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No. 9 Documents on British Policy Overseas Publishing Policy and Practice

Toreim and CommonwealthOffice


1995 anuay



diplomatic documents foreign as part of the record of a country's its in Although, has in the the past, some century. nineteenth roots policy foreign ministries historicism, through today such phases of competitive went for foreign means are seen as a necessary providing policy publications home both basic building blocks for the specialists, at and overseas, with Over interpretation. British the the research and years series, along with has become those of other major countries, an established part of the information interchange historical between foreign and analysis of ministries in most parts of the world. and scholarly communities, British describe the the evolution papers record of series and it, including have for that the as as guided principles well a vade mecum Their in FCO coincides publication a researcher. with watershed practice Overseas British Documents Policy forward to extend and policy as on moves The issues less international to than thirty coverage years old. significance be by British foreign this activity of also making will underlined policy documents available on INTERNET.



Richard Bone Library and Records Department

Foreign & (commonwealth HIS'l'ORI(AI. Occasional




No. 9


CONTENTS documents: diplomatic British publication, editing and with by Editors A the collection of'papers research. of'D131'O



British on







Principles Practice DBPO: Editorial and Pelly, November 1987 Roger Bullen &ME Sensitive


11 F, Pally, November







Official History: Editing DBPO HJ Yasamee, June 1993 The Publication of the Documents Office Commonwealth Ann Lane, November 1993 The Foreign Historians



Isabel Warner, lýebruary 1994

A Source

24-26 of the


and 27-34




page Annex 1 British Documents Origins War, 1898-1914 the the on of Correspondence between Dr. Seton-Watson and the Rt. Hon. Austen Chamberlain published in The Times, November 1924 Documents British Policy, Foreign 1919-1939 on Parliamentary Announcement by the Rt. Hon. Anthony Parl. Debs. H. C. 5th ser. vol. 398,29 March 1944




Documents British Policy Overseas, 1945-1955 on Parliamentary Announcement by the Rt. Hon. Sir Alec DouglasHome, Parl. Debs. H. C. 5th ser. 859,2 July 1973 vol. Annex


List of Historical

Branch Publications

Copies of this pamphlet


be deposited National the will with

FCO Historical Branch, Library and Records Department, Clive House, Petty France, London SW 1H 9HD Crown







is published by the Foreign and FCO the the post-war period for documents important the the most of collections tradition of publishing in historians independent by foreign British working edited policy study of Origins British Documents the It FCO. on the succeeds two earlier publications Foreign British Documents 1926-38) (11 War 1898-1914 and on volumes, of the into two series DBPO is divided 1946-86). (64 volumes, Policy 1919-1939 (Series 1: 1945-50 and Series II: 1950-55), which are published concurrently.

British Documents on Office. Commonwealth

Overseas Policy for It continues

by Historians, by the The volumes are edited employed a small team of six Branch in Historical full-time the FCO of civil servants established as is The Department. Records Library programme current publishing and in British based on a series of land-mark events on significant volumes foreign policy. Each volume has a main theme covering related topics with Present Time in documents policy spans vary. order. chronological arranged is to extend the period covered in a single volume as far as possible. Within DBPO in 1973, Parliamentary the of announcement the mandate of the full

Editors freedom



archives and access are given documents, in the selection and arrangement of to publish closed papers. to seek permission requirement




customary only to the

The material published in DBPO comes mainly from the archives of the Office, supplemented by Foreign and Commonwealth where necessary Treasury, Office, Office, Prime Minister's Cabinet from the the papers Government Departments. Defence Ministry and other relevant of Personnel files and intelligence are not normally consulted. material Although the Editors try to look at all the most important files of relevant FCO departments, the volume of immediate post-war material (over half a Nonetheless they that cannot see every paper. million papers a year) means for 50,000 Editors than through each volume of which papers the more sift in final 2,000 included the selection. are perhaps some The


operate a two-tier The includes volume microfiches. footnotes and summaries (calendars) in full on accompanying reproduced DBPO, aims to make more of the fraction of the cost researchers at a Public Record Office.

and volumes system of publishing: documents key texts of printed with documents of supplementary which are introduced This by system, microfiches. history accessible to raw material of of visiting the archives available at the


Desk a


Publishing Editorial tin' system, staff produce virtual Office, who for the publisher, Her Majesty's Stationery


copy The the through sale of volumes. editorial costs of the volume recover costs FCO. Most have by the the are met of an average print run volumes, which Governmr'nts, Libraries Universities 1000 the and of copies, go to of distributed FCO Institutes, Historical the and are also and to within Publishing Missions British overseas. programmes and pOยบlicy are selected Editors. by the reviewed regularly Volumes

Documents of

British on



Series I (1945-1950) I The Conference August 1945 II Conferences 1945: London, Moscow

JulyPotsdam, at -

Conversations and Washington and



April 1946

I The Schuman Plan, the Council Europe Western European of and Integration, May 1950 December 1952

IV Korea, June 1950 - April



II (1950-1955)

German Rearmament, III September December 195() -

IV Britain America: Atomic and Energy, Bases and Food, December 1945 1946 -July V Germany and Western August December 1945 -


Conferences: London II The Relations Anglo-American and Cold War Strategy, January June -, 1950

Britain III America: The and Negotiation United States the of Loan, August December 1945 -



In preparation: V Germany and Security, 1952-4

1945 -



VI The Middle East, 1951-3

New January 1995: VII The United Nations: Iran, Cold War and World Organisation, 1946-7

Volumes can be ordered from:

HMSO Publications Centre, PO Box 276, LONDON SW8 5DT, United Kingdom




Roger Bullen &ME



November 1987


231 of the Treaty of Versailles, the so called guilt clause, was clearly had the main reason why in the 1920s so many of the governments which War in First World documents the the authorised publication of participated German The from their archives in officially sponsored series. government Germany her that the to refute claims and allies were the was anxious in The historians 1914. endeavours scholarly of aggressors were thus caught diplomatic bitter Many believed in this that the controversy. acute and up in inquiries bound legitimacy the as a whole was of the peace settlement up into the truth or falsehood of article 231.


It would, however, be misleading to suggest that the war guilt controversy for decisions diplomatic these to various publish was solely responsible documents. In the half century between 1870 and 1920 there was consistent either to open their archives or to sponsor pressure on governments from documents Historians had long them. publications of relevant since basis `scientific' `definitive' that the archival research argued was only of and history. The `truth' was in the archive, hidden and buried. Once the historian had access to these archives he could discover what had happened it. Governments believed themselves reveal this to be true. After and also the war of 1870 both the French and German governments published documents from their diplomatic archives, each intending to suggest that the had been Other the aggressor. other governments, particularly those with had revolutionary origins, ransacked the archives of their predecessors in the for documents discreditable kind. In Soviet 1918 the of a search government British, French Italian the and embarrassed governments by revelations from the Tsarist archives about allied war aims in 1915. Such disclosures in the western the already growing movement appeared to strengthen democracies for `open diplomacy'. Secrecy, it was alleged, bred mistrust and this was how wars broke out. To the historians' search for truth was thus `the know'. It was this combination to people's right added of pressures irresistible. which proved Why Documents In 1924 Mr Ramsay MacDonald both Prime Minister and Foreign who was Secretary agreed that the Foreign Office should publish a selection of * Abridgement of a paper presented at the FGO Seminar 'Valid Evidence', 6 November full text published in Occasional Paper No. 1.



foreign its archives British leading on policy up to the decision in This 1914. raised the question: why commission outbreak of war documents In diplomatic history? than rather a narrative of a publication favoured had the first instance it must be said that Mr Marl)onald, a who Historical history, the then the accepted recommendations of narrative G0 by Adviser, James Headlam-Morley, whose views were endorsed documents

Gooch that the historical


documentary a profession.


was more


to be well



Secretary, Mr Austen Chamberlain, It was his successor as Foreign who for He launch final the the the of new series. accepted arrangements made Firstly have two principles that proved of enduring validity. which independent historians the selection and editing and should undertake `the best the that the secondly guarantee reputation of editors offers of the is impartiality It historical to these principles of their work. accuracy and in `the that the conventional to the preface each phrase used volume, freedom have had in the the selection and arrangement editors customary of documents' looks back. It is a phrase, we can assure you, which means it in The by historians the early years of exactly what says. attempt some DBFP to impugn integrity has time editorial and rebutted was vigorously it be is It ironic to that those who made these charges shown groundless. based their later work on the Series. The revelation themselves after the German Grosse had Die Politik that the second world war not observed series its these principles not only had a devastating effect on reputation and integrity but also on the political it designed to serve. end was

The undoubted success of British Documents on the Origins of the War clearly decision British history the vindicated not to commission a narrative of diplomacy. The type of in then our view, arguments employed remains, The traditions, the practice and the standards of narrative history are, valid. believe, less documentary we to silence well adapted than a publication controversy and reveal what happened in all its detail and complexity. It is harder for the narrative historian to be impartial in his evaluation of' the facts salient and in the marshalling of arguments in such a way as to reveal their original weight and balance. Moreover every diplomatic historian has assumptions about the nature of international relations which are bound to be more intrusive in a narrative history. Indeed it is his task to make a diplomatic documents find it proper only to critical analysis which editors of indicate in prefaces. The

diplomatic documents does not necessarily of but if it is done according to Chamberlain's

publication these difficulties historical accuracy






defects the of





of narrative

is It be that whereas the noteworthy can mitigated or avoided. Second World War histories the carry an endorsement that the of official for `alone individual the statements made and the responsible authors are in has been disclaimer thought necessary the ever views expressed', no such documents. Moreover day diplomatic British the the at end of publication of historians and the interested public have at their disposal the various documents which they can themselves compare and national collections of 30 light be in the the the rule and year editorial selection can of collate, files. the original assessed against


The success of British Documents on the Origins of the War was followed, soon Second World War, by the the consideration outbreak of within the after Foreign Office which led to the announcement of Documents on British Foreign Policy by Mr Eden, the Foreign Secretary, on 29 March 1944. Earlier Sir L Woodward had been commissioned to write a narrative history of British foreign policy in war time as part of the Cabinet Office official series on the History of the Second World War. After the war some thought was given to documentary bridge Gooch between to the series a possible gap and Temperley and DBFP but work on this project lapsed. Adviser came later to plan a post When Dr Rohan Butler as Historical 1945 series similar arguments in favour of documents rather than a narrative held by international for and were now supported still a general preference foreign in treatment of a policy such peacetime. It was recognised when DBFP was launched that there could be criticism of the decision to begin in 1945, thus leaving the war time period undocumented but it was accepted that, in the light of the Woodward history and the desirability of not falling far behind 30 the too year rule and the publication of the FRUS, it would be advantageous to take the clear starting point of the conference at Potsdam for the new series. The decision in favour of documents is also in line with the established policy of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office function is its to make the documents that available whether through Public Record Office the or at publication rather than to enter into itself. controversy The Aim of the Series The Foreign and Commonwealth Office has three closely related aims in DBPO. Firstly to enable the people of the United Kingdom to sponsoring for documentary themselves an accurate and impartial read record of the foreign Secondly to conduct of policy under the direction of Parliament. provide students of recent history with first hand material for their studies. in a competitive Thirdly in world which other governments also sponsor the FCO aims to ensure that assessments of British similar publications



in the are



be B itish It on records. would if frone history British the the singularly unfortunate of policy was ýýritten her her archives and publications of either allies or, worse still, adversaries. For example it could be argued that many of the ideas of' the American Cold War revisionist historians have appeared sadly wanting when viewed in from British We believe the light of the evidence that the archives. also Schuman is dispelling Plan the publication now many of' the myths of volume European integration British by towards propagated policy about contemporary continental critics. based

As editors we share the three aims of the FCO and it is from these that we derive our instructions. Within these broad aims, however, we seek to fulfil in to the second, that of more specific objectives, relation particularly historical history. Before the the providing raw materials profession with of 30 the introduction to the government of public access recent archives under the scholarly community year rule, the editors were providing with the only Since in immense texts. then the available and particularly view of size of the archives, the editors with their special facilities provide a comprehensive the greatest survey of the archives which other scholars could not, without difficulty, In match. particular we can assemble the scattered pieces of a Office in Foreign Whitehall Department: it told than story one more or be historical the that the could are part of service said we sector of is What then the nature of the service we provide? profession.

Firstly we aim to provide historians with collections of documents in which each volume and then the series as a whole tell at first hand a story. We are at all stages of editing very conscious of our story-telling function and to make sure that we are not, even examine our work carefully Our is let unconsciously, arguing a case. to the documents speak for role themselves and never to use them to prove a point. That is for the authors of scholarly monographs, articles and general surveys for whom our documents provide a basis. A good deal of the hard done is work of research for historians future Equally of all generations. the volumes provide indispensable material for special subjects in universities, polytechnics and in schools which the next generation of historians can be trained. These activities of writing and teaching require an accurate and accessible text such as our volumes provide. In our selection from the archives from the assumption that we we start look to need at as much of the material available as possible and it is no false modesty that leads us to say that we probably see more of the archive than any independent researcher, not least because the files are brought to here. We do have the same restrictions and difficulties as those who us not


We Kew. of also airn to establish criteria pursue research at in discrimination level the the use of evidence which raise significance and debate. In is DBPO historical this part of the sense assessments and of frontier history. of contemporary moving their


documents the printed and those we speak of'volumes we mean Later dual to the the microfiches. accompanying we shall return nature on documents. Our is the to provide of volumes; printed and microfiche purpose documents Like Victorian the as possible. as cheaply novel the as many documents, have a main plot, the printed and the usual variety of volumes is in For the told the those notes story and sub plots, whose microfiches. further this the and probably means who want to go even research student believe, in the extremely provide, we useful signposts our volumes search for further detail from the full archive at the PRO.




Series the of

defines the scope of the series as a announcement important documents in the the archives of the Foreign most collection of Office Commonwealth British to and relating policy overseas for the decade World War. It decided, Second in the also after was order to speed up divided be into that the two series, 1945-1950 period would publication, and 1950-1955 and that they would be published For a variety of simultaneously. did the second series reasons work on not begin until the end of 1982. Within this mandate the editors are free to decide for themselves how they from We the the assumption that we can only cover the series. start plan important issues foreign and problems most of policy. It is our belief that it better focus to understanding of policy gives a on the major issues and to document them as fully as possible within the limits of what can feasibly be It is issues clear to us that secondary already printed. and subsidiary are forward drawn the major with and alongside their ones and that either disappearance be briefly It has to be said, their or resolution can signposted. issues or no great consequence however, that minor It is are unrecorded. important to bear in mind that civil servants, their rank and whatever function, immense Minor generate an amount paper. of officials engaged in large amount to the archive. routine work can contribute a surprisingly



It is also our experience that rigid long-term plans inappropriate for are as the editors of documents as they are for policy makers. We freely do have blueprints for the next decade but that do acknowledge we not we have a sense of purpose, indeed of urgency, and a clear aim. A rigid framework would prevent from us responding to the archive itself; to the unexpected and as yet unknown twists and turns of policy. There is an balance to be struck between documenting important those issues and


historians to now accord significance events which policy makers gave their attention and priority.

and those to which



in the thematic topical approach and which we employ view of our found base have (1945 to that strict adherence our editing we years and We invest an enormous 1950) is not necessarily the quickest way forward. For in in knowledge. Series I time specialist acquiring example amount of Anglo-American found it the to story of carry relations in the appropriate we first through the year of peace and then to turn to the aftermath of war in Germany implications their policy and and myriad problems of occupation in Series II we have had to unravel and explain the enormously complex formative in its investment it NATO In structure of can years. view of this forward topics themes to then make sense and rather than abandon carry for unrelated in do We bear the same, that subjects. mind, and ask you to in the fullness of time the series will add up to a complete whole and when is this is achieved the particular not of great sequence of volumes significance.

The Organisation One

of the principal

of Volumes features


the three


of continuity publications the way we organise our volumes. There is of course general agreement on international basis, documents diplomatic that any arrangement an of must be ordered in chronological date the that and time of a sequence and document irrespective difference the at the place of its composition, of between form time the basis of the order the zones, should within The time and date of the receipt distribution arrangement. of a and document information but are universally regarded as valuable additional basis documents be not as a on which a collection of can organised.

Beyond this common-sense approach to the problem of chronology, national traditions and style have entered into the different formulae adopted for the documents Briefly different organisation three of within each volume. methods emerged. The French method was to print all documents whatever their subject in strict chronological order. The American way was to take a focus for further It has regional each volume with sub-divisions within. proved necessary to make exceptions to this rule and organise some volumes by topics. The British way was to select either broad themes or individual topics, and sometimes both, and organise the documents within a volume into chapters reflecting these themes and topics. Clearly the difference between the British and American methods is not between them as great as French. the and


DBPO have in is perhaps the to of point out why editing we useful Origin by British formula Documents the on of the with the continued established first In DBFP. by War and subsequently the the editors of place the upheld by Foreign the the topics reflects organisation of of volumes organisation Office into departments is Office. The division for the the essential of


departmental is business, that the of so much so structure efficient conduct flow Office The the of correspondence and adapting. within constantly between the Office and posts overseas was and is firmly anchored within the has departmental FO 371 know. as anyone who consulted structure will if be Our progress from had to the slow unacceptably we would start first task as editors was to unravel that our the archives and assumption organise

our material


on a chronological


a subject



and topical volumes reflected the way in which policy such thematic few from Permanent Very Under-Secretary the officials, apart was made. of State had an overview focused their of policy; attention was on particular In of policy. the origin order to understand areas or problems geographical follow development it is its to policy of necessary and progress upwards; from to the superintending the department then to the PUS and under-secretary, Secretary State. Consultation Whitehall to the of on with other frequently departments takes place at any or indeed all levels in this instances In Secretary State those the process. when of consults the Prime Cabinet Minister is presented to and/or other colleagues or a memorandum departmental Cabinet, initiatives be in the the origins of such the can seen drafts. In a very strict sense, therefore, the way we organise our successive is a mirror of the policy making process. volumes

It is proper that an official series should concentrate on the execution of decisions to show what were taken and how they were implemented. policy, documents in The majority the the archive are concerned with this of In however, DBPO, process. we are able to take a slightly more relaxed for than was possible our earlier predecessors on the difficult question view formulation documenting discussion the policy of and of alternative lines of both Foreign Office Cabinet level. In the pre-1939 the within policy, and at discussion formulation the the period much of of of policy was conducted 1932 Lord Grey of Fallodon wrote to through minutes. On 21 November in principle The Times deploring the publication of the advice given by both because he feared this would prejudice officials, their freedom of in future, and because it might mislead the public, since minutes expression in his `authoritative documents'; the actual instructions of not, words, were Ministers alone determining policy.


Gooch late have influence too to and much was on Temperley, but in his editing of DI3hP Professor Woodward was conscious of Grey's In decisions the the weight of argument. postwar period more are lower level, the context of existing instructions, taken, within at a and the for documents discussion are of a more varied nature, example some both correspondence with posts and other government minutes, semi-official departments, Permanent Committee, Under-Secretary's briefs the papers of State Prime for the Secretary Minister for the the and memoranda of and Cabinet. We are able to use all of these. In practice therefore we arc able those aspects of policy formulation to illuminate which take place weithin an have impact. An is later the official context or which an official example of Grey's



Party pamphlet European Unity, the Labour published on documented Schuman is in Plan the of which volume.


1950, the story


by theme and topic enables us to concentrate issues the major upon is There difference between of policy. of course sometimes a what, after the historians important be landmarks time to the passage of consider of policy and those problems and crises which at the time greatly preoccupied policy but historians have in lesser to their makers which consigned place a assessments of the past. For example the question of access to Berlin was initially it low know dramatically regarded as a matter of priority: as we all increased in importance Before the and still remains a vital concern. 1950 division Korea key issue the summer of as a of was not regarded of Asian diplomacy dealt low in Foreign level the and was with at a relatively Office. On the other hand in 1945-46 there high level was a consideration American desire for bases in British Commonwealth the of territories which had to be documented for its effect on a Anglo-American but relations was issue faded On is an this which quickly to strike a out. matter our aim balance but in the last resort our documents can only reflect the archive its in this turn reflects the priorities and and preoccupations of the policy makers.

The Problem The


Archive the of for


in FCO is the problem working postwar archives For 1945-1955 into sheer size. the our period of number of papers coming the Foreign Office climbed from just over 540,000 to over 570,000 peaking Office's German for at 630,000 in 1950 when the Foreign responsibilities bulk. the administration swelled


is the successor department not only of the Foreign Office but Colonial Commonwealth Relations Offices, in the also of and and Parliamentary the accordance with announcement of 1973 documents from these Departments are included where appropriate. There is in fact a good


be Departments, these can of papers of overlapping which helpful in filling gaps. Since our Series is focused on foreign policy, we follow by `keep to the manageable work within proportions' our mandate documents. Office Foreign on concentrating



FO 371, 75,000 For our decade the main FO political class, contains nearly far 80,000 Office Foreign short of when other strictly' pieces, rising to not Cultural Relations Office Papers, Private Information, and classes such as In 953, included. British FO 800,924 the the addition are and archives of Commission, listed in Control bracket FO Element the the of of classes Control 30,000 Office for 1005-1082, the contain over pieces, while further 6,000 Austria in FO Germany 935a contributes and pieces classes 46. All this explains at the outset why we have to he selective in our plan be for documentation, has key for British policy. to to restricted which areas for one volume. Let me give some idea of the problems We hope that Western Europe for the last five months of V of Series I, covering Volume The jackets 1945, is something for of a special case. number the main of is for Central, Departments 6,000 Germany nearly relevant covering and for Western, including 7,000 Austria, Italy. Adding for and over a guess Departments Economic Northern, brings partially such as used, other and figure in Bearing 15,000. jackets that to mind our up most contain more 30,000 documents for than one document we reckon that consideration of this one volume is probably an underestimate.

We realise that we are fortunate in having unique facilities for making a intricate We do best this an search of vast systematic archive. to use it our for fully benefit historians, but these figures tell their the as possible of as Nevertheless the pressures of selection. own story of the archive itself documents inevitable contains many where the same facts or views are in different forms. One service which we can provide is to avoid repeated duplication and select the best formulations for our readers. have Cabinet Office for full to to the addition we go archives a Cabinet from 1948 in of collection material onwards, and any case a trawl these archives, and those in the PREM Prime through collection of Minister's papers, is necessary to add both important material included not in the FCO archives and particularly items which can add depth to our A coverage. similar trawl is also required in the archives of any other Government department especially concerned in the being subject covered for example, Treasury and Board Trade for Schuman Plan the papers of Obviously time forbids our scanning all the archives in Whitehall volume. In

have to restrict and we greatest relevance.


to a quick



those of the

finding lesser The tracing are also the problems of papers. main aids fortunate PRO Main Index. We the the that there are are shelf-lists and 195(1 logical especially after are still some useful registers, when a more We reckon that we can usually, if not quite filing system was introduced. find find that to our archives are easier always, what we are seeking, and There

one's way through


we start:

It has long

than many

the Concept


Group the of

Documents of

Historical Branch that the challenge recognized within of the vast bulk of modern archives can only be met by adapting the successful Experience Editors DBFP has the evolved. style which of shown, as Second Series in Introduction DBPO, in the to the explained of printed Volume I of that Series, that the editorial be to to approach selection must documents individual he than to to groups of approach rather selection must individual documents. The idea to groups of documents than to rather of been

below documents briefly printed substantive and documents documents, together of related or runs of documents, formula the copies the with on microfiche of calendared was Rohan by Butler, who made the first use of them in the Potsdam proposed Since Series has proceeded had have then the to volume. as work on we developments. make new

employing indicating

calendars, the contents

A further adaptation from DBFP has also become necessary since it has become apparent that the high cost of printing has made the old style of generous selection unacceptably expensive. We have found that there are not only marketing but also practical advantages in producing slimmer dealing documents, volumes, thus speeding with a manageable number of By use of microfiches and extracts or summaries of further production. documents in footnotes we can cover as many documents in the as traditional fat volumes, and can exploit the cheapness of microfiches to keep the overall cost down. Having embarked on these slimmer volumes selection for printing becomes an extremely rigorous process. The treatment has to be flexible, determined by documents by the covered as well as which record Conferences, such as Series I, Volume II, does because supporting documents will probably fit geographical volumes.


the nature of the topics them. Thus a volume on not use many calendars better in the subsequent

immediately between the period political decade inevitably for latter the part of' our call rather techniques, though we keep in close touch to make sure do diverge. Thus the early volumes not of principles foreign treatment policy questions, such of major combine from issues clearing arising up after a world with that of



relief and refugees, which in humanity allocation and





the war


(Efferent editing that the editorial Series I have to as peace treaties, for example war,


of politics

of resources.

By the late 1940s the pattern of world affairs had settled down in the sense dealt foreign that more conventional policy with political and politicoissues. The here German had that the major is example question economic day-to-day becoming lost the administrative control and was aspect of' one of Germany diplomatic Germany. as well as exchanges relations with about in Nevertheless Far East in June 195() has the outbreak the of war , documentary different blurring the problems, presented with of the demarcation line between fi)r political and military considerations calling new editorial


If we try to explain how we tackle a new volume it may clarify r our thinking for your. Let us take as an example Series I, Volume V. Having established Series dealing by foundations this the of with the major postwar conferences Potsdam, Foreign Ministers Attlee-"Truman 1945 Volumes I-1l, and of - in United States in Volumes I-IV, the relations with and policy on Germany followed It the that we should include a treatment obvious next step. was of' Western European basic for Britain was the countries since a other problem between British Zone Germany the of resources scarce as allocation of and The decision liberated the countries. next was that in the light of the many it better documents in a single series than to the was print cross connexions into divide topical chapters. them to

The next question was the time span. Though a final decision need not be late taken until a stage, we try to work towards a clear historical break. In Reparation Plan of March 1946 would be a good target, but this case the looking at two cupboards bulging with photocopies of papers for August to December 1945 we realised that it would be a struggle to get through to the end of the year, even with a ruthless selection within the new limits have set ourselves. which we this plan in mind our procedure is to trawl through our collection of from photocopies, a very full reading of the relevant archives, to eliminate important least documents and begin putting together the groups of related documents. We try at this stage to make a provisional assessment as to



for behind. to which print, with candidates noting and calendaring attached Groups of documents of secondary interest are collected for separately have reconsideration when we completed our main sclection. The

is to reassess our stage


from look their the next groups. at likely he limits to point of view of estimating whether wwe are within our of' if in light historical the the size, and not, whether we should, of significant e into documents, deliberately two the top the go over or split of the volume The next task, which is l)eerhaps the or whether we could make economies. is decision final interesting important taking the aspect of editing, most and documents to to print. as which The


involved This is difficult. the choice criteria most are many and the point which stimulates the most discussion between Editor and Assistant Editor. Some documents `Print kind have to they the me' as seem say of illuminating. instinctively Unfortunately as especially quality one recognizes these are not as frequent as we would wish, and at the other end of the from documents, has be to spectrum sometimes made a group of a choice In is documents none of which some cases are selected wholly satisfactory. because they are of such a high level that they cannot for be ignored, Cabinet example relevant minutes or papers, or reports of conversations important foreign Occasionally, discursive if with statesmen. such records are inordinate length we print an extract or of the remainder. and calendar Other documents form; these may he cover a lot of ground in condensed high level Cabinet minutes are often very good here low level as when - or junior has brief for descriptive, his senior. Others a written a good are setting a scene, and giving the reader a little relief from more technical We like to give a selection of the varied types of documents material. also Foreign Office the on which worked. here

In this context Foreign Office minutes documents like are all others which be treated on their merits. If they contribute something worth while must if them; they do not we ignore them. The exceptions are the rather we use by the Secretary of State which we quote in footnotes if they rare minutes have something to reveal about his thinking. There is also the question of balance, for instance level, the as on practical between documents coming into and being despatched by the Foreign Office, and between policy decisions Far more and their implementation. important, indeed basic to our whole concept of impartiality, is the and balance political which may be between the good and had aspects of British foreign policy, or between favourable and unfavourable presentation of Governments, whether regarded as friendly to the United Kingdom or not.




to this point because we know that no apologies returning depends impartiality the the of our evidence validity of our acceptance of on This informs handling broad the presentation. not only our sweep of' of but fully have to that take the care we ensure also we policy understood document have its says and made an accurate precis of what a summarized Thus be the tends to matter style of editorial salient arguments. studiously inverted innuendoes. in flat, avoiding jokes Ehe come commas. only make

luxury the ourselves are our prefaces where we permit exceptions of' giving drawn. be Ultimately to the volumes conclusions which might some pointers for documents to tell select printing a story and we must exist which take for in the reader a confusing this along clarifies a way which medley of discussion and events. for documents decision the the printing and chosen on what not to is decide to the print often agonising next stage which of' the subsidiary be in in footnotes, be summarized ones each group will or quoted which will for be We calendared microfiches and which will rejected. ask ourselves document how in do the much as of such questions question we need to use; in which we are interested is the information too complicated to be reduced is it going to he worth to the bare bones of a calendar; alternatively the for a microfiche paying reader's when the essence could go into a short hand is long footnote footnote; the other on a going to hold up the flow of in document. Broadly speaking we footnote documents the the story printed have is for to leaving that there so use much when we nothing the worth microfiche. Having

We are not, however, always thinking in terms of individual subsidiary documents. Very often the decision to calendar is unavoidable when we have a supporting group of documents on an aspect of the subject which we footnoting Here be long, treating. would probably are whereas a calendar, introduced by footnote a sometimes which can include information not for be calendar, to a the convenient way to carry the appropriate seems On forward. hand the other sometimes we feel that the topic covered story in a subsidiary group has ceased to be significant. In this case it may appear handle it in `write-off to appropriate what we call a note', which may give a happened brief indication of' what or may merely state where further be found. correspondence can Although

the reader of the printed volume may not wish to read the documents in full in the microfiches it remains the policy of the calendared Editors that he should be given a sufficient indication of their contents to impression of what they record so that he is not deprived of a gain an in the story. We feel that it is essential that the reader significant episode


is buttressed by be that the printed material an organised should conscious in ficlies. Inevltal)l)' the niicrc, substructure of supporting evidence much of is of a specialist At kind. this material technical the sane time the or for leave We the the new reader of microfiches. calendars should something by happy key to the strive choosing quotations achieve mean, especially flavour documents from Often the the they come. which give of which we long

to bridge

the use a chain of calendars or occasionally calendar a very We documents. last between try to the the printed avoid calendar gap on in later document first the chronology an earlier on a one on overlapping the subject. Such is the complexity documentation it from find that the necessary we of to begin compiling the early stages of editing the chapter and summaries index for our own use. Because we ourselves are using our straightforward index of main subjects and persons as a working tool we hope it is providing information. is It essential our readers as well as ourselves with perhaps for Potsdam index is in incorporated the that the mentioning worth volume II of Series I. We remain convinced the index in Volume that these two beginning the aids, one at and one at the end of each volume, provide the best practicable help for readers with different At requirements. some stage have for finding to consider the question we shall the whether some aid Series as a whole may be needed.

Sensitive Papers As set out in the Parliamentary announcement of the Series, and repeated in each volume published, a special procedure has been devised for papers which remain sensitive. By this procedure `microcopies of these calendared documents will be available for purchase, in except exceptional cases where it is necessary on security grounds to restrict the availability of a particular document, as will be indicated in the text of the calendars'. This procedure in between the Editors was agreed order to avoid damaging confrontation FCO is insurance the and and to both parties. As Editors we accept this an need to protect the national interest and we believe that this is understood by our readers. As explained in their Prefaces the Editors have the right to see papers here Section 3(4) retained under of closed at the Public Record Office Section 591) of the Public Records Act of 1958. Such access does under however, not, give them the right to use such material. Sanction for its use has to be sought from the relevant Political Department or other authority. The Editors have also the right to ask for enquiries to be made on their behalf where they consider that there is a gap in the documentation. Such a in Mr Attlee's case arose talks with Mr Truman in Washington in respect of



II of' Series I. No records of the on atomic energy were traced.

1945, documented

main conversations

in Volume

document When the Editors wish to use a withheld they have to weigh up from incurring for their readers without how to obtain the maximum a veto into bring FCO, the special procedure, which operation the which would both the Editors and the FCO are anxious to avoid. document Editors in f체ll. If' is the the to print obviously choice be have that not publication would that they a good case and consider is interest, damaging the criterion, they request this. which to the national is forthcoming f채ll-hack If, however, the to not print or calendar permission document by the with omissions accompanied are either to print positions Potsdam in footnote, the the volume, or to summarize as an acknowledging Such a footnote, has he in a footnote. document to which cleared with the document, F(; O, must give a balanced the to take some summary of in detail. If is be revealed such a summary not account of what cannot be then the special procedure cannot avoided. acceptable



found it does have Editors follow that the that retained not For historical trivial example, significance. many contain are of' foreign in life. In any case, but wounding statesmen still comments on public have have information flew those that seen contained we of essential very in File. far So an open editorial requests to use these not already available few have been accepted.

In practice documents

The FC() has only once exercised its right to refuse editorial request. This Volume Series IV I. Documentation in to relation of on the question arose has had he Editors have Belize for first to the omitted therefore and the of' for had to the special procedure the use time a calendar without documents. This has been indicated by microfiched accompanying square brackets on calendar i to No 6. The relevant Department of' the FGO did, however, accept a wording for the calendar which gave some indication of documents. the the scopc of withheld for the Editors. Conscious Such restriction is naturally very disappointing is incomplete documents the that their work until are released, the Editors At to to this make the same time they continue representations will end. from the that them procedure preserves recognise wrangles with the FCO, be damaging Series to the could as which as were those of' Gooch and Temperley, them to keep faith with their readers by while enabling acknowledging the omission and giving at least indication of what has had to be omitted.


in the preface to each volume we do not have access either to decisions intelligence the or material, although which we been draw have haled may well on reports vdhich on such in interesting It is this respect we stand on the same to that note material. in State FRUS Department. Editors the the ground as of As stated personnel document

fair in it is FCO toi that to the that only record consider every has of the political standpoint of' case which arisen their own appreciation historical by a parallel the the FCO has been matched understanding of by the great majority of the officials concerned. position









FREEDOM''` November


discussion heart I believe together. to the With this topic we come, of our it is face, because difficult It is almost certainly the most problem which we in likely find Editors to conflict ourselves are most the one about which we facing find Worse our own ourselves we still governments. with our interest harm balance to the national of' the possible as we consciences, document to against our commitment sensitive a potentially publishing historical truth, to telling the full story. believe, is, I I helpful to tell The most make you can which contribution far for dealing British how the as we, with sensitive papers works, so system Editors, are concerned. as Oddly

documents for which, whatever files which have been released to In British the records, one. case of

handling of problem from by governments

the enough reason, are withheld is recent the public, a comparatively Policy Documents British Foreign 1919joined I on team of the editorial when We 1906. to 1939 in 1953, official were therefore archives were open only had to to the submit volumes proofs of we and archives on closed working foreign from friendly departments to seek permission and relevant political from Editors' The documents them. emanating to publish governments in freedom the selection their and arrangement of' customary exercise of documents always at risk. was accordingly

So far as I am aware there were very few instances of the use of documents being Editors had for though to refused, sometimes publication selected for instance information. to a reference a source of agree to small omissions, I know of' only two major vetoes: firstly, Foreign Office insistence on deleting references to British use of bribery in Iran just after the first war; Belgian Government's objection to publication of seven and secondly, the in "Third documents, whose omission was formally the to noted preface V, about King Leopold's Series, Volume to the extension attitude Maginot in Line Considering 1939. the that some of' the of' northwards DBFP just were published over ten years after the events earliest volumes of is documented, by Foreign this a tolerance remarkable the record of they Office. Clashes between the Office and the Editors, which might have * Paper presented at the First Conference of Editors of Diplomatic Documents in London, 9 November 1989; originally published in OccasionalPaperNo. 2.


interference in on grounds of' resignation an editorial culminated freedom, were thus avoided through mutual understanding.

in editorial

introduced by The fifty-year the archives, rule on the opening of government Public Records Act of 1958, barely advanced the open period and thus had Act did, in however, DBFP. 'I'hc provide no effect on the editing of virtually held at the Public Section 5(1) for extended closure of sensitive documents for Section 3(4) Office, Record in the retention of other sensitive and 'T'hese in the Department documents sections are applied under of origin. Lord Government down laid by the the supervision ofthe and under criteria Chancellor. Roughly


closure now means speaking extended years of more: this information in danger to or confidence or which could cause applies supplied distress to individuals international has to matters of and such sensitivity, disputes. Records in documents territorial to retained relating unresolved defence intelligence the Department to may relate or origin, which and is The fact to periodical review. not matters, are subject of' closure is list Where is in this the concealed. a complete piece withheld shelf noted Record Office: Public the at where a paper or papers have been removed a in file. is inserted in is 't'hough the their slip place a regrettable withholding framework legal this necessity precise makes possible a relaxed relationship because between the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and its historians, both parties have a clear understanding limits. their their of rights and of fifty-year by the the to thirty was only when period was reduced Act first 1967 In DBFP that the the amending of editing of was affected. Editors had in the the same rights as any other person researching place files, 1936 found the to to publish what they papers of period up on open it from any authority, British or foreign: and was otiose to seek permission freedom. But in the second place the there was thus a benefit to editorial Editors were close to leaving the period had when many pre-war sensitivities been wiped out by the war and issues one when unsettled were entering Kingdom had become less powerful proliferated and when the United and had therefore its national interests Inevitably to protect more carefully. files. there were, from 1940 onwards, more withheld papers than on pre-war The more frequent Section 3(4) Public 5(1) the application of and of Records Act is the price have for historians to pay access to more which recent archives. It

It was taken for granted by the FCO and the Editors that the latters' rights of access would apply to withheld papers. The danger to the Editors was, however, that in exercising these rights, they would find themselves involved


Departments confrontations with and other authorities f端r interest, the protecting national whose permission to with responsibilities have be documents in to that the sought, same such would way such use Editors had been the necessary when were working on closed permission documents deliberately Since likelihood these the were withheld of archives. disagreements was obvious. in damaging


Editor of Documents on British Policy Orerseas, the founding innovation his that editorial of calendars and related be to avoid such adapted to provide which could a procedure microfiches, if His deadlock between that, there scheme was a were confrontations. FCO document the the those on of release of' a views and editorial which

I)r Rohan Butler, had the inspiration

Editor FCO's Editor In the to the accept would use, wishes veto. return an formula in FCO the calendar the a sanction would giving as much he information interest. the national released without prejudicing as could in bracket be indicate The calendar to a square printed that the would document This procedure, on microfiche. was not available calendared Dr Butler FCO by had been and worked out officials and ultimately which in Parliamentary high level, the at a was set out approved announcement of D13PO in 19 7 3.

The procedure is mutually advantageous in that the FCO's right to block the release of documents considered prejudicial to the national interest is Editors the are able to protect the credibility preserved, while of' their freedom. The calendar in of ect certifies that customary square-bracketed they have exercised their right of access at the salve time as it admits that document be The documents Editors further released. or cannot a consider it appropriate to record any limitation on the availability of editorially in There is the the material of thus no preface volume concerned. selected The Editors believe is that this procedure concealment. understood and by their readers. accepted is The use of the square-bracketing last procedure a resort which has been in Volume Series The IV 1. in once, only of used material question, which files from 1996-7, withheld came until related to Belize, then British Honduras, British sovereignty over which was challenged by Guatemala. The Editors wished to publish briefing on the British case for Mr 13evin at 1945, his together the end of with comments, but the relevant political Legal Adviser Department and considered that some of this material could British it the position, that and prejudice was against the national interest it. The Editors had bow to publish to ultimately to this view but they were in the to mention square-bracketed able calendar the kind of documents the names of the principal and omitted authors. They were also able to


indicate the



there open


historical survey was a Government to HM

dispute discussion the and of of to the and to give a pointer

on policy.

have been used, the Editors have, documents In other cases where withheld by various devices, been able to avoid the square-bracketed calendar either in full been document has refused or to print a particular when a request An the to print they anticipate choice obvious such a refusal. when by include it document, an with omissions accompanied or on microfiche, for instance, footnote that a confidential reference acknowledging stating, has been omitted or simply that a passage has not been released. The most footnote, document in is the to a which must summarise usual alternative document balanced to take some account of' what the give a of summary innocent is Often document in detail. be an withheld cannot revealed because it is filed with another which is sensitive. In such a case permission documents The handling to use it should be readily forthcoming. of all such has, of course, to be cleared with the FCO. The Editors documents

for have to the the release of also make representations right from in hope the the that they can microfiches withheld be In eventually reproduced a subsequent with volume. any case they make documents have they representations about withheld seen and which which in their view could be released. The Editors' are carefully representations by FCO documents half the the and, at a rough guess, nearly considered of because be have the to time they are released, often with passage of ceased for information but wounding those containing trivial sensitive; example foreign In about statesmen. practice probably of withheld only a minority documents information historical interest record of not available elsewhere. It


have Ministries Foreign ' that an open secret possibly all files, intelligence beyond the probably unacknowledged related, which are historians, historians. inevitably This reach of even official a creates in histories, the coverage and acceptance weakness at of official especially intelligence is fashionable. Dr Butler this time when the history of was lacuna this conscious of and was able to obtain from the FCO an editorial for be behalf Editors, to to right ask enquiries the made on of where they is in documentation. The that there the consider a gap only such request far, Attlee's Mr in Truman Mr to made so talks with which related in 1945, produced Washington This leaves historian the nothing. procedure dependent for be the wholly on relevant authority what may or may not is faint but least hope, it is better thus produced and than nothing. rather at


has worked well, but it is possible that there may he In 1950s. the more tense atmosphere these the of he in to there may more pressure general, a conceal and, circumstances liberal the to take on part of governments a view. greater reluctance

So far the procedure in difficulties more

here may he particularly helpful, is a grey area, on which discussion increase hidden to the may open archives since pressure use of' especially is hand it On developments the that conceivable other political of archives. to the the future such security precautions make may unnecessary, history. advantage of













to the early staffing arrangements and is by DBFP, the series now staffed and postwar entirely full FCO by Does time the employed established as civil servants. historians this mean that the Editors can no longer claim to be independent `customary freedom' documents? Has the to the with select and edit Editors in basis the the changed position of altered of series any way? some Temperley historians


The short answer is no. The long answer is still no, but clearly the position Editors has if in the terms of establishment of changed over only years --just as the status of the records on which we work has changed. We are for 30 the the most part on open records. now working within year rule -What then are the implications for DBPO? Now that we are all f端ll time inhouse historians less free The than our predecessors? are we more or for DBPO were worked out by Rohan Butler over a number of original plans in detail just for. The years minute with about every contingency provided intention fresh to was create an entirely and more selective series, by different distinctive dustjacket. title symbolised a and new red colour More DBFP format into the transformed significantly was a two-tier publication

comprising a volume tied together pack of microfiches them ---- in the printed volume.


of printed by summaries

and accompanying as we call ---- or calendars

This new calendar and microfiche device just was not a means of making more of the archive available to scholars in a low-cost form of publication. It devised was also as a means of protecting editorial freedom by offering a way out of the kind of damaging confrontations between Office and Editors had which characterised the Gooch and Temperley era --- and which it was thought could be a problem again as Editors started to work through some of the more sensitive post-war areas. Calendars apart, the differences between DBFP DBPO have and always been more apparent than real. Editorial principles and practices have largely continued unchanged, with the same scrupulous attention to detail More fundamentally, however, the basic aim of the series and accuracy. Abridged edition of a paper presented at the Conference `Historians Officials: The and Development International History in Britain and the World', London School of of Economics, 28 June 1993.


is British foreign that the to the same, present policy record on remains from the archives of the FCO and other government departments, selected due in `with it terms of reference, regard to the principle of our says as increasingly This freedom'. formula it has quaint-sounding means as editorial done: always to the see right -

decide to the right but no absolute right -

to publish

Access: to see the right The right to see is the right of access --- given to all Editors past and files held by the to closed or the FCO with the whether open all present do We have (and records. not exception of personnel never have had) the held intelligence Office by other agencies. the to material outside right see We do have (and this was an advance secured by Rohan Butler) the right to into for be if we feel there is a these to records ask searches made, Office-held documentation. in We have the gap taken advantage significant doing be in before the case of the Iranian now and will so again of this oil fall Mussadiq in 1950s the the and of early crisis on which I am currently working.

Selection: the right to decide As regards selection, the Editor's mandate is to select the most important documents from the FCO archives and other government departments British foreign The decision as to the tell of story policy warts which and all. documents is left judgement individual these to the are entirely what of Editors. Our claim to independent status rests on this freedom, which is in As Head Historical Branch, terms. civil service of unique my non-DBPO is Head Department. I have to accept to the subject approval of a of work drafts be that my may altered and my views overriden in the same way as has But in to. the case of DBPO,. I do not have to every other civil servant does Office the nor ever seek otherwise -- any questioning of the accept -documents in any one volume. Of course I actual selection or editing of in informed help those to an with position consult me --- whether inside or Office. This is important the an outside part of the selective process, but in it is Editor's decision Office's the the the end not or any outside adviser. I is it also true to say that the Office think attaches quite as much importance to this as do the Editors themselves.

Right to Publish Office does the of course have a say (and always has had) is in the documents for The introduction of publication. clearance of the 30 year rule fact that the we are currently working in the open period and in that means



it We do less has to. than used not need much of' a say practice documents OfTice from to publish to seek clearance the already open at the foreign do PRO DBFP, to ask per-mission of' we need ---- nor, unlike freedom has The 30 toi select also given us more governments. year rule it has ended In particular from the files of other government departments. Office the

difficulties the encountered with some of' Cabinet papers from the Cabinet Office. In


of getting


to use



we must of' course get case of closed and retained its FCO is It the tolerance the and concern to permission. a measure of of in that available as possible make as much as the record publicly only once from publishing have the Editors been prevented 10 year of publishing a document British they to considered necessary an objective account of' which in question related to Belize and the case for foreign policy. The material Guatemala. by British between Deadlock the challenged sovereignty as Office broken by Editors the and was resort to the square-bracketed Rohan Butler had been devised by compromise calendar procedure which for precisely Under this kind of contingency. this procedure an agreed document is included in but Volume the the summary of with as a calendar brackets it it is to that square round show retained and to signal that the Editors have not been allowed to include as much of the document as they have liked. would It took us several years to get clearance for the Chief's of Star paper on defence policy and global strategy and the history of this is an illustration of how the in-house in be Editor position of an ultimately can advantageous Records Office Working Foreign getting one's way. the closely alongside do, insiders operation the as we can status of rather than outsiders, with kind inside-edge do best give a to exploit when exercising of which we our freedom in the selection, editing and publication Documents the customary of British Policy Overseas. on







is the peaceful by accredited





of relations amongst f체ll keeping the requires agents, of and entities political negotiations and other transactions. records of communications, accurate international historians When to the are open public, such records are in having fortunate documentary to them available ample particularly base As Lord Acton `History to their research. which said, evidence upon documents But diplomatic not and opinion'. archives are not must stand on international history. They invaluable of are also an only the raw material foreign for importantly Most those and administer conduct who policy. asset to


policy-maker for current precedents for education material



provide a record future negotiations. and and propaganda.

of' past But they

developments also usually

and contain


diplomacy requires the efficient management of archives, and few better foreign than those and ordered organised archives are of ministries. Moreover, few government departments are more actively engaged in the foreign their than records are publication of ministries. Although diplomacy is often portrayed as a secret craft, an art practised behind closed doors by individuals who are remote from the public at large, it is doubtful that any department in has this government country a record equal to the FCO in departmental The Cabinet Office the regular publication of archives. histories, Ministry Defence the sponsors official of supports historical issue departments reports and statistics of one kind or research, and other but have Documents British Policy to none anything equivalent another, on Overseas. This pattern is mirrored State Department, the

in the attitude Quai d'Orsay

foreign of ministries overseas: the Amt have and the Ausw채rtiges adopted similar attitudes towards publishing their archives. Throughout the foreign been have ministries and are engaged in the process of editing world * Abridged edition of a paper November presented at the University 1993. of Westminster, The author would like to thank Keith Hamilton, Joint-Editor of Documents on British Policy Oaerseas, whose articles `The Pursuit of "Enlightened Patriotism": The British Foreign Researchers during the Great War Office and Historical Historical and its Aftermath', Research 61 (1988), pp. 316-44 and `The Historical Diplomacy Republic', of the Third Diplomacy and Statecraft, 4 (1993) No. 2, pp. 175-209, supplied much of the source material for this paper.


instructive it is, Inderd dcýcumcntary that sinus' Iwi1iaps scri("s. and publishing have been by In Branch in Historical Cold War 1Ii visited the end of* tlw we lv' Czech historians Russian to establish to() anxious vdho seem m and For A' the the their publication moment ( own. programmes publishing And this prompts flic question documents is a growth industry. diplomatic why' There


selections to instruct.



of their






1ninistrie> chosci-i t() publish to persuaclc", tu c"Iiliglitc"n to inform, and

is 1'()iinformation which an obvious requirement of fulfil. Individuals travelling to abroad and companies ministries finance international in basic information trade require and about engaged be the they travelling, the economic state of' countries may and political it is important investing in. To he that this trading or end publicity givrn to international in light treaties, agreements and frontier this changes. have it is hardly surprising like Britain that a great trading should nation in from become actively information the engaged an publication of' such in 19th the early stage century. Firstly, foreign

the provision

Secondly, h)rcign 19th the motivation the of persuasion: early century Office was, like other foreign ministries, of' concerned with the management By I mean those non-governmental public opinion. public opinion opinions in the press and pamphlets, expressed and provincial assemblies, national in houses the universities and other centres of' learning the and and great intellectual in 'l'he literacy this societies of and political elites. growth of period and the simultaneous emergence of mass circulation and newspapers led the establishment to the greater of popularly elected parliaments involvement defending diplomats in their chancelleries, of' ministries and home in influence by the at to actions and seeking abroad, governments manipulation

of the press and other

means of' public


It is in this context

that we can best understand the British Foreign Office's its diplomatic form the publication of selections of of correspondence in diplomatic Blue Books which was taken up in earnest during the 1820s and 1830s. These were published They were for the purposes of persuasion. intended home both to influence the public parliamentarians and at and documents for frankly overseas, and propagandistic ends. were often selected Foreign Secretaries justify to their conduct thereby sought and to win support against documents were

foreign To and rivals. opponents and occasionally emasculated sometimes



achieve this end falsified. 't'here

were publication


instances in










began purpose of enlightenment of publication Foreign ministries diplomats 19th century. during the last quarter ofthe and in became engaged in publishing programmes which reality were part of that building forming these nation so and which characterised state of process in The association with academics work was usually accomplished -years. historians. historians who would not be embarrassed at being called patriotic forth historical It was in the new German that this empire of enlightenment history became Found some of its most enthusiastic practitioners as patriotic Reich factor in in integrating the this tradition, time, was new and a social British to publish. the to to act as a spur



for documents instruction is, The use of the publication the of purposes of Before French War, however, the First World notion. the a peculiarly Pichon, claimed in the preface to the first volume French Foreign Minister, Guerre de 1870-71 that a democracy de la diplomatiques Origines had Les the of instructed it judge be that truthfully the men whose actions so might right to , destiny. its Moreover, in 1874, the then French had so profoundly affected in his request Elie Decazes, Minister, des Foreign to the Commission in April 1874 asked them to recommend documents Archives Diplomatiques diplomatic He true provide would a which publication education. diplomats French he to the means to penetrate give said, the wanted, details and procedures of the policies of the past which had given France In other words he wanted models which contemporary French her grandeur. in France follow diplomats to to her proper position in seeking restore could French diplomats Europe. Whether any young ever did read the volumes is idea diplomats But learn from history, that the matter. could another indeed in that there were lessons to be learned, theme was a constant diplomatic documents French thinking before the the about publication of First World War. for

It is just worth pausing momentarily to reflect that France's historians believed that they had through their publishing of documents altered the A history. Commission the des Archives the reading of minutes of of course believe France's historians had that to tempts one single handedly brought World War, First France's in it, the achieved victory about and ensured her her proper place as the pre-eminent power in Europe. to restoration The First World War was in any case a great stimulant to the publication of foreign by documents ministries. No sooner had the war begun than foreign hurried to publish selections of their pre-war documents, ministries not as an


justify but to as an attempt rather or education, act of enlightenment Governments 1914. were anxious to rally stances taken on the war crisis of demonstrate home that they and abroad, and sought to popular support at In time the British for the ensuing catastrophe. had not been responsible Germans Yellow Bock, French Blue Book, the their the their published Austrians Book Russians Orange White Book, their their the their and the little Red Book. But these publications than more very were often in haste frequently and great often prepared propaganda, sophisticated detail. being to too paid accuracy and much attention without for future diplomatic the perhaps significance of publishing demands for diplomacy in the new more open were which grew developed into for intensity In Britain, the total as example, conflict war. Control, Democratic Union the an organisation of which counted amongst Ramsay future Labour Prime Minister, its members MacDonald, a was diplomacy it the the critical of secret particularly of era, which I)re-1914 for the war. If such conflicts held in large part responsible he to were future its in diplomacy be then, members maintained, must avoided be democratic It to conducted more openly and subject controls. was the Office led Foreign British to to that the to need respond such criticism documents, than that originally consider a more comprehensive publication of in Blue Book 1914. It is discern five the to contained of possible reasons Office Foreign began for the to this work: show more enthusiasm why Of more documents

In the first place Lord Grey was troubled by doubt about his own in 1914 and became anxious to ensure that the record was set documents his thorough the publication to of period relating In July 1916 he issued instructions secretary. that a sample documents Bosnia 1908 be the covering crisis of should assembled.

diplomacy by right a foreign as volume


Secondly the employment in the Foreign Office during the war of 'a number historians in Political Intelligence Historical Department the the of and Section on propaganda and research work, heightened the awareness ofthe value of publishing documentary material. Thirdly in official belief in there was a growing that circles a more democratic Foreign Office have its the to world educate new masters would and achieve what Professor Charles Webster called `enlightened patriotism'. At

Revolution the same time the Bolshevik and the decision of the Soviet leadership imperial Russia to publish the secret treaties of offered a liberals who had long advocated boost to British tremendous more open diplomacy Wilson's Woodrow for `open appeal and paralleled covenants


led It to the a rash of pamphlets on also and articles at'. arrived openly based half from truths the them on the archives, and many of war, origins of led to an intense debate within the Foreign Office on how best to make documents to the available public. readily more more Finally



that the concern among a growing diplomacy had the of prime ministerial growth eroded exigencies of war and in Office Foreign the making and conduct of policy and that the role of the its The Office to constituency a popular support cause. the required Morley, PID, Headlam Historian, then Assistant Director of made much of Foreign in Office 1918 had become He the that too aloof argued this point. `must diminish in times that tend to the aloofness that modern weight and It Office'. therefore the to provide the was necessary of and authority interested information the of public members and with educated -- not kind information but had inspired the that of guidance governments before them when they took decisions. there


delayed, The commencement of this post-war publishing programme was however, as a consequence of government spending cuts which in 1919 put PID Historical Section, both Headlam the the to and and although an end Adviser Historical historians in to and able was assist acquiring stayed on as Office documents, Foreign it to was not until the election privileged access Government in 1924 decision Labour that the was taken to proceed of a Britain's diplomatic the pre-war publication of records. with I would stress that if the officials had had their way, the work on this have Eyre Crowe, Permanent much earlier. started then would project idea devoted Under-Secretary, to the was of educating the public about foreign affairs in general and British foreign policy in particular. As early as 1908 he had gone so far as to propose that some historians should be given Office Foreign to correspondence and recommended privileged access the Section Historical Research Department in the of an or establishment Office to undertake such projects. `We have', he wrote, `nothing to lose as a by deal to the widest possible publicity being given gain nation and a good foreign And diplomats transactions countries'. with to our other and officials were only too anxious to ensure that the public should have a full had happened before 1914. They believed of what understanding genuinely had hide. What to tended to delay publication they nothing that was the Treasury finance the In to Britain the of project. reluctance public to triumph over patriotic enlightenment. seemed parsimony But during the early 1920s the British Government also found it increasingly difficult to ignore German reactions to the Treaty of Versailles. The so-






guilt' article of the treaty, meant that called in for German historians particular, much of the would general, and historical how decade focus their attention following the not on question of did the war originate, but on the legal and mural question of Who caused it diplomacy The both blame? to result a which was was which power was international in history be'came the writing of' which open and retrospective, international intertwined problems. with current closely Office Foreign The German was to play a became masters in diplomats debate. German A war historiography'. has called `pre-emptive in Wilhelmstrasse the with was established

in initiating

this major role the art of' what one historian `Kýi as.ýclauldreferut' guilt section the object of sponsoring the

documents of that Germany

material and other specifically aimed at be held fror the war and could not responsible But the claims of the victorious the collection thereby undermining allies. of for which the Wilhelmstrasse documents is be Die remembered will always Grosse Politik der Europdischen Kabinette, a series of 54 volumes published between 1922 and 1927 and covering the period 1871-1914. These volumes intended instruct to not enlighten were or --- they were meant to persuade. They were, quite simply, part of the German campaign to seek a revision of publication demonstrating

the peace


Foreign Office in London was, among the allies, particularly concerned impact large Grosse Politik historians the the about of and the public at on in North America. by At the they the time especially same were worried in doubt had been cast upon the validity of the Foreign Office's way which Blue Book of 1914. This prompted British the publication the of series of


between 1926 1938 eleven volumes which appeared and under the title British Documents on the Origins of the War. FO officials were determined that British impartial have be be the to series would and editors who would seen in this they were probably GP Gooch, in the services of successful obtaining Office, Harold Temperley, historian a pre-war the critic of of and a distinctly leftist leanings. The series they edited both intended to was It responded to desires both to combat the German persuade and enlighten. interpretation desire long-standing the the of and past and of officials historians in to be able to educate the British the principles public and British diplomacy. traditions of

However, the decision of the Foreign Office that other friendly governments before have be the publication to would consulted of communications originating with them created considerable problems for the editors. These, it has to be said, stemmed primarily from the attitude of the government of France. French politicians and some diplomats were reluctant to admit that




debate the all, the war. of origins on a there could even the and Germany's then reparations so also were war guilt was questionable delayed d'Orsay Quai from Protests Rhineland. the French presence in the Documents British the first the provoked and volume of of the the publication first be threats of' their into to of several was what making editors begin Foreign Ministry French did to Only appreciate the slowly resignation. France by be halted debate historical assuming a purely could not that an be



immense had Germans feeling an The the nonetheless, won, that in British inter-war in the circles persisted official years victory propaganda influence have the publishing of upon to considerable a this was and December World War In into documents the post-Second diplomatic period. Woodward, Llewellyn historian, British that the reflected 1939 the in its in had, Wilhelmstrasse presenting case to the world, acting so quickly in American influence done much to opinion to a sense unfavourable happening Woodward, it And this that Britain. to again who prevent was began for being to the anti-German, markedly press early of signs showed Anglo-German documents in 1930s. the on relations of a set of publication from to this There project especially politicians who was some resistance British documents Munich feared what the effect of publishing to relating Americans But be. the the themselves prospect of their publishing would inter-war in Relations of the United documents their series, Forei the years on States, encouraged to take a more sympathetic ministers towards attitude in decision 1944 Woodward's the and plea was taken to publish another documents British Documents British Foreign Policy of on series --- to cover inter-war This, in the years. some ways, was another example of prehistoriography in far it emptive as so sought to establish the British case.

By the time consideration was being given to the continuation DBFP in of a by-pass to the war and begin in 1945, the publication series, which was new diplomatic documents developed had of extensively. Most Western countries had begun their own series and although it would be going too far to suggest documents there was any rivalry over the publication there was of an element of upholding national prestige, plus the desire to undoubtedly history British from British written sources, which weighed with the see decision in British government taking the the 1970s to begin the when Documents British Overseas. Policy on present series I will conclude by briefly setting DBPO in the context with which I opened: for diplomatic documents. I think the principal the rationale publishing d'etre for Branch Historical is the that of providing a service work of raison to the academic community and thereby ensuring that the widest possible


D13PO we are seeking to "Through is given to our records. distribution better historians to achieve a understanding of the provide with the means In foreign British in policy. a sense are engaged making and conduct of in the process of enlightenment. process -- we are assisting an educational I in But we are also still engaged in persuasion the not, would argue, he in I try to as objective as possible my selection of sense of propaganda. documents I am not driven by any patriotic I in motive, am not editing decisions Governments. DBPO engaged in deknding British the past of Yet, I, like the Office, want to ensure that the story of' British foreign policy is told in the main from our documents and not from those of other nations. In 1887 the Cambridge Oscar Browning historian, to urged the government f端nd the editing of' British diplomatic documents of' the revolutionary and Napoleonic If' between history and politics there were any connection eras, then, he reasoned, it was vital for the British public to be infOrmed of the basis upon which governments had acted in the past. As matters stood, he `We

but we claimed, not only neglect to place our case before Europe, it foreigners'. by That argument is as valid today as it was to allow stated documents depends on then. In the end the value one places on publishing the value one places on history itself. It depends upon the function of' the historian in society.





finding is to to The main aim of this paper records on provide a short guide focus he The foreign British and main published on will policy. post-war filing in Foreign FCO records the the system operating and unpublished War with some reference to the records of Office after the Second World input foreign into departments policy. with an the other government


is a Foreign



definition. This is takes `Operational of preservation' a useful worthy formal from despatches, forms different notes, aide memoires, many informal to records of meetings more minuting and submissions, telegrams, These in the are or correspondence. papers either created even personal for the purpose of conducting departments by daily business their received Office Foreign in formulation the the the of case means and which foreign policy. execution of data

71 departments Papers are kept in each of the FCO's as current records 3 by before transfer - normally after years - to the main archives managed Records Department. Here Library they are sorted, collated, listed and and looked 30 they after until are years old when they are released to generally Office Kew, Record Public for at the raw material where they provide the international history. in Every FCO 550 the transfers year some researchers Office records for this century feet of records. Altogether the Foreign alone 12 to miles. add up

Documents Published One of the shortcuts to finding the records relevant to your research is to buy or borrow a published volume of documents in one of the official series British foreign from documents OfTcc. Foreign the policy emanating on of The volumes that scholars working on the post-war period will find most in Documents British Policy the those current series published on useful are Overseas (DPBO). In this series documents are selected as objectively as facts happened the to of what or story present rather than to show possible * Abridged edition of a paper presented at the Department of Historical and International Studies, De Montfort University Leicester, February 1994. British Documents on the Origins of the First World 1 G. P. Gooch and Harold Temperley, War (1 1 volumes covering the years 1898-1914) and Documents on British Foreign Policy (64 1919-1939). the years volumes covering


light, whether good or bad. These kinds of' British policy in any particular i. e. whether the Foreign Ollice got it right or wrong, are for interpretations, job is Editor's in decide. The form to to present simply user-friendly scholars issue how it this the main elements of' what policy was on any given was it happened into hat formulated by when and whom and ,, Was put practice. In this way the volumes provide a mirror image (A' the p()Iicy-inaking process is important in determining the the significance of which understanding of' -I he later. paper, about which shall any particular saying more documents however comprehensive volumes of' are not of -for into do, I however, the course a substitute original research archives. first do them they recommend a as port of' call, since matching as subjects to file references they provide an easy way into the record labyrinth. specific This is I hope especially true of'the present series, since chile we may paint fewer documents do than the generous selections of' our predecessors, we far in footnotes give more references notes to material and editorial in PRO but the available not necessarily covered in the actual volume. Published

We collect up to 50,000 documents for any one volume of' which less than 2,000 may feature in the end product. We like to pass on the benefit of' this file by including trawl the kind of 'v'rite to researchers very wide oil' footnote which you see at the bottom of the extract from the DBP() volume Korean War (I)oci. ument No. 29) reproduced 37-38. the on on pp. As this example illustrates, we documents, i. three-tier system of e. operate a documents iotnotes in f端ll, extracts of documents in f printed and quoted in is calendared documents the volume whereby a short summary printed full from the original the text reproduced with set of on an accompanying The latter is a new feature, which was devised to help meet microfiches. the problem of the greatly increased modern archive. Whereas


faced Temperley and were with an archive which ranged from documents 50,000 in 1913, the number in 1898 to 68,000 of documents during in Office the period covered by the Editors the received inter-war fluctuations, from 185,000 in 1919 of'the series ranged, with some to 270,000 in 1939. The Editors of'DBPO now work with an archive ten times the size of that facing Gooch and 'l'emperley documents for our period, which peaked at 630,000 This

half a million - well over documents in 1950.

is not the only way our work has changed. Since 1990 the series is desktop Apple Mac produced on an publishing system. Documents are keyed-in is sent to our on-screen and annotated and the finished product Stationery Office, Her Majesty's publisher, on disk.


Korea IV: Vol. II, Series Extract from DBPO,

1950-51 (London


No. 29 Sir G. jebb (New Tork) to Mr. Bevin (Received28 July, 4.37 a.m.) No. 752 Telegraphic [UP 213 /92] ,

Immediate. Confidential

July NEW Yoiuc, 27 1950,6.57 p. m.

Repeated to Moscow and Saving to Paris, Washington.

As already reported by telephone to the Resident Clerk, Malik Head of Secretary General has Soviet delegation, the to call a meeting of asked the Malik ' let August he Council Security that the ist. said would on the Secretary General have the agenda later. line indication Soviet delegation is There the the of which at present no 2. The it is issued this agenda when take meeting. may give some at will indication. General feels it desirable Secretary this that that at move makes most 3. for Council i{orea. 2 the pass a should resolution on relief tomorrow's meeting Plan he has in mind is the one summarised in my telegram 746.3 United States delegation are still without instructions on this but hope to receive ' for in tomorrow's time meeting. them Please repeat Moscow as my telegram 24 and Saving Paris 36. 1 On

i August

the rotating


Security the of



to the



2 Following informal U. N. discussions on the means of providing relief for Korea in Geneva by ECOSOC on 20 July and in New York on 22 July, Sir G. Jebb reported on 26 July that the U. S. delegation intended to raise the question in the Security Council on 28 July since `(a) the danger (1 Council the are takes of urgent the epidemics and and unless problem of refugees Geneva hand' (New York developments No. may get elsewhere telegram and out of at control i). further US calendar 171113; see 742 on 3 Sec i. calendar 4 On 28 July Sir G. Jebb was informed that the instructions sent in response to his telegram No. 746 (calendar i), which warned against taking any quick decisions, still stood. `Indeed insufficiently Russians by Council Security the of considered makes adoption project of return less rather than more desirable' (F. O. telegram No. 868 to New York on UP 213/92). This Lie in informal discussion by Mr. French, the shared of not procedure was with view U. S. and U. K. delegations on 2g July. The Secretary-General Norwegian, `was sure Malik North Koreans the that the since resolution and now controlled nearly go% of would veto' Korea, they might claim to be the only effective government of Korea for peace and Council It for `essential initiative' therefore the (New York was to the seize reconstruction. i). After U. No. S. delegation circulated a draft this the 765, see calendar meeting telegram in F. R. U. S i95o, vol. vii, pp. 496-7) asking the Unified Command (printed resolution under General MacArthur, to whom all offers of relief should be passed, to take responsibility for invoking determining requirements and procedures the assistance of ECOSOC relief under by Norway, France and the Article 65 of the U. N. Charter. This resolution, co-sponsored United Kingdom, was passed by 9 votes to o with i abstention (Yugoslavia) on 31 July and further discussion resumed in ECOSOC on 2 August, for which see F. O. 371188729-35, and F. O. 369/4311-2,4571 for Red Cross activities.




20-29 Juy July bring




Relief for Korea. Discussions


in Geneva




on 20-22 for relief

O. F. July U. finds N. has that on 23 warning no existing difficult find U. K. it to make substantial to any special contribution and would financed by fund which from be governments might voluntary contributions O. F. No. 352, N. Y. telegrams Nos. 28,3 Saving, 740,742 (Geneva telegram and from

to N. Y. No.


829). Serious in Korea

of only I month Security Council


of i million refugees with rice stocks for action in No. 18. U. S. proposals telegram detailed of emergency relief and medical aid

reported include programme in N. Y. telegram No. 746 and to be administered F. O. in favour of associating U. N. with relief work, be




areas and


for relief


the war


by Colonel


in Korea.

but since relief operations will General be to must acceptable F. O. hope U. S. resolution will not


and organisation jurisdiction. his under

be difficult

to refuse but 'embarrassing' contributions which would Practical difficulties to undertake. of administering of transport, relief (shortage Red Cross O. F. July in letter congestion of ports) mentioned of 27 along with proposals for aid. On 2g July (N. Y. tel. 765) Mr. Gross admits relief programme U. S. be by 'large dollars in will scale', excess of the 150 million a year spent 170; FK

to reconstruct






Io, 24,


Foreign Series of Diplomatic Documents 'I'll(- British are, of course, not the only ones to l)uhlish diplomatic documents. Since 19139 Editors of l)iplomatic from several I)ocuments in have discuss countries editorial practice, advances met every two years to in keep Between they touch via a technology publishing etc. meetings Newsletter edited by the r'GO's Historians. Some of the main series for the post-war period currently are the publishing State Department's has now Foreign Relations of the United States, which follows The 1960s the thematic ten volumes approach. reached the and also Policy Foreign date have Documents Australian been to on a published of on but basis, by 1947 their the chronological year with next volume on year Australians The French Documents to subject volumes. are also switching Documents on Canadian External Diplomatiques hrancais and the Canadian The French Relations are published chronologically. post-war series started 1954 has 1958, the and now the of' year reached with coverage year whereas



for the period



due be to are published


the years Diplomatic"

1952 and 1953 Italiani) and the

covering volumes with years over Italians (I Documenti Both the already available. Swiss (Documents Diplomatiques Suisses) have recently launched series, post-war Ministry. The first Akten Foreign German three has zur of volumes the as Deutschland Bundesrepublik der Politik: the events of' the year Ausw채rtigen covering the next

1963 went


in January on sale









Another into I would now like to look at unpublished records. quick way Confidential Print. These of are convenient the archives are the collections by those geographical grouped area, which papers, were of collections Office distribution. Such to time the merit wide papers, at considered be despatches, of meetings or annual records reviews would usually department for print by the originating Under-Secretary or commissioned departments File to and overseas all posts. references are and circulated Whenever I begin I the number. print a volume, always usually given with look be to these through to the main collections see which start with a read Collections Confidential Print files to follow up on any particular subject. of Subject by PRO Guide identified FCO be to the the to reference at can Search Room. in is There Numerical the the also a open shelves classes on Subject The Guide Guide, which gives details of the period covered. will Embassy, in direction Private Office, Control the of you also point 1000 Commission the other or so classes which and all of make up the Office archive at the PRO. A useful publication Foreign to consult at this Guide Readers' No. 7 PRO is Foreign to the the the records of stage Office and State Paper Office 1500 - c. 1960.2

is FO 371 there class the which single most contains departments from 1906 (divided the political of correspondence Department, Northern Hence Eastern Department, geographically). departments All Southern Department etc. and the countries they cover designation departmental file have a code or - some obvious such as N for Northern followed by S for Soviet Union so that NS was the file code for in Union 1940's 1950's, less Soviet For the and others the so. example, j Unfortunately for African Department. like all organisations the stands FCO is always changing its structure and names of departments -- even itself changes -Eastern Department, that so originally geography for Near Eastern countries like Persia, is now the name responsible given to dealing Russia department with and the states of the former Soviet the Union. Although this may seem all very confusing there are some simple finding aids to guide you through, i. e. the Index, Shelf List and FO Lists.



2 Louise Atherton, `.Never Complain, never Explain'. Records of the Foreign Office and the State (PRO 1960, Publications, London 1994) 1500-c. Office Paper


Extract from 1950 PRO Shelf List l ยบ,' FO 3i1 I"11('s NATIONS















Description Fib

aurgio act to be e&






Assembly Britain Sir




is seized it of which itself of an item















Council on items "unseize"

procedure it can whether






















of Site


















(pp 25-45) 88504



(pp 46-76) 88505


Ditto (pp























speech 88507



Security and the






London atomic







to consider energy


Behind-the-scenes Security
















appeal Council












2112 20 to





UN Security





(pp 88514











219 (pp




43-103) 2113





















Index The






the period correspondence is invaluable PRO, FO 371 finding the to an at aid In by departmental the addition, subject. relevant arranged papers So for a given year are listed at the front of each volume. designations it is from back to the to example, possible our earlier establish turning in heading Document No. 29 the that the of reference square-bracketed Representative Permanent UK's UN, Sir from the to the telegram Nations (Political) Jebb, to Ernest Bevin was filed under United Gladwyn listed (213/92) departmental The Department. the numbers after Foreign Office file (UP) provide designation to the relevant the reference PRO be To do have the to to corresponding converted reference. and now Shelf Lists PRO, both is it the to the at consult necessary which give this marvellous 1920-513 available

sets of references.

Shelf Lists UP is follows: 213/92, Turn the conversion to the as example our Shelf for List 1950 PRO FO 371 files headed from `United the extract first The half 40. Nations - Political' on page tells of the reference number for is file looking 213. The half the that on you are piece second gives you looking for, i. 92. the paper the of you are specific number e. number you Having located these numbers in the right hand column move across to the left hand column for the PRO reference under which you can then order up it in In Sir Gladwyn Jebb's transpires that case our question. the piece found file FO 371/88505. be on telegram can For

dust to complicate matters, I should point out that prior to 1950 a slightly in different system of numbering the FO in that file and paper operated in inverted. This 1950 changed was with the exception of numbers were Refugees German Department from Department, and papers which continued to operate under the old system of numbering. to the shelf lists which, may prefer to go straight researchers as you departments' for file files. list But do titles back all see, to the refer can Since this is an index to individual index at some stage in your research. looking for often exactly pin-point can what you you are papers without in having to know in advance which Foreign Office department lead the was issue. Whereas for the in our reference the telegram on a particular find it in the Index, i. e. shows where you up would above to expect example Security UN Council, heading file Attlee's the the on to under visit in 1950 was not filed with the papers Washington American Department of Some

3 Index to the Correspondence of the Foreign Office 1920-51 (published Nendeln/Liechtenstein 1969!).


by Kraus-Thomson,

index Instead, (under been have the the repeals as as might expected. R. Attlee, NIP), it was filed in Far Eastern Department heading Clement first it is This file F1027. may seem at as sight, when not as surprising on December (4-8th) the that as a result of' visit was arranged one considers 30 November President Truman's the possible use of remarks on concerning } War. in Korean bomb the the atomic FO Lists 'Ite I; oreign Oflicc I. ists dating hack 1852 to - an annual publication - are a FO 'I'hry list tool useful reference when working papers. not only all on Foreign Office departments for but and overseas posts a given year, also the in indispensable it them officials working and as such are when come', to identifying initials by the owners the so often of which sign officials Furthermore, themselves the main areas of' responsibility off'. of each department lead trying the to are listed, which is helpful when establish department back the on a given issue. 'l'hc biographical notes at of' each FO List are helpful in trying to trace where an official has served in the course of' his or her career. Apart from FO 371 other main Embassy and Consular Private Office/Private Papers Colonial Control Office for Germany -

FO classes include:


Consular files and are weeded heavily at post before return to the in because London duplicate in FO 371. they main archive the holdings They therefore tend to be pretty patchy and erratic, in the post-war period at any rate, and are often not worth bothering about unduly. Similarly,

I am often disappointed with the Private Papers of Ministers or 800, in FO does he for there officials, classed since tend the to not much he found in FO 371. They do, however, post-war period cannot which bird's provide a good eye view of the main issues in any particular period and as such are very useful for those who do not have the time to comb The Lloyd (FO through the archives. exhaustively papers of Selwyn 800/691-746; Secretary State from 1955 for instance, 1960) of' are, -july fruitful less Secretary of than those of Ernest Bevin (FO 800/434-522; much State from 1945-51). The National Register of Archives lists and indexes

4 See DBPO, Series II, Vol. IV: Korea

1950-51 (London

90. 42

1991) Document

Nos. 81-2 and 87-

held outside official collections of private papers their availability. -`'

details of' archives and gives

I have Colonial files, because turn to they to to tends sink when FO files. Nonetheless, hunt less than through a well-ordered much so are find dividends here since you may papers open which these papers can pay 371. In FO in the past, researchers working with these records closed are finding in by hampered the there aids of particular scarcity was no were Commonwealth Studies in London is However, index. the Institute of in PRO, the to these with association a guide producing, currently Series C (Sources for Colonial 61t is appearing in Studies in the records. I PRO) of the British Documents on the End of Empire project, whose volumes lead-in files. Series A to these to comprises you as a good commend Series B individual A General Volumes7 and covers countries. volume on further been published has already Sri Ghana Lanka, and volumes on Egypt and the Sudan are in the pipeline. Malaya,



Germany British from the occupation of after the war originating on Germany Office for form Control now part of the FCO archive. the old 40 These papers said to weigh 240 tons the equivalent of elephants few PRO bloc The ' the in to transferred a en years ago. publication were Historical Institute in London, 1993, by the German of an eleven volume done has inventory these to to make this material records much more 8 Each of the c. 29,000 files has been described in detail accessible. and the be PRO is each number under which one can the ordered reference at Papers



of other



As far as non-FCO papers go, the most important other archive to turn to for foreign policy coverage is that of the Cabinet Office, to be found at the PRO in a series of CAB classes. Apart from the actual minutes of Cabinet CAB (in 128) CAB (in 129) kept memoranda and conveniently meetings together



on the open


the two

classes to keep a

5 See also the publications in the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts' Guides series History for British (e.g. No. 4: Private papers of British diplomats 1782-1900, Sources to HMSO 1985). 6 Anne Thurston (ed.), Recordsof the Colonial Office, Dominions Office, CommonwealthRelations Office and CommonwealthOffice (HMSO forthcoming). 7 Already published: Vol. II Ronald Hyman (ed.), The Labour Government and the End of Empire 1945-51 (London 1992) and Vol. III David Goldsworthy (ed.), The Conservative End Empire 1951-57, (London 1994). Government the of and 8 Control Commission for Germany British Element. Inventory 1945-55 (edited by Adolf Providence/London/Paris Hans Booms & Otto Merker, Munich/New 1993).


M Birke,

371, FO F( O's ; CAB 21, to the and which corresponds weather eve on are CAB 134 in which all the Cabinet (; ommittec s ; so much a feature of postwar











( )fllcc


The fOr identifying the many of e c) minittees. in PREI 011-we lass Minister's Prime : the class are papers of the They Ollicc he Cabinet tend to than papers. somewhat comprehensive T1w it's hulls-eve. \lilitarv hit do but generally, a get a patchy, when von line but life their acronyms and with (& numbers, complicated always make for Miefs (: Staff `101) files are worth especially with persevering OI' but The 'T'reasury finding be files aids re'aarrĂźn paper,. are poor on can . from


Assessing Having

is invaluable

the Archive


the wheat determining

\V110 wrote -

the from the






chaff'! coFthe


it making sense of and sorting Furei Ofiic"e the case cif' rn material is more than half the battle: to


the haper'

\A'hat was his or her hcositicýn? -


saw the paper

Did it influence

level. ' at wvhat

the action


t here are the sorts of' questions to ask and those that I weigh when selecting documents for the published In the case of' minutes or volumes. fastest Cor 1()()k the this thought-process memoranda w a\- to short-circuit to is blue thick thce blue. Anything paper, usually means this was a paper can Under-Secretary level Written by a Head of' to going up and above. Department Assistant, it department represents the views/advice or the ()f' basis internal by the (on N\hire paper) initiated reached on of' minuting the most junior member cof' staff. Another tip is to look fi.)r am-thing written in reel pen, since to this day the Foreign Secretary is the in the only person Office to use red ink. Piecing





is like

detective a

why unravellint; the archives contain the clues, but they do not of course necessarily story hold all the answers. 't'hese may he lcuc"kced in the pcrsc)nal memory away cif' key l)lav('rs in who alone might know what or who tij)1)eCl the balance deciding a closely argued Issue. Of ten deals are struck not in the recorded been 't'hat having minutes c>f' a meeting 1>u( in the corridors said, outside. (lie richness c>f' the l'coreign Office archive is such that it is possible to gret pretty ('lese happened.

tc> a fair

of' the ways





of what





ON THE ORIGINS 1898-1914


between Dr. Seton-Watson Rt. Hon. Correspondence the and in The Chamberlain Times, November 1924 published



documents bearing European A collection the on of official situation out of Foreign by Office. issued is be These documents the to which the war arose HWV Mr Temperky. decision GP Gooch This Mr by be and edited will Setonin a letter from Mr Austen Chamberlain is contained to Dr RW Secretary State for Foreign Watson, who had called the attention the of of Affairs to the harm that neglect to publish official papers connected with the Chamberlain doing Mr in the abroad. us that of was war also says origin future the records of the Foreign Office down to 1878 will be available. At This down 1860 to the are available. arrangement records will present only Dominions force into has been the the of consent as soon as obtained. come letter and Mr Chamberlain's is The text of Dr Seton-Watson's reply as follows:





May I be allowed to draw your personal attention to a matter on which both Sir Sidney Lee and myself have recently written to The Times and interest? I hope I have for to your special may appeal which some time historical been work closely connected with the engaged upon past find myself almost at every turn confronted by origins of the war, and While fundamental difficulty. documentary a great mass of one evidence has been made available by the German and Austrian Governments, from illustrating Central the standpoint the course of events the of Powers, and while the Russian Bolshevists have also published material in knowledge directions, historians have no our various supplementing first-hand British the material on authentic side and are in consequence handicapped deal they to come when gravely with the charges and insinuations directed against British policy in the period preceding the war. Continental important the more of publications on recent history forces one to the conclusion that slowly but steadily injury is being done by serious the continued very silence of the British I Government; therefore and it would to ask you whether venture not A study diplomatic


to to students a accc-fessihle up to archives make our possible is date later to than or alternatively at pr('sent allowed, considerably lines documents the to similar on of' collection official publish and Govrrnment. German issued by being the series now monumental Such a policy \,ww()uld, I venture to think, be v,-eleOmed not mercly hV he

by who at very' vv-ide circles of' public opinion studcents, believe keenly fiel that the responsibility and question of war on present by fuller light being British thrº º« n the reputation policy can only gain of be it it. Moreover, an extension of the precedent only would upon by Lord Grey in hcnefirial he results 1y14, "'B(en established with such far fuller franker documents than any and of made public a collection With kind. that notable exception, the of nothing previous publications during by British have been the the present centur), published seems to European Government their policy. on for Hoping the that the importance subject will serve as excuse of' m}v in troubling this matter. you but


I beg to remain





Dear The






SW I, Nov



in drew Sir Sidney Lee published attention which you and full for historians to the difliculties the and created anxious to present a fair account the of recent events by the traditional rules governing by immediately publication of our national records attention attracted I found on making inquiry; that Mr and commanded my sympathy. Ramsay MacDonald had already liven instructions in substance, which, in your letter of November 25, and that meet the suggestions contained it only remained for me to confirm them. The records of the Foreign Office have hitherto been open at the Public Record Office to historical researchers to the end of the year [860; that he hole 1878, I to the the period will now of extended end year and Departments he that the records of' other Government will opened to into farce the same data. 'Ehe new arrangement will come as soon as Dominions has been secured. Most of' the consent of the self-governing these have already assented. As regards documents hearing the the publication of' official on the European out cif' which the war arose, a collection situation general of'


for Foreign he Office by GP Gooch Mr documents the edited will these I hope, be Temperley, in V `V H begin Mr to will, who a position and date. The reputation of the editors offers serious work at a very early the



of the





of their

work. feel Let me add that if at any time you or equally competent authorities do for historical I more study, shall welcome that we can properly any desired, if I he discuss that to may make, and, shall you glad suggestions deputation. with any representative the whole question personally

Yours very truly AUSTEN








Eden, by the Rt. Hon. Anthony Announcement Parliamentary March 1944 Parl. Debs. H. C. 5th ser. vol. 398,29

2 and 4. Mr Ellis Smith asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1) if he will issue a White Paper dealing with the consultations and between three years prior to the war and took that place negotiations he has (2) took any statement to make regarding part; whether stating who the publication of documents relating to British foreign policy in the years to before the outbreak of the present war. Government His Majesty's Eden: Mr in the United Kingdom have documents decided in the Foreign Office to publish the most important British foreign between 1919 and 1939. The to relating policy archives in be documents published a series of volumes which will be issued one will by one as and when they are ready. The volumes form will a continuous but in series, order to make available chronological as soon as possible dealing with events most relevant to the outbreak documents of the present for is it proposed, to divide the work into two purposes of publication, war, first begin the to part parts; with the year 1919, and the second part to begin with the year 1930. The preparation of each part will he undertaken simultaneously.

Smith: Mr That is very good as far as it goes but will the right hon. Gentleman have another look at my second Question? He find that will I is he issuing White Paper in am getting at what whether consider will a know that order people may who were engaged in the loan negotiations that took place. Mr



is a specific question. What I am dealing here is with full information. I do not know whether it the be giving country would wise draw White Paper. to of proper on up particular



DOCUMENTS Parliarncntary





Announcement by thc R t. Hon. Sir Alec Douglas-Hoinc, Parl. lkbs. H. C. 5th sfr. vol. 851L, 2 July 1Âś)73 ,




Comm f fier State St Mr Gurden oreign and crctarv of' asked the Aflairs whether he has any proposals for the puhlic atiun of' a further documents relating to overseas pcdic"y. official Sir






have for


)nw c'ailtli seric; OI'




the practice adopted of' the post-war period extend The foreign British documents new collection policy. of' the on publishing Foreign in documents important the the of and archives most initially British Office (: ommonwealth to policy overseas will relating in foreign 19'f5-195t) the to periods two policy and series comprise (-()\, (-r both be The 1950-1955, of' series preparation will undertaken respectively. So keep the work within to manageable simultaneously. as proportions, at include Foreign Office the start the new series Nvill normally only documents documents, but, where appropriate, from the archives of the Commonwealth Relations Office Colonial included. The he and will also Commonwealth Foreign by Office India the publication and existing of' it Office documents leading transfer the to power on and events of tip in (1942-1947) in the the will continue accordance with statement made House on 3Oth June 1967. The

British Foreign Policy title of the new series will be `1)ocuments on 1919-1939' have freedom in the selection the the customary and editors will documents. For the post-war period, however, the great and arrangement of' increase in the hulk of' the archives presents To meet a special problem. in this, it is intended that in some cases the documents the printed be followed by collection shall related printed calendars briefly summarising for documents. NIicro-copies documents he of'these calendared available will in

cases where it is necessary on security exceptional he document, to restrict the availability grounds as will of a particular indicated in the text of the calendars. 'I'hre provision of calendars and microin it deal inherent the copies should make easier to with the problem greater making volume records at the same time, while, of' post-war documents. available to scholars more, and hitherto unpublished purchase,





historical my


o& the new series.


has agreed

to hei the senior








1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Peace Handbooks British Documents On The Origins Of The War 1898-1914 Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939 Documents on British Policy Overseas 1945-1955 Occasional Papers

6. 7.

Notes History Bibliographies





Diplomatic of



Prepared under the direction of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office from the spring of 1917 onwards, these volumes were commissioned to Delegates information British likely on with subjects to arise at tim provide Peace Conference at Paris. In 1919 it was decided to make the information for public use. available (A) Europe

Austria-Hungary(1) (1919). II

Austria-Hungary (2) (1919).


The Balkan States(1) (1918). The Balkan States(2) (1918).


Holland, Belgium, and Luxembourg (1919).


France,Italy, Spain (1919). Germany(1919). Poland and Finland (1919).


The Russian Empire (1920).

(B) Asia X XI XII

Mohammedism:Turkey in Asia (1) (1919). Turkey in Asia (2) (1919). China, Japan, Siam (1919).


Persia: French and PortuguesePossessions(1919). Dutch and British Possessions(1919).

* All published


unless otherwise



(C) Africa


Partition of Africa: British Possessions (1) (;1919). British Possessions (2): The Congo (1919).


French Possessions(1919). German Possessions(1919). PortuguesePossessions(1919). Spanish and Italian Possessions:IndependentStates (1919).

(D) America: XXI XXII

Pacific and

Aortli, Central and South America; Atlantic Islands (191 R). Pacific Islands (1919).




International :1fairs (1919). Congresses: German Opinion (1918). Indemnities, Plebiscites, &c. (1918). Maritime International Law (1919).

(F) Volumes of Maps 1. 2. 3.

(10 maps). Austria-Hungary The Balkan Peninsula (8 maps). Poland (8 maps).


Ethnography of Central and South-eastern Europe and Western Asia (6 maps).


British DocumentsOn The Origins Qf The War 1898-1914

The decision to publish a collection of British documents bearing on the European situation out of'which the First World War arose was announced by the Prime Minister and Secretary of' State for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Ramsay MacDonald, in the summer of 1924. Edited by GP I II III IL'

Gooch and Harold'I'empcrlcy

"1he End Of British Isolation (1927). The Anglo, JapaneseAlliance and the Franco-British Entente (1927). 'Ihe '1e.sting of th,e Entente 1904-(i (1928). The Anglo-Ravsian Rapprochement1903-7 (1929).




The Near East. the Macedonian problem and the annexation of Bosnia 1903-9 (1928). (1930). 1907-12 Tension: Anglo-German armaments and negotiation, The Agadir Crisis (1932). Arbitration, Neutrality and Security (1932). The Balkan Wars: Part ]: The Prelude; The Tripoli War (1933). The Balkan Wars: Part IT The League and Turkey (1934). Part I: The Near and Middle East on the Eve of War (1936). Part II. - The Last Years of Peace(1938). The Outbreak of War (1926).

Documents on British Foreign Policy 1919-1939

1944 the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Anthony On 29 March Government's Commons His Majesty's House Eden, informed the of of important documents British intention the to publish a collection most of 1939. between 1919 foreign and policy on

Bury, Professor Editors: Professor EL Woodward, Dr R Butler, Mr JPT Lambert (Mrs ME Professor D Dakin and Miss ME Medlicott, WN Pelly). First Series 1919-1925 I II



Proceedingsof the SupremeCouncil July-October 1919 (1947). Proceedingsof the Supreme Council October 1919 January 1920. Meetings in London and Paris of Allied Ministers December 1919 January 1920 (1948). Withdrawal of German forces from the Baltic Provinces July-December 1919. Policy of H. M. G. with regard to Russia, May 1919-March 1920. Eastern Galicia, June-December 1919 (1949).

Adriatic and the Near East 1919-February 1920 (1952).


Western Europe, June 1919 January 1920 and Viscount Grey's mission to Washington, August-December 1919 (1954). Central Europe, June 1919 January 1920 and H. M. G's Relations with Japan, June 1919-April 1920 (1956). First Conferenceof London, February-April 1920 (HMSO, 1958). Conversationsand Conferences,1920 (1958).


GermanAffairs, 1920 (1960).


GermanAffairs and Plebiscites,1920 (1960).


Plebiscite in Upper Silesia, January 1920-March 1921, and Poland, Danzig and the Baltic States,January 1920-March 1921 (1960).






(. 'vntrn/

[; drohe and the Balkan

State. .


7 ran iý <<ýýr ý: ýýu

(1962). 1921 Russia, February 1920-March and Near East, February 1920-March 1921 (1963). Far Eastern affairs 1920-22 (1966). International Conferencesand Conversations 1921 (1967). Upper Silesia 1921-2 and Germany 1921 (1968). Greeceand Turkey 1921-22 (1970). Greeceand Turkey 1922-23 (1972). Vie Conferencesof Cannes, Genoa and the Hague 1922 (1974). German Reparations and Allied Military Control 1922 and Russia Alarch 1921-December 1922 (1976). German Reparations and Alilitay Control 1923 (1978). Central Europe and the Balkans 1921 and Albania 1921-2 (1980). Poland and the Balkan states 1921-23 (1981). Anglo-Italian Conversations 1922 and Central Europe and the Balkans 1922-23 (1983).

xxv xxv'

Russia 1923-25 and the Baltic States1924-25 (1984).


Germany 1925 and the Locarno Treaty (1986).

Central Europe and the Balkans; German Reparation and Allied ý1Iilitary Control, 1924 (1985).

Series 1a 1925-1930 I II III IV V VI VII

The Aftermath of Locarno 1925-26 (1966). The Termination of Military Control in Germany and Middle East and American Questions 1926-27 (1968). European and Naval Questions1922 (1970). European and Security Questions 1927-28 (1971). European and Security Questions1928 (1973). The Young Report and the Plague Conference:Security Questions 1928-29 (1975). German, Austrian and Middle East Questions 1929-30 (1975).

Second Series 1929-1938


LondonNaval Conference European (1946). 1929-31 and affairs

Austrian and German affairs and the world monetary crisis 1931 (1947). Reparations and disarmament 1931-32 (1948). The disarmament conferenceand the internal situation in Germany 193233(1950). European affairs and war debts March-October 1933 (1956). European affairs and war debts October 1933-August 1934 (1957). Anglo-Soviet relations 1929-34 (1958).



in Manchuria (1960). 1929-31 Japanese Chinese cffairs and action (1965). 1931-32 Eastern Far The crisis (1969). 1932 March-October Eastern Far affairs (1970). 1933 October 1932June Eastern Far affairs (1972). 1935 August 1934-April European affairs

1936 (1973). Naval policy and defence requirements July 1934-March dispute March 1934-October 19.75 (1976). The Italo-Ethiopian


October 1935-February 1936 German The Italo-Ethiopian war and affairs (1976). (1977). July March 1936 Rhineland The crisis and the ending of sanctions Western Pact Negotiations: Outbreak of Spanish Civil War, June 1936January 1937 (1979). European Affairs, JanuaryJune 1937 (1980). European Affairs, July 1937-August 1938 (1982).


Far Eastern Affairs, May 1933-November 1936 (1984). Far Eastern Affairs, November 1936- July 1938 (1984).


Third I II III







Series 1938-1939 The German invasion of Austria and the first phase of the Czechoslovak March July 1938 (1949). crisis, The Development of the Czechoslovak crisis from the Runciman Mission to the Munich Conference,July-September 1938 (1949). Polish and Hungarian claims on Czechoslovak territory; the enforcement by Germany of the Munich Agreement; Anglo-Italian Relations: September 19,38January 1939 (1950). Hopes of general European appeasementabandoned; attempts are made to form a 'common front' against further German aggression, January-April 19.39 (1951). Increasing German threats to Poland and British efforts to create a common front against further German and Italian aggression, April June 1939 (1952). An important phase in Anglo-Franco-Soviet negotiations; Anglo- Turkish Poland, German June-August 3) (195 1939 to the menace negotiations; and Unsuccessful attempts to deter Germany from aggression against Poland; diplomatic exchangesimmediately preceding the British declaration of war on Germany, August-September1939 (1954). Policy in the Far East; attitude of H. M. G. towards the SinoJapanese East Far Western in interaction Europe, August the and of events conflict; 1938-April 1939 (1955). Policy in the Far East during thefive months preceding the outbreak of war in Europe, April-September 1939 (1955).

Index (1961).



Documents on British Policy Overseas

AfTairs, Sir In 1973 the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth it Commons had been House Alec Douglas-Home, in that the of announced decided to extend into the post-war period the practice adopted fier 1919-39 British fiireigii Each documents important the policy. of publishing most on documents is by reproduced ()il a wallet of' related accompanied volume microfiche.

Editors: Dr R Butler, Mrs M I; Pelly, Dr R I3ullen, Mrs G Bennett, Mrs Dr Isabel Warner, Dr Ann Lane Dr KA Hamilton, Hj Yasamee,

Series I: 1945-1950 I

The Conference at Potsdam, duly-August


Conferencesand Conversations 1945: -London, Washington and llosc:ow , (1985). Britain and America: Negotiation of the t %nited States Loan, August. December 1945 (1986). Britain and America: Atomic Enemy, Bases and Food, December 1945- July 1946 (1987). Germany and Western Europe, August-December1945 (1990). Eastern Europe, August 1945-April 1946 (1991).


Nein January 1995 . , VII The United 1946-7.

Series II: I II III 1V




1945 (1984).



1950-1955 The Schuman Plan, the Council of Europe European Western and Integration, May 1950-December 1952 (1986). The London Conferences:Anglo-American Relations Strategy, Cold War and January Tune 1950 (1987). German Rearmament, September-December1950 (1989). Korea, June 1950-April 1951 (1991).

In Preparation V VI

World and

Germany and European Security, 1952-4. The Middle East, 1951-3


OccasionalPapers 5. by FCO This series publishes the papers presented at seminars organised DBPO. Editors the of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Valid Evidence (FCO Historical Branch, November 1987). Documents (FCO Historical Meeting of Editors of Diplomatic Branch, November 1989). Branch, November Germany Rejoins the Club (FCO Historical 1989). Eastern Europe (FCO Historical Branch, April 1992). Korea (FCO Historical Branch, April 1992). Russia: Tsarism to Stalinism (FCO Historical Branch, May 1993). Changes in British and Russian Records Policy (FCO Historical Branch, November 1993). Diplomatists Diplomacy and Branch, August 1994).

in the 20th



6. History Notes An occasional series produced by the staff of Historical Branch background information on issues of interest to the Office. 1.

Korea: Britain and the Korean War, 1950-51 (FCO June 1990).


The FCO: Policy, People and Places, 1782-1991 (FCO Branch, April 1991 - revised 3rd Edn: March 1993).

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.




to provide



Locarno 1925: The Treaty, the Spirit and the Suite (FCO Historical Branch, October 1991). FCO Records: Policy, Practice and Posterity, 1782-1992 (FCO Historical Branch, August 1992 revised 2nd Edn: November 1993). FCO Library: Print, Paper and Publications, 1782-1993 (FCO Historical Branch, March 1993). Women in Diplomacy. The FCO, 1782-1994 (FCO Historical Branch, May 1994). `My Purdah Lady'. The Foreign Office and the Secret Vote, 1782-1909 (FCO Historical Branch, September 1994). Notes

Occasional Papers from: and are available Historical Branch, LRD, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Clive House, Petty France,

London SW I 9HD, United Kingdom Tel (071) 270 4215

Fax (071) 270 4216




bilºliº)graphic .1., (. Il(. s Of srlective ann(atiitcd Internati(ºnal iI)rarv background I. the to the as

1. 2. 3. 4. : ý.

ti. 7.

in n)[IjunCti(ýn 1wº(luc'Cd 1{i"t()rN, lecture s(-n(-s.


1990 German), fter 1941 (1,R I ), \ovemhrr ." "I/' Ifiddle East L RD, Jana 1991). , ßntzsh 1"orngn 1'olu_) in the 'Iweutieth (, entut) : LRI),

O(-tw l)(-r 1991 Jun(' 1'º'º2,. Britain and the L'uropean (Jonimwnit)- , IRI), 1). I \Fi,; hbours lau s, w and it, From Empire to Commonwealth: .R . October 1992).

Diplomacy in the Twentieth Genturf I. R1), O(-to I)(-r 1993). Vationaiicm in I; nct-Central Europe since the 18th CCentury Vitionalit), and . . I. RI), October 1994,ý.

8. Editors' of htp/ornati< 1)oaLrn nt.s Pwsltttrr .V in /BPO keep Initiated by the Editor, touch with to 0F ' 1)iplomatj(D, series of govicernment-sponsored )( cunents.

the Editors

(,F(; O Histc ºrical Branch, October 1991). (F(; O Historical Branch, April 1992).

1. 2.

No. 1 No. 2


No. 3

4. ý.

No. 4 Nc>. 5

ITC(. ) Historical Historical (FCO

Branch, April 199'3). Branch, Noývvc"rnfb("r 1993).



AFCO Historical



No. 7

(1~'(:O Historical

Branch, July




No k-c1flt)c"r 1992,.




()f other





Valid Evidence


Editors of

Diplomatic of


rejoins No.



the Club

4 Europe



Korea No.


Changes in British




to Stalinism

Russian and

Diplomatists and

Records Policy

in the 20th Century

DBPO Publishing Policy and Practice