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riti h ocument on th o dam Con er nc Jul 1 4 Feo Hi

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ian May 2005


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TH . POT

Th last gr at rld \Var pened at chI ecili nhof near P tsdan1 on 17 July ] 4 -. hile the war against Japan continued the v nue marked the unc nditional urrender of Gennany tv 111 nths rll r. Tb conferellc \1 s dir tly formati for tnt matio n 1 relati I1S in th e p ar p f1 d, ecuti e decisions at Potsdam , und up th Eur pean Ad i ory n1mlSSl nand established a ouncil of Foreign Mini ters to pr pare p ac ettlenl nt , The conference took place in th afternlath f the Briti sh Gen ral lection of 5 July 1945 - the first such poll for n art y t n y ars. The results were postpon d by ti ng procedure for armed forces abroad but \ ere when announced on 26 Jul y to affe t directly the conduct of the Potsd am onferenc \ hich had conven d during thj British interim. To general surpri . the el ction produced a Labour landlide. ' Clelnent Attlee the leader of the Labour Party, replaced Winston Churchill as Prim ~inister, while the doughty ex-trade union 1 ~,~er Em st Bevin took on the role of :lj;~tejgn Secretary frOLTI Anthony den. Mr Churchill headed the B rit ish d "legation in the nine meetings between 17 aria 24 July while Mr Attl e, present at these nleetings, returned to Potsdam as Prime Minister on 28 July for four furth r days of discussions.

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Across the Channel Europe's battle-scarred continent faced the task of reconstruction . Millions of displaced persons tried to survive as the British authorities in Gennany attempted to provid minimum food and fuel and dreaded the approaching \\rinter. At Potsdam political and economic' principles were agreed to '~.':89y~~Jl'~tlie treatment of Gennany iIt the initil~} , S~Il;tr.?l, "period. Supreme authority 'in "'(jerinariy was placed within the re.mit of tne~';S6viet , American British and French '. ',' onunanders-in.. Chief, acting on instruction from their governments路 and operating in ~\ ti1ei~ own occupation zones or joj~tly iri:~; all~bennan matters in th ir capac'ity)~s ,'~ members of the ~ontroI Council, The bodies which had underpinned the Nazi '.slate. were proscribed and ',education ~#. to be con~olled to pronl0te the principles {of ' justice, the rule of law' and democ~.~y; .tgreement was also reached on the levet~nd natUre of r~parations from Geima.ny ww,:le the three governments endorsed J ~he concurrent discussions in London the ~inethods of trial for nlajor war criminals. These criminals were prolnised 'swift and sure justice at the earli st pos~pl date'.1 ,;

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To J the east, the British 'G o ,~ mm ent a recognIse e 0 )'S 1 rov lonal- - Government of National Unity with the res N ation that it was not satisfied w.ith previous assurances regarding the free participation of political parties in forthcomi'ng el~ctions in Poland. It was only after extensive questioning of the Polish delegation to the' Potsdam Conference by Churchjll Eden Attlee and Bevin and the receipt of Polish assurances, that the UK dlegation withdrew its pr vious oppo ition to th proposal that the provisional frontier of Poland in the west should follow the line of the Od.er and Western Neisse riv rs . The, UK and Am,ericaD. delegation called ~ r free political activity and elections throughout central and eastern Europe on the li nes agreed in the Yalta Declaration on Liberated Europe (February 1945). A still frustrated Churchill told Stalin that an iron curtain had been rung down but the So i t leader dislnissed this as fairy tal s'?


h W t rn Alli w uld b m r su ul in th .ir effort g in t th ommuni t h g .n10ny to Italy and r ceo Briti hand ri an coin ided \I ' . il difD ring in 0111 r gard in ap r a h and appli~ ' li n. t build up ftaly into a bastion of denl rac 'in th edit rranean g neral \~rest m agrelu nt 0 r r . \vh r riti h milit y and p liti al upp rt had help d to contain internal and e ,t rnal ommunist pr Sllres. Britain h d al not ignificance of ran and gav 1 ading upport to th r n h forgotten th ccupati n of G rmany. Neith r ally I t sight f th llnp rt n f an earl conclusion of a posh ar treaty f Angl -Fr nch allianc ' nd 1n BTiti h CiT 1 s it \va to\V rd the n tit uti n 0 hop d that this \ auld 1 ad to pr gre ,. 3 . G rup In urop. as conln1itInents and t exp n ioni 01 Briti h privation after six years of \ ar v a p rticularl mark d. A hurchill loomi1) observed at Potsdam Britain 'canle out of thi vvar a the greatest d btor in the world,.4 ,.I'itish reactions to th abrupt curtaitnlent by Pre ident Truman of pre, iOll arrange ·...~nts for lend-lease reflect d the degree of immG~iate indebtedn s in Britain as elsew :~ re in Europe to generous economic assistan " ·::trom the United Stat s. Th provision' of AInerican suppli s to Allied g v nml nt und -r lend-lea was initi lly limited by the President in July 1945 to uses in th continuing war again t Japan. In that war the role of the United Stat s was preponderant.

In the light of extensi

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The Soviet Union while preparing to enter th v,rar against Japan wa also in r ceipt of Japanese peace-feelers towards the Western Allies as reported by Generalissimo Stalin to the Potsdam Conference. Th Combined Chiefs of Staff meting at the confeT~Qc~i esti!»ated that organised Japanese resistaqce ..could be .expected until mid ovenitJer .' f946. On 17 July, Mr hurchill ~ as told';'~flurtc1ieon by Mr Truman and Secretary: of War, .Henry Stimson of the successful t sting the previous day of th atom"c b6'rob at Alamogordo. Mr Truman btieflY ', i'nfdimed Generalissimo talin of poss sion of this new · and unusually destructi .; : ,veapon following the plenary meting on 24 July.s Two days later a proclamation 'by the heads of th U ,Briti h an d.,! Chinese governments called on ' Jap~n to ., ~urrender unconditiot;lally w.i th the chil(ng conclusion: 'The alternative for Japa~ is prompt and utter destruction. 6

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The Potsdam Conference fell bet,veen the first conference of the ne\v United Nation at San Francisco \\,hich conclud.ed on .26 June and the deployment of the first atomi bombs again.s t Japan on 6 and 9 August. The Allied coalition was unravelling as - ' - - "- doubts 'sted about lIue Soviet-int~. Together for~he final-time at Potsdaml~_ _ _ __ the Allied" leaders were unah! to ' forge a comprehensiv peace settlenlent dr Gennany. Suspicions and frightening ne\v technologies formed a backdrop to th dawn of the Cold War. The Potsdan1 on£ rence at the conclusion of th ec nd World War marked the beginning of a ne\ era in, orId history.

Historians

Foreign and Conlmon.wealth Office London, May 2005 The Conference at Potsdaln Ju/ - Augu t 1945 published in 19 4 '\ as th fir t volume in the oreign and omnl nw a1th Offi s serie Docum nt on Briti h Polie) Overseas (DBPO). The seri s is ng ing and still c r topi s v ith a

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Th atinal r~hi res Kew Augu t 1945, VIr War [imina1 . I

ntly \v rking on I tronic-DBPO mlan ni lcation] , 7-1 7, Rt!p rt n the Trip tite

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R han uti rand argar t P 11yed . Document on British Polic Over as ri I Volume f. Tit Confi rile at Pot. dam JII( -August 1945 ( ondon: HeT -faj t ' tation ry Offic , 1 ,Pr a e, xji. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid., Prefa , xiii.

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9 JUD 1945: Tel graIn fr rinl Truman on arrang m nts for th tripartit 111 tin In 171e ational Ar hiv ,K 'vV (T1VA), FO 001416

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TT\ 짜O 1945: Minut fronl Anthon den r tar burchill n the agenda and proc dure for Tenninal confer nce . TNA, FO 800/416 12 J u]

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17 July 1945: Record of..~~n ersation behve n hurchill and G ner lis) the \vat against Japan postwar Gennany and the sll10king of ci gars. ~', TNA, FO 00141 7

DOCUMENT FOU,R 18 July 1945: Record of con ersation b

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Stalin on

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Doeu E T FIV 18 July 1945: Summari~ed ,nQte of Churchill's conversation with nunan. Th experiment in question : ~ '~ a's'the rec nt'trial of the atolnic bonlb. ',.'~ ;.'~ " TNA, FO 800/417 '. ,

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DOCUMENT IX 18 July 1945: Record of conversation bet~teen hurchil1 and talin on the G neral Election Japan the Baltic, Gre ce and eastern Europ . "

TNA, FO 800/417 " .

DOCUM NTSEVEN 27 July 1945: Telegram from Foreign Office to T nninal. Personal M ssage fronl the ne\v Prime Minister Clement Attlee to Truman and Stalin. ----T~~~~~rR~~------------------__________________________________ DOCUMENT IGHT 28 July 1945: ote by Sir Al xander adogan P rman nt nderOffice on outstanding Inatter of th conD r 11 . TNA FO 93412 8 (19) DOCUME T IN 28 July 1945: Record of meeting between Attlee, rnest Be in Stalin and Vyachesl v Molotov 0 iet Foreign Minister. TNA, FO 800/417

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HOTOGRA.PH 0 hurchill ruman and talin at P t anl. Foreign and 011111101'71 ' a/'Ir Offic (F 0) Libra'T all ction PHOTOGRAPH TWO Anthony den, Secretary f tat for Foreign FeO Libran coil etion

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PHOTOGRAPH THREE Sir Ale ander Cadogan Pernlan 'nt Und r-Secr tary For ign Offic . ,F ea Lit rary olleetioll

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MINISTER TO PRESIDENT TRUMAN

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.B.e,芦:-.While I have agreed in principle to our triple meeting in Berlin on July 15, I hope you will agree vnth me that the British, American and Russian dele.~~";Pj:d-I''';;~. gaLio~ shall llave anti ely ,separate quarters assigned to them and have their own guards t and that 路 thore shallJ be a fourth place prepared in W11ich " 路 we meet to oonfer. I could not accept as at Yalta the principle t11at we go to Berlin, over which it ' is agreed we are to have triple or with the French quadruple pari ty, merely as guests of the Soviet Government and Armies. 'He Should provide everything fOIl ourselv s nd be able to me t on equ8~1 t erms . should like to k,now 'how you stand about this !

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,[No others present. ]

n got on ~ tinance, Lease.Lend, &c. I told the President that I had p r for comment to the Chancellor of the E chequ.er, and ould send rt ote upon it in a da.yor t o. • DC*'8 of the melanoholy ~ition of Great Britain, ho had spent more than ~¡. . . .]]taii oreign investmentS in the time when we were all alone for the common


2 ' ause, and DO emerged from the War the onl nation" ith a gre t e 路ternal debt of 拢3,000 million. I e.l'lained to him the ~a in whi h thi bad grown up for war purposes through bUYlng supplies from India, Egypt, C., with. no ~a e-Lend arrangement路 and that it would impos upon us an annual export tIOD' ltl out any oompensatory import to nourish the wage fund. H followed thi a~~ntiv 1) and with sympathy. Tne President then spoke of the immen e debt owed by th nited ate to Great Britain for having held the fort at the beginnin~.l . If you had gon down like France, we might ~ ell be fighting the German on the Ameri n coa t at the present time. ' This justified the U TIlted tates iri regarding ese matters as abo e t?~ purely ~~ncial plane. I said ~ had. told the Ele ti?n rowd ~at e e e hYIng to a la . ~ extent .upon. merlc8.? Imported food,.~~. for \yhlCh e could not '~y, and we had no IntentIon of beIng kept b all copntr , howev r near to us i~ friend~hip. We should have to ~ k for help to bee.orne a ro.viu~ concer~ agaln. UntIl we got ,our wheels turning properly once more, 'e ,,~ulC1 . be of lIttle use to .orld ecurlty or any of the hIgh purpo es of an ran '1800. The P e ident said he would do his very utmost; but of cour I kne\v all th difticultie he might have in, bis own country. His attitude . mo t \v m and comforting in tliese matters. , . . .. , Naturally I poke of Article 7, reminding him of the late President' me age to ~e ,about our not being committed about Imperial preference, and a ing tha.t if not wisely handled it might cause a split in the Con rvative Part. I had heard,that America was-m king grea.t reductions in her Tariff. 'i .,: . : ' : : ' plIed tb.at he under tood my difficulties, and that the A1nerican Tariff had been reduced b ~ per oont. ,He no,' b. d authorit, to reduce it by another 5p, .pet cent.. leaving It &t"one-qt1& :~r of:} pre- , ~r height. I aid of ~~r .tlli !r~s ' K!eat fa tor and auld hllve a. ~werful1nfluence on our DomInIonS, es~ la.11 Ca.nada and Ans~ra1ia.. I 路 npide it , clear we would di u s thi ma.tter In the full pirit of Article 7. . .


3 expressed in some other wa, 0 that we got all the e , ntial~ for, ~tltur pea e aqd ~uritYt and yet left the Japanese some show of savlng heIr mlh~ar ~onour and some assuranCe of th ir national existence, after the, r had comphed . Ith 11 afegqaK\s necessary for th conqu rot. The President ountered by a) lng that he did not think the Japanese had any militar honour after Pearl arbour. I contented myself with sa.ying that at any rate thev had some hing for :whi h the ere ready to face certain death in very large numl ers, and thi might not be 0 important to us a$ it was. to them. He then became quite s nlpathetio. and poke, as Mr. Stimson had to me t Q days earlier, of the terrible respOD "'ibi~itie that re ted upon him in reg~d to nl1limi ted efiusion of American blood. . yon impre sion is that there i . 'DO question of a rigid in i tence upon the ,'. phrase ,,' unconditional surrender." ap:a,rt from the essentials neC asar.' for \\1orl .~:'. pea~ and future security, and for the punishment of a guilty and treacberou ' n tiona It ha been evident to me in my conversation with fr .• tim on. eneral ou.~&l, and DOW with the,' President, that they are earching their hearts on thi ubject. and tbat we have no need to pres ft. We know of cour that the 'Japanese are ready to give up "all conquests made in this war. .....A...


4 The Pre ident seemed in full accord with thi if it could be pre nted in a uitable fashion and did Bot appear to take .rudely the fOIm of a mi1ita~y allia.n a deux. The e 1 t were not hi word but are m impre "'ion of hl

miDd~

:Jnoourag d b this, I went on with m long-cherished i of keeping th organi tion of the Combined Chiefs of tail in being, at an ~ rate until the world calmed down after the great torm and until there wa a world stru ture of u h pray d trength and capa ity that w could 8afel~ confide oursel es to it. The President was repl ins to thi in an encouraging ay when. we interrupted by his officers remInding him that he mu no t;tal't off to Mar h 1 talin. ~(; He good enough to ay tha:'~; bi had n. th mo t enjoyabl IUD .hoo路路 ~t he had had for m ny 'ea and howe rne tly he hoped tb reI tions I h h with President RooSe eit ould be oontinu d tween him and me. in i d personal friendship and mrad hip, and u ed many e pr at in r I in our di us ion w i h I could not ea ilv he 1" llnmov . H m m n f e ptional ch r ter and bilit, with n outlook e ~ .tl路 along th lin of Anglo-Americ n relation as they have developed, imple .nd dir t m thod of speech, nd a great deal of If-confidenc and resolution. Let u hope that further d elopmellt at thi Conf ren \ nd her fter vindi the e hopeful not . t


3 mentalit) and had ~one 8eyeral thing he ou~ht. not, to hay done. rhe oviet Goyernment of tell dId not know what 1:arshal 'rlto wn about to do. 8. Roumania.- far hal talin aid that h h d been hurt b the ~ In ri (,n demand for a change of Government in Roumania and Bulgaria. He 'wa n t meddling in. Greek affairs, so he thought it was unju.. of the \.meri ans to mnk the present demand. The Prime ~IIini t l' id he hnd Dot before.: D the merican proposal. l far hal talin explained that in the ct. f 'oun rie her ther had been an emigre Governm nt. he had fOWld it nee sary to a i t in the reation of a, home Go 'ernment. This of cour . did not apply in th c,. of Roulnani~ ~nd Bulgari " Everything was peaceful in th~ two countl'i ~ . 'fhe ". rime ~ IDlster a ked why the "'oviet. Go.' rnment had C71V n an awar t F 11 g r,~~, ichael. The MarRhal thought King l tf~ hael had acted hrav ly and wi 1 a ': the time of the coup d' g~at. 9. The Prime Mini tel' poke of the su ~iety f It by orne peopl with r eraro to Ru ia's intehtiQn. lIe 9rew a line from the orth C' p to Jhania, and named ~he capitals east of that line which were in Ru. inn hand", It look d ~t if Ru ia were rolling on westward. Marshal ~ ~talin aid h h d n u h intention. On the contrary. he wa withdr~wing troop from the West. l\v lnilliou men would be demobili d and' sent honle within the ne.~ fOlll' month. Furth l' demobili atiou was only a question of. adequate rn.ilwa trnll port. , . 10. r hal talin mentioned that Ru • ian 10 se.. durin~ the "'I ar had , mounted to ,0' million killed an~ mh~ it ~. , 'l'he d ' rman had nlol)Jli d 1 1111]11 n -:- . . • part from industry, and the ~u Slan 12 million. . 11. The rim lini ter' hoped th t a~reement would be r rood tJOth ' rds the qu tion Dliected with frontier' of th ]~u .. pean ( , unt ~ . s 11 Ria' , 00 th • " including th divi ion . f th German:E 1 ·tt befo e the CoJ'lference . nded, " He said that the Thre Po r gath red rouild the t ble ere th trong t the ~orld h d ev)' en, and it w th ta l~ intain th peace of the world. It .a.greed that, although "' j factory to us, the G l'm~n d f at had ~. n t tragedy. But the German were lik sheep. The Prime lIini tel' told . 8torY ,oungLieu~n&nt Tir.p itz. rshal talin pok of hi e~'l)erien I'many in 1967, when tw~ hundJ;"ed 'erman mi d a Communi t m ting -I~;if;beeat~-fdt1eret-W1~Qe-ew~~,lKee4tDheeHir-l!&iJw :y tick ts Uhe station ba~ri . : 12. ar ha.l .Stalin apologised for not having officially thanked r t ..,'''"·····~-·tain ' for her ~elp in the way of' upplies during the War. This would done. S. Marshal Stalin, in reply to a question, exp~ained the orking of :."-'V,-"tive &1ld State farms. It was agreed that both in Ru ia and Britaill _ c',,',',.' _ _ .,..,... , DO fear of unemployment.: The Marshal ' id that Ru sia a readv about Anglo..Rua ian trade. The Prime Minister id that the beSt r

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br it for Soviet Bus ia abroad would be the bappines and well-being of h r t

Ie. The .Marshal JK?ke of the continuity of Soviet polic. If an thing to h&p~n to him, there would be good men ready to tep into hi hoe. thinking thirty year ahead.


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BTRUCTION ~D

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OMIC

(GENERAL),

Augu t 2, 1945.

I

CONFIDENTIAL.

SECTION

t.

(16864) Copy No.

I...J

REPORT ON THB TRIPARTITE CONFERENCE OF BERLIN.

[Pu.blished on 2nd Au.gu t, 1945.J

I. On th~ 17th July, 1945 the Pre ident of the United States of America, Harry S. Truman, . ~e Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of .the Union of Soviet SOOi~list Republics. Generalissimo J. . Win, a , the PrIme Minister of Great1Jfitain, Winston' S. Churchill together with ,',j" Clement R. Attlee met in the -,T ripartite Conference of Berlin. They were" accompanied by the F~ign Secretaries of the three Governments, MI'. Jame F. Byrnes, )1. V. • Molotov, and Mr. Anthony Eden, the Chief of taff, and other

adn-r,.

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There were nine meetings between the 17th J~ly and the 25th July. .~he Conference was then interrupted for two days whIle the results of the BrItish general election were being declared. ' On the 28th July Mr. Attlee returned to the Conference 8S PrIme Minister, &CC()mp~ed by t~ DeW Secretary of State for Foreign Mairs, Mr. Ernest Bevin. Four da~ of further discua ion' then took place. During the course of the Confuence ~re ~ere ~1ar ~eetinp of the Heads of tne Three Governmen ;'. accom~ed by t~JF~ign "retal'ies ~d ,8180 -o f the .Foreign 'i 'r:et.Ari : 'lone.Oom1Dlttees appOinted by the Foreip Secretaries for preliminary'ooIiiideration of' quee~ion8 ~fore· the Conference il$O met daily. .' ' , -, The,'ineet(pp 01 the' Conference were held at the cecilierib.~f ear Potsdam. ' The Conferen ' ended on the 2nd August 1945. " . " /' " , Iin~~ .rdecisions .nd agree~eDta. ere ~ached. Views ere ~changed on a 111)1bbetr of' other questions, and consideratIon of these matter wlll be continued th _,Council of Forej~ Ministen establiahed by the ConfemD . P.leis,detit T,ruman, Gener i imo Stalin. and Prlme :Minister Attlee lea e tIlia Conference, which baa 8tren~ened · the ties between the tJuoee Governmenta I.nd . def1 ~· 800~ of their collaboration and unde tanding, ith rellewed ' 00DA . Uli their. Go emmenta and peopJ ' , ~ther 'Wit c;~the other United 'NatiOD ill ,eJl8Ure the c tion of 8. Just and enduring peace. l

I

eball be tabliabed a Council com~ of the Foreign 'M i.'tera of the United Kingdom, the nion of Soviet Soci liat Republica, ranee and the UOlted tates. •• (1) There

.. <'Hi) ,The Counoil shall normally meet in London, which tdlall be the

t of the joint Secretariat which the Council will form. x.ch oreign Ministel'l will be aooompanied by a high-rankin Deput duly au1~lri·1ecJ to carryon the ork of the Council in the absence (.f hiS ~reign . · ter, and by a.,m n eta! of technical adviaers. InJ18lU!mt

(88-109]

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(ii) The first meeting of th ouneil hall hel in London no later than the ls~ ptember, 1945. M tings may be h Id by common agreement in other capital as may be agreed from time to tim . (S)- (i) As it immediate important task, the Oouncil shall be authorised to draw up, with a view to their ubmi sion to tb ni dation, treatie of peace witn Italy, ~o~ani a, B!llgaria, Hunsary and Fjnla~d, and to propose ettlements of terrltorlal que tlOn outstanding on the termlnation of the war in Europe. The Council shall be u ili ed for the prepal ation of a peace settlement for Germanv to be accepted b the Government of Germany hen a Governmel t adequate for the purpose is established. (ii) For the dis ,ha r of each of the e tasks the Council will be COll)poseq of the member~ r opresenting those tates which were signa,tory to the terms of But'render imposed upon the enemy 'l"'4tate concerned. or the p.urposes of the peace set.tlement for Italy, France hall be l'ef:?:nrded a a. Signatory to the terms of urrend r for Italy. Other melnber will h invited to participa e when matter directly concernin~ them are under dis ussion. " (iii) Other matter may from time to time be referred to the Council by agreement between the Member overnments. "(4:)-(i) Whenever the ouneil is considering a question of direct interest to a State not reptesented thereon, such State sbould be invitecL.W send representatives to ' ,'.'t ticipate in the discussion and study of that q',~ ~' tion. "(ii) The Counoil may adapt it procedure to the partioul&r problem under consideration. In some cases it may hold its own preliminary discussions prior to the partjcipation of other interested tates. In other cases, the Council may convoke a formal conference of the tate chiefly intere ted in eeJdng a solutlOn of the particular problem." rn accordance wi th the decision of the Conference the three Governments h&ve each addressed an identical invitation to ,the Governments of China and France to adopt th~s text and to join in establishing the Council. The e8~blishment of the Council of 'Forei~ Ministers for the 8~ific purposes named in the te t will be without prejud'ce to the agreement of the Crimea yonference ...t~ ,t ~~l;e should be, periodic OC?n8ult8:ti~n ~o~g ~be ,~or~~ Secreta.rl of the un,} States, the Union of OVlet Socl&hst Repuhl "and the I

II

United Kingdom. " . . ' The Coufel'ence' ala ,QOnaidered the ~ition of the Euro~ Ad~ Commission in the light of the agreement to establish the Council9f Forefp Ministers. It was note<l ith: satisfaotion that the Commission ' had ably d180harged its principal ', ta~ka by the recommendations that. it had furnished 'f or ..the terms ot Germany s unconditional surrender for the zones of oooupation in"Germany ~d Austria, and for,1 the inter-Allied control machinery in those COUP.tries, It was felt that further ork of & detailed oharacter for the oo-ordination of Allied policy for the coot 01 of Germany and Austria would in future fall within the oompetenoe of the Hied, Contl'Ol Council at Berlin and the Allied CommiS6ion "i Vienna. Acoordingl)'~ it was agreed to recommend that the EUropean Advisory Commission be dissolved. Ie

are ill

occupation of the whole of ' Germany and the Ge~ people have ~ to atAlne for the terrible crimes committed under the leadership of those whom, in the hour of their success, they openly approved and

The Allied armies

blindly obeyed. ,

~ment

'

has been reached at this Conference on the politi~l and economic princiPl$8 of & C<Hl1'dina:ted Allied policy towards defeated Germany duripg the periocf1of Allied control. " The p~ of this -creement is ' to c&r11. out the Crimea declaration on Germany. German militarisnl and Nazism will be extirpated, and the Allies win tab in ~t ~her, now and in the future, the other meuurea D8CeIIary to aamre that Germany never again will threaten her neighbours or the ~ of the world. ' It is DOt the intention of the AlIiea to destroy or enslave the German people. It 11 the iDtention of the Allies that the German ~ple be given the op~rtunity ~I p'repare f(m the event.ual recon8truction of their life on & democratio and ~足 ful balla. If their own dona are steadily directed to this end, it will be po88ible for them in due course to take their place among the free and peaceful peoples of the world. I


The te. of the a -re ment is as follows:The PoUtlcal and EconQm'ic Pri'ltcipies to G'ov Nt tlI..e Tr atm,en.t ot Germa,ny in the Initial Control P r'iod. A .-PoUt 'cal Pr '1'toipl s. 1. In acoordan with the Agreement on tmtrol (acl inery '.n 'ermal?Y, supreme authority in 'ermany is e~er i~d on in truction from theIr re pec~lve Governnlents by the Commandel ~ln- hlef of th a rmed for s of the Unl't.ed tates of _ rn'erica the l nitod Kin dom, the l. niOH of 0 let iati ~t public , and the French Republic each in hi ,,'n zone of 0 upatioll and also jointly, in matters atlecting er'many as a whole, in their c pacity as mem rs of t he on trol Counci 1. . 2. · 0 fa,r as is pr&. ·ticable there shall be nn1£ l'mi ty f trea ment of the German popula tion throughout Ger~a.ny. . . . . 3. The purpose of the oc upa.tlOD of German:,-' by whlch the ontrol CouncIl shall be guided are :(i) The complete dis8,l'mament and demilitari atiOll of G r nany nd the elimination or control of all German industr.' that ould be used for milito.ry prodl~ ction. To these end :(a) All German, l ~D d;." n~val .and a.ir .for~es) the 8.S., S ....~., ~.D . . and .... ,.:".. GestapQ, wIth ~P , thell' QrganlSatlO'n , staft's a.nd m LltutlOns, ~,;.'!' including the eneral taft the Officers orpa, Re erve Corps, .' military school war ' vet,e rans' ot'ganisa.tions and ,all other military and q1l8si-militar organisations, together with all . duhs and>associations which serve to keep ~h"e the military tradition in Germany, hall be completely and .fi~ally abolished lin such manner as 'permanently to prevent the revival or reorganisation of German mili~rism a.nd . azism; All arms ammunition and implements of war and all ~ ecia1ised facilit.ies for thei~ ' productlon. shaH be held ·at the dlsposa l .of the Allies or destroyed. The ma.intenance and production of , all aircraf.~ and . aIL'arm's , ammunition and implenlentsof war . sbe,l} ,b,e ,preve.\1!e~.t'. ,. ·.. . . " . " ~ .... ,'~.','"'. (ii) To c6nvince th~ ' Germ~" People 'that they ha.ve suffered a tOt .1 military ' ,w t

1

defeat and ) hat t~ey Ic~ot. escape ~esponsibility for what ~hey h~ve broug.ht upon : ~he~selVi8, SInce .theu o~n ruthless warfa,ra ' and ,.;h e ~\, f8.J}atlCal Naz) .'re~1St&nce have destroyed German economy 'and m ~de " .' ch~ and suJIering in~vita.ble. . ' , .' .. ': (iii) To :d~~troy the atlona-list 'ocialist 'party and its affiliated 'and supervi~ .orga.:nis~ti: us, to dissolve all ... azi · institutions, to ensure.~,thQt thet are 'aot,r~vited in ~y fOMn a.nd to prevent all Nazi and miliiirist " act,lvity or ~pJ:'opag8.n.d&. , '' . " ?' Ov) T.o 'p repare f~.~, :tlie :eyentn,al Teoonstr~tipn of GetmanpQl~ti~l li.f~t ~n ~, & ' demooratl~ ' bailS and' for e~entuaJ peaoofu.l . co-Opel'atlon. In lfiter . . ~ational life by Germany, . I

• I

."

J

4. All N~i law8~ . wh~~h pro'vided

·'~1l1.. ;1:!I;f~!",;tili;:!

t.

the

b8~j8 ~f

the Hitler regi-me

'e

0 tab. ' '. .,bohehed. . No nchr· dl~erUnlt).atlOD8" whether leg~l~ ad.nllnistrat Ivo or ' otherwue. ah&lJ be wlerated. " "",," . " 6. W8.f ,cl'ilUinaI 'aJldlthose who have participated in planning or carrying Qut Nlu,;i' enterp'rises in vol:ving "or resulting in atrocities .or war· crImes shall be ,,~rested. a~d, brought ~ judg~ent:azi le~de~, i~t1uential Naz.i supporters and. ~1i oJIlcul.ls .Qf NaZI . .organn~at\OIlS and IDstltutlQnS, and any other ~tsons . ung~us. tor,tqe' occupation or i~' objectives ~hall be arrested.: and interned. .' 8.• ~11 metJ!.~r.s o~ the;NaZl party who have ~~ more ~han nominal participiUl~ til ltl actlvl~le~ and a.ll.otlle~ persons hoattIe to A~h~d purposes shall be I.'

--l~~~.t:l1 • • ~...;,.liah~ ' ~i8Crinliliatjqn .on

grp1Ul48 of race, .

rerno.~ :fro~ p~b~JC a~d ~DII-J?ubhc om~, ~d

Jt...-J)o~tjcaL.q . "

from ,po~ltlons Qf

responsibility

.in bnp<>rtan~ 'pr1\~a~ undertaklngs, S~qh persons _hall be r~placed by persons wl¥>t JlY. theIr whtloal ' Mld moral quabtle8, a:re deemed capable of assisting in , dtve10ping genuipe d~mocratic institutions in Germany. ' /!. : German e,ducation ,hall be 80 con t tolled as loompletely to eliminate Nazi .d. mp~~u:i8t doctrines and to make, ~8ible ,the successful development of '

dernCicn.tlc Ide_a. "

.

8~ . ,\,he j.tl~i~ia.l ~stem wi~l be reotg,ani~d' in a~oord~~oo wit~ ~he, principles of democracy, of JustIce under law, and of equal rlghts for ·a ll cItlZens without diatiDetjo~

of race,

[~109)

,

~atioIialityi

or religion.

.


6

an (ma.n ial international transactions) including e. ports and impoft.$ with the aim, of preventing Qerma,ny from developing a war potential and of achieving the other pbjectlves named h~rein,. ,, ' .

(d) To control G rman indu ~ry and a.U con.om.i

,

(e) To contr~l

an

G~rm~n p'ubhc or prtv~te sClentltic bodse$, ~esearch an.d

~xpenmental

lnstitutlon laboratones, & " connect.ed wIth economic activities. 16. In the imposition and' maintenance of economic controls established by the Control Council) German administrative machinery sha.ll be reated and the German author~ties shall be re~uired to the fullest eJtent practicable 'to proclaim and assume administratjon of such controls. T.hus it should be brought home to the Getman people that the responsibility for the administration, of ucb oontrols and · any breakdown in these contlots will rest· with themselves. Any . German OOJltroJs which may run COtilnter to the' objectives of occupation will be prohibited. , 17. Measures shall be promptly ~keIi, : -

,

1~ To effect essential repair of transport; b to enlarge coal pr~uction; . C to maximise agricultur~ outJ?ut; . '/.,:'; ;\ . .. . . ~: , ",to effect emergency repalr of 'h ownng ana:e,s sentlal utlhtles. 18. Appropriate 8teps sha.n be t~en by the Control" Council to e ercise co~trol and the power of ' di~~iti()n ov~ German-owned external assets not alre&dy under,the control of United Nations which have taken part in the war agai~ Germany. 19. Payment of reparations should have enough resources to enable the German people to 8ubs16~ without e~ternal assista.nce. In working out the econoglic baliuice of Germany the necessary means must be pro'Vided t() pay for impor~ .pproved by t~e Cont.-ol Co~~i1 in Germ~y. The prooaeds of xports 'frOm curtent''' pro~uctl0n and stocks, sha.ll be avatla.ble in -the first place for Aym.en for ,suCh lm~t:ts. ." " ' . .,' " . ~ -;.. 0' ~ .8.bo~ clause wlll not"a.plily to the eqUlpment Ilnd piloducts referred to In ' ~ph , (4) and • (6) of the ~par$tion~ Agreement. · '

"

'f'


8 5. f he amount of equipment to be removed from the We tern Zone on account of reparation~ must be determined within six months from DOW a~ the

,

Lite$t~

6. Removals of indu8~ri~1 ca.pital equipment shall begi~ a ,soon as ~ ib,le, and sha.ll be completed wIthIn two years from the determInatIon pecifi d In paragraph 5, Tne delivery of-products covered by 4 (a) above shall beg,in as soon ae ,po$ ible and shall he made by the U. , ,R. in agreed instillments within fiv'e yea.rs of the date hereof. The determination of tlie amount and character of the industrial ca.pital equipment unlleces ary for the German peace economy and there,ore available for reparations shall be made by the Control Council under policies fi "ed by the Allied Commi ion on Reparations, with the participation of France, subject to the final app~oval of the Zone Comm,a nder in the Zone from which the equipment is to be removed. 7. Prior to the fixing of the total amount of equipment subject to removal, ,advance deliveries shall be made in respect of such equipment as will be .. determined to be 'eligible for delivery in ac~ordance with the prooedur.e set "forth in the last sentence of paragraph 6. 8. r,t'lle Soviet Government renounces all' claims in ,respect of reparations to bare r, 'of German enterprises which are located in he We tern Zones of occupat~ '.~ ifl Ge,rl1lany as well 88 to German foreig \ 'assets in all countries eXQept those specified in pa.ragraph 9 bc>low. . ' 9, The Governments of the United KiJlgdom and United States renounce th0ir claU:ps in respect of reparations to share of German enterpl'ises which are located in the nasoorn Zon~ of occupation i~ Germany, as well as to German fOl1'eign aSsets in Bulgaria, Fibland, Hungary, Rournani~ and Eastern Austria. 10. The Soviet Government makes no claims 't o gold captured by the Allied troops in Germany. '. i

The Three Governmentl have taken Dote of tru" di

ions hiob have been.

~rOoeddjDg in ftOent ;reeks in Londpn between :Britiah~ United States, Soviet ~d FrdCh re'pr.enta~iVM with a view to reaching ag~nt on the methods of trial

,,snajof war critrUnala who.e crimea· UJlder the 0800W Declaration of 1,". liavetBO particular g~raphica.ll~8&tion. The Three Govern.. ' reaftirm their intention to b~ing these criminals to ewift and lure juati . 1 llql?6 ~at. th~ ~9tiatione in London will ·t.em1,t in' .peedy; agreem~t being na,*~· lor this ,pureo-, ~~ they l'eg"r~ it !'8 8, matter of great i~portance' that •~ Of theee maJor ctlDllna18 thould begin at the earliest poIIlbIe da~. The list of defend&Jlt$ will .be published before the lat September.

of

~

I

t


7

VI I I .. -Austria. The CQnfere~ce examined a p,roposal ~y: ~h~ So, iet Governmen on the e~ten-

.

of the authorIty of the AUstrlan ProvisIonal Government to all of AUstrla. , The Three Governments agreed that the. were prep red to eKa.mine this ~eatioD after the entry of the Briti h and American for 'es into th city of

1100

Vienna. IX.-Poland. The Conference considetedque$tions relating to the Pol1sh Proyisional Government and the we tern boundary of oland.

A.

On the PoHsh Provisional Government of ational Unity, they defined their attitude in .the following 8ta.tem~nt:" We have taken note with pleaaure of the aft!eemeJ;tt reached among representative Poles from Poland and abtqadw~lch has ',made ~ossible the formation, in adoordanoe with the decisions reachea 'at the Crimea Conference, of a Polish PrQvis\i~al Govern~ent of ational Unity recognise.4;·; by the Three Powers. The!establishment by the British and United StateS;~Govern­ ments of diplomatic relations with the Polish Provisional Government has resulted in the withdrawal of their reoognition from the former Polish Gov~rnment in Londc;m. ~hich no longer exists. ' The British and United States Governments 'have taken 'measures to protect the inurest of the Polish Provisional Government the recogIli&ed gov~rnment of the Polia~ S~ate in the,property belongj.ng to ~e Polish State located in t.heir territories and under their control, whateyer the form of thi. property may be. T~ ba'e further taken measures to prevent alienatl,QP to third pe.rtiea of such Pl'9pert.y. , All proper facilities will be given to the Po1~. :r!Ovi~i9na;1 ~o~~~ for the eX~tci~ of the or~\inary legal r.emediea for"the recovery q~'1 .~P>; p'roper~y belongIng to the Pobsh af4~' .W;Pl~ " ~a, :':" " I

hay, been WJ'Ci)J1~u1ly AlieP,ated. ' ' f ' '. ;".' Th8'~ Three fo ra are anxioU8 'to assist the Polish Provisional:Govern~nt 0.' lacili"~~~ return to Poland as soon 88 p~ct~~bl~:, ()f 1 Poles "0,

>.'

I

b,road :whO ~~

~

go,

the Merim,ant )lanne.

incl~ding members of the }lolish: Arme~ Forces and 'theye pect that thoee Poles 1"etutn bome ahall

woo

, be"acaorped 'peilOIlal" and ,property rights on · the ume ,basi faa all Polish f

citizeD8. ~

"

:

Toe~ tt'hi4!Je Power. Dote that' the Polish Provision.l ·Government in', ~~C)8' with.: the deci ion8 'of' ~ Crimea Conf$renoe, haS I ~ to the Jiol~ 'of f~;:,&JJ4 UJ1fet~re4 elections as soon· as ~ible o-Q~·.:t~ 'basis of ,\mi, JI11.Ir.'Ie, and ret ballot in which all demobr tic Ithd anti- aU ,

tiarf,i 'i'J;l&1l tia e t~e ~h~ to take part and ro put forward candidata; arid 'that riPr.mtativ ot .the AlliOd p.fe8s sMll enjoy fi111 freedom to report tQ t~ ~rtd u~n dev~lop~en

in Poland before and during the electioD8~,


and i luding h area of t he former ire i of n zig. hall be undr the admini tration of the oli h tate and for u b purpo shoul n t be considered a, p rt of the 0 iet zone of occupation in Germany .

X.--Concluaion of Peace Treaties and Admission to the United Nations Organisation.

T.he. onference agreed ,upon the fol~o~ving tat ~en of ommon p?li y f?r ta h hlng a soon a po lble he condItion of l I n er p , aft r VI ry In

Europe : The Three Governmen.ts consider it desirable that the present anomalous position of Italy, Bulgari , inl and, Hungary and Roumania should be ~rminated by, th conolu ion of Peace T r ati . They trust that the 0 ber lnterested AllIed Governments will share the e view, For their part the Three Governments have included the preparation of a Peace Treaty for Italy as the first among the immed ' ate important tasks to be undertaken by the new Council of Foreign finisters . Italy was the first of the Axis Powers t<> break with ermany to whose defeat she bas made a materia'! contrib. tion., and ha. now jqined with the Allie in, :th 8t~gle ag~inst Japan l: ", Italy has freed herself ~rom the Fa cist ~ ,~i i ,e and 18 making good prQ~ress towards the re-establishment of a democ·ra:tlo government and institutIons. The conclusion of such a Peace Treaty ith a~nised and dem.ocrati~ Italian GovernmentwiU make it possible for the T,h ree Governm~ts to fulfil their desire to support an a,p plication from Italy for membership of the United ations. T.he Three Governments have also charged the Council of Foreign Ministers with the task of preparing Peace Treaties for BWgaria., Finland. Hungary and ,Roumania.. The conclusion of Peace Treaties with recognised democr.atic Governments in these Sta.Ws will also enable the 'Three. Governmen~ to support applications from them for ~embe'rship of the l!nited Natlo~. The Three Governments agree to examme\ each separately In the near. futu~,. in. tbe}i Q}, ~~ tp ~ conditions then. prevailing ~be establishm~nt , of diplomatiC 1e!&tlona .~lth Finland, Ro~;nla, Bulgaria, &I}d ,R~n 'TV . the ~t possible pn ' r to the conclusion of peace tr84tles 'WIth t~o$e countries. ' .~,' ~ ~e Three Go :':~~Jl1iients ha,\'e no .dQut>t that, in vjew ' of" the ~ged cOnditIons resulting'·"from the terminatiQll of the war in Europe) r-epresenta'tives of the Allied press will enjoy full freedom to re~rt to :£he ,WQrld upon , developments in Roumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland. ' " As regards the ad~iS8ion of , Q~het States into 'the United atians '·Organisation, Article 4 of' ~e 04iuter of the United ations declares that'~' . c~ 1.. Mem~rship in the United Nations is open tp otlfer peace· loving States,who aOOept the obligations contained in the· present Chart~r &nci In the j~d~ent of the organisation, are able and ~illing w carry . ou,t these o~liga.tion8; . ~ ,t d ' ission of an such State to memberShip in the United, N atio~$ Nill be effected ya 6CIS1On -or-the :en-eral1wemb1y'-\l'poJr-.:~-=--:-;--~ . the recommendation 'o f, the Security CounciL') , The Th~ Governments, so far as they are concerned, will support a~pli~ tioDI for membership from those Statea which hav~ re,m ained neutral during the yar and _hich ,fuUil the qualificatipns set out above. , Tlte Three Governm,ent8 'feel bound, however to make it clear that they "f.or their part ·o uld not favour any application for membership put forward by 'the ~reeent. Spani.h (l()vernme~~" w~fch~ ~ving. ~n ~ounded wi~h the support ,of the' :Axl'S Powers, does not, m Vlew of tts Ol'lglns~ , Its ,nature, Its record and ~ta Close Uaociation with tile 'aggressor St~t8. PQssess the qualiJi~tion8 necessary ' W justify such member8hip. t

I

?

t

all

;

r

," XI.-Tvrt~l~l TrUl~blp. TilerConference examin~ a~roR088.1 by the ~viet Government concerning

~Iteelhip territories ~ ~efined ~ the deo18~on .of the Crimea Conference and Ul ,tlle Ch&r~r of the UDl ted Natlon, Organisation. .' :After eJchange of views o~ this question it was decided that the dis"

'"n

positidll of any former Italian territories

as one to be decided in connectio.n


with th preparation of a. peace treaty with Ital ~ a.n that the question of Italian territory ould be con idered by the eptember Council of Mini t 1'8 for ,foreign .Af£~irs. I

XII.-Reyised Allied Oontrol Commlulon Procedure in ROUIDani&.

Bulgaria and Hungary. The Three Go ernmeots took note that the

oviet Representatives on the

.Allied Control Commissions in Bouma-nia, Bulgaria and Hungary, ha.ve com-

to their United Kingdom and Unitea taUs colleague J>ro~l for improving the work of the Control Commissions, now tha,t ho tilitle ill urope

municated

have ceased.

I

Governments agreed that the revi ion of the procedures of the Allied Control Commissions in these countries would now be undertaken, takin« - into aocount the interests and responsibilities of the Three Governments whioli together presented the terms of armi tice to the respective countries, and accepting .

The Thr

as a basis, the agreed propOsals.

.

XIII.---Orderly TItanate of German Populations. The Conference reach~d the follo _:' pg agreement on the removal of Germans from Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hun~ry : The Three Governments, ha.ving considered the question in all its aspects, ~iae that the transfer to Germany of German populatioll8, or elements thereof, remaining in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary, will have to be uD,derta~en. They agree that any transfers that take pr~ should be effected

in an order~ -.nd humane manner.

Since the influx of a large number of Germans into Germany would increase the bur<len already resting on the oooupying authorities. they consider that the Allied Control Cbuncil in Germany should in the nrst instance examine the pn)blem W1\b ~i8:1 regard to the question of the equitable distribution of t.heae .. Ge III among' the vera! zones of occnpatiol:l. The1 are accordingly instructmg !.,~;~tc~~":1". , their i¥PeCtive rep~tative8 on -_. ' Con~rol Council to report to their Govern,menta," 80011 •• WU1b1e ,~_ extent !oO which such. pel'lOll8 nave-a.l.ready e~tered Oel"JDany trOJIl Pol~d, Czehlloslovaki:a"~d Hungary, and; flO · ul)mit ·an estlmate of the time and rate at whiCh f~ transfers could be carried out, having -," regard to the preaent situation in ~(;ermany. _ ._ ~-. 'the Ozeohoslovak Government, the Polish Provisional Government the 'r::, Control Council iq Hung~ry are at "the same time being informed of the above, and are being ~Uc!8ted meapwhl.1e to ~uspend further expUlsions, pending th., examhlati011 by die Gove~t8 conoernecf of the report from their repreaenta~'

ana

tivesOD the COntrol Council.

I

~_

,

. " XIY ~~Mllltary Talks.

Oporationa


10

Army d inist ra r. ate.

tate.

For th

ni d Kingdom-

The

.

rune

M"

Inl

The ecretaryof

te {

r

fl'. Win ton . ChuIchill~ Mr. C. R . ttl I .P .

.P.

. - J Mr. Anthony Eden tate for Fo 19n A ft'a rr l Mr. Erne t Be,1in,

Lord Leather Minister of War 1: ranspo:rt. ir Ale ·ander Cadogan, Permanent . nderr tary of State for Foreign Afiairs. · ir Archibald Clark Kerr, H i aj e t ~ Amba sador at Moscow. Sir al~r Moncld~n, Head of the nited Kingdom ,Delegation to loscow Reparations Commission. ir William trang, Political Advisei' to the Commander-in-Chief British . Zone in Germany_ .. Sir Ed ard Bridges, Secretary of the Cabinet. Field-Marshal Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staft. Marshal of the Royal Air -F orce ir Charles F . A. Portal, Chief of be Air tafl. Admiral of the Fleet tir Andrew Cunningham, First Sea Lord. . General Sir Hasting Ismay Chief 'o f Staff to the Minister of Defence. , Field-Marshal Sir Harold Alex&Dder, upreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theatre _ :' '" .. ; ." '.:. :, ': . ;'., . ., Field-Marshal Sir Henry i&itland~"" "' il80n', Head of the British Joint Std "• • • 1

Mi88ion at Washington,

and other .Advisera-.

,~

Generalissimo J. V. Stalin: , People' 8 CommissaI' of Foreign ABair of the U. .S.R.: V. M. Molotov ~ . AdDliral of the Fleet . G. Kuznetsov, People' Commis8ar of the &Vy of the .S.S.R. . . . A. I. Antonov, Chief of Staff of the Red Army. A. Y. VfshiDSki t Deputy People~8 Commissar of Foreign Aft irs. S~ 1. Kavtara<ize, Deputy People' Commias&l of Foreign Affairs. . I. M. Maiski, Deputy People's Commiasar of Foreign Mairs. -Admiral S. G. Kucherov, Chief of Naval Staft. , --;=;:~-;-;:::-:--;:-;::r;'777-'---~~.--I-:-.~fHP.y..,-'lV\V1' e Ambassatior-to G ~eatl B' . . \ " _ A. A. Gromyko, oViet Ambassador to the United States. - ,.K. V. Novikov, Member lof the Board, Commissariat of Foreign Affairs. Head of 2nd urope&li .Department. . ,. 'S. K. Tsa-rapkin, Member of the Board, Commissariat of :Foreign Affa.irs, He d of the United States Department. . S~, P. Kozy,rey, H~ of 1st' Europea.n l)epartment, Commissariat of Foreign

Affain.

A , A. La,\Triahchev, Head of Balkan C011Dtries Department, Commissariat of F,oreign Affairs. . A. A. Sobolev, H~ of Political Department, Soviet lilitary Administr tion in Germany. M. Z. Saburov, A.ssi8ta.nt Chief of Sovi t Military Administration in Germany.

S. A. GohIn ki, Expert ,Adviael' Caromi

riat of Foreign Aftairs as well as political, military and technical staffs. '


75 lll.- PROTOCOL OF THE PROCEiDINGS OF THE BERLIN

OONFERENCE. • he

., .R ..

17th July to I.-Establishment of a Oooncil of Foreign Ministers. A. Th Coni r n r cbed the following agl' m D t f r t e tabli hm nt of a. Councjl of :F . ign Mini tel'S t do the nece sary preparat 1 r work for the

peace settlement :(1) There shall be e tabli bed a Coun '"1 comp ed f th F?re.ign Minist~rs of the nited Kin ?dom h Unjon of vi~t 0 lahst Repubh ~ China, France and the United tate. (2) (i) 'rhe Cou~ il hall normally meet, in London whi n hal} be. the permanent eat of the join ecreUi:l'iat whi I·h the CoUDCll wlll form . Each of the Foreign Mini lers will be a 'ompanied by a bigh.:ra?king De}Juty, duly authorised carryon the ' b k of the Coun 11 10.the absence of hi'j Foreign Minister, a.nd "by , small staJf of techUlcal l

t. o

advisers , .' . (ii) The first meeting of the Council shall be held in London ' Dot later tban the 1st september, 1945. ieetings may be held. by' common agreement in. otlie:r ('.apit~s 8.$ may be agreed from tlme to time. (i) As its immediate inwortant task, the Coon i1 shall be authorised to draw up, with a VIew· to their submis..c:;ion to be United atioDe, treaties of peace with Italy. Roumania, Bulgaria. Hungary and 'Fi~and, and ~ P~QPOse ~ttlemen~ of urritorial questions o~t8ta.nding on the termInation of the war In Etu"Ope. . The Couned shall be utilised fo'r the preparation of a , peaCe ', .. ~ 1 111' n ;. for Germany to be accepted by the Government 0-£ German w ben a ,Government ,adequate for the purpose is established, ' , (ii) F~t the 'discllarge of eaeh of tJlese·;ta.sk8 the Council will be composed of the Members representIng tbose tares whioh were 8ign~~ry to ' the . terms o'f surrender imp<> ed ~pon the enemy State ' concerned . For tbe ~urpo~ of :tlle ',peace $ettlement for Italy, France I

.

I

I

(') I

Shall be regarded ~ ... 8~gn~tory fA? t};le. ~rmiJ of 8Urrend~r for. Ita.ly. Other Memb,rs WIll be lDVlted .t9 partlc~p~te when matters dIrectly concerning: them ar~ under discu.ssion. • .. ' (iii) ,Other matters may from time to time be referred to 't he ConDcil ,by agreement betw~n the Member Governments. . (i) Whenever the COunell is con' idering a question of direct .interest to aSta.~ ;not r~?resented thereon, suCh State should ,be ' invited to send ,:'representatives to · participate in tbe di 'ussion and study of I

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" (11) The Council may , ada~t its ~d~re to the particular , problem under consideratlon. In some oases it may hold its own pre1immarydi~B8ion8 prior ~, t~~ partiCipation of other interested Statea~ In .other ~t the CoUncil ma.y convoke a formal oonference of the State chiefly in~reated in seeking .a aalution of the particular proble~."

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B. '. It was ' ~ that the three Governments should each address an , identic~l .in~'tati~n .~ ~he e~verntne~ts of China a.nd F'r ance to adopt this text ~d to 10m 1!l eata~Iiahmg ~e Council. The text of the apprpved inVitation, was

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FOREI~N

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. ide~t:ica/; inl1itatiMl, to be sent' 86pa,.at~lll biI acA 0/ the T"re~ ,G()",~rnmen~6 to th~ Go."ern.m~n.ts 0/ China and Franc,. ,~ "' lI'heGovernm~ta of the United Kingdom the U~ited tat:es and the U.S.S.R. ,C()nsi~er, it Deoessa.ry to begin without delay the 'essential p-repar.tory 'wQrk' uppn ·the peace settlements in Europe. To this end they '

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• Te~~ Qompared .nd .gr ed with ~be Uuited State. aQd 80vi t. DeIeraYon •.

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are agre d hat h t:' should t e. tabliCl.hed a ouncil of th ] 01 eign 11ini tars of tbe Fiv Great Power to pr par treati with ta~s,

enemy also

for subQ1i ion to the Uni d atlOn. Th oun il would ttl tnents of out tan ing t rritor ial question

be empowered to J?roprn e

in Europe and to on Id r u h other ruaH rs a member Governments migh agree to refer to it. , The text adopted by th Three Governmentti is a follow (Here in ert final agreed t xt of the Fropo al.) 'In ag,reem~nt ~ith the

ove~nment <:>£ tho. United tat S ,n d rnment tn t!. e United .Ktngdom and [.S.S.R., the Un'i ted State G01:ernm nt, the United Kingdom a' d the So'vi t GO'1)ernlli-ent e tend a ldial invitat ion to the Government of China ,(France) to adop~ the texJ quoted above and to join in setting up the Coun il. Hi . 11faj-e Ity Go ernment, . the Unit d tat ' Go ernTl' 81l; t j the Soviet G01)ernment atta h much importance t the pa rti i'pation of the Chine."'fJ GOfJernm ent (F7'lm,ch (01)ernmen~) in .the proposed arrangements and they hope to r~~~iye an e'a dy and favourable reply to ,this invita,tioll.' r

u.S.S.R., HtS MaJesty s

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The '~'t&:blishment of ~he Cou~cil of Fo~eiKn Minist~~s, for the specifi 10 the text Wlll be Without preJudlCe to the"'agreement of the Crimea Conference that there should be p riodical consultation between the Foreign Sectetarie of ,t he United tate, the Union of 0 iet Socialist Republics C.

purposes named

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the United Kingdom.

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, I>. The Conference also considered the position of the European Advisory COInmiss~on in the ligltt , of the Agreement to establish the Council of Foreign Ministers. It was noted with satisfac.tion tha.t the Commi~ion had ably discharged ita principal tasks by the recommendations that it had furnish.ed for , the terms' of surrender 'for jGer:many, for the zones of oocupation in Germany and Austria and for the inter-Allied control ~aohinery in diose countries. It was ' fe~t thatfur.ther ,woi-k ,o£.,(l.,.detaUed, oharacter for the co.-.ordin~tion , of 'Allied poJ4oy for oontrol of GermMY and Austria would in ' f~'~Il!e" fall'"within the ooxn~tence of the Control onneil in Berlin and the Allied Coriuliission at Vienna. ACc<?rdingly it.r~s a~~ t,o recommend. ~~at the EuropeaJ! ,Ad:yi8Qry Commission

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II~-:-:-,'t~~ . Prinoiples to GOyern tbeTreatment ofG.8I'man.y in the Initial Control

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, .', 4t:-Roz.itical Prj,rncipUS. ~' . ~ . ' ,..'t. ~p ~cotdall.ce with tne IA greement on Control Machinery in Germany . . 8upr~e. authority in Gerrpany is exercised; on instr.u ction's from their tespective t

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Governments, by, the Commanders-ia-Chief of the' armed ' foroos of the Uhited S,~~ ,o.! Ameri~, the 'l! nited' ~ing~om, the Union of Sovi~t Sociali8-t Rep~blics , and , tb~ French ~p~bhc each In ,h\$ own ' zop.e of occupa.tlOn and a~ J91nt1y, ~..::::.t.:.:..~:'T+=-f-r-r---;'' :'J-;'~'/r'n. .,.....~~~ll~ .G~~ " . their ell &Cit as members of the COntrol Counoil. , ~-- -~ '" .i, ~. '. ~ far ~I is ,pta<;ltic&ble" ,thel'e 8b~1l be unif,ormity ,of . tr.tm~nt of . the , German p()PQlatl~n tlP"0ughol1t Ger~y. ,' , ' , . , . S. The pur~se8 of the ocq'upa~ion o~ Germ~ny by which the Control Cpuncil , shall be " guide4" a,r~~, . (i) The Conlple~ d.i sarmament and demilitarisation of Germany and the , elhninatio~ o~ (lODtt'ol of aU German it;ldustry tha.t coUld ,be used for , military produc~ion. To the e ends: ' ' . (a) All G, rman land, ,pa~al and air foroos, t-be 8.S., S.A., S.D, and Gestapo, ' with all their organisations, staffs and institutions, including the General Staff, the Officer ' Corps, Reserve Corps, '" milita.r1 'SQhooll5, war yeteraos' org.nisations and aU other military and '8eini-military organi~tion8J ' 'together with all clQbS and associations which serve to keep ahve the military ~~ad~t*oDi i~ ,GetJD~nYl 8~U:, beCOlllpletel ' andfinaUy a~lished 1D J'QCh manner &8 permanently to prevent the revnra) or reorganisation of German militarism and Nazism; ~'~\~tl.~}l::li..!·f.'·!~:.1

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277 (b) ~ 11 arm .. , am unition and implem n s of W ,r nd all speci Ii , d faciHtie for h ir productiol~, hall be held at the di 'po al o th .c\..llies or d.estro d, The tnaintenanc and produ tion of all 1

air r'3 ft and aU arms amn unitiou and implemen of w r hall

be prevented ,

\i i To on ~i ncf' the 1erman people that they have uffered 1;1 l tallllilitary I ' defea.tand tha t they annot escape r e pon ibility for what they have bro~~gh t upon them. I,\"e . ince their own ruthless warfal'ea,n d tb' fanatical ~ azi r i. tnnc h we d troyed German economy an d made \.:hao and ' utlerin ineyitabl. , (iii) To destr:oy the .. , tional So iali t Party and it affi lia ted and uper 'ised organi atioD to dis .. Iv all Sazi in titut ion , to en ure that th y are not revived in any form and 0 PI' \ ent all T azi and militar i t · ti vit ' or propaganda. (iv) To prepa.re for the eventual !' on, t rll don of German politi a l li fe on a democvatic bas i and for eventual pcac ful ro-opel'At i'lll in international life by Germany. I

4. All . azi laws whiChfrovided the ba i of the Hitler regime or e, 'tabU hed dis ~riminatioD on g rou'R,~ 0 race, creed , or polit ical opinion shall be '~olished . Ko such discrimina tion'· ! whether legal, administrative or otherwise, -<shall be tolerated. . 5.: __" ar crhiiina]s .and tho ,~ho have participated in plannin~ or carrying out Nazi enterp,l'ises invQlving or resulting in atrocities or wa r tlIDeS shall he arrested and brought to judgment. ' Nazi leaders, influen~ial ..azi ' upportel's and high official of Nazi organisations and instit utions and any other persons dangerous to the oocupation:oJ' its objectives shall ,he ar rested and interned, -

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6 , ' All UlemPefs of toe Nazi party who have been more than' nominal partI cipants in its l a.c tivitjes and all other persons ho tile., to Alli~d · purposes shall be. ~emoved from p~bl~~: ~~, .' s~mi -puqHc office. ~d from pos itio~s 9' :ra . '.Ro.~,si ~i~t;r'" ~ . _, ill nnportant prlv~te 'under aktng. Such per on hall' be ,r eplaced :t5y; persons . who, -by ~heir political Aud ' moral, qualitie , are deemed capable of ass~'_ ting in developing ge~~ine I~,~mq: ratic ~nstitutions in ~ermall.Y· · ), ;': '\

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I . - 7; G~,~,n edllQa,tion shall be $0 cont rolled 'a~ completel. to etiminate azi and militaris aoctr ines nod to h1ake ,possible ' the success fl}l d~velopment of deJIlOO1'atid id.eas. · '" , " : ,"

-·1 T'h~ jUdidi'al system will ~ 'reorganised in aCCQr~ce :wi,th:tlle prin~ipl of democr8rcyl;l ofj~tice under l$.w, and of equal rights tor all ci~zens, without distinption of.t~ce, 9;ationalit~· Qr tfflig ion : "r , ', ~ , ' , I f ~j , . I

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I 1 9,: ' The admlnisttation in Germ.a ny should be directed , tow:a.rds the decentralis~tion of the , po,)i~ic.al 8t~UCtU e and ..the d~veloplXl~nt of local"tesponsibjlity. To this end:':"'" ,,~ '. ' , ' (i~ ' Loeal Self ~vemme~ha~r-estor~\lt Germany ~. cra~ic ,ptlncipl~ 8,?,d. in p.,KicuJar t~rough',ereetive counoils"as r~pidh' as ~ l~ .oonsist~t WIth mlhtary security ,a nd , the purposes of mlbtary 1

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ocoupation '. I' .. ,,' , ." " , , '. ;(ii) all 4e~~ratio IPQlitical partiee :with' rights of ~~mbly a~d of public ,

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diSCUSSion ,shall·.oo allowed ~nd encouraged throughout Germany' " (lii) ~epr~n~tive an~ elective pri'ncipl~s' ~hal~ :00 intvodu~a i~t.o r~gional, '\ <' _- ,If pro~nc~al and :state (Land) admiU lstra tlon as rapidly as may be ,, . jU$tJied by, the succe ful applioati~n of these p~inc' lple~ in local self-j.

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for the' .tim~ beipg, ne ~entr,'l Ger man -G9yernment. shall be, e tablisbed. ... pt~Jths~&ndlQg 'tbls, how<,y~t" certalnessentlal central German adminIstrative. aepa~tment8 hef1:ded by State Secreta~ies, shall be e6tabli8bed~ particularly in ,the fields of ·finance, transport, communication.S, fo~ign t~e an,Cl il\dustry. uab departments will act under tne direction of the Collt~ol Counoil. ' , -, , I '. , ' 1

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lQ '1'8~bjeet t9 the n~ity for_maintaming .military security. freedom ,of . • ~etth,~ press 'aIld reli~ion fShaU be pernlitted, .nd religio,uS institution ~hall be . ~pee·iea . · Su~ject' lilCe\V~ to th~ 'aintenQ,hce of military security, the formation · of free tt.d~ ~10ns ,shall ~ perml tted, '" '' ' I ,

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21'. B .~tcon011'J,ic Pt"i'71rJple" II,.. In"order. ,to eliminate G rmany's war pot nt ial, the pro~~ 路tim of aI'ms,

a,mlllllnltlon and implements of ':war ' a ' "lell a all typ of all' raft and 'eagoing ships .~hall be prohibited and 'preYented. f rodu tiOD of mal chemicaJs m.ac~i~e'ry a~lq qther items that' nre ' dire,ctly nece,,'sary to a ar e onomy shall be ngldlyontrolled and restl'i ted to Germany approved p s war pefl time needs to .meet the objectiv s stated i~ paf<lgraph l!1. Productiye ca ftC'tv not n eded JOi' P Tmitted l'rodu 路"tiQ "haU be removed in a' '" rdRllC with he ,r eparations plah r commended by the Allied ommi sian on repa.ration. and approved by the GO'fernnli~nt$ con " el'n(~d or, if not removed, ~hall be destroyed. 12. At the e~,rliest practi able date t.he erman e ' nomy hall deeentr~lised for tbe purpose of eliminating the preseI;lt exce.ssi\re con entration of eoonomic power as exemplified in parti u]ar by aroo18. ndi ates, tru ts and

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1 . PIH priate t ~ps 'La,ll t :. t ,en lJ · t.1 Cox trol . . 0 neil 0 .~ r 'i .' ontrol and the power of di po i ion ov r '. erma Il..()wn ' ternal . a"s t, not ~lready unde,I' the ntrol f t;uited, Nations which have tal en part m the war

again t

' rmany.

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a~rmen

ofrepurat.ions "hould leav e,n0u h ,r e u+ ~ t~ nahle the

Ger,m an people to SUbSI$t With ut external a $lst'.<'lllce. In w~)rkll1g ut ~h eoonornic balan of Germany the n '. S.· ry meaUR rna t be pr vid d to J ay

for imports appro\red b r the,. n 1'01 COUD il in Ge:tln~ny. ~rhe pl'oeeeds , of exports froIn tlrrent produ 'tlOn and t ks hall avallabl '111 the fir t r lace for payment for such ' imports . . The above, lallse will not nJy app~v to th .equipm nt nnd product'"' ~. f rr to 10 paragraph 4 (a) and 4 (6) of h Repar ~tlons Agreement. III~-Repar,~ti'ons

from Germany.

1. Rep~ration olaims of the U . . .R. shall be m t by remov~ls flom ' the zone of Germany , occupj~d by :' the U.', .R. and fromappr prlate ner'ma'n external Ilssets. ',~, '

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,1~he U .S.~ ,R. ~l1de,rtakes to set~l~',the reI aration olaims of Pola.nd from

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its own aha re of reparatlOns.

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The reparations claims of the United tates, the United Kingdom, and entitled to reparations shall be met from the Western Zone , and from appropriate German e ·ternal asset . ' 3.

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Zone~

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"" .,' ',' (4), '15 p~r ce~t~ of such us~ble. ~nd oomple:te indll:, ,tr~8.1 bapital equ~pment, in .. ' the first phlloe fro~ the metallurgteal, chemical alld mach),n manu-

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. fa~turi~g in<l~tnri~~, p.~ : i~'·~~~~~ry '191' th~ G, erman . ~oe eooJ;l.o~~r, ana shQuld ' be l'emo,"'ed from ,,:tne Western ,Zoneg ,of Germany,

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excha.nge for' aneq,~i'valen:t ,va.lue of food, coal potash, zinc, timber: -clay ' prQduc~8,~ petr.,~leum ·~ii>~~uC'ts, and, 6U0~' other oommQdities I,~~ ,mayDe ' a.greed. UPclti / ,:~,' .; , " ',; 10 'per"cent: off ·Buen, rnpu~td~l capital ~uipment as is unne~8ary for " , ; 'the Ge,rman . ~~C~t ec'onomy and ~houl~. be. removed, from the W8S~l.'n , ',,' z,on~sJ ~.be transf-erl~~ ' to ,the Sonet Govern~ent. on reparat,lo S , 'account WIthout jpaymebt or exc~ange of any kInd In return. , ~.'. \'r' , '" • ~

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:ReJJlo~al .' pf '~uipni~~, t ~s, ~~o~i~~ ill (a) and (b) ~bove ' shall : be , 'simultaneously. ' ~., ....' , ',~, ' , ,." .' ~

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to ' be removed from' the WeatetnZones ~-' n AcCount' of ~par&tion8 tDust be determined, within six months from now at tl1e

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I " ft ~vals af';' i~dus.tri~~~p~ta equlpment 8 glI~ ,as .soon ,~ {>9 " 1 e a~d, shall be ,pomRl~t.e9 ;,wlt~1l1 two years "from 'the de~ernllnatlon sp'ooified lD , p .. ragra:pl). 0," The dehvery 'of, produots covered, by 4(4) abote shall begtn as soon '

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pos$ioJe a:nd shan be made 6y the U.S.S,R. in agreed in talments within five ' The dete~ination jQf the amount , and oharacter o'f the ' industrial· ~pit;a.l , equipment :unneoessary 'for the German peace economy' " and ,therefore available for ~pfl.l'ation8 sh;all be made by the Control Council ~nder PQ1icies fixeq by the',AJ)ied Commission on ,Reparations, with tne.parttcipa. ti~n'l of',F*ance, 8ubJect tb fbe fil)al approval of the 'Z()ne Commander in the Zone from whjcn t~e equip.ment is to 'be,removed.' . U

~ars of .the 'date , heroof.

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1. 1l ~ti~f '~ the ,fudng . of , ~he tdta~ : amo~nt 'qf ' equip~ent ' subject to removal,. advance geli~erles shall be made in re8p~t of such eqUIpment as will be deter .

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deli'very in aQ~'O~d~j}Qe with the procedure , set forth i~

Ithe .ifuit ;·.en~noe lof pa.ragrapb 6; ",',

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2 0 9. The over~ment.s of the nit d Kingdom and nited ~,at re.noun f ' nnan nt cpn hI h ar all claimR in, r p t f rep ra i 11S 0 shu r 10 t d in the . ~ a tern ' Zone of oc upatioI1 i el'man), a well a to erman foreign a ts in Bulgaria, Finland Hungal'y' R{)umania and lSatern Austria. 1

lO, '{he !'Ioviet ' ov rl1m nt makes no cla.im to gold captured by b Allid troops in Germany. IV.- Disposal of the German N,&vy and MerohantMarine. A. The following principles .for the distribution of the erman avy were agteed;- , (1) The ,rotal strength of th ~erm~n urf3; navy, ~ . lu~ing ~ips sunk and those taken over from Allied NatIOns, bu t IDcludrng ShIpS under c~nstru tiOIl or repair sh~ll be divided equally a.roong the U .. S.R'J United Kingdom and · ni~ed tate . (2) hips under con truction or repair mean those ships whose construction or repair may .be completed within .'.hree to ix months,. according .~ the type of slllp.Whether such " l PS under construction or repaIr 8h~1l be comple~d or repaired s~an be determined by the toohnical commission appointed by the Three , Powers and referred to below, SUbject to the ' principle that their completion or ~pair must be achIeved within the time limits above provided, without an~l increase , of skilled employment in ', the' German shipyard~ and without permitting the reopening of any Germa.n SQIP building or connected , industries. Completion date means the date when a shjp is able to go out on its first trip, or, under peace-time standards, would refer to the oustomary date O'f delivery- oy shipyarq to the Government. (8) The 'larger, pa~t of th~ German 8ub~,al'ine fteet sh~l1. ' ,be' sunk. Not ~ore . .1 ,tl1~ thirty ~~bma.r'lnes ~,~ll be pr.~~~ve~ ~;nd, ,dlVl~~ equally ~etw.een " t ~' .', the U.S.S.R., 'Unlted Klng~om ' a~~ :JJp'L~ ~tates for e.xperlmentll) and techIiicalpurposes. ; . (4) All stocks of arIIiament ammunitiO,D ~d supplies of the German Nayx

· . ,appertaining to the ,vessels' tra!llsfefred ' pursu~ntto paragraphs (1) , , and (8) ~ereof shall be h~~de~ 9r~r to the respec~ive Power$ recei'(1ing , I

such shIps. •The Thr~ GOl!ernments agree to constitute a ' triparti~ naval ooillmission comprising two representatives for each Government, aeoornpanied · ~y ,the, Jequisite staff, :to BpbmJt agreed' ~mme~dation8 ' to the' Three Gore~nme~tB for th·e al~~ation 'of speqific Germ~ warships and to J

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, Jiandle othel- "oetaiJed ma.tters ~pising out of the ~ment between the Three G6\'ernments 'regarding the German fleet. The Commi.ssion ,will :bold i,~ first meeting not later 'than the l5th August, 1945, in . , Berlin~i , ~hich '. Sh8.,ll ~ oj t~. headq~arters.. Eachpel.e~tjon ~D' the · , Co~ml881on, ~l.ll h,v~ the·'rlght" ~n the ~881S of rec~pr~lty~ to lnspe.ot , <,German 'wai8hlP, wll~reve;r~a;y.~l . "" , . :;. (6) The Th.~ ~ Governm'entk ~ee that transfers, U~Cl'Udl'ng those pf shlPS . UJ;lder construction and repai~~ 'shan be comp~eted as soon as ~ible, " but not later than the ,15t.l\ February, 1946. The CommissJop win submit fQrtnighth~ reports, including pro}108&ls for .the p~ogressi ve all0'c8~~ori of the v~18 'when, agreed ~y tile Commission. , I

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. . ~he ' 'ollQwing principles for the distrib1)tion ', of the .German 'Merchant !.4arJ»e ~ere agreed:- . ' , (1) ~he' German Merchant Marine, snrr.e ndered to the Three Powers and 'I

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wheTever , locatM, $h~lr be, divide4 equally: $DlODg theO.S.S.RL' the United KmgdoDi, ~d ~he Uni~d 'S tates. The actual transfers of ,the ~i~to the ,re8~ti've coUntries shall take place a8800p ~ J>r~ticable I' after the end bf\tlie war &~ain8t Ja.pan. The United Kingdom and the United St.tes will ~rovlde , out of the~r .mares of the $l1rrendered · ,~e~ 11lerchant sh~ps appropriate amounts for othe! Allied Su.tes , whose merchant marInes have 8uffer~ .h.eavy' ,1088eB luthe common cause ~8ain$t Ge~ny, ~x.oept 'tha.t th~ SoVletl Union shall prQvide '"\"'''''v:~.,..''''.,' out of lts sha;r,e for Poland. .

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(2) The allocation, manning and op ration o · b sln u: i g I e J npane 'Var p riod hall fall under th :ognisa.n and ' unthorit of the . . ombined ' bipping Adju tUl nt Bord and b nita ~raritime Authority. (3) '\ hile a tuaI transfer of ' b hips shall be delayed until after th end of the war with Jpnn , . a Tripartite hipping Commi ion tihall inv nun, and 'alu all available hips and recommend aspe ific di tribution in accordance with paragraph (1). (4) erman inland and coa tal hi s determined be nece ary to the maintenanee of the ba i German pace onomy b r the ",A.11 ied Control UOltn H of German shall not be in ']uded in t.h shipping pool thus divided amolj).g the Three Pow rs. (5) The Three Government ~ agre tp constitute a, tripa.l'tite me,r chant marine commis ion comprising two repre ntatives for each Governm.e nt, acoompanied hy the requisite taft, to submitag.reed recommendations to the Three Governments for the allocation of s{>ccific German merchant ships and to handle other detailed matters arIsing out of the agreement l~tw en hA Three Go ernments r ardin the German I'1'l:el'chant ships. The oromie ion will hold it fir t meeting not. later ,",h an the 1st eptemh r 1945, in Berlin, hich shall be jts ~ eadquarters. Each delegation on the Comrni" ion will have the right, on the basis of reclprocity, to inspect the German merchant ships' wherever they may be located. Y.-City of Koniglberg- and the Adjacent Area. The Conference examined a proPosal by the Soviet Government to the effect that. ,pending the fi.n~l . determlnation of territorial ques~iong at the ~ace eettlerpent, the section of the 'western froDti~r of the nion 9f So\'i~t SOCIalist Republica wh~ch is adjacent W the Baltio Sea should pass ,from a point on the eastem 8h~e of the Bn,y of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg-Goldap, to the meeting. poin,t of the frontiers of Lithuania.. the Polish Republic and East Prussla. .,:" . ".' , ",." ,.' " . , The "'C 9nference has .agreed in principle to 'the proposal of the Soviet Governil)pD ",ooncerniJig the ultimate transfer to the Soviet tJ nion of the City of Koni~8.. rg 'aDd the area. adj~ent to it as described . abo ·e subject toexpel"t exammation of the a,ctual frontIer. " '.' ' Th'e 'Pre$ident of , the United , States and die Britl!sb Prime :Minister have decl'a ted that~hey ~~11 support the proP9sal of the CoD£~rence o,t the forthcoming l

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1


2 .2

Provisional G yernm nt nal "ruity r b the Tbre Wcr . The stabHshment by the Bd i b and nit d tates , ov rnment f d iplomati felations with the Poli '11 Pl'()vi ional ov roment of Nationa.l Tnity ha re ulted in the withdrawal of their reco nition from th f rmer PUsh ov rumen in London, which ~o longer elCi lSts. The British and nited , tate Go\' rnment hav take.n I'll asure to pr t :t the interests of the Polish Provisional Govern.ment f tiona} nity, as tho recognised Governm nt of the Polish tate, in the property belonging to the Polish State locat d in their territories and tinder their control, whatev r the form of this propert, may be. They have further tak n m a ures to prvent alienation to thll'd parties of sllch proper y, All roper facilities will be gi en to the ' li 'h Provisional GO\Tcrnmen.t of ~ational nity for the ex-er ise of the ordinar ' lecral r m~.die for the recovery of any property belonging to th Polish tate which may have been wrongfully aliena~d, The Three ~Powers are anxious to a i t the Polish Provi ional Government of National U ni ty in facili ta ting the retu.rn to Poland as ' soon as pra. .t ica.ble f all Poles ,abroad who wish to go, in:olud~.g members of the Polish armed fol' as ann the merchant marine. They expect tha t tho e Pole who retul1n bom shall be aocorded pereq~al and property rights on the same basis as all ,Polish citizen . The Tbr,ee :J?Qwer note that the Polish Provisional Go, ernn;t'~f).t of ational Unity in ' aooord1a\ioo with the decisions of the Crimea Confereri~~_ has agreed to the holding of free l,l.nd unfettered elections as soon as possible:5bu the basis of universal ,sUJIra.ge and secret ballot in which all demooratlc and anti- azi parties . sha.ll na'Ve the rIght to take part and to put' forward candidates; and that rep.r --senta.tives of the AHied Press shall enjoy full freedom to report to the world upon , developments in Pol~nd l;>efore and pU~lng the elections. B._~f estern

[i'rontisr of Poland. . In conformity with the agreement on Poland reached at the rimea Conference the three Heads ot Government hav~ sought .the opinion of the Polish

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Pro¥iBi,ona~ ·, Gqverl¥lleQt e.tN~~iona.l Ullity in "regard tp ' ~e ~ession o,~ territory 'in the ~orth ·~~:~.es~ 'w:h,jcb Poland should receive. T~e Pr~ia~:Qf ,fh:~: ational CounCil of Poland and members of the Poli h Provisional Goverrlmen't of National :l!:{litth,ave ~nr' feooived' ~t the Confe~enQe ~d ~a~~1· t\)lly p~~e~d th~ir.vie~s. '1 he:tbr~ Heads'of Govermnen t reaffirm theIr Or)ln~on' that tJ.ie fiii1l.1 delulU ta hon of.~li. westej~ frontier of Poland should await tl1e , ~~.r,.e ~ttrment. . , ".::.' i': , fThe" t1:tr~ Beads of GovetnUIellt agr~ , ~hat" ~n~;~lg' ~he~linal , de!-B~ipat~on 'of Pplana'a"rwestern frontier, the former Germa~ , terhtor'les- 'e ast of a hne runlung l froiij · the Doltie ea immediately west 'of SwinemUnq.e,' and ~hell.!e .along t.he Oder ~, Rh~~l~" to ~1i:eoo~fiu~noe 'o f the we$tern NeiS$e River ~d aldilg 'theweatern eisse '. . to t~ei -Cz-ebll:9s1oYBk frontier, including that portion e( Ea.&.t,"Prussia not placed .undU the a.ciwini8tr8.ti~n of the Union of Soviet SO<!i~liat 'ReRublica in -accordance ," witii ~~he ; ~'Sfer$tanding reached at this ~JlfereD~ a~d ~c~u~ipg the area of tho . , former free .city ,of D~rizig, shall be under the adininistration ,of the Polish Stare ' an~ ,f~r. 8UO~ pur~ 8houJ~ no~ be oonsi~eTed 8.8 part of 'the Soviet zone: of , OQcupat~on" In .GermaQY.

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'Org&Jlil&tlon. "j, lThe three GOvernment.$ consider it desirable th~t the ptesen~ anomalous 'lpoiIi~ion, of It-.ly, ~ulgariat FWlandl Hungary and Roumania should be terminated by I,the 'cOnclusion :of Peace Treaties. They trust that the otlier iItteresum Allied Governments wilr share these views. ,.' · , ' ., lfol'tfieirpa.rt the Tbr~ GovernmentS have included the preparation of ' ~ ,):>~ Treaty fo~' Italy as thefitst among th.e immediate important tasks to be und~talteJl by the Ilew Coun;cjl of For~ign ~lini8ters. Italy was the tir;st .of ~e ~ Pow.rs to bteak with Germany, to whose defeat she haa 'ma4e' & materi.al Contribution, and has, now joined with the Allies in the' struggle .,gainst Japan. [~y: be ,f~d ' ~er.sel,f from the F~i8t. regime ~d is maki.ng ~progr~ . towa.rds . ~tal:)lishJn6nt 'of a democratio gove:rnment and lnstltuttODB. The conclusion ,of ~uch a ~~ ~reaty wit.h a recognised and democratic. 1taIi!Ul .~~ent will ~ke il~r , pO$Slble,', ~or the T~ee Goyernment$ ~ .fu1;fil, thE!~r desut to qpport &Jl apj>hcatlon from. Italy for membership of tbe UnIted NatIons. ' . Tlut Three Goverl1ments have also charged 'the Couneil of Foreign Alin.is~r8 'wi~h~q~ ta8~ of pl'epal"ing, Peace Ireat\~, lor Bll:lgaria; ,Finland, ,1:rungar}' and "'.'

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rship in the U ited a ion is opn tat who ac pt the obligations contained and, in the judgDlen of tho organisation , ar

Mem

out the.se obligations; ~.

. tate to membership in the ~ nite l ations a do ision 'o f th Genernl Ass rn ly upon :' the

The admi ion of any uch will be eft ted

h.

'.1\;.

reoommendatio '.<;1£ the ecurity Council

The Three Government '. s far a they are ooncerned, win support applications for me!Dbership from th?~ .tAtes which have remained neutr'R} nUl'lng th war and whIch fulfil the quahfi ' tlODS set out above. The Three Go~ernments feel bound, however, to make it clear that they for their part would not favour any application for mernbet·ship put forward by the present Spanish Government, whiCh, having been. founded ",ith the support of the Axis Powers, does not, in view of its origins~ its nature, it record and ita close association with the a.ggr ssor tates possess the qualific.ntirm ne ssary to justify such membership.

x.~Tci-ritorial Trusteeship. The ~nference examined a pro~al by the Soviet Go"'~rnment. on : the

.

question of

ttu~~ship>territories

as

d~firied ~

the

deci~ion.

of the.- CriJ.)lea. ,

Conference a.nd. In the C,hartel' of the UnIted NatIons Organl ahon. ' After an exchang " ~: of views on this question it was decided itbat the disposition of 8J)Y formel' Italian Colonial territories WR.S one tp be decided in OOJ;lnection with the ' prepara~ion of' a' peace treaty for Italy and tha.t tile' question ()f Italian Coloni~l territory would be considered by the eptember 'Council of Minister for Foreign Affairs. ' , ,

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XI.---Rey!ted 'Alll~ Control Commll.lon Procedure in ' Rouniani•• Bulgaria and Hanguy. The Three Governm~ts tOOK note ' that tp.e @viet Re resen.t atives o.n, th~ " --...,.-----Alfie ntre, . mml8810ns 1~ Umanl8., u gariil"iLnd ungal'y ave communicated to their United Kingdom and United tates colleagues pro~s for improving the w~rk of the Control Commissions now thart hostilitIes io Euro~

have ceased. , , The Three Governments agreed that the revision of the

I

pr(~dures

of the Allied Control Commissions ' In ' these countries would now be undertaken, taking .into acoount the interests and responsibilities of the Three Governments which together llresented the terms of armistice to the respective oountries, aDa acoept!ng as a ba 1 in r~pect of all three countries the SOVIet Government's proposal, for Hungary as anoexed hereto. (Anne I.)

T~ Three Oo'vernmcnts, having considered the question in all its aspec recognise that the transfer to .Germa. ny ot C:J"erman populations) or elements Utereof,· remaining in Poland~ Cze~hoslovakia and Hungary, will have to be undertaken. They agree that any transfers th4t take place should be eft'ected in an orderly. and h1,llllane manner. ' ,[30890 1 '


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}(III.-OH

路1.'he British and United St,ates Dele~atiori8 to the Conference info'rlned the th.e desire ,of the l3rltisb and United States Government 'to :1"eQO~vene th~ ' ~Ulro~ Inland"l"r~llaport ~Q.;erenc ,,utd s~e~ that. they ~o.uld welcome at.t ~u~an~ tha:t the SoVl'et Governm~nt would part) lpate In tile work of' tb~ reconvened ~nference, . The oviet Government agreed th t it would ,

> SQvi~tDelngati?n of

participate in thi conference.


2 5 XIX.- Directiyes to Military Commanders on Allied Control Council for Germany.

XX.- Use of Allied Property for Satellite Reparations or ' War Trophies."

XXI.- Military Talks. th

th

onferen th r wer ro e in g een the hi s of roments on military matters of mmon interest .

taft of

J. TALIN. HARR TR MA .

C. -R. Berlin, 2nd A uyu t 1945.

I. TEXT OF A LETTER TRAN tTTEO 12TH JULY T TilE REPRESE TA'l'l E F THE U anD STATE$ AND U .~ITED KINGDOM GoVERNMEN'TS 0 THE LLIED CONTROL COM IS810N IN HUNGARY.

, In view of the han ed situation in conne tion i h the rmination of the war a6ain t Germany, the 0 iet ovenun find it nec ary to esta. lisb the followIng ol'der of work for the Allied qontrol Commission in Hungary : 1. During the period up to路 the nelusion of pea with Hungary the President (or Vice- resident) of the A.C'.C. will egularly call conference with the British and American repre ntati ve for the purpose of discussing the mo t im_porta.nt qu tions rela.ting to the work of the A. .C. The nferen will be called once In 10 day or mor freq.uentlY in case of ne d. Directives of the A.C . . on questions of prin iple will be issued to the ' . Hungarian authorities by th President of the Allied Control Commis ion after ", . agreement on these dir tives with the ngl~sh and American representative. . 2. The British and American representatives in the A.C.C. will take part .. in ~nera1 conference of heads of divisions and delegates of the A.C.C., convoked by the President of the A. .C., whi h meetings will be regular in nature. The 路 . erican re reaentativ will 180 pa ticipate personally or through ' their representatives In appropnate instance m inlX commt Ions crea the President of the A.C.C. for questions oonnected with the execution by tne .C.C. of ita functiona. S. . Free movement by the American and British representatives in the oouhtry ill be permitted provided that the A.C.C. is previously informed of the time and route of the journeys. . All ~uestions connected ith permission for the entran and e it of memben of ~lie staff of the British a.nd American re~resentatives in HUD~ary ill be decided on the spot by the Pr ident of tb A.C.C. within a. time-limIt of not more than one week. 5. The bringin$ in and sending out by plan of mail, cargoes and diploma.tic courien will be carrled out路 by th Briti h and American representatives on the .C.C. under arrangements a.nd within time-limits esta li Ihed by th A.C.C., or in special cases by previous co-ordination ith the President of the A .C.C. I consider it neceasary to add to the above that in all other poin the exi ting S utes re~rding the A.C.C. in Hungary which w confirmed on the 20th January, 1946, shall remain in fo in the future."

nt

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A , 1. Th burd n of ,reparation an

national.

II.

' war trophies should not fall on Allied 11

' ap'ital Equipm.ent.-We object to the renewal of uch Allied pro rt 'war trophies,'>. r under any other gui . Los would .accrue to Allied na,tionais aa,reo ult of de true ion of plants and the con equent 10 of markets and trading connection . izute of Allied prop~rt:y mak~s imp ible the fulfilment by the satellite of its obligation under the a.rmi tlce to re tore inta 路t the right and interest of th Allied Nation and their nationals. The nited tates look to the other occupying Pow rs f r the return of a.ny equipment already removed and the ces ation of removal. Where su h equipm n t will nQ't or, eannot be returned , the United tates will demand of the satellite adequate effe ti ve and prompt compensation to American na ional , and that such OOn'lpensatlon 路h ave priority equal 'to that of the reparation~ p~yment. These ptinoiples appl)Tto, all prope,r ty wholly or Sllbstantially owned' by Allied nationals. In the event of removal of property in whi h the Ameri an a well as the entir Allied interest is Ie s than substantial, the nited tates expects adequ~te, effective, and prompt compensation. 3. Cu,r rsnt ProductiQ11..~'Vhile the United St't1.te$ does not oppose ,r eparation out of current produotion of Allied in estment , the satellite must provide immediate and adequate compensation to the Allied nationals including sllfficient foreigp exchange or products 80 that they can recover reasona.ble foreign cur,rency expenditures . and , transfer & ""l'ea80oable "return ' 00 their investment. Such compepsation must also have equal priority with reparations. We deem it essential that the satellites do not oonclude treaties, agreements or arrangements which deny to Allied nationals access, on equal terms, to their trade, raiW materials and industry; and appropdatcly modify .any e,x isting a~rangements which may hav~ that effect. " 2.

as

r~parations,

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BRITI H IMPRE

10

D POT DA· I, JU

OF BERLIN

1945 th

'''lYe [ hurchill and Eden] left tog tb r for Potsdanl on July 15 , Mr. ttl accon1panYlng us to ensur continuity whatev r th outcome of the el ction. The Russians clearly considered this a p uliar arrangernent. At fir t I thought th suspected us of contriving to s cure extra r presentation at the onference but Mr. Attlee ~' as so subdued and terse a fi gure that this hardly seemed possible. 0 they remained perpJe ed though con inc d that 1r. hurchill and I had really COlne t stay. Anthony Eden [Foreign Secretary], Tire Edell ldemoir: Tile Reckolling (Londou: Cassell 1965), pp.544-545.

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'Altogether I suppose we have 25 or 30 houses ... I believe that this Jot of i11a5: belonged to the Gennan UFA (Fihn) people. All the Gem1ans have of course b en turned out. Where they've g~ne, no ony.Jmows. Can you imagine what \ve 'w ould ,.:, feel if Gennans and Japanese were doi~ this in England, and if\ve had all been ~S': bundled out to make way for Hitler anq~t:o. to squat in our homes and d cide our fatej )\\ while we lived in holes in the rubble heaps of London? ... ' Letter from Sir Alexander Cadogan Permanent Under-Secretary, Foreign Office to hi wife, 15 July 1945. Quoted from David Dilks ed., Tile Diaries of Sir Alexallder Cadogal. 1938-1945 (London: Cassell, 1971), pp.761-762.

'A drive

of some 20 minutes to our dwellings at Babelsberg!

. They consis cd of a house for the · . itm.e~ . '.<;~iefs o~ Sta.~f~-~and ha~~~ Jum9~~ rF:~~~~ ~~~~b,~t~enry ~ilsP~l with ~~: . Attl~~.~. >., '•.. '. .. ·{Clement Attlee, Leader of the LabOUi"!.:p.ar.tYrl~ nex~ door on one sIde· and,Bndg S '~;f ~\~:· ··.~ ;.,' . [Cabinet Secretary] beyopd·him and. P¥, beyond that. On the other side Pug [Gen~ral ~, Hastings Ismay]. I spept th~:;aftern~on $ettling in and in the evening tried f~r a pi ·. ~ in~~ ; the lake. ' . '. I ..I.~·~· .', ~l .'f. I;. .. .' (~ Diary entry of..~eld Mar~hat;.~anb~-o()ke, C.bief of the· Genera'. Staff, l?, Ju:lY~.J9~5 ..;(", . . Quoted front ~Ie~ D~n~b~v;::~p.~J~~niel Todman eds., Wllr Dillt:!i!.s J939~J94~.:*f~ld~ · Mars/lal Lord Altn,"rQoke (I)~.ndofi! Weidenfeld and Nicolson:, 20Ql), p.705;..,~:,:, . . .~: seri~s. ofvjllas, all fa~ing onto the lake, and very plea~ant. We have

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'Devastation qfPotsdam. te~I~··~t{~ all this I am told in one raid .oflifty, rfiinuies~f;' What 'h·o ur :o fbeli· it·.'lllust h~ve ·bee:n." ·· .'. . . . ~~: .;:': E';\en, TI.e Eden ,Mem~irs: .!'.Jj~ill~~ko~iI,g, p.~5 . .'i '; .,

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'[Except.for one: old , ~aniP~~p ~ho~k his~ead disapprovingly;\ [Crynt~htftl.' ~~r~ ~ ...!, recaUed]'they aU begaJ! to·:clj~er; ' My hate had died with their surrender an : v.ras much moved by their 4erri~n~tnitio~s, and also by their haggard looks and- tbie"a~bare clothes. ' . .'1 ChurchUI's impres~'on of tbe German cr~d watching him view tht.ru·!US of Hitler' Chancellery, Berlin; 16 July 1945. Quote(f;from Martin Gilbert, ClfUrcllill: A Life (London: Minerva, 1991), p.850. .

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'July 19''': Molotov came to luncheon. Bob [Dixon, the Foreign Secretary's Private Secretary] indignant because he brought Ills own soldiers and stationed them with tommy guns in the garden. Even then it seemed that he claimed there was inadequate protection when the photographers turned up, though his people had asked for then1.

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Itmllst be grin1 t spend a li~ guard d like that. N abl but ruth1 s aut nlaton.' Eden rile Edell ft1emoirs: The Reckonillg p.547.

onder tha the man is a 1l10st

'It stnlck Ine and p rhaps thers as well although n thing was said, as decidedly odd that "Vinston hurchill, the great war leader but for WhOIl1 we should nev r ha b 11 in Berlin at all, got a nlarkedly less vociferous che r than Mr Attl e who - ho\ve\ er great his contribution in the Coalition - had not hitherto made any marked personal impact upon the fighting forces.' Impression of John Peck, Churchill s Private ecretary at the Briti h ictory Parad" Berlin, 21 July 1945. Quoted from Gilbert, Churchill: A Life, p.852.

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British Documents on the Potsdam Conference July 1945