: Hallvard Muri Below: Grieg Seafood farm

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 113 in Q3 2018 to NOK 232.6 million this year, mainly due to lower spot prices, which had affected all salmon farming companies. Staying in Scotland, and Bakkafrost this month moved to purchase the entire remaining share capital of the Scottish Salmon Company (SSC). The bid was not entirely unexpected as Bakkafrost CEO Regin Jacobsen suggested as much in September, when the sale to the Faroese salmon farmer was first announced. But it had probably come sooner than thought. Initially, Bakkafrost purchased 68.6 per cent of the shares from the investment fund Northern Link, the then majority owners, for £517 million. Since then, the holding had been increased to just over 80 per cent. Now it declared that it would make a

mandatory bid for all the shares it did not currently own. The new offer represented 19.23 per cent of all shares issued by the company. The offer price was NOK 28.25, which was the highest price Bakkafrost had paid for the company’s shares over the past few weeks. Bakkafrost said its new offer was to end on December 9, subject to possible extensions of up to two weeks. The transaction was being managed by DNB and Nordea, two of Scandinavia’s largest financial groups. There was another new CEO announcement, as Mowi announced Ivan Vindheim as the new incumbent, replacing Alf-Helge Aarskog after a ten year stint in the role. Vindheim, who had been

Top: Hallvard Muri Below: Alf-Helge Aarskog

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114 NEWS REVIEW

Mowi’s CFO since 2012, took up the role immediately. He told Intrafish it would be ‘business as usual’, and he paid tribute to Aarskog who, he said, had delivered the company to him ‘in excellent shape’. Vindheim had held various executive positions in the seafood industry, including being the CFO of Lerøy Seafood. ‘I am honoured to be given the opportunity to lead Mowi together with more than 14,500 highly competent colleagues,’ he said. ‘It is with humbleness I take on this task. Mowi is the leading global aquaculture company and we have many opportunities ahead of us. ‘The board’s strategy for Mowi of being a leading integrated seafood provid-

2020 News review - EDIT.indd 114

er remains unchanged, and together with the rest of the organisation I look forward to continuing to make Mowi a stronger company and execute on our strategy. ‘Alf-Helge has been a great leader and colleague over the years and I would also like to take the opportunity to thank him for making such a valuable contribution.’ Aarskog transformed the company during his decade at its helm. His key achievements, said Mowi, included the creation of the group’s own fish feed operations, significant growth in value-added processing, substantial farming volume growth and most recently the launch of the company’s branding strategy.

Above: Aerial shot of Scottish salmon farm

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DECEMBER

T

he month started with news that the Scottish Government had announced mandatory controls over the harvesting of wild wrasse for managing sea lice in the salmon farming industry. Fishers would have to meet certain criteria, show they had an appropriate relationship with an aquaculture business and have a proven track record to obtain a permit for harvesting wild wrasse. The measures followed a recent consultation with the industry and would be brought into effect from 1 May 2021. Introducing the changes, rural economy secretary Fergus Ewing said the move was expected to improve management of the fishery, provide clear instructions to all those involved, and secure better reporting of activity and data from fishers to Marine Scotland. Ewing said: ‘These measures will support the sustainable growth of our valuable aquaculture industry while also maintaining the right balance across our economic, environmental and social responsibilities. ‘Mandatory measures for wild wrasse harvesting will help to maintain healthy stocks of this

2020 News review - EDIT.indd 115

Above: Wrasse Below: Wrasse vaccination

fish which is so important for treating and controlling lice in our salmon farms while improvements to the way we consider regulation of fish farms will ensure the impact from interactions with iconic wild salmon and sea trout is reduced.’ In 2018 a voluntary code was introduced in collaboration with the Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation. The Scottish Government said it would work to ensure that reasonable fishing opportunities remain, that there was access for new entrants to wrasse fishing and that there was a fair recruitment system that took into account sustainability and the aspirations of fishermen who may wish to diversify. The measures would be kept under review.

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116 PHOTO GALLERY

PICTURE - Captions.indd 116

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Image: Workboat in action at Orkney fish farm Photo: Angus Blackburn

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118 ICELAND

Ice Ice Maybe Aquaculture could transform economy in Iceland By VINCE MCDONAGH

A

quaculture is helping to transform the economic fortunes of Iceland in a way not thought possible just a few years ago. The spurt in the number of applications for fish farming permits over the past year is witness to that. Observers only have to note the recent rush by Norwegian aquaculture interests to invest in Icelandic companies to appreciate something is stirring. This development has come at an

Iceland.indd 118

important time for this country of hot springs, volcanoes and massive glaciers. Iceland (population 357,000) may be some distance from the rest of the world, but its isolation has not prevented it from being hit as hard as many countries by the Covid-19 pandemic. But there are bright spots and aquaculture is one of them, says recent study by SFS, the Icelandic Association of Fishery Companies. The report points out that fish farming is one of the few export industries still currently expanding. It says: ‘The importance of the the sector in export earnings has increased almost steadily over the last decade. ‘Based on the export value of marine products, farmed products had reached almost 10 per cent, but on the total value of (all) export goods the value was just over four Left: Salmon fillets per cent. Right: Icelandic salmon farm ‘The plans of aquaculture companies suggest there are prospects of an even further increase in the production of farmed fish in the coming years. ‘It is, therefore, safe to say that a

01/12/2020 15:38:27


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 119

strong basic industry is being created, although aquaculture certainly has a longer history than that.’ But what is meant by a basic industry? SFS describes it as one which has a greater significance in a specific area than its scope alone indicates. It is a definition that applies well to aquaculture with the greatest impact in Westfjords and East Iceland, two important but somewhat isolated areas of the country, where much of the conventional fishing industry was once located. Since the development of fish farming, their economies have become more diverse, the study finds.

The population is increasing and life is returning to the property market. ‘This can be directly attributable to the increased activity of the (aquaculture) business itself and indirectly to the spin-off effects salmon farming has had on other industries’, the study says. SFS concedes aquaculture has not been on the agenda of every Icelander. Critics claim there is too much foreign ownership, that it very often offers only low paid jobs and those go mainly to overseas workers. But in a counter argument it claims: ‘It is quite obvious this is not the case. Fish farming activities include both direct and indirect jobs and have a direct impact on the settlements in the East and Westfjords. ‘The companies are all Icelandic although some of them are majority owned by foreign parties. Two companies are already on the Stock Market.’ SFS says foreign investment can play an important part in spreading financial risk in the domestic employment structure which had to be a good thing. Icelandic

IT IS SAFE TO SAY THAT A STRONG BASIC INDUSTRY IS BEING CREATED

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120 ICELAND

aquaculture is also involving professionals who have not only invested in development, but have handed on their experience and knowledge to the industry. The report continues: ‘Aquaculture is still in the development phase and how much it succeeds will be of great importance to those communities that rely on it. ‘Of course the industry has also had a positive effect on earnings, thereby consolidating the economy’s foreign exchange earnings. It

Iceland.indd 120

Above: Icelandic salmon farm Left: Jens Garðar Helgason Top right: Cod, mackerel, herring, haddock Bottom right: Salmon farm

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 121

“The value of

aquaculture products has never been higher” should therefore be welcomed that investors, whether they are foreign or domestic, see an opportunity to invest in aquaculture in this country.’ Last year the export return from aquaculture amounted is ISK 25 billion (£137 million) which staggeringly was 90 per cent up on 2018. SFS says: ‘The value of aquaculture products has never been higher and this development is in line with our forecast for this year, although in foreign currency terms the increase was slightly smaller (75 per cent) as the krona had depreciated by almost eight per cent between the years. ‘More than 90 per cent of aquaculture products are exported, and the exchange rate of the krona has had a significant effect on the sector’s performance, as it has in other export areas.’ The export value of farmed products represented about 10 per cent of all marine products (cod, haddock, mackerel, herring etc). SFS says it is expected this ratio will rise even further in the coming years. Meanwhile a production record was set in aquaculture last year with a total of 34,000 tonnes, mainly salmon slaughtered. That compares with 19,100 tonnes just 12 months earlier and represents an increase of 80 per cent. Despite the impact caused by the

Iceland.indd 121

pandemic the indications are good that 2020 will be another year to celebrate. It is not just aquaculture which is doing well. Jens Garðar Helgason, outgoing chairman of the Association of Fisheries Companies says in his annual report that the state of the fishing industry generally remains strong despite the fact that in the past many people have tried to give it a kicking. He also argued against major changes to its fishing processing and sales structure, warning it could damage both the industry and the national economy.

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122 COMMENT - CHRIS MITCHELL

Bring back the

small-talk Pandemic has hit ‘crucial’ face to face discussions

By CHRIS MITCHELL

I

n Kipling’s poem ‘If’, the ability to ‘keep one’s head when all about, others are losing theirs’ is a celebration of stoicism in the face of adversity and one that chimes in these times. There will have been many examples of this over the past nine months particularly of course amongst our ‘key’ workers. Whilst the spotlight has been shone largely on health workers, and rightly so, we should not forget the many other key workers who have also kept going through very difficult and challenging times. The tie that links most of them? The requirement to care for living things and keep them alive! A great deal of media coverage has been devoted to the personal costs and sacrifices made in the name of ‘keeping calm and carrying on’ and apart from expressing my admiration for, and gratitude to, all key workers

Chris Mitchell.indd 122

in all sectors I have nothing to add here. But in terms of costs it is a rather less obvious one which concerns me here. Whilst we may, by and large, have been keeping calm, the impact of the pandemic on the manner in which we have ‘carried on’ has been both significant and far reaching. In the 2019 Yearbook I wrote about innovation in aquaculture. A year later, I am left wondering about the impact of lockdowns and social distancing on this vital aspect of our industry. Can we innovate well when communication is conducted in 2D, with the contributions of conference participants often being governed by the strength of their Internet connection as well as their ability and comfort with this style of interaction? In assessing the success of innovation in lockdown, I believe there are two competing forces at play. Last

Above: Chris Mitchell Right: Latest innovations to tackle Covid-19

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 123

year I referred to ‘The white heat of necessity being the mother of invention’ and that our industry has an enviable and proven track record in quick problem solving in the face of critical need. In the pandemic there have many examples of ‘high-octane’ innovation

Chris Mitchell.indd 123

delivering life-saving solutions at breath taking pace both figuratively and literally. One only has to think of the High Value Manufacturing Catapult’s Ventilator Challenge which, earlier this year, brought F1 teams together under Project Pitlane to design the mass production of simple but effective ventilators for use on Covid wards. Perhaps even more astonishing has been the fast-track development of a variety of vaccines the use of which,

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124 COMMENT - CHRIS MITCHELL

we are told, should serve to bring the pandemic under control. These are inspiring examples of how in an ‘hour of need’ innovation can be expedited to tackle and solve very challenging problems. But what about ‘everyday innovation’ that meets ‘everyday needs’ such as improving efficiency and facilitating growth? The normal stuff? In June of this year Philip Aldrick, Economics editor of The Times wrote of his concerns about the impact of social distancing and lockdown on the flow and exchange of knowledge in our economy. He referred to comments by Jonathan Haskell, a Bank of England rate-setter and Stian Westlake, incoming CEO of the Royal Statistical Society, suggesting that during factory shutdowns, whilst machinery is protected from wear and tear, there is an opposite effect on the skills and knowledge base of those who operate it. The columnist went on to present evidence to suggest that social distancing actually generates ‘wear and tear’ on the intangible capital of knowledge and skills. In 2018

“In the pandemic there have

many examples of ‘highoctane’ innovation delivering life-saving solutions at breath taking pace”

Chris Mitchell.indd 124

research by Michael Andrews on behalf of the US National Bureau of Economic Research showed that the number of patents filed during Prohibition in 1920s America fell when the bars closed, and people stopped interacting in these environments. When people don’t mix the ‘agglomeration effect’ (the clustering of companies, workers, technology and knowhow) is diluted. Technology parks, the City of London and Innovation hubs all exist precisely because it is recognised that these clusters promote the dissemination of ideas amongst the people who populate them, creating so called ‘intangible capital’. Intangible capital whether in the form of education, innovation or just plain knowhow forms part of what economists called the ‘Solow residual’, that bit of productivity which remains unexplained by the three main inputs of investment, labour and technology. So how might these concerns affect aquaculture? Anyone who has worked in our industry will be aware of how social we are and how many industry gatherings there are in a normal year and, if Michael Andrews is correct in his suggestion of a relationship between the availability and use of bars, and the pace of innova-

01/12/2020 15:43:43


2020 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 125

tion, then I would politely suggest that fish farming is vulnerable here! The measures introduced to control the pandemic have, understandably, fettered the movement of personnel onto and between fish farms. In addition, our traditional gatherings such as Aquaculture UK as well as all the smaller technical conferences that used to fill our calendars have all been eliminated. Of course, ‘big innovation’ has, by and large, gone unscathed with SAIC continuing to fund projects on a significant scale as universities maintain research programmes and hunt for new solutions to often longstanding problems. Industry itself is also forging ahead with huge projects to radically change the ways in which we contain fish for cultivation, feed them and protect them from disease.

Chris Mitchell.indd 125

But it is the area of ‘small innovation’ (‘minnowvation’?) that I suspect has largely fallen by the wayside over the past 10 months. For me, this comprises the ideas that flow from, and are generated by, face to face interactions and conversations between farm operators and external support people (service reps, salespeople, health professionals etc) who normally circulate throughout the industry estate. This is where our own Solow residual is normally to be found, but has latterly been absent. Let’s hope that the cage- and tank-side discussions can resume quickly in 2021 and that the smalltalk can resume. Chris Mitchell is a member of the editorial board for Fish Farmer Magazine.

Left and below: Latest aquaculture innovations

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126 COMMENT - CHRIS MITCHELL

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01/12/2020 15:44:24


2020 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 127

Chris Mitchell.indd 127

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128 EVENTS

2021 EVENTS This year’s aquaculture events and conferences

LATIN AMERICAN & CARIBBEAN AQUACULTURE 2021 (VIRTUAL EVENT) LACQUA20 is the 2020 Annual meeting of the Latin American & Caribbean Chapter of World Aqauaculture Society. Following upon the previous successful LACQUA meetings, LACQUA21 will bring international attention to the aquaculture industry of Equador and Central America.

Guayaquil, Ecuador March 22-25, 2021

AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2021 (virtual event) Aquaculture Europe 2020 will now be an ONLINE event. The basic format of the event will stay the same as ‘normal’ Aquaculture Europe meetings, with morning plenary sessions and then breakout parallel sessions for oral and Eposter presentations.

(Previously, Cork, Ireland) April 12-15, 2021

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 129

AQUACULTURE UK 2021 Aviemore will once again be the venue for this bi-annual trade fair and conference. It is undoubtedly the most important aquaculture exhibition held in the British Isles. The show has a tremendous following and with increased investment for 2021 it promises to reach even further across the broader aquaculture markets in both the UK and Europe.

Aviemore, United Kingdom May 19-21, 2021

WORLD AQUACULTURE 2021 The event will be held in Singapore this year with involvement from countries throughout the Asian-PaciďŹ c region and around the world. Aquaculture is growing rapidly in the region and therefore 2021 is the perfect time for the world aquaculture community to turn its focus here.

Singapore June 14-18, 2021

SEAWORK 2021 Seawork is Europe’s leading commercial marine and workboat exhibition, providing businesses the opportunity to showcase their products and services to an international audience. Visit www.seawork.com

Southampton, Mayflower Park, UK, 15-17 June, 2021

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130 EVENTS

Seafood Expo North America 2021 The 2021 conference program will feature over 25 educational sessions, presented by top industry experts. Attendees will take away informative, engaging and practical information covering the most important and timely issues relevant to today’s seafood business environment.

Boston Convention & Exhibition Centre Mid July 2021 (exact dates TBA)

AQUACULTURE AMERICA 2021 This show will be the largest aquaculture trade show in the Western Hemisphere and one of the largest anywhere in the world with nearly 200 booths! This is your opportunity to inspect the latest in products and services for the aquaculture industry.

San Antonio, Texas, USA August 11-14, 2021

ASIAN PACIFIC AQUACULTURE 2021 After the first meeting in 2016, Asian Pacific Aquaculture conference 2021 will be the next chance for the international aquaculture community to visit Indonesia and see the rapidly expanding aquaculture industry in Indonesia – nearly 20% increase in the last 5 years in hectares in aquaculture production and over 50% per year increase in tons produced every year for the last 10 years!

Surabaya, Indonesia September 7-10, 2021

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 131

GLOBAL SEAFOOD EXPO 2021 This event – which is the world’s largest seafood trade show – will feature a comprehensive exhibit hall with suppliers from around the globe and introduce its first conference programme in Barcelona. The event was formerly held in Brussels for several years.

Grand Via Venue, Barcelona, Spain 7-9 September 2021

WAS North America And Aquaculture Canada 2021 This World Aquaculture Society event will feature hundreds of world class speakers and delegates from around the globe.

St John’s Newfoundland, Canada, September 26-29, 2021

AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2021 Europe faces important societal challenges arising from global environmental and social-economical threats. These include climate change, depletion of natural resources including water and energy, pollution, food security and safety and human migrations. In many ways, these challenges are more obvious in Southern Europe, at the frontier between two asymmetric continents, regarding population growth, education, land and water availability/uses, food production and economics.

Madeira, Portugal October 5-8, 2021

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132 EVENTS

RASTECH Conference RAStech 2021 is the venue for learning, networking and knowledge sharing on RAS technologies, design and implementation across the world.

Hilton Head Island, SC, USA November 3-4, 2021

AQUACULTURE AFRICA 2021 AFRAQ2021 technical program will aim to cover developmental issues including latest research on aquaculture in Africa. The thematic plenary and technical parallel sessions will comprise submitted oral and poster presentations. AFRAQ2021 will feature an international trade exhibition, industry forums, student sessions and activities, satellite workshops (and training sessions) and various meetings/forums on aquaculture development in Egypt and Africa.

Alexandria, Egypt December 11-14, 2021

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Fish Farmer Events.indd 132

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 133

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Nets & HDPE Solutions eredWe office Walton Manor, Walton, Milton Keynes MK7 7AJ, UK. help you onmental triad.com 8 685685 • vet-support.uk@msd.com • www.msd-animal-health.co.uk ice Plant in-depth Nets innovate. h you. It’s HDPE t&shrimp. Tarpaulins Ace Aquatec partner with world-leading scientific experts to apply technology from their fields to the aquaculture and marine industries. Solutions s breakthroughs We help innovators who want the best experience possible for their fish, triad.com .indd 1employees, and their own customers. cetheir Plant of LIFT-UP Tarpaulins Online Training Hides Predators are clever Study anywhere, anytime Ss AT AQUACULTURE UK and determined. NO. 59 So are we. ofSTAND LIFT-UP Aquaculture Management CPD Hides NET SERVICES (SCOTLAND) LTD

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Fish Vaccination Fish Welfare

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Controlled Environment 04/12/2018 14:51:33 Aquaculture

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25/11/2020 09:51

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Engineered01/12/2020

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134 FROM THE ARCHIVE

From the archive A selection of images from the past

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 135

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136 PHOTO GALLERY

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2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 137

Image: Inchmore hatchery

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138 2021 YEAR PLANNER

JANUARY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

JANUARY

2021 Planner.indd 138

FEBRUARY

MARCH 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

FEBRUARY

APRIL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

MARCH

MAY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

APRIL

JUNE

MAY

JULY

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

JUNE

01/12/2020 10:16:27

JULY


2021 FISH FARMER YEAR BOOK 139

JUNE

JULY

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

JUNE

JULY

2021 Planner.indd 139

AUGUST

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

SEPTEMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

AUGUST

OCTOBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

SEPTEMBER

NOVEMBER

OCTOBER

DECEMBER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

NOVEMBER

MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY MONDAY TUESDAY

DECEMBER

01/12/2020 10:17:14


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