Patron Saints and Saintly Patronage in Early Modern Central Europe

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PATRON SAINTS AND SAINTLY PATRONAGE IN EARLY MODERN CENTRAL EUROPE

Marie Škarpová et al.


PATRON SAINTS AND SAINTLY PATRONAGE IN EARLY MODERN CENTRAL EUROPE Marie Škarpová et al.

faculty of arts, charles university, 2019


KATALOGIZACE V KNIZE – NÁRODNÍ KNIHOVNA ČR Škarpová, Marie, 1977– Patron saints and saintly patronage in early modern Central Europe / Marie Škarpová et al.. – First edition. – Praha : Faculty of Arts, Charles University, 2019. – 369 stran. – (Trivium ; 18th volume) Částečně německý text, české a anglické resumé Částečně přeloženo z češtiny. – Obsahuje bibliografii, bibliografické odkazy a rejstříky ISBN 978-80-7308-949-8 (online ; pdf) * 27-36 * 27-36-055.2 * 2-463-021.482 * 27-36-5 * 7.04 * 930.2 * 27-662:3 * 27-662:316.74 * 930.2:001.891 * (4-191.2) * (048.8:082) – Christian patron saints – Europe, Central – Christian women patron saints – Europe, Central – Christian saints – Christian women saints – patronage – Europe, Central – cult of saints – Europe, Central – 16th-21st centuries – themes and motives – Europe, Central – 16th-21st centuries – historical sources – Europe, Central – 16th-21st centuries – Christianity and civilization – Europe, Central – 16th-21st centuries – Christianity and culture – Europe, Central – 16th-21st centuries – historical research – methodology – 20th-21st centuries – collective monographs 246-248 – Art in Christianity. Church furnishing. Christian experience, practice, life [5]

The book “Patron Saints and Saintly Patronage in Early Modern Central Europe” was prepared with the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, project 17-06507S, “Bohemical Hagiography of Czech Saints from Tridentine to Enlightenment Reforms”. The proofreading of the English texts was partly funded by the Charles University project Progres Q12 ‘Literature and Performativity’. Lecturers: prof. Jan Malura, Ph.D. PhDr. Markéta Holubová, Ph.D. © Jan Andrle, Ivana Čornejová, Alena A. Fidlerová, Krisztina Frauhammer, Adriana Grešová, Orsolya Gyöngyössy, Jakub Ivánek, Jana Kolářová, Alena Kotšmídová, Tomáš Krejčík, Ilona Matejko-Peterka, Jiří Mikulec, László Mód, Ladislav Nekvapil, Eleonora Rava, Jan Stejskal, Marie Škarpová, Sarah Tiboni, 2019 © Charles University, Faculty of Arts, 2019 All rights reserved ISBN 978-80-7308-948-1 (print) ISBN 978-80-7308-949-8 (online : pdf)


Contents Introduction Patron Saints and Saintly Patronage as the Subject of Early Modern Studies (Marie Škarpová) 9 I Dynamics of Saintly Patronage (Genesis and Decline – Interruption and Renewal – Transformations) The Second Life of Missionaries from the Island of Pereo, Saint Five Brothers († 1003) in the Czech, Polish and Italian Tradition (Jan Stejskal) 27 Rose of Viterbo: Birth and Development of a Patronage (Eleonora Rava − Sarah Tiboni) 40 Saint Peter, Prince of the Apostles in the French, German and Czech Versions of the Novel Peter of Provence and Fair Maguelonne (Alena Kotšmídová) 55 The “Lyre of the Saints”, akin to “De Cultu Sanctorum” in Lutheran Hymnody (Adriana Grešová) 69 Saint Ignatius of Loyola, Patron Saint of Expectant Mothers (Ivana Čornejová) 85 Saint John of Nepomuk Open-Air Statues Today in the Southern Great Plain in Hungary (1989–2018) (Orsolya Gyöngyössy) 96


Wine Patron Saints in Transition (Hungarian Examples) (László Mód) 109 II Functions of Saintly Patronage (Protection – Help and Intercession – Identification – Example and Model) Holy Patrons out of Wax (Tomáš Krejčík) 127 Under Holy Protection. Patron Saints and Local Religiousness in Silesia as Reflected in Medieval and Modern Coins (Ilona Matejko-Peterka) 142 Saints and Patrons in the Works of Jiří Bartholdus Pontanus of Breitenberk (Jana Kolářová) 158 Der „gute Tod“ und seine Schutzpatrone in der Zeit des Barock (Jiří Mikulec) 169 Tiroler Heiliger im Zentrum Böhmens. Einzigartiger Kult des heiligen Romedius von Thaur (Ladislav Nekvapil) 184 Patron Saints in Czech Prayer Books for Laics Edited between ca 1650 and 1750 (Jan Andrle) 202 Intermediaries, Witnesses, Patrons: The Roles of Saints in an Early Modern Book of Magical Prayers-Charms Oběť před Bohem (Alena A. Fidlerová) 229


The Cult of Saints in Pilgrim Songs in Moravia and Austrian Silesia from the 17th to the Mid-19th Century (Jakub IvĂĄnek) 253 Weibliche Schutzheilige als Identifikationsmodelle (Krisztina Frauhammer) 273 Bibliography 288 Summary 335 ResumĂŠ 337 List of Authors 354 List of Illustrations 357 Indices 359



Introduction

Patron Saints and Saintly Patronage as the Subject of Early Modern Studies1 Marie Škarpová (Translation by Jana Doleželová) 1 Even though the cult of patron saints is still viewed as an integral part – or even a distinctive feature – of Catholicism, none of the Christian churches places saintly patronage at the centre of its doctrine, nor is it covered by any of the Christian dogmas (Baumeister et al., 1995, cc. 1297–1298). Since this is the case, what has made patron saints so highly and persistently popular even in the secularised world? This question in itself makes saintly patronage an interesting subject of study for historians. Existing research has shown that saintly patronage in Christianity drew inspiration from ancient culture: the Christian cult of the saints was inspired by the cult of the patriarchs in Judaism and the ancient pagan hero and heroine cult (Kubín, 2011, pp. 18–19).2 The concept of patronage, or the right of patronage (ius patronatus), which codifies the rights and duties of a patron (patronus) and their clients (clientes), originates in Roman law. Since both human and divine patronage was part of ancient culture (Crook, 2004), it was easy to make use of the patronage system to conceptualise the Christian saints. To describe the early stages of this process, however, is now almost impossible.3 As a result, saintly patronage 1  This article was prepared with the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, project 17-06507S, “Bohemical Hagiography of Czech Saints from Tridentine to Enlightenment Reforms”. 2  However, the origins of the saintly patronage are even older and are specifically connected to the divine cult of ancestors (e.g. Ducreux, 2016, p. 221). 3  Leaving aside the first known (and probably rare) view of a Christian saint as a patron formulated by Ambrose of Milan (who maintained that a saint was a heavenly helper of his or her earthly clients, advocating for them before God), the oldest documented type of Christian saintly patronage was church patronage. As opintroduction 9


e­ stablished itself as a research topic within medieval studies (Wurster, 1996, p. 115). The concept of (saintly) patronage was defined in the canon law as late as the 12th and 13th centuries although this definition was rooted in older traditions and used biblical arguments.4 This is when patronage as a relationship created by the act of dedication between a saint as a protector on the one hand and a religious community (familia) on the other – where the saints would provide help, protection, and intercession with God, while the communities would honour and serve them (in the form of liturgical service) in return – began to appear in communities defined by widely varying criteria: country, city, diocese, monastery or convent, religious order or fraternity, marital status, (noble) family, profession, guild, specific situation in life or type of danger, etc. (Wurster, 1996, p. 114; Köpf, 2003, c. 1024). Among the reasons for the rise of patronage was that having a patron saint afforded the clients a certain legal and social status on earth; as stated by M.-É. Ducreux, patronage is always – at least potentially – connected with power (Ducreux, 2016, p. 221). Therefore, during the High Middle Ages, there was a patron saint for almost every institution and situation in life, and the individual saints began to acquire specific protective and supportive functions (Köpf, 2003, c. 1025). 2 The relationship between saintly patronage and the cult of the saints has always been somewhat strained in Christianity. While saintly patronage presumes the existence of a cult, it also suggests that the institution of a Christian saint was perceived as insufficient in itself – hence the need to complement it with patronage posed to Ambrose’s purely spiritual concept, there was an “earthly” aspect to this patronage. Churches built on the graves of the first Christian martyrs gave rise to a modified version of an idea that originated outside of Christianity: while the souls of the martyrs are with God in heaven, they also stay physically present in the church through their earthly remains. The church receives not only the martyr’s name, but also his or her patronage (patrocinium), with the martyr protecting the place and the parish and earning honour and (liturgical) service in return (Baumeister et al., 1995, cc. 1302–1303; Becker, 2007, p. 29). 4  Using primarily Pauline theology (cf. 1 Cor 9:1.16–17; 1 Cor 15:8–10; Gal 1:11–17; Phil 3:4b–11). 10 patron saints and saintly patronage in early modern central europe


to make it “stronger”. The study of saintly patronage thus has to be accompanied by the study of the conceptualisation of the saints and (human) sanctity as such and the practice of honouring the saints (Wurster, 1996, p. 115). This need is particularly urgent in the study of the early modern period, which brought an end to religious unity in Western Christianity and directed criticism at the category of saints, as the reformation movements and newly established Protestant churches criticised various aspects of the Late Medieval Christian teachings and practices related to the cult of the saints (Baumeister et al., 1995, c. 1297). However, attempts to reform the cult of the saints were simultaneously occurring in the Roman Catholic Church, even though at first sight they focused solely on the procedural aspects of recognising sainthood. While the decree on saints of the Council of Trent from 1563 (Decretum de invocatione, veneratione et reliquiis Sanctorum et de sacris imaginibus) de facto only confirmed the teachings on honouring the saints as outlined by the councils of the first millennium, the subsequent papal documents and policies of the Holy See brought about many changes in the procedures for canonisation. The papal liturgical congregation, Sacra rituum congregatio, whose authority included approving the candidates for sainthood, was established in 1588. Later on, the decrees of Urban VIII, in particular, published in the first half of the 17th century, laid down the rules of the procedures for canonisation (and newly also for beatification) and reiterated the conditions for the recognition of old saints’ cults, which had been established outside the process of papal canonisation.5 While Rome was attempting to gain full control of the cult of the saints through these documents, it also helped to create a certain hierarchy of sainthood. This is because believers began to ascribe different levels of prestige to the various ways of recognising sainthood – papal canonisation, beatification, recognition of the saint’s cult ab immemorabili, etc. (Ducreux, 2016, pp. 21, 29).6 5  These rules were then further refined in the 18th century. 6  The extant documentation shows that recognising a saint’s cult ab immemorabili was seen by the petitioners merely as the first step in the official recognition of the cult, which would help them to achieve papal canonintroduction 11


The exclusive nature of saints within the Roman Catholic Church was further strengthened by the fact that none of the above-mentioned options became routine: the path to canonisation was always long, complicated, and costly, and many attempts ended in failure.7 By way of example, it is no surprise that the saintly pantheon of early modern Central Europe was composed almost exclusively of “old” saints from medieval times (Ducreux, 2016, p. 24; → Andrle). The decrees of Urban VIII also established strict rules for the saintly patronage of different types of communities: while the choice of a patron saint for religious fraternities could have been approved by the diocesan bishop, the patrons of cities, countries, and dioceses had to be saints canonised by the Pope or recorded in Roman Martyrology and had to be approved by Sacra rituum congregatio (Ducreux, 2016, p. 21). However, there were also impulses, albeit indirect ones, that prompted further expansion of saintly patronage: the strong recommendation laid out in Catechismus Romanus (1564) and Rituale Romanum (1614) that first names should only be chosen from the list of saints de facto meant that everyone who was baptised had a baptismal patron (Schröer, 1998, c. 1481). While the traditional study of church history focused primarily on analysing the success rate of the implementation of reforms instituted by the Council of Trent and by the decrees that followed, two German historians, Wolfgang Reinhard and Heinz Schilling, came up in the 1970s with a new concept of the changes in the Reformation and post-Reformation western European society through the confessionalisation paradigm.8 According to their initial and isation or the approval of officium proprium and extend the cult to the whole church. A certain hierarchy can also be found in liturgy – for example, to acquire approval of officium proprium (proper office) for a saint was considered more prestigious than an approval of officium commune (common office) – and in other related areas as well: for example, Martyrologium Romanum reserved the first position in a list of saints for each day for saints with their own office (Ducreux, 2016, pp. 28–29). 7  M.-É. Ducreux noted a number of unsuccessful or lengthy cases but also pointed out the surprising success of John of Nepomuk, which suggests that although the process was bound by strict rules, each case was different (Ducreux, 2016, pp. 18–26). 8  This arguably most influential macroanalytical model of history as a discipline in the second half of the 20th century was developed primarily in Germany (for more information on the history of the model, cf. e.g. Ohlidal, 2002; Deventer, 2004). 12 patron saints and saintly patronage in early modern central europe


more narrow definition, the process of confessionalisation in early modern Europe also included, besides the gradual delineation of individual confessions, the process of modernisation and “social disciplining” (Sozialdisziplinierung), penetrating all areas of life and leading to the division of European society into several separate communities whose identity was rooted primarily in shared confession. The confessionalisation thesis is thus closely connected with defining the research topic of the confessionalisation of sanctity, or confessional sanctity, and establishing the research of confessionalised forms of piety and the analysis of the ways in which they were enforced. To quote M. R. Forster, the confessionalisation paradigm undoubtedly helped find a new and more positive way of looking at the Catholic Church. Rather than being marginalised as a backwards institution clinging to traditions, it was instead interpreted as one of the institutions undergoing confessionalisation and taking part in the emancipation of modern states. It became an attractive research topic, as indicated by the attempts to describe the specific aspects of the Catholic idea of sanctity after the Council of Trent (e.g. Burke, 1984; Ditchfield, 1995; Burschel, 1999). Most importantly, the confessionalisation paradigm endeavoured to eliminate the traditional Catholic-Protestant dichotomy in the study of the religious culture of early modern Europe and to find a unifying principle for a holistic approach. This included an attempt to move beyond the idea that the cult of the saints was exclusive to Catholicism. Studies analysing the concept of (human) sanctity in various religious communities in early modern Europe showed a plurality of views on Christian sanctity. While the newly created churches and religious reform movements placed the late medieval cult of the saints under varying degrees of scrutiny, they did not refuse it en bloc (Knodt, 1998; Halama, 2002; Beyer et al., 2003; Hack, 2007, etc.), and they actually declared their own saints outside of the procedures established by Rome.9 Different 9  See, e.g. the cult of Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague (the latest overview of the extensive existing research can be found in Haberkern, 2016; Horníčková, 2018, pp. 75–85). introduction 13


approaches to both the teachings and the practice of the cult of the saints can be found not only between the individual churches but also within them, both synchronically (with different fractions holding varying conservative and progressive views at the same time) and diachronically, which makes it possible to follow the development and refinement of the teachings on the cult of the saints and the related religious practice (→ Grešová). It is apparent that the concept of sainthood in early modern Europe expanded across its traditional boundaries; it was appropriated by the Roman Catholic Church but it also transcended it. Saintly patronage was also not entirely rejected by the religious reform movements, which went beyond a mere adoption – with some modifications – of selected patron saints10 to creating new ones, as evidenced, for example, by a printer’s device from 1520, which shows Jan Hus as the personal patron saint of the Utraquist printer Mikuláš Konáč of Hodíškov (Horníčková, 2018, p. 79). All of the above raises the question: Is it true that reformation, with its emphasis on Jesus Christ as the only intermediary between people and God and its criticism of the traditional cult of the saints and their relics, rejected saintly patronage as well,11 or were there attempts to redefine saintly patronage as a part of the reformation and confessionalisation process? While the confessionalisation paradigm inspired research into the cults of the saints and saintly patronage as one of the tools of state-controlled mono-confessionalisation leading to a single (Catholic) confession,12 further inspiration came from the criticism of the étatisme it presupposed (e.g. Forster, 1998; Forster, 2001). Material analysis has shown that the internalisation of confessional identity and the development of churchliness were more often the result of 10  See, e.g. the veneration of Bohemian patron saints – Sts Wenceslaus, Procopius, Vitus, and Ludmila – in the Utraquist Church (Horníčková, 2018, pp. 85–90). 11  Reference is often made to church patronicia, which became simply church names and were only formally kept because they helped distinguish the churches from one another (Köpf, 2003, c. 1025; Wurster, 1996, p. 117). 12  For the role of the cult of the saints and saintly patronage in the Catholic mono-confessionalisation of Bohemia and Moravia, see, e.g. Samerski, 2006; Mikulec, 2013; Linka, 2016; Vácha, 2016. 14 patron saints and saintly patronage in early modern central europe


a much more complex process based on mutual compromise between the church hierarchy, which worked together with government authorities to implement religious reforms, on one side, and lay “grass-roots” initiatives (including resistance in the sense of adhering to traditional religious practice) on the other side (Forster, 2001, p. 10). Furthermore, the assumption that confessional identity dominated in early modern Europe over other types of identities – based on the estates, power, region, family, etc. – also came under scrutiny. It became apparent that regional differences, in particular, had to be considered, especially with regard to the Roman Catholic Church, which traditionally presented itself as monolithic and uniform in opposition to the fragmented Protestantism (Forster, 1998, pp. 340–341). S. Ditchfield and other researchers showed that the frequent attempts to establish a saint’s cult within the universal church, which was composed of the individual local churches, were motivated primarily by the need to defend the legitimacy and strengthen the prestige of local saints. They were not reacting simply to the norms implemented by Rome but also to various local needs and stimuli and were also aimed at the local population (Ditchfield, 1995). M.-É. Ducreux notes the following paradox: even though Rome continued to issue new restrictive rules on the veneration of the saints and saintly patronage for almost the whole of the 17th century, the number of cults and patrons kept increasing (Ducreux, 2016, p. 10). Moreover, the rich extant hagiographic production of the era and other evidence show that a failure to have the cult of a local saint recognised by Rome did not stop local churches from keeping it alive and diligently collecting proof of its continued existence. This set of relationships between the regional, the personal, and the universal can also be studied in other contexts. While A. Coreth pointed out the importance of the cult of the saints and saintly patronage for the Austrian Habsburgs – who not only relied on them for their public image but also used them to give legitimacy to their political claims and the enforcement of their rule in their country (Coreth, 1982) – M.-É. Ducreux showed how the Czech Catholic introduction 15


clergy of the late 17th century used saintly patronage as a tool within the state concept of Pietas Austriaca to promote Bohemian interests in the Habsburg monarchy (Ducreux, 1999; Ducreux, 2006; etc.). The main advantage of distinguishing between the universal and the local as the two primary levels of Catholicism is that it allows researchers to examine topics such as the bond between saintly patronage and local cult sites, including pilgrimage sites (→ Ivánek), and to study the process through which a saint of the universal church (such as Virgin Mary) became a local patron with specific characteristics. Even this short overview shows that saintly patronage can be a productive topic for early modern research, which is why this publication focuses on this period.13 At the same time, it is no coincidence that our main focus is on the area of Central Europe, as this is a meeting place for many Christian confessions and an area of frequent religious conversion (cf. e.g. the multiple confessions in Bohemia and Moravia during the 15th and 16th centuries as opposed to the later mono-confessionalisation, legitimised by the constitution between 1627/1628 and 1781, which combined attempts to enforce Trent’s reforms with recatholisation; these attempts also included discovering and restoring the local pre-Reformation traditions and establishing the idea of an uninterrupted “tenure” of the local patron saints). 3 Saintly patronage is a religious practice allowing for the appealing image of centuries-long stability (Signori, 2007, p. 31; Rowe, 2006, pp. 575–578). This constructed continuity, where a saint is a history-defying monolith that once created, never changes, began to be frequently criticised in the 1990s (Dinzelbacher, 1990) and replaced by other concepts where a saint is viewed as a never-ending (not even with canonisation) process of constructing many different 13  Some of the contributions view the early modern era as a longer period that extends into the 19th, 20th, and even the 21st century, while those that conceptualise a long period of time also discuss the (late) Middle Ages. 16 patron saints and saintly patronage in early modern central europe


Summary Even though the cult of patron saints is still viewed as an integral part – or even a distinctive feature – of Catholicism, it is not covered by any of the Christian dogmas. Since this is the case, what has made patron saints so persistently popular even in the secularised world? The collective monograph of eighteen authors Patron Saints and Saintly Patronage in Early Modern Europe can be viewed as a contribution to the searching for answers to this challenging question. Its interdisciplinary nature shows that saintly patronage is far from being a subject exclusive to Christian theology or church history. The main aim of the introduction to the book is to introduce the early modern Central European sources as a valuable material for the research of the phenomenon of saintly patronage. In fact, the relationship between saintly patronage and the cult of the saints has always been somewhat strained in Christianity. While saintly patronage presumes the existence of a cult, it also suggests that the institution of a Christian saint was perceived as insufficient in itself – hence the need to complement it with patronage to make it “stronger”. The study of saintly patronage thus has to be accompanied by the study of the conceptualisation of the saints and (human) sanctity as such and the practice of honouring the saints. This need is particularly urgent in the study of the early modern period, which directed criticism at the category of saints, as not only the newly established Protestant churches, but also Catholic (Roman) Church criticised various aspects of the Late Medieval Christian teachings and practices related to the cult of the saints. However, saintly patronage was not entirely rejected by any of the religious reform movements. Thus, saintly patronage can be a productive topic for research of early modern Central Europe, as this is a meeting place for many Christian confessions and an area of frequent religious conversion. Saintly patronage is a Christian religious practice allowing for the appealing image of centuries-long stability. This concept comes under criticism especially in the first part of this publication entitled Dynamics of Saintly Patronage. It analyses the complexity and summary 335


intricacy of the process of establishing saintly patronage, the strategies for implementing and popularising the cults of patron saints, the transformations and modifications of the patronages of one saint over time. However, this publication focuses also on the cults of patron saints that were – deliberately or unintentionally – forgotten or suppressed and on their re-creation, which was usually presented as their renewal. Saintly patronage is arguably a phenomenon that, at least for Catholics, extended to all levels of early modern European society. Thus, while the concept of a patron saint has always been primarily connected with religion and sacrum in the Christian society, it also allowed for the creation of meanings that go beyond this sphere. This makes it possible to study saintly patronages as models of organising early modern European society; to study the identity-forming potential of saintly patronage and the role that saintly patronages played in creating various types of collective identity or sense of belonging; to study saintly patronages as sources of conflicts both within a community and between communities and also as a tool of discipline used to establish social norms; and last but not least, to study the processes of secularisation and dechristianisation of saintly patronage in modern society. It is particularly the second part of this publication entitled Functions of Saintly Patronage which deals with these issues.

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List of Authors Mgr. Jan Andrle Institute of Czech and Comparative Literature, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic) Mag.Kelley@seznam.cz doc. PhDr. Ivana Čornejová, CSc. Institute of the History and Archive, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic) ivana.cornejova@seznam.cz Mgr. Alena A. Fidlerová, Ph.D. Institute of Czech Language and Theory of Communication, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic) Alena.AndrlovaFidlerova@ff.cuni.cz Dr. Krisztina Frauhammer MTA-SZTE Research Group for the Study of Religious Culture, Szeged (Hungary) frauhammer.kr@gmail.com Mgr. Adriana Grešová Department of Musicology, Faculty of Arts, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia) gresova2012@gmail.com Dr. Orsolya Gyöngyössy, Ph.D. MTA-SZTE Research Group for the Study of Religious Culture, Szeged (Hungary) orsolyagyongyossy@gmail.com Mgr. Jakub Ivánek, Ph.D. Department of Czech Literature and Literary Criticism, Faculty of Arts, University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic) jakub.ivanek@osu.cz 354 patron saints and saintly patronage in early modern central europe


Mgr. Jana Kolářová, Ph.D. Department of Czech Studies, Faculty of Arts, Palacký University, Olomouc (Czech Republic) denivka@centrum.cz Mgr. Alena Kotšmídová University of Burgundy, Dijon (France) – Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany) alena.kotsmidova@seznam.cz prof. PhDr. Tomáš Krejčík, CSc. Institute of Auxuliary Historical Sciences and Archive Studies, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic) tomas.krejcik@econ.muni.cz Mgr. Ilona Matejko-Peterka, Ph.D. Institute of Historical Sciences of the Silesian University, Opava (Czech Republic) ilona.matejko-peterka@fpf.slu.cz prof. PhDr. Jiří Mikulec, CSc. Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic) mikulec@hiu.cas.cz Dr. László Mód Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, University of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary) modlaci@gmail.com PhDr. Ladislav Nekvapil, Ph.D. East Bohemia Museum in Pardubice, Pardubice – Department of History, Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, University of Pardubice, Pardubice (Czech Republic) nekvapil@vcm.cz list of authors 355


Dr. Eleonora Rava Centro Studi Santa Rosa da Viterbo, Viterbo (Italy) – University of St Andrews (Great Britain) eleonora.rava@gmail.com, er50@st-andrews.ac.uk doc. Mgr. Jan Stejskal, MA, Ph.D. Department of History, Palacký University, Olomouc (Czech Republic) jan.stejskal@upol.cz Mgr. Marie Škarpová, Ph.D. Institute of Czech and Comparative Literature, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic) marie.skarpova@ff.cuni.cz Dr. Sarah Tiboni Centro Studi Santa Rosa da Viterbo, Viterbo (Italy) sarahtiboni@yahoo.it

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Marie Škarpová et al. Patron Saints and Saintly Patronage in Early Modern Central Europe Published by the Faculty of Arts, Charles University, nám. Jana Palacha 2, Praha 1, as the 18th volume of the series Trivium Copy editor (English texts): Paul Simpson Copy editor (German texts): Barbora Thielová Indices: Vratislav Vokurka Typography František Štorm Baskerville Pro and John Sans Pro typesetting Stará škola (staraskola.net) Press Tiskárna PROTISK s. r. o., České Budějovice First edition, Praha 2019