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Page 1



Compila tion of Notes .y Most Important Timber Tree Species

"' The Philippine Islands. Prcp,,"cd by

CAPTAIN GEORGE P. AHERN, 9th U. S. In{,mlry.

TN CHARGE OF THE FORESTRY BUREAU, MANILA, P. I.

•.GNCW G 'JNZA LEZ

II,

.A.'<

iLl.

l·fur

'lArA MUSaJM LIBRAIW


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PREFACE. This compil ation of notes was undertaken after lIum erous inquiries had hee Jl made at this offi ce for inform atio ll concerni ng th e Philippine forests, characteristics of the leadill g ti mber tree s pecies, \-nI ne of sa me , present a nd future markets, method of procedure to secure li ce l1 ses to Cllt timber, etc.

Preli min-

ary lIlyest igation by lumbermen wil1 be facilitated by these notes and illn stratiollS,

a nd as the exploitation of these forest s \I'ill be throng h American enterprise a nd capital, t he need of a . gnide to a knowledge of t he leadi n g Phili ppine timber tree species see med essential. ally

is

lI ecessary , alld will be made

A rC\'ision of the Philippine Forest Bot路 as S00 11 a s

poss ible.

GEORGE p, AHERX ,

("apIa ill 91h ( '. S. Ill/allll) ' ,

")' fallil a, P. 1. , Janu ary 2, 190T.

III C//(IIXl oj" Hllrl'll/(.


CONTENTS. CH .\P'I'ER

1.

CHAPTER

II .

C H A PT E R

Ill.

C H APTER

CHAPTER

1\' . Y, \ 'I. \' 11.

CH .... PTER

YIlI.

C H APTER C H APTER

Extract fro ll1 Forestry Regnlation s, a nd list of tree species not at presen t on tariff list. Notes on t he Philippine forest s a nd t heir exploitation . Descriptiye n otes of fifty im portaut lree species . The A u ay or \V h ite An t. Stre ngth aud Weight of Wood s. Uses of 'vVoods . Gutta· Perch a. Ant hori ties ci ted.

CHAPTER 1. EXTRACT FRO,1 FO R l·:STKY REClTl..\TIO:-':S,

' rh e followi ng extracts from the forestry regulation s are of interest to those conte mplati ng t he exploitation of the p nblie forest lands of the Philippines, T h e Spau ish law i n force in these isla nd s proYided for the reservation of all public fo rest lauds when the proper snrveys were made. The practice 111l der said law was to se ll t he tim ber at so 111u ch a cubic foot. Public l imber land was as a rnle not sold, b nt wh en sold it \I'as do ne On t he appro,,"1 of the Forestn' Burean and al a "al u ati on by said Bu reau . At prese n t forest products are procured from public lauds by license granted for Oll e year by the Forestry Bureau ill \ ia nila. Ko charge is made for thi s license. but a charge 15 llI ade as indicated belo\\": ARTICLE I. Tilllber shall be classified into six g roups as indicated in the tables below. ART. 3. T he pnce per cnbic foot for the ,'aluati on of State timher shall be as in dicated in the follo\l'iug table. The price shall be the sa me in all parts of these I sla nds: S u perior Gro np F irst 'l Second ," T hird " F ourth " F ifth " ART. 1 2. T he \I'oods of groups 3,4 :tnd S

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6 A.RT. 13.

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A s uffi ciel1 t a mo ull t of tim be r a nd fire ,,"ood I S g ra nted grat u itoll sl .... to need .... reside nts" The Olme rs of forest or Iwod la nd may nti li ze t he procl u cts from sa id lauds wit h ou t gO\'ernm e nt ch arge by recordi ng a COPy of t he title to said la nd in the F orestr\" B urea 11 ,

CHAPTER II. STAT>: FORESTS,

From varion s so urces of infor mation I a m led to beliel'c that the pnblic forest lands comprise fro m one-fo urt h to possibl,' one-half of the area of t he Philippine I slands, viz : fro111 20,000,000 to 40,000 ,000 acres, T here are full y 5,000,000 acres .of virg in fore st own ed by t he St ate in t he is lands of 1I l indoro a nd Parag ua. The island of l\1indan ao, with a u area of more tha n 20,000,000 acres, is almost entirel y cOI'ered lI'ith timber, t here bei n g bu t a small percentage of cultiv'ated land, In the pro\'in ce of Cagayan , on t he isla nd ofL uzOll , t here are more than 2,000,000 acres af forest, ' In th e places j ust men tio ned t he cu ttings u p to the presen t date hal'e bee n very sm aI L In ma ny oth er pro"inces in the isla nd of L uzo n , espccially in the cO llntr y cl ose to ~ I a llil a , mu ch timber has been cut; a nd to fill la rge contracts th e lum berm en are obli ged to go qni te a distance fro m this city in order to find a suitabl e tract. In a recent visit to t h e sou t h ern island s of t hi s grou p, I was illl pressedwith th e a mo uu t of tim ber standin g ou t h e smaller islan ds; freq uen tly t he topograph y was s uch t h at it could be exploited with fac il ity, I saw tracts of " irgi n forest where more t ha ll IO,OOO cubic feet of 1llagll ificen t timber per acre was staudin g: t rees 'So feet iu h eigh t, "' it h tru nk s clear of branches for eighty fcet, Th ere are m a ny mi ll ions of cu bic feet of tim ber in these forests that should be cu t iu order to p roper l')' thin on t th e de u se growth : fo r in stance, where there are t hree or fo ur trees g rowin g on a space required by one , t h at one so freed wonld put ou 111 0re good wood each year th an the fo ur together. F orestry is lar gely a q uestum of lig ht and sh ade ; it is comparatively easy to learn t h e most desirabl e tree species far a c.errain locality, b ut tJ,e qu estion ,,'heth er 300 or 3,000 trees shonlu re m ain on oue acre is where t he real val ue of t he scientific forester is show11,


12

FORESTRY BUREAU

There are 396 tree species mentioned in the present fore stry regulations. 'vVe kilow of fifty more g rowin g in these islands , and frolll tillle to time \ve learn of still other species. I t is safe to state that the uumber of nati"e tree s pecies found will be nearer 500 t han 450, a g reat majority of these undoubtedly being hard woods. The edges of t he great forest s ha,·e been scarcely cut away and fifty valuable hard woods are give n to t he world , th e full yalue of which species has not been demons trated as yet. 665 NATIY:E TR:E:E ?P:EGI:E? NOW LI?TED. T h ere are a g reat Yariet )' of ,·aluable gum , rubber and gutta-percha trees, but the trade has been ruin ed by the Chinese in their efforts at adulteration and other fraudulent practices. vVe have a list of seveuteell dye woods) the revenue from which, if properl ~v ex pl oited , shonld pay the cost of the fore stry service. A book h as been \\Titten by Ta,-era on the medicinal qualities of the native plants , many trees b-eing mentioned as possessing yall1able qualities. The yl a ug-ylau g tree abouuds here , its blossollls producing au oil which is the base of man.\' renowned pe rfH11le ~ . Qllite a re venue- is gained bvowners of these trees . The west s lope of the isla nd of Romblou is a mass of cocoallut palm s fronl the water's edge to the 1110 11utaill top , eyery tree bringing ill a yearly revenue of fr om one to two doll ars, aud , when it is realized that several hundred such trees may be grow n all an acre , on e is stru ck with the wisdom of that former commander at !Zomblon wh o i n sisted upon such exten sive planting of this species. In all parts of the southern islands these trees seem to grow without an y effort or care . Southern Parag ua and ~Iilldall ao are ce lebrated for the great yariety of gUlll , rubber and g utta-perell a trees g rowlJ there) but these forests l1ave never been properly exploited, and afford a very attractive field for the investigator. The following commercial u ses of the above-mentioned tree species over snch an exten si,-e area g iye some idea of t he great fore st wealth of the Philippine Islan ds. Other u ses will undoubtedl y be di scove red as investigation continues. T hese forests produce : Tim ber and fire \\·ood ; Resin) g um s and g utta-percha; Textiles fro lll seed, bark and trunk fibers; Oils, incl udin g perfume essence, etc.; Dyes; Bark for tannin g; Sugar an d fermeuted bevcrages ; ~Ied i ci ll es ; Frnit and other food. • • I t will be the aim of thi s Bureau to collect all data of interest cOIlllected with our fore sts. Specimen s of woods will be added to those now on hand, and their uses and beauty sh own as far as practicable. Investigators will be assisted and encouraged by this Bureau to explore and report upon different features of the forest wealth of t he islands.


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS,

J3

MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. There are 110 forest roads or ri\"er drl\Oeways ill the islands that are worth mentioning. It will be impossible to exploit these forests until roads are COllstructed, ri"ers impro"ed and harbors pro,路ided. The method s at present arc exceedillgly slow and expensi"e. The tree is felled far froUl any road, is hauled out "ery slowly by one or more carabaos, m any tracts being left untouched , due to the difficulty of the haul and the lack of roads. The natives are not s killed ltllnbennen, and, \\"hile paid but a small wage, are by no 111eallS cheap labor when we cousider the cost of felling alld h auling a cubic foot of timbcr to the shipping point. The most interesting statistics from foreign forestry reports are those publi s hed iu Germany, showing the increase in the "al ue of fore st land s as the character of the roads impro,路es. Good stone roads ha"e made the Genua u forest lauds worth to-day, on au a"erage, )\\r8r (gold) per acre, and th ese same Jands with standi n g timber less iu quantity and quality than ,,'e find at pre sent on many large areas in these islands. There will be some difficulty in th e con stru ction of roads iu such places as Cagayan, lIIindoro aud Parag ua, but the se difficulties call be overCOll1e. StO lle is ple l1ti ful and availabl e, but labor is s carce, and s nch as we ha"e is poor and uncertain. This latter will be the Olle great diffi culty. \Vh ell the labor problem is solved, engiueers and money will build roads th at will m ak e the Pbilippine forests yield a reyen ue that is undreamed of to-day b,' t he residen t> of these islands. Lumbenl1ell con te mpl ating extensive operation s , after solvill g the labor problem, must next cousider the roads and driveways. Th e maiu road s sh ould be built by the State with a view to the gradual betterment of the tributary forests. For several years the efforts of the forestry service should be dirccted to a j udicion s thinning of the dense jungles where an axe has neyer been heard , llIallY varieties of undesirable tree species shonld be Cllt away aud the den se growth thiuned out. The State and lnlll bermen shonld ,rork together; afte r th e fir s t r oads are sta rted the lumbermen can figure on the possibilities of the fir st fore sts so tapped. Th ere are no pure forests of any DlIe tree species; dozens of varieties gro\\- in eac h fores t, but th ere are rarely more tha11 three or fonr trees of one variety founel grouped together, so that a ny l nm ber men looki;] g fo r a shipload of anyone s pecies would find it impossible to cut that a nd lIO other, bnt would be obliged to procure the same by purchase from men operating in differe nt section s. Lnlllbe rmen llIu s t be willing to take dozens of "arieties of tree s peci es .

MARKETS. There is a great demand in 1\la11ila, in fact all through the Orient, for coustr uction timber; the demand will continue, as many important public works arc 111 contemplation in the Philippines, many private enterprises will make demand s, thousands of houses mu st be bnilt, and when the present condition of these islands and the vast aJl)oullt of work to be done are considered, it wonld be diffi cult to foretell when the present high prices for timber will materially lessen. There are very few lumber companies h erc properly eq uip ped to handle large logs; it \\'ill take


FORESTRY HI'REAI'

compa nies conLe lllplalillg sHch ,,"ork m any mOllths to (,::-,labli:,h lhelllsth"cs, to sec u re labor auel tra ns portation to deliycr their first cargo: a nd if snch compa nies are nol prepared to fu r11ish master mechanics, expert gang bosses, ill fact all the skilled la bor r equired, \\-itl1 a full s tock of the best s uppl y material, it \\"oltld be hazardous to atte mpt t o lllQ,"e the large logs which lllllst be Ctlt and brought to market if these forest tracts a re exploited properly. It has beell the custom by loggers ill many parts of these island s to lea,"e the large trees a nd cu t smaller trees so t hat n Ow ill many of the PhilippiIle forests \'"C find only '"cry large trees a nd yen" small o n e~.

LABOR. ~lt\ c h has been said agai nst the lI ati"e as a laborer) b11t as a maUer of fa cl t he Filipill o a lld 'I\[oro h"l\'e \\'orked \,'ell, and are \\'orki ll g' well. 'T"he native mu st be trea ted cOll s id eratch ' . he s hould recei,'c his fllll ll'age a ll d uot be kept ill debt for years, rece i\'ill !!: ill lie u of pay a fe\\' yards of calico and a fe\\' pound s of rice at fa ncy prices, \\路e read much of the he~l\'Y losses s ll stai ll ed by adY:1l1ci1Jg wages to llati \'e laborers; as a matter of fact th e -first ach'a ll cc of money is often a charge t ha t s hould be 11I et by the employer, and if lIot s uch a lcg-iti mate charge , is soon made up by profit s 0 11 the Ilecessarie s of life sold to th e Ilati,'e , III :llilldallao, II'here a 1l A merica n offi cer has a Humber of ~IOl'OS cmpl oyed, the first wages \\'ere paid dai ly , the 11 by the week, Th e asto n is hment of these ll ati\'es at receiyin g real mOll ey \ras amu sing to the officer; in a \'cry few \\'eeks 111<1ny of these same work111(': 11 , ha \'ill g- satis fied their Flfst needs ) reque sted perl1li~sioll and we re al10wed to deposit t heir pay \\'ith the officer. Such a spirit h as bee n encouraged ; it lIIea ll S tJ1uc h to s uch a COlllll1111lity, These people no longer fear t he tax gath erer, t hey call acc ullIul a te , beco111e property holders) and t he ll , sta lllich friends of law and order. The C hin ese cooli es work wel1 111 the tilllber) but at presellt many are not will路 illK to go far from th e to\\'I1 S, being afraid of the ladrones and insnrrectos, The natiYe has bee n cllttin g a nd ha uling timber Lo the railroad and water's edge recently for abo ut twe nty-fi,-e to forty cents , :llexicau, per cubic foot-that is the price paid tu th e head ma n of the nati ve g aug, The logs are ha uled out by carabaos, us ually ou mnel sleds; rece ntly s ixteen carabaos \\'ere hitched to OIl e \'ery heay)' log which t hey hauled in to a station OIl the railroad, The carabao is not \'ery strong and s ll cc umbs quickly if worked hard. He is useful iu the rice field and iu swa mpy grou nd , but will Hot meet t he demands of the Am erican lumberman, Good roads, mules, port路 able ra ihnlYs, do nkey e ngines , etc" with intelligent s llpen'ision, will go far 'towards makin g t hi s vast t imber \\"ealth a\'ailable, Th e American lumberman ca n do it, but lI Ot until he has carefully l l\\'estigated th e condition s a nd is prepared to meet them. ' There are obstacles here which will paralyze thc efforts of companies not fnll y prepared. This inyCstigatio ll and preparation will take time allCI should be made by practical meu. A good price is paid at H ong koug for timber from the Philippines and Borneo a lld every stick of timber is eagerl y bou g ht up a s soon as a vessel a rri,'es, A lthou g h the prices in l\lanila are very hig h , not mllch Borneo timber is recei\'ecl h ere,


P HI J,TPPI:\"E ISLAX n S.

15

PRICES. Hig h prices ha,·e prevailed in ;'\Ian ila ner since the Alllerican occupation, duc to t he scarcity of s u ppl y a n d to th e great dema nd for timbcr b~- Q n arterlllasters, E ng in eers, and Sig nal Corps, as ,,-ell as by pri"ate parties. As a ru le t illl ber is bon g h t and sold by the ~ n bic foot, occasionally the Illetric syste m is n sed ; the logger s ,-ery ofte n sell by the \"flra (33 E n glish inches), that is. a log sq uarin g twelve jllches will sell at so mllc h a vara in length, onC' ten hy l weh-c or tweh 'e by fo urtee n inches at so l1l ll c h a \'anl , etc. In 187.1 t h e pr kes for tilll ber ill Mall ila ra n ged frail I twe ll ty-li,·e cell ts per cllbic foo t fo r Banea1, Lallutall , Paita n and mall Y ot her species, to fifty cell ts a nd less for M a lave, Narra, I pil, Dun gan , l\fa ngachllp uy, Ade, Tindalo, Yacal , Batic ll lin, Cala ntas and others. I n 1897 t he price iu IIIa n ila for woods of t he lirst anel s ll perior groups rauged fro IH $1.00 to $ 1. 50 per cubic foot; the second gro up, sixt."five ce n ts to $;1.00; t h ird gro ll I', fifty ce ll ts to se,·enty·fi,·e cellts; fourth group, t hi rt.\' ce nts to fiftv ce n ts. Si nce A merica ll occupatio n the prices for logs have been as follows: Superior group, $1.50 to $3.00 per cnbic foot; lirst and second gronps, $1.00 to :Pr.so per cubic foot; t h ird grou p , s ixty cen ts to $1.50 per cnbic foot. \'ery fe\\' woods can be bon g h t in t h is Illarket for less than S1.00 pe r cllbic foot; t h e retail IUlll berman sells small lots of somc specics of the superior groap as h ig h as $4.50 per cubic foot. Contracts I" ,,'c just been let for piles (first grollp ti11lber), thirty La lifty feeL ill len g th , at $11.50 to $12.00 per pi le. Telegraph poles cost $1.50 to ~2.00 a piece, cle \i" er ecl at t he r ailroad . All prices JIl ell t iolled are in " lexiea n 1lIoney. At prese n t, freight ra tes a re very hi g h amI will probably reJll ai n :;0 for a lon g time, as the in crease of trade which will folI o\\' cessatiotl of hostili ties will be YCT\" rapi d, makin g th e qnestion of t ra n sportatioll a \"ery difficult OIl C.

CHAPTER III. /~

Aele Camphor , A lin tatao 3' A nagap t" Anu bin g 3" Apito n g A rallga I' A lllU gui s 2' Ban aba /' Bancal I' Ban salag u i 11 / Baticulin L' Batin o

.

..

!.IST OF \r ooDS DESCRIBI·:n.

/' l"

Batitilla n Bay uco Beti, Bitoe Calanta:; Cala m a ll sa 11 a \. Ca luJIlpi t

S

Cam ag011

/' /"

I'

,"

Catl1unin g y Din gla s \' Ditaa S DllllgOll 2' Dlln gon-LaLe /'

Ebon y G uijo " H aras 1pil Lanete

-

,

.OJ

2

LUlIutall

Lauan \ [acaasi ll .- " :lIalar uh at /, :lIalatapa.\'

.' .J'

,

~l a ll co ll O

). f an gach aptI}·

"langasiriq lie :'Iola ve Narra 0' Palo-l\laria Panaa-Balao Supa T inclalo '" T aulanyutl 2.~ Tang uil e - Teea Urull u ' • Yacal" ,

-


10

FORESTRY BUREAl'

ACLE. IJillu.!(%bium Adc, Vido/ . .llimosa .-hle, Blunro.

I_t:ft"}}f iNOWZ: .

"-HERE FOUKD-Islands of Luzon,

~lindoro, ~[asbate .

DESCRIPTIOI'\- Firsl (,·roll/!. "FIRST ORDER: COLOR.-;'1ild dark recl. ODOR.-Not perceptible. TEXTl'RE.-Solid , fibers undn[ating , pores not \\"ell defined; breaks in long splinters, and gi ,·es a s ba,·ing rough and little curled. It is plentiful in many parts of the Archipelago . It is used in the construction of ho uses and yessels. The brilliant black charcoal m ade frolll it is sa id to be excellen t. ELASTICl'l'\".-0.004 lll. , the fibers lengtheni n g on the s uspension of a ,,·eight of 5.75! kilograms; breaks \\"ith a \\"eight of 40.594 kilos; weight in the air 9.29 grams per cubic inch , specific gravity 0.709. The above is the m ea11 result of .00001x tests with specimens from different pro\'inces.

S. Y1DAL.))

), Gives logs up to t h irty-t\\"o feet by t\\"enty-eight inches sqnare. It is strong, tenacious and durable , ,,·hilst it has the speciality of being difficult to burn and is much used in house building; it polishes well, and is much prized by the natives. I t is supposed to be identical \\"ith the Payengadu of Burmah. FORF.'IAN ." "Although r have not seen this wood in the Visayas, yet it is fo und ill the forests of San Mateo, n ear lI[anila, where it is well kno\\"n. It can scar cely be distinguished from cedar, althoug h it is somewhat darker in color, very noble and excellent; but it is lI c('essar~' to shield it fro111 da1llpn ess in order to preserve it for any leu gth of ti me. Neverth eless the llatiYes li se it for tlprights, ill the construction of their houses) where it lasts for J11 a ny year s; the part buried in the groun d also lasts \\"ell. As it is ,-ery light, it is used in the man lIfacture of chairs, tables, frames, desks au c11uallY other siluil ar articles. \VhelI I was minister of the tOW l1 of San ~ r ateo) I had sOllie col ulll n s t urned fur the altar of the church at that place a nd the dust of t he ,,·ood t h ro\\"n off by turning, ca ll sed the carpe nter alld all \\"ho ca lli e near e n ollg-h, to s neeze; it has no special medicilIal virt l1 e. ,. P. DELGADO,))

"TREE OF THE FIR ST ORDER. \Vood is of a dark reddish color; solid texture; grai n in und ulatin g lines; pores n ot very distinctly marked; breaks into s hort splin ters, t h e sh avin gs are rou g h and very little twisted.


ACLE. Pithecolobillill Acle, Vidal. Mimo.:itl A('lc, Blanco. Pam. Leguminosre. Mid. from drawing copied from 1I3t ure by

n.

Garc ia,

Pa!!,c 16 .

â&#x20AC;˘

, â&#x20AC;˘


,

,


• PHTLTPPTKE TSLA;.mS.

17

This wood has the virtue of being nearly iucombustible, which pro pert,· recol1lmends it strongly for all classes of construction, especially naval. It is used in the con,truction of buildings and ships, taking the place of the ~lohl\"e alld I pil, in places where these species are scarce, and compares with them fayorably in strength a nd dnrabi1it,·, The brilliant black charcoal ,;,ade from this ,\"ooel is excellent. This tim ber, owing to its large size and the facility for raftiug it, is in great demand ill 1'.[a1abon for the cOllstrnction of cascos. It grows principa11y .in the pro\'inces of Bulacan, Tayabas, Laguna, Nne\'a Ecij a and nlau), others. Senor Cortes made the following tests: .. ORW1:\

('udte

£L .\:-Tl erT\' lua;.\" ....\T I.I~I::~

:1.,',

on'-('F~

,

1~1

w~:r"ltT I~

~I'~;(:ll-

.\ II:

](' {:R.\Yll'\'

(dt.ll~'

(;R,U"'-.~

];i9.';

lIJil :,

I 11:]1; 1:\

T!l~'lIhu~.

Bntullll

,

1..>81

:!:~L)

lIJl:l(;

~tlcvn

I.ug-uun

I.~

l.:.!IKI

19li.;j

0 .•)1'17

Hnhl('ul'

Edjl\

EL '\~ Tll'IT\'

IlHE.U;:" ,IT

1. 1:....:"

un'(".:"

>'3

\I"Io:IGHT'

l~

.\lR GilA l"'~

Srl::CIFIC

GHAYITY hll.\I:'<>:

....-'

1.1-10

'91

(l.nS

1.tl3:1

,""

U.784

U

1.1/2

13:!.;)

0.587

\\'e hereby statc that for this and for the s uccessi"e squares, the elasticity or stretching of the fiber 5.9751 kilogram s is taken as the equ iyalent of one pound. III speaki ng of the weight ill opell air and the specific gnl\-ity and the maximum of breakage, a cubic inch is referred to. D. VIDAT.." "Usual length twelvc to twenty-two feet long, and twelve to twenty-two inches square . Special lengths thirty to thirty-tll'o feet and twenty-eight inches sqnare . Strollg, tenacious and durable, it has the speciality of beiug ,'en' difficult to burn and is much used i,l honse bnilding; polishes well. BRo\I'>'." "Leaves opposite, bipinnate withottt terminal leaRet. Leaflets in two or three pairs only, broad, lanceolate, entire and smooth, lI·ith a gland between each pair. Pinme, only a single pair, with a gland at their base. Pod woody ,,·ith the margins bellt to onc side and the seed-spaces elevated. Seeds oyal with their margins attenuated, mark ed with a prominent line parallel to the margin one-half inch long. A tree of the first mag nitude, without thorns, well known near 1lanila. \\'ood txcellent, yery useful. Bark saponaceous. The Indians use it in the construction of their houses. III working it, it causes one to Slleeze. Unlike the 1l1l1110S~ its leaves are yery large, eight to nine inches 111 length and three in breadth. The seeds arc cdible ,,·hen gree n. BCAXCO." "This species was confouuded by Fernandez Villar with the Xylia dolabriformis of Bentham, and is given as a SY " 011,'m of that species by Miguel in his Flora :l·for


• FORESTRY BUREAI'

India Bata\>::e.

011 comparison with specimens at Kew, \'iclal fouIld it to be distinct

nlld rctnilled the specifi c name of Padre Blanco.

"Is .\ TREE OF

LlEUT.

SAFFORD, U. S . N."

THE F'RST :--[A'~:\l'l'l·nE.

COl.oR.-\·arions shades of dark rec\. O])OR.-Scarcely perceptible. TF.:\Tl' RF..-Closc, fibers undulating', pores little marked; sha\·ing' is rongh and little curled; breaks in long splinters. It abounds ill mallY parts of the Philippine Archipelago; its wood is "cry 1l1Hch llsed ill ordi nary ancllul\-al cO ll str nction.

SAIXADOR CER()X."

CAMPHOR. ( "i IIl1l1 111(111111)1 (illn pho, a lit JJf, I/!. Fam. lAW) jll(,(C.

SYl\Ol\Y:--IS-A1callfor, Camphor.

WHERE FOUND-Islallds of :lIilldallao alld Parag'un. DESCRIPTION-I·i·!'s!

(;!'Ollp.

t'COl..oR.-Gray, sOl1lewhat reddish whell recently cut. ODoR.-Pleasallt.

Found in

~Iillcla ll ao

and Paraglla, is of medium dime ll sion s; attains a height

of from eight to tell meters, and a diameter of thirty-fi\'c to forty centimeters (the largest see n). It is ll sed ill the mal1l1factl1re·of boxes and furniture} partition s ill houses) and doors.

'fhe bark ca n be ll sed as a s ubstitute for cinnamon.

Cn'NAMO?lIUl\.-lll Luzon and Vi say as there are other species of the t hat resemble this, but they arc not of the specie Camphoratu11I.

Citl l1HllIOt11Ull

GARCIA.

I '

IIBranches rounded, tender branches close and square ill the. lo\\'er part.

Leaves opposite or "ltemate, divided ill'the 10\\'Or part; base sharp pointed, elliptical or oblong elliptical, coml1lonly 101115, obtuse point, wide, strong. Color very clear. III growi llg, the underside has a green color lllixcd with white. Has three strollg fibers, the lateral part without dowll. Does not last long. 'fralls\'ersal fibers are in the form of a net. Leaves tender and flexible ) scattered, \\-ithont dOWIl. Frnit firml\" ?\IroUEL." , uuited to hase .

-


• •


â&#x20AC;˘

ANAGAP. Pithecolobium lobatum. Bcnth. Mimosa sClltifel'a l Blanco. FRTI1. Legumin osre. Atia1!, J.' Jorll dt!

F i1il)inn~,

Rlall(lo, Him. 438.

â&#x20AC;˘


I'HrLipptNE rSLA"f)S.

ALINTATAO. (';';01"0. 1)'/011

S,! 'ielellia,

f)(".

Fam. JlrliIU1'(/, .

WHERE FOUND-Isla nds of Lnzon, Panay, Parag-na , Samar, l\[inda1lao. DESCRIPTION-I'irs! (;rollp. "Tree of medium si;t,e; the largest pieces seen ill this market only measured fi,"e or six meters long by thirty-five and thirty-eight cent imeters square. \Vood is of g-ood quality, texture and fibers fine, medium density. Color is of :t reddish yellow. It is used in the manufacture of fnrniture and for door frames. Th ere is yen' little of this in the :,[a1lila market. GARCIA."

"The,' have a wood here that is better than the ebOlI\'; it is called Alintatao. It is a wood that is fit best for furniture or for any other pnrpose yon haye a mind to nse it for; it is a lasting wood. Color dark red with a fine grai n. I 1Y0uld recommend Allntatao and Narra as the finest woods for furniture. Cor,r.lNs." 'I'esti mony before Peace Com 111 i55ioll, timber bnsiness in the Philippines.

~la \"

13, 1899-

1'welJt\"-fi ,"e years III

((Leaves pill.nate, without terminal leaflet, of 1llany pairs of leaflets, sea-greell color, and bases yery u1lequal, ovate, snbrholliboidal, obtllse, gro wing ill panicles. Small trees of Oriental India founel also in the Philippines in the forests of the jurisdiction of !\[iagao, Pallay. Dr: CAXDOI.LE."

ANAGAP. j)illlf!CO/obifUII /oba/uIIf, lIfH/h . .I/iJJlosa scull/era. Il/ant().

Fam.

f~egf( m i"ost'fl' .

SYNON\'l\[S-Anagap, Casay, !.Ialacamansile, Alobahay, Ia.!(. WHERE FOUND- I sland of Luzon. DESC RIPTION-I IiiI'd C路rrJ/lp. "Lea yes bipilluate, without terlllinal leaflet, in place of which is a spllie . Leaflets three pairs, lanceolate, entire and smootli, with a gland between the last pair. Primary petioles ha"e a gland anel pit at base. Partial petioles (pinnae): the s mall ones alternate, and the upper ones opposite. Flowers axillary, in panicles; all h er maphrodite. Calv" with five teeth . Corolla twice the length of the calyx, in five lan ceolateel parts . Stamens and pistils the same as in the Languil. Legume large, yery long, twisted in a spiral form, indented transyersely almost to the s uture, into many diYlsiolls, sq uare in forlll and rounded at the extremities, separate from each other) some inclining one way and


20

FORESTRY BUREAU

the others alternately. Each c1i"l sioll contain s a large, thick oya1 seed, without an eley.ated line parallel to the Jll.arg in, and attached to the snture of the opposite sectioD, a long fi ber. This tree, kn own as Anagap ill the provill ce of Batangas attai ns a height of six or more fathoms. The leaflets are six inches long and three wide and are membranolls. The llatiYes ha"e assured Jlle that i.t la sts as 101lg in the ground as the !\Iola\'e and A uubillg, and in fact I ha\'e seen them nse it for p OSlS ill their h ouses. The bark, judging from wl.1at I have seen , has saponaceous qualities equal to the Langi!. The fruit h as a stran ge appearance as if formed of 111any shield s, as descri bed ahoye, alld for which reason the species is called scntifera. In the mountain s of Banang it fl owe rs in Juue. I ha"e seell a .yariety of which the fol1owing is a description: Leayes opposite , tripill11ate without the termillal leafl et in place of which is a spille. Leaflets 1110rc than sixtee n pairs, very small , rhomboid shaped, s11100th tipper side and somewhat downy underneath, with a gland in the terminal pair. Cross section of th e C0111]ll Oll petiole fiyc-anglec1, the wing-like processes extending along it at the angles, with a co nca ,'e gland toward s its base and a similar one at the ba se of the secondary petioles which are altema te. The secondar,' petioles (pinnate) are opposite, abo ut ten pairs, with a gland at t he base. Flowers grow ill panicles, all are hermaphrodite. Calyx and other parts the same as the A nagap . L eg ume t"'isted spirally, as in the Camanchile with many notches which do not extend to th e upper s nture , with a corresponding number of compartme nts, each containing a kidney shaped or lenticular seed attach ed by a long filament to the lower slI ture of eac h compartme n t. Tagalo: Casay, ~lalacal1lan cile, A lobahay . Is a tree ",hose diameter exceeds the thicknes s of a mall 'S thig h, Its fio"'er s ha\"e the identical ap pearance of those of the Anag ap, the fruit which is red at maturit}路 is somewhat differe nt, bei ng small er, but otherwi se appears to be similar to it. The smaller leayes are half an in ch long. I do !lot know if the bark h as saponaceous qualities; but the natives li se it, as well as other species, in order to 'set' the blue color il) dyei ng fabrics. Flo\\"ers ill Jal~l1ary , BLA~C O ."

"TREE ATTAIXS A H EIGHT OF TWE"'l'Y MFTERS. COLOR.--Y ello",ish gray . TEXTURE.-Fine, somewhat brittle, break s ill long splinters. It is nsed to a limi ted exteut ill ordin ary constrnction. . ELAS'l'lCI'l'Y, 0 .006; breaks with a weight of ' 23 -465 kilograms; weight in air , 6.389 grams, and s pecifi c gnl\'ity, 0-486 . It is frequently founel in th e prO\'in ce ",f Bataan whence came the specimen used in th e aboye test. ' S . VIDAT<." "Gives logs up to eig hteen fe et long by s ixteen inches square. It is sometimes used for h Ollse furniture and fittin g and for oth er purposes where a light dnrable wood IS wanted and n ot exposed to the su n and rain. FOREMAN."


,

• •

,I


ANUBING. ArtoOal'pUR F~lTn.

ovata . ~l3lanoo.

Urticacere.

Cupied from Il:ltnre loy R.

Page 2\.

Gard~ .


PHIUPPI N E ISL A NDS.

21

ANUBING . . -JrloullplfS 07)a/a, II/alll'tl, Fum. {'riitfl(t'u- .

S YN ONY MS-Allubill g, A lIubill, i\ 1I 0bi 1I g-, A 1I0bl ill g , A n u bioll g, 7 ag o Anobion , Pail/p. AUll yiOll , Baynco- I ~lSa) I({.s. WHERE FO UN D-I slalld s of Luzon, Minda nao, Parag ua , Visa\"as. ])ESCRIPTION- /+rsf Gmllp. "SECO XD ORDER: COLo R.-Yeliowish g r ay . ODo R.-Fa illt and di sag reeabl e. TEX'['uRE.- T exture lill e, pores slllall; brittle, break s in s hort splinte rs . It is mu ch used in some pro \'ill ces fo r upri gh ts mid rafters for h ouses. I s con sidered impervious to decay . It is ,·ery scarce at th e presen t t illl e ill the market of :\[anila . Sen or Cortes made t he followill g tcsts : uIW;!\;

II1Iill(',m .. :;.; lIcn\

EI-ij"

r.1.'\~ TI (·lTY

l.l =' E.~

lI r..f.AK~

,.,

OI'S(' ~:"

WE1(;IIT I!'

'I'H-1Jo"I('

All: (ilLIIS"

1.1: ,\ ,'ITY [;Il.\ IS:<

OHI{:t:"

~.$

1.1I~:!

11::,

0 .,-"7

1.IlJ!UIl'I.

1. 1

1.'i~1

11.-"

O.!"!II

n,ll>l.ln.

.:L,I"T]{'IT\ r.l·q:~

IIK.:_\h~

Ar

(In;n:~

.,

All:

"'J'F.(,IF lC' '-'Po.I \'ITY GR.\ I!'>S

\.;:!.';

D. Ym AL.

"SECO XD ORDF; R: COLoR.-Yell o,,·ish g ray. TEX'ITRE .- Fine, pore s not well defiu ed; breaks ill short s plinters. I t plentiful in almost ..11 the islands. Th e [nelian s nse it ,·en - milch for post s bu ilcling their houses. ELASTICITY-o.OO5 lll. ; brea ks ,,·ith a weig ht of 25 .765 kilograms ; weig ht the air, 6.99 gra1ll s ., and spec ifi c grav ity , 0 .593. S . "'\:\ t ID A I " "

IS

111 111

"I s s ure to resist dampness as wel l as ~l oLH' e, but is not appreciated as a good hard ,,·ooc1. It is plentiful , especially- iu the district of L ag un a ele Ba, ·. ..

F OR E l\l ...\ X ."

" From t,,·euty to thirty feet loug, an d twe h·e to sixtee n iu ches squ are. :-\ good wood for various purposes. \Vhen season ed it is li g ht and ,·e r,· stron g; may be used uuder ground if entirely free fro111 sap wood. BR O\\,:>i ." " Lea,·es alternate, som ewhat heart-sh aped, o,·ate-oblong a nel s harp at the p oi11t, slightly serrated and both sides co,·cred with b air. Petioles ver y sh ort, Flo,,-ers


FORES1'RY BUREAU

22

lllonceclOUS.

1\Iale axillary united in the common receptacle ill the figure of a

mace. Com11lon pedullcle yery long. Calyx and corolla proper absent. Anthers, a great number, ,\"Il'ich coyer the receptacle entirely. Filalllellts, Hou e. Female axillary -Ao,\-ers united also, ill a CO llllllon receptacle, almost globular.

"ery lon g and thicker thall ill the male.

Peduncl e

Calyx and corolla -proper absent.

\'el-y short an d s harp , ,'ery Ilum erous , which fill the receptacle entirely.

Styles

(Probably

each flower has a stde.) The receptacle of t he female resembling an apple with lUany globul ar nuts of the size of a filbert , reaching nearly to the edge, coYered with two membranes ,and a fr agile 11ucleu s . A great many of these abort. The frl1it is som ew'hat s imilar to the Nallgca except it has 110 points, and is much smaller; it is onh' t\\'O 111 ches ill diameter. BLA!\CO," "Is a species w hi ch gro\\"s ill the Philippine I s land s and is of the second order. COLOR .-Yellowish gray. TEXTl'RE.-Fine and pores little 11larked; breaks in short splinters: T h e uat i\'es use it \'en' mn ch ill the constrnction of their hou ses ,

SALVADOR CER01\"

APITON. jJirlerocarj>If,,¡ <~ I (/)(d~/Iorlls , 11Iall((I. FaJII. Dij>lt'rorarj>('tf' ,

SYNO~\'I\ [ S-A pito ll ,

'if/X.; H apiton.

WHERE FOUND- I s land s of Leyte, Luzon, l\l indanao , Negros, Panay, Paragllo, Romblo11 a nd Sama r.

DESCRIPTIO N-lIl/rd (;Uillp. "FIRST ORDER . COLOR.-Ash y or grayis h green with clearer or white spots . TEXTLlRE .-Fi ne, brittl e, break s in long splinters. ODOR.- Not perceptible. An odorOl1s and thick l~sin, s imilar to the furniture varnish I\Ialapaho, is distilled from its trunk ; th e g U111 of the Apitoll, howe\'er, canuot be n sed as a

s llbstitnte. It is plentiful in the island s, especially in the southern part of Lllzon , Mindoro , \'isayas (large qna ntities have been se nt to China frol11 the district of Concepcion ), ).[ari n d nqll e, etc. It is ll sed in th e fram ewqrk of honses a11d is also sawed into planks. It sh ould not be classified higher than the third or fonrth order. T ests made with a s pecim e n from lVlindanao gave following result: e1asticity 0 .005 111.; broke with 2r.624 kilogra m s; weight in air 7.565 grams, and s pecific . o .6 IS. S. " gravlty \ IDAL . "

â&#x20AC;˘


APITON. Di pte l'oC'al'pus ~!"\'rtndit1o\'U~I . Blanro . Fam. Diptel'oca r pea.·, Atlns, Floro de Filipinas, Blanco, lrtm . 3&.



PHILlPPI'>E l SLA"DS,

23

"TREE OF T HE FIRST lVIAG NT1'UDE ,

It is llsed in building, as sill s, rafters, etc., and also is sawed into planks; 1t 1S nsed in n aval construction for building bancas and for the sides and bottoms of sh ips, • The wood s ho uld not be classi fi ed hig her than the third or fourth group, Senor Cortes made following tests with speci me n s from Mindoro: elasticity 2,3; breaks at 0.752 ou nces; weight in air 15I. 5 grain s, a nd specific gra\'ity 0.6 [ 5. D. VlDAL." (( Leaves alter nate, ovate, aculllinate, and slightly obtusely elllargl11atc , sl1Iooth. Flowers terminal in a species of raceme of three or fOll r smal1 flowers, and two "ery large bracts, lanceolated and colored at the base, and each sm all flo\l'er with a nother similar bract. Calyx inferior, oblong, fleshy, woody, \'ery large at maturity with five wi n gs on the sides and di\'ided to the middle in fi"e "en' long parts , linear, colored and forming the cro\l'n of the mature fruit. Corolla of fi\'e petals , small, lanceolated a nd o\'erlapping each other at the edges. Stamen s, nearh' thirty, fixed between th e petals and the o\·al"\·. Filaments, scarcely any. Anthers long, awl-sha ped, groo\'ed and with out bristles. O"ary conical , situated at the bottom of the calyx, with grOO\'es in the upper part. Style longer than the stamen s. S ti g ma co'mpressed with a ll um bilic us. Drnpe, dry, closely uuited to the lower part of t he calyx, but n ot ad h ere n t, o\'al, cro\\'ned near the en\l \I'ith thc parts of the caly x elongated like wi ngs; the two large ones , lanceolate, with three yei ns and the other intennediate ones s lnall er; the nut thin and woody , containing one seed \\'ith five deep lobes. Thi s tree is of the first order. It is \\'ell kno\l'n on accoullt of the thick ancl odorou s 'resin that exudes upon c uttin g it. It is similar to that sold lln der the n ame of nlal apaho, which seryes as a ,oarllish for woode n fllr nitu re and pai nti n gs , g i,-in g a splendid color effect; but thi s is not th e tree ,,-hich gi,oes that; the gUlll from this tree \I'ill not produce an eq u al effect. The ,,"ood is whi tish and very hard, and is used for making wry large can oes and planks for house s. In thi s species the ovary does n ot adhere to the calyx. Although I have "ery often seen the fr uit ripe, the calyx \\'as n ever solidly united but onh' closely dra\\'n to the fru it, and not adherent as in the Pan ao. T he e ntire appearan ce of the tree , its flowers and properties , indicates that wit hout doubt it is congeneric with the oth ers. It is founel in t he Visayas, Marinduque, Mindoro a nd in other parts. In this species the a nthers have no bristles. The lacinias or \I'ings of the calyx are nearly sjx lnches long. The fruit has the appeara nce of an egg; the llut is n ot hard. It flOlrers only in l\Iarch . It is to be carefull y obsened that in thc s pecie s "'hich I have named Verni cifluu s, lVIayapi s, polysper11lus a nd gra neliAorlls , the fruit does n ot unite with nor does it fom! a un ity with the calyx as ill the other congeners; but the calyx contiuues g rowing over the fruit, tightly binding it until it is completely enveloped. Thi s circulllstance n ecessitates t h at t\\'o divisions be Blade of the genu s. There are mall Y trees of thi s geull s ill these islands, and of great use fuln ess, but the Tagal Indian s do not show t he sa111 e aptitude ill taking


fORESTRY Rll REA t'

adyantage of the riches of the cou ntry as do the \ 'isayans .

Some are of yery large Some pieces last a long time ill s:llt wate r, others do

dimen sio1ls ) othe rs medium. Hot. '{'here is also a difference ill the resin ) which exudes from the tree , being

Inore or Ie" fluid or odorons. The resin, called Batite in Leite, is used, with other in gredie nts, in Cebn for making the odoron s pastil s and balls so \\"ell kno\\"n there. P. "B1. ANCO . ))

" TREE OF THE FIRST ':I1.'G:<nTDE. Is a tall tree \I'ith a trunk of fine dimensions. COl.oR.-Ashy, green ish, \\·ith clear or white str eak s. ODOR.-Not perceptible. TE :< Tl'RE.-Fine and fibrous alld breaks in long splillters. Grows sp ontaneo u sl., · in th c sonth of Luzon, :lIindoro and the Yisayas, Philippine I slands. III c01l strn ction it is l1sed 1n n. sa\\'ed form a nd is of mediulll quality. SAI.'·ADOR

CEROK"

ARANGA. H "",,,IIII'" I II'OlllclI -'< , F. "i l l .

.. .:f/ IJIJ 'd a(t'fI".

\\-H E RE FOUl\:])--I sland s of Lnzon, 'Ilind oro. DESCR I PTION - Sc(olld (ir ollp. ,. COLOR-

- R eddish with violet graill .

T EXTl'RE-Compacl , fibers straigh t; gome\\·hat brittle. It 1S used in naval cOllstruction. It is pl e lltiful ill 'J'ayaba s . No tests have been made showing its S. VIDAL!) elasticily. resista ll ce , we ig- ht i11 th e air and specifi c gravity . Gi \'es logs n p to se \'e llty-fi\'e feet long by t\\'ellty-fonr inches sqnare . It is spcciall ~- u sed for sea pilill g a11d all ki llels of Illarine work whic h is s ubject to attack s of sea worm. FOREi\lAX" II

!)

" Tree full or lea\·os. Tender branc hes "-\'li ndrical, gray is h , full of pits a nd \\"ith clear obl ong spots. Leayes alternate, O\'ate or oyate-e lliptical, rounded at base . . freq uentl y \\"ith thi ck and obtuse gland s i n t he lo\\'er part , also glandular at the ape x , which is obtu se a nd briefly aCllmi n<tte, festoo ned , leath ery anel "ery smooth; eight to sixtee ll cClltim ctcrs loll g by six to tell \\"ide. Pe tioles thick, ten to t\\-eh'e mill im e te rs lo ng .

Infloresce11ce white, dowlI)", growing in spik ed panicle, axillary

a nd terminal. Bracts nearly eq ual, frequeutly \\"ith flo\\·ers. Flo\\'ers bnnched togetll er, scaly a nd \\"i th 10ll g peduncles. Calyx top s haped. Petal s eight, spatulate, with a ridge alon g the back. Sepals eig ht , lilleal, twice as lon g as th e petals and sometimes only one-third of their length, glanclular opposite, \\"hite, dO\l"J1y. Stnlll en s sixtee n, cleft ill upper part insid e the petals, opposite. Styles [onr, thi ck.



-'

AMUGUIS . Odina spec-iaEa. Blume. Cyrtacarpa quinquestiJa. Blanco. Odina multijug'a , Vidal. Fam. Anacardiace::e. Atll.'; , Sinop ~ ;I\. "'lo rn FQre~tal de Filipinlll'. S. Vhlal, him. XXXVII.

l'age 26.


PHILIPPIXE l SLAXJJS.

Capsules not described.

Specific name taken from Luzon Island , Philippines.

is found in Tayabas and A ll gat, Lnzon. NUllle in Tagal0 is Ara nga.

It

I saw a specimen ill \~idal)s herbarium. F. \~If,r.AR.1)

AMUGUIS. Ut/il/a speciosa, Illllllle. (F. /"il/" p. 5.j . ) CI',-h}[arpa tjltinqlfcsti/a, lJlOllto. p. 2()(j. 2(/ cd. (hIilla 1I!1t!IU((~~a, { 'ida I. (.II/lls Flora Fur., /"da!. ) . /11((((/ J d i{((('f('. ~YNONYI\lS. - AIllt1gllis, I i~,'(( I'a II.

AlllOguis,

I(Z!{'({/o; S::llllba!uyall, AlllboglleS; !\[uguis ,

WHERE FOUND-Islands of Luzon, ,lindoro, Paragua, Panay, "lasb"te. DESCRT PTlON-S{'(illld I(

(;/illlp.

BEI.O:\GS TO THE Sr:CO:-\D ORIJER.-

\'en' COllllllOIl and well-known.

COLoR.-Ranges from a "en' light red to a uniform blood red or ,,路ith lead colored stai n s. TEXTllRE.-Sol id aud fille, although sOllletilll es filaceuus. Th e pores are llumerou s allel of regular size; the lllcdllllary rays of the first order, well marked, t he second scarcely \'isiblc; is inodorolls, atlel ill breaking, leayes short spli nters.

It emits a disagrceable odor upon bei n g cut or fashioned. \\' ith the Anosep, it is preferred for nipa construction, being thc best spec ies of the gro up cOll1l11onh' named ':'Iladera-nombrada' (named woods ): It is used as aforesaid, with an orchuary dnratiol1 of tell years before decollipositioll sets in, and frolll that time it

will ge neral ly last se,'en ,'ears more . Plank s made fro111 it are good. It would be of 1110re "alu e if it ,,'ere free from thc attacks of the allay, a nd it is highly "alued in those districts where it is exempt from the attacks of this insect. It is abundant. Sellar Cortes madc the following' tests. Seilor Cortes made tests upon specimellS fro111 the provi1lce of ~egros , obtailling 2.2 of e1asticity, breaks with a weight of 1.050, weight in air 119.5 grains, and specific graYity 0.459.

D . \ -IDA T.. " II

COLoJ{-Clear red or meat red, uniform or with lead-colored SP0t:..,':).

ODOR-Recently worked emits a disagreeable odor. 'TExT URF.--1\ [oderately compact; pores lJ11111 erOUS and of regular size; medul-

lary rays of first ordcr, well marked, the secondary scarcely "isible; breaks in long splinters.

Gi\路es fiue plank s which are llsed ill ordinary and nayal constrnction.

Thi s wood woulcl be yery "aluable if it were not subject to attacks froll1 the allay.

Elasticity 0.005 Ul. , lengthenin g of fibers with a weight of 5.751 kilograms, broke with a weight of 23.924 kilograms, \I'eight iu the air of 7-414 grams per cubic illch; specifi c gra\路 ityo .538. fro111 two provinces. 1- in,"

1\ Iea 11 result frolll

t\\路o tests \yith specinlen s

S.

VInAL."


FORESTRY ll\ i REA,-

"Is a tree \l'ell kno\l'n in the Indias and is of the second order. Color. -dark red. It is \·ery much u sed in building , and excellent planks are sawed from itj bnt it 1S subject to attack from the ana)", It is prized in some parts of the I sla nd where it is said it is free from the attacks of that insect. 'The ripe fruit is of a whitish color and is edib1e. It flower s in 1\ [arcll. BCANC O ."

BANABA. l.a,lJerstrfl'Jltia FLus- R egiN(c , Rd.:' , opp. J-:t:'Jl, p. 9 1. .1lltndwlfs;{/ sfiaioSlI-lJlaJlto p. /27, :zd ed. /~ 1'/ It ro r it'(, .

SYNON DrS-Blood\l'ood, (lldia; Panagah, /:lorll£'o ; similar leaf and flower. \I'HERE FOUND-I sla nds of Leyte, Lnzon , Mindoro, Negros, Pana,', P aragua, Romblo11 J Satnar. DESCRIPTION-SewlI!! (;rollp, "'f here are two \'arieties, which call be readily distinguished from each other by the color , one red and the othe r 111 0re frequently \l'hite. It is a tree of t,,-eh-e or more meters in heig ht) resists ,,'ell the action of the \yeather and is \'ery durable ill water. Its color \'aries from a reddish \rhite to a clear red with white streak s; the fibers are longitudillal and compact , the pores elongated and narrow, appearin g at times like s mall cracks; breaks with s hort splinters. The s haYings are rough , ,'en- slighth' curled a nd poron s. The texture of the red species is £rm; it is fibrous a nd sl1lOoth . The white is more ordinary and less \'alned 0 11 accouut of its inferior quahties. It is llsed ordinarily for sills and floorill g; it takes a beautifu1 gloss after haying been rubbed with plantain lea\'es j it is ltsecl ill na \' al cOl1 strnctioll for £nishillg ttpper part of small boats and for illterior work. Care should be taken to use seaso ll ed pla llks as they s hrink as llluch as Oll efifteeuth of tlleir width. For the last fift,,-six "ears it has bee II used with the lIIola"e in house CO II strllct ion, Tindalo, ho\reyei·, being tttilized for doors, Sefior Cortes made follo\\'illg tests : ()[{[() I.\:

EL.IS ' TIC' ITY L l:';~;~

\ ·,l\' i 10.: l'tllfllHluga, '\t1cn~

1'; cijH \lim\()I'o

Ul :!.;;

1.:,

..

1 ..,

UHEA1, .IT OU:SC'E~

1.;; II 1.1:W

.~I'EtIFI{'

,n;IGHT All:

(dLl'TrY

'·IUI~S

r>I:.\1='~

lIS!.:,

O.\.itiI)

:!lI~I ,:,

U,80, 0.9SI 0.871;

"

u. ,Y.I:!

:!() J. .-,

1.:;J~

:!:11

{;()l.VI:~

O IUl;[;-:

leLA:;, Tlt lTY LJ :';'~;;;

Ih:~1. Xe~n.!~ . Lig!lt r~\1. Hllll\('uU l,jghll'C(! I."gllll>l \I'll i t \'. l" 'lY" ~ l>\~.

:!.S :!.S

lWE.\KAT Ot:=,CES

, .,

1.U 10 O,87:! UlGU

I.f

O.5:!S

\\" EIOIIT 11' All! (; 1: ,\ I ='-"

~PECI~'l{,

GRA "ITY

(;OI.O U~

GJ:.I1:\,~

!!l.-,

G,/iS

1:)2

U.7;'./)

:''0:,

0.80~

:!1G

0.791;

Light red. Ug h! red. ',"hill! . Wh ite.

",. " D . " \,TOAT "'1'1 lere arc two vanetles, .. t Ile red and the ordillary white, the Lagers/ rcclllt'a sjJn: /ostl, Pers, (Fa m.-L,.11//II'a/lfrteaS, Lind , or S([/i{((I"It>([S, Jn ss.). I t attains a


BANABA. Lagel'strcemia

Flos-Regin ~el

Retz .

Munchausia speciosa, Bla nco. Fam. Lythl'ariem. Atlas. Flora de Fllh)in8s, Blanco, ltim. 2

Page 26.


,


PHiUPPI",': ISI ,AN US.

height of te n to t\\,eh'e meters , a nd sometillles more. It is useful in all kinds of constructioll , resisti ng wel1 the climate, and lasts well in water. Its color \-aries from a reddish white to a bright bro\\'n red; the fibers are longitudinal and compressed, the pores elongated and s hort, haying the appearatlce someti mes of small cracks; breaks in s hort splinters; the sha\'ings are rOl1gh, \'er\, little ended, and porolls. The white \'ariety is of a coarser texture than the red, and 1S inferior ot it ill quality, for which reason the reel is preferred in domestic and llCl\'al constr uction. !JIII/ilha m(orlldll: elasticity 0 ,004 m. , breaks with a \\'eight of 28.957 kilograms; weight in the air, 10,749 grams, and specific g ravity,o.727. The white gave all elon gation of 0 .0028 111.; brok e \\'ith a \\'eight of 30.6.14 kilograms; \\'eight in t he air, ro.749 gram s, a nd 0 .825 specific g ray it,路. As there is some ttncertainty in distinguishillg the two species fro111 eac h other, and as Sellar Cortes in his description of tests \'e1'\' seldom refers lo the species, it \I'ol1ld be ach'isable to takc a mean of the tests on both a nd obtain a result for the species, \'iz.: elasticity 0.0035; breaks with a \\'eight of 29.820 ki1og-ramsj ,,-e ig h t in the air

10.099

grams; and specific grayity

0-776 -

S_

VTDAL.1!

"A strong and useful \\-ood lUllCh nsed ill house alld ship building; it thoroughly reliable when seasoned, otherwise it warps and shrillks considerably.

1:-;

FORF.:'IIAX. ' )

I( Lea\-es alLerllate, la nceolated, entire and smooth. Pctioles \-ery short. AxiJIan- and termi nal flowers ill racemes. Geli eraI ~l1ld partial il1yolncre , t\\-O small,

cOl;ca\'e lea\'es.

Calyx e nclosi ng the frnit before Illaturit\', large, leathen', bell-

shaped, \\-ith six horizontal teeth and all eq ual number of s mall alternate Olles, consiste n t ~l1\d with deep groo\-es. Corolla \"(:-ry large, of s ix petals) with c rillkl ed

marg in s a lld c1a\\'ed at the base , in serted bet\\'een the di\'isions of the teeth of the calyx. Large nllmber of stame ll s fixed in the lo\\'er part of the calyx in grollps, and \'en' mllch sh orter than the corolla. Style 11I11 ch longer thall the sta1llen s. Stigma some\\'h at thick. Capsllle o\'al, h alf c()\'ered \\'ith the cal\'x. breaking illto six or se\-en parts, with an equal number of small cells) in each one more tha n fonf irregular seeds with a wing- or a sharp i11cisio11 on one side_ Thi s tree , with its large and beautifu l red flowers, attains a height of six or 11l0re fathoms il1 the forests, but is of s m all dimensions \\-hen gro\\-i ng outside. It is comm011 and well known) and is llsed in all kinds of constructi on_ The \\-ood is

of ordillar,' appearallce, but is highl\' prized for its strength and durability. BT~A:\CO.!l

" Thi s species is idelltical "'ith the 'blood-wood' or 'jarool' of India and Burma, where, on accoll il t of the durability of its \\-ood ill water, it is used for boat :1nel

sh ip building.

Lml'T. SAFFORD, LJ. S. N"

" I s a tree w h ich grows twel\路e to fourteen meters high alld is fou ud ill the

Philippin es; there are llVO \'arieties, one red allcl the other orelinarily of a white color. Its wood is prized for all purposes on accouut of its toughness, durability in water and resistance to cl im ate .


FOREST R \" Ill' REA t'

COLoR.- \·aries fro111 a reddish \I·hite to a light bro\\,11 red. TF.X1'lIRF..-The fibers are longitudinal and com pressed; t h e pores:~ Ipng. a uel narrow, sometimes ha\-ing the appearance of s1I1 all cre\"ices; breaks "i n .sli 9ft ~plillters; th e sha\-illg is rough, little curled and poro ll s. Th e white variety is of '.H .somewhat coarser texture than t he red, is ill ferio r to it ill qnality, \\-h1Ch is p referred ill ordillary as well as ill nfl,"al constrtlctio ll ill the illterior st r uct nre of s hips. Thi.s \\"ood is \'ery 11111ch prized for all ki ll ds of cOll stru ction on aCCOtll ~t of its great durability. SA L\·.,noR CERO]';, page '2,83 ."

..

BANGCAL. .<""(f}"((}u'p ludu3 (ordall(s, .lIlq. ( Nl'i. '. '"idal, p. f /1. ) .\ar.ml"ef/m/lls gfaberrilJllls, F. ["ill. (. Ip/';, F. ('ill., f. 10';'.) _\ Taut/fa .~/af,o.,-im(/, Ih" II.

/(ubi(uwr.

SYNONH lS-Bancal, Baugcal , Tax . nallen}, p(l7JIp{lJ~{ra. Bnlala, //o((ls.

Bftngal, Cahag, H allbabalos,

\\'HERE FOUND-Islands of Luzon, Pa nay a nd .

~ lin dallao .

DESCRIPTION-Snolld (,'roil/>. " Is a tree of the first o rder, \\·ooc1 of a gree nish yello\\"; long itud inal fi ber, texture s011le\\" hat filaceous, pores not \·ery well marked, break s in s hor t splin ters , aud at times in lO1lg ones, some pieces are fo u1ld to be \"Cry brittle . It is principally used in nayal con str nctioll ill t he fab ricat ion ·of ball eas) a nel for sh ips' planks, and ill ordinary build in g, for floor pla llk s a nd rafters, bein g preferred for uprights in bll ildings which are exposed to t he weath er, \I· hell it wil l last for twenty years and more. ' It is used for l11akillg chairs aBd desks, for barrel sta\"cs and t ubs. Csed ill the interior constrnction of ho uses, it cha nges after a lapse of t illl e illto a species of sawd ust or powder. Before the conquest the \ 'isaya ns nsed it for coffins. Senor Cortes made following test" nl(](;["

1;1.,I~T1('ITY

lIHt:,\[;.1' AT

l.I"E~

Ol':-:CT~

\\'t:mll1 I:'; .1 II:

(;H'\,I· 'T Y

/;I: \'''~

(; I/. ,\ I" ..

, ' >1\'[10.'

2

II,7:,:!

;,

,

1 1~ 1

T ... yRI)il~

I In

11'11

:.!-::

l.:.!kU

'\110'\'/1

E"i j ,l

J.I:~,.',

~I'EqFJ(

4·1 ~'-¥i~1

., .

.'

~[i1L,\nr"

t:r., \;;TJ('lTY 'll l~:,U," ,tT

1.1 .. 1,:..

(rl":-:n:"

2

n.~r~~

1\~'/{I"l~

n.ll:'! 1I ..-~17

01(1(,1\"

-

jillh"'lfn

,

"

,

\\'~:!(';Il"l'

.1111 <;PO.U~;;

"l't:CIF1C' GPo.I \,ITY Gl':AI""

!l::

n,H:.!1

I.:;d{j -

I~;

11.1.97

11.1.71

I:""

0",1[,

·D.

V rD A I ",))

"FIRST ORlJr:R. COI,OR.-Golde n, g;reellish yellow . TEX'rliRE-Somewhat filaceous alld pores lIot well defined, fi be r long it udin al , breaks ill long splinters. I t is llsed principally ill t he co n st rn ction of hancas, it is


BANGCAL. Sarcocephalu:::. cordl-l tus.

~Iiq.

Sal'cocepba\us glabol'l'im us. F. ViII. NallciP'(I ,Q'l;:tbel·rima. Hlatl(,o . F'am. Rubiacero. AtJa~,

Flora de FJlipluas, Blanco, Iirq. e23. Pa~e

28.



PHTl,IPPI:\ E ISL .-\)lIlS.

29

also used for planks in building. It abouuds in man,' parts of the islands; for example, iu the provinces of the center and south of Luzou. ELASTICITY-0.005; breaks with a weight of 31.804 kilogra11ls; \\'eight in alr . 0.521. . 6 .734 grallls, ancI specl'fi C grnxlty ,S . \'IDAT,."

This ('G i\'es logs up to t\\'ellty-foHr feet long by sixteen i1lches square . wood is of a yello\\' color and Ycry easy to \\'ork. It is llsed for general joiners' FORr::'IIA~.ll work in house-building, etc. ((Lea\'es opposite, broad lanceolate, obtuse at apIces, undulating, entire and smooth . Petioles short, and \\·ide stipules between the petioles. Flo\\'ers terminal yery 1111111erOllS, uuited IIpon a globular receptacle (neithel' t\,'O 110r three) coyered with a one-leafed alld deciduous spathe, full of ca"ities or pits, the upper edges of which are c1i,-ided into four and fi"e \\'oody teeth. tal)'x, the spathe referred to. The four and fi,'e small teeth surron1lCling the pits belong to the flo\\'Cr. Corolla longer thall the calyx, funnel-shaped. \\·ith the li1llb divided iu four or five obtuse and COllca\'e parts. Stamens fonr or gClleral1y {lye. Filaments none. Anthers fixed on the di";siolls of the corolla. Style 1lIuch longer than the stamens. Stigma thick and COlltCal. Frnit many yery small seeds fixed ill a kind of raceme or panicle below the calyx a1lCl hidden 1,,· n \\'oody receptacle. It is possible that this ma\- be caused by insects. See General Appelldix-Rubiaceas. Tree larger than the body of a nWl), COIlllllO U ill many parts and \yell knO\\"ll. Lea\'es are half a foot in length a nd more than three inches \\·ide. The fruit is as large as a \\'alnllt and Whel) ripe has an agreeable odor. The flowers are ,"ery beantiful. The roots h",'e a had taste. The \\'ood is nsed b)' the nati"es principally for making tllbs for indigo. It is of a yel1o\\" color. It is related in history that before the coming of the S paniards the Yisayans used it for making coffins on account of its durability" It is highly prized ill the manufacture of chairs and desks 011 account of its tonghness and fine color. The manner anel place ,\"here the seeds gro\\" are ,"ery lllltlSnal, as I ha,"e abo,"e remarked 1 alld as I ha\-e carefullv noted ill a tree bet\,"een Anilas and Ballate ill the pro"ince of Iloilo. In ,·ie\\· of \\'hich I am led to belie,'e the fmit aborts or that those seeds (or \,"hat appeared to be seeds") growi ng in ra.cemes may ha,"e been the ,\"ork of insects or a freak of nature. In the :'.lambog the seeds are illside the calyx or at least they appeared to be. See Spec. Stipulosa D. C., Prod. n-, 346. I have seen cottOll thread, after having been treated \\·ith h'e and oil of ajonjoli, dyed a dlrty "ello\\' with the roots of this tree, powdered. The color is durable. If the thread thus colored be put into a tnb of indigo, not of too intense a color, it \\"ill be dyed a green, as firm as allY that I ha,"e seen in the fabrics of India. It differs from the Species Orientalis of D. c., page 345, which is the Bancalns of Rumfio, \\·hile my Bancal is a tree. It flowers in May and June . BLAKco."


FO RESTRY BURE AU

30

" T REE OF TH E FIRST ~M AG N IT U DE. COT.OR.--Golden and greeni sh yellow. TE"TURE.-Filaceous, fi ber s long itudina l, PQres n ot very well ma rked; breaks ill long splin ters . I s ab unda nt in many parts of the central provinces of the Philippines; is generall y ll sed ) afte r bein g sa wed into shape, for hou se con strn ction 'and for s mall boats. SATXA DOR CER ON, page 2 82 ."

BANSALAGUIN . .l 1i"lJ(~路op,,路

._--

'.

S Y N ONYI\l S-~.a ll.sal a g ll i ll )

jJa n.:Yolia, fir . Pal)! . Sapo/fl eerr,

Bansalagui , Tal!",

Ball sal ague, Bau salagoll )

V/~\路 .

WHERE FOUN D- ISla nd s ot Lu zon , Mind anao, :Minc1oro, :Pan ay, Parag ua , S am ar. DESCRIPTION-Firsl Gro7lp. " F IRST ORDER: COLOR.-Lig ht rose, with ashy -colored streak s, or a uniform clear reci. T E" 1'URE.-Solic1, wit h s mall p ores, fibrou s, breaks in long s plin ters. 011 acco unt of its elasticity a nd stre ngth , it is becomin g very much estee med , especiall y ill domestic construction , for joists , etc. Th ere have been n .. ry few tests made with t his wood. Sefior Cortes obtai ned th e following r esults : El asticity, 0.002 ; break s with \I'eigh t of 58.0 78 ki logram s ; we igh t in the ai.r , 9.280 g ram s, a nd speci fic gra vity', 0.676. Th e elasticity and \I'e ig ht of \I'ood spec im en s from T ayabas oug ht 路to be wry s uperior to t hat indicated bv th e fig ures abo" e, especially the first. S. V IDA L. " "Gi"es logs up to fort,' -fi,'e feet lon g by eigh tee n inches square. It seem s to be k n o\l'n ill Europe as bnll et-tree wood . It ca n be dr iven like a bolt, a llcl from this fact a nd its durability it is freq uently u sed for tree nail s in s hip-building iu !\Iauila , etc. I t is also used for axe and other tool h a nd les, belay ing pin s, etc. , and on aCCO lln t of jts compact, close gra itl it is admirably adapted for turnin g purposes . I t will last wel1 ill the g round. F OR EM AN ." ~ ' Fro11l

twell ty to thirty feet lo ng, and twel ve to s ix teen in ches square. S pecial sizes forty to forty-five feet long, seven teen to eighteen inches squ are. Seem s to be known in EurQpe as bull et tree wood ; cau be dri ven almost like a bolt a nd, frolll t hi s fa ct a nd its durability, it is invari ably u sed for tree n ail s in ship bnilding at Manila , etc. I t is also used for axe and tool h andles, belay ing pin s, etc., and 01 1 account of its solidity, a nd "ery close g rain , it is admirabl y adapted for turning purposeSj it lasts well ;11 the grou11el. ~ BR OWN.)) L eaves alternate , ovate-lallceolate, sharp , coriaceous, entire , the young leaves with red silky do\Yl1 , a nd t he old on es sm ooth. Petioles ra t her short. Fl owers toward the extremi t y of th e bra nches. Cal y x in eight p arts, biserial ; th e four


'

Mimusops Elengi, L. is similar to

BANSALAGUIN. Mimusops par vi folia, Br. except that the fr uit of the latter is longer. Faro. Sapotacere. Page 30.

.



PHTLlPPT0IE

ISLA~DS.

3I

outside ones red, silky, the four interior, \I hite. Corolla , triserial; the outside divisions linear. Eight fertile sta men s, "ery s hort, inserted in the base of the corolla. A nt hers, arrow-h eaded, lanceolate, bilocnlar. Eight sterile stamellS, altemate, nnited wi th the fertiles at the base, like petals, woolly on the margin. Ol'ary, oblong and h airy. Style, one,lollger than the corolla. Stigma si mpl e. Berry somewhat globular, one-celled. One seeded. Seed oblollg, depressed 011 t he sid es, ribbed. Shell Instrolls. Albumen pulpy. Cotyledons foliaceous. R adicle inferi or, cy lindri cal. BLA:<CO." TH.El£ OF' 'l'H J~: F[J{ S' I' rVI AG~lTUDE.-'rh e s pecific lI a me has n ot vet beell determined. CocoR .--vVhite , rose with ash-colored streaks or a ll n iform lig ht red. TE XTURE.-Sol id , the pores small , fib ro us; this wood breaks in long spli nters . Grows principally in t he sonthern part of the Philippines. On account of its notable elasticity and resistance it is mllch Hsed in ordi nary constr uction; especially s n ita bk for joists. SA I. \''\ DOR CRRO:-1 , page 278 ." (l

BATICULIN. /j/S//(7 ()b/usa/a, /J. d .fl., F.

/7i/l.

Olax iJatifllliu, J]/a)f(o. Fam. / ,(1l1rill (/(c .

SYNONY i\lS-Ma ra ng, Bati cnlill , Bati cnling , !IIX. Ring-dall ) I "/~·{~yall .

Baca ll ,

((~g"(l) 'al/.

Ansohall.

WHERE FOUND-Islands of Lnzoll , Mi lld oro , Romblon , Sa ma r. DESCRIPTION-j'i'rs/ (,·roup . "Is a tree of large di nlensiolls with horizontal branches.

COl.OR-From a \,ello\\'ish \I·hite to a ,'ello",ish g reen; has a ll agreeable smell which soon disappears. . TEXTURE.-Abuudant pores of lllediul1l Size , medullary rays, fi u e but di s.. tinctly marked; light, easily \\'orked and \\' ill take ou a fi ne gloss. The fiber is strong and ll ot very straight.

The allay olll)' attacks this \\'ood ", hen it can find 110 other. It is used ill ordi nar y constr ucti on sa\\'ed ill thin plan ks for partition s. It is abo used ill cabin et lnaking. Thi s spec ies s hould not be confouncled with the Millin gton ia ciladripillilata of P . Blallco, to which the name of Bati culin is also g i\'en , and m ake a white lumber, very clean , soft a nd with a n agreeablc s mell and is very much used in cabinet making, on account of its extreme durability when carefnlly selected. In Visayas tl1i s wooel is calleel Ansohan. · .


FORESTR \ " III "REAl"

32

'['here are

";uieties, th e characteristi cs of \\"hich arc \lot yer\, \vell described, thus: Baticnlin-clagoll , SllrtlStlrll, Snrlls nrill-dago ll , iel. T\ Iayar;i s, iel. ~ratan~', iel. ~Iarakasili, etc . S~flor C o rte~ ~ made follo\\,111g tests : L< Ie IUTY

E I._ \~T(

mall\'

lTV

L ," .~~

U!:~:.\ I>~

.\ "

," "To.

II' Ell.IIT 1:-; .111: 1.1\.1 1'~

:<,'Ei'I.' !t '

(":.\ ITry 1;11 \

I,(W.\LITY

I'.~

f:L.\~TI('JTY

1.1:-;':"

f'I'~('E"

,

11.:,011

1:,11

0.:,(,0]

l'n\l~u,ill'll1

IU,I:!

\I .-~ ;''i

I:.! i .,-,

U

L U j.:" l1 l lH

'l'nynh,,'

:.!. I

lI .mllo;

'"

1.1,,\1 0_1111

L" ",t,·

:.!.,...

II.Bln

I\ nln" l l

;: , ~

.\1'

m:f:,I."~

WElt;IIT 1:-' .lllt \: IUI:\ S

~1'EGIVJ('

I,HAV!T"

GHAt:':"

:.!al

)) .

tl

S.;~I

\ ' IDAL. "

"CoLoR.-Yello\\' ish white to \ellowish greet!. TEXTllRE.-Loose, with mallY pores of med iulll s ize; medullary rays fine ) but clearlY marked; it is easily "'orked, and poli she s \\"el1. It is employed as sawed 1U 111 ber 1nord i llary con str uctiol!. I t is plentiful ill I1Htll \. provi nces of the Archipelago, especiall \" in Sonthern Lu zon, Milldoro allC! the Yisa),as. Elas" ticity indicated b)· a lengthellillg of 0.005 meters ; breaks with a \\·eight of 21.394 k il ogrnllls; \\·eight ill the air) 6.590 grams, all (~vec i fic gray ity , 0.50 . }\[atl\· \·arieties are ollli tted here, 0 11 acco ullt of lack of inforlllatioll, s ucb as Baticulill~dagoll, SUrltS nrll , id dagoll, id i\Iayapis, iel l\fatang and id l\1:ar;tgisi li of Laguna, etc. S. VIDAl,." "The \\·ood cal1ed Baticlilin ill the T agalo pro\·ill ces is oue of the Ill OSt useful and most prized in these islat td s. It is soft a nd ,·ery easy to sa\\· and work; yery durable, and bcillg s01ne\\·hat spo ll gy and loose ill text ure, a ll d bitter. I t is secure from the an ay, II"hich prefers to feed 011 hard ,,·ood . I t is called Hingdon in the provinces of \· isaya s , but, ill my opi ll ion, it is lIOt the same Baticulin, but a species of it, there beillg a difference ill the color a1lel odor; the Hiugdon is odorous and aromati c. Ne\"ertheless, there is ill the \ ' isayas a species of Hiu gdoll that is 110t \·ery od orou s, 11 01' arolllatic. It·is cal1ed All soha ll; it is soft and easy to work, and equal to Hingc10n in durabil ity and utility. It is su itable for the m anufacture of board s, box.es, "Titing desks, a nd other si milar artic1es, bei ng light and durable. 011 thi s accou ll t it is \·ery lllllch prized and sought fo r. It has all odor sill1 11 ar to rose\\·ooc1, \\,hic1, is very strollg, especially whell it" 15 \\·orkec1. I t is a substit nte for plll e 111 this COU ll try, a nd is equally prized. P. DEI.GADO."

A tree of the lanrel family with diceceons flowers ; brauches s triated, corky. Petioles thick) flatte ned, dark-colored, rOllgh , ~ ol1e to two centim eters lon g. Leaves cnneate at the ba se, obovate-oblollg, rOllllc1ed at the apex , someti mes e marginate , length t\\·el ve to t\\"ell ty-roll r ce ll ti 111 eters, breadth forty- fi vc to se yen ty-n \·e 1lI i llillleters, margin thickelled a ud rolled back , coriaceo\ls, glossy abo\'e, oftell becoming b1 ac k in dryil1g, below \\"ith hl 1e down, glallcOll s. or yello\r is h ; ri bs stont , dark-colored ,

-


-

.-

..


BATINO. Alstonia macrophylla, Wall. Alstonia Batino, Blanco . Fam. Apocynacere. ;~~1 lU\, S iIl O p8i ~,

â&#x20AC;˘

Flora Fores tlll de Filipinas, S. Vidal, 111m . LXVI, A.

Page 33.


PHILlPPl:-lE ISLAXDS.

33

roughly striated, lateral "eins uine to t\l'eh'e on each side, above s unken and thin; below thick, dark and prominent, with incouspicuon s reticnlation. Anthers fourcel1ed. Flowers in heads, heads globose at first, five mi11im eters iu diameter , afterwards expanding to fifteeu milliuleters , growing in racemes) the racemes shorter than the lea,·es. Bracts of the i1l\'olu cre orbicular. Younger pods included by a pear-s haped perianth. It is "ery difficult, if uot imposs ible, to say whether this is the 01ax Baticulin of Blanco, as Fernandez Vil1ar supposes, on account of the incompleteness of the description, and because thi s common nam e is a pplied to several distinct species of th e genus. S>:BASTIA:-I "IDA I •. " (In "Revisioll de Plantas Vasculares. Filipina, 1886," Province Bataan).

OLAX BA TICULIN. "Calyx dome-s haped, entire truncated and \\"hich conti nues to grow at maturity. Stamen, pistil or drupe dry, which grows within the calyx; nut crustaceous with anI y one seed. Tree \I·ith horizontal branches; leaves alternate and bunched at the extremit,· of the branches, entire, oblong and pinuately formed. Flowers axi11ary, growing in a spike. The thin planks, ca lled Baticuliu in ilIanila, are sawed from this wood; the.,' are also sawed from other species. The Baticuliu is prominently grained and has an agreeable odor, which becomes more pronounced upon beiug planed . It is found in the mountain s of Pallguil, Provi nce of Lag una ) and ill other BI._rt" ",·'CO." pal'ts..

BATINO . .--lls/ollia JIJ(lcroph)'lIa, IITa!f .

.-lIs/ouia /latino, Bladeo. Pam . . IPOl)' IIaCete.

WHERE FOUND-Islands of Luzon , Mindoro. DESCRIPTION-S(,[(Jlld Grollp . . "Calyx fi\'e cleft. Corol1a twi sted, hypogenoll s, hypocraterfonn or sah'ershaped, larger than the calyx, the tube and throat co,'ered with small scales. Stamens fi\'e, inserted in the tube of the corolla, and do not protrude. Filaments s hort. Anthers al11l0st sessile, free lanceolate . Style filiform \I'hich becomes thicker at the apices, Stigma ending in a small head. Pericarps linear and long. Seeds many, li near, compressed, and th e extremities covered \I·ith a wooly fringe or tlift. Tree of twenty or thirty yards in height, milk y; branches horizontal; leaves g rO\\'ing in whorls, smooth. Flowers in panicles, ter min al, white and male j the :.. r,H


34

FORESTRY BUREAU

wood is white and heavy. The Indian s use it in building for joists, rafters and j)lal1ks, it being durable when uot exposed to climatic action; it is u sed also for uprig hts or posts . It is fo und in the fore sts of the 1011' lands of the pro vince of Lagnna and in other parts, It does not grow at a higher altitude thall 500 yards abol'e the sea level. The spec ifi c name of Batino is what the Indian s call it, and also distinguishes it from Dita , which is the Li/,ilt's ScI,olarl" of the Flura Taga/o BaliI/O. Bl.A!'i CO, 2d Ed ., page 129."

BATITINAN. IArgcrs/nollia. Bali/illan, /'idal. JAgerslnc",ia /ll'xaplera, 111iq. Fa)}!.

1~)'lllra ,.if!{(' .

SYNOl\\"l\IS-Batiti n an, 7 ax. Natjllbo, LUlllati , Buguaron, l\ langlatc. WHERE FOUND-I sla nd s of Lu zo n, l'v[asbate, Mindoro. D ESCRI PTION-Firsl Crollp. "FIRST ORDER: :\ttain s a height of thirty meters , gro\\-i n g ge nerall y very straight. COI,oR.-As hy red, intense gray oliye or yellowi sh dark gray with greeni sh spots. TE XTl'RE .-\"ery compact \\,jth llumerous small pores, ilOt \'ery well defi ned, but yen" 111liform. It IS used ill domestic cO ll s tr'uct io ll ) sawed 'into all kinds of pieces; it is also

e mpl oyed in nal'a l constrnction. I t is plentifnl in th e Visayas, where it is prin. cipally used for frami ll g hOll ses . Large ql1alltities arc cut in the forests of T ayabas. The bark a nnually falls from this tree, for which reason, in the L ag una, it is called Natj ubo (one who de nudes) . U pon arriving at a certain age, it becollies hollow. It is used for planks in naval coustruction , resisting the action of the water be tter than the Banaba and i\l a ll gachupi. U ppn becoming dry it is diffi cult to saw . Senor Cortes made tcsts with s pecilli e ns from L ey te, with following res ults : Elasticity Se \"ell li ll es, and breaks with a weight of 1.34 8 oun ces . D. VIDAL ." "Co LOR.-A s hy red and inten se olive g ray, TEX'l'URE.-Fro111 co mpact to very compact, with num erou s pores llot very "'ell marked. It is yen - lllH ch llsed in domestic and ll a\'a l cO ll structioll . I do Bot know whether a ny data as to its properties exist. ~ Large quantities are taken from the forests of 'fay abas, S, VIDAl,," "Gil'cs logs up to forty fect lo ng by eighteen inc hes square, I s very stron g, tough a nd elastic; ge neral ly used for s hips outside planking above water. It

â&#x20AC;˘


BATITINAN. Lagel'stroorn ia Batitinao ) Vidak Lagel'stl'oomia hexaptel'a, Miq. Farn. Lythrarie(e. j .. Atln:>,

Sinopsi~,

Flora Forestal

d~

Filipinas, B. Vidnl,

Page 34.

l~m.

LII, A.


â&#x20AC;˘

BAYUCO 1 st . Al'tO("ll ' I)LI ~ AI'tO(,<1. I'PIIS

nitida.

lamf,UO:'.<l.

T I'ec.

Hlanro.

Fa m. Urticacere. Copier! from nutlZr(' loy R. GllmiH.

Pall"e 35.


PHILIPPIKE ISLA)iJ)So

3S

stands the climate well ,rhen properly seasoncd; is a wood of the first qnality and can be llsed for any purposes except interment ill the ground and exposure to raroages of sea worlll o This "oood is ,oery much stron ger than Teak and conld be FORDL\~o" nscd to ad,oantage in its place for almost all pnrposeso "From twenty-two to twenty-se\'en feet long, tweh-e to fifteen inches sq uare.

Special sizes thirty-five to rorty reet and eighteen inches sqnareo "ery strong, tough and elastic; generally nsed for shi ps ontside planking abO\oe "oater. Stands climate well when properh seasonedo I s a wood of the first quality, and can be llsed for any purpose except interment ill the g roll nd or exposure to ru\'ages of sea "oor111 This wood is ,oery much stron ger than Teak, and conld be n sed ill its place with aehoa n tage for almost all pmposes; it mak es a good snbstitnte 路f(o)r 0

Black \Vahlllt ill furniture.

BRO,,\路S,l!

"Tree large, branches of a cylindrical form , somewhat flattened at the knots ; light-coloredo The yonng branches are qnadrangnlar and are ,oery often winged along th e angleso Thc axillary bnds are conical, scaly a nd compressedo Petioles nearly QlIe centimeter ill length and of dark color. The leaYC's are alternate, nearly opposite. Th e base, cnneate,. d~cnrrellt ill the petiole, oblong, obtnse-acnminate, 6014 centi1lleters in length, 30-45 millimeters in width, Sl1100th. Lateral "eins from six- to eight on each side, nel-yeilled, Flowers ill corymbose panicles, lIlultiftorotl s) termillal, branches quadrangular,

nsnally inclined to be winged; pedi cellate, ,,-ith the pedicels jointed; the tube of the calyx is hexagonal, with the angles keeled or wingedo The li11lbus of corolla has six teetho The teeth broadly tria n gnlar, co,oercd "oith fine gray or ashy do,rtlo The petals wrinkled, of ,oiolet color, fixed and doubled in the lo,,<or parto The stamens are l1U1UerOUS atld protrllding,

The filaments are f1exibleo The anthers are round i11 form, 'fhe o\'ary oval and ending in a point, s m ooth, and e11closed by the calyx to the middle; measnres two ce iltlmeters in length, \'lD o~\L."

The seeds ha,oe "oingso

BAYUCO, 1ST. rlr/omrjJlts ni/ida, Tree .lrlotarpus laJlu;ll{lSfl, Blaum. ~S(,l' app. / ;'fm. p. 203. ) ram. (路,limeNf'.

SYNONY1 IS-Baynco, Bayacoo WHERE fOUND-Islands'of 1lilldoro and Pana,oo DESCRIPTION-Firo,t (,掳rtlllp o " I ]1lnst mention t hi s famous tree, altho ngh I ha,oe not seen ito I t is highly prized in Il oilo on acco nnt of its hardness and dnrabilityo It is n sed as pillars and post s forchnrches a nd houseso An Indian m onllteban~ a nati,oc of 1Ialabar, told me that tt bears a n eeltble fn11t, rongh ontstde, sllll1lar to the filberto


FORESTRY BUREAU

I think it 1I1nst be a species of Enfovia or Sapindo. It is plentiful in Capiz and else\\路here. It is yery straight. It is called Baynco or Bayaco. (See General Appe ndix A rtocarpaceas.) Lea\'es alternate , o\'ate, long, s harp-pointed, with the edges cun'eel inward , entire, stiff a11d s mooth. Flowers lllonceciol1s. IVIale. Femal e ax illary, Oll a \'ery small receptacle, sessile, oval, full of small fl owers. Calyx and corol.Ia none. Stametl s, none; style, one, short , growing o\'er the ovary, the s urface of which is a little elevated, a ll el 011 its edges are some little plates, very thin, almost sessile, that ha\'e the appearance of small glands. Stigma, one, simple. Fruit, the receptacle is full of seeds co\'ered \\"ith membraneol1 s ski n ) as in the other species. P. BLAXCO, p. 465, zd ed ."

BETIS. . f::-no/(/ JJl'Iis, Hlanco, ( p. 281, 2d ed.-FerJl . app., p . 125.)

Pa)'eJw Belis, Blanco (old rlassijicalioll). Fall!. Sapo/Mcrr.

SYNONYMS-Betis, 'l?ailan, Bacayao, T{//; .

Pagpaga n , Caga)'{/II.

WHERE FOUND-Isla nds of Ln7,on, ~Iasbate, Mindoro, Pan ay . DESCRIPTION-Firs! (;rollp. " FIRS'!' ORDER, altbongh P. Blanco 'c lassifies it as second. COLoR.-Light brO\n1 to a purplis h red, \\'ith lighter grai n , reddish ashy gray. TEXTURE.-Solid, pores lightly marked and scarcely perceptible; brittle, breaks without splinters. It is prized above all oth er wood by naval constructors in the construction of k eels. It is useful in all kinds of building . . The mean of the tests made give follo\\'ing results ': Elasticity, 0.0037 n1. ; breaks with a weight of 31.7"8 kilograms; weight in the air, 8.015 grams, a nd . specl'fi c granty, 0.719. .S . V IDAL. " "Gi \'e s logs up to sixty-five feet long by t\\'enty in ches square. It is proof against sea-worm; is used for sa1t or fres h water .piling, piers, wharves, etc.; also for keels and man)' other parts of s hip-building, and where a fi rst-class wood is llecessan路, It is some\\-hat scarce. FOREMAN," "From twenty-fiye to forty feet long, twelve to seventeen inches sq uare ; special sizes, s ixty to sixty-five feet and eighteen to twellty inches sqna.re. R.esis ts seaworm j nsed for salt or fresh water piling, piers, wharves, etc.) also for keel s and many other purposes in sh ip-building, and ""here a first-class wood .is necessary. Somewhat scarce. BROWX." "Leaves bUllched i11 th~ extre mity of the brauches, lallceolate, wider jnst above the Illiddle , repand a1lC1 stiff. Petioles very short, withont stipules. T erminal


)

BETIS. Azaola Betis , Blanco. Payena Betis, Blan co . â&#x20AC;˘

Fam. Sapotacere. Mias: Sinopsil, Flora I Fore&tal de Filipinas, S Vidal, lAm. LXll, F. (fto\fer).

Pal" 3S.


â&#x20AC;˘

BITDe OR BITANHOL 2d. Oalophyllum speotauilc. WiJJd. OaJophyJlum Bitanhol. Blanco. Fam. Guttiferm. _Hl"~. Flora Forest:ll ,Ie Filirinas, Waneo, lim. 33.

Page 37.


P HI LIPP I NE ISLANDS.

37

Rowers ill racemes, yery dose together. Ped ullcle, lo ng. Calyx, illferior, SQme"'hat s horter than the corolla, of one piece, swollen belo,,' and compressed at the middle, limb composed of four parts which are long and linear. Corolla of same color as calyx, fixed in the receptacle, monopetalou s, ,,·ith the tube short, divided ,,·ith ten lan ceolate a nd straight division s, the fi"e alternate inside the others. Stamen s ni neteen to t,,'enty inserted on th e throat of the corolla. Filaments almost lacking. Anthers 100i g , terminating in a bri stle . Ovary, globular, sessile, "'ithin the calyx. Style very long aud deciduou s. Stigma as with lobes. Fruit oblong, s harp-poi n tcd, ,,·ith abo ut six seeds, also oblon g a nd covered with a fragile and membranoll s shell , which has one side protrudi ng or ele\-ated, marked with a lon g cicatrice; fon r aborted. Differs from the Achras disecta and from the variety Balata of Pers . As this appears to be a new genus I have named it after Don Y guigo Gonzalez y Azaola i n testimony of my gratit u de to 1 1m for information and books which ha\"e been llseflil to 1ne ill the \\Tit1 l1 g of the ,,"ork . BLA~CO.))

"A TREE OF THli FIRST lIIAG:\ITLlDE.-One of the most high],' prized in the Philippi nes. COl.oR.-Light, bro\\"l1 red, liyid reel ,,"ith grai n of a clearer color, gray, ashy, or reddish. TE:\TLlRE.-Soljc!.; pores scarcely perceptible or lightly marked; is a brittle wood; is well k no\\,w ·tp lI aYal constructors; is uuri\'allecl for keel s; is used in all kinds of co nstruction. SAfXADOR CEROX, page 283."

BITDC or BITANHOL 2d. ((rlofll),111l III spt'dabile, // '"illd. Ca/oplt. l'llftlll Bilauho/, Bla)l(o. FaiJ!. (;lIllij('r(r.

SYNONYMS-Bitoc, Bitog, Bitan hol,

Ta.~·.

Bitaog, I

~

P. !

W H ERE FOUND-Pro,·i n ces of Bataan, Cagayan, Pampanga , Nne,-a Ecija, . Island of Lnzon. DEsq.. I PTION- Tliird (;rolfp. "TREE OE_FIRST ORDER. ""ery ple ntifn l, especially in provi nce ' of Nne"a Ecija, from whence comes all th at is sold in Man ila. ... COLOR.-\V hite or li g ht rose, for whi ch. ;'eason efforts are someti11les made to pass it off as Calatnall sallay, to whi ch it is very inferior. TF,X'l'llRE.-Fi ne, compact. T he wood is hard, and ill ordi nary construction is nsed for plan ks, rafters a nd other. pieces.' : D. VIDA!.."


FORESTRY BUREAU

((Lea\'es 11arro\\', obt usely aC1111liuate, with very slender transverse \'eins) entire . Petioles short. Flowers axi ll ary ill panicles, and very fe\\" Calyx inferior , l11eaty , of four half-ronnded a nd concaye parts, th e outer ones overlapping the others with the edges thin) like petals. Corolla non e. Stamen s numerous, fixed at the base of the o,·ury. Ovary glob ular. Style ,-ery short. Stigma simple. Nut has four sides, at \\'hieh it opens; has one compartment containing one seed . Tree common in t he fo rests anel gellerall,Y known as Betanho1. Its leaves are Qne or two in ches wide and fi ye or six l on g. The stamens are not 'paliadelfos.' BLA NCO, p. 429, zd eel ."

CALANTAS: Cedrela T Of}lla,Ro.t:b.

!;_

p/

'ern . a r . adora/a, Blanco. Fam . Jllelia ccttl. ','

(..

SYNONYi\IS-Ca lautas , 7 ((g'. (( Indian CedaL)) Catingill)

L anipga ,

La ni gpa , Lanigda, 110(0110 .

WHERE FOUND-Islallds of Lnzon, Mindoro, Negros, Parag ll a. DESCRI PTION" F IRST ORDER: COLo R.-\'arions s hade s, viz: blood red , and frol1l brick red to a purpli sh .red; 111 sl)me SpeCl11lenS a n as h y rose. ODoR.-Agreeable; durillg th e process of bur nin g, odor resembles that of Jl1niper. TExTt ·RE.-Somewhat coarse and lax, breaks \\:ith s hort splinters; pores, well defi ned. It is lIot 11lllch subject to attack s from insects . It is tlsedlll the c:.on str nctioll of bancas (canoes) and a s uperior quality of cigar boxes; it is also used in the cOBstruction of partitions and ceil in gs, ill place of Batlc l11in , being quite. as durable. It is yen' abl1ndant in the Archipelago. A n other variety of this wood has a clearer color; it has an odor) but not so pronounced as the above. Sefior Cortes made followi ng tests : I.V('.\I.ITY

11,llnlll1. TnYH1"b

~:I •.v'1'!("IT Ll;-':t:~

III:E.\

K~

,I l'

( 'l·~ ( · .:~

O.IK~ 1

O.t;jl;

\\"t: Ir.IIT 1;-': .Illt

"l'f;{"IFH" \; I: AI"ITY

';I:A 1;-':"

0 ".1\:-<""

O.G:{l IIAfl.j

1.(,)(· .\LlTY

;\1

i""III i.,

f: LISTJ("\TY HHf:.1 1>:$ AT LI~.:';

()r'~n:s

n. H;1

S.

\,'E l tiI IT I~ .\l1l (;1':.\ Il\.~

,;1'EeIFI(' (;IlA \'ITY 011.1 1;-':"

121;

(1.1";2

-

VIDAl,"

r'Lea\"es someti mes opposite, sometimes alter nate, pin nately compound; leaflets obliq uely o\'ate , e11tire and smooth . Flowers i11 loose pani cle s. Calyx \'en" small with fi"e-parted bell -shaped at first alld afterwards fla t . Corolla "of Ii,'': petals


,

CALANTAs. Cect,'ela Too na . lloxb. Ced l'cl.a odol'ata . ill an('n . Fam. Meliaceru. ,\ t ias, Sinopsis, fo'Jora Forestal de Filipinas, S. Vidal, him. XXIX, G. fil(s. I, 3, I.

Page 38.

â&#x20AC;˘


CAlAMANSANAY. T~rminali~

Calamansa nay, Holfe.

Tel'minalia uialata, Viti. Fam. CombretacOO:!. Atla~, Sinopais, Fl ora Forestal de (i'ili pinas, S. Vid~l, lAm. XLVIII.

Page :.19 .


l'HILTPPIXF ISLA:-IIlS.

39

much larger and longer than the calyx, lanceolate , hairy illsicle and united at the base to the lower part of the receptacle; stamens fi\·e, clooe to the pi5tirand of the same length as the pistil, iuoerted in the receptacle, which has fiye angles and "adheres to the lower part of the o\·ary. Anthers, inclined) curved; o\"ary, globular) hairy, adhering to the receptacle. Style, thick, shorter than the corolla. Stigma pe1tate, with -n\'e angles and \\,ith fi\'e tilles radiating from the center. Capsule almost ronnel \\,ith fiye compartments, each with a quantity of egg-shaped seed, compressed, and proYiclecl \yith a membranSlus ridge or keel. Tree of first order, lI·ell k n own in these islands; is erroneously called cedar 1n America. The seeels are all illch long; leu\-es four inches from Ol~e end to the other. Is .;..of a "carnation colof, and odorousj the natiyes llse it in the construction. of their ' l~oats on acconnt of its durability. P. BLAXCO) p. 130) 2d ed.)) , ., ... , ~

;

"Tlie <;,edrela Toona is of wide distribution, being found in India and in Ne\\· South "-ales. Like the fragrant Cedrela odorata of Central America and the \Vest Indies, to which it is yer)' closcly allied, it is cOllllllonly called Cedar, frolll the resemblance of its wood in odor and color to true Cedar, and like that specie s it is much nsed for cigar boxes. LmuT. SAFFORD , U. S. N."· "Logs can be obtained frolll ten to thirty feet tong, and twelve to thirty inches square. Special sizes to forty feet, and thirh· to thirty-five inche s square. Used for cigar boxes principally. The good qualities of Cedar beiug 50 \I·ell-known lleed not be c01llmented all. BRO\\,X.l1 "TREE OF FlRST ORDER. It gro\\·s in Cuba and the Philippines. Trunks g ro\l· to thirty-fiye meters III height and olle meter and twe nty centinleters in diauleter. COLOR.-Pale red. TE'CTURE.-Soft, somewhat porous; breaks obliquely, without splinters , but lllle\"e111y; shaving is large, soft and very much curled. OnoR.-Fragrant, and when burning emits an odor similar to that of the Juniper. SAL\'ADOR CERO", p. 284."

CALAMANSANA Y. Tenllillalill CafaJlUut:iallay, Rolfe. Trn minalia bialala, Vid" lombrelace{{' .

SY:t:l0NYlIIS- Calamallsana)" Calamansau n, 7 aga!o. WHERE FOUND-Islands of LUZ01i, Masbate and Mindoro. DESCRI PTION-Firs! Grollp. ((This tree attai ns a height of thirty meters and sometilnes e\"ell to a greater one. Color frolll a white rose to a bright red, and all intermediate shades; is frequenth· found to be of uuequal shades with spots of denser color. -

~.


FORES'fRY Ill' REAl '

40

TEX1'l'RE .-Solid , brittle, compressed, pores 1I 0t well defi ned, almost imperceptible, illocIoro lls , although \\'hen recently cnt it sometimes em its an ac id smell; generally breaks with lon ger s plinters , alth oug h so me specim ens break with s hort o nes. It is \'a lliable for m allY purposes in ordi nary CO ll strllctio ll , and planks sa\\"ed from it are in g reat demand for fl oori ll g all aCCOl1llt of its fin e grain and ca pacity to take on a fi n c polish ; for this purpose it brings a higher price thau othe r \l'oods. It is rarely brought to l\ [allila; occasionally a fe\\" pieces come fro111 N llC\'a E cija. I t is C0111111011 ill lll a llY proyillces. Sefior Cortes made fol lo\l'i ng tests : .~ l·~;C Jrll·

UH'.\UTY

G 1U nn"

J.O(' ,\LITY

1":'\ 1"~ HutnuH

lIulu\"IlIl

1.1S.~

EL.\:<T WIT\"

I!I!IUI.:~ AT \n:IGIiT 1:\ 11:

J,1~F..~

.~]> l( crFIC

GIIAnTY {;rL\I:"~

1::!~

ll , ,:.\

LUl:)UIIIl

2.1i

O.!)12

Hl3

1i~1

O.vil

.\ li ll(\ol"o

1..-,

1 .•-):.!0

li!..-,

-ll.-IIG U.(;i;:.!

D. Y1D AT.. " "COLOR.-From a white rose to a brig ht red , auel al1 intermediate grades; fre-

qHently pieces ha"e se "eral shades with brig ht streaks. ODoR.-Noue, altho ug h ",lieu rece ntl y cut it has an acid s mell. TEXTllRE.-Solid, pores n ot well defin ed a nd al most imperceptible; ge nerally breaks ill long s plillters, sometime s in s hort on es. It is probably a s pec ies of Diospyros . It is ll seful for Yari011 S purposes ill domestic construction. It is yery plentiful in different parts of th e Archipelago, as in T aya bas, N ue\'a Ecija, BataaH,

La Lagu n a, :\findoro, Bulacan , but it never predo minates in the fore sts where it is fOH nd. The mean resu1t from specilllen s frolll ,-ario ll s provinces is as fo11O\\·s : Ela sticity, 0.0037 meters; breaks with a weight of 38.533 kilogra m s ; ,,·e ig h t In th e

air', 9.630 grams, and specific g ra"it,·, 0 .643 .

S . I'ID Ar.."

{{Leaves bun ched at the extre m ities of the branche s, lallceolate, entIre a nd

s Uiootb. Petioles s bort. Flowers hermaphrodite, axi llary , g rowi n g in spikes. Calyx adhere nt , s mall , deciduoHs, bell-shaped, of one piece, woolly a ll inside and o utside, with five diyi s ions \\·hich cun-e back ,,·arcl.

Corolla , none.

Stamen s, ten ,

lhe fi\'e al ternate, inserted between the di,"i sions of the calyx, a nd t he others on the divisio ns. Filame nts erect and longer than the calyx. Anthers bi locular and openi ng length,,"ise. O"ary, one, with four axles. Style, one, lon ger tha n the stamen s . Stig ma s impl e a nd a,,·l-s hape . Fruit, 11u t-like, globular , somew hat C0111pressed, with th ree o r more ribs a nd two win gs, not qnite oppos ite, and with a tlard

a nd woody seed closely united by the thin niembrane of th e nut. nut has 11 0 ribs.

Sometillles the

P. BI.A NCO ."

" TREE OF THE FIRST iI [AGX ITUDE.-Plc ntifnl i n """ions parts of the "Philippille Archipelago; its botanical species is not k now ll .


路,


CALUMPIT" Termin"iia ed lllis, Blanco. Terminali. bclerica, Vid. Fern. Com bretacere. Atlas, Sinopsis, Flora Forestal de Filipinos, S. Vid81, lAm. XLVIII, figs. 1, 3,8.

Paga 41.

n,


PHILI PPI "E ISLA;\l)S.

41

COI,oR.-All shades of red fr01l1 dark to yerr bright, at times \\'ith cleep~r colored spots. TEXTURE.-Solid, brittle, pores 1l0t "ery "'ell 1llarked, scarcely perceptible; gelleral1y breaks ill long splinters. Highly prized for ordinary construction. \Vithollt odor whell dry. SAL\'ADOR CEROX, p. 286."

CALUMPIT, 'li:'rmillalia l.'dlf/is, Blallw. Fa,,!. COlllb,-daa!{f .

• SYNONY~IS-Calll111pit, h(l{.

~[agtalisay,

I i·s.

WHERE FOUND-Pro,·inces of Bnlacan , Call1arines, Cavite, Tarlac , Island of Luzon. I sland of I\Iilldoro. DESCRIPTION-7Itird CrollP. "TREE OF SECOXD ORDER: COLoR.-Dirty yellow with ash-colored spots, or of a lluiform ash color. TEXTURE.-Filaceous, loose; fibers longitudiual, somewhat brittle; pores lltllllerOUS, small and well-defined; breaks in long splinters. The bark is used ill some localities to dye cotton fabrics a dirty straw color. The wood is used ill ordinary construction for rafters, pillars and pieces called 'sadsaran,' ill Visayas; it is also very highly prized for knees of vessels in Iloilo. It is not ,-ery durable, and is inferior to Anasep. It is plentiful in many provinces . Senor Cortes made following tests: IfH".\r.J TY

1,]Ig"ulI>l

lIalaau :\u.::V!t Edju

Bul!lcUU

Ef . ..I.ST!CITY BilKA"'; .'T oc,n::< Lll't::-

\I.:~

I., I.'

0.;,

WEIGHT

Am

"

Sl't:CIF1C LO(,.\J,[TY

(;ltA \'IT\'

(;1:.\1:->:<

GR.U!\::;

.~H

210 ..3

O.!;}7

)!

.7;}O'

111;.

(l.·t.!;)

~cgn),,:

.7.)$

IS;).

U.'18

)1l ~I'lllh

.6:x:

199.:.

Q.SOll

E1.A';"!'IUITY

il\~lvr"

.. .

I , J!'<ES~

B1n: ,It(s .<T OU=,CE~

Wt:IGHT 1:0;

.HR GRAIN"

SPECIFIC GRAYlTY GR.Ul';;

:!."

.!l8-l

1$;,.

0.719

:!.

UI G

:!;:.s.

1.093

0.:1

I.Si:!

ISS.')

0.7:!9

D. VIDAL." "Leaves aiternate, lanceolate, entire and almost smooth. Male flowers. Calyx divided in five parts, cleft nearly to the base and hairy inside. Corolla, noue. Stamens, ten, longer than the calyx. Hermaphrodite flowers Calix fixed on the O\"ary, cleft in fiye parts and hairy inside. Filaments much longer than the calyx. O,"ary inferior, lallceolate, compressed aud crowned with the calyx. Drupe, meaty, oblong, somewhat compressed with the edges curved upwards, rotlnded at maturity, \\"ith the lItlthard) fluted) fibrous and containing one seed. I;. foJ'

AJAtA NUSEUM LlBMJW

?49/


I'ORESTRY Ill"REAU

• This tree \\"e1\ known to the India n s, is of the second order. Its bark is used to dye c~tton fabrics a dirty dark straw color. Its fruit is edible when it is black. The meat is of a carnation color ) and some,d1at saYory. . BLANCO, p. 265, 2d ed."

CAMAGON. lJiosJ;j'ros distolor , fl'iIM. /)iO.l'PY' OS Clll bl.l'OP't'lis, 8laNco, (. /pp. F ern , p. 12i·

R(·,'. I'idal, p. 'Vi. )

Fam. !:'{J(.:uacc((' .

S YNONY:,[S - Calliagon , Mabolo, Tal ang, T{(!/. I ~isa_J'n, Batolinuo, /(}(ll/ll £' .

Balatlllao,

//0((1110.

Amaga,

WHERE FOUND-Isla nds of Luzon, ,[indanao, ,[indoro, hUla,' and Parag na. DESC RI PTlON-Sllpf'/'I()/'

(;/'Oll/>.

"TH1RD ORDr~ R.

COl.oR.-Dirty , ashy red. TEXT ll Rr:,-Den se ; fibers fi ll e; break s ill s hort s pli nters; is of a "ery sl o\\' g rowth. S in g le specillle ll s are fOllud mingled with other s pecies ill the forest; seldom ill larger groups th an two to three; ho~ye..yer, as ma ny as se\'en or eigh t trees have been fOllud together, but never il!)aTgeJ:~n1:111l bers. It brings a good p rice ill the:).lln~k;~t, ~being worth, ill ll ormal times, ih,50 to $2 .00 per cubic foot. It is exte n "i,·~;r nsed i·u makin g fi ne furnitnre allCl objects of a rt. ',. R. GARCIA." ..§.; .

. ..; " I s procured in ro ug hly roullClcd .logs of lIille feet a nd

u p"'ard in length and twe h 'e inches in dia meter. I t is a close-grained , brittle wooel, and takes a good polis h. Its color is black with .,·ellow streaks, a nd it is used for furniture making.

Co KG RESSION A f.

P A;,l PHf,)-O:"'.)'

nGot ill roughly rOll ud logs of lillie feet a nel IIp,\'ards, alld fro m se,'e ll illches Lo le n or twelve in diameter. BRO\r:\"." Lea \'es alterllatc, lI early la ll ce-shape)lJ hairy 011 t he ullderside, emargJ11ute at lhe base; ill some , two glands at t he ba* ' nd a sh arp point at t he apex , wit h t,,·o more rows of yery s mall g land s llllclcrllea:~, a nd extenclillg alo ng the sides of the mid-rib. The 11e\\' leaves are glu ucoll'i' ~a lld downy. Petioles, yery s hort. Axillary flower s, solitary, and terminal ones g rowing ill a spike . Calyx a11el corolla as described in the geull s, fOllr or fiye cleft. Stumell s "e n " lllll ch shorter than the corolla, regularly four in number, altho ugh ::;o metimes tl~ ere are h.,'e a nd e \'en t ell, Anthers, sessile, arrow-headed, al most as long as the fil aments. O\'ar)' II


CAMAGON. Uiospyl'OS di~('olo r. witltl. Dio.5pyros embl',voptel'i:5, Blaneu. Fam. Ebenace<e. Attn, !)Jnopsis, Io'iora Forestal de Filipina&' S, Yill.11, lim. t.xrll, A. figs. 1, 2 . 6.

Page

~2.


CAMUNING.

MUl'raya exotica, L. Connarus santaioYdas. I3lanco . •

Fam. Rutacere. Atlas, Flora de Filipinas, Blanco, lAm . 78.

Paga !3.


PHILIPPINE IS LA:-IDS.

43

globular, n~:ry large allel. hairy. Sty les, four. Fruit, large, \"en' hairy) with eight or more compartme nts, and 111 each all o\'al seed, CO ll Vex 011 the outside, and s harpened b,' compression of the others, \'en' hard, h orn-like, surronnded hy a fibrons pnlp, that adheres tenacionsh' to it.

"As in sel'eral allied speCIes, the hea rt-wood of Diospyros discolor is true ebony; dark-colored, hard, hean' a nd of fine texture. To the same g~n u s belong the Ceylo n Ca lallla nder "'ood, the marble Imod of the Anda11lan I sland s and the fi ne black cbonies of ~ [ a nritin s and Cc\路lon. LrF: lI'l'. SAFFORD, U. S. N." " TREI-: OF Sr~CO~D OflDI'R. COJ.o!{.-Black, \\'ith Harrow grayis h red or .yellowish grain. 'T\':XTllRE,-Solid, fibers IOll gituclinal and compressed, with pores long, uarro,,', allCI slighl1y marked. It polishes well, breaks as if brittle; its sh aving is somewhat rongh, compact and not cur1ed. It is hi ghl y prized ill cabinet making on acconnt of its bean tifn l color a nd capability of high pol ish. SALI' .路\DOR CF:ROK' , p. 286."

CAMUNING, .Jffflftt)'tr

(iNOIarlfs

t'x()/im, /"

san/a/odes, HltlllcO p.

(,Vo/ II/au(o ). 3M;, (2d ('d. h 'I",

p.

3(). )

Fam. NII/afa('.

SYNONYMS-Ca mnnin g, 'If/Killo.

Banasi,llocallo.

Ca ll1nnig, Banati, Malanin.

WHERE FOUND-In almost the e ntire Archipelago. DESCRIPTION-I,;'rsl (;rolfp. "TREE OF THIRD ORDF.R.-Ge neralh路 does not attain a height of more t han three or fiye meters . COLoR-Clear unifor m ochre yel1o\\' with undulating grain and gray spots, TE ~Tl1RF:-CO mpact, of con siderable hardness a nd great strell gth . It is used pr incipal1y for cabi net purposes, The lIIoros of lI Iinda nao nse it for making hilts for their krisses, and they con sider it the most precions \rood in their forests. It polishes \rell. No tests ha\'c bee n made with t hi s precio u s \rood sh owing its elasticity, weight, etc. O n aCCOt1nt of its s mall size it is Hot ll sed itl constr uction . S. VIDAL"

"Trunk without thorns. lanceolate, entire , smooth.

Leaves alternate tern ate. Leaflets narrowly Flowers axil1ary, g rowin g in a panicled raceme ,


44

FORESTRY BUREAC

illc\i"idual peduncles "en' short. Calyx "ery lllillute , nre-parted. Corolla nxed upon the receptac1e, of five petal s, petal s erect, COllCa\'e, somewhat rou11ded, threetoothed at the apex . Stam en s, ten , in serted iu the receptacle "utside of the nectary equal to the corolla in leugth; filam e1lts \Oery thick, with oval anthers, threegrooved, beaked. O"ary round upon a round nectary , in s ide of th e flo\\'er. Style and stigma yery thick, with diaphanoll s point s. Capsule rOllnd with a very thin covering, obsc urely marked with -five lines, two-celled, with solitary round seed, one frequentl" ;tborted. DE CA"DOLLE ." ({ Leaves alterllate, pinllate \"jth termi1lal leafl et; leaflets alternate, lanceolate, nearly entire , rigid , glossy, minute ly pU ll ctate on both snrfaces . FIO\yers white, i n short axil1a ry compound racemes. Calyx \Oery small , in one piece, fi\'e parted) with thedi\'isio ll s la ll ceolate. Corolla 111uch larger than the calyx, petal s n"e , !anceolate . Stamens , tell , not quite united at the base; fi,'e a1ternate ones longer than th e others, Anthers sessil e, regular. Qyary s nperior , compressed and fixed npon a round base. S tyle equ al to the stamens. Stigma thick, depressed, apparently four angled . Berry fleshy o"ate-acl1te) somew hat cun'ed at the extremity, with one seed haYing a pubescent leathery co,"eri ng, the seed 111 ay be split into two parts . The Camunlng is true :l\i[urraya exotica, but ,,"as described by Blanco under the name of Connarus Santaloides . The species desc ribed by Blanco as ;\1 nITay Exotica is the Glycosmis pentaphylla correa. As in lllan\' other specie s of th e Auralltiacere the flo we rs of the CUIllllning are ycry fra grant) their odor resemb1ing that of a hyacinth or of Tri pha sia trifoliata, tlle " Limollcito)) of Guam and the Philippines. LIE{lT. SAFFORD, U. S. N." "This tree is \\"eH-kllOw ll and attains a heig ht of t\\"eh"e feet . It is said its wood when burnt emits a ,"ery unpleasant smell. It is hard a1ld clean , and is ll sed for l11anufacturing chairs, flute s, etc. An infusion of the herb is excelle nt with ,,"hich to rinse the mouth in case of toothache . Its lea"es are an in ch long. T. Camun ing, Mola"i n , V . P. Call11ln in Banati , Dec. Prod ., p. 285, a 11101l g the doubtful species. \lJ'hen the flower is dry, the stamens can be separated fr0111 each other by hand; in other flowers they are not united to each other bnt s imply c10se together. BI ,A:-Oco, p. 366, 2d ed"

"TREE OF THE SECOKD ORDER. COLoR,-Yello\\" shaded with clear oc hre, uniform or with tl1l d111atill g g rant and gray streak s. TEXTURE.-\路en路 compact, hard and c\tn'able. It is plentiful in S0111e of the island s ill the Philippine s . . It is principally u sed in cabinet makin g; the Moros of Mindanao use It for knss handles alld con'sider it the best wood in their forests. It polishes \\'ell. SAI.L\DOR CEROK, p. 284."



DINGLAS. Eugellia bl'acteata. Hoxb .. val'. Hoxburg'hii , Duthie. Syzygium latifoJium. Blallco. Fam. MYl'tacere. At las, Sino psis, Flora For estal de filipiu ns, S. Vi dal, lii m . XLIX , B

Page 45.


PI'J[L1 1'1'[:\]0; IS LA); llS .

45

DINGLAS. 1:""Xl'nia "racleala, Noxb., ~'flr. Roxblll),:-Itii, nil/hiI' , .)'i::..yg;1l1Jt lali/o/IIIJII, ll/all(o. raJ/l, JJfJlrto ret('.

SVNON\'iI IS-Dinlas, Dinglas, C011lintan, Ta/(.

WHERE FOUND-Isla nd of Ln zo n. DESCRIPTION-71IiNf (;rollp. "COI.oR.-Gray ish or ash" red. TEX'l'URE. - Fin e, with 1I; ediu1l1 s ize pores. Tree of seco nd order accordi n g to Blanco, \\' h o is doubtfnl as to t he bota uical species) yet notwith standing thi s) logs of snch large dimen s ions are sometimes see n in the market that ju stifies thc belief that it is of th e first order. The \\'ood is hard , hea"y and proof against in sects. It is mll ch l1 sed in orclinan' and na\'al constructioll. It is not "ery plelltiful, but still it is found in ma1l\' pro\' inces of the islands, espec ially in t he so uth of Luzon, (Tayabas, etc.) I ha,'e no data sho\\'i n g its elasticity, strength, \\'eight in the air a nd specific

S.

gra\·ity.

V IDA L. "

Gives logs up to thirty feet by six teen inches sq uare! occasio naHy e y e ll larger s izes. Thi s will also sen'e as a slI bstitnte for black ,,'al11ut. It is "ery stron g, hard a nd dnrable. F ORR\l .-l:-<." • Lea\'es opposite, lanceolate, s mood} and some what stiff, Flo\yers Oll branches ill g ronps of many fio\\'erlets. Cal yx top-shaped \I·ith fom disfignred teeth. Corolla \I'antillg, nil less that. it bc th e co,'er \\'h ich el1\'elopes the stamcn s, composed of eight or nill e lea \"es, joilled together at the 'apices, fo rmin g a case) ,,"h1ch fal ls UpOll the expall sioll of the Rower. Sta 11l e ns numerous a nd fix ed 0 11 the llIargins of the calyx. Fruit g lobular) meaty) cro\\" lI ed ,,·ith the teeth of the calyx and cOll ta in s one seed. 'l"ree of second order) yery COl11mOll in the forests of Sa n Jose) Batangas) alld kno\\'ll as Dinglas, which it appears to be. The \I'ood is white a nd is used in carpentry. The frnit is pmple and edible. Flo\\'ers ill Febrnan·. BLA:-<co, p. 294, 2d ed." II

j(

" Is

A

TRRR OF

THF.

SRCO:-<O ORORR.-It g ro\\' s spontall eo ll sly in t he Philip-

p11les .

COLoR.-Grayish or ashy red. TE:-<TURE.-Fine , pores mediulIl ; hard , hea\'" and al most proof agai ll st attacks of in sects. It is' highly pri zed ill ordinar~' and nayal cOllstrn ctioll. SA T. VA DOR CERO:-<, p. 288 ."


FO REST RY IHiREAl1

DITAA: . Ihlo"in u/w/tu i .l , R. Jlr. I:dll'/es· sri,illa /'is, i .. , RIl/llm . . 1po(ynacc({'. S\' ~ O N Y ~ [S -Di ta

o r Ditaa, 7{~{!,alr~[t ; Da ll opave ll 1 flo[(fl/o,' Tatl itCt ll , " /'1(( 1'17,-

A lld arayo ll or Oplny, l(l,l!"a)'(lJl.

\\"I-I E RE FOliN O- I n almost t he entire A rch ipelago. ])ESCRIPTIO N-Tilird ( ; U>IIjJ. H'T'rec :lttai ns a heig ht of ei g htec lI mete rs a'Belmore.

CO LoR.- F ro m wh ite to a red. 'f Ex'IT RE .- I s not ,'c ry stron g . It is e mployed to a l imited e xte ll t ill o rd inary constrnctio ll bu t is lIot \\'anted in :\ [a n i1a. It is m orc cO lll 11lonly llsed in the m a nufactnre of furniture, Illu s ica l in stru ments, and small troug hs, 011 accoun t of it bein g easil y worked.

P. Bla nco reco mmend s t he nse of t he bark of t h is species to t hose pe rson s \\' ho 'C<1nll o t obtain qninin e. It is fO l~ ~ cl ill maJl .'" pro\'lnces, aIllon g which are Tay aba s a nd Leyte. Sr. Cortes m ade follo,,·ing test. , Stretched th e spec im e n

2

lin es, breaki ng it \\,ith a we ig ht of

"A ttee belongi ng to t he Apocy nacere.

o. ~ 64 OU11 ces. VID A r.. ))

T n 111 k co,·ered wit h smal l prot nber-

which look l ike yestig e s of thorns . Branche s radiati ng in \\'horl s, Iea\'cs radiati n g' in whorl s of 5,6) or more, nearly elliptical , aCl11ni nate at the apex, with

rtllCes

short petioles; petioles with '\ sl" lrp g land on t he inn er part of th e base. Fl o,,·ers termi nal ill 11mbelled racemes. Calyx ,'cry s hort ill fi ,'e parts, Coroll a t wisted , tubular, corolla li mb of S nea rl y rou nd lobes, th e t h roat of th e coroll a open and snrrou nded by a dow ny circle. Stame ns 5, concea led wit hin the throat of t he corolla a nd in serted in its tu be. Fil ame nts al most abse nt. An t hers arrow s haped. Style eq ual to th e stalll c ll s, some what compressed, wi th a scarce ly visible lill e alon g

its length.

St ig ma bifid , monnted on a cylindr ical zone.

T wo spirally twisted

foll icles In \\,hi ch the seeds are arrall ged ill a 1'O'\' not s npe rposed

011

cylindrical, wit h pap pll s at each end.-Lillll. Taga/ox: "Dita,"- I/ocallo: HDallopaye n." This tree r ises in th c forests to t he height of 18 ya rds or more. more tha ll a foot ill le ng th , and a little more than u li Be in th ickness.

one another,

T he fruit is Its le u,'es

are abont fi ve inches long . I t is a st ra nge t hi n g that t he seeds have pappu s at both ends . The fl owers are white. If t he bark of th e tree be wounded, a sticky mil k ex udes which is very bitter, like t he bark. I ca nnot s peak too h igh ly of this ,·al nablc t ree . It is s ufficient to say t h at it is a perfect substitute for qn in ine, aud is t hu s a re medy for all kind s of fey er s, and as a pre,·cnti,·e to the tendency of


DITAA. Alstonia

Echitcs

!:;cho! ari ~.

s{' hohni~.

H. Br

L .â&#x20AC;˘ Blanco .

I"am. Ap ocy nscore. "\lal, Flo.. de FlI!pla ... 111...,.0, Um.

~69.


DUNGON, Hel'itiera sylvatica, VIda l.

Stol'cllli . nobJiis, F. ViiI. Fam. Sterculiacem. Made from drawini!' copied from nature

by R. Garcia.

Page 47.


PHILlPPI:-.iE ISLA:\DS.

47

corr uption In malig na nt diseases. Some women take the milk as a remedy for the diseases peculiar to th eir sex. It flow ers only in April. The tree called Tang itang in Iloil o, which has bitter bark, a nd is mnch esteemed, scarcely differs in appearan ce from the Dita, except that the lea,'es of the former are some,rhat downy, BLA:-<CO , p. 77, 2d ed,"

DUNGON. /-ferilic ra silva/ica, I "ida/ . .)'/0 (If/ia nooi/is, F {'ill., Rel', I 'ida I,

p.

1)6.

Skrot/iace(r. SYNONY~ I S- Dnn gon,

Dongon , Dnn gol, . Palonapin, Palonapoy , /loWllo.

WHERE FOUKD - I slands of Lnzon,

j((!{1I/0;

Iron wood, /:/rowII; Paronapin,

~ Iin da n ao, ~[indoro

a ncl Paragna,

DESCRIPTION-Sllpt'I'I(J/' (;roflp. "CoLoR .-Purplish red. ODoR.-Some'l' hat resembles that of tanned hide. T E:-<'I'URE .-Solid; fibers, compressed and crossecl; pores, not "ery well defined; break s in short spli n ters; shm'ings are nnited , ro ugh ancl slig htly curled. It is cl ifficnlt to work. \Vood is "ery hard ancl resistant to tranS\'erse pressure, possessi ng these properties to a higher degree than any other wood, with the exception of the Yacal of Angat (Bulacanj, It lasts 'I'ell, especially in sea water. It is exte nsi"ely used in building, a nd is "en' highl.'· valued as nprights , sills, joists, dormers, bridge s upports, etc. It is also mu ch ll sed 111 lI aval cOll strnctioll for the iuner supports to keels, connections, oars) anchors, etc. A proof of its hardness is that it is used in the manufacture of cog wheels. Although it is generally of a straight gro\\·th, it sometimes has k nots ,,·hich weake ll its tranS\'erse stre ll gt h. From these knots there ex udes a gu m which becomes yen' hard and renders it yen' difficult to work, in ma n ,· cases causin g the tools to break. It has a thick la\'er of soft wood next to the bark , ,,·hich becomes "'onn eateu in a f,,,' years, tl;ereby weakeni n g at that part. The use of this wood in Manila clates back some fifty years. I t abo und s iu a lm ost all parts of the Archipelago; but in the monntain s of Bulacan, P a mpa nga a nd N ue"a Ecij a the su ppl y is "ery llluch dimini shed, Tll~ trees grow ll there at prese ll t are undersized. Senor Cortes macle foll owing tests : UI\ ',\ J.lTY

EI..\,;TICJTY LI~.:~

I; I ~.;,\" S

,\T

ou~n:s

WI::IGIIT

I~

SI't:CIFIC

All:

( ; 1(,1,\'11'\'

('I:,\I~S

G I: .\I~"

LOC.\ LI rY

lI,lbluH .. .

J.,j

1.3~1:2

)iUCY,l J~cjju

LS

u.OOi

Kcgru"

1,4

U.S2-1

0.940 n.~1 ll, . 1~I

Lcyte ..

1.1

1.::>60 1.i12

Ihl\!IC!U' \1 j ]1I1(l1'O

;\(;s!'1Ili~.

EI ..\,..TH' ln

1m.:""", ,\T

I.I~.:S

01: ~C.:"

WEIGHT Do

~I;EC"'I('

.\ HI

GRAnT\

GI(.\ I ~~

OIl,\I~"

I., I.

,;,'

(1,9-11

S.

\'1D ..II .. "


FORESTRY BU REA U

"Dungan (a ,"ariety SIt'Fut//a ((JIlbijoFmis), g rows up to fift,Y feet long, giving logs up to twe nty inches square. It is sometime s called Iron \Vood , and is very hard and durable, and specially strong in re sisting great trallSyerSe press nre, or carrying such \\'eight as a heavy roof. CO~CRESSIONAL P A?l IPHLRT. ))

" In ge ueral appearance the Dungan of the Philippine forests resembles its congener the Dungan-late ( Fferil/era/illora//,) of the sea shore, a tree of very wide distribution ill the tropics . Both have brownish g ree n coriaceolls leaves with the lower s nrface cO ll spicuOllSly whiti sh , so that they are readily di stin g uished fro111 their u eighbors. Th e ,,·ood, h owever, of the 1-1. silvalita is harder, stron ger, and finer than that of the I-I. /illom/t:(, amI the trunks of the fore st tree con sist almost entirely of heart-\\"ood , ,,· hile those of t he s hore s pecies ha ve a thick envelope of soft , u seless wood inside of t he bark. . These species are allied to the Sunder t ree , the ,·aluable dark wood of which is used for boats, bridges, and house-bnilding ill India, and to the 1-fer iliera I/lacroLIF:l'T. SAFFORD, U. S. N." pl/dla, or looki n g-glass tree, of Bmma.

ti The Dungon is from twe nty-t\\·o to thirty-six feet lOllg auel fr011l twelve to eig hteen inches square. Special sizes to fifty feet, and eightee n to twenty inches sq uare. Sometimes called Iron "Vood. Very hard, tough alld durable ; and special 1y adapted for resisting great tran sverse press ure, or we ight, s Heh as carry ing a heavy roof, etc. U sed for keels, 011 account of its g reat streu gth; does not resist the sea \\"orm ; applied at 1I1anila for all purposes where 1110re thau ordinary strength is required, when 1\lola ye cannot be got ill s ufficiently long len g ths and Ipil is unattain abl e. BROW l\ .)) " Tree of regular height, smooth bark and hard wood, \vhich grows in 11l0Ulltaluon s places . Leaves obtuse-acuminate at the base, el1iptical oblong-ac1l111illate , fr o111 seven to twelve centillleters long by twenty-five to fifty lllillim eters wide, leathery , lnstr ou s', dark color a ll the upper side, and light underneath, even when dn·. S. VlDAL."

" TREE O F THE FIRS·I' lI[AGNI'I'UDE.-Is pleutiful in almost all the Philippille Archipelago. COLoR.-Livicl red. TEXTl'RE.-Solid , with fibers compressed and crossed; pores scarcely visible. ODoR.-Similar to that of tanned hide; breaks in splinters and as if brittle ; the shayillg is nllited, rough and very little curled. It is easily worked and of great durability. It is Hsed very mtlch in ordinary and 11aval construction and highly prized for posts, pillars, beams, joists , bridge timbers, keel s, etc. SALVADOR ClmO N, page 288."


\

-.~

,

~

,

,,-

J • J1.. l'

• I


DUNGON-LA TE. Hel'itieJ'(J Ii tt(ll'i.llis 1 Ul'yanu. Stel'cu Iia (:y m bitOI'1Il is, Rlanco, Fam. St,eN.llI liace::e. AllaS, ~'Ior~ de FilipilillS, 81;",co, I~m

~I


,

;

, Y H II ,I Pl'INE I SLANDS. "

._-DUNGON-LATE..

,

I fcn:taia /illo, a/is, Ih ),(Uld, S'/er(II!ia ',~

,

(:l'lIIbU'" mis,

B/al/("o ,

,~'!t:ro,liaau' ,

WHERE FO G ND - Tsla lld s of ,

LIlZOIl ,

7I lillelallao a ll el Pa ll a,'.

DESC RIPPON-S,'llilld (;ro llp. LC<l\"es ~ lt~'r ll ate) some what heart-s haped) obl ong, s01llewhat e margin ate) and of a \\"h itis h color 0 11 the u1lder side . Petioles s liort, 5\\"011 (' 11 at th e ex tre m it ies; ca ly x, so mew hat cru et-shaped, with fOllr or fi ve tee tTl ; coroll a, 11 0 )1 e; m or c than thirty stam en s; fil aments, fe\\") wh ich ~ lIpp orl someti11le s h,"o, s0ll1c ti1l1es three a ll t hers . Neclary , te ll g lalld s, placed two by two ill the base the <l l1 g1es of the o,"ary. Os ar ics s upe ri o r, conica l , ,\-ith fi,"c angles ; s ty le s hort alld thi ck ; s~ i g llla with fi" e lobes. Frllit , like a legllme; ,,·ith the envelope bOll y a nd, fibroHS; 'oval , c,9mpressed at th e s ll t ures , ,,·ith part of s hell protruding 0 11 the side , c0..~ l ta in i n g 'on e .seed. Th e re arc fi ve ova ries and dru pes a nd some of the m abort. " . S ec Genera l A ppe nd ix, )3ytt ll <;,r ia c~",. ' Tree of second order ; is "ery ,\'ell kllowli . I t is of a half \'io1ct color and 1"5 sl ron g anel heal"Y; SOllie g um ex udes fr011l it; a ll d alth oug h it is not "cn' hard, it is ex cell e nt for presses, a nd is appropriate for all those pu rposes for whi ch a hard a ud brittle wood cann ot be u sed . I t is said th at it lasts " 'ell iu sea water. Its fru it, larger tha u wa luut s, are perhaps those which Padre Delgado sa,'s III USt be pre pared before eatin g'. It flowers ill I\ [arch all el also il1 D e cembe r. It wonld appear th a t t he 1-(('11,'1('1'('.1' "pelal" of J uss. be longs herc; bu t tbe . D u ng oll is not of thi s ge u us . Th e re are some trees \\"hi ch bear O111y male, and others ouly fe lllal e flowe rs, Trees bearing 1l1 ale fl owers : leaves o\" ifor111, obl on g, llot de nticulated at base , al most straigh t ou edges a nd ,,,ith wh itc dO\\'lI on Huder s ide. Flowers i'xi l1'a.,.y· , g rowin g ill a compou ll d raceme, decid uoll s. Cal yx cy lindrical \\"ith fixe teeth do,n]), on in side aud out side, soft and p ulp ,'. Corolla . uone. AU' ele"ated di sc ill ce nter of fl o\\'er , cu p-shaped with t he edges covered with a g reat 1Ium ber of s m a ll g lands, Anthers about te ll , more or less fertile ,' g rowin g ,upon ;lJl. arch, I t has five styl es at cud of arch. No fruit. . ' . I h a,'e see u in Paraiiaqlle t rees of a bont th e thickness of a lIIa n 's t h ig h . T he leave s arc abo u t fiv e inches in le ngth. T he ca l )' x~ s,. are,of" a ' violet color , similar to t h ose of the Ca lu mpang; frolll thi s and th e arch Oil which th e a n t hers Rr o\\' , it call be see ll t hey be long to the sa lli e gen n s. All th e fl o"'ers fa ll. T he natives call it Du n gon. T rees bearing fe male fl owe rs : leaves, heart-shaped , oviform ) somewha t de nt icnl ated and white underneath . Flower s grow in r aeellles. Calyx cy lindr ical with five teeth , clow n y on the iu side. Corolla 1I0n e. S ta lll e n s n one. Pisti ls exactly as above descri bed . l(

or

1

7" 101"

-'


FO R ES'I'R Y BUREA II

50

Among lhe flowers of these tree~ I have ·seen many with the fruit 5111al1 .11lel ripe. They h~l\'e five o\"aries growil1g in all arch, some of \\"hich abort. 'f' here arc two glands at the base of eael? o\'arY j these are straight and not spiral, oval, compressed, close toget her bX-. t he flat side, next t he lower s uture. Th ey h ave a wing which wraps aroll nd it.;,;.~o m abon~ to below, followi ng behi nd, where it is wider, which gi"es it the appearance of a keel of a small ;-essel. I t has five styles, and the stigmas are thick. F l'OlH t his fact I na med t he species. The D nngon s honld be inclnded with SI{'f"Otilil, bnt it is not t he Sll'rrl//ill Hdll-lerrJ of de Candolle, but disti n ct. ' BLANCO, p. 526, 2d ed."

EBONY. . J/aba b,lf.rijo/itl, j'£,u. Diosf..l" uS nig ra • .Cr,mg rcssioJlal PaJJlj,/dd. /:.'bt! )J{f(('(e. "

SYNONY,\[S-Ebony, EI/.t:-IISlI; Eba no, Spllllislt; Lnyong, Tr(fta/I(!;-; Bantoli nao, I i:w),tl. WHERE FOUND-I slands of L nzon ,(Pro"ince of Zambales), l\Ii ndanao, Paragua ) Samar.

"

DESCRIPTION-Sllperior C·rol/p.

"COI.OR.-Sap wood, ashy; heart-wood, black. TRXTlIRE .- De ll se. 'frees are of s mall dillle ns ions and are ge nerally fou ll d ill g roups, occas ionally alone, intermingled with other species. l ts growth is ve ry slow, a tree of 0.25 meters ill diameter beillg sevell ty or eig h ty years old; bl ack-\\"()Qd ( heart-wood), ::; centi1ll eters in diameter, is about the largest that can be obtai ned.

R. "T h i" wtlpd is fOlllld

III

GARCIA."

limited qna ntities in the Philippi nes . ;.

COKGRF;SS10KA f, PA;\[ PHLb;1'."

" Th e nati ves of Visayas call ebo ll Y (bantali nao) a precious \\'ood, which sen'cs lII ore for orll<lments tha n for utility, growing abundantly in their islets a nd sea coas t s.

It is yel'y high ly "al ued in fo re ig n parts, but where it abo unds it has little nlllle, as it is not employed in any ki l~d of cO ll strtl ctioll. I t is of spoll tanco tl s growth , requirillg 110 planti ng 110r cultivation; anel 0 11 acco unt of its black color, bri ngs a \'cry high price i ll E urope. I t is a ll exceedingly hard wood, and ca n.ve worked a nd polished only by t he nse of "ery sharp instr um ents.


,

EBONY.

Maba buxifolia, PCI'S. DiospYI·O. nigl·a. Congl'cssional pamphlet. Fam. Ebenacece. Atlas, Sioop"is, Flora Forestal de Filipinas, S Vidal, Jam . LXIII, H. fil:s. I, t, :1, '5.

Page 50,


"


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

5I

It is worked in Europe with great skill, and it is principally used for picture :Ind looking-glass frames, head pieces for beds, inlaid \\"ork on desks, etc. It is rare to find a tree .8 meters to I.2 1lleters in diameter. Boards for ' tables or other purposes cann ot be made frolll it. On the outside of its bark there is always found a fun gous growth; it 15 l1ecessary to remove this as only the body of the tree is of value. So great is the quantity of this \\"ood on the islets and promontories of the Philippines, especially in Bohol, and the Islands of Biri near to Palapag, that ' the IlIdiall s cut and sell it for t,~; enty-fi,路e ce nts for each pica (twenty-fi"e pou1lCls), and the collectors of the royal tribute receive it, and sell it to the Chinese mestizos at a higher price. Th115 it is) the further it goes from its lIatlYe place, the more it increases ill value, Hnti1 it fillal1y becomes \\~orth ahnost its weight in silver. The ebony bears an edible fruit, s\\'eet and savory, similar to a sweet lemon. DELGADO."

"It is also fOl1lld ill very limited quantities.

"New branches downy_ Leaves alternate, cuneate frol1l the base, obovate, leathery, smooth, thickened at the 11largi ll ) fOllr to five centimeters long) one and one-half centillleths wide. Petiole short, oue centimeter long and generally curved. Axillary flowers nearly sissile, the male often three together, the female solitary. Calyx hairy, bell-shaped, divided into three parts. Lobes ovate, and sharp at extremity. Corolla tubular, divided in three lobes. Stamens six, which are inside the tube of the corolla, same length as anthers, \\"ith alternate glands s itu ated inside the calyx. Ovary ovate, of three lobes with the style anel stigma open, nve to seve n seeds. PERSOO:-';."

"This species is of wide distribution. It is sometimes called' East Indian Satin vVoocl,' and is nIuch "a1lted for inlaying. Allied species occur in PolYllesia) some of t.hem bearing edible fruit resembling the persimmon. LIEUT. SAFFORD, U. S. N."

"Is A TREE OF THE SECO"D ORDER.-Grows in Cuba and the Philippines. Cm.oR-Sap-wood, whitish; heart-wood, black, with gray or yellow grain. TF;XTuRE-Heavy, compact, hard, brittle, and breaks obliq uel y in spli nters and fibers; its shavi ng is short, rongh and little curled. Differs fro111 Camagoll ill that its black color is 1110re pronounced. I s used for sabre handles aud inlaid work 011 fine articles and furniture . SAL\'ADOR CEROX, p. 288."


FORESTRY BUREAl '

GUIJO. _"''floretl (;uiso ,

Oiplerot"arplfs

B/I("'~.

('UiHJ,

RlaJl(o.

niplerO({1rpl'ff'. S YNON Y I\ IS-G l\ ij o, C 11 iso, "\ ram ball , Pfl JJ1/J([)~!{(l " C \l isoto

W HERE FOUND- I sland s of Bohol, CObl'l , L ey to, Luzon, l\'lindanao, Mindoro, . Negros, Palla)" lZolllblo11, Sa ma r. DEfiCR ] PTIOl\'-S{,((}lId (;{'nt/p. "FIRST ORDER.

COl.oR .- Lrght or as hy reel. TEXTllRE.-Fibers, undul ating, stron g a nd fl e xible, with many ,yell defi ned; pores; the med nll a ry ra ys of first order, arc wide, ex tended and the secondary, fine a nd close together, all plainly yi siblo. I t is prized in ordinary ali(I nayal eon stru ctio11, and also by carriage and cart makers for wheels . Th ere are a great mall .\' \'arieties, based Oll the differellces ill the woods, whi ch I wil1110t attempt to describe for 'rant of data. The followill g is th e meall res ult of tests 1Ilade: E lastieit v 0 .0035 III.; brok e \\'ith \\'eight of 40.7469 kilograms; \I'eigh t iu the air 9.73 gram s) and specifi c grayity 0.685 . The maxi lllulll resistance given appears to :lle to be e xaggerated, when comS. VIDAL.)) pared with stronger woods, as the Dongal, for instance .

"FlRST ORDER.

It is plentiful in al m ost al l the islands, especiallr' ill those ill the so uth of the .\rchipelago. There is a de lll aud for this \\'ood ill t he mark ets of Chill <l. Senor Cortes made follo"'ing tests : fl..\~Tl("'TY

r,r:-. t:" I.;':! 1

"".:.\"~

,\

r

Wt:'(.)'T , :-;

"" t:('"

Ie (; 11 .\ ,.,,.,. GlL\':-;~

II" 1"" 11 .

D,

YID A !. ,))

"G ives logs up to seventy-fi ve feet long by twe llty-follr inches square; is very strong, tou gh a nd elastic. In Manila this wood is ill\'ariably used for carriage w heels a ud s hafts. 111 H OlI g kon g it 路 is ll sed for wharf decks or flooring, amongst FORE~JAN.l) other purposes.


• •

GUIJO . Sborea Guiso. Blume. DipteroCal'jJllf' G!Ji~o, BI::tnro. Fam. Dipterocarpe::e. Ctlpied from nature by R. Guell.

Page 62


HARAS. Garcinia Cowa. Roxh.

Cambogia crassifolia: manco. Fam. Guttifer::e. Atl ..,

Sin o Jl~i 8,

FlorH. Forestal de Filipinas, S, Vidal, lam. XI, .\. filS . I, 2, 8, 4, 6.

-_._-Page 63.


PHIUPPINE ISr,AK"l)S.

"Brall ches black. Lea\"es altertl ate) o\"ate, elongated, e1ltire, s mooth, stiff, the \"e ins promlllellt underneath. Petioles \'cry s hort. Flowers il1 panicles of fe\\"

flowerlets.

Cal)·x, corolla, stalllens, pistil s and other parts the sallie as in Dipte-

rocarplls plagatlls . 'fhe cal~Tx at matnrity is adherent al1d c row n s the fruit. "1'he parts of the calyx or willgs are narrower than ill that species and three or fOllr of

thelll are long. See General A ppendix-.-Dipterocarpeas. TREE OF SEC()~D ORDER. Ven· highly prized on account of the hardness and flexibility of the wood; it is J1Iu ch nsed for carriage wheels, for masts and keel s of vessels, especially thc ycllow Gnijo; but the Bayante catapan and guisihan are prefcrred. Th e Indians call this tree Guiso, and the Spaniard s, improperly, Gnijo. It is COl1ll1lon in j\[indora ill the fore s ts of Sall 1\'[ateo. Flowers ill June. BLA:-.JCO,"

" TREE OF THE F1RS'I' j\[AG~lTll I)E.-Abounds 111 almost al1 th e islands of the Philippine Archipelago. COl,oR.-Clear red or ashy reel. 'l'l-:X'l'llRR.-Fibers llndulating, stron g and flexibl e, with lI11111 er0I1S and w('11defilled pores; medllilary rays of first order wide alld spaciolls, the seconelary ones fiu e and close together; all of thelll plainly visibl e. The wood of the GlIijo i, highly prized in ordi nary and na\"al con str uclio ll; it is also tlsed for 111.akillg carls anel for artillery \\·ag01lS. SA I.\·AJ)OR CEI{Q~, p. 290."

HARAS, (;uro'uia

((I,o'fT,

No.l"b.

( ;ull(/rr{(.

SYNONYMS-H aras, Jara, 7(w(f/u'''' ,-.. ,.., Sadll""an : - . , ) '-" ·al'(f. . )

WHERE FOjJND- Yi s;l\·as Island s. DESCRI PTION-/·i·rsl C rollp . . " COT.oR.'-Yellowish, callary.

Tr:XTURE.-\ -e ry de n se and \"(!ry hard; fibers fint'>. Trees of five meters 111 height, fiftee l1 celitillleters ill diameter. L ea\'es ill pairs and stiff. A joint at extre m ity of petiole. Bark m ilky. From a speci men recei\ed from the pro\iuce of Antique for the Filipino exposition in ThIadrid, and fro111 descripti oll s gi\'en by natiYes of that pro\'illce we have been enabled to ascertain its ge n us.

R. GARCIA.")


FO RESTRY BU REAU

54

CAMBOGIA CRASSIFOLIA. Lea yes Opp<;>S'ile, bet\\'ee n and and , lan ceolate, with mall } s mall veIn s approaching the apex) entire, s mooth and meaty . Peti oles wa nt ing. Trees larger t-han the hu man bodYl found in the Yisayas. T he leaves arc three inches long and not q uite onc inc h ill width. Th ey are meaty and are thus distinguished from others of t he ,ame ge n ns which are fo nnd in t he isla nds . The Cuta Gamba which ex ude s fr0 1ll then'l has an agreeabl e odor and burn s well whe n ig-nilecl. I do 1l0t kn ow whether its properties are si milar to those of other trees. This appears \'c ry iuferior and the color clearer. I have not seen its fl owers. In Cebu it is calJed Saclngan. I t is a ll e,,· species. BLA:->CO , p. 304, 2d ed." .

ofl

IPIL. ~U~'elilf

bljlfgll, .1. (;, {fl'. 1:/JCrlftr dcrandra, Rlow(!. / J',[!1f IJI l)/os(l' .

SYl\01\\"i\IS-I pil,

l'I~"al"flll:

J pil , T aal, TaxaloR'; I fil, /''-//llId II/ Gllalll; Ifi-lele,

.~·({IIIt)f1.

\\'HERE FOUN D- I sla ncl of Lnzoll, Masba te, Paragua, R Olllbloll , Samar. DESCH. I PTIO N-Sllp(,l"iol"

Mi nda nao,

1 Iindo ro, Pall ay,

(;1"1111».

(( COLoR.-Sap wood is al"'ays white whell t ree is cut. . Heart-\\'ood: canary yellow wh en wood is perfect a nd recently cu t. Upo u exposure to the a ir it cha nges to chocolate color. 1;he wood of old trees (alld occasionally that of yOllng trees wh ich have been cut for a long time) changes and has a color "arying from a pllI"ple to black, resemblin g ebouy . Thi s color is 1Il0re frequently obse n 'cd ill pieces used· as uprig hts, which have bee n for some ti me ill the grou ll d. \\'hell it acquires thi s color it is almost im pervious to decay, and is of great dllrabilit}. Pieces which have bee n lull se a ce ll tnry show no deterioration. ODoR.--Agreeable auel not ycry pronoll nced . TF.X'I'l"RE.--Strong; the pores are lik,e lon g clll"ved cr acks and strongly defi ned ill lOllgiludi ll al sections. The fibers trans\'erse and com pressed; breaks illlO short splillters; s havings are rough a11d \'ery mu ch enrled. It is valued for its excellcllt qllalities for ge lleral cOlI strll ctioll . 'Wh ell grow II on hi gh groun cl it is perhaps the best quality of ti m ber in t he islauds, a nd used prefera bly iu fra m ill g. It is impen'ious to the attacks of th e a ll ay, a nd to the decay prod uced by contact with the earth, also to the caustic action of li me. I t is very abundant ill the


â&#x20AC;˘

IFIL. Afzelia bijllga, A.

Gray.

Epcl'lIu dCl'andl'a. Blanco. Fam. LeguminOA:D. Atllhl, Sinop!is, Florn Forestal de Filil)intl.S, S. Vidal. u.rn. XLlI,

Page 64.


• •

,

,


PHILIPPINE [SLAl\'IlS.

Arc hipelago, a ndlhat from the islands of Masbate and Sibnya n is highl y ,·alncd in the ma rket; that of Tayabas, although scarce, is n ot inferior in quality ,,·h cn well selected. Pieces have been cnt in the I sland of Tablas ten meters long and .60 nl. 1I1 thickness. This t imber, w he n grown in 10"· la nd s, loses mu ch of its good qualities. In China, so meti mes , the Sn pa is passed off as Ip il, a nd is gi\cn the name of Ipil Negro. Sefior Cortes made following te sts: I.n C.I I, ITY

~:

J•• \ I'T I (' 11'" Im .:.1

I\~

.\

,.

II'El~jIlT

!:i1'~:( ' II'J('

IS" ,\lIt r.!U 1~"

G/L\\"lTY Glt \ IS""

1.4)('.\

LIT\"

1':). ,\I'Ttr'ITY III : E.I " "

J. 1 S" ~:~

ol':o<n :"

~l i~ nl11i ~

1.2

1."~ 1

Z2.i .

OJ"::,,

;\cgro>'

l.

1.6W

~[

I.:!

U s.I

11\9.

O.i:!·j

Ley!\! .

1 ..;

I ..-~IS

in,\o r<>

1,I:--F~

" rS"f'ES

."

W E IGHT [)';"

.\ I II ,:It ,\! :-;',,

21 6.

" I 'I;;('1 H (' I: IL\ \ ' 1T\'

li J: .\ I S-':

o j !)j

S. \ ' TD A T.. )) "\\Tood ,·ery excellen t and similar to 'the Tiudalo or Barlliou. It does n ot grow in the forests, but on the beach or in close proximity to the sea. The trees are yery la r ge and thick, and the ,,'ood at time of workin g has a dark yello\\' color ; but t hi s changes after a short tim e to a dark red color. It is easily worked ,,·hen ne,dy cut , but after a time it becomes h a rd and is diffic ul t to work. It is found in the V isayan Islands ouly. I h",·e not seen it in the T agal Island s, although it :" mi g h t be carried there for some special use. 'I'he doors of the ch urch ill the to\\'11 of San ]\[ateo are made of this wood brou g h t from t he Visayan Islands. It is al1110st imperish able, and imperviou s to the actio n of the weather. Its only ene mies are fire and an ant known as the a n ay, a u insect indige noll s to this co untry. This ant forms hi s habitation In the grollnd, a nd comes out to look for food, traveling iu a covered road, like a s heath, which it goes au constructi ng until it reaches somethin g upon whi ch to feed . It is capable of de stro,·ing a warehouse of dry goods in a short time ; it is ve ry fond of this ,,·ood a l;d of others on accouut of ba,·i ug a flavor ag reeable to its palate. If it did n ot ha,·c this enem y it would not be subject to deterioration , as t he S Ull and a ir \\"otdd ne yer damage nor l11j nre it. It is , 'e ry com lllonly used in t he cOl1 strn ctioll of houses ill the \"i say as, bei11 R nsed for sill s, braces, boards, and in other way s. It can be put to all the I1 sc's mention ed ill respect to Tindalo) which is very si mil ar to it, although somewh at heav ier. DEf,GA no. Jl

"Gives logs up to fifty feet loug by twe nty -s ix i nches square. It has allthc good qualities of rv{olave, except resistance to sea wor m , in which respect it is th e same as T cak, and may be as much relied on for duration Hilder grou nd. For sleepers it equal s Malave. CONGRF:SSIO"Ar. PAMPHU:T. "


FORESTRY m'REA'\;

S6

"Lea,'es oppositc, \\"ithod t he odd one at t he c nd of the petiole, Leaflets o,'ate, s111ooth, Petiol es of leaflets ,'cry sh ort and puffed. Flowers in pa ui cles. llldiyidllal pedun c les, IOll g . Calyx tubular with fOllr divisions; divisions of calyx c l1ryillg dowllward. Corolla o n one s ide of the calyx, of one petal, the upper part broadened, and with a claw at the basco Tell stamen s fix ed ill the calyx, anel downy 011 the lower part. Th e three lou ger olles h'l\'c anthers; the seyeu others \'cry s hort, without anthers. Pistll longer than the sta mellS. Oyary with small P . BLA~CO. " pedicel supporti ng it. L eglllll e as in fi~lIre. OJ{vER.- Grancl. COLoJ{ .-Pale, a nd 1I 0t rcd like th e Balayon \\"ith \\"hich the I ndia n s gellerall.,路 confo und it; ",ith tillle it chall ges to a black color like the walnut o( Europe . It is a \\"ood' \\"ell kno\\"n allel hi g hly prized. Its hardness, ,,'eigh t a nd other properties are s i111ilar to the Tind alo. "I"I RS'I'

GT-::-':ER AT. A l'PEXDIX FI.OR A DE FU,IPI>:AS, lI

" Th e Ipil is of \'ery ",ide di str ibuti on. On the I sland of Guam t he floors of the best hOllses are made of it; allel owi ng- to its durability under grou nd it is llsed for' harig nes,' or posts. The pillars of t he church of Aga na are the trunks of huge IIpil ' trees ,,-hich were cut more tha n a ce ntury ago lI ear the site of the buildi ug . It is con sta ntl.l' bec01l1ill g scarce r in that island, and step s s hould be take n for its presen'al io ll. . Th e hand somely poli shed kant bo\\'ls of the Samoan s arc carved fro m sectiou s ' of thi s tree, a l1el 0 11 aCCOl1llt of the weight and hardness of the "'ood, the Samoa ll s make their hest \\'ar cl ubs of it. Th e\' call it ' Ifi-lele.' LIEUT. SAFFORD, U. S. N." " Fro lll eighteen to th irly -fi\'e feet lOll g and tweh'e to twe ll ty-t\\"o illches square . Special len gths forty-fi ,路c to fifty fcet and t\\'enb'-six inches sqnare. Has all the good qualities of :I[ola\'e except r es istan ce to sea \\'orm (in which respect it is t he sUlli e as T ea k), anel may eq ually be relied on for duration ill ground, or where it is ill COll taet with mortar or ceme nt , and for railway sleepers) for whi ch purposes it is cqnal to 1\101a,路e. BROW"."

"TREE O f' F1RST :l IAG"l'I' UDE. COLoR.-Usnall y dark red, sometimes a yello,\' ochre. TE"1'URE.-Fiber is transverse and compressed, strong; pores long a nd \\'ell dcfi ll cd ; on planed s urfaces of plank s are many small curved crevices . Break s in s hort spl inters; s hav i路ng is very rough alld c nr1ed . ODoR.-Agreeable and not very pronoll ncecl. Thi s tree g rows 111 the Philippi ll c Archipelago, especially in f\ [asbate , Tay~lbas all(l Tablas.



â&#x20AC;˘

LANETE. WI'ightia oYata , A , DC , A n a~s e J' Laniti. Bla n('o. F' ~ 1I1. Al l lI~ ,

Apoc)' llaceoo.

FIOl'a elf' FJlipirl1ls, Bianco, lam . 275 .

PRge i:i7 .


P HI LIPPINE ISLAl'DS.

57

Thi s wood is much esteemed for its excellent qualities; it is yery suitahle for naval construction. The English shi p cargoes to China for thc arsenals at Hongkong and Shanghai; there is a good dem;lIld for it in those markets. This is one of the woods neces,ary to know ' well in ouk" to prc"e;'t suhstitution of Supa and Balao for it. SAl.VADOR CERO:>, p. 292." '.

," \

,

... _" "'.

LAN ETE.

f/ffi":i;;ilti~'

p,'ala, .1. I)e.

'.

. -/ por /"ort'CZ' .

,

,•

SYNOKY:lIS-Lanetc, /aga/og; Laniti , Lo n iti, Lanalon, Lanuti, //ocallo; L anusi, IboJlGc,' Tiguig, Ti1llghas, V/SG)'fl.

WHERE FOUND-Islands of Ceh,'" Le,':,te, Luzon, \[indoro, Negros and Pana\,. DESCRIPTIOK-fi'rsl &rollp. "'Crees attain a height of eighteell meters allel 11Iore.

COLoR.-vVhile to reddish. . The \l'ood is not "ery strong. It is ,(se,d in dome,;tic co nstruction, but therc is 110 demand for it in ~la lli la; is more generally l1sed in the lllanufactnre of furniture, musical ill strumc nts anel bateas, being easy to work. Padre BlullcO recom me nds it as a substit ute for quinill e. It is fouIld in 'f'ayabas and Le.ytc, all el \'arious other provi ll ces. Senor Cortes obtained an elongatiol1 of t\l'O lines a nd specimen s broke with a \l'eight of 0 .864 onnces. D . \ .IDAr" " "COLOR-- 'vVllite. TE:--:TURE--Soft and easil;: worked. I s a nsefnl lI'ood and sho uld be cut during the last quarter of the ~lnq~ll) ~ ·s.hpuld trees, in order to increase their durability and prcyent them fro n1 H·e.ing worih-eatell. It is prized more particularly in the mauufacture of chairs) trullks:bQxes) \\·ardl~obes, etc.j being of soft texture it cannot resist exposure to Clitllate . G1:ea~ c~e Bl ust be taken with artic1es !Ilanllfactured from it to presen'e them fro lll destruction by the anay. The trees called Tiguig in Cebu aud 'flaughas in Leyte are "ery similar to the Lanete aud ans\l'er the same purpose. I s prrl:lcipally used for building ship sides above deck, staterooms, etc., for, bein g light, it is IlOt a burden to the ship. It is indigenolls to the 11l011l1 tains, but is sometimes·' foll nd ill the prairies and lowland forests. DELGADO."

an

"Gives logs up to t wenty-five feet long to eigh teen ',inches square. It is useful for sculpt ure, mu sical in str um en ts, decoration , turning and cabinet purposes. FORE:'[A ~.n


"Sr:CO:-;D

ORDER .

COLOR.- Bone while or as h\' with white staill s .

'j'l·; :-;'ITRE. -Soft a lld co mpact; pores scarcel y perceptiblc; break s ill lOll g s pl ill ters, the s ha\'ings fin e, uu ited and c url €.d. It is pl e ntiful ill La L agun a, Hataal1, Cayite . Pan gasin atl and T ayabas. It is used for cabin e t purposes . Th e chai rs ill .:\ Ia nil a ~1l 0 \\' 1I as Pae tc , and ill Spain as Victoria c hairs , arc made fr o111 t his wood. Duri ng lll.\' stay ill the Arch ipelago match boxes \\'ere ma llufactu red fro 111 s p eC il1l e ll ~ of thi s wood from T ayabas, by t he man ager of th e Ind ustrial l\latch F actory ; were ,'cry sali sfacto r." , w ith all opposite re sult fr ol11 th ose fr01ll Lag ulICl J

t he pieces broke while beill g be llt to form t hc boxes, th e fibers of these pieces ll Ot bein g s tra ig h t.

Th e

mea ll res ults of tests are

as follows:

Elasticit,· 0.0068

m. (t he

ex tre mes ,'ary so lllu ch th at a speci me n from Bat a~t1l g ave all e loll g atioll of 0 .010 111. , whil e one fro111 Taya bas only 0.0034 Ill .); broke with a weig ht of 26,8 29 kilog ram s; weigh t in the air 6 . .18 5 gram s , a1ld specifi c gnn'it y 0-49.1. . S. \ · Il) .\ L .))

Lecl\'es opposite , wit h short petiole s , obtu se at th e base or llearh· o\'atel y obt nsc and acu1ll inate woolly-pu besce nt, three to fOllr in ches. ~I ~lk'y sap. Bran c hes with s mall \\"hit ish protrll bin g poiuts . Fl o\ye rs ill te rlllill al cy mes; cy mes wooll y, <.: :1l y x fiye-parted , di\'i sioll s of ca lyx O\'ate obt use, pubesce llt in the o ut side, fO llr or fi \'e times shorte r thuu the smooth t nbe of th e corolla, fi \'e scales O il th e cal y x , half e llipti cal ) t\\·ice s horter th all t he d i\'is io ll s of t he calyx) nearly al ternatin g- wit h the limbs of t he caly x; t he di visioll s of th e ca l~ ' x ull equ al , the larger ones o p po~ ite th e diyi sion s of t he corol la, wit h tricre natc apex, the oth ers alternate, a li ttle shorter and three ti me s n arrower, li ll ear-ac utc ) anth ers hairy 0 11 II

the back.

Corolla ,,·it h comparati" e},' s hort tu be alld fi\'e di \' is ioll s, t h roat of

c,oroll a with a C I' O\\' 11 composed of appe ll dag-cs . S talllc ll s ill serteclill th e tube , protrlld in g, fi la lll e ll ts short, <-l ll t hers arrow-s haped, partl y ad heri ng to t he sti g ma.

(haries two, pressed close togeth er, smoot h . S t yle th read. like, with t he a pex dilated . (Pad re Bla1J eo's desc riptioll or 'A l~ose r L a niti ' does 1I0t a pp},' to thi s s pec ie s.) L IEUT . SA F FO R D, U . S. N ."

(( A 1IIediu Ill s ized t ree, we ll kll owlI atld lI sed ill th e lll allufactllre of ch airs)

be nches and ot her article s, beca nse it is whi te a nd easil y worked.

i\ l1J ch milk

ex udes from it. Th e fruit \\'h ich ill reallty coilsi sts of t\\'O f;dli c1es , lIuited togeth er, a 'j e lll c,' ill le ng th ) a ll d somet imes lI1 all Y fli es are fO lilld in s ide, for wh ic h reason

th e I ndians t h i1Jk t h is tree bear s fli es for rruit. Th e fac t is the femal e burrows into th e frnit , depos its her eggs that aftennlrds hatch a nd ma ke th eir ex it either by burro win g Ollt or by the fru it dry in g lip and breakill g , The hole wh ich th e fly lll:1k es is "ery s mall all d closes i1ll1l1 e cli a te l~' \\·it h th e milk whi ch eX Hdes and is



LANUTAN 1st. Thespesia call1p.Y1osiphon, Halfe. Hibiscus g" J'ewimfoiius, J-l<ls~k. - Miq. 1-libi scus Vidalianlls, Nav. A~huiJ

Flora de Fili pillllS, Blal1co, hilll . 4fi

Pagt! 59.


PHILIP)'1i'\E ISLAI<J)S.

S9

difficnlt to see . I ha,-e see n tlrese flie s Yen' often; they are t he s ize of ordinan' ft ies) but grow larger. Flowersfil1 ':~ ugl1 st. There is anot her species \,-ith the axil1an' flo,,-e rs solitary. Spreng. Sisl. Yeg.) t. 1. , p. 588, places these trees ill the genll s (;I'J,"OS/OJllfl, ' bnt hi s description ll BJ:A:STO. does not agree with the abo\'c) which is correct.

"Gro\\'s fro111 lIin e to eighteen feet lOllg, and twelve to fifteen inches sq uare . Special le ngth s to twenty-li "e feet a nd eigh teen inches sq nare. Useful for " culpll1re, mu sical illstrlll1lc.!!,t s, decoratioll, tur ll ing and cabitl et making. BRO\\':\"," ... , :-.~'

, :.'It.

. .!i1 "in" .,.. ( . " I s a tree of the second ·"rder i" thc Philippi nes. COI,oR.-Bo ne white, or ashy 'rith ,,·hite spots. TEXTURE.-Soft a nd compact ,,-ith pores scarcel.'· perceptible; breaks in long spli nters; tile sha\'i ngs are fin,~, united and clirled. It is ll~ecl ill cabinet Inaking-. SAI.\·ADOR CERO";, p. 294·" ,

LANUT AN 1st Tlit'spesia ((/mpl'losip;'oll, N(I(/~ ' . ( !iibisols (;F(';"ia,/o/iJ(s, I/as!.', ) ,l/iq. (f-fibis,lI," '"idalia,,!(.\', .\·(/7'(',,_ ) !l/a/;.'lfo'll'.

,

WHE R E FOUND-,-Isla nds of Luzon, :rliudoro, Negros. DESCR I PTION-Sno,;d (;r/lilp. "CoLoR.-Redc1ish white or clear red with "ellowish s pots. TE";TllRr:.-Fi ne, fibers str aight and pores small; it is easily worked. It is pri ncipal!.'- fonnd in the \'isay as a nd also in Lnzon, "lindoro and other islands of the Archipelago. I t is nsed in cabi net making a net ordinary co nstruction as sawed lumber. One sole test made froll l' a specimen frolll the Island of 1'\egros ga\"e the followi ng result: Elasticity 0.00'2 m.j broke with a weight of 32.667 kilograms; weight in the air 10-499 grams, a nd sper ili c gra"ity 0.784. S. \ ' IDAI.. "A TREE OF THE F JDULY ~ I AL\-ACE /E. Branches, lea yes and peel 11 nc1 es together \\"i th th e i 11 \'0\ tIcre auel calyx co\'ercd with \"ery fine stell ate dO\\"11; leaves \\-ith s hort petioles ovate-oblo ng acuminate, nearly entire) under the lense s ubgl and1110se crell111 ate) three-veined at the basC', and five to six ribbed, leath ery, live to six inches lon g, stipul es ovate-lanceolate illequilateral, deciduons, pedUllcles axillary, solitary longer than the petiole , jointed at the apex, ill\"olncre of six to tell lea\'es shorter thau the calyx, which, WhC~l young,


60

",O RES'fRY IJl1 RH Al'

15 SO J1H~\\- h at fi\-e-winged alld is coriaceo lls; corolla 5ulph llr-yeltow, dark red withiu, stellate.do\\' II Y· \\'ithout, caps ule connate \I'oody with the calyx at its basc, five·celled, the cell, divided iuto t,,·o parts and havi u g t,,'o seeds, t he seeds \\·ith a "ello\l' Ii nc. (Description from Flora flldifl' Balm'fl', Miq uel.) There are se\'e ral di stinct species of Anol/acter, th e wood of which is called Lanlltan. The follo\l'ing descr iption is taken from Scbastian " idal's'i\ [emori:l sabre el Ramo de Montes.' H e refers it to Pad re Blan co's U non a latifolia. In the 'Re\·isioll de Plantas Vasc ul ares Filipi nas, ' of Sebastian Vidal, the na111C Lallutall is applied to a species of Xy lopia and to Saccopetallltll long ipes ,"

SACCOPET ALUM LONGIPES. ".-\ tree belongi ng to the _-/JlOII{[(C(('. Youug bra nches with redclish-clO\nly le,l\'e5, nearly sessile, some\l'hat rou nded at t he base a nd slightly oblique, oblong or oblo11g-el1iptical, mod eratel y acumi nate, fo ur to ten centimeters long, two to four centi meters broad, s mooth, sparsely dOW ll y 011 the \'ei ns, stiff. Flowers solitary or nearly so, wit h \'ery long thread-like pedu ncles, ten centimeters auel more. Outer petab small, inner ones mllch longer) OlI e cellti meter, in the form of a pouc h at the base. S tamen s arranged in four to six series. R eceptacle nearly globose, dowllY. Carpels 0\'80 1 with th ick pedicels) ten to fi fteen mill imeters lO1l g; blackish \\'ith ro u gh points. Bagae, Province of Bataall. Guinayallga ll , P rovince of T a\'abas. COllllllOll llame, T. . allll l all. \ ' ] DAl.. "

lS

"Is A 'fRr:r: 0F '[' HE Sr:CO:<D ORDER. This tree grows ill SOllie of the islands ill the Phil ippine group . COLOR.-\\' l1iti s h red or clear reel \l'ith yellow borders . TE:<'I'l'RE.-Fi ne, with fiber straigh t and pores small; it is easily \l'QI'keel. used ill cabi1let lllHking and in ordi nary construction in a sawed forill. SALV .\DOR CERON, p. 294.

It

LAUAN. ,.Jnisoplera lImn/era, IJI. J);plerocarpus I/no ~/t" JJ/rm ro. /Jiplero({/ ,peat'. •

SYNONYl\ lS-Lauall, Sanclaua, La uaa lI , '/ru{a/O,{(/· L ulla::lll ,

II~-a)l(/.

WHERE FOUND-·Batan gas, Ba taa ll , Bulacan , Cagayan , Zambales, Alba)" Ca· "itc, Sorsogon, Tayabas, Pampanga, I slan d of Lllzon ; Mindoro, Mindoro; L eyte, L eyte; Iloilo, Capiz, Panay; R om blon , Rom blon ; Sam ar, Sam ar ; Negr os, Negros .


·~

LAtiAN. An i.opten thurifera.

HI.

Di ptel'ocarpu s th II rifer. Bla nco. Pam. Dipterocarpem. AUIIl, Flora de Filipinas, Blanco, lam. 37. l~age

60.


.

,


PHILIPPIKE ISLA:"WS,

61

DESCR IPTI ON-Tliird (;rollj> , "Co LoR-Reddish ,,'hite, or ash,' with gray spots. 'f'E xTl'RE-Loose and filaceous, Pores disti nctly marked; brittle. 'l'REE OF FIRST l\L\G::\ITLlDE-Gi\'es a

white, hard res,incus

gnI11, \'ery odorou~l

used instead of incense i"ll some churches; it is abundant in many parts of the I slands, especially in the center and so uth of Lnzon. It is n sed principal h· in thc constructio n of baneas. Yen' little llsed i ll ordinary . cO ll strnctioll. In t he second part of the m a nu script of the history of the Philippine s, of Padre Gaspar de S . Ag usti n , it is related that the s ides of t he old galleons "'ere made of this wood) as the balls could not tear spl inters fr0 1l1 itj it is not no" \\' used ill the COll str llction of large ,·essels. S. VIDAL)) ,

" I f the Lauall all d its allies \\'ere as abu lldant in Spain as they are 111 these I s lands, many ships co uld be h uilt each \'ear, capahle of resi stiug the e nemy. It is related that the Dutch sa id of OI le of ou r galleons of thc line, again st which they had fought, that its sides ",ere of iron , and its projectil es of ,,'ood , ",hich ",as literally true, for balls bei n g scarce, some were m ade of ;'I lob"e and fired against them, auel as it is a \yooel which upou being brokell up g l\-es many s plinters, each spli nter sen -ed as a projectile, woundillg \\-hol11 soever it hit_ The sides were of plank s of Lauan, but the knees a nd ribs were of lVIo]a"ej thu s in, a battle, the balls of the en emy remained indented in th e sides of the ship, the same as if they had struck a bag of \\"001_ The \\'ooel of the L a uan is so strong a nd fibr0 lls tha t balls fired against it can neither break nor split it, but it yields to the co ncnssion anel detains the ball in its lIleshes without piercillg it. Cascos, bancas, sacayanes and other kiuds of \-essels nsed ill these island s are made from it, as well as planks and masts for ship s. These trees are so tall that it is difficnlt to di scern the branches at the apex, as t he trunk is free of theln its e ntire length until near the top. • Flo\\'ers in the months of l\larch , Apr il a nd ~ I ay, and if the sprouts a nd thc leuder branches are not destroyed by h urricanes and storm s, the flowers furllish abu nda n t material for bees , Its fruit serves as food for birds and animals . There are \\\'0 species, one called Lanan Mulato, which is of a dark red color, and the other) white Lanall) somewhat inferior, but neyertheless useful; it g iu~s good plank s for vesse ls, floorin g and ceilings for houses. I t is nsed in Man ila for co\'erin g th e floor s laid with Malave, a nd also in Visa)'as for the sanle purpose, as it is more healt hfnl a nd less injurious to the feet t h au the ,[ola\'e, which J:; cold. DEI.GADO."

" I s obtaiued in sizes the same as Guijo. It is a light, uscful ,,'ood a nd easily ,,·oJ'ked. It is' said that the old Philippine-Mexican galleons \\'ere of this wood, as it did n ot split with shot. FORE.lAX."


FORESTRY Ill"RE AU

"Le:l\'es altertlate, OYClte, elotl gated , with a longitnditlal rid ge, entire a nd s mooth, 'l' er min~l flowers in \·ery la rge panicles. Calyx inferior (before matnrity), deeply fi\'e-cleft, divisions li nenr, erect, a nd equal. Corolla IOll Rer than the caly x, deciduous, of fi\'e petals almost litlcar, alternatin g with the pa rt s of the calyx a nd attached to it 0 11 the in side. Sta me ll s, more tha n fifty, unequ ally inserted 0 11 the base of the o\'ary. Filam cnts \'cry s hort. A nthers, s mail , o\'a l, terminati ng ill a • long hair. O\'a ry, o \'a l a nd adh ere llt at maturity , Styles, three, which g row somewhat longer at mat nrity. Stig11las s impl e. Nut glob ul ar, cro\ylIed at t he apex with the parts of the, calyx \\'hic h are \'ery large at mat u rity a nd lallceolate, like \\'i ngs, t\\'O of th em lo nger tha n the res.t, with t he cO\'erin g of t h e ca ps ul e thin and woody, cOllLaitling OIlC seed, th e lobes or parts of \\,hieh are imbricated . Trees arc \'ery largc and thick, I finally Sa\\ ' its fl owers in seaSOll, after llIall Y years, a nd they are as above described. 'rh e nati\'es call it L anaan a nd Sa ndana. \\Then incisions are Illade itl t he bark it gi \'cS a res in very fragra ll t, white alld hard, \\'hic h 1S lI sed instead of in ce ll se in s0 1l1 e churches. Padre Gaspar de S . .I.\g"usti ll says , ill the second part of the manu script of his histon· of the Philippi nes, t hat.tho planks composi ng" the sides of the old galleon s were of Lauan, for projectile s s triking theJ\l do not ca use thi s wood to splinter. The fruit is si milar to a filbert; and th e larger wi ngs which crO\\'I1 it are three illehes lo ng. I t is C011l111 01l in \"i s<lyas, ill the Tagal COtilltry) and ill mallY other parts; ordi nary dry goods ?OXCS u sed ill l\Ianila are 111ade of it. So great is the di so rde r and confu s ioll wh ich th e nati\'es have in trod ll ced ill the nomenclat u re of th ese trees , tha t to class ify it correctly and arr ive at a tru e k ll O\dcdge of its properties ha\'e cos t me years of st udy a nd it1yestigation. I saw it in the forests of Sau , [ateo in June with perfect flowers a nd ripe fruit. The parts of the calyx fully de,·eloped , I ha\·e called win gs, for as s uch they ap pear to be, a nd by mea ns of them t he fruit falls Lo t he earth ycry strai g ht a nd with a gyratory 1110\'ement. BI. A ::\'CO , p. 3 10., 2cl eel ."

MACAASIN. !:'/{.!J('J/;a

Sp,

.l!y r I (I(('fl'. S\"NON\':\ [ S-~ I acas in,

il l acasi J\l ,

~ I acaasi lll ,

l\\acaas in.

WHERE FOUND--Isla nd s of Luzo n , :\[asbate . DESCRIPTION--Smilld

(; /"fill».

"'1'l1ere are two pri ncipal \'ariet ics, red a nd white. I do lI ot k ll ow to what s pecies the\· belong . The color of t he first is ye ry s imilar to that of Batitinan, that is reddish ash, and is di s ti ng ui shed fr011l it by its texture, bein g 111uch more compact, ,md its pores less marked; breaks as if brittle. It is less adapted to ord inary and lIa\'al cOllstruction t han Batitiuan,



MALARUHAT NA PULA. Eugeni<l rY1TIOl;a. Lnlll . MYl'tllS Suhl'llben~. Blan co.

Fam. :\fy I' tftcem. ) In(\p rrom

drnwin~

copied .trom nlllut'll by R . OBrcb.

Pa~e

&8.


PH1 LIPPI ,,]0; 15 r,A "'])S.

The second "ariet)' has a clearer red color with yellow borders. It is taken principally fr0111 the forests of Tayabas. A sing le experi11lellt made with s pec im en s of th e red ntriety, which is the bellcr, ga"e following results: Elasticity 0.0052 Ill.; brok e \\"ith a weight of 28.52 6 kilograms; weight in t he air 8.780 gra ms., a nd specific gra"ity 0 .683 . SEBASTIA" \'IDAL , p. 162." "Call be used for Illtc楼ior house work a nd floor;;. It is some\\"hat inferior to It can be got in greater Ballaba, but s upplies its place when Ballaba is scarce. FORR~I A~ .)) lellgths and sq uare than Ballaba. W1'he te~lder branches are of a cyli nd rical for 111 , sOlllewhat compressed ill the upper part. Front of petiole sharp aJICI groo,路ed. (Th e sides atropy, \\"hen dry.) Leayes at base slightly acumi na te, elliptical-acumi nate, long, Eneal obt ll se, parchmeut-like , ",jth gla lld s in the upper part; thicker 011 uuder side , ha iry , pt11lctate ill the upper part, lustrolls (is black \rhen dry); 1llargins groo\'ed all

HIlder side, pale, \\'ith the \'ein frequelltly lineal, exte nded, te11der and illterwovell , ullited near. the margin \\'here they are s le nd er. 'f'hey arc gellerally three to fonr a lld olle-ha1f i11ches long by one a nd one-half to two inches \\"ide, ' Perula' oppositc, ill the youllg branches, ha\'illg the appeara11ce of stipllles, peltate and di,'ergelll ill the upper part. Stems lateral alld terlllillal alld close together; those \rithout lecl\'es three or fOllr inches long, \'cry extended, racemase or umbellate, bearing flowers; flo\\'ers sessile, oYate, joi11 ed together, \-cry oftC11 '\'ith s hort peclullcle, ,,,ith two bracts at base. Calyx olle and onc-h aH to Olle Cl 11d three-quarters i11ches long, m eaty allcl gla llclnlar ill the lower part; the ,"ertex rounded , tlJembrallOu s, pale (margin of calyx 1I 0t free) divided with irregular clefts, cut off, deciduous, lIIembranou s, petaloideou s) opaque sepals Ycry thick ) hair a lld p llllctate, :\hQl'EL, "

MALARUHAT NA PULA. L'llg cll/a (yll/()~'(/, Lalli,

(. l!l'riIlS subr"bcNS, IJlaJ/co.) hlln,

, 1/) 'I/IlCet(',

SYNON\,:\iS-:lr alaruhat, \ialaruj at, \ialadujat, ](,~路(/!wr. \\'HERE FOUND-IslaJlds of Lu zoll alld :\[illdoro. DESCRIPTION-S('((Jlld Crollp. "TREE OF LARGE DIME!\SIO>:S.

COI.oR.-Yellowish gray, \\'ith grailJ of an intense gray or ashy color a tlel "iolet-colored spots; sOIlle specim en s are of all earth\' fed color wit h white spots,


FORESTRY In-RE A\-

TEXTI' RE .-\-ery compact and brittle, pores fine and sometimes "ery distinctl), mark ed ; breaks off s hort. It is used for fl oorin g, partition s, rafters, s ill s, etc., in ordin ary cOll strnction, au d in cabinet} for furniture. It is plentiful ill many pro\·inces. Senor Cortes maele followi n g tests: "'1'Fen' l( ' (; I( \ YI T \" ~'l' . \ I:-<S

0 1:1(;1"

;':1h'I"U

l.alflll1'\ flntHIIlI

El'iju

::.1'

", ,

O. o'NI n.~!lI1

I. l ;:ti

OItIGIX

1 ~I.·, ..;

{I. 'I~i

("Ilyit c

11,.:, 1.')'1.

ll. IIS 1,61:!

Huln"llll

..

EI .. \~TI(,IT\, &lI t: .U, S ,IT I WICIGIIT 1:-< I•I'"...•,~ 0"'.',.,. ";; A In , GI:.\I:->-"

.

::, 1

1.1Ul

u.S4:,

~:;

-.m .:.i

S I' IWlfl( ' GR .\I· ln· r,1I.\J::--:~

l!.':~)

O. S IlI

It is olll)' in the last few years that this \I'ood has been kno\\'!J in :-Ianila, bein g hro ng ht from L ag u ua. From experience in buildin g hou ses with it in that proviuce a nd in Ba nallg) PrO\·ill CC of Batallgas, it is sh ow lI that it can s ubst itute the Ban aba , hci ng a n a log-o u s t o it. L ogs D, YJDAL." , of iarS!e " dimen sioll s are recei\'e<l here. • "Is A TRH: OF L ARGE DDIEXSIOXS. COLOR.-Yellowis h gray ) with grai n of a n inte nse g ray or ashy color \\'ith p urple spots. Some speci men s are of a n eart hy red color with \I· hite spots. 'rE X'l'lIRJ-o:.-\"ery cOlll pact} brittle; pores fi ne and sometimes hea\"ily Ju ar kcd. G i\·(:s o rd inary sized pla n k s aud used occasioll ally for lll a kill g C01lllll0n furniture. It is foulld in mallY pro\'in ces of Lllzon, as, for exa mple, La Laguna , N ueva Ecija) Bataall , Ca \'itc, Tayaba s , etc. Elasti city is O.C0 46 Ill. ; broke with a \\"eig-ht of 27 .3 75 kg. ; weight in the air 1>.240 g r. , a uel s pecifi c gra"ity 0 .641. S. VIDAL." (, Branches opposite. Lca \'es opposite, ianceolatc . c1l tire and s mooth. Flower s ter mina l iu umbels , with secoudar), ped un cles opposite. Calyx bell-s haped with fo ur obtu se teeth. Corolla of four petals, pelals ro uudeel a ud conca"e, inserted bet wee n th e: di\·is ioll s of the cah·x. Stallle ns llUllI crons fixed in the limb of the calyx a lld t wice a s lOll g as it. Style equal ill lellgth to cal yx. Stig ma s imple, awl-s haped. Fruil cro wned with the ca],·". I s .\ T REE OF LAR GE DDI£:\"SlO:\"S.- ' Ch c \\'ood is Hsed i ll carpelltry j t he flowe r s a ll d ba rk are reel. It Ao\\'c rs ill F ehrnan'. BL:\:-\CO."

"1s A '['I<E": O F ]'AR!OE DDIl-:~SIO"S.-Orows in th e Philippin es, especia ll y I II Luzon. COLoR.-Yellow ish gray 1 occasiollally with g rain of all intense g r ay or as hy col or and with p urple borders; som etillles it is of an earthy reel color with white spots. 'l'ExT u RE.- Y e ry co mpact and brilll e, the pores fin e and well defined. It is Il sed for planks ,a lld for ord ill ary fHT llitllre. SAL\'ADOR CERO~, p. 294." •



MANCONo. antiJ ostemon

Vel'dugoniauu~. ~a,~e.s.

Falll. illyl'taceru. AlJII~.

Flora de }' jlipi)l3l!, BI!l.nco, him . 199,

Pllge 65.


PHTLfP"PTNF.· ISLANDS.

MALATAPAY. Ataiigiu1Il octopetaLulll, Blanco.? CornacctE.

SYNONYMS' II lalatapay, Malacapay, Tagalog.

WHERE FOUND-I sland of Lnzon. DESCRIPTION-First Croup. (( COLoR,-Yellowish, with grayish black stai nsj III tim e changes to a more intense color, fi n ally becomes black. TEX'l' URE .-Very compact; breaks in s hort splinters, so metimes brittle. It is mu ch prized in the manufacture of fine furniture. The tree does liot generally pass the third order. It is scarce, generally only a few being fonud in a place. No experi meuts S. VlDAr,," have yet bee n made as to its elasticity, weight, etc.

I(

Leaves ill clusters I oval, s mooth, sOlllewhat serrated at the extrelnity.

Petioles

short. Flowers in compound racemes. Calyx adherent, with a few indistinct teeth. Corolla of eight leathery petals, stamens uin e to eleven inserted ill the tube of the calyx. Oyary at the bottom of the flowe r, downy, and rough. Style and stigma 'absent.

BL.A:\CO."

"Is A TREE OF THE THIRD ORDER.--Grows In th" mountaiuons parts of the Philippines. COLOR.--Yellowish with grayish black streaks. It gradually changes color until in time it becomes black. TEXTuRE.-Very compact; breaks in short bl'ittle splinters. It is much prized for cabinet making. SAI.\·ADOR CERO:-<, p. 294 ."

MANCONO . .'(a ,,/hO.I!e iliON

r"crdllgoll ia III( S.

. \ 'l1,'e~· .

Falll. ; ' ~l l!"facc(C.

SYNONYlvIS-Mancono, Tagalog; i'vIancono, I/I'·(/)'a; Marconi, i!1amalllta; Iron \Vood, Iron Tree, java.

WHERE FOUND--Islancl s of Luzon and Mindanao. DESCRIPTION-Superior Crimp. "COLoR.--Dark reddish . TEXTURE AND FIBER.-Fine, very hard and compact, heavier than Dungon, and is difficnlt to work. It is fo nnd in the forests of l\Iindanao J whence come 9.fot


66

FORESTRY BUREAU

th e g reat p,eces which serve as pillars in the church of San Ignacio of the P. P. Jesnits, ill this capital. It is al so found in Southern Luzon in the forests of Guinayangan, T ayabas , and Ragay , Camarines Sur, of small size and somewhat scarce, due possibly to the deusity of the forests in which they are found, and· also to the fact that Luzon is not its proper zone of vegetation. The natiYe s of above nam ed towns have ne,'er given this species a name. The specim ens seen were from seventeen to twenty centimeters in piallleter. No 1\1ancono timber h as come here fr0111 other places, for which reason there has never been a supply in the market. R. GARCIA ."

" It is a very hard wood, fOllnd in I\1inc1 anao island. It is classed as a species CO ~G RESSTON A T, PA ]\'[ PHLF.T , ll of L ignu111 Vitre.

It A very large tree. Branches extellclin g upward, thickly covered with yellowish down a nd marked \\'ith scars from the petioles of fallen lea,·os. Leaves distributed either altemate, uearly opposite or in whorl s, obo"ate with their base decurrent upon the petiole, cnneate or nearly so, with the apex rounded, obtuse or slightl); emargi nate, feather-veined, entire or somewhat repaud, covered with scarf or minute scales on both sides, thinly marked with black dots underneath , three to seven centimeters lon g. one to three and one-half ce ntim eters broad, cariaceous , of a beantiful green. Petioles four to seven millimeters long, conyex in the back ) flat iu fro 11t , slightly enlarged at the base. Cy mes terminal corymb-like, with a I1loc1~rate number of flo\\-ers . Pedicels three millim eters lo ng, having linear bracts. Cal yx bell-shaped, £" e to six milli1lleters 101lg, three to fi ve millimeters \,-ide, four to five toothed, with th e teeth very small and triangular in form. Petals four to £"e, oval, fOll r mill im eters long, three millim eters wide, of a deep purpl e (crimson?). Sta mens less than twenty, very lO llg) purpli sh when young, deep purple ",hell older, ill 011 C row, with the bases co mpressed . A llt hers two-celled, splitti ng lon g itudinally, freely moving on the top of the stipule, yellow. Ovary incl uded in the t ube of the calyx, t,,·o to three-celled, many ovules, s11100th. Style almost of the same length as th e stamen s, a little thicker. Stigma small. Capsule cOlluected with the calyx, two to three celled, with two to t hree compartments, many seeded, the cells openiug along their dorsal suture. The ste ms, pedicels, bracts and calyx coyerec1 sparsely with whitish down. NAVES."

" The Ma llcono is allied to the Iron Tree of Java, iV1etrosideros vera, both belong ing to the Myrtacere, and having very hard and heavy wood. The latter tree, described by Padre Blanco under the name of Metrosideros pictipetala is said to be found in Cebn, where it is called Barit. It is not used com monly, so that it ·is n ot mentioned in the list of economic wood s. LlF.UT. SAFFORD,.U. S. N."


PHILIPPIKE [S LAKDS.

MANGACHAPUY. Vatiea }I/(l}/gacilopoi, Blanco. Vatica apleraulhera, Blanco. Dif>lerocarpere. SYNONY"i\lS-~ la n gac hapu y, lIIangachapui,

i\Iangachapoi, Gllisong dilao, Tag·alog.

WHERE FOUND-I sland of Lnz01I , i\[i ndanao, l\Iindoro, Romblon. DESCRIPTION-Secolld Grollp. "TREE OF FI RS'!' ORDER .--Very similar to the G nij o, with which it is SO metimes confounded. Th e Indian s of An gat gi"e t he name of 11angachapoi to anot her species ("atica a pteranthera). It gi\'es splendid planks. It h as two "arieties of color, d ue probably to the age and growth of the tree. Th at called \\,hite i\Iangachapu y is of a n as hy yell ow color, and the red ,-ariet}', "'h ich is more comlllon , is distin gu is hable from the other by its color. This wood at first is generall y of a clear straw color) whic h in ti me cha ll ge~ al most to black. It is soft, casi1 y " 'ork ed, h as lon g fibers and long pores, regular texture) brittl e, brea ks in lon g splin ters. Some specim e ns e mit an odor si mil ar to lillseed, but generally it is illOclorol1 s; shayin gs somewhat rough and very little curled. It is used for fl ooring in ordinary construction and in na"a1 as phfn ks for deck s a nd round bou ses, a nd also for masts. Formerly it was brou ght to :'la nila 11Iore frequently tban at present. Some till1ber dealers try to pass it off as Yacal. It is plentiful in the Islands. Sefior Cortes made the follow in g tests: LO<': .\

LOC.\LITY

)1 inJoro

.

1.088

]76.

0.701

B'lh\Un ..

r~ I'I'Y

EI,MITJC'T\· I Uln;A KS AT 1.I).;F~ Ot"CE' • • • ~

1.21';

I

WEIG HT IN .-; I'ECII I t; AlII GII,\"l'l\' GRAISl:I I !,;R.\lS::-

211.5

0.831

In China the ~Iall ga s illoro is passed off as :'Iangachaplli , which in tnrn called ",hite :'lolave. D. VIDAL."

IS

" TREE OF FIRS'!' MAC:-ilTUDE . COLOR .-Of two shades, white and ree\. The fir st is 1II0rc. of a n as hy yellow shade. T EXTURE.-Compact, brittle, breaks ill lon g splinters; fibers compressed; pores longitudinal. Som e speci mens emit an odor similar to lin seed, shayings sOll1ewhat ron g h and "ery little curled, it is more COlllm on th a n the second , which is onl y distingui shable frolll it by its reddish ti nt. Elasticity 0.003 Ill.; broke with a weight of 33.127 kilogra ms; "'eight in the air 9.665 gram s, and specific g ra vity 0.766. S. VIDAL." -

"The tree called Man gachap uy, a s pecies of L au an, is very highl y prjzed ill these Islands, the selected trees being used for masts of galleons, tenders and


FORESTRY BUREAU

68

junks. It is \'ery light and as bea u tiful as the L anu aa n and durable in the sea. It is u sed in the construction of barratos and cascos, for 'sacayanes' Canned vessel s of the Moros), and gi\'es good plauks for fini shing them and for other u ses. It should be kept free of dampness, which in a short time damages it. It should also be guarded agai ns t the attacks of the allay , its worst enem y. 'I'hi senem y cau destroy in a single night the entire stock of goods in a warehou se and an entire librar)', eating entirely through bales and books from one side to the other. SOllIe place honey near the place of exit of the anay to attract it. Thi s iu sect n either bites nor sti ngs, but with tbe \"i5C0115 fluid whi ch it secretes, it softe ns the hardest wood and with its mouth, which is exceedi ngly hard, it cuts away un til it le aves it as bolla\\' as a cane. In Manila they put \'essels of oil or petroleum u nder the legs of the bookcases, etc.) to preye nt these insects from enterin g. This insect liYes and breeds ill the ground, \\'here it constrncts a residence of mall)' rooms and passages; ill the center of this hOtlse there is a retreat, where resides an anay, much larger than the rest, the ki ng or so\'ereigll of that wellregulated republic, etc. DELGADO" "Gi"es logs up to fifty -fi"e feot long to t"'e n t)" inches squ are. It is ve ry elastic and \\"ithstallc1s the climate, when seaso ned, as we ll as T eak. It is used in Manila for masts a nd decks of "essels a nd for all work e xposed to S UIl and ralll. It is '-e ~\" llIuch esteelllec1 by t h ose who know its good qualities.

Lea\'es alternale, vary itlg between ovate and lallceolate, entire, smooth and somewhat stiff. Petioles \'ery s hort. Flo,rers in pani cles. Calyx, corolla and stamens the SaIne as in the species si uensis. A nthers have appeara nce of being divided ill two parts, crosswise and without wings. Drupe globul ar, thill ) wi th three compartlllents \rhich contain one seed each. Other component parts same as in the other species. This tree is of larger dilllens iolls th aD the Vatica S illen sis , and is erroneollsly calleel J\Iangachapoi by the Indians of A ngat. It gives fine plank s. Its fruit is eaten, after being- roasted in hot ashes. Th e parts o f the calyx are unequal , two being longer. The anthers are peculiar, as I have remarked . From the drupe, which is not meaty, a very clear inodorous resin exudes before maturity. Flowers in May. I s called ~ [ angach apoi in An gat, hut thi s is of the species c1ipteroca rpllS-llE'\\" species . B"LANCO, p. 28r, 2d ed." ,I

" T REE OF THE FIRST MAG"I'I'UDE.-'- Grows in th e Philippine Archipelago. COLOR.-Two yarieties) white and redj the white variety is the better. It has a yellowish ash y tillt. TEXTURE.-Compaet and brittle; fibers compressed ; pores longitudinal; breaks in long splinters. It is used in ordinary 4~ nd naval constr uction. '. _ - .. SALYAPQB. J;;ERON, P路 ~95 路 " _ .


<


MANGASIRIQUE. Quercus ovalis. Blanco.

Quercus

conocarpa~

Ourlp.m.

Fam. Cupuliferm . .\T1a~, Flora de Filipinns, Blanco, 1:\111. roll


.

,


MOlAVE. •

Vitex litto\'alis, Ucoe . Vitex a\cis:-;im(l, :\"a'-es . \,itrx tiIlJOt'iens i~ . \\ - al p. Pam. \? erbenacem. Atlas, FIOI'R de Filipinas, Blanco, lam. 3'6.

Pap:e 69.


PHIL.lPPIKE

ISLA~WS .

MANGASIRIQUE. QlIer r lfS

oz-wlis,

LJla ll co .

QlIer Ot,,· rO lloca rp1, . \ ·ai',''> .

Fa lll . ( "pltli/nfl',

SYNONDlS-:\l all g asiriqlle, Macabing-ao, Hayopag, Olayall , 1 ag -a /og . WHERE FOUND-Pro,·inces of Blllacan and :-loron g . I sland of Luzo n. DESCRIPTIOl'\--Secolld Grollp. "Lea\"es scattered, o\'ate, obtuse-acu11lillate, emarginate, entire and s mooth. Petioles yery short. Flowers 11l0lla!c ioll s. l\lales, .. .F e males, g rowin g in a spike, alld cro\l·ded together. Calyx firm, woody, flat at th e base a ud coyered ill its upper part with a species of bark , entire and with circular lin es on the abdomen. Corolla , ll Olle. Gland ont! , united belo\l' with the calyx , th e co,'er a mediam between leathen ' and \I'ooch', crown ed with three s hort sh'les, fixed upon a very small globlllar e ~cres cellce ;lld \\'ith a seeel s l11lk en at U{e base with two lobes . Trees large a1lel grow ill Angat. The leaves are uot aromatic and are a llll os t a palm in length. 'fhey are \'iscotls, wh en clamp. The acorn s are not coni cal as ill the other specie s , but o\'al, from \\'hich it takes its spec ific nam e, lIor is th e bark so hard. The seeds ha"e an agreeable taste. Fl o\l'ers ill Ap r il. In A n gat it is called ~Iacabin g ao. Magasiriqne and in other parts Hayopag , which is lts prope r 11ame. I s it a variety of Quercus cOllcentrica ?

B I.A :\CO , p. 502, 2d ed. n

MOL AVE. l 'i le.1.: littol"ali.,·, Dew:. ,Vaves . f'ilrx limOl iCJlSis, TValp. I 'fr/Jc ll aCl'ff. tYilex allissim a,

SYNON\, MS--~lo la"e ,

~lolaui n .

Lanahan , 1 ag'a/ag', A g uba rao , Blllaoli , Tll ga u,

Sagad, Auugauau , J/OCfl JlO/ Bong-ogon , F1Sfl) 'fl , Pllfllri, or New Ze alalld 'I'eak, .Y"""ll} Z CfllflJld. { "ISG)lfl,·

Jor

jir/ll alf'

.

'i'ar/ d )),·

WHERE FOUND-Islands of Cebu , Leyte, Luzou. \[as bate, l\liuda nao, :'-lilldoro. Negros. Pallay. Paragna, Samar , SorsogOt I.

DESCRIPTION-Superior Group. "CoLoR.-\Vhite, althoug h it appears somewhat dark when worked, 011 accollnt of contai n ing a species of oily liquid, for which reason it is called Lanahan (oily), _b.u t after a short time it regains its natural whiteness. It is the wood best kno,I'p .

-

-

-


FORES'fRV BululAU

and m ost COIllIllon in these I slands . I have th ought proper to g ive it the first place for -its great worth and adaptability to the nses in the varions manufactures of t he Archipelago. It is the 'Queen of "Vooels,' not onl y ou account of what h as been said abO\·e, but, a lso, for its durability and resistance to decay, whether it be placed u1lde r cover or exposed to the action of th e weath er, or in water. I t is easil y sawed and \\"orked, especially when recent~y. cut. It ca n be cut into m agnifi ce nt pla1lk s , alId ll sed i n YariOllS ,,-ays, particularly for fl ooring. Th e use of brick s for floorin g in the Philippines is very prej udicial to h ealth on acconnt of dampness . These planks are u sed, also, in the con struction of walls and pa rtition s, for \\"hi ch p u rpose it is solid anel lasti n g. There is scarcely a house ill t he I slands in' th e building of which l\Iolave is not u sed for posts, called (harig nes' . These are buried three feet in the gro llnd , in \,"hich case, although it Jllay be damp or Illuddy , they will not easily rot. Upon them are built h011 ses, convents anel churches, with more secnrity than over walls of mortar and stone; for t hese , Oil account of frequent earthquakes, break a nd fall, whil e t h e ' harig ues' remain standing and unaffected, wheu the plank s and \rood work ,d1ich they sustain are \\"ell joined and fastened. Thu s, the houses are like tables whose feet arc faste ned in th e gr ound , a nd are not affected by earthq uakes, with nothing to guard again st bnt fire. Cross picces for frami ng the roofs of buildin gs, called here (batallgas') are made from thi s wood, aud are of great val ue on aCCollnt of its stre ng th and exemption fr om decaY i but it is principally used in the constrnction of t he galleous aud ships, w hich s upport . and defend these Islauds, whi ch go a ud COBle from New Spain , ca rry iug the annual supplies; for every thing other than the masts and deck s is constructed of 1\Iolave, it beiug used \,"i th advantage Q\"er the oak of Spain j the r ibs of said galleon s are of 1\ [ola,·e of eig ht or ten points, as closc toget her as t he fin gers 011 t he haud , and thus , the s hips of the Philippines are in a mann er castles, and th eir sides , strong wal1s l1pon which a canuon ball call make 11 0 impression; the forepart of the keel , crotches and knees, all are made of 1\[ola ,·e, ex ceptin g th e keel itself, which is generally made of Gllijo or Guiso, as it is a timber long a nd straight , \\" h ich is not the case ,,·ith Molave . Beautiful statnes are also made from :filolave \,"hich are very durable, bein g proof against xbe attack s of t h e \\"oodlou se. There are two species , luale and fe male; the forl1ler is the better wood; the latter th e Tagal. call Molatlin aso (Prema ll a useosa, Blanco), and the Visayas, ' Bongagoll j' is g ood for boards and 111 tlsical i nstrn ments, being yery sonorous. Thi s species of M ola\"e is white, but not as solid as the mal e and not so durable. I remember havin g seen ill Cadiz, among many curious freaks, some pieces of nIola ve , tunlcd to stone. I afterwards s aw the same 1n n[anila and in the prov· inces j it is yery curiolI s , that wheu pl aced for a time ill water, it turns to stone and becom es so hard that tool s can be groll nd with it; a nd in making com parisons of th e hardn ess of an object, in these l slaflds, it has given birth to a saying, viz: ' It is hard as a stOlle of Molave cut iu th e last qu arter of tbe moonj' it is the best of the stones . Excell ent s ugar mills for grindi n g cane are made of this wood j it also m akes g ood firewood , giving a very clear flame, and very white ashes, which would be


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

useful in Spai n for making lye for cleani n g clothes, in place of the ashes of the almond tree ,,·hich they n ow use. The Molave boiled in water, in small pieces, is an admirable remedy against poison , as it acts as a strong emetic, and leaves the body in a convalescent condition. I have seen the sawd ust from it applied to wounds to stop the flow of blood, and heals the same as if it~\'ere the best balsalll. DRLGADO, A. D. 1733."

" Grows to twenty meters in height , although its diameter does not exceed 0.60 m. , accordi n g to Sr. Valdez, Colonel of Engineers. COT.oR.-Yellow to yellowish green, and ash)'; in water it takes a yellow color. ODoR .-Slightly acid, sometimes imperceptible. TASTE.-Slightly bitter. 'TExTURE.-Compact and fi ne, fib ers com pressed and pores s mall , almost iUlperceptible 111 some s pecimen s, ne\'e rtheless they can be see n. Breaks ill short splinters, s havings are very fin e, compact, fl ex ible and curled. It is preferred abo\'e all others in construction ; it resists the weather a n d lasts well under water) and when employed in the construction of partitions gi\'e the white\rash a yellow ti ll t; its excellent qualities ha\'e gained for it the name of 'Queen of the Philippine \Voods.' Formerly it was thought that it could not be s ubstituted. It is plentiful in all the I slands of the Archipe.lago, except in some provi n ces of the n orth and center of Luzon. Trees of large dimensions are becomi ng scarce ill those places where they can be easil y removed. Numerous tests luacle \\"ith specimens frotn differe nt provinces ha\'e givell widely different results . Takiug the 11lean of all these \I'e obtaiu the following res ul ts : Elasticity 0.0035 m. ; the point of greatest resistauce is to a \I'eight of 41.552 kilograms; weight In opell air 10-499 grams, and specific grayity 0 .8 19_ S. VlDA r.." "COLOR.-Y ~llo\l· , yellowish gree n a nd ashy; placed J1l water it takes a yello\l" color. • ODoR.-Slightly acid, sometimes n ot perceptible. TASTE.-Slightly bitter. TExTURE.-Fibers fine and co mpact, compressed and grainy ; pores stllall and almost undefined; althou gh very plainly visible in s01l1e specimen s. Breaks in sh ort splinters, shavings very fine, compact, flexible and curled. Owing to its grainy fiber, it does not ad mit of lUuch flexion; it breaks before bending much. Padre Bla nco says of this species: 'It is \"ery h ard and brittle. and easily sawed and \rorked; but it m ay contain holes a nd knots, 11laking it harder to work.' On accou nt of its dnrability, ease with which it is worked and abundance, it is preferred in construction above all other species; it resists th e weather and lasts well under water and is not inj med by contact \I'ith lime. Employed in the constrnctiou of partiti ons, it g i\-es the whitewash a yellowish tin tl which is not agreeable.


72 Although n ot cll tire1y free frolll attack s by the a nay , it se n -es onl y as a temporary refll ge ) w hcl1 ce it tra ll sfers its operatlon s t o a more desirable ,,-ood . Its c"cellell t q ua lities h a ,-e obta ined for it th e nam e of ' Qll eeu of th e Philippi ne \'- oods,' a nd for merly it \I-as th oug ht tha t it could 1I 0t be s u bsti tu ted _ It g rows to a h eig ht of more t h a n t we nty meters , but n ot alway s straig h t . I t is fo ulld in plenty in all the I sla nds of t he Arc hipelago, excepti ll g some prO\-i nces i n t he north and center of Lu zon . Trees of large dim en sioll s. h O\\'en~r , are getting scarce in places where th ey may be easi ly re111 o\'ed . ~ I ol a ,-e frolll Ta ya bas is li k ed best ill the market. It is fo uu d ill ab ullda ll ce ill th e fQrests of Lag llilll a ll oc, Cal ilaya n a1lel P itogo. III th e ma rkets of Chi n a the Mola uill aso and th e S illda no are passed off as ~ l o1av e; th e Yaca l is called Gray 1\10Ia,-e, a nd th e j\ l angachap u i \\' hite 1\l olave_ T h e ide lltity of t be wood ca ll be establi s hed by a very silll ple ex perime nt, viz: treated wit h lim e it e xudes a yellow resill. which soot! harde n s; the sa me res ults obt ain e,-en \\-he n the wood h as been cut llla ll \' year s. Se nor Cortes made foll o\l-i II g tests: I,nc ,\ Ll TY

E[ .. \~ T I(,IT\"

I.ISE"

lIHV.\"~

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W I:I ', II1' r:-: .11 p,

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D . \ ' ID AL . " Gi ,-es logs lip to t hirty-fi,-e feet 10llg, by l\\-ellty-fi,-e inches sq ua re; it res ists sta \\'ort ns, white a nts, action of c1 il11ate, a nd con sequentl y is specia lly val uable for work on th e s ur face of or u uder th e g rou nd , a nd ge nerall y for all purposes where a n extra s tron g a nd durable wood is requ ired. O ft en growi ng crook ed, it is CO lll lU ou1y used \\"here prod uced aBd ill adjacent co un t r ies, for frames of \O essels, O wing to its impen 'iotl s ness to lig ll iperdo us insects and climate, it cann ot poss ibl y be s u rpassed for su ch purposes as ra ilway s leepe rs _ Thi s wood is pract icall y eve rlastill g, all d is dese n -edl.'" called by t he lI atives, ' Quee n of t h e \ Voods.' F ORJ-.: :'I I A~ . )'

(. Gro ws from ele \'e u to twe nty-two feet long ) a nd t welye to t wen ty-foll r inches squ are_ S pecial le ll g t hs of t hirty a nd e,-e'n thirty-fivc feet lIl ay be obtai lied at con s iderably extra cos t, but on1 y to a limited extent, R esists sea worm, \Vll ite ants, actio n of cli mate, and lime, a nd consequently is specially valuable for work on th e surface of, or underground ) where con tact with lime is necessary , and generall y for all purposes where a n extra strollg, and d urable wooel is requ ired. O ften g r owin g crooked, it is un iversall y used (wh ere produced, and in adjace nt


PHILII'PI:-IE

ISLA~])S.

73

countries) for frames of "essels, a nd o,y in g to its resistan ce to lime, insects, and climate, it cannot possibly be surpassed for the purpose of railwa,' sleepers. This "'ood is pract ically everlasti n g, and is desen'edlY' cal1ed by the nati"es 'Queen of \\"ooc1s.' The severest tests are invited. BRO\\':-.,路."

(( Leayes compound with three to five leaflets 011 COlllmo n petiole; leaflets lallces haped , sOlllewhat hairy on the lII argin and the mid rib. Petiole short, with a knot " ear its midd Ie fr011l which it dou bles a little th e other way. Flowers verticillate in panicles. Calyx "ery small , erect, bell-s haped, with three or four teeth. Corolla with t\\'o lips, bell-sh aped, the tube curved and dilated above, the upper lip emarginate; the lower lip three'parted ; the lIIiddle pl,lrt the larg-est; the throat a nd palate woolly. Stame ns gronped t\\'o by t\\'o, hairy on the lower. part. Anthers of fi gure of half moon. Style of sa me length as stallle ns. Stigma bifid. Drnpe slllal1, globular, with on e nnt, as in the oth er species. This tree attai ns a height of more than fifty feet and is very oftcn crooked. It is prized aboye all other woods in the Philippines and is "ery generally used. It is prized for all kind s of construction. Hou ses made from the Mohn'e and also from Ipil or Balayon arc very cold. It is somew hat of a straw color and ,,路hen worked smell s like h oney. I t is very hard and brittle; and thus it can be easily sawed and worked, b ut it someti11l es cantaiu s holes aud knots, lnaking it more difficult to work. Placed in th e grou nd , water, or lim e, it lasts a Yel'," long till~e. The ~Iola\'eJ a wood so precious, all el so 1lutch sought after, grows everywhere for it is nothing else tha n that which is kno,,-n in this cou nlry as Lagnndi, which g rows so large in the forests as to lose its identity and be called ~[olave. The s pecies which has a knot in its petiole is not very Con1<nolJ. I ha"e seen it ill the forests of San Jose in Batangas. The fine sawdn st of the ~ Iohl\'e has been used ",ith happy effcct ill ,,路otlllds, n o matter h ow large they be; it is applied to the blood and left there until it falls off. The India-ns ha\'e a nnlUerons list of remedies for such cases, and it Iuay be said they cure wou ud s with almost anythiJlg, as I bave wilnessed m a ll )' times. A lI illfllSioll of thi s wood produ ccs a \-en- prctty Slraw color, but it is 1l oL iasti ll g_ P. BLA~CO.!l 1

"The ~ l olaye "'a s referred by Naves to the Vitex altissima of Linneus, and by Schauer to V . ti11l0riensis "Valp. ; but on comparison with specim e ns in the Kew herbarium, it was found to be identi cal with Vitex littoralis, the' Puriri' of Ne,,' Zealand, sometimes call ed 'New Zealand Teak,' the timber of which has long b<;en kno,,-n commercially and highly valued for its e ndurance under ,,-ater. LIH''!'. SAFFORD, 11. S. N." " TREE OF THE FIRS']' MAG~lTUDE,-Grow s to a height of more thall twenty meters in the Philippines, where it grows spo ntaneollsl,'; it is considered oi1 accon nt of its fine qualities one of the best woods. Hl-for


F O RESTRY BU REAU

74

COLOR.-Sollleti1lles ye ll ow ish , sometimes g reeni sh yello\\' , and at. other ti mes as ln'. TF.='-'I:lIRE .- \ 'ery cOlllpact and fi ne , por es sHlaJl , ill some pieces scarcely perceptible; the fi bers ge ll erally \'ery comprcssed. OnoR .-Somewhat acid, someti mes sca rcely perceptible j an illfll Sioll of it ill water colors the \\'a ter yel1o\\' . I-l as a slig htl y bitter taste; break s in s hort ~plil1 ters; the sha\' iug is fi 11 e, c011l pact, fl exible and curled. S AI.\路ADOR CERO:-;, p. 294. " NARRA. Plaol"aI pus i"dio(s, II 'ifld. /J/(/(){aJt"~路 pallidll.,-, Illa/{('o ,

Fall! .

1_(~IfIll;IlOS<{, .

SYNOl\\";\IS-Narra, Sallqne , Naga, ( '/"a)'o; N aga, Jlocallo; Asana, Narra, 7agalog; Naga, IT/co/,' Apal1t, Daita nag, j J(l IllPa l//(a; Taygat, fball(lc; Antagall, Cagll)'IJIl,' Bu r mese l~ose \ Vood, B u rllla; Andamall Red \,Vood , Padouk, . IndaJJlflll Islands,- Kiabooca \ Vood, Lin go or Lin g aa, S /",!/'apor(!.

WHERE FOUND-Isla lids of Le\路te, Ln zon , lIIasbate , Mindanao, Mind oro, Negros, Pallay, Paragna, Samar.

DESCRIPTION-Sllpel'lor

(;rollp .

"CoLuR_-i\ [a1c, rose color ; fe ma le, while _ ODOR.-A romatic. \\'e might say that the \l'ood called 'Asa na' or 'Naga ' is the little s ister of the Tindalo, eqnal to it in beanty aud grall de nr. In thc Tagal langnage , it is called Asanaj ill the \'isaya11, Naga or Narra. In thi s co untry are found large trees of both species. \"ery 10Ilg and wide pla n ks a re sawed frolll thel11, one plank being \ride enongh to fOrtu a table or door.. They for111 prac t ically \'irgin forests. Th e \-isaya ns do not CHt the largest trees, havi n g 11 0 use for them_ In au apartment of the College of Mauila, there is a \'ery large rectan g ular table bronght froll1 the \'isayas, which was made while T was ill t h at college . The Naga can be used for the same purposes as t he 'rilldalo_ It is ve ry dllrable a nd impervious to decay, t o such a degree that it denudes itself of t he aram ay (diseased white \\-ood sOllletimes fonnd next to bark), resists \l'ell the ac tion of th e climate, for which reason it can be lIsed for posts ill hOllse constr uctio n , also fo r rafters) cross pieces and boards , It has medicillal properties, placing water in a small vessel made of this wooel , Imparts to it a sky-blue color) and h as a pe rcep t ible oelbr; it is give n to person s s uffering \yit h dropsy, gra,-el or sto ll e in Llv'l bladder. It is certa in that { / el ur/Iltlm ('/ corroooral t'llIcsl,-"a, ::tnd it \y ithout do ub t h as other medicinal properties , with which I am 110t familiar , Bees mak e a. very reel and excellent wax from th e flowers of t h is tree . Thc city of Nllc\'u Caceres is call ed by the Iudian s ' Nag a,' all accouot of th e abundance of these trees iu t. he provill ces of Call1arines and Albay , ",here they

,


(

~

NARRA. Pterocat'plI:" indiclIs. \\.'illcl . Pterocarptl s pallidus. Blanco. Fam. Leguminosoo. Atla~,

Sinopsis, Flora FQrc&tal de Filipinns, S. Vidal, Lam. XL, A. 1111:&. I, t , Ii.


l' HIL IP I' I I'Jo; ISLA K DS .

75

mak e very cnri oll s drinking cup s. 'l "he cups Ill ade fr o111 til e fClllale species afe the better , as th ey g iye a blu e t in ge more qni ckh' to th e wa te r. The\' are h ighl)' yalned in Europe, a nd oue is a g ift fit for a prince. In Cadi z \I路hen a child, they ga\'e me a clrillk fro111 one of t hese cups , as a r emedy for dropsy or chlorosi s , with which I was s nfferin g, a nd I t h ink I \I'onld h"\'e becn benefi tted had I not take n too l11u ch. SOl11e say t h at t he red liqu or ",h ich e xnd es fr om thi s tree , anel \I路hi c], is very astriu ge nt , is drago n blood . I think th at thi s comes from a n other t ree called Dru gon by the nati\'es, which sig nifies wood which conta in s bl ood . Be th at as it may , I think I haye said c Hon gl1 to sh o\\' t hat t he Naga or Nan-a is a ,-e n- n t111 able \\路ood. D E LGA DO . )!

" T REE O F THE FIR ST ORDER.-Abo unds In a ll parts of. t he A rchipe lago . COLo R.- C arnat io n to blood red . ODoR .-Agreeable . TE XTll RF. .-Soliel, \'ery brittlc , fib ers nni ted , bein g t wisted ill prox imity to t he pores, which are well elefi ned ; it aelmits of a fi ne poli s h , h as a beautiful a ppeara ll ce, and break s -into s h ort spl in ters. I t is \'cry llluc h u sed in cabinet m ak ing) a nd is the materi al fro m \\" hic11 nearly all th e furni t u re ill ?-. Ianila is made ; it is :11S0 tl sed in ci vil cOll structioll ) pieces of large dim en s ion s comiug fro 111 t he forests of N ueva E cija and P a ulpa nga , It is al so used ill }\ral aboll for Jll a king cascos , I t is inferior to ,;rahog an y on "cco un t of its porosity . It is n ot ofte n attac ked by th e a llay, Ve ry large pl a nk s are sometim ps sawed from its roots, whic h di\,ides it into co mpartm e nts of s Hch a size, a s t o g i\"e a ll erro neous idea a s to the si7.-e of the t ree . A mon g the n otable pla n ks of th is class meritin g mention is the onc belon gin g to D. Caoto de Olan a, a nd \,-hich recci\'ecl a pre mium at t hc Phil adelphia Exposit iml. Th ere is a \'ery re ma rkable oue ill Cebll J and if m y me mory is correct, Gen er a l A.la1l1inos was offer ed one t\\"e nty-t\\'O t o t \\'E' n ty-s ix feet IOll g a nd two or t hree yard s wiele . Seil or Cortes m ade foll o\\" ill g test s : I.! J("AL IT Y

1:" 1)\ ,\ n ;\UC\' U

l':cij!l ..

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" It g ives log s np to thirt y-fi\'e fcct 101l g and t",enty -s ix inches square. It is t.he m ahogany of th e Philippin es a1ld is alway s e mployed ill }\ [a uila in the ma nufacture of fUrlliture , for lI ot\r it h sta ll di ll g its SO J1l c\\,hat opell grain, it poli sh es well ) and is prettil y ma rked, There is a yariety of s hades in diffe re llt logs" \ ' ar~: il1 g

,


FORESTRY BUREAU

from straw color to blood red, the fortner being more COllllllOll; all are) however) equally valued . It is a first-rate wood for general purposes. In the London FORE::\lAN.)) market it is cla ssed with the Padouk of B nrm a.

NAGGA AND AGANA. DESC RIPTlON-Slljc!"I(!I' (;rOIIj>. "TREE OF THE FIRS'I' ORDER. - Pl e ntifnl 1n all parts of the Archipelago. COLoR.-Camation to blood red. O DoR.-Agreeable. TEXTl'RE .-Solid \·e~.'" brittl e) fiber:-; united) twisted ill proximity to pores, which are \\'ell defi ned; it takes a fine polish, has a beautiful appearallce alld breaks into short splinters. It is ,'ery much used in cabinet making) and is the material from which n early all the fnr nitnre in Manila is made .. The elasticit)· is 0.0037 m.; weight 1'equired to break each piecc 31.286 kilo· grams; \\"eight ill opell air 8 .240 grams, and specific gravity 0.634. S. VIDAL,)) 1

NARRA BLANCA, NARRA AMARILLA. SYNONY~ I S---Asa ll a, '[a,!(a/og;

Naga, V/sll)'n; Daitanag 1 PnJJlplllI.!/(f.

DESCR IPTION-SIlj>l'I"ior Crollp.-This ma,· perhaps he only a variety of the former species. "COLOR.-Ochre yello\\' \\'ith gray grai n, which becomes dark iu time, acquiring

gray-yellow color i there are intermediate tiuts fro111 the red color of the C011l1ll0n Karra to this. TEX'I'URE.-Finc; pores less marked than in the other. Break s in long spli ntors. That from the forests of San A nton io, province of Tayabas, where it is oalled .-"l.sana, has a clearer color , and breaks into short splinters. Both species produce , when tapped, a juice of a brilliant carnatio n color) the 'Santalina,' which is utilized for dyeing, al1d ill the compos itioll of varni shes. It is plentiful in many pro\'inces. It is used in cabi ll et makin g , but is not so highly \':ll ned as the other; it i~ also llsed for doors and wi ndow s. D. YIOA I ,," a

I'Gro\\'s from eleven to twenty-two feet 'loug and twelve to twenty·two inches

square. S pecial s izes fr0111 thirty to thirty-five feet and twenty-fonr to twenty-six inches square. It is t h e mahogany of the Philippines, and is always employed in Manlla il1 the mauufacture of furniture, for, notwith standing its somewhat opeu grain, it polishes well alld is prettily marked. There are a variety of shades ill differellt logs, vary in g fr om strall' to blood red , the form er· being 11Iore 00111 man ; all


• -, .1


â&#x20AC;˘

PALO MARIA. Calophy llulll inophyllum, Linn, Fam. Guttifer<e. Alia!;, ~'l()ra de ~' lIil'ill::t .. , Bl,.,uco, lam . 3~.

Page 77.


PHILlPPIKE

ISJ~AK DS,

"

are, however , equally appreciated. It is a fir st-class p11 rposes where good timoer j s necessary.

a nd mav be' u sed

\\'00£1

fOl" ,all \'

RH:O\Y~.)) "

.' ". -'A>~

.

~ ~

.:~ ":

"Leaves opposite, sometil'nes alternate, pinnately componnd with terminal 1"£ leaflet. Leaflets ovate-acu111h~qte) entire, s mooth "' and somewhat stiff. Flowers yellow, in panicles. Peduncle'clong , Calyx with fi,'e teelh, two abo,'e ancl three, j' below. Corolla papilionaceous,',f,wice as 101lg,.as the calyx , Upper pet al wide, 1'1' same leug th as the,;AateraI peti\'l s and which:<terminate iu a claw at base, Side petals fixecl at the base, each one'.)'>)" a thread, K eel li near, emarginate or notched at the apex, and has two lqbe"s ', at the base':where it is attached by [\1'0 t h reads, Stamells ten, forming ,a 'Hi.be ' \V:!tli two Jo n g.iQudinal grooves on opposite sides; one extend s t o the base, fJi"eotherno): quite so fai~. e.ach part ot the tnbe is divided into five equal filament s , 'Style as, lon g a s the sta¥"fien s, Stigma awl.shaped, Legu1lle membranolls, "abllost circular, veined , very mllch eompl:essed: with a br6acl keel or ridge that extend s around the entire edge, a rid with fOllr or lllOre seeds sepa rat.ed by part~.tioll S . _~' ,.; P. B1.A:-'-CO. l l IvlAGNI'fuDE.-Grows spon talle Oll s l y tll the lllOll n tal110Us. parts of the Phil.ippine Archipelago" ' COT,oR,-Frolll ,:a'·d.eep red to a J;>lood reel, ODoR,-Agre,,-,abl~," ' TE"TuRE.-C6mpa~t ',md brittle ; fiber united allCI l\l'isted; pores are c\ea rl.-' elefi ned; it polis-he~'\i'e'n ; hreaks ilf short splinters. " IL i'S. .. -t'ii{ed for· \'a.Tious ptIrposes in cons truction, l110re espeCIally ill cab11let .\~L makin'g, ' the 'greatei- 'part of the f l1 rnit"re.,9f j\f.ani\a being lllade of it. , '"","'1';,",' ,~' SAL\'ADOR CER O~, p, a96," (( TREE OF 1' HE FIRST

rf1."!.

'·1~-2·

;{:-:'l, . ,

""'" ,

'

.'

,;:':' "

~

'-'

PALO ' MARI'4: "

::

~ :' . .

.

'~""~'~

" ". 1".#"'"

I

" (~({ /of/I)I/ill III '·"'1~oPIf.J'l~'I('!I, Lhul:- .. _ . f-fl/OPll)'IIIII"~:"~in-?phJ..f_'t?JI, DC .~~~ Fr1.1II.~:G"rt.~.~~!f'1·¥".., "

'~_-

,

SYN ONYMS-- Palolllaria , Bitanhol, D~ciila~', l~wa/o!{; Da~'e,Wan, Bitaog, ViSCl)'C/: Bltaog, I)alltpaJtg·a,· Dall co] all, CaxaJ.(~lt,;; . ~ita?cy, Pa1llitlai11~~lroYl IlocaJlo. " ..: "'. • WHERE FOUND-I slands of L eyte, r:;/6;OIL~d I\ [illdoro, "

.. "

DESCRIPTION-Second Group, ,

. :-::.

I ~"

,\

" TREE OF THE SECOND ORDF.R ,-Abl\l;i'ia'fl~ :fl) lIearly all Philippine Archipelago, -::" , ' COLoR ,-Light red, ;"'y , TEXTURE,-Fibrous , with large elongatedC~poce;~t br~ak illg in th C, i;i,~ct,j,l~ ,ill long splinters; the s having is rough and much cnrl-.:A, ,.1 ha,'e seen giga.ntic;'b·<ies ~··jP~ " :0. ~-

.

..... -~<

~<

.

"

'

.'..,


"O RES'l'R \' BU RE A li

of th is species do min atin g ill the woods of the sou th of :\ [illclallao 1 associated genera ll y wit h the G u ij o. It is chie fl y l1 sed ill ua\'al cO ll str a ction for masts; it does B Ol last l011 g i ll contac t with lim e. Elast icity indicated by a u elon gati on of 0.0035 Ill.; breaks at a lilliit of resist a ll cc wit h a we ight of 35- 586 kilog ram s; wtight ill the ai r 7.290 g r a ms, a nd specifi c g ra\'ity 0 .57T. There are,. two yurieties distillg nished 11y th eir color:. th e r~cll whi ch is mos t es te~lll e c1, a nd the \\' h ite. T hey are Bot, h O \\'e \"C~ r l ,'c ry we1.l de fi ned. F ro m e xperi men ts made \\'jtlt good speci m e lls of th e red, all elasti city of 0 .00 4 111. has res ulted; maxi mu111 re s is ta nce 36.3347 k ilogram s ; we ig ht ill air S.RS4 g ra m s, a ll d s pecific gra\' ity 0 .703.

S \ -I D .'\' 1... "

I

.

l' Ill Sa lll oa thi s tree i ~ milch prized by th e lI ati\'es , who call it F eta n. III Tahit i it is called 'falll<lllll a nd ill H a\"aii it is otIe of th e iwo trees called Kamall i. 111 G uam its n allll:.: is D ao k , but it is the re also cal led Palo I\l ari a by th e lI ati ves,

its \"ood allllost e xcln s ively for the solid whee ls of their carts , a lld the resill ,\"hic1l eXHdc~ rrom i11 cisio ll s lllade ill its bark as a ll illgredient for ince nse and for llIc·dicinal p u rposes. L1EIlT. S .-\FFORD ) ( 1. S. N ." \\·ho

uSC'

or

" ..'\ tree great ecoll o mi cal importa ll ce widely s pre ad in tropica l A sia a nd thro ng-Ii t he Islands of t he Pacifi c. lL sOlli e tilll e:-; a ttain s the hej g ht o f t:ig: h ty to OJ\(:: hu ndred [eet, a nd t \\"e h e [eet in g irt h . A g um resi n ex udes fro II I the hark o[ the tree) \\'11 ic11 is oIl e of th e ki nds of taea nlaliaCH of comm erce. The fruit is the size of a wal ll ut ; il has a fl eshy rilll conta in ill g a hard-shelled seed enclosi ll g" all oi ly ker ll el fro nl wh ich ell.1. 0il is expressed. I n Ind ia t h is is call ed Biuer Oil. 111 Fiji it i:-; call ed Dil o, a nd is used by th e lI at; "es fOl" a ll oi ll ti l ~ g their bodies. . . The follo\\'i ll g is Pad re Bl a n co's descr iptio ll of I t : Lean.::-- opposite, and, \\·it l! cm a r p:ill a le a pe x, ,·cr.\ · Sll1 ooth, ra t her s t iff) witlt a prollli llellt mid-rib, [r011l which :1 gTeat many del icate lrall s \'e rse little \'e ins exlelld (feather-like) to t he margi n. Petioles q:' ry s hort, race mes se"ell~ to lI ill e-flowered. Pedu ll cies lo ng. Sepa ls [O lll",(? ) of t he sa lli e coJor as th e corolla (" ' hite ), eOll Ca \'e, o\)o\':1te, t\\o opposite Olles lo nge r t ha ll t he ot her t\\-o. Petals fOllf , obO\'ate COllC:1,'e, sOl1lewhat e1llaq.~·inate a i the apex . S ta me ll s t1l1l1 le rO ll S, i n se rted iu the receptacle, c1i,·ided illto fOllr or 1II0re gronps, \\· itll all occasional solitary. Style oll e, lon ger tha n the stame ns. Stig-lll:1 piltate. Dr\l pe s liperior, rO Bncl. N ut pre tty hard , bOll)", co\'erec1 \\"it h ill wit h a th ick er s nhsta ll ee sOlll e \\·ha t spo ngy a nd soft, cOlltaillill g 011(: seed of the sa 11l e s h a pe. RI. A:\' CO, p. 42 R.) 2nd ed ." l "f RH E

0 1:

'[' HI-: S r:C():\, ] 1 OI{I)ER. -

Ab llll da lJ t

;11

al most all of t he island s of

th e Ph ilip p ill e grollI'. Co].ol<.-C lear rec\. ' l'E X'I' (!J{ H. -Fibrou s w it h l.a rge, lOIl g- pore s; brt:ak s ill lOll g s plill te r s ; s h a"i ll g is ro ug h a nd 1I1 l1 cli cur led. 1t is lIsed III ordi ll ar\' cO ll str Hction a ll d ill I1 n\'n1 for ·S A l.\·:\J)OR CER():\" P.3 0 4." mas ts, l'ross pieces) ct e.) of vessel s.



PANAO-BALAO. Diptel'OC31'P ll S vel'nicitln ll s, Bla ~ r.o. Oiptel'ocarpus hispid us, F. Vi lla 1'. Fam. Dipterocarpem. Atlas, Flora de Filipinns, Blanco,

Page 711.

I~m.

3&.


PHIUPPI:\"E ISI,A;'\J)S.

79

P ANAO-BALAO, f) ipli' raa"p" SI't'" /I i(~/III /( ... ,

/ //ll 11ft!.

!>ipterowrpl(s liispidlls. F 1'111111. Fa"" /J;/Jll'rocarpc(c.

SYNONn l S-l'aimo, ~lalapabo, P a uao, Balao, 'l('R·({(~~· \\- HEl~E· FOUND-Islands of Leyte, LlIzoll alld I\ [in doro.

DESCRIl'TION. - Tftird (;roup . "A tree which SOl11etillles figures 111 t he I1.r:-;l order) but as a gClleral r\lIc does l10t pass the secoll d. In 1\ [atlil u, whell it comes fr01Il Call1arines, the ualllc of Supa is gi\'e1l it. It is of a light yello\\" or as hy -green color, \\"ith ash-colored spots. It has also sometimes a light-reddish and yello"'-reddi s h ti n\. Its texture graduates from soft to hard; bllt ge nerally hard. It is fibrou s. It breaks ,,·itl! a lon g and sometimes a short sp1i llterj pores not \'ery we11 marked. It is "cry 1lluch n sed in the Yisayas) and other places as rafters) uprights, etc., ill buildillgs) and ill nayal constrnction for bottoms of \'cssels and someti mes for baneas . UpO Il m aki ng an incisio11 into the tree there ex udes all oil called j\lalapaho, Balao or i\Iarapap, \\'hich is used for mixing wit h pai n t a ll d presen- iu g wood fr0 11l t he jnsect knowll as allay, 'T he reddish yellow "arieties of hard text ure a re sometimes passed off as 1pil , to ,,·hich it is yery inferior; Up 01l close- exa m illation iL can be readily distinguished 011 accou nt of its size and the appearan ce of its pores. It is found in nearly all the prO\·illces. I have exa mined specim ens from Tayabas) a lld \\·ith the following' characteri'stics) \-iz: s traw color , pores visible and g rowth circles "'ell clefi ll ed, quality good, wood h eavy, s hav in gs a n d splillters s hort. Sellor Cortes made following tests: ( IR1Gl:-:

'liHo\'II'"

FJ .. ',;TU'ITY

UJtt:.\\';"

.\'r WEIGIJ1' 1:<

1.1:-.:"

Ol·:<t't:·~

1.~

J.::{jU

.\ 1 J:

G1:.\ \:\"

1:':6.:'

~I'E::('ltl(;

GII.\ I'ITY GI:,\ I!-"

!t, -,::!G

11]; 1(;1:-:

Lt'Ylc'

t:1..\""TI('I,'Y "Pot;,\ I,' .1 I.I"E:<

"

(11'''('t:~

r IITH,IIT I!.UR

' '':11'-'

~1·t;I·IFI'

',!l .lnTI' '·It.\ I'"

l,\~~

D . \ f UAT ..

~...

I)

"Gi,'cs logs up to fo rt,· feet lon g by twenty-eight in ches square. It produces an oil and is a stroll g wood for many purposes, poli s hes well and can be. used ac1\-a ntageollsly for house decoration and furnit ure. FORE~IA:\".JJ

L eaves al teru ate, wtde, lanceolate, dow ll Y tUlclerneath and stiff. Peti oles s h ort, s\\"ol1en at the two extremities . F10\\'ers terminal in spiked racemes. Calyx inferior, fle s hy, tulHllar) \vith fOll r or fi \"C~ s ides terminatillg wit h b\-o 10ng di\'isions «

."


FORESTRY BliREAl'

80

. "'iLll onc or two ,'ery ::i lll all ones intermediate, Corolla fixed 011 the receptacle, bellshaped almost as long as the calyx, deeply divided i n fi,'e parts, Stamens, more thall t\Ye llty , fixed 011 the receptacle, Filamellts ,'ery short, Allt hers long, a\\"lshaped aud \Yitbout bri stles, O,'ary issues from receptacle, Style sarne length as sta men s, Stigma apparently diyided into t\Yo parts, Nut globular (like a filbert) not joined to the calyx, but co,'ered and very close to it and crowned with the parts of thc sa mc calyx, \\"ell de,'eloped, of ,,'hic11 t\Yo are ,'ery large, and thc other two alternate oues, short aucl rounded at the extremities. • See General A ppendix-Dipterocarpeas, Well-kno\Yll tree, \Yood harel. It produces the resinous a nd odorous fluid kno\Y u as ~l ala paho a nd Balao, \Yhich is used as a ,'amish, It is common in \ ' isayas aud in many Tagal districts, The resin flows very abundantly, The parts of the calyx which have thc appearance of big wings are fiye inches long, The tree called Hagachac in Leyte produces an odorous, resinous fluid similar to this but it is not the same, \Vhere the trees are plentiful the natiYes usc this fluid for illumiuating purposes, The," pour this fluid into a joiut of cane ancl light it, the resiu a nd the cane bci ng cons umed at thc same tillle. FlO\\'ers in Jun e. BLANCO, p. 314, 2d eel. lJ

SUPA, Si"dora If/allie/'ii, Bentl" Fum, / ,{'f[u mill(ls(c , SYKON Y~I -S upa, la,!;'a!w!"

WHERE FO\.'ND- l s]ands of Luzon, Leyte, Mindoro, DESCRIPT ION-Srmlld

(ir ollp,

ORDER, COLoR,-Dirty ochre yello\\", which In li me cha nges to a yellowish gray; there are also spcci meu s of a reddish tint, Very si mi lar to 1pil; it substitutes the Ipi1 in ordinary a nd na,'al constrnction but is less esteemed, It dese,n'es s pecial attention , for the engineer s hould kllo,,' it \\'ell to distinguish it from 1pil and thu s prevent frauds, which unfortunately are of frequent occurre uce, In the t\\'o species ,,' hich I haye before me, I note that in the 1pil the pores are distributed o,'er the ellti re s urface of the rings, whil e in t he Supa they are num erOll S at their termination and scarce ill the other parts; the luednllary radii fi ne and morc marked than in the other species, The color varies ill both, but generally is more uniform in the Ipil. The Supa may sometimes have narrow grains of a dark gray color which extend along its entire length, I t is abundant ill the ceuter and south of Luzon and ill the Visayas, I do not ' know of auy experi 11l ents made to detenlline its e1asticity, max imuUl resistance, weight in the air and spec ifi c grn ,·ity, T cannot make thi s experiment for want of appropriate specimen s. S. V ID AL" "TREE OF T HE FIRST


,'1

')

SUPA. Sindora Wallirhii , Benth. Fam. LeguminoB"'. AtI .. ,

Sinop~i"

Flora Forestal de lo'i1ipiuas, S, Vida1, lim. LXUI, C.

Page 80.


I

â&#x20AC;˘

TiNDALO. Afzelia l'homboidea. Vid. Epel'ua l'homboidea, Blanco. Fam. Leguminosre. Atllll!, Flora de Filipius, Blanco, lam. 161.

Page 81.


"

,

"

... .-


TiNDALO. Afzcl ia I'holll boidca. Vit!. EpCl' ua I'hOlllboidea, Blan co. Fam. LeguminoEoo. Al1p s. Flol'a de Fili!ljlltl!;, BlallCo, ];\111. J61.

Page ijl .

â&#x20AC;˘


PHILlPPIKE ISLANDS.

, 81

"TREE OF THE FIRST ORDER.

COI.OR.-A dirty yellow ochre, which ill lime changes to a gray yellow; there are also specimens of a reddish tint. Very similar to Ipil and is a substitute for il in ordinary and naval constrnction but is not equally esteemed. It is necessary to knoll" this wood to prevent its substitution for Ipil , which is frequently done. In comparing the Ipil with the Supa, it will be observed that in the first species the pores are distributed over the entire surface of the annual riugs, while in the Sllpa the pores are numerous near the edges and scarce in the other parts; the medullary rays are fine and 1110re marked in the Supa; the color of both species is variable; as a general rule is more uniform in the Ipil. The Snpa sometimes has a narrow dark grain which 11larks the lilUits of the annual growth. It is much used for ordinary and naval construction. It is plentiful In the forest s of the center and sonth of Luzon. SAL\"ADOR CERO~, p. 306."

TINDALO . . lfulia rholllboidea, Viti. !:/lenta rho/JIboidea, Blanco.

Fm,,'.

1,l'jfllJuillo.we .

SYNONYMS-Tiudalo, Tagalog; Balayollg, Blal/w; Barayon, fJlal/(o; Barnion, I'isa)'a; Magalayao, Isabela de LI/zol/.

WHERE FOUND-Island s of Luzon , 1\[indallao, Bohol, Cebtl, Masbate, Mindoro, Negros, Samar.

DESCRIPTION-Sllpeno!" C;nmjJ. (' Among the many lIlagnifice1lt \\"oods found in the forests of these Islands, one of the most useful and precious is that which the Tagal s call Tindalo, and the Visayans, Barnion. It can be used iu all kinds of co nstruction. For some purposes it is superior to the 1\1olave ; it is of a red color aud with time takes 011 a darker hue. It is found on all the island s and more especially in the Visayas, where are fouud yery large, straight and tall trees_ III the Island of Poro, I built a house; the sill s, roof s upports alld boards were of this select timber, beillg very plentiful there; and I also built one in Leyte of Molave, which, if uot consumed by fire, lI"ill last forever. Beautiful desks alld large tables ,,"hich are highly esteemed are made from this wood; also, very ullique chairs and stools, railings and bedsteads artistically turned; magnificent planks are also sawed from it. It is very dm"able whell exposed to the weather; for inside constructioll it forms Olle of the most valuable jewels of a house, where it remains permanently, and irnpen-iou s to decay_ It is very much esteemed in Manila; but TIlore so in China, where they say it sells for its weight in silver and is valued as such; they make fro111 it many cnrious desks, ll-for


82

FORESTRY BUREAU

chairs and stools. They a lso k now h ow to preser ve in the wood a blood red color , washing it freque ntl y ill salt water . In time jf care is not taken , it changes to a dar k color , but is very lu strous ; it can be poli shed to snch a degree that on e's face can be see n ill it. It also has a ra may, a nd it is necessary to re n10ve this when workin g it, althoug h it sometim es h arden s and lasts equa\! y as we\! as the heart of t he tree, still bei ng more spon gy , may decay and be attacked by the wood louse. Su ch a n excell ent wood, no do ubt, h as m edicinal properties "'hich the doctors in the art can learn by makin g a n a nalysis; a decoction made frOl1Lit would be ben efi cial in cases of dysen tery and inter nal ulcer s, as it has stron g astrin gent, antiseptic a nd h eali u f( pr opert ies, as is iudi cated by its odor aud taste. D ELGADO. " " FIR ST ORDER. COLOR.-Lig h t red to dee p red, wh en recently cut ; later it takes 011 a dar k er color, a nd i n ti me becomes nearly black . Some specimens have an llnifof1u color, other s ,,· ith g rain a nd border darker. ODoR.-A g reeable. TEXT URE.-Solid ; fibe r somewhat crossed diagona ll y; pores disposed accordin g to cou str ucliou of fibe r ; breaks a s if alm ost brittle, and sometimes in s hor t splinters j the s hu\'ing s are ro ug h , yery porou s and n ot cnrled. It is abundant in many localities . I t is "ery l ittle employ ed in domestic and naval cons truction , on acco u nt of its s C;11'city as dim en sion ti mber, but is used ill the Inanufacture of fin e fnrni t ure. I t doe s not rot II"h ell exposed to t h e acti on of t he weath er , bnt does when pl aced in the g round . Th e a nay someti mes attack s it, bnt does n ot pe netrate the wood } nor damage it) bu t destroys t he part bu ried 'in th e g rollnd. SeJ'ior Corte s made t he fol lowin g te sts : OI:IH ) \'.

I'nllg'usillllll )[ i N IJ1I i s

~; L.\.'TI(·ITY

UI:E.\K" ,\1'

I . I:O:S.

<,{' :-;n:,..

1.,-, l.

W Eu: wr

"

,\1 1:

" 1'EC ln(' h H.\\,ITY

O IU (; I\, .

t;I.A ';TI CITY 1. I ~E';,

III\EAK :;

"'

O IJ .... Ct;s.

WR IGHT 1:-; A ll! GII ,\I:-; ".

~:iI't; C Jt' I{'

G il A Y IT \' {; 1\ ,\ I :-; :<.

( dL\ I .... ".

j ;JU 1;';:< ,

l.I;~G

:!·I.l.

v86i

) li nd Ol" o

:!.

1.184

167.

0 .6 1(;

1.1, 1,

.,.,-_

(I.~:) l

Bu lu<:Hll

l.

J .600

1S6.

11.867

..

D. V IDAL. "

"Sebastia n Vidal g i\'e s sa me descr iptio1l, with foll owin g as res ult of e xperime nt: e last icity 0 .0034 Ill. ; it break s with a weigh t of 39. 539 kilog ram s; weig ht in t he a ir 10.749 g ram s, a nd spec ific g ra vity 0 .809. "

EPERUA- RHOM{3US SHAPED. " L ea " es oppos ite, 11 0 odd leaf at e nd of petiol e. L eaflets, fi ve or s ix pa irs in num ber, ovifor m, sm ooth. Caly x of four sepals ; se pals with m ar g in s denti culated , bare on edges ; th e two which are oppos ite a re smaller. Corolla hairy in the lower portio n ; gr owin g on Olle side of the caly x , and is composed of one or t wo


PHILIPPI KE ISLAKDS .

â&#x20AC;˘

small petals, with cl aws. S tamen s iu serted on the calyx fro111 eight to twelve filameuts; some of them are very s hort and sterile. Somctimes three filaments bearing a n thers. Pistils, fro111 one to three, of the samc length as the stamen s. Ouc legnme, short and wide, woody a nd rhombns-shaped, containing from two to sevc n la rge seeds covered on both sides half way \\'ith a yello\\' fle shy aril somcwhat compressed, o"al a nd \\'ith the s hell black, leathery a nd polished.

NEW SPECIES-(See General Ap pc ndix /_(!tIIJllill(}SOS.) SYNONYM-Balayo n, Ta;{O/Oi?' . "FIRST ORDER. Generally there is onl y one seed ill th e pod \\'hich germinatcs, alld althongh there are ge nerally more than one pistil, t he others perish. The \\'ood is of a pleasing red , h a rd and h ea,,), , but after JlJ any years it chan ges to a black; it is said that by frequentl y wetting ill salt water it preserves its color. It is the wood most highly pri zed in the Philippines for tables, chairs and other articles, a nd , whc n recently worked, it emits an agreeable odor, di stin ct from the Narra. It does not decay wh en e xposed to th e effects of thc climate, bnt does \\'hcn placed in the g round. The anay attacks it sometim es, bnt does not penetratc thc wood nor injure it to auy extel1t, excepl when placed in the grou nd. The seeds of Balayotl pulyerized a nd lllixed with \\-ater sen'e as glue . Th e Indian gambl ers cut open a Balayon seed, moi sten it with water and apply it to the card when split to make the parts adhere. Th e young Indian girls have a seed set in a piece of s ilver, and wear it s uspe nded [1'01n the neck to preserve them (so they say) from th e evil \\'ind . See the genn s Afzelia of Persoon , to which no doubt these trees belon g a nd the Genera Pari,'on and \'onal'a of J nssie u. The stamens are separated; \\'hen I wrote this, I did nw noti ce that they were joined. Th e variable nnmber of the stamens a nth er s a nd pistils s h ould be n oted. P. BJ,A!\'co, p. 260, zd ed."

"About the same as Acle ill most respects; but is not lI otable for resisting fire. Usefnl for general purposes, for house decoration s, or furniture. Tindalo is somewhat brittle, and tak es a hi g h poli sh ." . BROW"."

"TREE 9F THF. FIRST ORDER.-Folllld in vanOll S parts of the Philippinc Archipclago . COI.oR.-Clear red ",lieu recentl y ell t; it chan ges to " deep red; in timc it


FORESTRY BUREAU

becomes n early black. Usually has a un iform CO]Of, s ometi~lI es a darker grain 15 seen accompanyin g -it. TF,,(TL' Rf:.-Solid , som e\\'hat crossed diagonally; pores arran ged ill order of fiber; breaks in short splinters; shavi n g rough, very pOl·OttS and not curled. Is Hsed 111 cabill et makin g, for fiue furllit u re ~l.1ld also in ordi n ary cOllst r nction. SAL\'ADOR CERON, p. 309."

TAMAUYAN. (,: 1'1I1J10Sj>O )

10 ambigl((f, '-id /

F(lII/ , Celas/rill(,f(' ,

SY N ONY J\lS-CaIlH\ 1I va ll , 'I'a11l<luynHll, Camayoll, '1'80 111ft uiall, la/fa/og-. WHE RE FOUND-Islands of Lllzon allCl

~Iindoro.

DESCRIPTION-Fir.>'i (;rollp-Large dim en sion s. '~COLoR.-\'aried: ill so me, a clear reddi s h ti nt; i ll others, yiolet and a brig ht b1'O\\" l1 red; freqnelltly grai ll is sta ill ed aBel appears with clouds of distin ct color. OooR.-In some s pecies, \'e ry s trong and agree::\ble; others, inodorolls. TEXTlJRF..-I1I S0111 e speci1llen s \'ery com pact, the pores scarcely percepti ble j 111 others, fi ne, the pores easily distinguished; break s in s hort spli n ters. \Vas for merly llsed ill buildin g, bnt break s easily , Ilas llI\1ch sap wood, which. 1n time becomes \YOrlll-eaten. Very little of it at presellt comes to Mallila; it is useel for joists anel roofing. This tree is of yery rapiel g r o\\-t h, fOlllld both ill the high anel lOll" lallc1 s al\CI 011 the banks of t h e rivers and creeks . Seiior Cortes l~ele folloll"illg tests : U •. I " l' I CIT\· mU: .lh " .IT I. I ."E ~.

1IIIInnn

I. :,

(! l"!'(; ~:" .

W~;l(l ll ' I ' .~!

II

1:-<

I(

!~ .I l:-<~ .

~!'~; (: n

lI '

.:J,.\~TlCITY

,.)! , \ \"ITY

I.l !O:':;.

(:lUI.":;

, ti l

)lin(\vl"v

Uli~;A K S

.n ·

oc:-<n;1'.

II"Jo; l(; IlT I." .~ ! II

G l \.'U='S.

."WE("Il-I(" (; I~_I

\"ITY

(; 11.1

!." .~.

l.Ul

D. V IDAL. "

Attains la rge clillle ll s ioll s. COLOR.-Yaried: some, 1i g ht red; oth e~s viole t ; also bright brown red. ODOR.-Ill some specim ell s strong anel agreeable, in others inperceptible. TEXTURE.-In som e s pecimells compact, pores scarcely visible, 111 others .fi u e, pores disti n ctly marked. Break s i11 short splinters. III dome stic .coll strllctioll it come s in as plallk s and timbers. It is not \'ery mu ch prized. It is plentiful ill mallY provinces, especially in L11zon ('f a.yabas , La Laguna, II


TAMAUYAN. Gymnosporia ambigua. •

Vid.?

Fam. Celastrine", . M:uJ.Q frorn dr aw in!; copied from nature by R. GarCIa,

Page 8i.



PHILIPPfNE ISLANDS.

85

Bataan, etc.). But it is Hot brought to market ill large quantitie s, as there is lloL 1lIuch of a de1lland for it. • . \ ' 1 n A r. ." S " Branches scattered.

Le~l\'es alternate, o\'ale,

not describe fl owe rs or fruit for want of data.

cradle,shaped, serrated. Call R. GARCIA."

TANGUILE, SIlt)} eo ,'alit/a, N O. l b. ( f)ip/(·rtlcnr/Uls f()~1 'SPf ' I))/U .~, 11/1/1/("0. Fam. j)iph'r()(arj>I'(I' .

)

S Y N 0 NY ~IS-Tan gu il e , Tangile, T a ll gil i, Tr(i;fl/"". WHERE FO UN D-I slands of LnwlI and

~[incl()r<l.

DESCRJPTTON-S{,(()lId (;roll/>. " TRF.F. OF FIRST ORDER. COLOR,-Bro'nIi sh red. 'f'ExTllRE. - \-ery fil1e \\'ith 1arge IIU1lI eroUS pores; breaks as if brittle. Is plentiful in 1lIost of the islalld s , es pecially ill the ce llter a nd south of Lnzou. It is ll sed ill the cOllstruction of baneas alld i:-; also sawed inlo lumber. Elasticity 0.004 1lI. ; weight at which it bl'oke 29.676 kilogra1lls; weight in the '" r 7·59 g ram s; specific gra ,·ity 0.603. S. \' !D.\ f.."

" Leayes alternate, ontte, elongated, lll em brallolls and smooth. Petiol es very short. Flowers s mall , termillal g rowi1lg ill pa1lic1cd racc11Ies. Peduucl es \'cry s hort . Calyx fr ee, ill fi,'e o"ate parts, the two in side eo\'ered with the three Olltside, yery long at maturity, especially the t hree. Coro11a, hairy, thrice longer thall the calyx, ill fi\'e sha rp parts a lld hairy 0 11 the outside. Stamells les5 thall twenty, inserted hetwecn the ovaryatld the base of the corolla and shorter thall the petals; some are illserted higher " l' than ot hers. Anthers somew h at fomangled, terminatin g ill a long hair. O\'ary, globular, with angles and s ituated within the flower. Style awl-shaped. Stigma simple. Berry, t,ro compart ments; each contains seed. TREF. OF THE FIR ST ORDER. - Calloes are Inade of it , a nd it is well kllowll ill Pall1pan ga and Balang a. Th e calyx remains perm a ne ll tly free, even at maturity, and is lIeyer adhere nt. Unlikc most of its cO ll gell er s the fruit ha s se ,'eral seeds. Bf.A:<C0, 1'.31 2., 2d ed ."

"TREE OF THE FIRS·!' ORDER.-Folllld

III

the Philippin e I sland s, especially

111 LUZOII.

COLOR.-Light browlI red. TE:<Tl'RF..-Very fin e with Jarge a lld lI11m erO ll S pores; breaks as if hrittle. It is l1 sed for calloes a lld sawed illto lumber. SAL\·,\DOR CF.RO:<, p. 30S."


86

FORESTRY BUREAU

TECA. Tel'/ollG g-rGlld;S,

Falll.

L

I erOf1IOCea'.

SYKONHIS-Teak, Teca, Tiela, Taxa/o/{; Dalondon, Yate, Calayate, Sagnnyate, Y ati, rT/Sfl.},fl .

WHERE FOUND-I sland s of Pan a)" Mindanao, Pa ra..<:(lla, Negr os, Ccbtl.

IlESCRIPTTON-Sllprrior

(;1'0111' .

"TREE OF FIRST ORDEK. -Constitntes th e principal wealth of thc forest s of British India. It is fonnd in the Philippin es, bnt is little known. Tn :i\Iindauao, I saw a few yo uu g ones 111 a clump of trees, near the camp of Santa Fe, near the road t hat \I'as bei ng co nstrncted between Pollock and Cottabato. The fact that they h ad neit her frnit nor fiowers, and my knowledge of the tree being lil1lited to \\Tltlen and pictorial descriptions, perhaps I may be in errorj but neyertheless its characteristics cOlu cide ill everything with the tree s in India. The follo\\-il1g results were obta ined from tests made with speci men s brought from the casle rn coast Qf the Gnlf of Bengal : elacticity 0.0028 111.; breaks with a \I'eight of 38. ISS kilograms; weight in t he air 8.090 g ram s, ana specific gravity 0.688. Thar \I'hich comes fro111 the Island of Negros, classified as T eca, gives all elasticity of O.002~; breaks with a weight of 36.232 kilog ralll s; \\路eig ht in the air 10.75 g ram s, and specific gnl\路ity of 0.8r6. S. VIDA L.') "The best speci l11C'lls 1.:110\\"11 ill the Philippill es are ill tl1e town of 'I'allay , District of iIlorong, growin g al the foot of the hill s. It is eight y years old, accordiug to the Indian s of that locality, and has a diameter of sixty centimeters. There are also specimen s of Teca ill Y g barras, in the Province of Iloilo , twenty years old , transplanted by Father Celistino Femandez Vill ar in t he plaza of that tOl1"11, and in Panay, ill the provlllce of Caplz. R. GARCIA." "'rhe fir st illformation I 'had of th is tree was of the oue g rowing at Tanay in Lagnua de Bay: Fo,nllerly t here were two plan ted by a Fran ciscan priest. It is not knoll'n II'here he got the seed. In the hi story of the travels of t he Abbe Prevost, it is said that from the leaves of this excellent tree, wh ich are two hands wide, is produced a red dye, and it is certa in that a liqllid of a purpl e color ex ndes from them. A gargle made fro111 this glllll dissolved i n water is excellent for au ulcerated throat. Bllt the pri ll cipal importance of thi s tree is its use in the constrllction of hOllses alld vessels; it is very durable and of good dimensions. It is com111on according to late reports in some provin ces of th e Visayas, in the I sland s of Negros, Zambales, Mi ndanao and Butuan. The tree, th e fl ower of which I have seen, is in Tanay i it was twenty-follr years in flower in g.


â&#x20AC;˘

TECA. Tectona

d'

('Ttl e < 11 lS.

L. f

t:<'am Y erbenacem. , ~ . At) ..

,

FI

or~

- -II .. F' . , Rian co . __I \'IplUa.

I'

Irl. 340



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

Leaves uearl y rouud, extend along the petiole; are rough, especially on the n pper side. Petioles very short and compressed. Flowers in racemes. Peduncles, sqn are . Calyx, bell-shaped, very large at maturity, five-parted aro und margin , th ick. Corolla longer than the calyx (white) bell-shaped, downy with fi "e obtuse divisions. Stamens fi ve to six in serted upon the corolla. Filameuts compressed, somewhat longer th a n the corolla. Anthers, half globular, with a yello,,' zon e below and a black circle above. I h ave 1I 0t noticed that it has a nectary. Ovary situated inside the fl ower, oval, downy. Style same length as stam en s. Two stigmas very thick and short. Drupe, globul ar, corky, somewhat flat, covered with the calyx) \'ery large) membranolls and puffed) contains a yery hard P. BLA:';CO." nut) with four divisiou Sf each containing a seed.

,

• •

TEAK. ( Bnlletiu de 1a Societe Academique Indo-Chinoise , 188 1, 12 "'" serie, Vol. I.) " Teak figures in the lis t of a rti cles expor ted from Bangkok in quantities nearly equal , but somewhat less thall those of last year~ The Fren ch hou se of lIL Bonll evill e hallClle s the larger part of this bnsiness; the balance is ill th e hand s of Chinese 1lle rchants who haye the wood prepared by the nati\'e sawyers of H alllan and send it sqnared or in plallk s to the ports of China or Java. Orders ha"e also been recei"ed from India for this "ood, for railroad ties . Large and increasin g orders are con stantly bei1lg recei\'ccl at Bangkok; but as receipts froIll th e i1lterior are llot equal to the detllancl, prices are forced llpward. The \,-ood sawed and prepared for exploi tation delivered at the riyer, costs from three franc s to tlllee fra n cs and tweuty-fi"e centi mes per Euglish cubic foot. It is very difficult to fore see wh at quantity of Ihis "'ood will rem a in in Siam at the end of the n ext twenty years . I belie,'c that actually all the forest s exploitable have already been exploited; they are undoubtedly immense, a nd notwithstanding the fact that the g rowth of the T eak is rapid a nd attains its fnll value before sixty years, it is not probabl e that the re newal of the ~rests will bc compl ete . The authOl:ities ill ch~rge of all the forests and \\-ho exercise a supen-i s ioll over their exploitation from a fiscal point of "iew , do n ot appear to takc am' precautions for their presen-atioll_ ))

" TREE OF THE FIR ST ORDER.-Forms the prillcipal ricbes of British India. In the Philippines, to judge from the spec im en s taken from the explored parls of Mi ndanao, it is probable that these valuable trees are to be fou nd in q uantities in the in terior of that island. COLoR.-Grayish. TExTuR E.-Compact and close grai ned. Large quantltles of this " 'ood are shipped from India for the construction of vessels, being used especially for the sides which are to be armored or sheathed. SALVADOR CEROK, p. 308."


FORES'fRY BUREAU

URUNG.

\"HERE FOl'ND-Paragua. DESCRIPTION-Slljrriur (,·rOllp. "These trees are found only in the I sland of Paragua, anel are similar to T eak. '['he Spaniards in that locality assert that it contain s the sa me properties. Th ere is all ab uudall ce of this species there; specimens being founel up to six or seVe ll meters ill length and forty cellt1111cters in diameter. • Senor Don Domingo Sanche", zoological collector of the In speccion General de ?llontes, \\" h o explored that isla nd, and who JII ade a study of thi's tree, stated that it belo nged to the falllily Lagoui cias . I t is not to be found in the m arket. Trees \\"ith cyli ndrical branches. LUl\'es \\" ith petioles, oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate a nd obtnsely ac uminate. Sometimes, bnt rarcly , from the base abm ptly cu neate almost elliptical; leathery, three to ii"e inches long, obscurely feather\'ei lled ) eight ycius 011 both sides. Blossoms arranged in trichotol11011S corymbs sometimes termi nal (at ends of branches) a nd so meti mes s uper-axillary. Corolla fnunel-shaped, ,'ello\\"ish-\\'hilif, \\'ith an agreeable s mell ; wit h the tnbe conical, a nd the Jimb a little longer; di"isions of corolla o,'ate-oblong obtuse. Fruit small , peasha ped , a nd round at the base . St" le e nd s in a point, golden color. . R. GARCTA."

YACAL. }fO/h'aplagaltr, // idal. iJij;lero('arjJus pia;: a/us, 1]lall(o. ( The If'oltlldt:d Uiplerowlplls.)

Fam. Dipterocarpc((,.

S\,]\01\ \":>.r S-Y acal ..'3apolongan , Sapl ullgan , 1f/,R·,lIo§". WHERE FOUND-I sla uds of Luzo n , i\lindoro, a nd Pa na,'. DESCRIPTION-Sllp(I"IIJ/' (;rollp. "Atta ins a

h~ghl

of from twel\-e to twellt y meters, a nd nea rly one meter

In

dia lll eter. COl,O]{.-Eartl", ,·ello\\" . Ooo}{,-Si111i lar to Lauull. ~ TEXTl']{ E. -Solid aud fine; breaks in long spl inters; s haviugs, fine, cOlJ1pact a nd curl ed. It is abu llcla ut in almost eyer)' pro"ince of Luzon. It is llsed in the constructiol1 of bnilc1i ngs, for pillars , joists, sleepers, etc ., and, in naval constru ction, for beal1ls; also is lI sed in cabinet makin g . Pieces of large dinlensions generalh' come from Tayabas; but that from Angat is preferred for all kind s of beams,


• URUNG. Fagnea fl'ng\'ao s. Rosh. Farn. Loganiacere. Atlas,

S inop ~ i s,

Flora Forestal de Filipinas, S. Vidal,

Page 88.

[,jill.

LXIX, A.

tis::~. I,

:>,3.


• • •


VACAL. Hope. piagata . Vidal. Dipterocarplls plagatus ) Blanco. (The Wounded Dipterocarpus. ) Fam. Dipterocarpem. Atlu, Sinop8is, Flora Forestal de Filipina s, S. Vidal, lam. XV.

Page 88.



PH[[,[PP[I'E l S [,AK IlS,

lhe g rain of whi ch co ntains long fibers half a \'ara long. Its tralls\'erSe resistance is so g reat that a beam of thi s 'wood is preferred to other ki nds of double its dimensions. Jts lnll1 S \ 'c rS e stren gth makes it desirable for rafters, especially in hOllses with tiled roofs, The demand for this wood has bee n such that each ,'ear the difficulty of gettill g timbers of the required s ize illcreases as the dista n~e of the place of cutting ill creases fr0111 l'\[a llil a but there is r eceived here a great quantity of rafters a nd s 111all beams, ill p ieces which \'ary fro 111 eight to tell \'a r a5 i n le ngth and h,'e by one and one-half in breadth and thickness, of tltc first nam ed, and of the seco nd scven b,' three, These are l1wcle 111 the forests. After felli ng a large tree of sixteen or L\\"ent.\' varas in le ngth, it is afterwards c lll into t\yO pieces of from eig ht to ten varas lOllg. These pi eces are s plit eas ily into two.. parts by m ea1l s of iron \\'edges and bea,'y wooden maul s, III this m a nne r it is furth er snbcli" ided , H1ltil it is suitable ror rafters, A rafter is calc ul ated to be a load [or oue carabao to haul; a bcam is a load for two, It is launched and forllled iuto ",hat are call ed pauos, or rafts, mllde by fastening twenty or twenty-four pieces together with canes) a lld p1aci n g on top of this a si milar raft to make it float better. The woodcutters know froIIl e xperiellce the proper proportions) lllakin g the top three times as broad as the thi ck ness, according to the theory that the trans,'erse res istance of wood is in proportion to its width lllultiplied by the square of its thickness, There is a Yacal rece i,'ed froll! :'Ifindoro of a ycllow color, generally cracked (lucl hollow inside , The allay does not attack it; it comes ill li mited quantiLies in s mall dimensions for smaller-sized beams and rafters , The Y ~tcal of Sllbig deteriorates in ten years, fOrIning a kind ofs pongej it conlC~S in small dimen siolls) and ill s1na11 qualltiti es, Durin g the 1ast fcw years there has been comillg to this market in logs of large dimensions a wood call ed Vacal de Pi togo, which is probabh' another s pecies) and which is u sed for joists, beams a nd sills , I t is not certain whether the a nay attacks it or uot. In China t he good Yacal is sold u n.der the name of Gra,' lIIola,'e, Senor Cortes made followi ng tests: j

EI,.\"'']'I('I'r1'

I'll ngn"i Illl n

III! ~:_I I, ~

AT

In:I(;II,. IS ,~ II! r'lUI:'::<,

- -

~I'ECII>'IC

,;/t ,\I¡ITI'

nRI/.jX,

I,I:-;~:~.

() t'S t'E~,

l.'~

l.!l6:;

::!ill,

l.~):::

): tlel'l(

::!.

J.13~

2-m,:,

lI, !l'2~1

Bl1\U<.:HlI

Gl~,\l",~,

Et'ija .. ,

t:L\.-Tl\lTY LISE>:,

Illn: . \I,~

.\ 'r OU:-'('f,-.

\\'I-:IGIIT

,'l'E("1FI<"

1-;'

I'I~_II' IT\

,\In

(lRIII':<,

(; 1: ,\lS,o,

"

::!,UlG

23:},.i

(l.Ii81

1.1

:.!,lGl

1:,1.

O.IU';::

"Attains a hei g ht of from [2 to 20 meter s alld a diameter of 0,0 meters, COCOR,-Earlhy yellow, TEXT URE ,-Solic1 and fine, breaks ill large s plinte rs, and gives a fine s hayi ll g , compact and cuded, It is plentiful in almost all the provinces of Lu zon, and is used in the construction of frames of honses, and beams ill s hips, That coming from the forest s of Angat in Blllacan is particularl y val ued, although I do not l ::!-f,)!'

â&#x20AC;˘


FORESTRY BUREAU

think lh at t he better quality of Yacal of T ayabas is inferior to it, Elasti ci ty, as showl1 by the elongation of the small rods exper'il1lented with: 0 ,0032 111,; breaks wi th a weight of 54 .98 r kil ogram s; weight in opell air 14.790 g ranls, and specific gnll'ity 0,925, Thus it will be seeu that this is one of the heaviest and strongest woods iu the Archipelago, It is to be regretted tha t in places of easy access , pieces of good dimensions are becom ing scarce. S . VIDAL ." "Gi\'es logs up to fifty feet lon g by twenty-tlVo inches sq u are, It is proof against white ants, has g reat stre ng th and tenacity, and is Hlllch valueq ill J\ Iallila for hou se-buildin g . FOREl\lAN ." (( From twe nty-fo llr to fort} feet long, twelve to eighteen inches sq uare. Special si;.;es to fifty feet, and b\'ellty to twenty-two inches sq uare . R esists wh ite ants, possesses g reat stre1lgth auel tenacity, and is tntlch val ned 111 f\'I anil a for hou se-

building and other purposes, (( Branches black .

BROII'N,"

Leaves alterllate, lauee-sha ped, e ntire, s mooth and s tiff, with

a long gland which breaks len gthwi se, in each lateral vein of the under s urface of the leaf. Petioles \'ery s hort. Fl owers ax illary, drooping, globular a nd grow ill compou nd racemes. Calyx cohesive at matu rity , of o ne piece, divided in five parts, dee ply cleft, l"O und an d fleshy; e xterior ones coverin g the interior. Corolla of five parts divided nearly to the base, round aBd covering each oth er. Stame ns 1110re than thirty, fixed at the base of th e o\'ary, Filaments short. Anthers of fonr allgles, co mpressed, terminatin g in a hair. - Ovary s ituated illside the Rower before maturity, pyra1llidal with four sides, No sty le, Stigma appears to h a\'e two points, Nnt crowned \\'it h five wing-like processes whic h are parts of the calyx; the larger (one a nd one-half inches ill leng th) straight , and the other three small; the coveri ng of t he nucleus t hin a nd leathery, enclosing a seed divided into fi\'e parts, Trees larger tha ll the body of a lIlall , well known in Ma nil a, and l1111ch prized for its hardness, alld is mllch ll sed for building roofs . Its flo wers, which are s maller t h an those of the pea, when bruised emit an odor like that of t h e Lanan , a nd the wood does the sa1lle, It is a curious fact that the glands of the leaves whe n bruised appear like wo uuds or sores, fro111 which circumstance I have so na1lled the s pecies, These trees do n ot prodnce resin, The stipules whi ch crow n the frnit ill t h is spe cies are g reenish, p, BLA NCO ," "TREE: OF THE: SECOND ORDER,-Gr ows s pontaneo nsly in the I sland of Lnzon; its tr nnk is well shaped; it g rows .fifteen to t wen ty meters hig h a nd 0,8 meters in diameter. COLoR ,-Earthy yellow, TEX1'URF. ,-Solid a nd fine; breaks in ,lon g splinters a nd gives a sh avin g very t hin , compact a nd curled, It is I11nch n sed for rafters in house-bnilding a nd for SALVADOR CERO N, 1',3째9, " beam s in naval co nstrnction,


PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

_ __

9I

CHAPTER IV. OR II"HITE A"T. "The \Vhite Ant (tennes), known here as Anay, is by far the most formidable ill sect in its destructi\'e powers. It is also CDllllllOll in China. Here it eats through lllost woods (there are some rare exceptions, sneh as ~Iola\'e, Ipil, Yacal, etc.) aud indeed some persons assert, although I am llllab1c to confirm it, that e,'en the s urface of iron is affected by these insects if left long enough where they are. If \\'hite ants earnestly t~ke possession of the \\'ood-\\'ork of a building not constructed of the finest timber, it is a hopeless ease. I h ave seen deal-wood packing cases eaten away so far that they could not be lifted \\'ithout falling to pieces. lIIerchants' \\'arehouses have had to be pnlled do,,'n a nd rebnilt owi ng to the depredations of this ill sect, as even if the building itself ,,'ere not in danger, llO one 1I"0uld care to risk the storage of goods inside, The destruction caused by Anay is possibly exaggerated, but there is no doubt that many traders haye lost COli siderable SHIllS through ha\路ing to realize, at any price, wares into which this insect had penetrated, FORF.""''', p, 390." THE AXA 楼

The follo\\'ing \\'oods are not subject to attack b,' Ana\': Dinglas, Ipil, ~[ola,'e and Yacal. Tindalo is attacked by Auay ",hen there is 110 other wood ill the vicinity, Baticulin is attacked by Anay bnt is 1I0t damaged or destroyed) except SHch parts as are buried II nclergrolt nd. One hundred and twenty varieties of nati,'e \\'oods and also ,,'oods from Borueo and AUlerica are being snbjected to tests as to resistance to the white ant. These tests began December 1) 1900, A bulletin showi ng resnlts will be issued this year. TEST WITH THE WHITE

A~'1',

l\I1'. D, N, IIlcChesney, master mechanic at the Depot Q, l\I, shops in lI[allila, fonnd last February that hi s trnnk (made of an A1llerican Spruce) had been il1\'aded by \\'hite ants, and \\'as almost entirely destroyed; the clothes contained ill the trnnk were also eaten, He placed the tmnk on the gronnd and near it pieces of the following woods: A:>.IER I <': .\.'>

RE..<;n: r OF T111R'ry nAYS' CO.'>T ,\.cr WITH A~TS.

woons.

Entered and eaten; a mere matter of time for complete destruction,

Oregon Pine Bnll Pin e Sprnce Hemlock California Redwood '\VI' 路a I'f lIte C e d ar C 1 on lla

l

'

\ Eaten 1llore read il y than Oregon Pi ne, \ Not tonched, ~\ A nts tne, ' d b nt cI'Iscont11lnec , I a fter a s I'Ig1It eJlort, a" ~:\TI\'E

illola ,'e, Narra . Pa i n ted \\'ood,

\\路oons.

Ate a little of it, deepest h ole abont I-4 inch, .. Ate a little of it, C1eel?est hole abont 1-2 inch.. . Ants worked nndcr paint and ate the wood rcadily,


FORESTR Y BUREAU

C)2

CHAPTER

v.

STR F: :\'GT H AND WRIGHT OF' WOODS.

Li st of hard woods arra nged In order of their tensile allel Lransverse stre ngth . "/'I·,,":-;lr.E !'TK \l7\",

T. 2.

3. .1. ,). b.

"

'rJ~XS IT .F.

'f IC\X S\'ERSE STI{ \ 1'\.

Dungou Yacal I pi1 :l1augachapny Cuijo Ballaba Call1agoll

:lfo1aye 2. Camagon 3 I pi1 4· Acle s· D un g oll 6. Tinda10 I· Xarra I.

S TR .\ IX.

8. B aua ba 9 . Yaea1 10. l\l ungachaptty

8. Acle 9· Narra II.

Tillda10 Mola,·e

12.

L a u all

10.

II.

LallaI}

Gnij o 13. Cedar 14. Lanete 12.

'3· Cedar

14· La nete

FORR],IAX ,

p. 372,))

1.IST O F \rOODS .

.,",-rrallg'cd

lU

order of their el act icity, res istance and specific gra\·ity . SF,HASTIA~

l~

1,.\ S'I'K 1'1'\' .

RESIS'J'.\:<:CJ·:,

v] D'-\ I. , p.

S P1';C JF I C (:RA \ ' I 'I'\, .

Cala ntas Su1ipa .\ ntipolo Lanete .\lIagap IhliclIli ll .\pilon

P agatpat Ballsalagill Y aeal Cu! i ng- ~ f a u oe

..<--\lll ugllis )'lacasi11

Narra

~ I olay e

Cu bi Guijo Ac1e Eban o

'feen Tindal o Bo1on gi ta Cama\,llH ll Ipi1 Pasac

~[alli e lli e

:-\l1nbion ~

)'larang Calumpan :lla1arnhal Cahllllpil Ballaba

Ti nda10 ea I a mall sa I! :t y

~Ialatalall

)'Iauienle :l layapi, ."ele

Cui]o

Ca1u1l1pa n Aunsep Pino Pa10napu)" Pan g uisHI! Cum ayuall

ea Ia ma lI sa 11 :1 \' 11alao or ~ I 01 ''';c

Dun go ll

Camagoll

.\ llllsepm ala t:llnll

Narra

~ [ani c l1 ic

Ipil 1\Io1a ,·e

Banca}

Pa l! :lO

.

~

Du ngo l1 Bolill g il:l

:I La a gac hap u y B.etis LalllllHlI

Ebano Call1agon Yaeal Pagatpat AlIll Sep

L an utall Banaba

Cubi C ul i ug-i\ [a lloe 2\Iangachap u), Ca1u1l1pa ng Pau g u is<1 11 Betis Acle Ci u-ij o U ncasin Bau sa lagui u

T7:-),"


PHILIPPI:-lE ISLA:-lDS.

93

LIST OF \\'OODS-CO:\TI::\,l'ED. E I.. \S'I' ICl'rY.

l'alonapny Tiudalo Cnbi Yaca1

RESIs'rAXCE.

SPECIFIC GRA\"!'!'\,.

Autipolo n~l1lcal

Calnlllpit :\lalatlan

Ba lao or Pa JJ ao

CalUlllansa lin)'

:\lalanl hat

Camaynana

lIialatlan Nato

Salltol Bolongita

Barraba

Apiton

Tangile

PinG

Dllngol1

P alo-~[aria

1Iiangaehapn y Nato '1' eca

i'.Iacasill

~laJaeadio,

:\la yapis Lanete Sautol

rl' ang!'1 e Antipolo Auubiollg :\lalacadios Nato Palo-1I1aria

Paugll isalJ

Pillo Beti, I pil Ebano

i\arra

1\lalaru hat Pasac

Pal onapuy Calalltas A lllugius Bancal

AUllbioug

C nli n g- ~ln noe

Malaead ios Anagnp CalUlllpit A piton Baticnl i 11

Lalllltall

Calantas

Pagatpat

~Iarallg

:'Ila)"apis Baticu I i11 Lanete Allagap Santol

Snlipa

-:'\[arall g

Camagoll Ransalagtli

Snlip" Ba lao woons THAT r.AST \\"ELT. T::\' \rATÂŁR.

Bauaba

Acle Lanall (only for ba ncas)

Bane'll

),[allgachapny

Batitillall

;\lola \'e

Betis Calantas Ition) Dillglas (used lal'gel~' ill 1Ia\'a1 constrl1ctDnngon (especially dnrable in sea waler) I pi I

Pallaa-Balao

A piton

Tangnilc (cascos and banca,) Teak Tiudalo lTnl11 0 '

"

WOODS THAT LAST WELL 1:\ THl': C ROlT:\D, \\"1'1'1(

1I10la \'e DlIngou I pil

Antipolo Baull)"o Gllisihan

CO~CRr:'I'F

XF;XT Tn \rOOD.

Pasac

Anllbillg :\[alap"tat


FORESTRY BUREAU

9-1 ",-\

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[ ~:xtrlH'1

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I ~ I . A""U:-; .··

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1l0wRl:-W.ll'>ifi.

('01.

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bending,

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Kilo,

Kilo,

Yi-Il\"U'

ALUPAG Ot ALOPAi. 1~ 11",,<1101 -,UI'i"'r1' .u\.\ j. I,\l-nliilll ... AMBOGUES Or AMOGUIS. ]" n'T\' llIud! 'lI"j~'l'l 1" ntltwk hy "lIny: j, II'C'\ fur p!.llIkc nn,\ hoard ... j"r 1I""rinJ,:" •. ANINABLA or ANINAPLA. I" 1"""',\ in l.lIIihling l.. ,n,,-, ,,1\.\ 100111_: pri;t, ... ,1 rur il~ Iiglillh'" 1\1111

Kilo,

Ifil.l

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ANONANG. !'Ill' kH\"·"lI ...· "''''','1'",,\ with worm.-: Illl' \\"'Hi i- lIH',1 fur.lrnlll' ,11H11ll1I'iI'ni in~lru lIIen \ANTIPOLO. 1','1' "IIIH"", U,."!~ ']11<1 nllwhillc~; if J.!]VI" II J.!\11l1 lllli!'!1 i' IIM~,I f"l loir<I-llllw BALIBAGO, 'I'll ill" uu.1 \'11\"'1" lire 11111,1.· fruIH Ihe I,url••111,11",\\',kr r1"oln I Ie O'Iw]"('uul BALETE, '1"1\0" hnl["',j 1".. 1_ un' u,,,.l I" ,'\11" ""UII,j,

I\hito· ",,,,,I. [,,1' In"lLi.lill;! "1101 ,,·ull,lln,·; "'ry 01011',11,[,0: II),UII,I1I111 BANABA. ilp'i-I' 11('[\ II ... ",'li"11 ,,( Ill(' (·Iilllllk BANCAL, '';In'lIll" "11'[ <l111'1l1,h'; il j" 11~I'd (01 rlll"uillll"l·. U""1"III).:. In"ll~ nll'\ Iou!"re\.' SITOC, 1(",i,I'ln'll hl'UI'Y 1'1"0"'"1'<; BOLONGUITA. ";Irolllg" ["1' buil'ling- 1'111"[,u,",e_: l' '" Il t i III \ CALAMANSANAY, 1 "',I]"r 1[""tiUg:. CALANTAS. II i, (,,1111,1 il1 nl[ J'III"I~ "~I Ih,' \'hil·

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CALUMPIT,

Ililh 1"''''lli[1I1 ).:l'Hin fln'\ '1.1>[': 1"'\' i,h," ""11 nnol i, 11'\''] (nl" lillI' (ll1"nilll!"' CAMAYUAN. It I- lI~t·'1 j", h"ll'C huil(liu)! DONGON. FiliI' 1\"'''\ JOI" ,',lilin": il b Icry I,lt'nli[ul ESANO. .\,111111. ",. " linl' 1",li'h , 111,,1 ""11 I,.. 1"'III1\i(l1lh' \l'or).:,·01 GUI)O. I, l,i"lIliflli ,n,,1 "'IY hi)!loly 1,lil',e.l; i, Il,e.l f"r k,·,'I, of n·",'I, nnd \' .. !"rln)::~ \\'ht:'l·I~ LANETE, Ein,li<' nnl\lIl'pmrrinll' rOf fll!"uilurc LAUAN, loin" n l"I"iu 11~1',1 [UI' illl'I'U-I'; ill former lillII" 11","\ f"r \""~('I~; I'h-nliflll MALACATBUN, '""ry lilli" 1I,('rI MALACINTUD, .\ \r"l1).: 11"",,,1: u"',J 1"1' l".u-.·-

11>(i

au;

1:;1.;

WII 1::1;

11.ISII>=II.\\fI\I:.-, I (. I:> 1:>--=-.(\ I~~),~

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lill

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Ii n 1111 (I

1;'-,

\~l lll>

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i'\.-, I> 1'9 :>

is

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10\(1

Imil,lil1).:

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MALARUHAT, :<"Ii,\ 1o, .... llln'; I1H" 11<,1 111('1111"1\('<\ MALATAPAY or MABOLO, 1"1'1 JU11l111ll"(' Hud "llil\ec .. : il l"O"I'mhks ,'I,/flll MALABAGA r. F"l' t:dill{',", ;·~I'I'I'IUII.I' fo! I,jete,", 1l~",1

IpllV;tll\li"" MANGA, \'ul'h'ly "f Ihe 111Hu).:n '![ ('ulm; 011 11('1'\>\1111 o[ \'ullll' ,,[ frllit. 1101,(\ Iltlle IlSt'(\ Or

;i l; !III.-,

1/, 1~'\.'=O.fIOI~;'i If. hi -0 1Ii111:,

:,1 i !Iu .-,

i,-,:>

1(.!I.-,:,

,tl0I1Ill,

I!U

Il. :;;t:

=(1.1~~fi,-,

'.-, :>

::1(1

ll. II:."!

91

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lUi:::) =1)(1\.11:>

11 ,-)oj

If.~;!''',:dI

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II, G:~

116

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(ill

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II 1.-, Hi, 1;11

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11:> '2 i! U I,; "

1:>7:> S

II. ill =0,001 1

1/.

131~1 ==1l 1l1~1"ii

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11 iill

= 11

(~I:>

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1/. (l~~l =1l.\\lIl

0'_... ,'~

1/

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il li1

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1/ I(~;] =(1. mlY.li It,li:lI =l1 11(~I.-~

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uno! ll"I>riug" 1'[ 1.l1i\llil1l{-

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CAMAGON.

MALAOUIOONDAO, '~Iu\;t" 'Ir"ut,: IIlII"t'k 11111" hl'f- ill [!"nmiut; "hi I" MALATALISAY, EiH"Iit- IIwl 1Io';>..il,I.·; I,,)' 1111'")

lI. ill(] =11

1l.91/

() 61l 1.1 n '>11

n

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1l n, III

Il.i 0 I,;,;

171;

21:,

t;l~

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MANGACHAPUY

Kilo.

er\ificc~

AL1NTATAO. TIlI'n' ure \'lLrinu~ kil1;J~. un,\ hi Ii,,'d 1"1' lIIt1kinJ:: furnitllre in LUZllil I1.n,l

.\ulnlinll

K i10.

hi ()

~:>

Hl 18

11 1 :Jl)1.I

191 tl

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11 1;1

1 13 (\ 112300

tilO

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Ii I

il (I

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fill 001


PHIUPPl;\E [SLAKDS.

95

".\ \,IStT TO THE Plllf.lI'I'INE ISLA:-;DS'·-COXTI=-TI~D. l1c .. i~iHl[(,~' III

t,cn<ling.

= 1't'1'{'UIJ. c,'nL

=

ull<it.:r pr{,"11 n'

=

('(wffi('icnl fnH'l11!'1'

=

(If

>.

=

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MOLAVE. l'nll~'11 "Qn..,.,l1 <If ,,'ulld,," 1,," ul,plic,\ tn nil u,c,; n·"i'-l-. "'-tlull " r

l1Illi\"..,~; diIllHtl'.

lim,> !lnd ill't'eh

NARRA or NAGA Or ASANG. For l'<illil'l", furlIillln', dOOL' >111.[ window, PALO-MARIA Qr BITANHOL. I,k,'..,,,, !"k .. "f yc"d" PALMA_BRAVA Or ANAJAO. 1'ilr"u!, 1111'\ ,lurtlt,I.,. ,'sP"/'i.,llr ill \\,,\(,1': IISI'!! for 'hike, PALOSAPIS. ,\ "Irong ""nd; USl'.! fur t'1\1l0C~ tLJl(j

Kil/>.

K il(l.

o ~I:.

to I IJ:!

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]

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PANAQ or BALAD Or MALAPA)O.

Kil, )_

116

IIU

For <:diliec,,-

Ull" \',-,,\,1,; g"j\C~. Il\llJll 11l1-isi.)\], an Od'l\"'l1~ [""ilL iI''"'\ lor nuti",·, fHr \1\llllll11"t\lI~ 1,111',

PO'l"'; Il,,'d "I~" fnl" nlrni~ll PENCAPENCANAN. [',,',1 j.!"'lk·ml1~' f,,1' Hn,[

1/ J \ 2:, -_\1

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POTOTAN

Or BACAO. F"r i[~ r",i~I>llll'\l 110 'H~ti"l1 "r

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011

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SAMPALOC or T AMARINDO. }o"1' toO],. lIlHI olher [lllrpo~<:,~ nll,1 fur l',hlic','~ SANTOL. for P(l"ts '~Ih\ pUt.U'~: !lOI H'ry plctlliful TANGUILl. Fur l' dilkc~ TANG AN. For Ilindoll frul!l<:'.-, j()i~I'_ I'I\~ T1NDALO. For furnilun.:;. l'llIil~ un ,~g:n'l'nt,le

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CHAPTER VI.

3,-..1) 3110 :l;1

7:. 71,

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Pin\) de E'coci,1. l' i1l(l pilltlllCro. Pino '!e hI Florhl,1. I'ino , Ic A merie .. I'ino neg-I'". l'illOl1l>lritilllo. l'inll or 1,,110 pillO, PitlO tic Cllllnrin~ . I'nlmn l"e,l\' PRlm,\ b",l\',l . I'nlo npll~·. Qllichm hnrlm. Qllcjigo. gohle (:01011)). i{ol,lc ulb,lr.

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Ylliti. YIlIUI. Y\lll .

,

USES OF WOOOS. \rOOOS :'IIOS'!' l'RJ---:FI-<:RR£D IS :-.'A\·AI. A:-.'I) ORDI:-.'.-\RY CO:-.'STR l 'C'1'IO:-.' .

The woods most cst<'<'med at presen t for export are t he follo\\·ing: TIl llfl \'al cotlSlrnct1oll a wooel should have, 111 add iti on to close a nd co mpact weight, a cerlai ll amou nt or elasticity and be easily wo rk ed) qualities which make the Teak of ~ I abbar so ,·alnable. L1o,·d in his elassificatio n of woods has placed the 7I l ol",·e, Dnn gon a nd Betis In thc h;ghcst class. The following are preferred in China: Futtock timbers (frames of ,·essels), ~ [ ohll·e 'lIId ot her si milar woods . 1"nttock timbers sho uld ha,·e a mi nimu111 length of t hirty feet . Stems, sle rllposts a nd stanchion s: l\ rQ.l'l\·e, Dllll gO ll a nd a n alogol1s ,,"oods, Beams and pla nk s : 1Ian gachapny, Bat itin a n , l3an aba and oth ers analogons a nd IHl\'i n g close and compac l pores and a certai ll e1ast icity and buoyancy, Keels: Betis alld Dungon. Decks: Th e C hin ese prefer t he No rth A merica ll Pine. Thi s affects "ery much the sale of Mai asi noro, Laua n raj a a nd other s imilar woods. The Pine


PHfUPPIKE ISI,AXOS.

97

frol1l Pnget Sonnd, Oregon, and other parts of the United States and also ti,e Pcnn of Singapore, whieh is onr Sambualan, is sold in Shanghai free of duty at .035 to .050 cents (:'I[ex.) per square s uperfi cia l foot, and one inch thid<. At these prices it is impossible for us at present to compete in dcck timbers. In ordinary construction the woods generally llsed are Bausalagllin, .\[acasill, Calumpit, Guijo, Pagatpat , :l Ialatumbaga, Supa (sold Huder the name of 1pil), 1pil (known as Black 1pil), :\Ialasinoro (passed as :lfallgachapny), :lIangachapny (passed in China as \\"hite Mola"e), .-\e1c ("ery similar to the Teak, Jnngle Teak of Singapore and BOrtleo), :I[aladnngon, Balaon and Apilon Raja, these threc being prized as piles, :llulamgat, .:llal anin Aso (passed as Mola"el, Yaeal (called there Gra,' :l lolave), Bnlobog (sold as Apitong), Sandano (passed as ~lola"e), Bancalanag, Duca, CalalllallsHnay alld some others. From the abo"e it will be seen that exporters pass off woods of an inferior qnality for those of a higher grade, thus discrediti llg the sllperior \\"oods.

:t\ot-

withsta nding this the Chinese ue\'er bu,' wood by im'oice and attach little importance to n ames. Their lllethod s of buyillg are \'ery crttde, the principal faciors of importance to them are, that the wood does n ot float, and th"t it is of a d"rk color, when as a maller of fact many of the Filipino woods of the first-class, when well seasoued, float; the question of color is of little or no importance. Their methods of buying is by inspection, cutting the wood with all axe and examining itj the \roods ,dtieh they prefer are the ~[ola"e, Karra, Bansalagnill (highly prized), Yacal , Dnngon, Snpa, Tindalo, Betis, :'Ilangaehapny, Call1ag01l, Acle a1lcl Ipil. There are others which ha"e little or no "alne in the Philippines, being subject to attacks b,' the anay, woods which shonld find a read,' sale and be well appreciated ill f\orlhern China and Japan, \\"here this destroyer, Terl1lis DiYes, is ankno\\-n . . , Do:-.rr:-.:co \'IDAL, p. 202." LIST OF THE PRINCIJ;AL WOODS OF THE PHILIPPINES.

FuR. C.-\];1:\ET ,:\!.\Kl:\l;,

For jim' jirFllilllrc.-Eba no, Call1agoll, Bolollgita, Tillc1alo, :\arra, ).lalatapuy) ,\lintatao, Call1l1Uillg.

l:'r,,' orr/iN(( I)' Jil r 1/ /111 re.-La llele ,

~ arra bJa nea, Lan 11 ta 11, ). [a 1a rll ha 1, .-\ nti po 10 .

I<'OR :\.1-\ "AI. CO:"\STRllCTIO:\.

/,-r'ds, slcnr-josls.-Yaeal , Belis, D1I1Igoll, 1pil. I~II/Io(!.: lilllbers, sll'rllS, !.:JI('['s.-~ I ola\路e. Oil/sid,> (Olls/rllc/ioll, /Jl'nlJls.-Bu naba. IJl'aJJls, mas/s.-Guijo. /('ee/solls, s!('('pers.-Bati ti n u 11. [I 'a/en, '{{)'S, d('(k路s.-~ I a Ilgachapll y. ,)""pl'I'sl rlfd" re, illsidc: dt"t_'l~"/(}IIS. -- A 11lugu is of :\ Iari veles. i'ir/lo(k limbers, masls.-Palo-:lIaria. 1:~路for


oR

FORESTRY BURRAl'

'fhe frigate" E speranza,)) b uilt at CUYlte Arse nal in 1834, and which sti ll has hcr woodwork 111 perfect condition, i:i testimony of the great s uperiority of the Philippine wooel s ill ship building. CO !\STRllC 'l'IO~ OF CA!\OES (BA!\CAS).

T an gi lc, Lannan, ;\l alnallona ng. Balao, -:\{ayapis, and Quick grower .

mall\'

others less used .

FOR H OUSE COXSTR UC'I'IO:\".

~lo1a\·c.-Pil1ars,

joists and \\ indo,," and door a n d other rrame~. fpil.-Salllc uses. . S up", Ralao,-Substitlltes for [ pil, but is inferior. Un n go ll.-Pi llars) s ills, dormers, etc.) espec ially llsed for pieces req II i red to rc!.--lst much pressure. <ll1d which do 110t need to he fi n ely fini shed, for it is 110 t casily worked. 'Bana ba.-lt i~ <:1Ilployed ill 1llallY differellt l.::incl s of pieces. ~ I oi st llre affecls it ,'ery slio·hth·. " , Yacal.-Excellellt for rafters a lld other pieces . Those of large dime ns ion s arc hl.:coming SGuce; nC\'ertheless, there are so me twelve meters lon g by 0.2 0 to 0.25 meters square. Al1l11g11is. Bataculi11, :\l a latulllbaga.-Gellerally sawed into phlllks a n d used for parti tioll 5, eel Ii tl gs, e Lc. Calantas.-For special li11 e of boxes for s uperior class of cigars . ,

FOR ORl)I!\AR \" BOXES.

l'angilc, l\ [aya pis. ~Ialaa ll o 1Jall g, and mallY others of 1I1ClIIY classes, easy to srl\\" aud Ycry plentiful. ' 1. Curved pieces fiftetll to t wellty me ters lOll g, 0 .23 to 0.30 wide a ll d 0-45 thick . 2 . Of s hort cluratioll; did not last ten years ill the ca n Oll eras .

S. \ '' IDA I. . "

'lan." of the Ph ilippi n e bard woods considered of no "alue here on accou n t of the jnsects, climate , etc., would filld ravor ill :\merica where SHch enemies \\"otdd not be encoll n tered. :\ IallY slich woods are stro ll g-) of fin e grai n , take a high pol ish alld arE: excell en t material ror fiue fl1rlliture .

USES OF VARIOUS CLASSES OF TIMBER.

Pdlar.' ur

Iltlrl,~·/{{'" .-:\ l o],l\·e.

[pil and A Il obin; the latter Illust be thoro ugh),' free of sap or white wood, which is a ttacked by white allts. Acle al so is used for harigues. ' Bea",') UII Lilt: ptllars to recet've rajiers.- Duugoll a nd Yacal, whi ch are llotable for resistillg g reat transverse press ure, and attacks of white a nts. !o/s!.y, ra/lers, dc:.- Yacal, Ballaba, 8atit111:1l1 , i\,facasill , Ipil a nd Dl1ugotl; latter two kll1ds are r ather heay\' for roof work.


PHrLlPPINt,: ISLANDs.

FloorN(f/. -

Ranaba,

G u ij 0,

\[angachapu~',

\[acasin,

99 Ti ndalo, Su pa and

C!'llamansana \'.

Par/t//oll路s.-Ballaba, Ballcal. Guijo, Calalltas, i\Iallgachapu\', etc. Tobia dill-dill or olliside plallls oj /lolIscs,-~[ola,'c, Narra, Ade, n i'lIdo",' (ra/l/('s.-~ [ola\'e , /)oors.-:\ arm, Cedar. Cei/ill/{,-(Cedar Cal"ntas) Baticuliu, -"nagap, \[angachaptl\'. Ra(lrrs, joists, (/oorill/{,-Aranga, ' Laguimanoc, roth December, 1888. (Signed) H. G. BROil');,"

CHAPTER

vn,

G eTTA-PERCH.-\. I ~ '\[1);"0:\:': AU. "The Father lIIissionaries of the Company of Jesus ha,路o just written the Father Professor of Natttral History in the ~[unicipal Atheneum of ?-1anila, giving an interesting account of the new industry ofprocttring Gntta'percha in that I sland. Father Bofill under date of December 23d, writes: 'Dnring the past three month s, the Tirtlrayes ('1'al11ont"ca), near Cottabato, ha,'e been acti"ely cngaged i11 extracting in the forests Fequet, a species of gum, from the Fefedus tree. Th ey fell the tree and makc perpe>ldicnlar cnts along the trunk, and collect in large letl\'es the juice which exudes. At first they sold this gum to the Chinamen at three and fonr dollars a pico, but no,,' they get {hirt,' clollars for it; it is really ,,'orth seventy clollars in Europe, I ach'ise yon of this that ,'on may kno\\' "'hat a u seful product this is, and the facility \\'ith which it cau be extracted; it is a great pity that the trees are destro~'e(L people are ellgaged in .. thi s industry and they are now extractillg the g um from the trees ill the forests of Dulanganas. It is also saiel to exist in the island of Bongao,' Father Sancho adds in a letter from Za1llboanga, dated Dece1llber 26th: . It has j llst co me. to my knowledge that lll~' parishio1lers of Sallta i\[aria ha\"e disco\'ered " ne,,' gum, so ,'aluable as to be 1I'0rth t\\'entl'-fi,'e dollars a pico, I ",ill try to procure a good sample-and send it to you.' The word Gutta-pereha is of {>.[:t1ay origin and sigtlifies, gutt, gum, pcrcha. Sumatra; t". {'., gUlll of Slllllatra. It belongs to the Sapotaee", alld to the gelllls lsona nd ra, \fr. Robert \\'right in hi s 'Illu stration s of Iudian Botany,' says, in \'01. II" X.C\'lII, Sapotacere: 'There are lwo species of Isonalldraj one grows ill the forests, the other in the foothills of the m Ollntain s, GlItta-percha is the most highly prized of all, among the proe!ucts of the Sapotace"" It is extractee! from the Isotlane!ra Perch", Hooker. This geulls originated from t\\"O plants in 111Y collection; aftennuds three <11ore were elisco,'ered, all of India, the properties of "'hich ha,-e not yet been in "estigated, ).[<111)"


F O RESTRY Ht IREAl·

100

or

The l son alldra the Indi", diffe rs fro lll that of th e Filipi na s In that th e flowers of the Filipi ll as arc hexa m ero tl s while th ose of I ndia , te tra m e rOll s; ill othe r n:spec ls these two species are so a ll a logo ll s as t o appear to be s pecies of th e sa l11 e" gellus; yet there is n differe ll ce' ill t heir p rope rtie s as t h e re is ill t heir fimy crs .' Rr:nsT.\ C .\TOI.Il'A D J-.: Fll.Il' l :'-:AS, \\'ed ll csd ay, F ebru a ry I , T893 .1I

GUM ELASTIC. "CU1ll elastic is extracted fro lll tr~lS iJel oll g ill g to th e falllily of th e Crli caccre prilll'ipally the I:jells elastica a n d is so \\'e ll kllQ\nl t hat th e re a rc 1I1:1ny g rO\\'ill g ill the garclells of :\ [allila. It is also extracted fro l11 t he Fi c tl s fad icall s an d frol1l two othl'rs species of ficlis \\'hic11 grow ill t he forests of t he Ph il ippi nes; also fro m \'ariOlls trees of the genlls .--\rtocarp ll s. The GUlla-perch" of the COl nlll eree of M a ni la, COlll es fro m the trees of the falllily Sapotace[C of t he Re Blls S id erox ilo ll , Dic h ops is a n d p ri n ci pally Palaqui u lll . '1'11(:' glltta-pcrchaco1lli ll g fr0 11l r. lill d all ao is s01ll eti m es ad ulter at ed, be ill g mixed 'Iilh the juice of t he A lsto u ia a ud olh er trces ,,·hi c h ha,·e a milk y jui ce bu t which i!" llot of the c01l siste ll cy of g utta-perc ll a . R, C ARCTA.))

TI: I ; I': " 1' 1': ( 11';-'

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IUnlllIlW">'. ~;a·rrll I I,k" 11'''' .... \nttelllllllUlIl. A. 1.('. . ~lrll'II'xil"lI ferrnginelltll. I[""k. Si,ICl'llxl\oll IHln'ifulium, F, \,ill. S!,ll'nlx!\"l1 J'\1l'Jit~n, HIIIII"f), 1'11<"1111111. Sj,kroxilOl\ llilidlltll. Ill. SI,I,'rflxi\'"1 B'llilhilull. BI'IIH"', .\,·lllU' !<'IJ.(>t'I, Lil1l1_. (·hieu. l'u l>,lf) IIi II In III lifolium, Hlu11", •. PIIIII(']>III,I{'. l'ni'I'luiulII "Icif~'rllnl, IIlull('o, ,\IUI"I I" l'fllu'luil1m IIII.Ouil·n~e. \·jd .. B!I!!:ul'lu):"it 1''']'I'Jllill111 111\11',-",,111111111. 11\'111<"<1, ll,,):"u· In Llt:'i t. l'II"I'[1lilllll '·IILlC.I\IIItI, \'i,] I~PII .. n,IIn4;lIlfli. [look, M,lln],nl>ll "h I'y-o\,h yl!\nn ,1(1'11 1111 if,,] i 1I m. -:1"1111 l'kh"J'~h 1",lpllllhu. '.\",,11. IJ!(ollo!'_i_ "UIIC,UtI, HI. I, WII

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Firus jud iCII, l.ill1l" HH.lili. Filous l'iusioi.h's, " ' f) " ]IllI CIt'. Fi,'us benj'\1lli"", Linll .. IInlil!. 1"i('uS m[(·nwllriut. Lilln f.. Bign:!. Fi,'Us pun'iiu\iu. ) l iq. Blilili. 1"i("'S l'o!l\'illlW , ~Iil[. ;o.;011Il\'. Fi\'w; Jla' 1111110,·,II'I' II , HI., Tng:lkot.

... . \ \ 1 11 . 1 1'; ..

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Fit'u" 11 111lgel1~, Heillw .. ,\gll~-"­ Ficus 11L'la, Vuhl, J3iri. [Ch'us hctcroJl h )·lln.. L . r., ,\~·i$ or I~ ·i~. 1,'[(:\1s pulYCllrflH. Box!). 1"il'lIs l"IIfJi('All~, '"Ill". 1I11g\]I"~I\, ~ l iq. '!'"qllille s . I' irlh hc<1cracca. H(,):h., I['lguiltlil, Ficus l'oUh1"!lCCIll(bll. Bl., l"luili Jo'i('\1~

l"llccmifern, Hoxh .. '['lIlmyo),: . Fil'Us glomera I". W ilill., \ymi I . Fkus CH III'''''I, ~[j(]., f)ulIg,\l·u):". FicH' lelll'Opkura, BL, LII):" u"I, . Fit-ll ~ raliintn, Dene, Ln.g:IWI •. Fi ell$ I)~C\J(\O-I"llllln., BIlIlII'O, :o.;U1Ullli,,):" [<'it'IL~ JI!1o~", Reill\\, .. 'uquiu,". Fi,'us JlUdH., ~liq. Fkllsl'nllophylh<. Bl. Fit-H_ 1'''"0Cftl"jlll, ~ I i'l.

CHAPTER VIII. Al''l' H OR!'i'JI"~S

CJT E D ,

FA'I' 1l1': R JT·rI" Josi; DEI.GA DO (JESU fT ) . \\'a5 bOrt! ill Cadiz, S pai n. H e we nt t o M e x ico a n d from th e re to t h e Philippines III th e year of 17 1 1, J-Ie filled v ari o us positio ns in I\fallil a and al so in S a m a r ; a nd 111 17T9 '\'as Snperior of the m issio n of Pa lapag ; wa s assist a nt at Taytay a ll d

,


PH ILlPPI:'\E ISL-\XDS.

IOT

Glligll an . He \\-as transferred to Carlgara, Leite, as Rector and Superior, also filled missions in Inabangau and 'l'alibon, Bohol He commenced to write his book 111 Glligl1an in 175I, afler a reside11ce of forty years in the Philippines. He \\"as studious, obsen'aut, and all exeellent critic. H e was a \"cry pions, enthusiastic and patriotic man. He showed great 10\"c for his spiritual follo\\"ers, and \\"as a zealous ad\'oeate for 110nest administration of thc affairs of the islands, aud a yaliant defcnder of the rights of the Indians. It is Hot kno\\"n \\"hcn he died .

PA])RE FR. "IAXl'EL llT,A;\CO

\ \路:15 born on the 24th of l\o\"embcr, "I778, in Ka\"iallOS, Pro\'lllCC of ZamOn'l,

Spain . III 1794, he entered as a novice in the College of the H Augustine Friars ') (Calzado) at \'alladolici, taking the yO\\"S of a religi0lts the following year. Ha\'ing finished his studies \I'ith distinguishcd honors, he eame to the Philippilles in 1805_ Up01l arrival at ).Ianila he was sent to A.ngat in Bnlacall to study the Tagal language. He aften\'ards filledlllam' clerical positions, and made lllany trips ju a religions capacity to the various islands of the Archipelago, cle\路oting his spare time to the study of the country and its products. \\'hile Rector of the tO\\"I1 of Angat, Bulacan, he made a botanical study of the lux uriant \"egetation of the neighboring mountains \\路ith the assistance of the" Sistema Yegetabiliul11)l by (Linneo), the works of the celebrated ]ussieu, and the manuscripts of some prelates. I:-Ie then cOl1lmenced to \yrite his immortal \\"ork "Flora de Filipi u as" \\"hich he from modesty calls "the daughter of simple curiosity." This work co ntains a scientitic description of more than 1200 species (accord ing to Linneo) with f,,1111otes on their properties and uses. Snch \\"as the modesty of the author that ouly at the urgent solicitations of many distiuguished persons including the Queen herself, through the Captain General, \\"ould he consent to publish his \I路ork. He also published "Topographical L etters," published in T834, descripti\'e of t h e pro\'inces O\'er \\"hich he had spiritual charge . H e translated from the French to Tagal a \I'ork entitled "Dolllestic j\ [ed icine, hy Tis50t," with so many notes of his 0\\"11, that it should be called a new work, rather than a translation. It is written ill elegant Tagal, and luerits the attention of scholars. He also wrote some small religious. \yorks in Tagal. He died in :\Ia n ila, April I, 1845.

SEBASTL-\'i ,"IDAL.

\ Vas born i n Barcelona, of \\"ell to do paren ts. H e \\"as ed u cated in t he School of \"illa\'iciosa de Odon, recel\'ing the title of Eugi n eer of the second class, A ngnst 16, 1865; \\"as promoted to Engineer of the


FllRHSTRY IlUREAl'

102

first class 1866; in February, 1871) to Eugineer Chief of the second class, a nd in January, 1882, to EnRineer Chief of the first class in the Peninsnla. H e finished his cd ucation in Germany. E,'en before he had finished his stlldies he was thanked ill R, 0, for sen'ices on the com ml SSlon for the in\'estigalion of the innndation s of the ]llca r. l'pon his retnrn to Spain he was appointed a Professor 111 the Se hool of Fnreslt路~路 . and ill lS,1 Inspector Ceneral of the Forest ry Department in the Philippine,. H e waS chie f of a com mi ssion appoint"d to study the Flora of the Philippines. and was also placed in charge of the Botanical Garden. H e wrote the follo\\'i n g work s: "Stndies npon the F orestry of th e Philippi nes," Madrid, r874; "Notes iq}on the Forests a lld Agricnlture of North America;" "Catalogue of the Sy1\'a11 and cl11ti\'atec1 Ligneou s Plants obsen"ed ill the Proyince of :I!anila," :lIadrid, 1880 ; "Reyie\\' of the Flora of the Philippi ll e Archipelago," ~[anl1al r883; "Synopsis of the Families and Gellera of the Ligneous Plants of the Philippillcs \Ylth an Atlas of one hundred c ngrayings/ ' ~ I anila . 1883; "Phallerogam ~ C11tl1illgia n::e Philippillarnlll)!1 l\[anila 1 r885; "Re"ision of \'a scular Pl an'" of th e Philippines," 1886. Th e 111erits of th ese works a re recognized by all botanists. H e di sco"ered more than 1 00 ne\\' species, not treated of In the works of other authors , H e filled vario11s hi g h commissions representillg Spai n in congresses and exposition s; notably the Exposition of Philadelphia and the Exposition of Philippine prod ucts; celebrated in :lladrid in tbe year 1887. He died in :lIa n ila, July 1889, \\' hil e In spector General de ]I[ontes . The Catalan Colony with the personnel of th e F orestry Departm ent s ub~cribed to a fund to erect a monl1m ent to perpetuate hl~ me mory itl the Phillp~ pi ll es) 111 \,"hose sen"icc he dedicated hi s lire \\'ork, This lllOtll ll11 C llt ,,'as erected ill th e Botani cal Gardc ll~. where it 110W stands,

I)(J:\'

uO,[j:\(~(J

\'IIl.\ I. . I'; :\ (; I :\I';ER C HIEF 1:\ '1'111'; FORESTRY SE I{I'I CI路:.

\\'as born in Barcelona, Spai n. H e a nd hi s brother DOll Sebastiau stndied ill the School of Forestry E n g ineers. H c filled various positions in different provinces of Sp!tin, and ca me to t he Philippin es in the year 1877 as second chief of the Inspecci"n General de ~[onte s , H e published a \\'ork on fore stry, \\Tote scientifi c "lid admi ni stratiyc articles for the papers, and \\'as the editor of the third editi on of the "Flora Agustini"." Hi s book \\'as finished' by Don Sebastiau \ ' ida1. Prostrated from oycr-wo;'k he rctur ll ed to Spain where he died sborth' after-

~[r . Henry Brown, all Englishman, succeeded his brother in the tillIb~r busincss in Lagllimalloc (T ayabas) about 1870. He formcd a lumber company about 1872; this compa ny failed a few years before tbe American oecupation.


PHIl,TPPT:-'E ISI,AYDS.

r03

LIST OF BOOKS CONSULTED.

Vida! )'. Soler (D. Sebastian).-Siuopsis de ralllilias \. generos de plantas lenosas, de FlhplTlaS, COil un atlas de 100 hi111iuas y un as 1900 figllnls) 1883. !'Ida! .1' SO!PI' (D. Sebastian).-Phanerogam", C 1I111ill gi all'" PhilippiuaruJll , TRR S· I 'ida! v Soler (D. Sebastiall ).- R el· isio ll de Plautas \ ' a sclIlarcs Filipillas. I 'ida! I' Soler (D. Sebast iall ). - :\le111oria sobre el ramo de il10nles ell las Islas FiJipiiJas preseutada al Exm o. SCl'ior \lillistro 'de Ultramar, 1074. I 'ida! )' Soler (D. DOll1il1 go).- ~lan\lal del ~laderero e n Filipill as, IS77 . /J!al/ (() (P. Fr. )[allllel).-Flora de Filipin"s segllTl e1 sistema sex ll al de Li1ln eo! T," edicioll) 1837 . iJlal/w ~P. Fr. Mallll el ).-Flora de Filipinas seg lill el 'lslem a sexlIa1 de Lin11 eo, 2 ." edicioll) 1845 .

/i!al/[{} (1'. Fr. l\JallllcJ.)-Flora de Filipillas, 3 ." edic ion , de 111jo, publicada a expensas de let provincia de AgustilJOS calzados de Fi lipillus, bajo la c1irecci611 cie ntifica de los P. 1'. Fnll' . Andres 1\''''es -\. Fr . l!elestiuo Fcrnandez Villar. Editor D. DomiTlgo Yidal y Solcr, Ill genie ro de ,[ontes, 1877-83 . Jliqlt e! (Fred. Ant . Gnil1.I-Fl ora Indi", Bata""" L ei pzig, 1855. Catalogo de las planta s del herbario de la 111specci6n General de I'l i olltes, 1892. _Vola,-Talllbiell se 11a cons ultado para algu1los 110lnbres vulgares la obra titulada "Apu ntes para e l luejor conocim iento) clasificaci611 y ,"aloracion de las principales especies arh6reo,foresta1es de Filipinas" pOI' Don Emilio ~[ affei, Ayudante de l\Iontes, 1895. D elg ado (1'. Jose).-H istoria general :o:; acro-profclll a, politica y lIatu ral de las I slas del poniente Ila11l adas Filipino.s." E scr itn en I751 C impresa ell ~Ianila en 1892. Caull (D. Salvador).--Estud io subre los 11lateriales v efectos ns"dos cn la ,larina , Cadiz, 188 2. POf'{'lItall (John).--The P hilippi ue I slands, London , 1892 . Revista Catolica, :lIanil", I de F ebrero de [893; Congressional Pamph let, Febrnarv 15, 1900; t he Century Diction al''', 1889-1895 .



• •

INDEX. 1'.H' 1-:

Abbe Pn!\'ost 86 Abilo . _____ _ -- - . -- -- - - -. -- 7 Acdall . _. ... . ... _.. __ .. _._ ... . _. 7 Acle. _____ .. _. ____ .. ____ . 6, 15,16,92,93,94,95,97 Adell paran g . ___ ... ________________ ___ ____ 7 Adina philippiJl e nsis, Vidal . ______ . ___ . ______ 10 Advancing wages .____________________ _ 14 Agho ____________ . ________ "._ •. _ . ... __ ______ 7 Aglnia palembauica , Miq? . _. ___ ___ . . ___ . ____ 10 Agoho ______ ... ". ___ .. __________ ._____ ______ 6 Agos-os ___

____ _ _. __ ____ • . ____ _________ _ _____ ___ . Agupanga ___ ._. ___________ ._ . ______________ Ailanthus llIalaba rica , DC •• _______ •. __________ Alagno . ____ " _____________ . _ ,- . . _-

8 69 S 10 7

A1aha11 ___________ • •. _. ___ • ________________

6

~\gubarao ---.--

Alalangat o r Baguiroro ...... ______ ....... 6 Alaulag •...... - . . - ... - ... . -- ..... -... 87 Alasa s ... ... _......... _ ... . __ ......... ____ _ Alauihao ... _._ •. _. __ •.... __ .. _._ . .. __ . __ . __ S Albizzia L ebb ek, Rellth _. __ ._ ... _ .... _........ 10 Alcanfor . __ ._ ... _.. .. _.. ____ . _. __ . ___ . . . __ ._6, 18 Alilltatao _ ... _.•.. _..... ______ ._ ._ ._. _6, '9,94 Alobahay .•. _. __ ......... _...... __ ._ .. _.. ___ . 19 Alpa)' or All1pag. . 6 Al stonia ... _.. ___ ....... 100 All1pag or Alopai.... ... . .. -.-.-94 Allophyllli sCobbe , Bl ____ .~-- .. ... - .. --10 Allophylllls Cohhe, forl1l;t Rhedii , Laws ._ 10 Allaet __ ._ . . . . _....... 9 Ambabalod . . 7 Amaga_ ... . _. 4' - 25 , 94 Alllbog ues AUl0guis .. ..... _...... . . - .--- 25,94 w Amoora CUUlil!gial!a, DC . . _.... w AllIoora rubiginoS<l. , F. ViIL .. 10 Amoora Timorel! sis. \\'. et Arl! ... __ . - . AlIlplipuYOt . 7 8 AlIlugan _ • Amuguis. _ . . .25 92 , 95 , 97 .... _. .. 6 Ailluguis 1St . A llluguis 211. ___ ....... 7 8 At1lu)'Oll .. . .. ___ .. '_'" - .. . - - -- . Anagap. _... _ ..... _..• _.•... _ .•... -.-.7, 19,92 Allajao_ . .. . ... -.-- . . . -.- .. - .. -.- 95 Anam ___ _ __ . . . . . . . . . ___ _. .... 8 AllallapJas ._.. . ...•. . . .. ----- . 7 Anay, white ant. 25,32,68,72,75,79, 82,83,89,91 Andamau _.•.. __ ............ . .... -- ... . .... . 74 Andarayon ..•.... _..... ... .. _. _ ..... _ 46 Aniatan .... _...... _. __ ._ ............ _. 7 Anii . .. __ ...... _...... - . . - .. -.-. 7 Anilao _.... _ .............. • .. _, .. . ___ 8 Anil1ablu or Aninapla .... -- - ...... - .. -- --94 Anobing . _. . . . _. . . __ ... .. _... _. .. .. _. 2[ '-I -fol"

,' .\(.1

AllO b ioll ....•. _.... ..... ..... ..... ____ __ ... __. ! I Anobli llg . __ . __ . _.... _. ... _. ______ _. __ . '_" 21 Anobli ngl st ... __ . ... _._ .. __ _. . . __._ ... .. __ ... 7 Anobli llg2d ...... . • . ___ .• __ ._ .•....... . 7 Al1onang ...• _....... _. ______ .. _............. 7,94 Ansohau . ___ . __ ... _ . __ ._'_" ... .. .. ____ ._ .- .. 7,31 Alitagall ... _.... _ ... _.. _... 74 AlIlipolo _......•. ___ .. - ..... --.-.-.-.92 ,93, 94 ,95 Anubiu ___ . . . . . _ ... __ . . __ . _. _____ . .. _. __. __ 21 Allubing _._. _______ .. _ _. _____ ... . .. ... 6, 21, 93 Allubio ng ._ . .. . . . _... _._ .... _' ....... ... ... 21,92 Anllgalla ll ___ ..... _ ...... ___ ._ .. _._ ... __._ . 69 Allusepmalatalall .. _._ ...• ___ . ___ . __ .... . 92 AIIll\·ioll _._._. __ ...... ___ .... __ ... __ .-. 21 , 95 Apalit ._ ._._ .... _._ .... _. ___ .. _.•• 74 Apito n ._._ . . . . . . . . . . __ .- ... -- .. _22.92,93,95 Apitong .... _.......... __ . . . _. __ •. ___ .... __ --- 7,97 Ap1110ng __ . __ ...... .. ___ .. ___ ..... . ... 7 Ara ban _. __ ..... ' _ ....... _._ .... _... __ ._. ___ 7 Ara\ll:l)' .... _. . . __ . .• __ •• _. _. __ .•. __ .• • .. _•• _ 82 Aranga ._ .•..... __ . . . __ . _. __... _____ ___ .. _._ 6, 24 ArOllla .•.•••.. __ .. ____ .. _ .... _.. _._ .. . __ .... 8 Asactalong ._ .. __ .. __ ._ .. _. __ _._._. ___ . _... _.. _ 8 Asa Ila __ .. ___ .. __ """'_"" .'_' __ "" . __ .. 74 AS<lll g ... _ . . . . . . . . . . . _. . ____ . ___ . _.. ____ . 9S .Asisor Isis _.•...•. _. ____ .. _.. _. ___ _. __ ___ .... _ 8 Aslronia CUllliugi a na , \ ·i(l. __. " " " " . ' .. _. _.. 10 Ala-ata _... _........ . 8 Azaola . __ ........ _. __ .. . _. ____ ._ .. __ .... __ . 95 Dacan .... _.. _. _ . _.. . .. _.... ____ .... _. __ 8, 3 ' Baea o? _ ......... _ __._ . . . _. _. ___._ ...• _. 10,95 Baeayllo __ . __ ...... _. . '.'."'_ " . . . _..... __ 36 Baeauallialaqlli _..... _.. _ _• __ . _... . _ • ___ . ___ 10 Bacodong ....... ____ . __ .. _. .. . _... _... _. _ .. _.. _ 8 Baga la n gi t ._ . . . . __ ........ _..... _..•... _ .. IO Bagalnga_ .. __ . ___ .. __ ..... . . _..... S Eagarilao_. _. ___ .' _..... . __ . __ _ ' ... _.... _... 7 llagar ilao na itim ... __ _____ . __ ____ ._._ ... _... 7 Bagonito ..... ' .... _~ . . _' .... ___ _..... _._. __ ._ 8 Bago lltao ___ ... _. _ ............. __ _ ._ . ... 8 Bagosantol. ... . " ___ " . _ R BaguilUluboy.. . ..... - .. . __ _ .. • _._. _'_'_'. _ 7 Ea!lay .... _. . . . . _......... _... _.. _... __ .. ___ 7 B::ut .... . .... _._ .. _ .. _ .... __ . __... _.. _ S BalacaL . . . . . . . . . __ .- ..... . . -. -.-- ... - ..... 7,8 Balagnall ..••.• -._ •. ____ . . _. __ ._ .. .. _. _. _... _ 7 Balanga _ ._ ..... _ ... _. . ___ . . _._ ... ______ ... 85 Balao __ ._ ......... _ .. _•....... _._._. __ .. __ • 98 Bala o or Panao . ..... ... _._._ . ___ __ ... ___ ..• _ 92, % Dalasabis __ . _. __ ...... ___ ... ... _... _____ . . __ . 8 Dalatbat . __ ....... ___ .. _. ... _.. _. __ ~. _ .'. __ 10 Balatinao ...•••.. _._ .. • .. __ ____ .. _..... __ ... __ . 42 Dalay-bayall ..... ___ . _ ... ___ . _. _... _. ___ . _. ___ 8 Dalay·oh ot ____ ....... _•. ___ ._ . . ____ ._ ... __ . 8 Balayol! ...... -._ .. ____ ._ .. ____ _ ".'-'.'. 56, 83 +

__ __ . . . _ _ _

__ • • •


I NUEX .

106

]'.\(;F.

Bal ayollg. __________________________ _______ ._ 8 1 Balete ... ____________________ '. _. __ . _. ________ 10,94 Balibflgo. ________ ____________ . ____ ." __ .". _____ 8,94 Balie? ________ ---------- -._.!. ________ ___ ____ 9 Balictan? ______ . ______ __ ____ . __________ __._-- 7 BaligalUbali __ . ____________ . _ _ ___ _ __ __ _ ___ __ __ __ 8 Balinaonao ____ ._._ . . ___ • __ • ___ . __ . _____ • _____ 8 Balingua .. __ . " __ ._ .. ______ " •. ____ . ___ .. " _." _ _ __ S Balinhasay. __________ __ _________ _______ ___ ____ 7 Baliti.. ___________ . __ ______ .. ____ ... ____ . _____ 1 0 BalitnolL ______ . __ . ___ _____ . _____ - - ___ ______ _ __ 9 Balobo. ____ . _____________ . __________ .. ____ . ___ _ 7 Baloe. __ . _. _____ . . _ . __ __. ___ . ____ . __ __ __ __ __ _ __ 8 Balongcauit. __ ... ____ • . - - - ____ .. - -. -. - - - •.•• - - 7 Balucanag l s t . __ ...•..•.. ____ ._ ..... _.• __ . _____ 7 Balocanac2d. _________ . _______ .. _____ ,_ • • . ___ 8 Bnloc baIoc ____ ._ . __ .. ___ ....... _. ____ . _____ .__ 8 Baloll-Iuyoll _____________ ... ___ . __________ ._. 10 Baluan ______ ... __ ... ___ .. __ . __.... _...... _._ 8 Balubat. _____ . . . . ______ ... _._ . . _____ .. _ S Balucot ____ .... _______ ... __ ._._. _. _._. _____ .. _ S BaIllllgcauyan . __ . ____ .. _. __ .. __ . __ .. --.- .. - ... 9 Ballan-ballau._ ... ________ .... _________ . _ .. ____ 8 Banaba. __ . ______ .. _.. _. __ 6, 26,. 92, <13, 94, 95, 96, 97 Banabanalo .... _._. ___ . __ . _______ . __ . _____ ____ 8 Banaguling ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 8 Ballaibauai. __ . ________ __ . ____ +_ •• __ ••• __ • _ •• _. _ 8 Ballala Ist._. ___ . ___ __ ... . ___ ._ .. _. __ ._. ___ .. _ S Baualo,ct ~~~~~~~~ ... ~. ~.. ... .. .. S Ballati __ ... _._. __ .. _____ ._ .. ___ .. . . __ ._._. ____ 43 Batlato . __ . _..... " ___ . __ .... ___ ..;_. _____ . __ _ 8 Ballcal __ .. __ ._._. ___ . ______ 7,15,28,92,93,94,95 BancaIanag. ______ ... ________ . ____ .. ____ . __ _ . 97 Bancalauan _____ . ____ . __ . ________ . _____ ._. __ ._ 8 Bancas . __ . _. ____ . ___ .. ___ . _ . _.. ____ - __ - . _. - 23, 98 BallcudoorNino ___ .. ___ • __ . ____ . _____ .. __ ._._ S Ballga .. _. __ . ________ .. ____ . ____ . . ____ ._ .. __ 10 Bangate .~~.~ .. ~ ... ~.~ ......... ~~~~.~ .... ~ ..... 8 BangaI_. ___ ._._. __ ._. __.. _. _. __ . __ . __ . ___ . __ 28 Ballgcal_ .... ___ .. ~. __ ...... _._._,-.------ .. -- 28 Ban g·got ______ . __ . __ . __. _. __ ._. _.• __ . _____ . _. _ 8 Bangkok ___ . ___ . ____ .. ___ ...• _____ . .. _____ . __ 87 Bani _. ___________ . ___ .... _____ ._ . ___ ._.... 8 BaniIad ___ . __ . ___________ 0_ . ___ • ____ • ___ • __ •• _ 9 Ballitall. ______ . __ ... ______ . ___ . _. __ ._. _________ 6 Banquilin~ .... ~.~~~~~.~ ..... ~ .......... . ~ ... ~.~ S Bansalagon .. __ ._~. __ . ____ ~. __ ... __ . ___ . . __ ___ . 30 Bansalague _____ . __ __ ______________ __ ____ __. _ __ 30 Ballsalagui . _. _______ - _- - -. - - . . - -. - - . - - - - - 30, 93, 95 BansaIaguill ___ .. _.. __ ._. ___ _.. __ . ___ .... _ 6,30, 97 Bansilay .. __ . ________ ______ ..• ____ __ .___ _ 9 Balltigui . ___ . ___ . __ • ___ ..•. ____ • __ . _____ . . __.__ 8 Bantolinao _._. __ ._. __.. _. _._ . __ ._ . ... . ____ •.•. 50 Baul! yo _______ . ___ . _.... __ _ __ _ _ ___. _... . _ . __ . 6, 93 Barangoy. ___ . __ . _.. ____________ ••.•• _. _. ___ . _. 10 BararOll __ ._ .. ______________ __ _. _.• _.• . _. _____ 8 1 Barillconcoroll ____________ . _____ . ___ . ______ . _ _ _ 8 Bark for tanning ... __ . _____________ •. ___ .. __ ___ 12 Bandon _..•.. ___ . __ . __ . ___ . __________ _. ___ 55,81 Barringtonia lu zolle n ~is, VidaL __ ... _.. ____ . _.. _ 10 Barusa . __ . _ .. ___ . ___ ... _. ___ . __ . __ . _____ .. ___ 8 Batang-hisan. ____ . __ . _________ . ____ . ______ ... _ _ 8 Batete_ .. ____ . _______ . __ . _.. __ .. _.. ___ . _____ . . _ 7 Datican . __ . __ .. _ ._ .. _________ .... _. ___ . ____ . 8 Baticul in _________ . ___ •• _._ .. ____ ... _. 3 1,91,92,94 Baticulillg ._. ____________ ._ ._ .... _... __ _... 6, [5,31 Ba ticulill l\farang . __ ..••..• _- • . -. - __ - _______ _... 7 _~

Bating ... _._ ... ___ .. __ ._ .. _._ . . . _ . . _.. _. __ ___ S Batino. __. _. ___ . ___ . __ ._ .. _.. _____ __ .. _. _____ 6, 33 Batitilla n .. _____ . __. .. ____ 6 , 34 ,93,96.97 Batoan __ .. .... __ . __ _. _. ____ ... __ ____________ 8 Ratohato __ . _._ . __ ...... __ ... _. _ ... __ 7 Batolinao .. _ _____ ... _.. _____ . __ . __ ___ . 41 Bauhinia variegata, l._ _ ___ __ ____ .• __ __ .... 10 Bansio . __ ___ .. _... ____ ._ .. . __. ___ _. ____ . __ . __ . 8 Bayabas. . ___ . __. . . . __ __ . _____ .• _. __ __ . ___ 7 Barnco . ___ ... ___ ._ .... _.. __ ._._ _ ____ • ____ _ 38 Bayae-usa._ ._ .. _ _. ______ .. __ ._. ____ .... _. .. ___ .5 BayiL __. __ . __ .. ___ ., .. ___ . _. __• __ ___ . __ ____ S Bayoe . ____ .. __ .. _. • • ____ . _. __ . __ . _______ . ___ oS Buyueo_. __ .. __ . ___ ... ____ •..•. _. _______ ... _. 21 ,37 lla'·l1co 1St ' __ .'_ .. ' ___ .. __ ... _._ .. _._. _.... _ S Ua)<lIco 2d. _____ . . _._. __.. .. __ . ___ _ . __ 6 Beam s __ . _. ___ _. __ . __. __ . ___ . _.. ____. __.. __ . go, 96 Be ilschmiedia Cairoean. Vidal . ____ ..... __ .. __._ 16 Betis . _.. ___ __ _____ . ___._ 6,36,93,93,95,96,96 Biga __ . __ ._ ... __ . ________________ . ____ _ 6 Higas_. ____ . _____ .. _. ___ ._ . . . . ___ . ___ ... _. __ _ S Bi g Hai _... . ____ . ___ .. ___ . ___ ._ .. __ ___ . __ . ___ _ .< Bignay-pogo 1St _____ ._. ____ . _.. _ .. • ___ ____ . _ Bignay-pogo 2cl ___ . __ • ____. __ . _. __ . ___ ._._ .. Bilaun . ____ . ___ ....... _. ... _. _. ____ .. _. _. .. __ 8 Hilolo ___ ... __ _ ___ ...... ___ _. __._._ ... 6 Bilucao . __ . ._ . • ____ _. __• __ __ . __ . _. __ 8.10 Binayuyo. _... _ _.. __ .. __ . __ .. _. ____ S Binougan ____ . __ ... ____ ._. ___ ..... _______ 9 Binting·dalaga .. ____ _ . __ .... _ . ______ .. _. 8 B;nungca ~ .. ~. ~ . . . ~ •.. ~~ .. ~~.~ •.. . . ~ . . . . . ~. 8 Biri .. __ ._. ______ .. __ ... _ .. __ .. ___ . _._ .. __ ._ 10 Biray -- __ ._. ____ . __. _. ___ 77 BitanhoL. ._._ . __ .. _. ____ ._. _.. -·· 37,77, 9S Bita nh oll !'t __ ._. ___ _.•. ____ . _. ______ .. . , 7 Ritanhol2d _._ ._ . .... _... ___ _ __ __.. _ S Bitaocy ... ___ . . . . ___ _.. __ . __.. __ 77 Bitaog ... __ . ___ __ _. ___ ._._ .. ___ - - ... -- . . 37,77 Bitl ag _____ .. __ ·_·· .. ____ _. __ 9 Bitoc __ __.. _. __ .. . -.-- -- .. ____ . . __ - --.- .37,94 Bitoe or BitanhoI2d __. ____ ••• _. __.. _. _. _._ .__ 7 Bitog . ___ .. ________ ...... ____ •. __ .. . __ .. . __ .. _ 37 BitteI'Oil . ________ .... __ ... __ ._ .... _ .. __ 78 Hitungol __ .. ___.. __ ... __ . __ . ___ _• __ ... __.. __ ._ S Biuas ... ___ . . ______ . • 10 Black W il II lit __ _. _ . __ . _.. __ . _. _. _.. ___ . _. _ _ 45 Rlanco ( Padre ) .. _.. _____ .. . _ _.... _. ____ _ 100 Blood wood ._ .... _.. ___ • __ ~ . __ _._ . ___ 26, 27 Boc-boc. _._ . _____ . __ __• . __ ._ .. * _. __ __ . __ . ____ _ S Rogo __ _. _____ _. ..... __. . ___ __ _ ._ .. ___ ._. 8 __ .. _.. ___ . __ .. _. __ __ 6 Bolong et a .. _._ .. . Bolol1gita ______ - .. • _. __ - - . . ______ .• __.. _. _ - .93.97 Bolollguita . _____ •. __ .. _. __ .. ________ ... . _. ___ 94 Bonga . _______ .. ___ .. __ . __ _.. ___ .. __ . ________ . 10 ROllgogall _. ___ . ___ . _____ , ___ ", __. __ _, __ , _ 69 Boto-buti .. _ . _. . _. ______ . ~ .. __. __ . ___ _. • _. 8 Botong . _____ .. _•. _._ ._ .. _._ . . .•.. ___ . ___ _ .. _. S British Indi a ______ . __ ... ______ . ___ ____ ... _ 86, 87 _... _. __ _.. ___ .. • 00 . Brown, Henry _._ . Bruguiera gymnorhiza, LaUi . _ . __ . _.. .0 Buhuy __ ._ ... _._ . . . _. ___ .. . __ ... __. _ 8 Bucbanania Rorida , var. lucida, Engl __ . __ .. __ _ Btlchanania microphylla , Engl. ______ . ____ . ____ _ w Bl1guaron __ _. _. __ . __ . __ . ______ ___ . __ .. _ ! ___ • _._ 34 Bliiala . _________ .. . _._. __________ _. __ . __ ,8 BulaOll ____ . __ . ___ ____ .• __ . __ ._. ____ 69 Bulobog 97 w

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I NDEX , Bull Pine. _____ ~ _____ ________ ._. __ __. __ . __ _ . Hun!!alon ____ . ____ . _. _. __ . __ . __ _ . ___ . ... . ___ _ BlIllglas . ___ . _____________ _____ . ___ _. _ . _____ . __ 7 Bus~lac __ . __ .. _______ . _ .. __. _____ . __ ___ ____ .. _ 9 Cabag __ . ___ _ . ___ .. _ . __ . ___ . __ . ___ .'. _________ . ,8 Cahatiti __ ____ ._ ... ______ _ 9 Cabinet woods ._ . . __ .. _____ _ .. _. __ 3r, 43, -l ~ , 59 Cabiqlli .. -._. _. __... ____ . __ . __ ___ .. ___ _. _. . _.. 7 Caboll g ·cabol1g ._ . _______ ._. ___. __ ... _._ . .. __ ._ ~ Cabllrao . ___ _... _.. _____ . ________ . __ ._. __.___ S Cacam~ I S l.orOla~an ____ .___ _____ . 7 Cacnua '211 . _. ___ . _ _ ______ . ____ _ ___ . __ . 7 Cacao·cacauan _____ ____ . ___ . _. ___ . ____ . ___ ___ _ 8 Cagatullgal\ . _______ . ____ . . ___ _ .. _. ___ ____ ___ S Cagayan ____ . ______ . _____ ._____ __ II Cahoi dalaga __ . ________ _______ .. . ______ . 9 Calaclll!chi ____ . __ _. ______ ._. _____ ._ ___ [0 Calai .. _. _ . ___. ____ . _____ . ___ _____ . ___ .. H Caiatllam\er .. ___ . _____ . _____ . _____ ._ . ... ____ ._ 43 CnlaIllHnsaIHly _______ ______ . ____ 6, 39, 92.94,95,97 CalalllaI\SaUIl ______ . ___ .. _ _._._ . . _. _._ .. _.. _ 39 Calanui s _ _ _... ___ ___ . __ . 6, 15,3$,9'2,93,94 . 95, 98 Ca!ay ___.. _. __ ._ ._ . _ __ .. ___ .. __ _ _. . . ___ . S Calavate .... __... _. . ___ __ ... _... _.. __ ....... ___ 86 Caliaug-ian g. _. __ .... __ . ___ __ . __ .... . ___ ... _ _ 8 CaJibayoal1 or Baio. _. ____ .. _. __. . __._. _____ ._. 10 CaliUlantno .. ____ .. __. __. _____ _.. _. ___ . _. ____ ._ 6 Calingag .. ____ . ____ . ____ .. . _ __. ___ _. ___ ___ 6 Calios. ___ . ... ____ ... . . __._ .. _.. __. ____ . _____ ::; CalOc-catmo __ _._.__ _____ . . ____ ___ _. 8 Calomala _____ _____ . . __ . __ . _ - -- - -_. 9 CalophyJluUl Curningii, PI. e t 1'r .. _. _.. ___ . _ _ __ _ 10 Calophyllulll Pselldo-Tacamahaca, PI. d '1'r __. __ 10 Calulllpall __ .__ __._. _. ___ _._._._. ____ . _____ 92 . . __ .. $,49 Call1lllpallg _. __ . _____ ... __ . _ C<l luUlpit. __ . __ _ . __ --- .. ---- . - -.--7 , 41 ,92,94,97 Cm nanchiles._. ___ _ . __ _ . _____ . ____ ._ .. __.. ___ _ 7 Call1anglliunis ___ .~ _ .. __ . __ . _. __ . ______ 9 Camalltayo o r Gnyong g urong 2(L __ .. _ . __ ___ 9 Camagoll __ .. __ . ___ . _. ___ _____ . 6, 42, 93, 94, 95, 97 CamavnanH ._ ... _ .. - _- .. - ... -.-. -- .. --- .. -- .. 93 ____ .. __ __. ____ _____ ... __ __ S~ Camayoll ._ .. _.. Camallyal1 . ____ __. __ . __ . __. ____ . _. ___ . __ . __. . _ _ 84 Catllav lIan ___ .. __ . ______ __. _._. ___ . __ . ___ . __ _. ~4 Camigay ..... ____ . _______ ... _________ . __ ______ 8 Cand-oi _. ____ _________ , . __.. ___ . _. _____ . . ____ . 8 Camphor . __ .. _. __ __ _. ____ . _____________ .. __ __ 18 ~alllp h ?ra tn1ll . __ _.. __ _____ . _.. __ .... _._. _____ 18 Camulllg . ___ ___ . ____ . . _. . . __ ._ . ____ .. __ . _____ . 43 Camullill __._ . . _. ______ __ _. __ __ . _. __ .. _. _______ 95 Caulllnin g _______ . ____ . __ _. .. ___ _. ___ . ___ . __ .6, 43 CallariulIl grac il e, Engl __ . ____ ._. ___.. __. . iO Canoes __ . . ___ . ___ . __ ._. __. .. _______ _. ___ . __ 85 .98 Ca nolllay __ . ___ .. _. ____ . ___ . __ . __ __. __ . __ __ __ 8 Cansilay _._. __ .. ____ ._ ... _ _. ____ .. ____. ___ _ 9 Cansnvot . __. . ___ __ ._ . ___ .. _ ... __ . ______ _ _ 7 CaRa -fistula . ___ __ .. __ .. _. - .. -- ._ .. _. - .----.- 6 Carabaos __ . ___ .. _._ .. ______ .. __ . ___ . ____ .. __.. 14 Carallia integerrillla , DC . __ ._ __. __ ___. ___ 10 Cacao!. .. . . ..... . ....... .. .....•.. ... ...... 8 Cariquis. __ ___ . __ ______ __ _ . _. . __ . __ ______ . _ Caropsan __ . _. __________ ._ Cacumanpat __ . ... ... ...•... .... . . _.....• . _... 8 Casay ____ . _. . ____ __ . __ .. __. ____ ___ __ _. _____ __7, 19 Cascos . _. ___ ____ . ___ . __ . ____ __ __ ._. __ ._ .. __ . __ 17 Cassiajavanica , L ___ .. __ .. _.. _.. _____ . ___ ]0 Cas uarina RUUlphiana, Miq ___ . _ .. ___ . _____ . _ [0 ~

~as~l ar!ll a :mmatralla, Jungh ___ . ___ ___ ___ _____ _ _ 10 Cahllg rll . ___ .. ___ . ___ ... __ . _ . __ . ___________ . __ 38 Catlllon 1St.. __ . _. _. _. __ . __. ____ ___________ ... _ 6 du 2d. __ . ____ __ . ___ __ . ___ _______ ____ ____ _ 7 Ca turay 8 CanOll ____ ___ . ___ . ___ . __ ._ .. __ ._. __ _____ . __ _ _ 00 Cayaoyao _ ____ __ . __ . ____ . ______ . __ 9 Cedar ____ ______ . _______________ . ___ . _ __. _ __ _ _ 3q Cedrda odorata ___ __ . _______ ._ . ___ ____ . ____ . _ 39 Ced ro _. __ _____ ...... . . _. __ __. ______ _. _______ . 9S Celestino FerualH\ez \ ' illar __ _. ___ . ___ . ___ _ . ____ 86 Cerbera lactaria. H alll. ______ . ____ . ____ . ___ ._ 10 Champaga ___ . _. _________ .. _ _____ _ . • ___ ____ 10 Charcoal _... ____ _ .. _. . ___ . _______________ 17 Chinese cooli n; ._. _._ . _______ __ .. ____ . ___ _ . _. _ 14 Cin nalll Ollttl1l1 ____ . __ _.. _.. . __ _. . _. ___ .. ____ 18 Ci pres _ - - - -. __ . . _ . - - - - ... ____ _.. ___ - - -. - . - - _ __ _ 7 Classification ___ _.___________ ___ ___ __________ 6 ClallS('lla €'xcavata, Burlll ___ ... _... ____ _ ____ £0 Cle istanthu scllprells, Vidal .. __ ._ .... __ _ ... _____ 10 Cocoa uu t pa lm s . _.. _. _. _. __ . _____ . ____ . ____ ___. 12 Co lumbia Blancoi, Rolfe __ .. _. .. . __ .. ____ ___ ___ 10 Combretulll acumillatulll , Roxb _. __ _ . _______ __ __ 10 COlllbretu ltlsquamOS1l1l1 , Roxb ___ . ___ . ___ . .. _._ 10 Com in tan . __ __ ___ ... _. ____ . __ _. ____ ... _. _. ___ 45 COllllllersonia platyph ylla, Amlr . . _.. . __ ___.. _. 10 Constr uction · ·· · __ .. ··_···_····· __ 37, 40, 47, 7 1 , 75 COllstructioll domes ti c wood. __ ._26, 57·, 59, 60, 63, 67 78 , 80,8 1,82,84,86,88,96, 98 COllstrl1cti o n naval wood .. __ .. __ ___ 24, 25 , 26, 34, 45 62,67.78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 86, 88 , 90, 96, 97 Cord ia CUUlingialla, Vidal _._ .... __ ___ . __ __ ___ .. JO Cratoxyloll lllicradelliuUl , T urcz .. ____ _ .. _ .. ____ [0 Cryptocarya luzoniensi s, Vidal ____ . . ___ _ . _ _ ___ _ 10 Cnbi . __________ .. _. __ .. _._ . __. ___ . ... -.- .. -- 6,9 -' Cubili ________ . __ ... _.. _.. __ . ___ _. __ ____ _. _. __ 8 C" gao __... . . . . ......• . _. . . .... . . . . 8 Cu lasi ______ _·_ . __ _... _____ ._. _. __ .. _______ . __ _ 00 Clliilisiao1. . .. _. ___ . _ _ __ ___________ . ____ _ 8 Cnlill-llIauog ___ .. __ . __ _ . ___ ___ ~ _____ •. __ .... _8, 93 Culis ._.___ ____ ....... __ . ____ _____ ___ . . _. __ S Cu ualollg . __... _. __ . ______ . _____ . _____ . ___ 7 Cupalliaglabrata,Kurz ____ . ___ __ __ ._. ___ . _, ._. 10 Cnpa llg . __ .. __ . __ . _____ . __ . __ ____ . _____ _. __ 7 Cllyaqllia_. _. __ . ___ . ___ . __ .. ___ _. __ ____ . _.. __ 8 Cuyos-cuyos ___ . _ . ___ __ .. _ . ______ .. __ . ____ . _ __ _ S Cy nometra acutifiora, L . _____ . _.. ___. ___ __ . ___ 10 Daitanag __ . __. . ___ __ . _____ ._. __.. _____ . __ . 74 Da lan ta .... .. . .... _.. . ... . .. .. _..... . _. __.. ... 8 Dalindigall __ . _ _ ._. ____ . __ . __ __ . ____ _____ ._. __ 7 Dalinsi _._. ___... _____ .. __ . . ____ .. ______ . ______ 7 Dalondoll __. __ __ ____ __ . ____ . ____________ . ____ . 86 Dahlllot _. _.. ___ . _.. _______ .... _ _ __ __ ___ _ _ __ _ _ 8 Daluroy _ . . __.. __. __ __ . __.. __ .. ________ . __ . __._ 8 Dallopaven ._. ____ . ______ _... . ___ .. ___ . ___ . ___ . 46 Dancalall ___________ .. ___ . __________ ______ . __ . 77 Da l1colal1 .. __ ___ __ ____ _. __ _. . . ____ . _____ __ .. 77 Dan gle. ______ . _. __.. _.. _ .. _____ . __ . _____ . . _ __ _ H Danglill .... __ _ .. __ _____ __ _ 7 Da n lov ___ __ __ _ . _.. _. __ . __. _. _____ .. ___ ...... _. 8 Danl ri __ _._ .. ____ _ . ___ ._. ____ .. _. ___ _. __ . __ . __ 8 Danyay _ .. ____ . ___. __ . __________ . __ . .. _ __ _ __ _ _ S Dao _. __ ___ ____ __. . __ ____ . __ __________ . __ .____ 7 Daok __ ______ _____ . . __ . ____ . __ . ___ ___. ___ . __ __ 78 Dapc1ap .. _. ___ .. ___ .. ____ _ . __ . __ ... ___ • ___.. _. 8 Daraya ___ ._. __ - - .. ----.-.- - .-- ... --. ---. _____ 9 10 Das)'colelllll phil ippinlllll , Tnrcz __ . __ _ ___ _ _ _ow.

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I NDEX.

108

1'.\61::

D aY<lca ____ ._

_ __ . _____ . ___ .

10

Dec k s _____ . __ __ _ ____ . _____ .. __ . . ___ . _. _. _. _. 52 96 D elgado (Jesuit). ____ . ____ . ... __ _ . __.. . . ... . ___ 100 DesUiOdiullll1lll bellat ulll, DC . _____ . _. • .. __ _____ 10 Dila-d iln ______ ... . ... ____. . . __ . ___ . ____ .... 8 Dila ug butiqui ___ . ___.. __ . _______ . ____ . ____ ___ 9 l)i lo ___ . _ ____ ... ______ • .... ____ ___ _.. __ __ 78 D ill eals n ". ____ .. .. ___ .. 77 Ding!:;!. ;, _. __ . __ ......... ______ . .... _. 7.45,9 1,93 nin1as . _____ " _.. _____ _.__ ____ ___ _____ 45 D ios py f OS philippi ne n sis, A. DC ___ __ _ __ ... .. __ 10 D iplophractuUl philippinetl'iis, Vida l __ __. ___ . _ _ 10 Dipt e roca r pu s veiuti nu 5, Vida l __... . __ ... __ . _.. 10 Dita __________ .. ___ __ ____ __________ ___ ___ __ __ 46 D itaa ___ ____ _______ _____ . . __ _._. ___. --- - - - -- - - 7, 46 8 D ita -d ita . __. __ . __ . ___ _. _____ . ____ . _____ __ _. Dolitan ___ . ___ . ______ ___ . ___ __ . _____ ____. . _._ 6 9 DOlldon ay. ___ ._ .. _. ____ ___ . __. __ . _ ______ __ . __. _. . _.. . ___ .. ___ -47, 94 D ongo ll __ . ___. __ __ _ Don k eye ngilles _. ___ .. __ _. __ . ___ . ___ . __ ____ ._ 14 DraCOlltom e l lllll Cu m i ngia llnl1l , 8a ill . ____ _ . __ . _ _ 10 Drivf' ways ____ . . . . __ . __ _______ .. _______ ___ 13 _ .. __ . _____ . _____ . . - - ... - - . . - _-9, 9 7 D UCR _ D ucla p . __ . ____ . _____ __. _______ . . .. _._ .-- _ . __ . 7 . . ___ ._ .. _____ . __. ___ . . __ _ 7,8 D liguan Dl1mayaca_. _____ . __ ._ ... ___. ____ _. . _.. __ __ . 10 9 D UU1pila n . ________ . ____ _______ __... ___ . ____ DullgoL____ -- ___ ---_ - - - __ .. _. . _____ __ 47 Dungoll ______ ._. ______ . __ .6, 15, 47, 93,93,93,96, 96 Dungon-late __ .. . _____ _ ._ . .. ___ __ .. . _. ___ __6, 49 Dye- wood s _. _ _ ________ ___ _. __ . .. _.12, 41 , 76, 86 D ysoxy lliUl Cumiugia n ll w , D C .. ___ ___ ___ .. __ . __ JO D ysoxylum Schizochitoides, DC .. __ .. __ . . _.. __ _ JO E ba uo _____ . ___ ___ . __________ ____ . 6, 50, 93, 94 , 9-7 Ebon y __________________ . ____ . __. __ __. ... _. 19,50 B bed us tree ____ ____ . __________ . __ . _. . __ . _._. __ 99 E lreocarpus Cllmingi i , Turcz _____ . ______ ______ JO Elreoca r plls oblongus , Grernt . _________ ._._ .. _. J O Epe rua ____ __ . ____ . ___ . . . __ . ___ . . . . . __ _ 82 E r iobot rya phil ippiue lls is , Vidal __ . __. 10 Erythrilla l itb ospe r Ula , il1. ____ . _. _._ . ___ . _._. JO Eugenia cillllamomea , Vid _. __ . . .. . . __ lO E ugen in Cuwingiaua , Vid _ . ______ . _ . . _. . _.. _. 10 Rllgen iajava nica , Lam ___ ______ __ .. _ .. _. ___ 10 Evodiaglab ra, 8 1. ___ __ . ____. . __.___ 10 Rvod ia latifolia, DC . ___________ __. . ____ . .. 10 99 F efedus tree_ .. ______ ._. __________ . . __ F ell in g. _....... ____ ..... _._ ... ____ . _________ IJ F eq ue t ____ ... _. ____ . ______ .. ______ ... _. 99 F eta n _____ ._ . .. __ . .. ___ . ____ . __ . __ _ . __.. ____ 78 Ficus poly carpa , Rox b _ . . . . ___ __ . __ ______ . ___ 10 100 F icus elastica __ . __ ....... _____ ._. __ ._._ Ficlls radicans ____ . ____ ____ . ____. ____ ___ ____. 100 F~f~h. G ro up .. ________ ___ . . _ . . ____ . . __ ___ 5 Flhplll o ________________ . _. _... _____ . ____ __ . _ __ '4 Firewood ______ _.. . _. _. _____ . _. . • _. . . __ _ _ I I First Gro up _ .. _ .. _ .. --- . . - . - ___ . ____ .... 5 Flooring __ . __ ..... _. . _.... _. __ ___ . __ .. _. 26,52,99 Forestry Bureau_. ___ .. ___ . _____ . _. __ ....... . 5 5 F orestry R egula tion s .... __ . __._ . . _ .. _._._._.__ For~ s try . ___ ___ _ ..... ___ ._ . .. . _ . . .. __ _ . __ .... II F ores ts, State __ _. ___ . __. _._ .. . __. __ ._ . ___ ._ . __ I I Fourth Grollp ___ ..... ___. _____ . ___ . __ . ____ .__ 5 F reig ht ra t es ___ . . ____ . . __ _.. __. ___ . ___ _. ____ ._ IS Fruit ... . . __ . ____ __ . __. __. __ . _. ____ . ___ . . _. ___ _ 12 1·'lIe l . . . _____ ... __ ...... __ _._ . . _. . - - . . _____ __ 5 J

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Furniture wood s .. __ .. __ ._._ ._ . __ .. __. _ ' 9,35 42, 46 , 57, 64. 65 , 75, 79, ti l, 8 1, 83 , 83,84, 88 , 97 Futtock timbers __ . . _ . .. . _. __. . . _... . __... ____ 96 ___ .. . . ____ _. __ .._ 7 G alagala . . __ _._. _ __. _. __ ._._ .. .. 10 G a rde uia 10 ng iAora , Vida l Garcillia Andersouii , H ook , L ? ____ _ . _. .. . _ JO G a rcinia CUUliug ialla , Pie rr _ .. __ •. . _ JO G a rci uia l\'lore lla . Desv . . __ _.. _ 10 G a rcilli a ova lifolia, flo ok _.. 10 G a tasu n pula _ ... __ .. __ __ ._ .. _. . . . 7 10 G a tasau __.. __. . . . . . . __._ Genu.<!. ny . . _ ...... _. .. .. __ 13 Glue .. .. ____ ...... _. . . . . . . . __.. 83 Gordonia a ClltlliJl :l ta , Vida l ....... ... 10 Gre wia eriopoila, Tu rcz . . . . . . . ___ ___ __ •. _. _. 10 Gre wiamultiAora , JIl SS _ _ . . . _ .. . . . _ _ . _ _ .. . _ _ . 10 Grewia tili <.efoli a , Vahl ____ ______ . .. .. _. 10 Gray Mol a ve. __ _ . _ ___ _. _. . __... . ... . . _ 89 Guij o ___ ._ _ _____ _ 6 , 52 , 92, 94, 97 .97 qll! ~a to .__ _ ____ _..... _... _ ... . ___ . 6 GUlSlhall ____ . __ __.. _.. ___ . . __.. ... . . _. .. ___ 6, 93 Gliiso . __ ... _. __ _... __ . ..... . ... . . 52 G ui soc ...... . . ____ ...... . . _. .... . . ____ _____ 52 Gui song d ila o . . .......... _. 67,94 G um elastic . ..... _. . . . . . . . . . _.. __. ___. 100 GU Ul __ _.. _. _. ___ _. . . . _. . . . _._ . .. _. . _ 12, 4 7,99 Gutta-perc ha . __ . __ _.. . . f2. 99, 100 G uyollguy oll 1S t _ _ _ • _ •••.• _ . __ ' . ' _ 7 7 H agadhad ___. . __ _ _ _ ..... . .. H alo pac-sm o ._ . . . . __ .. ____ .. _ _._ ... _. _ 6 H a ras ___ ___ . __ ___ .... _. . .. .. ____ .. . __ ____ . 6 , 53 28 H a nba bal os ._._ . . . _. . . . . . . __ . .. ... __ _. . Rapito n . _.. _._. _. .. _. . . . _. . . . . _. . _. ___ __. _._ 22 H a uling ___ .. _. . . _.. _.:_ .... _ . . . _ . ___ _. ___ . 13 H ayopag._. __ .. ....... .... . __. . _. _.. . _._ ._ .. _. 69 Hemigyrosa P e rrotte tii, Bi __ _._. _._ . . . _. 10 H e m lock _. ___ ... _____ _ __ _. _. ...... _..... __ 91 Him babaO l st. ___ __. __ . . . _ 8 Himlliao ____ .__ ._ .... _...... . _. 8 HilJl babao 2d _ ____ .. . .. ____ 8 Hind urugo____ ._...... 7 Hinagd un g ___ -- - - ---- .---.. 9 31 H il1 gda n ... _.... _. 7 H oj a c ruz _ .- .. - - .... . -- ...... lO H Ollla limn Bara ndre, Vi d .... . H omaJiulll fcet id lllJl , Be nth . _.. 10 H Ollla lilim Vill ari a nulll , Vida l_ 10 fa H opea pitilip pin e n sis, D ye r. __ H ongo ______ ___ 9 - _. _.. _.. 9 J-[0poll g· h opOlI g . . . _. _ _. _.... 29 , 90 H o use·buildin g Hug ud. _. . . .. ___ .__ _ 9 r61 . __ _. _. . . 54 lfi -lele . __ __.. . . ___ . . __. _.. .. 54 I lang ·i lang._. . . . . . __ . _. _...... _ IO India n Cedar . _.. _ ...... _._ . . ... __ .. _ . .. 38 In sects _ __ . ____.. . . _. _.... __ . ___._ . .. _. __ 38,45 Ipil .;._ 6 , 15, 54, 79,80, S I l 9 1, 93, 93, 93 . 95 , 97 ~IrO'1 f ree. _... _. .. . . .. __.. ___ . ____ __ . _ . . ... __. 65 Iron Wood ___ _. . . _ ___ ' . . . . . .. . . 47 , 48,65 I sona ndra . - ___ . . . .. . . - . - -. . . " .. _ . ... 99 I xoraClllllin g ia na , Vid __ . . . . . . _. . ...... 10 Jara . __ ._ .. . .. _.. - . .. . - -.-.--- ..... 53 Jarool _. _._. ___ _.. _ .... . .. ... _... .. .. _ 27 Joi st s. __ . .. ... 34, 47 , 84, 98 , 99 Kama ni . ___. . _. __ ." . __ __ .... __... 78 Karabowl s .. __ .. ___ ._.. . 56


INDEX. PAGE

J(eel s. _____ . _____________ . ___ .... _...... _ _ __ __ 96 Kiaboota wood . . __________ ___________________ _ 74

Kugao. ___ __ --------

___ . __ • _____ ... _____

Kurrilllia gracili s , VidaL ___ ____ ... _____________ Kurrimia illzollica, Vidal. __ . __ . _____ ___ .". ____ Labor __ __ ____________ . ______ . ____ . ____" _______ Lagasa _____________________ ._________ ____ _____ l,agnob ______________ .. __ ____ . _________ __ _... Lagl1ig ___ ____ __ ____ _ • . ______ • __. __ __ ___ ____ l..aglll)(l i ______ - _- - - ___ ___ - . ____________________ Latllio . ___ ._ .. _______________ ... ___ .. _________ Lanaan ___ _____ . ________ . __ . ___ . ______ ____ . _ _ __ Lanaha11 ________ ____ ______ .". ___ ."._ ... ___ __ J-<an ete . . ____ .. ______ ____ ___ . ____ ... _.-_. 6, 57, 92, LallllHlI .. __ . ____ _ _ __ . ___ _ _ . _______ __ . . ___ . __ __ .

9 10 to

14

9 10

9 73 9 60

69 94 9g

I,angaray .. _... _..... _. . _. _. __ __... _. __ . __ ... _. 10 Lallgil ISl. ._. _ .. ____ . __ ._ . ___ - _ __ .. _ .. __ .___ _ 7 Lan gil 2(L .. _. __ . ___ . ___ __.. __ . ____ .. _. _ 7 LangiL. ____ ._ ... _ .. _. ___________ . ___ ___ ___ ___ 2 0 J,anigda .. ___ ._ .. _____ __ .... _____ 38 Lanigpa . _____ . _____ . __ . _ .. _. _.. ____ .. _.' __ _ __ _ 3S

;:~:::i~g.a_.__.-_ . ~~~~~::~~~~::~~~:~~~~~:~~~~~~:~:~~~ ~~ Lauutall _.. ___ _._._ .. ___ ._. ______ .. ___ __.... 15.93

I,f\lIl1tlln ISt. _._ .. _ . . . . __ .. _ .. _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . 6 Lalllitan 2d . __ .... _. __ ._ .. __ . __ ___ ._. ___ .. _. ___ 7 Lanutan itim _. _____ . __ .. _. _ ..... ____ _ .. _. ____ .. _. S Lallutan puti ._ .. ___ .. ___ . __ .~-.- -- .------. - --S L alll1si __ .. __ _____ . ___ . --. - ____ . __ __ ... ____ . 57 Canuti._ .. ___ ._._. ________ _ -- . . -. -. - ... 57 Lasgas _______ . __ .. ____ . ____ ... __ . ... . .. __ ____ S 7, 60, 88, 93. 94, 96 Lauaau __ . ___ _. __ _. __ __ __• _____ . __. __ . ___ . __ _. 60 Leptasao. ____ ... _._. ____ _ .'.--- .-- . . --- .. ---9 I...ibas . __ _ . _____ __ ._ - .. _. ___ . _____ ___ . _... 9 J,ibato pUll __ ___ .• __ . __ •. ____ . __ ._ •.• __ .• __ ___ 7 Lihato pllla _ ______ . _. _____ ___ . ____ __ . __ ___ ___ . (0 I,icense __ . ___ _._. ___ ._ .. __ - ----. --.-- .--- .. ___ 5 Ligaa. ___ _.... _____ . __.. ______ ___ . _. __ . _. ___ .. 9 Ligas. ____ . ______ . __ ._ ... _.. ___ ____ . - ---- - -.-. 9 Lingo __ _.. _. __ _ ._._. __ .----- .--.-----.- .. ---- 74 Lipote ____ ____ _ . __ _._. ______ _ 9 I,itsea cinnamolllea, RI .. ___ ... . ___ _ •. ____ . __ ._ 10 L·itseafulva,F'. Vill . __ . ____ . __ _. ___ . .•. ____ _.. 10 Litseaiuzonica, F. ViI!. __ .. ___ _. . _. _. ____ ._ .... (0 Litsea Perrottetii. F. VilL._._ ~ ___ . ____________ . iO Litsea verticillata, Vidal . ______ ._. __ . _____ • __ . __ 10 Llapa _______ . ___ ._ ._ . ------------- --- -- -- ----9 Cocton ____ .. ___________ ... _ __ _ _ __ __ . _. __ __ __ __ 8 Loniti ____ __ ________ .--- ----.- ..• -.------ .- -- .. 57 Lubtob ____ .. _ ___ .. ____ .. ________ . ___ ___ _. __ __ 9 Lucban gllbat. _. __ _. ___ _____ _ ... -- -----. -- ___ 7 Lllluballg . _____ . _____ -. - ___ - - . . -~ - --- -.- --' -7 Lumbermen ___ ___ _. ___ __ .. __ _ __. _____ . . _____ 13 LlImbiac . __. _____ . ______ __ . __ __ _ . ______ ._. ____ 10 Lumboi orDuhaL ___ __ _____ . __. __ . . .. .. ______ ( 0 LUluati ______ __ __ . ___ ._ . -.--- - -- --.--------- 34 Lunas _. ___ _ - ... _. _. - - - _-. _ - - - - - - . - -. - - - - - - . - - 9 LlIllas-na-itim __ ... _____ .. __. _ -.- - . .. --------9 LUllasia parvifolia, F. Vill __ ___ ___ . ________ ____ 10 Luzon. _ .. __ . ___ . ___ ________ _ . ___ ._. __ . ________ II Luyong. ___ __ . ___ . _____ ____ _____ . __ ___ . .. _____ 50 Io/uyos .. ___ . __ . __ ... ___ ____ ._. __ . ______________ 10 Maata ____ . ____ . ___ • ____ . ___ ---- ___ .. __ - .. -.-9 Mabalo ___ .. _. ___ __ .. ____ _ _ .• __ _. ___ .. _. 42,94 l\-Iacaasin .. ____ _____ ___ .. ____ ____ .... _____ .. _ 6, 62 Macaasin pula _._ . . .. _.. __ • __ __ .. - ____ ._. __ . . __ 7

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PAGl':

Macasin ._. __ ... ___ ._. ____ ._ . . _._. ___ ._. 62, 92, 97 i\Iacasim .. ___ .. _.. _ . ___ ._ .. _. ____ . __ . . _.. _. __ 62 Macaasim . __ ___ ..•. _____ . • ___ ... __ ____ ... _._ .. 62 :'.lacabingao _____ . ___ . __ . _____ . _____ . ___ . .. _.. 7,69 i\ lacaturay _. ___ . _____ .. ______ . ___ . ______ .. _._. 9 Macasilad ___ .. _. __ .... _____ _ . ___ ._._. __ ___ . __ 10 l\ladre cacao. __ .. _• . ______ ._. ____ _ ._ .. _ ._ .. _.. 6 l\Iagarilao ___ .. . ___ ._ ...... __ ..... __ ... _______ . 7 Magaspang __._ ... ____ . . ____ . __ . __ ._._ .. . __ .. :s IHaga "'-" ' - " -'--_'_' __ " ' ___ . .. __ ... ____ .. 9 l\·lagabagaba_ .. . _. ___ .... _ _._. ___ .... ___ •. _._. 9 i'llaga rambulo_._ .... -. -- _. ___ __ ... _._~ _____ ._. 9 ?l Iaguilic .--.-.-., .- ______ ' ___ . ___ ._._.'_" _' 9 l\1ahogany .. - .. - -. -. - - _____ .. __ . _.. __. _. _.. _' .. 75 Malabayahas ___ ._. __ . ___ .... _. . . ___ ._._ .. ___ 7 ~~a!ataltr ... -. - .... - ..... -. - .. - - - 6, 65, 94 , 95 , 97 j a acae lOS lst. ____ ._ .. _ __ .. _ . . __ .. __ ._. _ ... _ . 6 MalaC~l.(lios2d .- .... - - -- ... ____ ..... __ ....... _. 7 Malacapoll ____ ... _. __... _._. __ . ... __.... .. ___ . 6 MaIHcatlllol1 ___ ____ ._ .. __ .. _.... _.. _.... ___ .. _. 6 :'Ifalacmalac ___ . __ ... __ .. - ... _.. ___ .. _.. ___ .. __ 7 iHal a ruha t na pula .. _.... _____ . __ ...... _.. _.. __ 6 Malarayat [st. . ____ __ ..... ____ .. ____ __. _. ___ __ _ 7 Malanlyat 2d. ____ . _..... ___ . _____ .. __ .. _. .. _.. _ 9 i\Ialaruhat 2d __. ___ .. _. ____ ____ ___ ._ .. __ _____ . 7 i\lalatu tlI baga ___ . _... __ ___ .... ____ ...... __ .. _. _ 7 l\-Talaanonang. ___ _.. ___ . .. . ___ .. _.. _____ . __. __ 7 Mal.lsaguin puti. __ . _ . __ ._, . _____ __ __ . . _'._._ 7 1\1alabOlloL_ .. . .. " .... • ___ _. __ . _. _. _. _... _.. __ _ 8 Malacalios_. ___ __ .. _.. _____ ._ .. __ __ .. ____ . ___ _. 8 Mal aibohod ._ .. _. __ , __ ._. ___ .. . _. _._ . _._ .. __ _ 8 M a laguinisan __ . ____ . ______ . ____ _.. __ ____ . _. __ _ 8 Malatadiang ___ . __ . ~ _... _.. . __. ____ . __ . ___ . _. . _ 8 lVfalongaill . __ .. _.. _____ ._ . __ •.• _. ___ . __ __ . __ . 8 i'I-Jalal'1duas_ - - - -- . - - .. - -- _ - - . --. - ____ . __... ___ _. 9 Malabago --.-- .. -- .. -. ---. -.- .. _. __ . ___ _.. _._ 9 J\-'Ialabollga .. - ... .. - . ... -. ··_4. ___ __ ._ .. ____ .. 9 Mal abulac ... ____ . __ ...• __.. _. __ . . __ .... ., .. __ . 9 Malacacao .. _.. _. _____ ___ __ 9 Malac amote - ----.-- .. ---.- - .. -- •.. _. ____ .____ 9 Maiacauayan .... ---- .-- . -- -. __ . _____.... _. __ .. 9 Malaclac ---- .-- - .-. - - - -~.- . . 9 l\'lalaga-apL _____ ._. ___ .. - ... ----.---_. ___ . ___ _ 9 Malaga·itiman .. - --- ' - .. - '- - - -- --. -- _ . ____ . __ . _ 9 jHalaiha._._ ... _____ ___ .-- . ---.- - ... ___ _____ _ 9 Malaicmo. ___ . ______ ..... -. '--._. __ _ . ____ . . __ 9 Malamballg. - . - .. - .... - - . - - . --. -. -. -- .. ___ . . _' . 9 :Ma la ng-dalaga __ 9 Malapalitpit or Tiquistiquis ;"L _. _" _____ .. __ . . _. 9 l't'laJapapaya or Billgliu? ___ .. _. ______ . ______ .. 9 l\Ialasamat. - - .. _._. __ . ___ ... . _ ... _. __ ... _.. ___ 9 MalaSRUIbollg_ -. - ... - ... - .. --- -. _. __ .. _. _. _ _ __ _ 9 Malasallqui_ - -- - .. - -- - -. _. __ . . __ .... ____ . _____ . 9 Malasanto'- ____ . __ ___ _ . _._ ... _. ___ . __ ._ .. _.___ 9 Malatagon ... -. - -. -- .. - .... --- -- -. - - - _. . _.. __ .. 9 l\Ialatigni .. - .. . -- __ _•.. - .. - - ___ ~_ .... ___ .. __ . _. 9 lHalatubig _______ ____ - -- __ . _._ ..... ___ .. __ ._ 9 lHalauball . ___ . __ ._ .. _. ___ .-.--. __ __ . ______ .___ 9 Malabagl1io . - - - "-. -. _ ~ _ - ___ __ . - . __ . _ . __ _. _. ___ . 9 Malabalubat? __ . ---- _.. ____ .... . _____ . ___ .. __ 9 Malabocboc . - ... - -. - .. -. - -. - .. -- - - - - .... . .. _.. _ 9 Malasaguin . - . . . - - - •. --. _. _. - -. __ ~_ .. _. ____ . _ _ 9 Malacalllallsile __ __ __ ... ___ 19 Malapaho. ___ ._ .. _._._ .... _____ _ . _____ ._ .... 22,79 ?l lalauin . . . . - --- - - - _. __ .. -. ~ ___ . __... . _. _. __ __ 43 Malarl1haL_ ... ___ . __. ___ ... _... _____ .. _. 63 . 92 , 94 l\lalarujaL _._. __ ._ ... _.. ___ ... _.. _._ .. . . _. .. .. 63 A

.---

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•••••••

••••

_

••

• • • • _._


INDEX.

110

1 ·.Ha~

i\laladujut. .. ______ ...•. _______________ __ ______ 63 ::\lalacapay ..•..• _. ____ ..••• • • ___.•. _____ __ ____ 65 :\Ialatalao __ •. ..•.• __ .. _..••• _______ . __ . ___ . ___ 92 )Ialacadios .... ____ . ______ 93 l\IalaputaL .. __ . ______________ ____ . _____ _______ 93 l\IalacatbulI ____ ,. ____ . _________ • 94 )Ialacilllud . _________ ..... ______________ __ . - -- - 94 l\lalaonidondao __ ..... __ • __________ .. 94 l\lalatalisay ___________ • __ • __ • _______________ .. 94 i\lalabagat .. _________ . __ . __________ ..•. __ . ___ . 94 .:\Jalapajo _____ • __ - _ _ ___ ... - -. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . - - 95 )Ialasilloro _._ .. . _______ ... _.. _.. _.. ____ ._._ 96,97 l\lalihog ______ ... ________ - _________ .____ 9 Mal10111~ tnllricaLLI<:., i\ llIell. Arg ____ . ___ . _______ I} ~lamslis_ .••• __ .•• _______ ._ •. ______ .. __ . . __ 7, 7 i\lambog 1St , _____ . ______ - ___ "'_"." __ .-. 7 :\lamuog2cL _________ • __ . __ . __ . __ . ____ ...... _. 7 !\Ian co116 __ . . . _. __ ..• _ .• _ . _____ ., ... __ 6,65 :\Iaugachapny_. ___ . 6, 15,67,93,93,94, 94 ,96 . 97 ;\I allgasinoro . . _ .••.•. _. __ . ____________ 6,67 :'I l allgasiriqll e_ •.. ________ ._ •. _.. ___ . _______ 6,69 :'IJ agarapnle __________ _•.• __ . __ ----- ---- .. ___ . 7 ~ l anbog- •• _____ .• • ___ . _•. - - __ • __ - - --. -- --.. 7 J.lauga__ .••. _••• _____ . __ • _____ _. __ ._ ._. __ 7,94 ;\langlate ___ •. ___ ..•• ________ .• ' __ . - __- - _- - - - -. 34 :'IIsnungal._ .... ____ ._ .• _. __ . _______ . _________ 7 •• ___ .. ___ .. ___ • ________ • ________ ._____ 9 )raus\"an ___ ._ .• _. _______ ..• _. _______ ._ -- .--9 l\1alli ia _____ •• _______ . __ . _____ ______ .. _____ lor Mal1gachaplli ___ •.. ____ ._. __. ___ • ______ . ____ . _ _ 67 :'I langachapoi _______ •. ___ . ________ • ___ _. ___ . __ 67 Manicnic _____ . _____ ... _______ . ____ . _... __ 92 Marallg __ •• . • _____ . _•. _. ______ . ____ . ___ .6,31,92 Marali gao .•. _________ • ________ ._._ ... _____ .. g Marapap. __ . __ •. __ . ____ . ------ ---. ---- - - --- 79 Magala,.ao ____________ .... ______ .. ___ . ___ . . 81 Markets_. ___ . __ •• ___ . _____ .• __ _.• ______ • _ ___ 13 :'IIarcQ n i. .. ___ •. __ .. __ . __ • __ . . __ . . .. __ ._ .. __ 65 9 l\1atang-arao _________ ._. _____ . - -------.-.---Matallg olanK __ .. __ . _______ .• __ --- .____ _______ 9 :\latabao _._ .. _____ . __ ._ .. -.--- .• ----- .. _.. _. 7 l\1atall·cuao ____ • • • _. _______ - ..... - -- .. ---9 l\Iatobato. ____ ._ •.. ____ . ____ .. - --. -.----9 l\latungoc _____________ .--.---.----- .- --9 l\Tayapis ____ •. _______ ._. ____ . __ • ____ . __ 7,92,98 !\!eans of COUllllunicatioll _______ __ ____ • __ . ___ 13 Medi cinalqllalities. _______ .. _______ ._._ . ___ ._. 11 )[elodontm latifolilllll, 01111 ._ •. __ .... _.________ 9 l\Iemecyloll Preslia nulll , Triana_ ----_. '. " '_ __ 9 1\lemec)'loll panicniatulll, Jack ___ . ____ . _. _._ __ __ 9 MemecyJoli elega ns, Kllrz _. _____ . _•. ____ . ____ . 9 1\Jiagus. _______ ._ •..• ___________________ .. _ 9 :'I! icromelllllllllolle, Tllrcz- __________ _.• ____ .___ 9 Mindanao ..•.• __ . ___ ..•....• _. __ • ______ fr, 86, 99 l\lindor o .• ________ •. _._ ..• _•• __ . ___ ... _. ____ . II Mola ve gray _________________ • _____ . ____ . ___ 72,97 Molau in aso. . _______ __ _._. ____ ..... ___ . _. __ .72,97 l\rolauill . _______ •.• _. __ _•• ______ •. . . ______ .•. _ 69 :Molave white._ •. .. ______________________ 67, ]2,97 Molave ___ . ___ •. _. _____ 6, IS, 69, 9 1, 91 , 93, 93, 97 Moro _________ • __ . ____ •. _. _____ . ___ . ___ .. __ _.__ 14 Muguis __ •. ___ ._ •. ______________ . __ ._. _______ . 25 Mulauill aso •.• _. ___ •.•• ______ ' __ ' __ "'._' __ '_ 6 MlIlallIgal. ____________ . •.•. ____ _ -. _._ .. • _.... _ 97 1\lules_. ______ . ___ . • .• __ ..... _ •. _______ . ... ___ 14 Murraya K cellig ii , Spreng ._ .. _. __ _______ . ____ .. 9 +

----------- -

+ •••

_~

~Iauay

0-

------

_

____

+

____

--

____

i\lur rap.eiongata, A. DC ..... ___ __ . __________ . 9 9 :'IIlIrllg na ..•. ____ .... ____ . __ . __ ____ ____ ... _____ "Iusical instruments _____ . __ ..... __ ._ •. _. __ __ ._ 46 ;".lyristica pallicuiata, A. DC ________ - ._ .. ____ • 9 .i\l yristica hete ro ph ~'l ia , F. Vill __ ___. _____ . ______ 9 i\Iyrist icaardisi refoiia,A. D C_ ... __ ___ ._. _____ . 9 !'. l yr istica g ulItlc rrefol ia, A. DC ___ ._. __ ____ .. __ . I} Naga _____ .. --- ... - .• --- --- ------ - --.-.----- 74,94 Nilad. _•. _.. _____ . ___ .. __ . ___ ___________ . 10 Na " Kca ..• _____ . _•.. _... _._ . __ __ ... __ ...• ___ 6 ;\!lIu:I.l.{dong4 . . _. ___ ._. _______ .... ____ __ _._._ 9 Na1'ra . ____ . ___ . ____ .. ____ .6 , IS. 74. 92, 94, 96, 97 ;---"lli rraamarilla ______ . ____________ . _______ ._ 76 i'\arra blauca ._. __ . _______ . ___________ .. __ ____ 76 N~tjllh() ____________ . ______ ._. ___ . __... _.. 34 :\aUv('s _____ ..... _________ . ___ .. . _. ___. ___ .. 14 Nato._ _____ ._. ____ ._ . . -- ... .. - --.6 .93 :\'auclca Blan coi, \ 'id . __ __ _ . . . _. ____ . __ . 10 :\"dllclea CUlUi ngi aml. \ ·id ._ ~ __ . _ ____ . ____ . __ 10 Nal1c1{'a.l.{racili~, \-id _____ . ____ . _____ _____ ._ .. 10 Oil s ___ . _.... _____________ .. __________ . __ 11 Olax Batic uiil1 _· __________ 33 Ol""all __ . ______ • __________ __. __ . _._ "' ." 69 Oplay ____ ._ .. ________ .... _____ . __ . __ _.. _. _.. 46 Oregon l' inc _____ ___ .. -. ______ __ ___ .. ___ . ___ ._ 91 Orihnoll --_ ... ______ ----- -._._ . _. • _. __ ... ___ 9 Orophea e nterocarpoitlt:ft, \·id. _____ __ . ___ . __ . __ . 10 Ownc r"", forest _____ . __ .. ________ . ___ . _. ___ . _ __ _ II Padouk ___ .. _____ . .. _ --- _._. ____ .... 74 Pagatpat . __ .-- ... -.--. - ----- -- -- -- 7,93,96.97 Pagpngnn __ . ___.• __ . __ . ____ .. __ ._ 36 l'agsn il1J.!'lIiu _______ . ____ . _ ________ ._. __., 7 7 Pall o . _. __ • ____ . ___ . ___ . . . . • __ • . ___._. __ .... 7 Pallohvlau . __ . ___ • __________ • ___ ..• • ___ ._ ____ _ .... _.. ___ . _______ ___ _ .. _. 7 Pailotall Paih ot. _•. __ .. ___ . _ ... .. __ .. __ __ ... __ ... _... 9 6 Pai lan .. ___ . ____ Paim o ....... ____ __ ._ .. ~ .•.. __.. ____ ._. __. __ .. 79 l-'ailan . ___ ._._. __________ . ____ __ . ____ . ______ 36 Pal"yc ll . _____ . ___ . .. _. ___ ____ .. _ __ . • ____ .. 6 Pala t pal _____________ . __ . ___ ~._. __ . _______ .. 8 Pa lang _. __ . _______ . _.. _____ . . . _. . ______ ._. __ 9 POlnyagatl _______ -.- .----- .. -- ___ ,, _ _._ •. ___ 9 Palaquiu!!l Clltlt'at1ll1l, \ 'i(\ . ___ . ____ . _. __ . ___ . ___ 10 Palill(lan ___ . _____ ._. ___ . ____ . _________ . ____ __ 10 l'aJlIla-Bra va _ .. _. _____ .. ___________ ... _._._". 9" PILlol\l aria. ___ . ___ . ---.- ---- .- •. -- ----6.77.95,97 Paioi\iarianggubat _____ .. _. ____ ._. ______ ._ . . __ 7 Palosapis ..... 7.95 Paionapin . ___ . ___ ._. __._ ... _. __. ___ ._. __ 47 Palollapoy ______ . _____ ... . __ . __ .. ____ 47 Paiollapuy ... ___ ._ · .. ·_. _____ 93 Palllaintag ue n ___ .... ______ . ___ _._._ ... ___ . . ___ 9 Pam ittaill ______ . __ ._. __ . _______ • • .. ___ _____ . __ 77 Pampangn • __ . __ . __ • _ ____ • ___ ,, ______ ____ ... 85 Pallao {lJalao) ._. ____ _ . ____ .. __ ____ .. _ 7,79 ,93,95 Panagah _______ . ___ .. _______ __ __... _ . . __ . ___ 26 Palldacaqui - - - - -. - .• - - . -. -. - • • • -_ - __ . _______ . _. 9 'Pa ngurillg u ____ 9 Panguisa n _. __ . - .. - .• _._._. ___ ._ .. . _. _____ . ____ 93 Paniug nin oll •. ___ ... . ___ ._._. _.. __ __ . . __ ___ . __ 9 Pa n os ••.. _. ____________ ._._._._ . _. ___ ._ .. _. ___ 89 Parag lltl ___________ • .• ___ ... _____ . _ _. __ __ . ___ II Parollapill ____ . ________ ....... _. __ _... __ .. __ 47 Pasac •. _______________ ..•• _. ___ _. _. _ _ _. __ 6, 93, 96 P ayaq uitan _____ . _____ .. __ . _. __ _____ . ______ . 9 Pe\tophorlllll ferruginelllll. llenth . ____ ._. ______ I I 4

4_ . . . . . .

4.

--.

----

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___

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.

....

..

-

_

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___

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••

--

.

_.

_

_

__

______

___

._

.

_

._.

_____

4

4

.

_

.

____

.....

••

_____

....

_____

____

••••

__


INDEX.

III

!'.Holt:

1'.Hn:

PellCapenCanan .. - - - - _. - - - -. _ . - . - -. __ • ___ ____ . 95 Pellll. __ ___________ ... _- - .. - _____ .. . . ___ ._ 97 Pili _- - - - - ,.,. . - - - - - - - - - - - . - - - . - _. . - _. - __ _. 7 Piles _____ ... _. __ ____ ____ .. __ •.. • . - --- --- . 15 24, 36 Pillars _... _____ __ .. __________ _ ... _. . 46 Pinca pincahan ___ ___ ___ _. ____ ._ . . __ ." __ . ___ __ S Pinan g __ .. _____ ____ ____ __ • ____ ____ _. ______ __ 10 Pin gal " ... ______ ___________ ______ . __ __ . ___ __ __ 9 Pine,Ameri cal1 _____ _ _. ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ _ ________ 96 Pino _. ___ . ___ ___ _. _______ ________ .. ____ . . ___ __ 93 Pipi . ____ ___ . ____ ____ ________ _ ._. _______ _____ 7 Pira . ___ ._. ___ . ______ __ __ _. .. ____ _. _____ __ S Hittosporlllll hrach),sepalu11L. 'i'ur(';o: .. . _. __ ___ ___ II Pla ll ks . . __ . . . __ . _ . .. . ....... _. ... ...... . _. _8 1, 96 POll oan _ .. _.. . . __ . __ .. . . .. . . . . . . __ .. _. ___ __. S P ortable railway!> ... .. . _. _. . _. . _.. . . _. . . _.. 14 Postalagoll ..... _. _ . _-. -. - - - -. - - - . . - ... . . - - - __9 Post s . . . . _. _. .. . _. .. . _... . _ .. _. . _2 1, 34, 35. 4856 Pototan .. _. .. __ . ' _' .... " '_ '" . . . . .. . _.. . .. 10,95 Prem lla CU 1Uillgianu, Schaner ____ .. _. __ . __. . .. _ II Prices . . _. __ .· __ _· _·· ··_ · ···· _·_· · · __·_·_ · ·_··5· 15 Pterosperllllllll nivel1!11, Yidal . .. ..... _. __ ___. __ I I Public forest lam\s. __ .. _. ___ .. _... __ .... _ ...... 5 Pug-ahan . . __ __ ._ ... ... . _...... . ____ _. ___..... 10 Pugauy . _ .. _ . . ___ .. __ .. . , ....... __ __ ... ___ ._ _ 9 Pulanbalat .. . _ .... _._ ... _.... _ .. __ .. _.. _.... _. 7 Pura)" .. __ ___ . __ . . . __ . ___ .. -_ . ___ _. ___ _ .. _.. _._ 9 Purllri __ . ___ __ . .. _ ..... ___ .•'\-- ____ . __ _. ___ ... _. 69

SaJincapa .. __..... ___ _.. __ ._ .. _._ ... ___ . . ___ __ 7 Salingogon _.. __ .. _ ____ . _.• __ __. . . _ . . _. . _. __._. 9 Sarupaloc _________ __.. -- . . --.---- --. --.--- .. -.7,95 Sambaluyall._ .. _. ______ ._. ______ .. __ . ____ . . ___ 25 Sarubualan ............ . __ .. _ .. __ .. _. _.. __. ___ . 97 Sandan:a. __ . _ . _. __ . __ . __ . _. _______ . __ __. __.... _8, 60 Salldano __ ... _. ___ .. _.. _____ ,_ .. _•. _._ .... __ 97 Sangue _ ... _... __ _._ .. . . _.... __ . __. . _ . . _._ ... 74 Sapote ........... _. __. . ___ .. _____ ._. __ ____ . ___ 10 Sapolongall . _... _.. __ . . _. _. _. _... . . _.. _. __ . _. __ 88 Saplllugall_ . __ . ____ ._. _... ___ . _._ .. _.. . . _. __ ._. 88 Sapotacere ... _. __. ___ . _. _. ___ • ___ __ . ___ . __ . _ __ _ 99 Salltalina. ______ ... _. __ .. ___ .. ___ . . _.. ___ __.. _ 76 Sa nta Fe~ __ . __ . _____ . __ .. _ __ .. _. __ . ___ ___ .~ _._ 86 Sa nto!. . _... _____ _ .. . _.. . __ -. ---. _--.-- . . -- .. 93, 95 Satin Wood, Ea st Indian ._._. ____ ._ .. ____ ____ ._ 51 Sayo ... _ ____ _._. ___ . . _. . ___ . __ ._ . __ . _. _ 8 Sa\1a-sa ua . __ . _ . ~ .. _ _ . __ . . . ___ . ___ . __ __ _____ _. 8 Sea wOTm . . _.... _. _____ _____ __.. . ___. 24, 35,36,72 Sea water ______ . .. _._. _. __ .... _. . _________ ._._ 47 Semecarpns albescens. KUTZ .. __ . __ . _______ ._ . . _ II Serianthes grandiAora, Benth ______ . _____ _. ___ . [I Ship building. __. _______ ._. _____ ._._ . _. __ 23, 3°,36 S horea colltorta , Vid . __ ______ .. __ ... ___ ._._. __ . II Shoreapolita, Vid. ______ ._. _ . __ . __ • ______ . . _._ I I Shorea furfuracea, l\Iiq . ________ . _. _______ . ____ . I r ~~hleichera trijuga, \\'jlld __ ____ . __ .. _. ___ . __ __ . II Slam .. __ .. . __ ._. _______ . . ... __ . . __._. ________ . 87 Sideroxylon atteuliatuUl A. DC. ___ . _____ .. __ . ___ II Sirlerox:ylou ferrugin eum, Hook . ____ .. _. ___ .. __ II Sills ___ _. . _ .. _. __________ ..... __ . __.. __ •.. ___ 23,26 Silld,:I.IlO . . . _._ .. ___ . ___ . ___ . ______ ._ . . ____ ._. __ 72 ~!p.it-cait or Sllpit·caig .. _ - .. ___ _._. ___ . __ .. __ . 9 Slngue .. . _.. __ _____ ~ . __ ____ • . * • • • • _ . ___ __ • • • • 6 Sleepers railway . _.. __ . _____ * _ _ • • • _ ._ • • _ . __ • __ • 72 Solipa . ____ _ . __ _.. _. ___ _. _. __ ". _... _. __ ____ . _ _ 96 Specimens .... __ . _____ __ . __ . ___ _.•. _____. ___ .' _ 1 2 Spruce _. __ ........ _.. _.. _____ ._ . _... _. ______ . 91 State forests .. . _ .. _... . ...... _._ . _.. _____ ____ . I I Sterculia CLlll ea ta , R. Br. __ __ _~_ .. _. __ __ . _• . . __ .. II Sterculia ferrllgillea, R. Br. ___ .. ____ . ____ __ . _._ . II Sterculia macroph y lla. Vent?_._._ . . __ . __~ ____ . I I Sterculiaoblollg-ata.R. Hr. _.... _... _._. _____ _._ I I Stoue. _.. _. - - . . . -. - - - . . - - -. _ . - -. - -. -._. _,. - . _. 13 Subian-dagn _. - - - - - -. - .. - - .... ___ - - - . . -. - .. - --. 9 Subo-Subo. - .. - .. - .. . -.- . . - -- - - . __ . -_. - _ . . . __ . _ 9 Sugar .. _. __ _. __ .. __ .. ___ . __ . . . _.. ___ _. . .. ___ _ 12 Sagad . __ . ____ ._. ____ __. --- .. - .. ____ . _.. ____ ._. 69 Sulipa __. _____ ... __ . __ . __ ._ . _. -.--- - .• - - .. -.-.9,92 Slllamiog ... _. _. _. __ ....... _.. _. . . _____ . __ . _. _. 10 Sumatra. __ ._. __ ... . . _' '._' . . __ ._ .. _. ___ . ___ . 69 Sunder tree .. _.... _. ___ . _... _. . . . ___ _. _. __ ._ .. 48 Supa __ __ .... __ ___ ... _.. _.. __ 6,55,79. So, 8t, 96, 97 Superior group . _. ____ .. -.-- .- - - ___ ____ ..... _. 5 Supi. __. ___ . . . _.. . _. - _____ _ . __ .. _.. ___ . ___ __. 9 Surug_ .. _. __ __.... _. __._. _.. . _ ...... - . '---. __ . 9 ~uran- s.uran ... . -. - .- __ . ___. __ . __ ___ ._. __ ____ . 7 SUSUgUlll. _.. _._ .... _ .. _._ .. _._ .. _. ___ . ___ .____ 7 Sy01plocos pseudo spicata, Vidal .. _.. ___ . ______ . II Symplocos Villarii , Vidal. _.. _. __ . __ . .. . __ ._ . __ II Tabernremontana Pandacaqui, Poir ._. _____ . ____ II Tabog __ - -. _. . - .. - - - - - .. -. _- - - ___ . __ .. __ . _. _ _ __ 9 Tabayos ___ ___ ._ . . _._. __ __ .. _____ ..... __ . ___ ___ 9 Tabdo ._ . . ..._________ . __ . _._._ . _. ___ .__ __ 9 Tabalclo ._ .. ______ . . -- .. --- ______ ._ . . . _.. _____ 9 Tabigui puhL_. __._ . . __ . _._. __ __ ._ .. __ ___ ___ ._ 7 TacamahAca __ . _. ___ _. __ . __ _ _. ___ _. __ • ___ .. ___ . 78

PUSOP Il SO 1St

__ .. ___ . __ . __ .. _._ . . . _ _ __ . __ . _ ___

PUSO PII SO 2ri . _ . _ . . . . _ .. - _.

.. - . . . . _ .... - - - .. - - -

6 7

Putad ." ___ __ _ .. _- - -. - - .. . . - - - - - -. - - - - - - - - - - - . 9 Pyge utii arboreu11l , El1fll ____ ____ _.. _._ . . __ .. ___ II Quercus carahalloana, F. Vill ... __ . ___ __ . _ II Quercus Ft'rnallde:zi i, Virl_ .. _. _. __ .. __ . _____ . II Quercu s philippinensis, A. DC . _____ .. ___ _______ II Queen of Wooos _._. __ __ __ .. _._ .. ____ . __ •. _. __ 70 _______ . ___ . __. ___ .________ _____ 7 Qu!n ~}'. Quil1ay

§~:~:~~~ -~~- ~~

::::::: ::_ :::: ::::::. :::::-. -.-. 5~

Qui o __ . __ ________ __. - - - - -. - - - - -. - - . - - - - - - - - . - y Rafters ___._. _____ ._. __ . _______ 23,,34,4 1 ,90,98 .99 Rafts ___ _ . __ ___ ___ . ___ .. . . __________ ______ . _. _ 89 Railroad ties .. __ ___ . ______ ___ __ --------.----- 87 R ed wood, Cal ___ . __ __. . _... __._ . . _ .. -- .. - . . 74,91 Resin .. _. __. ____ ...... _._ . . ___________ .. __ ._68,7 8 Revenue . _____ ._ ... _.... __ . ___ . __ .. __ ._. 12 Roads . _. _. __. _. __ . __ . ___ . __ . ____ . _. - . . _ . ..... - 13 Rombloll . __ . _. ______ . ... _. ___ _. __ __ _. • . . -_._ 12 Ronlero _.. __. __ .... _. __.. _____ . _ . . _. . _. __. _ .. _ 6 Roofing ___ . __ . __._ . . .. ____ . . .. . __ __. ___ . __ .. -. 84 Rose wood , Burmese __ . ___ . __ __. __ . . _.. __ . __ ._. 74 Rubber __ .. _.. ___ ... _. __ . _._. _...... __ _ ._. ___ 12 Rubian . _.. _ ..... _._ .... ___ __. .. _. __ ______ ___ . 9 RoureasalltaloiJes, \V.etA .. ___ . _._. __ . __ ._. __ . II Sacat. _.... __ .. __ ... _. . _.. _.. ____ . _. __ ._. . . . . 7 Sadugan . ___ . __ .. ___ . - .... - -- - . - . - - - - - - -- .. --53, 54 Sagum-sagulIl. __ . __ .. __ . .. -- . . . .. . - .-. - - . -9 Sagu~l~'ate - .. ---- --. - . . --- ... _. __ ____ __... _... 86 Sagulsl ___._ ... ___ . __ __ __ . _. . _._ ... _. ____ ._ .... 10 Salay ... __ ___ . __ ._ .. _. __ . -. -.- - - . ---- .... .. . 9 SalaqllL ._._. __.. . _. . _. ______ _. . . - - .--.-. 9 Saladay __.. __ _... . •. . . _. ____. __.. .. ___ _. 9 Salasic .... . ____ .. . . __ _ -- .• - -- --.--.- -. 9 SalaWlIl1guy. ___ ._ ... __ • .. _._ • .. --- .. - .. ----. - 9 Salab ___ .. __ __. _ ... ____ _. __ __ _ .. _.. _____ . ____ .8 , 9 Salaguin puhL ____ . ___ . _. __ ._ ... .. .. _._ . . __ 8 Saleng. __ _ ... ____ .. • _______ . ___ · .. . - .-. 7


lNDE X .

I1 2

PHH:

l '.\G K

T acatac, Talaca.tac a nd Lovinll 1St.. ___ . ___ _. _ _ __ Tadca ll _____________ . ____ ... _ ---. ___ ___ •• _____ _ Tagasa o r Tallgal 1St ___ __ __ __ _____ ___. , .. ____ TaglocoL. __ . ______ . __ . __________ _- - - - - - . _. _. _ Taglima _________ . _________ .. ____ ___ __ _____ ._ _ T alang ______ ___ _. __ .. ______ . ___ __ ____ __ • __ ___ Tal a catac 2d . ____ _______ . _____ __. ____ . ______ . __ T a1010 _________ ._. _____ __ __ _. _________ • ________ T a lio ____________________________ .___ __________ Taligaua IL ___ ____ _____ . __ _, . __ .. ' .. - . ---- ... Tal isa y ___ ________ _____ _______ ... _, __ ._----. '_ l'ala llg- ta la llg. ___ '. ____ ." ._ . __ . ___ _ .. _.. ' - . - _.. TaUla rindo._ . ___ _. .. ___ _ _____ _. _... _._ . __ . _. . Tamaui a n .. .. .. _. _______ . _._ .. . ....... . . .. __ . . ,l,amRuy uall .. __ . . . ___ .. ____ . __ ... .. . _.... ' _. _.. l a l1la nu . ___ .. _... _. ___ .. __ ._. __. _. __ ._._. __ .. Tatuis·s,,"l ll . __ . _. ___ .. _ ___ . . _.. _.. _..... _. _.' _. _ T atnbis_ . __. _. _. _. _. __ .. _. - ___ . - - ...... _. . ___. . Tambon · tam bon ... . .... . ........ ..... ... ...... T amau YR Il _.. _. __ ... __ .. _. ___ ... _... ___ ___ _ . 6. :l:allga ~ ... -- .. -.-.- . - . . ---- .. ---- . . __ ... ___ . ____ l angmil. ___________ . __ • _____ ______ . _____ . ____ Tallgili ___ . _______ . ________ .. ____ ___ ______ . ___ Tallg ile ___________ . __________ . __ ____ _ .. ____ 85. T Rllghas._. ____ . _____ . ___ . _____ ._· __ .. __ ___ __ ___ T angal 2{\ ______________ • ____ _ _ • __ ___ _ • • _ Tan itan . ________ ___________ . ___ . ___ __ . _. __ . ___ Tanglo lI ____ . _. ___ . ____ . __________________ . _ _ __ 'fanag. _______ • _________ . ______ . ___. __ ____ .. ___ T angu ile ______ . _____ _. ... . _. __ . __ __ ____ .. 6 85,

7 9 10 9 8 42 10 95 9 9 7 7 95 84 84 78 10

9 B 84 95 95 85 98 S7 10

46 9 9 93

f;~~l~::.:.:.~ .::.~:.:..:::.:. . . . ::::::::::::::•• :.: :~9 raqttlt-aslll - ____ . ____ . _____ _. _. ____ __ _____ _ . _.. Taq uitaqui. ______ _ . . ____ . _______ . _________ - __ . 7 Ta verA_____ .. ______ . ______________ __ .• ____ . . 12 Tayabas_. ____ . __ _______ _. ___ _ ._ . ___ ___ ___ ____ 88 T aygat. ___ _______ . ____ __ . ___ .. __ __ . ___ ___ - _ - __ 74 TayocAI\. ____ . _. ____ . ______ ___ __ _- _- - ____ . _- -- 9 Teak ___________________ . ___ . _. __ 86, 87, 88, 93, 97 T eak Ju ngl e __ ______ ---- .---- - ------ - ---- - - ---- 97 T eca ______ . ___ .. __ . __________________ 6,86,93 ,96 Telegraph poles ___ __ . ____. . __ . ___ _. _. ____ . ____ 15 :J:ena n -ba ntay ___________________ . __ __ . __ _ .____ 9 l e n aa n . ___ . ______ . ___________ . ___ ._ ._ . .. ____ . 9 T ermi llalia pell ttcida , Presl . _______ ______ . ______ It T er m in alia m ollis, Rolfe ___ _. . _______ . _____ __ . _ I I T ext iles ____ . . . ____ ____ _ ___ _____ . ___ . ______ . ___ 12 Thi rd G roup ____ _. _______ . ___ ____ _____ . ___ .. ___ 5 Tiban gla l1 . ___ . ____________ . _ __ ____ __ __ __ _ __ _ __ ro 'fi cla _________ ___ ______ . __ . ___ ______ . __ _. _. . ___ 86 Tig uig _____ ______ __ ___ . __ . _____________ . ___ ._ 57

Tigel'l l ____ . _____________ ___ __ ._ . __.. ____. . . __.. 9 Tigalot ___. __ _.. _.. __ _. ___ . __ ____ . _. _ . __ __ __ _ _ 8 Tilllber _____ . ___ ___ . _ . . ___ _ . ______ ______ . ___ . 5 :l:!nclalo ___ . .. ----- ---- - - 6,15 , 55,8 1,93,93,95,97 }, ~llgal1-bl'lgllls - ___ _. _.. __ . ____ _ . __ . ______ __ . ___ 10 ,l,~llgcal.-- - ---- --- --. ___ . _.. ____ ___ .______ 9 ______ . ___ _______ ____ _______ __ ____ 9 l lugan . . __ _. __ ___ . ___ ____ ___ _____ _. . _____ . _._ 9 :l:~quis-tiqu i s 2(\_ . . _ _ . ______ __ _ __ _ _ __ _______ . __ . 8 ll rurayes_ ._ .... _.. ______________ ___ __. __ __ ____ 99 Tog llao-t og nao . __ __ . ___ __ ______ _____ .. _ __ __ _ __ _ 8 Toob orTua ._ _ _____ . _ . ____ ._._.____ 6 Tool hand les ___ _ . _______ _. __ __ ____ . __ ___ _ _ __ ___ 30 T . "oqulnn: __ ._ . ____ . __ __ ___ , _. ___ __ ... ___ 9 I r ee naIl s. ___ . . ___ . ____ .. __.. _ . __ . _. ____ . __ _ __ 30 Tua . ____ . __. ' . __ _________ ____ . __ ______ .. __ __ ._. 9 Tubli_. ___ . . . . ___. ___ . _ __. __. __ _______ . __ ___ _.. 9 Tl1ean-calao __ . ... _. . ________ ______ _ . __ _ . . ___ 6 Tugan - ----- --- . -. --. - .-- - - ---- -- - - - ...•• - . . --- 69 Tlllang-Illanog ____ . _____ __ ___ ___. __.. _____ ___ 9 TulA lulA . __ . __________ __ ____ . . ___. ___ __. ___ . _. M Tuuoon aso _____ _____ ._. __ .. - - . - .. . - . - - - . . . --.. 7 'fi ve-tive .. __ . __ _ . ____ . __ . ___ . _ _____ ______ __ . __ 9 Uatili c _______ ._. __ ._. __ ___ . __. __ __._ . __ ___ 9 6 Uayan __.. __ ... __ ____ _. ____ .. ____ ___ ____ _____ Uban _____ __. ____ .. . __ ____ ____ ._ ._ ____ __ 9 Ubiau __ __ . ___ . _______ __ ____ • __. . ___ _ . __ _ __ __ _ 8 Uprights._. ____ __. ______ . ______ _____ ._ . 28,47,79 Unlll g. ____ ___ ______ . ____ . _____ ________ __ 6, SS, 93 Vara _. __ . __ _ . ____ ___ __ . ____ _____ ______ ____ . ___ 15 Varnish . . __ __ _.. __ _________ __ ___ . __ . ____ _. __ 22, 80 Vaticagralldiflorn, Dyer.. __ __ ________ ___ __ ___ . II Vidal , Sebastian ___ . __ _________ __ .. . _ _______ __ _ 100 Vidal, Domingo ___ ___ . __ __ . __ _------. __ ____ ___ 100 Vidalia Garci <e, F. Vill. _____ . ___ ___ __ _______ . __ I[ Vidalialepiclota , F. \-ill.. __ . ____ ~ ____ ._ .. _____ . II Villa ria littoral is, \·id _____ . ______ ___ __ ._. _____ . II Villaria Rolfei, vid __ __ ____ _ ____ _.. ___. ______ _ I I \,vclldlandia luzoniensis, DC ____ . ___ ___ _____ ____ II Wheel s . __ ____ . ____ ________ ____ __. _ . . _ ... ~ ___ 52,78 White auL _. __ __. ___ __ . ______ . ______ . __ _ 90, 9 1, 98 White Cedar , Cali fo rn ia ____ . ___ _. ... ______ . ___ __ _ 91 \\'oods ____ . _______ __ ___ __ .. __ . ___ . ___ ____ _ .. _ 5 \rood s, medicinal properties ___ ___ ____ .. __ . __ 82, 86 \VoTtnia suffruticosa, Griff. __ . _______ ___ .. __ _.. _ II \Vrightia Ca ndollei, Vid. _____ __ __________ . __ . __ II Xanth oph yl1mll G r iffith ii, H ook ____ . _ _. __. . ___ . II Vaca1. ___ ___ . ___ . . __ __ ___ 6,15,72,88,91,93,95,97 Vambau ___ .. ____ . __ . ___ ______ _ . _____ . _. __ _ ____ .')2 Yate _____ . ___ ._ . .. __ ______ ____ __. _____ ______ . 86 Ygbarras ____ __ . ___ . ~_ . . ___ __ _. __ . _____ __ .. . _ 86 Vlallg-lang ___. _____ . . ____________ __ ____ . _. _ ___ 12 ,l ,~nga-tl11ga


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most important timber tree Philippine Islands I prepared by George P.

Profile for Filipiniana Online

Compilation of notes on the most important timber tree species of the Philippine Islands  

Compilation of notes on the most important timber tree species of the Philippine Islands