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MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECT FINAL REPORT

SPI SkateParkItaly

Seda Ayvazyan, Interior Design, PoliMI Signature____________________________________

Luca Bussolino, Architecture Construction City, PoliTO Signature____________________________________

Marco Felicioni, Architectural Design and History, PoliMI Signature____________________________________

Aleksandra Katmerova, Design & Engineering, PoliMI Signature____________________________________

Federica Pennino, Communication Design, PoliMI Signature____________________________________

Daniele Ricciardi, Interior Architecture, PoliMI Signature____________________________________

Luisa Viotti, Architecture for the Sustainable Design, PoliTO Signature____________________________________

Principal Academic Tutor Fabio Armao, DIST PoliTO, GANGCITY Paolo Mellano, DAD PoliTO Marco Imperadori, ABC PoliMI

Other Academic Tutor Marina Bravi, DIST PoliTO Matteo Poli, DATSU PoliMI

External Tutors Mila Sichera, DAD PoliTO, GANGCITY Gemma Tuccillo, Dipartimento della Giustizia Minorile e di Comunità Marella Santangelo, DiARC Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Paolo Giardiello, DiARC Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Claudio Bernardini, Milano Skateboarding Patrizia Alfano, UISP Brice Coniglio, Kaninchenhaus Walter Macaluso, Rider’s Academy Roberto Grippiolo, Impresa Cavallo


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executive summary

7 11 15

1 introduction 2 users’ requirements

3 state of the art

16 18 20 22

3.1 /skateparks’ typologies

INDEX

3.2 /skateparks’ complementary activities 3.3 /skateparks’ materials

3.4 /examples of existing solutions


4 the solution

25

4.1 /architectural project

28

4.2 /possible areas of intervention 4.3 /criteria analysis

60 65

44

4.4 /comparing analysis

4.5 /possible project implementation in selected area 4.6 /project’s outputs

5 conclusion bibliography

72

75 78

66


executive summary /THEORY WHAT The Surface is a strategical tool of urban regeneration through the construction of skateparks in peripheral urban areas: the skatepark can act both as a social stage as well as a sportive platform and can trigger a process of reclaiming of neglected public spaces.

of established urban landscapes. It deals with the use value of the space (that is, how much a space is worth based on the use one can make out of it), rather than with the exchange value (cost, commercial value), and uses it as a creative scene instead of an economic one. WHY

Nevertheless, skateboarding suffers from a general mistrust from a large portion of citizens, who hold a bad reputation on WHERE young skaters, tending to associate them to outcasts, nuisances or even criminals. On The Surface tackles the ever-expanding the contrary, though, it has been proven that issue of safety in peripheral urban areas. the presence of a community of skaters in a Rather than focusing on crime punishment or district can decrease crime, by attracting more on those who perpetrate violence, the project users and consequently a constant control addresses the spaces in which such violence over the area. Therefore, besides projecting a thrives. Addressing invisible threats of internal physical skatepark as a possible form of urban enemies (like gangs, terrorists, clans or any regeneration, one other main goal of The other violent non-state actors) requires that Surface is to create a positive strategy of the urban space is made safer by the very communicating the skate culture, through presence of its citizens acting on it. artistic and media expressions revolving around each skatepark, to drive out negative HOW misbeliefs and change the general opinion of the citizens on skaters. The Surface aims at building new possible forms of urban resilience, that is: the /ARCHITECTURE capacity of cities to persist in their current state of functioning while facing disturbance Hence, The Surface it’s innovative in the or change, to adapt to future challenges in sense that it is a social experiment, providing positive transformative ways. The Surface local communities with a clear strategy of urban intends to build resilience by considering appropriation. The building of a skatepark is skateboarding as a triggering element for just a sparkle that generates attractiveness, a social and urban regeneration. Skaters but it necessarily must be supported with the constitute a resilient community per se, once organization of activities and the involvement they find a skateable area, they start using of the community. The urban regeneration it in a creative and not pre-established way, project revolves then, around these main claiming a sort of ownership through their points: frequent use. They actively participate in shaping the meaning of space, continuously //Object: reinterpreting it. Skateboarding, in that sense, may be described as a ‘spatial counterculture’, The starting point for the regeneration process. in the way it resists to the capitalist spatiality It is made by a skateable itinerant wooden 4

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

structure, whose morphology has been mitigated to obtain a non-traditional carousel, within which numerous activities can be staged simultaneously. Above The Surface, a figurative pole forests is planted, conceived as spatial devices able to generate a spatial overwriting, aiding exhibitions or supplemental activities, through the implementation of electrical outlets or tensile structures. Some external structures, called add-ons, can be added to guarantee additional larger activities (bar/café, music pavilion, covered room, seating […]), consisting of a light padded frame with panels of chosen materials, according to the preferred narrative. //Place: Possible project implementation areas are selected and evaluated on a weighted system of defined criteria (e.g. urban criteria: location, accessibility, proximity to related facilities; social criteria: age, income, multiculturalism; architectural criteria: feasibility, dimensions, geometry). Those instances were chosen because they are instrumental in the chainreaction process involving many city areas that The Surface can be expected to be mounted over time, so the carousel can thus assume an itinerant value, that can support the concept of resilience in as many areas as possible. //Program: Means any collateral comple-mentary activity that will be performed on and around the skatepark itself. The Surface can be considered as a passive carousel when exclusively used as a skatepark, but it assumes an active role when a timeline of events is structured, closely related to the place in which it arises. This also means a great cooperation with local associations, which leads to different uses and a continuous management over time. This allows the structure to provide a schedule of intergenerational and inclusive activities that can make the community more unite, moreover, attract users from outside.

OUTPUT The Surface is based on low-budget, easily mountable and dismountable interventions, and guarantees attractiveness to skaters of different levels (beginner to pro) because of the technical design of the ramps (inclinations, dispositions, curvatures, etc.). The feasibility of the architectural project has been supported by a external consultancy with designers who practise skateboarding at high levels, thus know the users’ specific needs and expectations. The Surface envisions a socially sustainable methodology because it seeks the help of local associations active on the territory, in safeguarding each intervention. The inhabitants of the area become more than spectators of the initiatives, being involved into complementary activities. Once the designed initiative is ended, the associations and the sense of community projected on the space should stay, leading the short-term output toward a long-term one, with lasting consequences (e.g. sense of belonging, resilience in the community). The Surface is a pilot project potentially replicable, if a set of guiding principles are respected. Although the project has not been constructed yet, the concept was here proposed on an suburban area of Milan, which was chosen between the possible future project implementation areas. It is a strategy based on Italian peripheries that counts on the involvement of the citizens in the procsess and that can be more effective than any institutional involvement in leading to crime reduction. For this reason, it also raised the interest of the Department of Juvenile Justice and Community, that looked for a possible application of the project’s framework inside jails and prisons, for rehabilitation and reinsertion of former criminals into society. The Surface constitutes an opportunity of development and inclusion for both skaters and non-skaters, from younger immigrants to elder residents, for young criminals, and for entire communities on the territory.

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6.

e, 201

agn rta ort

Fred M O: by PHOT


1

introduction

SkateParkItaly deals with the issue of safety in urban peripheral areas. Historically, safety had always been guaranteed by the state, which held the monopoly of the coercive power. However, since the capitalism regime has been triumphing and new territorialities are being generated, the world has witnessed reductions in welfare, privatization of public sectors, a growth in civil conflicts and in social inequalities, and a diffusion of violent non-state actors (VNSAs). In this scenario of rescaled authorities, cities are dramatically brought back to the center of the political universe (Armao, 2013) [1].

agenda. In fact, any strategy aiming at making a place safer through an enforcement, as in the case of gated communities, cannot possibly deal with the threat of an internal enemy. Thus, “it is necessary to focus on the spaces in which violence thrives, more than on the perpetrators” (Armao, 2016) [3].

Ensuring safety and security, first and foremost, implies solving spatial and territorial problems through urban planning policies. Crucial in defending spaces against crime is the principles of self-help (the idea that the direct involvement of the residents can contribute to the reduction of crime more than any Wherever the sovereignty of the state starts to intervention by the government), as well as the be questioned, violence becomes one of the principle that the physical layout of residential main tools to be used in the urban environment environments should allow residents easier for deciding disputes, generating a competition control of the areas surrounding their homes for the control of the territory. The so-called (Armao, 2016) [3]. ‘Foam Theory’ envisions the urban territory as divided into cellular clusters (privatized spatial In this theoretical framework, SPI is born as entities), within which, organized crime groups an opportunity to explore the design project of increasingly tend to function like an operating skate parks mainly in relation to specific urban contexts and to the social issues they entail. business (Armao, 2014) [2]. It is a research-to-action-plan developed on If we assume that societies are forced to many different and complementary levels maintain a relationship with the space and to create a framework for an operative cannot exist outside of its frame (and that space instrument. The project discloses the existing is a construction which constantly evolves over relationships between the design activities time), what shall be appointed is: the need and the ethical, artistic, social, aesthetic to put spatiality at the top of the theoretical parameters. It highlights the use-value of

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INTRODUCTION

space, which means values the use of the space as a creative scene rather than an economic one [56], and that, can improve the quality of life and the city’s services. In this way, by defining intense relationships between object (skateboard park), design and context (place), a project-manifesto is produced. The initially light layers can result in a greater force of design device, generated by a clear, transparent and comprehensible conceptual approach. SPI thus becomes a paradigm to be tested and potentially replicated in many urban contexts as an exercise of reflection on how a given existing dimension could be changed through even the lightest, pinpoint design action. SkateParkItaly, however, is not only concerned upon the physical design of skate parks in peripheral urban area, it also aims to raise awareness, to maybe bridge the gap between different generations living in the same area, to foster a possible process of inclusion for immigrant residents through involving them into a community, the skate community, which can be held together upon the above-mentioned principle of the self-help. A special emphasis is put on the process, rather than on the physical outcome, considering precious the attempt made toward raising a sense of belonging to a community, a sense of consciousness. In other words, skateboarding does not constitute a solution to the problem, nevertheless, it can be a starting point of departure towards the elaboration of a solution. The design of areas dedicated to street sports becomes a strategy of intervention focusing on raising awareness and triggering a chain of consequential actions. With first the skateboarding, complementary activities are made possible, and those activities - especially when having a collective character - can start bottom-up processes of re-appropriation of urban soil.

- Dipartimento di Giustizia minorile e di ComunitĂ ) and the Italian Ministry of Justice (Ministero di Grazia e Giustizia)]; likewise, the UISP Association (Italian Union of Sports for All) supports the employment of street sports like skateboarding (which is meant to become an Olympic game by 2020) in a project with social implications; other external associations such as Gangcity, Milano Skateboarding and Kanikenhaus are interested in promoting bottom-up forms of appropriation of urban spaces, especially through sports and collective activities. Consequently, the requirements the SPI project is expected to fulfil can be summarized as: the need to be inclusive and replicable into different urban environments, as well as maybe inside a jail; and to be easily communicative, becoming a manifesto to be spread as far as possible. SkateParkItaly is configured as a pilot project, as a kit of good practices for a collective urban commitment through the design of spaces of aggregations and integration (not merely for skaters), also spaces for communicating the skate culture and where to bring people together.

Among the objectives of the project, SPI aims to first getting to know the skate culture, its practices, its language and artistic expressions, then to get acquaintance with the skate scene in Italy, especially between Turin and Milan. Also, it wishes to create beneficial interactions between arts, architecture and skate, that will be proposed for peripheral areas. Furthermore, the project wants to identify a model of inclusion and integration of marginalized and fragile young members of the communities. Working on the collective construction of a public space - with intrinsic properties for the creation of a polyvalent space, managed by people that may not be citizens with voting rights, yet they occupy a central role in the everyday life - can generate There are already some external institutions hybrid forms of political activism. The reinterested in the projects like SPI, that looks appropriation of a social space or context using for the rehabilitation and reinsertion of past recognized and coded mechanisms facilitates criminals into society [like the Department the emergence of youths and groups that join of Juvenile Justice and Community (DGMC in a quest for an identity that has been denied. 8

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INTRODUCTION

The participation in the construction process for a skateboard park and its associated essential services will create a dialogue that is difficult to initiate and develop. It also facilitates the relationship dynamics between individuals (particularly adolescents) that are marginalized physically and socially. In addition, SPI traces a map for returning to the public some peripheral areas of Italian cities. The idea is to create skate parks as design devices that can call on the ethical and financial responsibility of the institutions and entice them to overwrite the existing structures and reconfigure the abandoned and damaged public spaces. The key factor is to pro-actively involve the multiple actors in the process, including young athletes, whether they are affiliated to a gang or not. Skateparks can welcome and integrate gang’s culture through leisure and sporting activities, and it will attempt to destroy the close bond between the city and the fringe social phenomena, replacing the gang controls of an determined area with strategies and creative devices produced at grassroots level. The objective is to redesign and encourage collective care of the locations, with initiatives of re-appropriation, under the banner of brotherhood and self-organization.

range of references was widened through trips to the Netherlands, to Lyon and to Malmo, a city which recently experienced a rebirth through several skate parks interventions. Beyond this, technical studies were necessarily carried out to understand both the tricks and the physical movements performed by the skaters, as well as the typologies of skateable ramps, the materials and the technologies adopted in the construction of skateparks. The team organization was structured through a division of the team members among different fields: some focused on the social research (for instance, an online survey was created to examine parameters like age, origins, motivations for skating), some on the artistic and media expressions linked to skateboarding, others on more technical aspects of the design of prototypes; others on urban research about possible areas of implementation of the project; but overall, all the team members were focusing in absorbing the skate culture and contributing to the project in its best abilities.

The work then proceeded with a few misfortunes about focusing such a complex matter, on two parallel tracks: one group with the design of an exhibition intended to spread In approaching such a complex and various the word about SPI and reach out as many matter, the method of work of the team people as possible (the exhibition dealing with obviously had to be multidisciplinary and the skate culture and its artistic expressions, diverse: trips and site visits to existing skate as well as all the collateral activities that could parks were essential in getting closer to be performed around a skatepark), to this the skate culture. Talks and interview with purpose we asked for funds and participated skaters were carried out to understand their to several calls in search for financial personality traces, to enter their world and opportunities to exhibit inside the Venice appreciate their lifestyle. The involvement of Biennale 2018; and the second group carried representatives of governmental institutions, out an architectural design of some lightweight, voluntary organizations and artists who could easily dismountable, prefabricated modular sensitively interpret the soul of the locations buildings which could be placed in any project was also crucial from the beginning. No area - that is any square in any suburban area distinction of age, nationality or gender was of our cities - to create events and occasions, made when approaching the skaters, from the happening on the side of the ramps dedicated eldest ones practicing in the bowl inside the to skateboarding and other sports. Bastard store in Milan, to the youngest kids skating on the steps in front Stazione Centrale, The group then realized we had to reduce the and also the in Piazza Valdo Fusi in Turin. The possibilities of implementation of the project SPI - SkateParkItaly

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INTRODUCTION

PHOTO: by Hugh Holland, 1975.

before having an actual good project with the intentional social intention, and we then started working on the architectural design of a skate park in strict collaboration with the association Riders Academy (engaged as an external consultant) and, the sociological research of possible implications with the implementation of the project. The external collaboration was judged necessary because talking to skaters, we discover that only by expert designers who skate could the design of successful skating ramps be tackled, otherwise, the risk would be to create a skating ramp which, even though good looking, could not be appealing to skaters, nor suitable for the tricks they are willing to perform. Therefore, the solution adopted was to structure part of the consultancy as a co-design process between skaters and designers/architects. About the social implications, we concluded that an essential part of the project is to guide the organization of events around which, a community could gather. For this reason, the contribution of the local associations present in these areas and the involvement of the population inhabiting the surroundings obviously remain a crucial contribute to the realization of the SPI paradigm, wherever it may be applied.

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users’ requirements

The SPI project couldn’t be made possible without the presence and the participation of a wide variety of stakeholders: they ranged from large institutional entities to local associations, from the world of street sports to the sphere of urban administrations, to the citizens themselves. Each of them we had a bigger or smaller level of contact/involvement, and was interested in the development of the project from a different point of view. Each had specific expectations about its outcome, which we tried to consider through the development of our work.

_The Italian Ministry of Justice (Ministero di Grazie e Giustizia): it is focused on how to reduce and, ideally, destroy illegal and criminal activities in Italy, even with the inclusion of projects that could prevent illegal activities. It takes care of penitentiary institutes around Italy and, therefore, is interested in collective activities that could help the social recovery of criminals inside the prison, especially through sport.

_UISP Association: the Italian Union of Sports for All is interested in any enterprise related to sportive activities in Italy, with a The stakeholders could be divided into four special emphasis on how sport could trigger different categories, depending on their size processes of social inclusion, especially and on their influence and impact on the among the youngest citizens. Having UISP’s support constitutes a helpful concern for project’s decision-making. the project as it is an important association \\1 NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND BODIES that “both nationally and locally (where it is strongly rooted and widespread) collaborates This first category includes those institutions with institutions, municipalities, regions, public that act on a wider, national scale, such and private bodies to improve people’s wellas Italian Ministries and National sportive being” [13]. associations. \NEEDS & REQUIREMENTS _Department of Juvenile Justice and Community (DGMC - Dipartimento di The Ministry of Justice defined a need Giustizia minorile e di Comunità): focusing to identify a series of prisons in which to on young criminality, it works toward finding potentially apply the SkateParkItaly concept in solutions oriented to avoiding and preventing order to involve young imprisoned men and the diffusion of illegal activities among minors. women and endow them with the possibility

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USERS’ REQUIREMENTS

of involving into a social/leisure activity, which could help facilitating and accelerating the rate of their social rehabilitation process. The Department of Juvenile Justice and Community also wanted to employ the good practices outlined by the SPI project inside the delicate context of the juvenile prisons, to create a chance of rehabilitation and reinsertion in the society for the youngest criminals, those who might more easily become passionate about skateboarding and street sports.

with it by organizing social activities for the community that revolves around it. _Cities administrations: as the project is modular and adaptable to many kinds of cities and of urban shape, the participation of city administration (mainly assessori comunali and other urban representatives) from Torino was fundamental to have a clear outline of the direct users’ problems, needs and requirements.

_External institutions that could possibly become investors of the project, like To do so, one major requirement for our pilot Compagnia di San Paolo, Reale Mutua project is that it should be adaptable and Assicurazioni and Fondazione CRT, these replicable even inside the courtyards of Italian are just examples based on our research on prisons. Therefore, beyond outer spaces in the initially possible project area of Piazza the Italian peripheries, SkateParkItaly had Arbarello in Turin, but they gave us an idea to consider also inner spaces as its possible on which kind of investors we could focus areas of intervention. on. External investors are fundamental in the financing of a skatepark, since very often is On the other side, UISP needs the project to it hard to find public funds allocated to the be communicative, widespread and effective realization of such urban interventions in Italy. in relaunching the image of Skateboard, which could be considered as one of the least _The project also needs the support of popular sports in Italy now, even though he the social communities, mainly made by will soon become an Olympic game in 2020. cultural associations which could be involved Furthermore, it requires that the project has in the maintenance and administration of cultural and social implications, becoming the areas. Sticking to the initial example of beneficial for the communities that commit Piazza Arbarello, we have selected a list of themselves and decide to adopt the SPI associations that could be involved into the practices. Therefore, what is required from the application of SPI to that specific site area: project is that it communicates effectively CleanUp, ASD SkatePark Torino, Oratorio San the skateboard culture in Italy, especially Luigi, ASC Centro Campo. These associations through artistic and communication tools and would become essential in preserving the media, and that is creates opportunities urban area of application of the project and of social inclusions through sportive, in organizing collective activities around collective activities. the skateparks. Plus, all the skateboard communities that are working for their territory \\2 LOCAL BODIES AND ASSOCIATIONS and could bring together possible new skaters (foreigners, kids, teens that need to perform This second category includes the social services as payments of crimes, etc.). stakeholders that have an active relationship with the areas of intervention selected for \NEEDS & REQUIREMENTS the potential application of the project. Here listed are administrations, institutions and External financing institutions, as any other communities that could interact with the project investors, need to have a profit. An urban in both ways: investing in the realization of requalification intervention can bring wealth to the skatepark and, once realized, interacting an entire district, by attracting people who can

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USERS’ REQUIREMENTS

spend money on the bars, restaurants and shops nearby, as well as attracting wealthier residents who decide to move to that specific area. Therefore, a project’s requirement is to bring an economical advantage to the area of intervention, to its community and to its investors. The cities administrations play a crucial role in this process and they need to guide the project in addressing the local residents’ needs and expectations. Thus, they require that the project is community driven and actively involves the citizens inhabiting a specific area.

that can be affected positively an negatively (in this case specially by rumors). In particular, we focused on young citizens that could be attracted to the skateboarding activities (but also through some collateral activities that could be organized around the area) and also focusing on healthier interests, filling their need of belonging or of “membership” within the skateboarding. \NEEDS & REQUIREMENTS

SPI was born to try to make peripherical a better place for everyone. Children, but also young and elderly citizens who populate an Finally, cultural associations will necessarily environment where crime and danger are work to preserve the skatepark that will be built common, tend to feel unprotected. For many in a certain area. Therefore, they will need the reasons they feel the need to “associate” or project to be inclusive, to be attractive for “identify” to some kind of groups of people, both residents and skaters, to bring social and in such dangerous environments they find value to the community. organized crime to be the best option, giving life to real baby gangs that will inevitably be \\3 DIRECT USERS routed to organized crime. A skatepark and all the activities that are attached to it, could The third category includes citizens and skaters make these young people passionate about who will physically benefit from the creation of skateboarding and street cultures that are just a new urban-skating environment. Both can as “fascinating” as they are harmless. This be wide groups, considering the range of age would therefore lead to the creation of healthy and interests, who do not necessarily share interests that could also contribute to the the same interests, but the project can help removal of crime from certain places. Every them in sharing and attending one common local association is interested because they area and, hopefully, also benefiting from each are interested in the area in which they live, other. the project could bring help, life and some kind of consequential peace (reduce on violence) _Skaters: they constitute one of the main to the area. protagonists of SkateParkItaly. They naturally bring a good, young and healthy environment The requirements needed for this purpose are around them, and at the same time they very connected to the project development don’t mind moving from different areas to method: the selection of the area in the skate. This is the reason why SPI dedicates first place, then the meeting with the local a significant part of the designed areas to a stakeholders to understand the specific needs. skatepark that could help attracting towards The result will then be the building of, rather difficult neighborhoods groups of people such than a generic skatepark, a maybe better as skaters, photographers, musicians, that place to make people feel safer. From the could activate the young citizens’ interests on skaters’ perspective, the place needs to be healthier activities, etc. ‘skateable attractive’, hence the ramps need to be suitable for training on tricks and _Citizens: they are the ones living in the performances. areas of intervention (communities, suburbs) SPI - SkateParkItaly

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USERS’ REQUIREMENTS

\\4 INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS The last group includes the associations that have already developed a social project on their own but have many points in common with SPI and this is exactly why they can be considered as actors in the developing of further activities about and after the skateparks will be built. _Gangcity: “a research program that aims at documenting the phenomenon of urban clusters subtracted from any form of legality control in order to activate processes of reappropriation and care of private and public living spaces” [14]. _Milano Skateboarding is an association that has the following objectives: “Protect and develop skateboarding, starting from Milan. Culture mixed with a passion for the project lead to the creation of a city-game in which to rethink the metropolitan space in order to make it more fun. Communities that become clients and designers, free and accessible without restrictions. Coordinating creative communities that take care of that portion of public space that is belongs to them. Participation, active citizenship, skateboarding” [15]. _Kanikenhaus: non-profit organization with offices in Turin, in the Porta Palazzo district, and in Milan in the Isola area, and active, both locally and internationally, in the field of contemporary art and culture. It intends to promote projects and activate processes that implement unconventional strategies and programs related to the artistic and cultural system through the invention of original devices. The organization aims to create symbolic places where the experience and the individual path are put aside to make room for the elaboration of a group strategy and the weaving of a network of people able to interact dialectically with the institutions, questioning consolidated models and practices, with the aim of producing concrete reflections on the community [16]. 14

_Riders Academy is an association which promotes skateboard courses and related activities mainly focused on the introduction of young people to “riders” activities. They are based in both Turin and Bologna, however their presence is spread to the whole Italy, thanks to the great number of initiatives they organize. They are interest in the project as a mean to be able to spread even more their activities addressing to a larger number of people which now cannot be reached due to lack of adequate structures. _Impresa Cavallo is an enterprise specialized in intervention of consolidation and new realization in natural environments. They showed interest in new possibilities of investment such as the skateboarding field and foresee a collaboration with SkateParkItaly to set up a new branch dedicated to the skatepark construction. \NEEDS & REQUIREMENTS This category focuses more on the activities that will be practiced in the designed area. Those associations are not specifically local, nor national, but focus on a social project related to the same topic that SPI deals with. They could be interested in the outputs of the project, to collaborate and to give the area a longer life through the organization of different events, once the skatepark has been built. The requirements to fulfill these needs are related to scheduling activity, one or more of those associations could manage the calendar of a certain period, calling different actors, in order to give life to the place, not only with skaters or citizens, but also with events, concerts exhibitions, workshops and any kind of social activity of their interest. SPI could be an ideal continuation of their own social projects.

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state of the art

Some organizations have already been trying to trigger processes of urban regeneration and fostering a cross-over of disciplines and methodologies. Among them, Gangcity proposed an exhibition for the 2016 Biennale of Venice, called ‘Reporting from the front’ in which urban clusters (ruled by violent non-state actors) were documented, with the aim of activating processes of re-appropriation and securitization of the spaces. Photography, design and fashion were used along with workshops and stories of inhabitants of urban clusters finally freed from gang’s violence through the practice of social inclusion instead of repression. A photographic exhibition told the stories and was intended to disclose the mutual influence between violence and the geography of the city. Emphasis was given to how urban elements contributed to facilitating or obstructing the sprawling of criminal activities. Another organization active is Milano skateboarding, which adds the culture of skateboarding to a passion for urban projects, imagining the city as an infinitive playground. Milano Skateboarding rethinks the metropolitan space in order to turn it into something more fun. One of their main projects, Gratobowl, was made possible by a community which

committed itself to the realization of a public, accessible, free public area. Through participation and the coordination of a creative crew who was willing to take care of a portion of public space they usually inhabited. Gratobowl was a metaphor of organization, horizontal participation between citizens, administrations and skateboarders. An example of an urban policy which raised anew the economy of an entire urban area, like is the case of Malmö, which is eye opening on how skateboarding can be not just tolerated but encouraged and built on as part of a wider urban development strategy. Here skateboarding is no longer proscribed or repelled. Instead, in the new city it is increasingly central to debates about the value of public spaces, while simultaneously adding artistic, cultural, educational and commercial value to the urban life. Skateboarding is being celebrated as something diverse, positive and very welcome. This next chapter talks about references used to understand and absorb the skate culture by the SPI group, other than watching skate culture movies and visiting skate places, like typical skatepark typologies, complementary activities, materials and good examples of existing solutions around the world that could positively influence our project design.

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STATE OF THE ART

/skateparks’ typologies skatepark typology

bowl Skaters in bowl parks can move around the park without taking their feet off the board to push. This typology comes in an endless variety of shapes and sizes (mostly are 1m and 4m deep).

About existing skateboarding typologies, it is an action sport practiced mainly on streets, therefore there are not exact standard templates, since each park is designed to provide different experiences, percourses, based on different levels of difficulty of the sport, from begginers, maybe even kids, until profesionals. In any case, three different general layouts typologies can be defined: BOWLPARKS, that originally came from unused pools. hHre it is possible to move around without taking the feet off the skateboard to push. STREETPLAZA, that emulates the street skating experience: obstacles have a urban style, therefore they are mostly stairs, benches or railings.

street plaza it emulates the street skating experience: obstacles in a street plaza are styled to look like natural street terrain such as stairs, railings, planters and benches. Skaters will push off with their feet to gain momentum in a street plaza.

FLOWPARKS is a middle between the two, combining elements from both sides, gaining speed from bowl corners in order to hit street obstacles. There are also different singular or multiple elements that can be added alongside or inserted on those general typologies to practise different tricks with the skateboard.

Ă…V^WHYR it combines elements of both bowl parks and street plazas.

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Usually the application of each typology depends a lot on the budget available, the client specification or the availability of structure on the area skaters appropriate to practise the sport, for example.

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STATE OF THE ART

elements

half-pipe

bowl

spine

bank

stairs

quarter pipe

kicker

funbox

pool quarter

Ã…H[YHPS

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STATE OF THE ART

/skateparks’ complementary activities The process of redevelopment of an urban area includes the engagement of users of all generations. It would be beneficial for youth to interact with the skate park visitors who may not have much interest in skateboarding but might be ultimately interested in communication with skaters. Moreover, they may be engaged in different recreation activities that are located near the skate park. For instance, several sport activities such as fitness (2), biking (4), yoga (9), basketball (10), rollerblading (11), climbing (16), boxing (17) may promote a healthy lifestyle with significant benefits on the entire health of the person. The involvement of skaters in the local activities, as it is shown in the example of Gillett Square in London, may add diversity to an urban area and provide a sociocultural exchange. Among those activities may be

noticed concerts (1), competitions (3), film screenings (12), children playgrounds (14), board games (15), bar (18). In addition to these activities a range of various workshops and exhibitions related to street art and else may be organized in the skate park area. For example, local associations or individual artists may conduct “do it yourself” masterclasses under the supervision of the instructors on making skateboards (5) or organizing graffiti sessions (8). The presence of complementary activities within the skate park has the aim to revitalize the urban area. It becomes a self-regulated shared space which is used not only by skateboarders, but also by different kinds of users sharing common interests and activities. It leads to conviviality and sociability in such public place.

1 Concert.

10 Basketball.

PHOTOS: by Rachel Grate.

PHOTOS: by Sebastien Michelini.

2 Fitness.

11 Rollerblading.

PHOTOS: by Torben Eskerod.

PHOTOS: by Claire Sasko.

3 Competitions.

12 Cinema.

PHOTOS: by Matthew Niederhauser.

PHOTOS: by Ilya Ivanov.

4 Biking.

13 DJ set.

PHOTOS: DISSING + WEITLING Architecture.

PHOTOS: by Adrià Goulà.

5 Workshops.

14 Playground.

PHOTOS: by Matt Berger.

PHOTOS: by Rasmus Hjortshøj.

6 Dancing.

15 Board games.

PHOTOS: by Tristram Kenton.

PHOTOS: by Laurian Ghinitoiu.

7 Exhibitions.

16 Climbing.

PHOTOS: by Attila Toró.

PHOTOS: by Jacopo Gennari Feslikenian.

8 Graffiti.

17 Boxing.

PHOTOS: by Manuela Vitulli.

PHOTOS: by Torben Eskerod.

9 Yoga.

18 Cafè.

PHOTOS: by Kevin Scott.

PHOTOS: by H. Miller Bro.

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/skateparks’ materials According to if a skatepark is a permanent temporary construction, different types of materials are usually used. For permanent skateparks, most often is used concrete (1), and for temporary or indoor permanent parks, wood (2). Steel (3) can be often seem in some sparse elements, fiber glass (4) and composites (5), can be used instead of concrete or wood, but even so, the best choice for a skatepark’s material should most of all depends on its size and modules that needs to be designed. The new construction materials have already changed the way many skateparks are being built today. Firstly, the innovative materials effected the structural material that is put under the top surfaces. One of these materials is foam, produced in blocks (6), that can be used as filling before adding the concrete layer. Other innovative materials are the piezoelectric materials (7), which can create electricity when are subjected to mechanical stresses.

Beside the effect on the supportive structure, the innovative materials also influenced the surface structure, making them stronger, more durable and more sustainable. Therefore, using recycling material can reduce the cost of the material and waste, it can reduce CO2 emissions and the planning requirements can be easily met, while it can also complement other aspects of eco-design. [34] Skatelite and SkatelitePRO are a kind of composite materials that meets those advantages. Skatelite (8) can have up to 10% of recycled content in the material and can be more sensitive of the environment. While, SkatelitePRO (9) is an eco-friendly material made primary of paper from certified managed forests. It is very durable material that is designed to stand up to daily environmental conditions and inflected by skateboards and BMX bikes. Since SkatelitePRO is made of paper, it is possible to have patterns printed on it. [35] [36]

1 Concrete Skatepark. PHOTOS: by Robin Hayes.

2 Indoor wooden Skatepark . PHOTOS: by Finn Ståle Felberg/Kultur- og idrettsbygg Oslo KF, Lars Gartå..

3 Steel handrail element.

6 Foam filling, underneath concrete Skatepark. PHOTOS: by California Skateparks.

7 Piezoelectric scheme.

PHOTO: by EFFEKT.

PHOTO: by unknown.

4 Fiberglass ramp.

8 Skatelite Skatepark.

PHOTO: by Norm.

PHOTO: by Burnquist Banner.

5 Asphalt + Concrete Composite & Wood Composite.

9 SkatelitePRO ramp.

PHOTOS: by Robin Hayes & by authors.

PHOTOS: by Jamie Smerdon.

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/examples of existing solutions Regarding the different solutions/possibilities to create a skatepark, it is usually a collateral product of urban public space design [37], meaning that it’s hard to see a ‘designed with this porpoise’ skatepark in the center of a city. The space is commonly a residual urban space that no one else is claiming it, like the Navarcles Skateplaza (1) that is located in the outskirts of the small town, next to a warehouse area; or the Kavel K (2) in The Netherlands, as described by the architects “a triangular plot, boxed in by a railway track and a connecting road” [38]; but it can also be the restructuration of an old abandoned communal pool like Wave Park (3) in Palazzolo; or for example under a viaduct, like in Baró de Viver Sports Urban Park (4) in Barcelona and Skate Park Jardines de Aureà Cuadrado (5).

Barris (15) or Skaterhall (16), where in this last one, the municipality and residents were worried about the conflict of the skatepark being in a residential area, regarding the existing noise regulations and so, a roof was designed to enclosure the space, creating a indoor skatepark with regular working hours. It can be the creation of a public square where skate activities can be integrated with civic activities, like the case of Piazza Valdo Fuzi (17) in Turin and also, Streetplaza Logroño (18) and Park Skatepark La Ganja (19).

The culture of skate is so strong for those who practice the sport, that there are also some skaters who construct for themselves and some close friends a ‘private skatepark’, like is the case of the Bastard Store (20) in Milan, the Skate Park House (21) in Tokyo and Cristiania’s Skatepark (22) in It can arise as merely the appropriation from Copenhagen, that it’s not private per se, but the skaters of an already existing urban space, the hippie community thought it was a needed like a square with smooth surface, as is the connection with skaters to create an indoor case of behind a palace in Piazza Castello skatepark in the center of the Freetown. (6) in Turin, underneath the Ibirapuera’s marquise (7) in the Ibirapuera park in São Commonly there are also places where just Paulo (Brazil) and next to the MACBA a bowl or some skatable structures are put museum (8) in Barcelona, which ended up in an residual/empty space and it already attracts people and encourage the liveness bringing a new vivacity to the area. of the area, like the cases of Judimendi Sometimes is a brand-new ‘designed for the skatepark (23) and Parco Lambro (24). porpoise’ space, frequently with the intention It’s also worth mentioning with highlights of regenerating a determined area like the case of Malmö (25, 26), where the city LEMVIG Skatepark (9); or an activity/sports is now worldwide famous by its skate scene parks like the examples of StreetDome (10), and there are many different typologies of Hyttgardsparken (11), Skate Park De La skatepark with complementary activities that Mar Bella (12) and Merida Factory Youth are frequented by skaters, families, ex-skaters Movement (13); or a place to embrace that decided to go back skating because of the existing local skate community with no the good opportunity raised by the creation of skate-dedicated physical center, like Oslo appropriated spaces, etc. altogether signifying Skatehall (14); a consolidation of an old that the skate activity is now belonging to the existing skatepark like Skate Park Nou general urban life. 22

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1 Navarcles Skateplaza, Barcelona (Spain). PHOTOS: by José Hevia.

2 Kavel K, The Hague (The Netherlands). PHOTOS: by Marleen Beek.

3 Wave Park, Palazzolo Sull’Oglio (Italy). PHOTOS: by Luca Fortini and Nicola Brignoli.

4 Baró de Viver Sports Urban Park, Sant Andreu,

Barcelona (Spain). PHOTOS: by Adrià Goulà.

5 Skate Park Jardines de Aureà Cuadrado,

Barcelona Spain. PHOTOS: by Adrià Goulà.

6 Piazza Castello, Turin (Italy). PHOTOS: by authors.

7 Ibirapuera’s marquise, São Paulo (Brazil). PHOTOS: by Andréia Reis.

8 MACBA museum, Barcelona (Spain). PHOTOS: by Daniel del Río.

20 21

9 LEMVIG Skatepark, Lemvig (Denmark). PHOTOS: by EFFEKT.

10 StreetDome, Haderslev (Denmark). PHOTOS: by Mikkel Frost / Cebra.

11 Hyttgardsparken, Falun (Sweden). PHOTOS: by Robin Hayes.

12 Skate Park De La Mar Bella, Barcelona

(Spain).

20 22 23

PHOTOS: by Adrià Goulà.

13 Merida Factory Youth Movement, Merida

(Spain). PHOTOS: by Iwan Baan.

14 Oslo Skatehall, Oslo (Norway). PHOTOS: by Finn Ståle Felberg/Kultur- og idrettsbygg Oslo KF, Lars Gartå.

15 Skate Park Nou Barris, Barcelona (Spain). PHOTOS: by Adrià Goulà.

16 Skaterhall, Stuttgart (Germany). PHOTOS: by Achim Birnbaum.

17 Piazza Valdo Fuzi, Turin (Italy). PHOTOS: by authors.

18 Streetplaza Logroño, Logroño (Spain). PHOTOS: by Daniel Yábar.

19 Park Skatepark La Ganja, Tenerife (Spain). PHOTOS: by Daniel Yábar.

20 Bastard Store, Milan (Italy).

24 26

PHOTOS: by authors.

21 Skate Park House, Tokyo (Japan). PHOTOS: by Kojima Junji.

22 Cristiania’s Skatepark, Cristiania Freetown. PHOTOS: by authors.

23 Judimendi skatepark, Santa Lucía (Spain). PHOTOS: by Daniel Yábar.

24 Parco Lambro, Milan (Italy). PHOTOS: by authors.

25 26

25 Stapelbäddsgatan skatepark, Malmö

(Sweden). PHOTOS: by authors. 26 Sibbarp Skate & Activity Park, Malmö (Sweden). PHOTOS: by authors.


4

the solution

During our studies, a common element that we encountered during several different place visits and interviews to people living in studied neighborhoods, was a sort of general mistrust about skaters, that makes it difficult every type of co-existence between skaters and that part of people that we will call provocatively “nonskaters”. The recent history of Piazza Arbarello, in Turin, epitomizes this struggle. Residents, gathered in an association, thoroughly demanded the municipality a relocation of two skateboard structure on the square in a more peripheral area of the city. The action of institutions displaced the elements and, at the same time washed away every trace of use of the empty and desolated urban public space. The attitude of the municipality of Turin it is neither isolated nor uncommon: It must be framed in a worldwide context of interventions made specifically “to redirect them [skaters] out of condensed public spaces to more ‘acceptable’ locations” [56]. The act of displacing built elements in a generally hidden and marginal site of the urban fabric is not the only countermeasure adopted by governments: the “spots” are manned by police and warning cartels are displayed nearby the surveilled area, to preclude any

resurgence of the social problem. These visible attempts to prevent skating are not just directed to the sport itself, but, most of the time implicitly, to the culture and subculture inherent to that [57]. The common perception of skaters, therefore, goes way beyond the sport, it becomes a real social issue that affects completely the idea of people practicing this sport. This general attitude brought skate to be commonly defined as “an activity for youths involved in antisocial behavior or undesirable social behavior whereby skateboarders are in general previewed as outcasts, nuisances, and even criminals” [58]. In the common beliefs, they are directly linked to a series of rule-breaking subcultures which undergo the same social stigmatization such as hip-hop and rap music and graffiti-writing [59]. Most of residents interviewed in Piazza Arbarello attribute their suspicion toward skaters to the disturbing and persistent noise they make with their boards. However, the noise is a common problem in this area of Turin, because of a series of other factors which contribute even more than the skatepark to bother the neighborhood. Both bus circulation and the market taking place nearby the square produce noise, but no citizens’ association has been established

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against them. As this explanation seems therefore to be superficial and not satisfactory to illustrate the hostility in respect of such urban subculture, it is necessary to turn the attention to others realm of public life affected by the presence of skaters.

capitalistic logics are fully penetrated in this unconventional and countercultural environment, which is nowadays supported by corporate sponsorships and televised competitions that guarantee a worldwide interest and visibility [62].

Bridging the social realm with the urban and space-related one and examining the pattern of usage of public spaces in skaters’ activities, we might say that the way they behave and act in the spatial world defines them as a spatial counterculture [60]. Skateboarding, in that sense, may be described as one of the popular cultures that in some way resists to the capitalist’s social relations: by using the space in different and creative ways they come in conflict with the spatiality of established and designed urban landscape as well as with other people, conventional users of the very same space. This conflict is the main reason of the negative stereotypical association of skaters with an anti-social behavior.

Even recognizing the ambiguity of the economic involvement of skateboarding, skaters’ pushed creativity set them free from the superstructures which frames and at the same time crystallize the urban environment in a static and defined set of rules. They actively participate in shaping the meaning of space: if architecture itself has no innate of fixed meaning, then they are free to reinterpret it [63]. In most of the cases, moreover skaters prefer not to use spaces with a clear and top down imposed identity: they gather in urban plaza, mini mall and peripheral places, they “realize the importance of the street as a place to act”; by doing so they actually “insert a meaning where previously there was none” [63].

This speculative image of resistance to the established ways of acting in the space that belongs to skaters’ subculture is strengthened by the substantial economic indifference of skaters toward the space. We can use, to depict them, the definition used by Zygmund Bauman of ‘flawed consumers’: they act in the space occupying it and even damaging it, nevertheless without engaging in economic activity [61]. This behavior is linked to the vision skaters have of the space which not dissimilar with the definition of ‘oeuvre’ by the French philosopher Henri Lefebvre, as they deal with the use value of the space rather than at the exchange one, they use the space as a creative scene rather than an economic one. The urban landscape becomes therefore a space of ‘nonlabor’, of artistic production, of contradictory uses and encounters [56]. Besides these ideologies we must notice that even if the original vision of skateboarder is still present in the new skating generations, 26

The pattern of skaters’ occupation of space it is not limited to its appropriation, but it encompasses a “transformative edge, a rhythm that seeks to preserve not just places to skate but also the values, attitudes, and knowledge required to skate” [61]. A series of studies conducted on several case studies point the benefits brought to neighborhoods thanks to skaters’ occupation of public spaces. In the cities of Newcastle and Gateshead, in Northern England, authorities noticed a significative crime decreasing next to specific skate spots [61]. A US study highlighted the absence of serious crimes in American neighborhoods following the introduction of skate areas, which brought both more users and a constant control over the park [64]. Even municipalities are taking actions which legitimize and at the same time recognize the power of skaters in discouraging crime: the

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Parisian suburb of Créteil replaced several used-up elements of urban furniture to keep streets and the squares attractive to people practicing the sport [57]. The value of skateboarding culture is not only important from social and urban perspective but also from an individual one. In difficult environment it gives people leisure keeping them away from crime and delinquency and giving them a way to develop qualities such as self-esteem and social competence [64]. The set of values, together with technical competences and advices concerning the skateboard activity, are conveyed following an informal peer-to-peer model of learning which deeply contrasts, once again with the rigid and formal traditional education and, at the same time, with the structured and defined rules of traditional sports [58][61].

probably it had even contributed to create-, which is united in the future potentiality of the site, prefigured by the series of activities and performance organized on the catalyzing element of The Surface. This chapter then is about the solution adopted by us to do all that, to try and change the skate scenario in Italy. It describes the architectural solution we decided to use, all of its technologies and social specifications; it demonstrates the analyses we did of possible area of application of the concept, based on a criteria evaluation; and finally hypothesizes a project implementation in the best qualified area, respecting the details and specifics of this particular area. In the end, it includes a consideration of the outputs of this project.

Considering the particular pattern of action skaters have (claiming a place, transforming it to their needs, building a sense of belonging, conveying a set of values etc.), even if skateboard, especially as a sport, values individuality, it is always structured and based on a strong community and the culture linked to skaters’ world is foremost deeply oriented for inclusion, which is recognized as a “way to have people engaged in their communities and with one another” [61]. Departing from this scenario, our intervention uses skateboarding as an accelerator for a concrete change in a real urban area. It relies on the skater presence to foster a process of territorial claiming, by promoting a different way of using neglected urban spaces, and community building directed toward inclusion. However, it does not stop to skaters’ world, but it aims to attract a general attention of associations and citizens of the area on a blind spot of the urban fabric, which can be seen then with unprecedented and creative perspectives. What was before a leftover space, now it aims to heal the ripped social realm - which SPI - SkateParkItaly

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/architectural project The strategy of the architectural project The avoiding to invalidate the skateable area. These Surface acts on three different layers: poles aid exhibitions or supplemental and leisure activities through the implementation // OBJECT of electrical outlets, hammocks or tensile structures as light shadings. The object is the starting point for the regeneration process. It is made by a skateable Moreover, some external structures can be itinerant wooden structure which morphology given to guarantee additional activities (bar/ has been mitigated to obtain a non-traditional café, music pavilion, covered room, seating carousel, within numerous activities that can [...]). They are called add-ons - stereometric be staged simultaneously. The Surface is a pavilions (prisms, cubes, pyramids, stairs) - and heterogeneous piece of urban anthropized have free function, completely disconnected landscape, while at the same time, natural, from the form. Anatomically speaking, they wild and experiential. The skateable surface consist of a light padded frame with panels of tends to be inclusive for both advanced and chosen materials, according to the preferred beginner users, through different paths and narrative. obstacles. // PLACE Paths and topography become a decorative reason at the same time, proposing a collage Considering the value of urban and social of textures and motifs freely inspired by diverse redevelopment, positioning places are chosen themes without a defined hierarchy. The on the basis of a weighted system of defined aesthetic-compositional narrative refers to the criterias. Those instances are instrumental postmodernist complex cultural background, in the chain process that involves many city presenting itself as a naive representation areas - since The Surface is expected to be of an urban portion through printed textures, mounted in several places over time - so the which may easily define possible areas for carousel can thus assume an itinerant value different uses. that can support the concept of resilience in as many areas as possible. This operation is aimed to conceal the track itself, in order to generate a new, // PROGRAM reinterpretable, fun and captivating vision also for nonskater users. This process is actually The Surface can be considered as a similar to the skater’s space-claiming method. passive carousel when exclusively used as a At the same time, the landscape piece is skatepark. It assumes an active role when a inscribed in a triangular portion, in order to timeline of events is structured, closely related guarantee identity and recognizability of the to the place in which it arises. This also means a great cooperation with local associations intervention. and allows the structure to provide a schedule Above the surface, figurative pole forests are of intergenerational and inclusive activities planted. ‘Poles’ conceived as spatial devices that can make the community more compact, able to generate a spatial overwriting, while moreover, attract users from outside.

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//plan

C

B

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//facades

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//sections

A-A’

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//tech detail 1

multifunctional hitch cilindric pole 60x4mm triangular pole l=60mm steel coping 60x4mm (8-12mm protundent from the surface) 5 SkateliteÂŽPRO with printed textures 6mm (pannels have to be positioned vertically, screwed on the plywood and at a distance of 5mm one from the other) 6 plywood 9mm (pannels have to be positioned horizontally) 1 2 3 4

7 plywood 18mm (pannels have

to be positioned horizontally) 8 PMMA mirror 4mm 9 OBS 16mm 10 steel frame 11 primary wood beams 12 secondary wood beams (with a wheelbase 200mm and positioned to enhance rigidity) 13 adjustable base 14 steel removable bracing 15 pole base 3

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//possible tricks 06 05 // LI L 04 // TH ’ PR 03 // RI E S INC E // E NG HE AS HIE LL Y C RI OR NA RID STR OR EE T

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03 // EASY CORRIDOR

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+170 cm +100 cm

80°

50°

55°

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30°

04 // RINGHIERINA STREET +250 cm +170 cm

+100 cm

80°

+80 cm

+30 cm

30° 40°

20°

05 // THE SHELL +260 cm +100 cm

+130 cm

80°

+30 cm

40°

+80 cm 35°

06 // LIL’ PRINCE +250 cm +100 cm

80°

+100 cm

10°

+30 cm

07 // WALLY +280 cm

15°

+30 cm

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50°

08 // STAIRWAY TO HEAVEN

+170 cm

+170 cm 70°

30°

65°

+80 cm

+100 cm 60°

+30 cm

60°

09 // NEWTON’S BALL +260 cm +100 cm 60°

80°

+30 cm

10 // PANOPTICON

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//skaters flow

beginner

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//pole forest

matrix superposition

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poles resulting superposition

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THE SOLUTION multifunctional hitch

cylindric pole 60x4mm

skatin s sk katin katin kat ka n ng surfac urrfa rrffac rfac ace ce

metal me e ga etal gasket gas as 80mm

twisting joint

electrical contact concrete ballast

electric outlets + cover

cylinder pole (standard)

cross pole (standard)

triangular pole (electric outlets)

HEA pole (cable holder)

transparent pole (lighting)

wire cover ground ro oun un und nd d

hammock + art exhibition

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//add-ons

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THE SOLUTION

openings

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//example xample of possibilities of personalization

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/possible areas of intervention //Parco Michelotti, TURIN

Cartographic data by Google Maps, data by OSM / 2018.

Parco Michelotti is sited in a district of Turin where, although the age of the population is relatively young, the rents are expensive, and the presence of immigrants is low. This would make the intervention less useful than in other areas. An intervention in the park would open good opportunities, because of the near center location, but at the same time, is not well serviced by public transport but it’s easily accessible on foot from the city center.

project area bus / railway station cinema / theatre commercial education marketplace small commercial activity railway public transportation metro green area

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/WHAT’S AROUND?

/WHAT’S THERE?

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//Parco Colonnetti, TURIN

Cartographic data by Google Maps, data by OSM / 2018.

The area is in the circoscrizione of Mirafiori sud, in a quite populated park, having good accessibility and a lot of nearby services regarding sports and cultural activities, as well as restaurants/coffee places. The average age of the population is not very young, but the presence of sport facilities inside the park and also teh Casa del Quartieri can help with the multigenerational aspect. The neighborhood presents the second lowest rate of foreigners in town, and is one of the least expensive to live in.

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/WHAT’S AROUND?

/WHAT’S THERE?

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//Giardini di Viale Piave, VENICE 3

5

4 6

1

2

The area is not far from the center of Mestre, and is located right in front of Mestre FS, a very trafficked station, thus easy to reach. The area is packed with services, ranging from bars, to restaurant and other places where to eat something, to parking’s for cars and for bikes. It is a very thriving part of the city. This neighborhood presents a high range of foreign residents, with an average age much lower compared to the rest of the city of Venice.

project area bus / railway station cinema / theatre commercial education marketplace small commercial activity railway public transportation metro

Cartographic data by Google Maps, data by OSM / 2018.

green area

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/WHAT’S AROUND?

/WHAT’S THERE?

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//Via ElettricitĂ , Marghera, VENICE 3

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4 6

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Cartographic data by Google Maps, data by OSM / 2018.

2

This is an area placed in an industrial zone, in constant transformation, next to many infrastructures (accessible from Mestre FS and along many bus routes), however not far from the populated districts of Mestre and Marghera. The dimension is big and presents no constraints terms of shape. The site rests into a low-income, multi-cultural, young-population district.

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/WHAT’S AROUND?

/WHAT’S THERE?

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//Parco Formentano, MILAN 9

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Cartographic data by Google Maps, data by OSM / 2018.

5

The area is situated not far from the city center, easily accessible, connected to the transports and facilities (there is also an auditorium in the park). The main visitors are elderly, children and dog sitters, creating a multigenerational atmosphere. Seen as a dirty, unsafe, uncivilized area, immigrants have camped here in the recent years and alcohol and drugs are diffused. There is lack of social and commerce services for young people in the neighborhood.

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/WHAT’S WHAT’S AROUND?

/WHAT’S WHAT’S THERE?

the park

the stone

the grass

PROJECT AREA

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//Parco Franco Verga (Quarto Oggiaro), MILAN 9

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Cartographic data by Google Maps, data by OSM / 2018.

5

This area is far from the center of Milan and is one of its most dangerous districts. Close to the park there are train, tram and bus stations. The area is not well-serviced, but many schools and student’s dormitory are around. The medium age of the population is relatively low, and the income is one of the lowest in Milan, while the percentage of multicultural population is above 79%. An intervention here would benefit from existing urban furniture and pavements.

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/WHAT’S AROUND?

sport center public school cinema

towards politecnico

/WHAT’S THERE?

the park

PROJECT AREA the grass

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THE SOLUTION

//Via Mandorli, Rozzano, MILAN 9

8

2 3

7

1 4

6

Cartographic data by Google Maps, data by OSM / 2018.

5

Located in the outskirts of the city, the neighborhood is notorious for its criminality and for its heavy presence of immigrants. The park is not very big,whereas the lack of pavement and the presence of trees may cause difficulty in the construction of a skatepark. In terms of facilities, the neighborhood is well serviced, containing some entertainment and food related activities.

project area bus / railway station cinema / theatre commercial education marketplace small commercial activity railway public transportation metro green area

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THE SOLUTION

/WHAT’S AROUND?

towards sport center

PROJECT AREA

car parking the main city park

/WHAT’S THERE?

people around

urban furniture

the grass

PROJECT AREA

the sidewalk

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THE SOLUTION

//Centro Direzionale, NAPLES

8

7 3

9

5

10

4

6

Cartographic data by Google Maps, data by OSM / 2018.

1

2

In a strategic area between the historical center of Naples and the peripheries of the big city, is well connected by the circumvesuviana, even though not very well serviced in terms of facilities. The area is considered a high-income one, hosting mostly offices and the level of multiculturality is to be considered low.

project area bus / railway station cinema / theatre commercial education marketplace small commercial activity railway public transportation metro green area

58

SPI - SkateParkItaly


THE SOLUTION

/WHAT’S AROUND? Poggioreale

Circumvesuviana

historical center

PROJECT AREA

underground car parking

/WHAT’S THERE?

the street

EA PR OJ EC T AR

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THE SOLUTION

/criteria analysis Since the purpose of the project is to regenerate, requalify a determined area in the urban scale through skate, we created a criteria analysis to evaluate possible areas of intervention with our project, divided into 3 parts, to be able to compare them. The first one URBAN evaluates the Location of the area in relation to the whole city, the Accessibility of the area and the related Facilities Proximity; the second criteria is the SOCIAL aspect, regarding the Age, Income and Multiculturality of the population in the analyzed area; and the third one would be about the ARCHITECTURAL predisposition of the place, like Feasibility, Dimension and Geometry.

For each criteria some positive (+) aspects were attributed and some negative (-) aspects. In the case of the ‘URBAN, Location’ if the area is in the outskirts of the city it receives a positive value =+1, since our project intends to regenerate/return to the public some peripheral areas; if instead the area is not located in the outskirts of the city, it receives a value =0; and if that same area is located in the center of the city, it receives a negative value =-1; there are also some ‘extra’ points that can be gifted or taken away, depending on specific case, like for example (in this same criteria) if the area is located in an already point of interest for urban renewal (+2) by the local municipality; and so on for all the other criteria, as the following:

// URBAN / Location: _outskirts of city (+1)

_surrounded by nature (+1)

_center of the city (-1)

_surrounded by city (-1)

_busy/movement area (+1)

_area is already a point of urban renewal

_residences nearby (-1)

(extra +2)

/ Accessibility:

/ Facilities Proximity:

_bus/tram/vaporeto/metro (+1)

_schools (+1)

_abandoned area (-1)

_bars, cafes, restaurants (+1)

_bike sharing (+1)

_public bathrooms (+1)

_closed park/area (-1)

_industrial area (-1)

_private area (-1)

_health care area (-1)

_accessible also by skate (+1)

_residential area (-1)

_accessible also by car (extra +1)

_events nearby (extra +2)

_nearby an important public transport station

_car parking nearby (extra +1)

(extra +2)

_bike parking already available (extra +1) _other sports nearby (extra +2)

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THE SOLUTION

// SOCIAL / Age:

/ Income:

_young people (+1,2,3)

_low income area (+1,2,3)

_elderly population (-1,2,3)

_high income area (-1,2,3)

_prone to multigenerational aspect

(extra +2)

/ Multiculturality:

_lots of kids (extra +1)

_big presence of immigrants (+1,2,3) _low presence of immigrants (-1,2,3)

// ARCHITECTURAL / Feasibility:

/ Dimension:

_pavemented surface (+1)

_medium area (+1,2,3)

_not smooth pavement (extra -1)

_small area (-1,2,3)

_grass surface (-1)

_big area (extra +2)

_interference with existing nature (extra -1) _existing skatable urban furniture (+1)

/ Geometry:

_impediments to construction logistics (-1)

_rectangular shape plan (+1)

_isolated in terms of noise control (+1)

_organic shape plan (+1)

_would possibly have noise problems with

_irregular shape plan (-1)

local population (-1)

_divided by pedestrian crossing (-1)

_already skated area (extra +2)

_divided by existing nature (-1)

_existing natural slopes (extra +1)

_streets on the borders (+1)

_underground parking right underneath

(extra -1) As a general rule, every criteria can have a maximum of three positive points (+3) and a minimum of three negative points (-3), excluding the extras. In some cases like the social criteria and the dimension criteria (inside architectural), only one aspect is evaluated because of the ‘direct to the point’ evaluation, therefor that only aspect would be given a +3/3 value, or some other value between one and three (1,2,3), depending on the comparison with all the areas analyzed altogether. For each analyzed area, a sort description and a table with evaluations was made, like

it’s possible to see in the next two pages. Each evaluation was multiplied by the coefficient of importance of the aspect (those coefficients being the same for all the areas) and, in the end, each criteria received an average score and each area received a total score for the porpoise of comparison between them all. A general table with all the areas and a final 3D graphic was made to visualize better the comparison. And in the end, a possible project implementation in the selected area was made, with the specific demands of the place.

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THE SOLUTION

//example of analysis | Parco Colonnetti, TURIN /URBAN CRITERIA

/SOCIAL CRITERIA

LOCATION (40%)

AGE (20%)

The area is located in the outskirts of the metropolitan area of Turin (near the south limit), in the circoscrizione of Mirafiori sud, near the Fiat factories and it’s considered a peripherical area.

The average age of people in the circorcrizione is 48 years old, so the local population it’s not very young, but that ends up being compensated by the location of the CUS (University Sport Center) association right next to the chosen project area, and also the presence of the park itself and local schools, which means it can attract a lot of different ages, facilitating the intergenerational concept.

SCORE

+3

ACCESSIBILITY (30%) The park is nowadays quite used by the population, having accessibility with local busses stops, coming from the center of Turin, the Grugliasco neighborhood and from Moncalieri as well. In the near future, the Piazza Bengasi metro station it’s going to be inaugurated nearby.

SCORE

+2

SCORE

+3

INCOME (40%)

SCORE

+3

The area is sited in one of the least expensive circoscrizioni in Turin, which means that the average income is also one of the lowest. Making our intervention very useful regarding the economical concern, because it’s an area with potential for regeneration.

FACILITIES PROXIMITY (30%) The project area is located inside the Colonnetti park, where a lot of services are available, especially regarding sports and cultural activities. The area also have a local restaurant/coffee place right across the street.

MULTICULTURALITY (40%)

SCORE

+3

This neighborhood presents the second lowest rate of foreigners living here, in relation to the others areas of Turin, but it could still attract different nationalities because of the presence of the CUS sport association and the cultural center.

AVERAGE SCORE +1 (weighted)

SCORE

-1

AVERAGE SCORE 0,4 (weighted)

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THE SOLUTION

/ARCHITECTURAL CRITERIA FEASIBILITY (50%)

GEOMETRY (20%)

This area of the park already presents a small paved area, but the surface it’s not smooth, so it would be necessary to remake the pavement, and also doesn’t present any existing slope. But it has the advantage of having existing urban furniture that can be used to skate and it would not have problems with noise, because it doesn’t have residences in the immediate surroundings.

The available space is a trapeze shape, that can be cut to a rectangular shape if necessary, but with the presence of the existing trees, could create an interesting irregular path to skate.

SCORE

SCORE

+2

+2

AVERAGE SCORE 0,67 (weighted)

DIMENSION (30%) The dimension of the total area available would be considered big, but since it’s a park and one of the more important lungs of the city, the skatepark should be more spread and leave room to breath from the other constructions nearby.

SCORE

+2

COEFFICIENT

EVALUATION

WEIGHTED

urban

Location Accessability Facilities Proximity

0,4 0,3 0,3

+3 +3 +3

1,2 0,9 0,9

social

/GENERAL EVALUATION CRITERIA

Age Income Multiculturality

0,2 0,4 0,4

average score +2 +3 -1

arch

average score Feasibility Dimension Geometry

0,5 0,3 0,2

+2 +2 +2

average score

+1 0,4 1,2 -0,4

+0,4 1 0,6 0,4

+0,67

+ 2,07

TOTAL SCORE SPI - SkateParkItaly

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THE SOLUTION

Dim

Ge o

me

try

n

Fe

en

si o

lity i bi

Mu

as

Inc

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Ag e

om

e

tie s

Fa

ci l i

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ity bi l sa es Ac c

tio n ca Lo COEFFICIENT 0,4

lity

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//general table

0,3

0,3

0,2

0,4

0,4

0,5

0,3

0,2

urban

social

arch

+2

+2

+2

+2

+3

+3

+2

+2

+1

WEIGHTED 0,8

0,6

0,6

0,4

1,2

1,2

1

0,6

0,2

EVALUATION

+0,93

+0,67

+2,20 pt

+0,60

+1

+3

+3

+3

+3

+2

+1

+3

+1

WEIGHTED 0,4

0,9

0,9

0,6

1,2

0,8

0,5

0,9

0,2

+0,87

+0,73

+2,13 pt

+0,53

+3

+3

+3

+2

+3

-1

+2

+2

+2

WEIGHTED 1,2

0,9

0,9

0,4

1,2

-0,4

1

0,6

0,4

+0,40

+1,00

+2,07 pt

+0,67

+3

+2

-1

+3

+3

+3

-1

+2

+2

WEIGHTED 1,2

0,6

-0,3

0,6

1,2

1,2

-0,5

0,6

0,4

+1,00

+0,50

+1,67 pt

+0,17

+2

+3

+1

+1

-1

+1

+3

+2

+2

WEIGHTED 0,8

0,9

0,3

0,2

-0,4

0,4

1,5

0,6

0,4

0,07

0,67

+1,57 pt

0,83

+1

+1

+3

+1

+2

+3

-1

-1

-2

WEIGHTED 0,4

0,3

0,9

0,2

0,8

1,2

-0,5

-0,3

-0,4

+0,73

+0,53

+0,87 pt

-0,40

+1

+3

+2

+2

-2

-3

-2

+2

+2

WEIGHTED 0,4

0,9

0,6

0,4

-0,8

-1,2

-1

0,6

0,4

-0,53

+0,63

+0,10 pt

0,00

-3

WEIGHTED -1,2

+2

-2

-1

-3

-3

+1

+3

+2

0,6

-0,6

-0,2

-1,2

-1,2

0,5

0,9

0,4

-0,40 64

-0,87 SPI - SkateParkItaly

+0,60

TOTAL

Parco Michelotti, TURIN EVALUATION

TOTAL

Parco Formentano, MILAN EVALUATION

TOTAL

Via Mandorli, Rozzano, MILAN EVALUATION

TOTAL

Centro Direzionale, NAPLES EVALUATION

TOTAL

Via Elettricità , Marghera, VENICE EVALUATION

TOTAL

Parco Colonnetti, TURIN EVALUATION

TOTAL

Giardini di Viale Piave, VENICE EVALUATION

TOTAL

Parco Franco Verga (Quarto Oggiaro), MILAN

-0,67 pt


THE SOLUTION

/comparing analysis Parco Franco Verga (Quarto Oggiaro), MILAN

+2,20 pt

Giardini di Viale Piave, VENICE

+2,13 pt

Parco Colonnetti, TURIN

+2,07 pt

Via Elettricità, Marghera, VENICE

+1,67 pt

Centro Direzionale, NAPLES

+1,57 pt

Via Mandorli, Rozzano, MILAN

+0,87 pt

Parco Formentano, MILAN

+0,10 pt

Parco Michelotti, TURIN

/ARCHITECTURAL CRITERIA

1° 2° 3° 4° 5° 6° 7° 8°

-0,67 pt

+3 +2 8° +1

0

-1

2° 6°

-2 -3

-3 -2

/U

-2 -1

-1

RB

AN

CR

+1

+1

RI

-2

-1

+2

+2

A

+3

IA

R ITE

0

0

ITE

-3

1° 3°

R C L

IA

C SO

/

0 SPI - SkateParkItaly

+1

+2

+3 65


THE SOLUTION

/possible project implementation in selected area 1° Parco Franco Verga (Quarto Oggiaro), MILAN

STAKEHOLDERS 1

UCI Cinema

serves a purpose of public entertainment. It could be an outdoor movie theater which has the potential to attract people who like to watch movies under the fresh air. This would make the area more diversely populated.

2

7 2

1 3

Martial Arts School

4

provides different types of martial arts, and fitness activities for well-being. It would be a great opportunity for eldelry to feel young by getting a dance course while youth may be specialised at martial arts.

3

9

8

PROJECT AREA

6

5

CrossFit Mediolanvm

is a great sport facility for the nearby located institutions such as school and university. It may fill the park with sport activities.

4

Campus Certosa

is one of the main university dormitories in Milan hosting around 300 students which may play an important role in attracting people interested in skateboarding and could promote activities related to skateboarding.

5

Laboratory Controprogetto

designs and manufactures unique pieces, furniture, exhibitions and public spaces using recycled materials. It may provide interesting events and woodworking workshops linked to skateboarding.

66

6

Streeteat

is a food truck aggregator. It provides the geolocations of the trucks in the city and serves various types of street food. Visitors of the park may recharge and enjoy a moment of relaxation during the events and workshops.

7

Secondary School

may serves the same purpose as the Campus Certosa. However, it is more likely that school students would participate in skateboard and complementary activities, because they are younger and less busy.

SPI - SkateParkItaly

8

Assisted Living Facility

provides social and health services for residential care to elderly people, even self-sufficient, or disabled adults. Organizing activities that fit to all ages may be beneficiary to make an integration between generations.

9

Cultural Recreational Club

provides cultural and entertainment events in the neighborhood. The Club organizes exhibitions and courses for the elderly and not only, including computer classes, poetry, art exhibitions and screening of films.


THE SOLUTION

SPI - SkateParkItaly

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THE SOLUTION

//demand link between program and associations tto

a

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l

in

IC

C

U

M

a

ia rt

Sc

ts Ar

s

Fi

C

to

er

C

pu

am

op

La

o

ry

C

o

at

r bo

l

o ho

r nt

sa

i

tM

r

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an ol

ed

s os

r

vm

l

o ho

e og

at

da

e

t ee

tr

S

Sc

ry

Se

n co

d

ra

ROLLERBLADING MOVIE Night THEATER / Street PERFORMANCE Dancing WORKSHOP Outdoor Gym /Park FITNESS Arts and Crafts WORKSHOP FOOD Court Guest CONCERT Recycled Skateboard WORKSHOP Board Games COMPETITION Martial Arts Outdoor CLASSES Yoga/Pilates Street art EXPOSITION

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Medium demand

tu ul

C

SKATING

Low demand

b

lu

lC

te

s si

As

ng

vi

Li

High demand


THE SOLUTION

//hypothesis of the program timeline

Fr

We

Th

Mo

Tu

SKATING ROLLERBLADING MOVIE Night THEATER / Street PERFORMANCE Dancing WORKSHOP Outdoor GYM /Park FITNESS ARTS AND CRAFTS WORKSHOP FOOD Court Guest CONCERT Recycled Skateboard WORKSHOP Board Games COMPETITION Martial Arts Outdoor CLASSES YOGA/PILATES Street art EXPOSITIONS

WE EK

Sa

I

Su Mo

WEEK I I

IV

Su

K EE

Tu We Th Fr Sa

Fr

Th

W

EK III WE

Sa

W e

Su o M

We

Tu

Fr

Th

Sa

Su

Mo Tu

Intensive partecipation

SPI - SkateParkItaly

Less intensive participation

69


THE SOLUTION

week 1

70

week 2

SPI - SkateParkItaly


THE SOLUTION

week 3

week 4

SPI - SkateParkItaly

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THE SOLUTION

/project’s outputs These three-layered temporary intervention leads primarily to a shortterm output which is implemented in space during the permanency of the initiative. It is the process of claiming the territory, snatching it from crime by creating aggregation and usage, through the presence of the catalyzing element of The Surface fostered and by the action of associations.

[1]. This resilience it is possible however only through an adaptive approach which calls into question the idea that the urbanized space is consolidate and fixed and encompasses an idea of possibility to operate bottom-up modification to it [87].

These principles can be found in skaters, they constitute a resilient community per se, once they find a skatable area they make a ‘spot’, using it in an Raising the interest on the place during unconventional and not pre-established limited time cannot be the final aim of the way. Through this frequent use they claim project. The short-term output therefore, a sort of ownership [88] of the place, must lead to a long term one, with lasting taking care of it, maintaining it. The and persistent consequences. This protection skater’s community exercise long-term output is the rising of a sense on the ‘spot’ encompasses the dimension of belonging to the place and the building of the immunization we aim to, moreover up of a resilience in the community where it is deeply rooted and interconnected to the project was implemented. the specific physical place. If, in a longterm perspective (meaning from one to The term ‘resilience’ was not born in five years), urban community welcomes the realm of social sciences, but in the skaters, allowing them to use the place, materials science one, when applied and at the same time interacts with them, to a system is defined as “a system’s the positive collaboration created would capacity to persist in its current state of generate a consistent and persistent social functioning while facing disturbance and resilience. The aim is therefore to reach change, to adapt to future challenges, a sort of positive social contamination of and to transform in ways that enhance values and patterns of action belonging its functioning” [85]. In the social realm, to the skater’s realm, toward the inclusive resilience is not just a reactive process but real of the community. also a proactive one: people learn from past experiences, anticipate the future The reason we aim to create this positive and adapt their livelihoods accordingly ‘contamination’ it is rooted in the [86]. In that sense the result we want principle of self-help: namely the idea that to achieve with our intervention is a by involving the citizens it is possible to tension toward a proactive process of reach a better crime reduction result than resilience to the ‘impurities’, therefore to from any institutional involvement [1]. The push the community to an immunization to initiative must be deeply rooted on the the sick cells inside of it and of the space space and this become the social element

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THE SOLUTION

of aggregation and community. Dealing with so many different specificities that constitutes the social urban fabric, it is impossible to find a common and unifying cultural-based element, therefore, concentrating the attention on the place, thanks to the temporary initiative, rather than on the criminal actors, allows to find a clearer and more defined objective, common to each singularity.

Depending on first a correct analysis of the urban site, the user’s interpretation of the intervention and their involvement as a general, the effectiveness of the local associations involved in also uniting citizens in an inclusive, multicultural and multigenerational community, we can depict the success or not of the initiative in four different glimpses of the longterm final output:

In the space it is moreover necessary to constitute ‘trust networks’ to oppose the activity of criminal groups [1]. This must be done thanks to the work of the associations involved, whose presence on the territory is constant and persistent. People of the neighborhood are not just spectators of the initiative, but they become part of it, in performances, sports and general recreational activities through which they act in the space and are pushed to perceive the space itself and its potentialities. Once the designed initiative is ended, local associations, helped by the sense of community projected on the appropriation space, should therefore, stay.

/Physical and social resilience

Even though we can define a clear objective to this initiative, we cannot trace a extremely precise path to get to this final output, considering that the initiative is precisely based on the traditional critique of top-down decisions, rigid and planned interventions it will be conceptually wrong and harmful to project into the future a precise model. If we rely on people, guided by the associations and, following an imitation principle, by skaters to build this precise resilience, at the same time, we must accept that we don’t have an exact control over the whole process, but we can just choose an adequate place and give a direction, a tendency [89] to get to the result.

The community came together projecting a sense of belonging on the selected area, but no physical and manifest elements have been added to transform the place and legitimize the claiming action. In this case, the output it is still a success, however, the future scenarios are precarious, just as the skaters’ presence is probably also precarious.

The aimed one, If the community understood the role of skaters and accepted them in the ‘spot’, imitated and absorbed their patterns of action and developed therefore, a social resilience projected on the place. Moreover, if either the municipality, either private organization, operated concretely in the territory to legitimize skater’s occupation with a structured skatepark, or even only precise built elements to support skate activities on the urban area (benches, street lightning, sport pitches etc.). /Only social resilience

/Absence situation

of

resilience

and

static

The project failed in instilling any sense of belonging on the territory. After the event, the area came back to its neglected situation.

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THE SOLUTION

/Absence of resilience and regressive situation The intervention failed in uniting the community of the potentially adequate place and, at the same time, destroyed a series of fragile and precarious equilibriums that existed before, which maintained the status quo of the area, creating more tensions and social conflicts. The first two results are considered success of the project, because it transforms positively the place, and the lasts two outputs are to be considered failures of the project: the rejection of the social and urban realm of the strategy implanted by the planned temporary intervention. This unsuccess can be a consequence of a wrong urban analysis which reported a wrong framework of the intervention site (which brought to choose the site instead of others analyzed), or the choice of wrong activities, or involving unsuitable associations, that did not carry on the project. However, can also be the failure caused by unforeseeable events, which might always occur when the matter of study is urban sociology and resilience.

PHOTO: by Hugh Holland

, 1970s.

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5

conclusion

// MAIN FINDINGS OF THE PROJECT however it currently still lacks a proper testing After all the year working on SkateParkItaly, the main positive findings of the project would be first about the skate culture, that is usually negatively viewed by society, but instead, has a true potential of changing positively the urban environment. Secondly that, socially changing a certain city area in an effective way, it’s necessary to analyze the place objectively and even more important, to use the population as transformation tool. We also discover that the involvement of administrations and private entities for funding the construction of a prototype (that is so expensive like the case of a skatepark) is a lot complex, and that, would be the negative finding of our project, since we weren’t able to do it in the end, even if we participated in a few calls and had meetings with entities already involved in the skate world. But as a general, we consider that the project has real potential of future development and can be carried-on to improvements on results. This would be only the initial take.

through prototyping. The team has worked hard along the past year to fund the construction of real staking ramps to be exhibited either in a certain district of Turin or in the frame of the Venice Biennale 2018; an exhibition was also designed, and funds were needed for the organizations of collateral events and activities around the skating ramps. Several funds requests were presented to the two Politecnico schools (among them to the Commissione Contributi per la Progettualità Studentesca) or to other external institutions, and a cultural association - named CONTEXT - was funded to grant a more formal appeal to the requests. Unfortunately, though, none of them succeeded in raising funds, probably because at the time the project proposal had not been clearly developed yet and was still at an em-bryonal stage, thus this uncertainty failed in raining interests among the investors.

Nevertheless, a private investor - Mr. Grippiolo - recently showed interest in the construction of The Surface (thus the final and more developed stage of the SPI project). Mr. Grippiolo own a // THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF company - Impresa Cavallo - which performs construction excavations but would like to shift SKATEPARKITALY his business towards the construction of sports facilities and SkateParkItaly constitutes an So far, the project has reached a clear interesting opportunity in this sense. Indeed, theoretical structure and plan of action, SPI - SkateParkItaly

75


CONCLUSION

his collaboration has been important in taking some final design choices: in fact, The Surface was designed mainly in wood because his company has experience with machineries used to cut and treat naval plywood, and Mr. Grippiolo has contact with engineers in this field. He also offered to provide the project with some engineering consultancies, since the structural design of The Surface needs to be supported, in case of construction and use, with proper calculations related to skaters’ facilities which would grant - if done by a licensed designer - safety standards required by the Regolamento per l’omologazione degli impianti per lo Skateboard (Skatepark). In the near future SPI could take advantage from a collaboration with Impresa Cavallo and together realize a prototype of The Surface in Venice, near the area of the Arsenal. In fact, contacts with the municipality have already been established and the permissions to build the skatepark would very likely be granted. Obviously, the project would lose most of its social implication if implanted at the heart of a wonderful historical center instead of an impoverished suburban district, however, it would still be a chance to launch the image of the project as in a manifesto and to experiment a timeline of events taking place around the skatepark. To this purpose, contacts have been established with another organization, Rider’s Academy (active in Torino and Bologna), which showed interests in collaborating on the organization of activities related to skateboarding on The Surface in its Venetian pilot version. Still blurry remains the discussion on how to pay back the investors. On this topic, two scenarios have been explored so far:

the constructor company would be obtained through sponsorships, interested in having a return in terms of image, mostly due to the location. In this case, other cities in Italy could then be interested in emulating the example of Venice and having their own skatepark. /Another possibility (though having some issues concerning the project property rights) entails that The Surface (object) is realized in collaboration with Mr. Grippiolo, who finances its construction: in this case, after launching the product in Venice, he would then proceed to disassemble the ramps and offer them for rent to other municipalities in Italy interested in a suburban redevelopment, or even to any other private entity interested in organizing events. Finally, the project has raised interest among the Department of Juvenile Justice and Community (DGMC - Dipartimento di Giustizia minorile e di Comunità) and the Italian Ministry of Justice (Ministero di Grazia e Giustizia), which look for a possible application of the SkateParkItaly framework inside jails and prisons, for the rehabilitation and reinsertion of past criminals into society. This would challenge the adaptability of the project which, in this case, would not aim at building urban resilience but rather at creating a sense of community and inclusion even among the most disadvantaged individuals of society. Numerous are the chances granting interesting future developments to this project elaborated within the Alta Scuola Politecnica, with the potential of becoming something bigger and more impactful on society. The CONTEXT association exists for this purpose of working to catch any possibility that will knock on the door of SPI

/The municipality of Venice will grant authorization to host The Surface and to organize collateral activities on it for a week time, and in exchange it will become owner of the skatepark, thus able to move it somewhere else in Mestre or Marghera. Instead, a profit for 76

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Profile for Federica Pen

Skate Park Italy  

A Multidisciplinary urban qualification project throguh skatepark development.

Skate Park Italy  

A Multidisciplinary urban qualification project throguh skatepark development.

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