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ISSUE 01. MARCH 2014





E M I T L 19 A E R IS

Letter from The Editor • Taming the Data Beast

Breaking Boundaries

• Interview with an Efficiency Leader

Low Carbon Shipping

Feature Focus



Propulsion 1

• Propelling the Industry Forward • The Low Loss Concept Explained


Fuels & Emissions • Smooth Operator • Going Green

• Asset Management • The Big Data Revolution • The Future is Real Time

5 15 19

News Round Up


Blue Skies

• Low Carbon Shipping – A System Approach11

Guest Features

• For innovation in Finance, The Time is Now14 • Effective Measurement is Key! 21

Technology in The Spotlight23

The Impact of The EEDI on Ship Design


Advisory: Ship Efficiency Measures • Weather Routing

Ship Design

Electronics & Software

• The Weather, Back in The Driving Seat • Natural Efficiency • Improving Ship Operating Efficiency

• The Impact of the EEDI on Ship Design 29 • Lightweight Materials at Sea: The Swedish 31 Perspective

37 39

43 45 47


• Idle Ships and the Threat of Bio-Fouling 49 51 • Brushless Technology – A Revolution in EcoCompliance 52 • A New Standard in Sight

The Bunker Detectives Event Round Up

• The Ballast Water Summit 2014 41

33 35

Guest Blog



• Whose Big Data is it Anyway?


Social Scene



on LinkedIn




THE DATA BEAST Welcome to the inaugural issue of Ship Efficiency: The Insight. This is the only publication dedicated to providing practical information for owners and operators to improve and streamline their operations.


Editorial: Editor in Chief: Catherine McMillan E: Editor: Benjamin Roberts E: Editor: Isabelle Rojon E: Director, Information & Editorial: Alison Jarabo E: Advertising & Sponsorship Sales: Sales Manager: Matthew Stamp E: Events: Events Manager: Cara Bainton E: Events and Marketing Assistant: James Barth E: Artwork and Design: Digital and Print Designer: Ben Watkins E: Regular Contributors: Martyn Lasek, Managing Director Ship and Bunker E:

e hope that this issue and every issue gives you an unchartered, in-depth insight into the realms of maritime efficiency. Also that it equips you with the information and tools to act upon streamlining operations and ship efficiency. In this issue we tackle a topic that is growing in popularity across the industry – big data. One thing is certain, data… moreover BIG DATA…will be a BIG PART of the shipping industry’s future. With pressures for transparency greater than ever before and ever tightening management of spiralling operating costs vital, big data is a key weapon in the battle for success. These are not the sole factors fuelling the need for the industry to harvest data like never before, safety will also be a driving force in the maritime data revolution. A potential re-write of the SOLAS Convention is in the offing, which if implemented, will bring immense data requirements to the front doors of the operators. Nonetheless, there are real challenges to face with regards to collecting the right data, processing it the right way and analysing and applying it effectively. Operators could easily find themselves with vast volumes of data and limited understanding of how to apply it with impact for their ships and fleet. Mastering your (data collection) tools and equipping yourself with the right information would seem like a wise move when standing in the middle of this economic battlefield. If you fail to prepare, then prepare to fail. Those that do not acknowledge the power of the big data revolution dawning across the shipping industry stand to be those that miss out on unleashing the benefits that it can deliver to improve efficiency and thus competitiveness. Throughout this issue we look at why big data is so important as well as the tools and applications that can utilise for effect within your operations. We also examine topics that span across the ship efficiency spectrum from ship design through to machinery operations. I sincerely hope that this issue provides you with truly useful information and insight and I look forward to greeting you in the coming issues of this quarterly magazine. Welcome to Issue #01! Catherine McMillan Editor-in-Chief

Published by: ©2014 Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine can be reproduced, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written consent of Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited. Applications for written permission should be sent to Catherine McMillan,

27 Sheet Street, Windsor, Berkshire, SL4 1BN, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1753 853791 Email: Twitter: @fathomshipping Website:


Any views or opinions expressed do not necessarily represent the views of Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited or its affiliates. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy and quality of the information contained in this publication at the time of going to press, Fathom Eco-Efficiency Consultants Limited assume no responsibility as to any inaccuracies that occur or their consequences and to the extent of the law, shall not be liable for any errors or omissions or any loss, damage or expenses incurred by reliance on information or any statement contained in this publication.


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Each issue of The Insight will host an interview with an industry leader that is taking great strides to break boundaries within maritime efficiency and sustainability. This inaugural issue plays host to a maritime sustainability trailblazer Helle Gleie, Director of the Sustainable Shipping Initiative. What is your background?

What accomplishment or project would you deem to be the most significant in your career thus far and why?

My background is maritime since 1977. Until 2003 I worked mainly in the commercial departments but I have also been at sea. Prior to working for the SSI, I was the global head of crew operations at Maersk Supply Service, and I also worked for a number of years for the Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO), an NGO, who has members in 120 countries and controls 65% of the world’s tonnage. I was also head of EMS Crew Management. I joined the Sustainable Shipping Initiative in September 2013.

Like many shipping professionals I find it hard to define one particular project, as we are all trained to accomplish what often seems impossible, and it is always about teamwork. I was proud to be part of the team who successfully freed six hostages in Nigeria in less than three weeks and to be part of the team who restructured EMS Crew Management during a time of crisis. Apart from that I am proud to have raised three wonderful children at the same time as being a maritime servant with long working hours and extensive travelling.

Being at the helm of the SSI, can you describe what aspect of your work life satisfies you the most?

The shipping industry faces significant challenges and is experiencing real change. When we talk about sustainable shipping, this isn’t some fluffy ethereal phrase, it’s the foundation to creating a better and more profitable industry. To achieve this, it is vital that the industry works together as a collective, and ensures collaboration with every facet of the shipping supply chain.

‘the industry still faces real challenges’ I’m incredibly keen for the SSI and its members to show even more leadership in this respect. Based on the work that we are doing and the results that we achieve, I see our role as helping to inspire those within the industry to understand the potential opportunities available to them, and encouraging those that have a willingness to change to adopt more sustainable, and therefore more profitable ways of working. It is incredibly satisfying to be involved in this change, and to hopefully play a part in helping to create a better industry.


Helle Gleie, Director of the Sustainable Shipping Initiative The Sustainable Shipping Initiative (SSI) brings together some of the biggest names in the maritime sector to plan how it can contribute to - and thrive in - a sustainable future.

‘I was proud to be part of the team who successfully freed six hostages in Nigeria’

There are various terms that surround maritime efficiency and sustainability, how would you choose to define it?

Efficiency, in the context of Energy Efficiency is now a central part of sustainable and profitable shipping. Bunker fuel accounts for the majority of a vessel’s operating costs, impending ECA (emission control area) sulphur regulations will further increase bunker bills for those using distillates, and charterers are scrutinising every element of their supply chains for sustainable improvements. Owners and operators have to respond and look at every opportunity to increase operational, environmental and cost efficiencies. This is the foundation for developing a better and more profitable business and creating real competitive differentiators.


BREAKING BOUNDARIES In your eyes, what are the three most pressing efficiency-related issues within the shipping industry?

While the turbulent economic times of the last few years seem to be easing a little, the industry still faces real challenges. As I’ve mentioned, regulations will serve to increase fuel bills immeasurably over the next few years through to 2020, or 2025 when there is a global sulphur limit of 0.5%. In line with this, as well as due to pressure from charterers, forward thinking ship owners and operators are having to look at implementing new operational and emissions reducing technologies and innovations as a means of cutting fuel costs and improving efficiencies. New technology costs money in a market of little liquidity. Many ship owners and operators do not have access to capital, or if they do, in some cases they choose not to spend it on innovation. But this cannot be the barrier that stifles progression, and it is critical that owners and operators search for new ways to innovate whenever it is possible. One example could be looking into the benefit of working with new financial models like SSI’s concept SAYS (Save as You Sail) and taking time to seek professional assistance to fully understand how some of the barriers to getting innovative solutions onboard vessels can be overcome. We know that the industry has been through and continues to face tough times, but sustainability, and adopting environmentally and economically efficient ways of operating should not be seen as a ‘nice to have’ and only for those that have the capital to invest. It is critical that owners and operators embrace the concept of working more innovatively to secure finance. There are banks and other types of investors that are willing to find new ways to support the industry, but only if the industry

The older generation, the current leaders, must take advantage of this, incorporating sustainability into their organisations. itself looks to more collaborative ways of working. For example, one of those that is actively driving this and is looking at new innovative financing is SSI member ABN AMRO.

What is the principal focus of the Sustainable Shipping Initiative for 2014?

Our focus for 2014 is to continue to engage with the industry and inspire and support those that want to change, to do so. We want to show the financial, environmental and social benefits of sustainability, and how it encompasses every facet of the industry. It’s not just about reducing emissions, rather everything from how we build and recycle vessels, creating a better environment for people to work within, as well as how we engage with and interact with the global communities that the shipping industry touches every day, and the opportunities that are created if we do it in a responsible way. It is about people thinking differently. The industry is in an interesting place, where the younger generation often doesn’t just think about being sustainable, they just do it; it’s a natural part of their DNA and they have a different approach to taking on tasks and innovation. The older generation, the current leaders, must take advantage of this, incorporating sustainability into their organisations. Combining their experience, and their understanding of how to drive change in a way that the younger generation may not, and collaborating together is a very powerful proposition – and it is easy to pick up on.

‘we see ourselves as working shoulderto-shoulder with the industry to help them to be become more sustainable, and therefore more profitable’ FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

How has your experience working in the maritime industry benefited your work with the SSI?

Fundamentally I know and can empathise with the tough times that many within the industry have had over the past few years, as well as the challenges that lie ahead. I’ve worked within the shipping industry for many years, and I am one of them. In delivering against the SSI’s sustainability objectives, it’s important that we engage with the shipping industry in the right way. We’re an NGO, but we’re made up of members that span the shipping supply chain. We’re not ‘outsiders’, rather, we seeourselves as working shoulder-toshoulder with the industry to help them to be become more sustainable, and therefore more profitable. I believe my experience of the sector, and having an understanding of how it works and its dynamics as well as the networks and contacts that I have developed over the years, is an important part of this.

‘It’s not just about reducing emissions’ Finally…if you could change one specific area of shipping what would it be and why?

Shipping is a very complex industry, so it’s difficult to pinpoint one thing. What I think is important, is that there is now a rapid growth in the understanding of the challenges that the industry faces. This is the platform from which to look for solutions. Clearly from the perspective of The Sustainable Shipping Initiative, if there was one thing that I could change, it would be the speed of adoption of more sustainable practices. However, I am also pragmatic, and I realise that this will take time.


A business is only as strong as its assets. Protecting those assets in the marine and offshore industry is perhaps more challenging than in others.


he assets are multi-million pound investments deployed in one of the harshest and most unpredictable environments in the world - the ocean. Additionally these high value assets have lifecycles that, in today’s fast paced world, will certainly draw to a close in a world much different to the one in to which they began- be this economic, political or social. It has never been more apparent than in the past few years with the ‘perfect storm’ scenario of tightening regulations, spiralling fuel and operating costs compounded by an unprecedented economic crisis. The maritime industry is having to change at a rate that necessitates an evolution in the way all aspects of the industry approach their business. Howard Fireman, Senior Vice President, Asset Performance Management at the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) agrees that these are indeed some of the biggest challenges facing the marine industry He points out that the cost of energy is also driving a lot of issues but, in marine and offshore, the cost to operate is far more than just fuel. Maintenance, repair and reliability of systems are highly significant contributors to the total cost to operate the vessel or platform. “In my mind Asset Integrity Management is where the market is being driven. It is about taking a whole lifecycle approach to maximising your asset- it is not just what is happening in the ‘here and now’ but what will stand you in good stead in five, ten, fifteen years from now.”


“It is about dealing with the condition of the asset, understanding the reliability and minimising the cost whilst meeting the requirements.” Fireman is upfront that in the short term this can require more upfront investment “It may be the case that if you spend $10 now, you will save $100 in the future. While that sounds like a pretty good return on investment, a common response is ‘what you mean I have to spend money to save money?’” Classification societies have not been left untouched by this step change in the way the maritime industry must now operate. “Class has worked in a well-defined box for a long, long time. For many years we have had a classic set of services all concentrating on making sure the asset is safe, protects human life and the environment. Now, however, all these new challenges and regulations have come to pass and we have to adjust to the fact that class is evolving.” “For example, consider a propeller on a ship; in the old days ABS would review the propeller to make sure it was structurally sound, built out of the right materials and properly integrated in to the shaft and propulsion systems. If the ship had a speed requirement of 20 knots design speed this had nothing to do with class - it fell onto the owner.” “But now classification takes part in the performance and verification assessment of this propeller. When it comes to EEDI for example, classification societies have to verify this as part of the certification process. This means that they have now entered energy efficiency areas of work which are directly linked to the


FEATURE FOCUS design and, following model tests and full scale trials, transition into applying calculation methodologies to verify the asset’s performance level.” “However, whether the subject matter is about EEDI or just reduced fuel consumption, our desire is to verify the asset achieve the best performance it can.” Over the past eighteen months, ABS has been quietly adapting to these developments and assembling a cast of the world’s experts such as Dr Jan de Kat, previously Head of Innovation at Maersk Maritime Technology, who are helping to bring these new capabilities to our clients A key part of this is collaboration and for new building projects it all comes as part and parcel of the classification process. The shipyard, classification society and owner can all work together under a ‘sunshine clause’ i.e. completely open communication. The shipyard may have produced the design but the owner can ask ABS to assess and benchmark this and then all parties can work together to improve the energy performance of vessel. Owners are now increasingly asking not just about new buildings but about how to improve their current fleet. They may have specific modifications in mind or be looking for advice in general. A key answer is techno-economic modelling- it is all possible but in order to assess the business case and return on investment may not be justified by vessel age, for how much longer the vessel is intended to be kept in service, the operating profile etc. One of the most increasing demands that ABS have seen from their clients is the desire to truly understand vessel performance and how the performance is compared to a benchmark. Essentially, ship-owners and operators want to make sure their vessels are competitive on the market. “It is all about data” says Fireman “and long term about big data. In order to manage the integrity of your asset to its maximum potential, retrieving data is an important and necessary step - whether it is hull condition data, machinery data, environmental performance or energy efficiency data- the key strategy is how to use all this Data.” “In order to capture the right data, ships and offshore assets are going to have to be “intelligent”. In order to ensure the right data are captured a clear goal should be first determined with the architecture and sensors in place to capture it” he commented. However, it is important that once you get the data from the asset, you have to wrap the tools and services around it to produce the answers to the myriad of technical questions particular to your unique operations. As Fireman puts it ‘It is easy to ask questions, but not always as easy to get the right

The Asset Performance Management (APM) Group headed by Howard Fireman, is a new organisation within ABS focused on complete life cycle performance services. The new team is charged with developing the innovative concepts, tools and practices and it both offers extended capabilities as well as drawing in a number of existing services under one cohesive group.


answers that help you.’ For ABS this is the path they see the Nautical Systems product line following as a vital part of the services that they offer alongside class. The software integrates and analyses the vast array of information to give real and valuable outputs the owner and, operator can use to manage their assets in the best possible way and maximise their potential. Suddenly, unstructured and wide ranging data becomes useful and manageable with the relevant information just a few clicks away. Nautical Systems currently offers 14 modules with functions ranging from fuel performance management to drydocking to crewing through to e-procurement. It is not something that happens overnight. Fireman says “organisations tend to go through an evolving maturity when it comes to capturing and using data. Collection is only the first stage. The good news is that data is being collected, but then you have to figure out how to manage the information. Then you need leverage the data to create information and knowledge you can act upon. ” “It takes time as an organisation to mature through these steps and it is also a complicated web depending on what seat you are at the table. You may be the owner but equally you may be the management company or the charterer. It takes all parties to work together in close collaboration in order to make this work.” In some ways the idea of collaboration, data sharing and openness might seem counter intuitive when it comes to protecting assets and maximising competitive advantage, but it is all about the new way of working together. The maritime industry is evolving into the big data world. The journey will require the development of new tools and capabilities. In the long run, this evolution will produce an industry that is further optimised. Or perhaps to put this in less prosaic terms- it all comes down to this bottom line: If collaboration and data management are what is required to maximise the profitability of assets, then the shipping industry should be smart enough to embrace it. Howard Fireman is Senior Vice President, Asset Performance Management and President, ABS Nautical Systems Product Line. He leads ABS efforts to expand services in the areas of vessel performance, energy efficiency and environmental compliance. Fireman joined ABS in February 2013 after a distinguished 35 year career with the US Navy including the role as Chief Naval Architect.

The Asset Performance Management Group consists of :

• • •

ABS Operational and Environmental Performance - Responsible for assisting clients with operational performance, energy efficiency and environmental performance ABS Nautical Systems Product Line - Provider of asset management solutions for the marine and offshore industries through the NS5 Enterprise software suite Asset Integrity Management - Assists clients in developing life cycle management programs that address reliability, technical integrity and safety


NEWS ROUND-UP Innovative Rigid Sail Closer to the Production Line

Japanese company Eco Marine Power (EMP) has announced that its innovative rigid sail technology has passed a range of function tests moving it closer to the production line. Known as the EnergySail, this unique renewable energy platform for ships is able to harness the power of the wind and sun. The EnergySail can be used either as a stand-alone device or as part of a larger array of up to eight sails or more. The company reported that during lab testing a number of unique features were evaluated. These included a device to protect the EnergySail from sudden strong wind gusts. Also confirmed during testing were the control algorithms which are used to fully automate the operation via computer software. The completion of the lab tests signal a significant milestone for the project and clears the way for the commercial production to commence once the sea trials, that will be conducted in 2014, have taken place.

Rough Hulls To Provide Smoother Sailing

New research from University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) has revealed that specially designed hulls with rough surfaces could provide more efficient sailing when compared to ultrasmooth hulls. Scientists in California that have experimented with various hull designs found that surfaces covered with tiny ridges as being the optimal surface for efficiency. They found that a rough


surface reduced drag created by the friction of flowing water, even in choppy conditions. The design would involve a specialised hull surface with small ridges allowing for air bubbles to be trapped within. The team of scientists published their report in the journal Physics of Fluids in which they analysed both laminar and turbulent flows. Their findings showed that drag reduction was most prevalent in turbulent conditions. This type of surface could potentially be used in the future to make more efficient ship hulls.

Propeller Upgrades Gaining Interest

It was reported by world research institutes, including International Towing Tank Conferences (ITTC) and ship owners that a 5% energy saving effect can be experienced when PBCF are installed. Installation of PBCF’s can be carried out underwater, reducing any down time while in dry dock. This meant the two tanker owners could start experiencing fuel savings straight away with predictions of ROI being as little as 8 weeks. The company also stated that the environment-friendly product also realises a 5% reduction in greenhouse gas emission from vessels. With this knowledge and the increased demand for reduced fuel consumption, the PBCF has been continually growing in interest within the industry. A standard propeller generates a vortex at the centre of its wake. By adding fins to the propeller boss cap, some of this rotational energy can be reputed and used for propulsion work. The PBCF was developed and patented by Mitsui O. S. K. Lines, Ltd.

announced the launch of BMT SMART Ltd., a new commercial operating company that will concentrate on the provision of high value, innovative vessel performance management and decision support solutions for the maritime industry through the delivery of the BMT SMARTSERVICES business line. BMT SMART have appointed a new managing director, Peter Mantel, who has over 20 years of senior marine management experience and expertise focus on the provision of working in digital and e-navigation shipping markets.

Carnivorous Plant Inspires New Hull Coating

The Pitcher plant, a tropical carnivorous plant, could be the key to new innovations within the hull anti-fouling coatings market. A recent article published by IChem E stated that research conducted by Harvard University has discovered that the plant, which traps prey by utilising it’s near frictionless surface and has the ability to repel liquids, may provide inspiration into the coatings market. The plant, which can be found in a number of countries including Australia, Malaysia and Madagascar, traps and ingests its prey (including frogs and insects) via its water filled tubular body, by using its frictionless surface.

BMT Group Launches New Operating Company - BMT SMART Ltd.

BMT Group Ltd. (BMT), specialists in maritime design, engineering and risk management consultancy has


NEWS ROUND-UP The prey, once trapped, are unable to climb out of the plant’s deep tubularshaped body due to the frictionless surface properties. The Pitcher plant (Nepenthes) ‘locks in’ a lubricant layer onto the surface of its skin which cannot be penetrated by another liquid and it more damage tolerant. This feature has been recently mimicked by a team at Harvard University who have created a transparent coating capable of being economically applied to almost any object – large or small. The process involves attaching a multistage coating which involves attaching a thin, but rough layer of porous silica particles which are used to lock-in a lubricating layer onto the surface to be protected. This development in coating technology reached the finals of this year’s Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE) Awards in the UK, which recognises excellence and innovation in the chemical and process industries worldwide.

Lukoil Marine Develop New EAL

A new line of lubricants which are said to be compliant with all ‘Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants” (EAL) requirements highlighted in the US’s Vessel General Permit (VGP) have been developed by Cyprus-based Lukoil Marine Lubricants (LML) in cooperation with Fuchs Europe Schmierstoffe GmbH based in Mannheim, Germany. The introduction of new US regulations state that almost all ships exceeding 24 metres in length and are operating in US coastal waters must comply by increasingly stricter environmental protection requirements. December 19 th 2013 saw the implementation of the VGP which stipulates that rapidly biodegradable oils known as EAL’s must be used in interfaces where oil can contaminate seawater.

Inmarsat Open Smart Operations Dialogue

Inmarsat, the leading provider of global mobile satellite communications services, has staged the inaugural ‘Smart Operations’ conference, the first in a series of events seeking an open debate in the maritime industry over the FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

operational benefits of integrated thinking on shore and ship communications. The ‘Smart Operations’ conference took place at Inmarsat headquarters in London (February 12th) attended by leading figures in the maritime communications industry. Event organiser Fathom has already set 2014 dates for further conferences in Hamburg, Hong Kong and Athens. With the first of the three new Global Xpress satellites already in orbit – a prelude to the global launch of the world’s first high-speed mobile broadband satellite service to the maritime industry, scheduled for early 2015 - Inmarsat Maritime President Frank Coles, highlighted that ultra-fast data transfer rates were in sight. Communications would be the enabler of operationally efficient technologies.

Survey Reflects Owner’s Attitudes to Clean Technology and Monitoring

A recent survey conducted by the University College London Energy Institute and commissioned by International Paint revealed significant findings about the shipping industry’s attitude towards fuel consumption monitoring and measurement, and its role in evaluating the performance of energy efficiency interventions. Based on 130 stakeholder responses from shipping companies all over the world, the study found 92% of ship owners and operators measure fuel consumption, mainly to identify potential cost-savings. For over 70% of respondents ‘improving fleet efficiency’ is a boardroom agenda item. At 63%, noon reports are the most commonly used monitoring tool, followed by the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOIs) at 49%, automated continuous on-bard monitoring at 44%, and paper logbooks at 42%. 80% of companies said they have implemented some kind of fuel-saving technology within the past five years. Hull coatings were the most common adaptation, at 70%, followed by machinery modifications at 58% and propeller modifications at 55%. The report’s authors Isabelle Rojon and Tristan Smith, UCL Energy Institute state: “The survey responses demonstrate that there is already significant activity both

in the implementation of fuel measurement procedures and retrofitting activity, however, there is also a strong need for a common standard measurement methodology with which assessments of intervention’s fuel savings can be quantified”

Bow Retrofit Drops Fuel Use by 8.5%

Clipper have reported that they have reduced the fuel consumption of one of their multipurpose carriers by 8.5% by replacing its bulbous bow and rudder bulb. The original bulbous bow of the 9,100 deadweight tonne (dwt) Clipper Galaxy was designed for best operation at full speed and near-full loads, but Clipper notes that most vessels often operate at eco-speed, and multipurpose vessels are particularly likely to run at less than full load. The bulb modification, taken by itself, would have reduced fuel use by 10 percent, Clipper said, but, because of trim optimisation that helped mitigate inefficiency with the old bow, the realworld savings were less.


NEWS ROUND-UP CSS Develop Portable BWT System

Cleanship Solutions (CSS) has developed a range of portable modular ballast water treatment (BWT) systems that are suitable for use in a variety of vessels and applications. CSS stated that many vessels only require ballasting a small number of times per year and therefore to fit a fixed BWT system was not a practical or cost effective solution. CSS therefore have jumped to fill this niche with their containerised portable system. CSS has a number of treatment technology options available for the containerised systems and each one will be tailored to specific vessel flow rate and capacity requirements.

Irish Naval Service To Test Kite Sail Technology

The Irish Naval Service plans to test kite sail technology that could reduce its bunker costs while extending the scope of its surveillance systems, the Irish Examiner reports. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) has provided funding for the equipment tests, which will be the first of their kind done by a navy. The kite system was developed through the Irish Maritime and Energy Resource Cluster (IMERC), a collaboration between the Naval Service and two Irish universities.

South Korea To Introduce Electric Ships

South Korea plans to introduce its first electric ships this year in an effort to help reduce the energy costs and greenhouse gas emissions of small fishing farms. The government backed 1.2 billion won ($1.13 million) project could see the introduction of up to 40 electric vessels. Energy costs for the new vessels were said to be about 10 percent of an


equivalent traditional fuel-powered vessel. The ships, developed jointly by the country’s Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries and the University of Ulsan, would be significantly slower than fuel-powered ships with a speed of about 5 knots per hour, as well as limited in operating range and power making them only suitable for use in near seas and inland waters.

Could Unmanned Ships be the Future?

Rolls-Royce Holdings Plc (Rolls-Royce) is reportedly developing unmanned cargo ships that could be deployed within a decade. The drone ships would be controlled from virtual vessel bridges on land that would simulate a 360-degree view from the ship and allow a shore side captain to control its movements. Oskar Levander, Rolls-Royce vice president of innovation in marine engineering and technology commented “Now the technology is at the level where we can make this happen, and society is moving in this direction,” Levander further emphasised that the ships would save money and reduce fuel consumption by up to 12 to 15 percent by eliminating space for the crew, electricity, air conditioning, and water and sewage systems. It is also reported that The European Union (EU) is providing €3.5 million (US$4.8 million) for research into unmanned ships. However Tor Svensen, CEO of DNV GL, argued that unmanned ships are not foreseeable in the future and that even if they are technically possible the savings would not justify investments needed to make the ships safe. Current international conventions states that unmanned ships are illegal and as they do not comply with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) rules, they would be unable to attain insurance. The International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), which represents about 600,000 ship crew members, argues drone ships would be inherently unsafe. Dave Heindel, chairman of the ITF’s seafarers’ section in London stated that “It cannot and will never replace the eyes, ears and thought processes of professional seafarers,” “The human element is one of the first lines of defence in the event of

machinery failure and the kind of unexpected and sudden changes of conditions in which the world’s seas specialize.” However Levander did mention that comprehensive monitoring and redundant systems could eventually take the place of crews.

Construction of World’s First LNG-Powered Containership Underway

TOTE Inc. have celebrated the start of construction for the world’s first liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered containership which is being built at the General Dynamics NASSCO shipyard in San Diego, California for the Puerto Rico trade. The company stated the new 3,100 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) ship will be one of two new Marlin class TOTE vessels and is expected to eliminate almost all sulpfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and particulate matter emissions as well as significantly reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). At the launch ceremony state Representative Duncan Hunter, Chairman of the House Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation commented “These ships will be the most advanced, environmentally progressive vessels of their kind,” “But they also represent $350 million in U.S. investment, 600 American shipyard jobs, and the bright future of the indispensable domestic maritime industry.” “The move to LNG fuel is no less significant than the evolution from sail to steam,” said Mark Tabbutt, Chairman of Saltchuk, TOTE’s parent company, “the Marlins represent the start of a new age in American maritime.” The Marlins will enter service in late 2015 and early 2016 and will home port in Jacksonville, Florida.




Low Carbon Shipping – A Systems Approach “Shipping is a significant and growing climate change challenge” this is the statement that formed the spark for a consortium of industry and academic heavyweights to act on shipping’s climate impact and develop practical tools and reports to catalyse the industry to act.


he project, entitled ‘Low Carbon Shipping – A Systems Approach’ was launched in January 2010 following the Research Councils UK’s (RCUK) Energy Programme recognising the need for further research into the reduction of emissions from ships, which lead to them granting project funding to the value of approximately £1.5 million. In addition to this funding the project is supported by four core industry partners; Royal Dutch, Shell, Rolls Royce, BMT Group and Lloyds Register, many of whom fund PhD studentships that support the project research. The academic support behind the project is covered by five of the UK’s top universities for maritime studies including University College London, Newcastle University, University of Strathclyde, the University of Hull and the University of Plymouth. The consortium also has the support of several NGO partners and government departments.



BLUE SKIES 2014 will be a key year for the project and the consortium. It will herald the release of the project’s key report and the practical tools will be launched into the industry for all to exploit.

‘Shipping accounts for 3.3% of global anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions’

A Systems Approach – The Context

and to develop projections for future trends in the demand for shipping, the impacts of technical and policy solutions and their associated implementation barriers, and the most just measurement and apportionment mechanisms.

The statement that ‘Shipping accounts for 3.3% of global anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions’ sent shockwaves across the industry. Two years later, the 2nd International Maritime Organization (IMO) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) study (Buhaug et al., 2009) predicted that shipping would account for between 12 -18% of global CO 2 emissions by 2050 if no action was taken to reduce its emissions. Hard hitting facts for an industry historically intrinsically dependent on fossil fuels. The next fact that the CO2 produced by the shipping industry is not only the major contributor to radiative forcing, but also the CO2 emissions have the longestlasting impact. This highlights the challenge is one of combating cumulative emissions over time rather than one of the instantaneous emissions in any one year. It is widely reported that the majority (75%) of shipping emissions come from the freight shipping sector (particularly container ships, dry bulk and general cargo ships), wet bulk (crude, products and chemical) and gas ships (LPG and LNG), therefore the consortium decided to focus on these sectors.

The Project Aims

The project hosted multifaceted aims and objectives that included; developing knowledge and understanding of the shipping system, particularly the relationship between its principal components, transport logistics and ship designs, and clarify the many complex interfaces in the shipping industry (port operations, owner/operator relationships, contractual agreements and the links to other transport modes). Also, to deploy that aforementioned understanding to explore future logistical and ship concepts and how they could achieve cost-effective reduction of carbon emissions;


The Project Outputs

One of the key outputs from the project was the development of the GloTraM model. This is a tool used to calculate how the components of the shipping system interact and explore potential scenarios for the future of the shipping industry. The model provides insight into how operational efficiency and technical efficiency interact, showing that gains in efficiency due to technology risk being offset with increased operational speed. It also helped to analyse how decarbonisation potential is reduced by the diminishing efficiency increase through the compounding of multiple technologies and the restriction in the range of practical solutions, due to technical incompatibilities. The project placed significant resource in the analysis (towing tank, CFD and modelling) of a number of hydrodynamic and machinery solutions that have been proposed as a means to improve the efficiency of ships (both as retrofit and newbuild solutions). This provides an in depth independent and data supported review which is presented in the report as an overview.

A Systems Approach – The Verdict

The principal parameter that the project confirmed is that shipping is a significant and growing climate change challenge. Even with the wide range of improved ship designs that could be applied over the next few decades offering modest improvements, the report states that there still won’t be the levels of decarbonisation needed to ensure that the shipping sector plays its part in avoiding dangerous climate change.

The report also concludes that more ra d i ca l c h a n ge i s re q u i re d w i t h frameworks and mechanisms needing to be established for a less damaging future for the industry. • T h e s o m e w h a t o c c a s i o n a l l y exaggerated claims of technology savings which were often found to be less than the marketing literature. • A shift to LNG offers significant improvements but also requires major changes in ship design and shipping infrastructure, and still can only deliver modest reductions in transport carbon intensity. • Bioenergy is expected to be supplyconstrained. • Solar energy provides insufficient power outputs. • The evaluation of the potential of wind-assistance shows that its potential and future role remain uncertain. • Operational measures (other than ship speed reduction) also offer improvements through betterinformed hull/propeller maintenance and voyage optimisation.

Future Research: Shipping in Changing Climates

The next challenge that the consortium has set forth on is the ‘Shipping in Changing Climates’ project, that will build on the findings of the ‘Low Carbon Shipping – A Systems Approach’ project and another project “High Seas”. Again funded predominantly by the RCUK Energy programme to the value of £3.5m, the project will run for 3.5 years. This project kicked off in November 2013 and is part of a multi-disciplinary research collaboration. The project brings together researchers from UCL (Energy Institute, Mechanical Engineering and Laws), the universities of Manchester, Southampton, Newcastle


BLUE SKIES and Strathclyde, in close collaboration with a core industry stakeholder group of Shell, Lloyd’s Register, Rolls Royce, BMT and Maritime Strategies International, also drawing on the expertise and connections of over 35 companies and organisations worldwide. The aim of the project is to develop further knowledge on the subject of the UK and international shipping industry’s challenges to adapt in an era of changing climates. One challenge that will be tackled in the project is changing regulation, which is anticipated to have a great impact on shipping’s transport costs. Another challenge is the commodity trade,

particularly trade associated with energy commodities. These form the majority component of shipping’s global payloads and could be dramatically modified as nations decarbonise and switch to non-fossil energy production. Further shifts in current trade patterns could result from redistribution of the centres of agricultural production due to the effects on climate and the modification to the infrastructure crucial to shipping’s operation related to changes in sea level. This project will act as a bridge between the ongoing policy debates, the latest academic research and the stakeholder perspectives and concerns.

‘more radical change is required with frameworks and mechanisms needing to be established for a less damaging future for the industry.’

As a result, there will be plenty of opportunities for involvement, including the regular project open meetings and the forthcoming conference to be held in Liverpool 18th and 19th June 2014.

An Imperative Research Effort Indeed!

The project’s outputs and the increased international research activity surrounding the subject, mean there is now, more than ever, a greater depth of awareness and knowledge on issues associated with climate change, mitigation and the challenge that lies ahead for the sector. It is without doubt that this wealth of knowledge has placed the industry in a powerful position to enable contributions to minimising the risks of dangerous climate change. You can download the report and its insightful conclusions via: Yo u c a n a l s o ke e p t ra c k o f t h e consortium’s current and future work and any project outputs through that website.



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20-02-14 15:09 FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014


FOR INNOVATION IN FINANCE, THE TIME IS NOW Pace Ralli, Co-founder, Clean Marine Energy


ith just eleven months to go, the final countdown to the 2015 ECA regulation change has begun. They say that progress often stems from adversity, and this is certainly true of the innovation being witnessed in both compliance technology and fresh thinking in its financing. In terms of technology solutions for ECA compliance, scrubbers lead the charge in Europe, while in the US, amid low LNG prices, conversion to LNG as a bunker fuel appears to be the frontrunner. With distillates currently carrying a minimum premium of over $300 per metric tonne above heavy fuel oil, it is easy to understand why the scales are tipping. Indeed, what is increasingly clear is that the greatest barrier to entry for ship owners and operators investing in either LNG conversion or scrubbers is not a lack of rationale, but rather a lack of credit and capital. However, there are innovative financial models being developed to provide the required capital whilst minimising the impact on the continuity of operations and profitability. As many of the traditional institutions continue to pare back financing within shipping, the solution comes from private equity markets and funds from outside the industry. Clean Marine Energy’s (CME) turnkey financing solution for ECA compliance sees scrubbing technology, including all preparatory costs, paid for in its entirety by the financier, with payback guaranteed from the savings between the price of distillates and heavy fuel oil. In terms of LNG, the financier funds the entire


upfront capital cost of converting a vessel to run on LNG, as well as guaranteeing the supply and delivery of LNG to the converted vessel, which solves the shortterm industry challenge of the embryonic nature of LNG infrastructure. Similar to scrubbers, payback for the financer is achieved from the differential between distillates and LNG during the term of the financing agreement. Importantly, in both scenarios, the model – taken from years of development in the built environment space – allows the fuel payer to instead use its own capital for other more customary, a c c re t i v e o r re v e n u e p ro d u c i n g investments. While a ship owner may have sufficient access to capital, the ECSA solution helps ship owners with capital resource efficiency, using a classic capex to opex model.

If you could, perhaps you would?

For scrubbers, the recent uptake within the market by well-known companies such as DFDS, Royal Caribbean and Color Line demonstrates the operational capability and economic viability of the technology. Spending significant amounts of time within ECAs and port waters, it stands to reason that the cruise and ferry sector has been at the forefront of scrubber adoption. However, other vessels types, including container feeders and shuttle tankers, that also spend considerable time in ECAs, are viable for outside investment using CME’s modeling. Ensuring operational freedom in the Northern European, and North American waters (and potentially in Mediterranean and Caribbean regions, where ECAs are ‘pending’) the technology provides universal compliance with current and future sulphur emission limits. And this is true both locally and globally (when the proposed global ECA comes on line in 2020 or 2025); a long-term solution for delivering ongoing cost and environmental efficiencies.

The statistics for LNG are also compelling; reducing SO2 emissions by 99%, emitting 85% less NO x than HSFO, 99% less harmful particulates and providing a 20% reduction in greenhouse gasses from the vessel stack. The value proposition from a US perspective is also extremely clear. Not just from a regulatory stance, but also due to the abundance of cheap natural gas in the US, which creates real and immediate incentives for ship owners to find a way to convert their vessels to run on LNG. Outside of the US, and in addition to early adopter Norway, LNG bunkering stations are being championed across northern Europe. Ports such as Rotterdam and Antwerp are also pushing to create terminals and bunkering availability.

Empowering choice

CME’s emissions compliance service agreement (ECSA) gives ship owners and operators choice in meeting the regulatory challenge. While the model was adapted from expertise in energy efficiency financing in real estate, CME’s history and values are grounded in the shipping industry. Initially developed for vessels belonging to our partner company, MidOcean Marine, the solution tackled the financial challenges of ECA compliance for our own vessels. While the ECSA financing solution will not be a fit for every ship owner, there is a portion of the wider marketplace that will find it valuable in light of the rapidly approaching deadline.

‘scrubbers lead the charge in Europe, while in the US, amid low LNG prices, conversion to LNG as a bunker fuel appears to be the frontrunner’ Ultimately, it is designed to benefit both the ship owner/operator and the fuel payer, whether owner/operator or charterer; a compelling and win/win proposition.


‘Big Data’ is undoubtedly an inter-industry buzzword and the use of the term has increased exponentially over the past couple of years.


he buzzword broke through into mainstream awareness most comprehensively in the last year becoming a global term within this data revolution era. Some industries are entrenched further than others in the ‘data revolution’ and have fully embraced the generation and utilisation of big data. However, other industries, of which the maritime maritime industry is one, are residing more on the cusp - slowly but surely embracing the benefits of ‘big data’ generation and utilisation, especially those associated with monitoring and maximising operational efficiency. A few questions that are currently circling around the shipping industry such as what exactly is ‘big data’? And what can we do with it?


FEATURE FOCUS What is Big Data?

The word ‘data’ can refer to almost any type of information, however the common feature of all entities that sit under the ‘data’ terminology is that they are facts and/or statistics collected together for reference or analysis. ‘Data’ has existed as a concept for nearly as long as humanity and its collection and storage can be traced back to 3000 BCE when meteorological data was stored. However ‘big data’ is a relatively new term that was borne during the rapid evolution of the digital age. It is an encompassing term that conceptualises the generation of massive volumes of data or data sets that can be so large or complex that traditional computing methods and applications for processing and storage may not be adequate. Big data is also a term that reflects the advances in the speed at which data is collected. To put this in to context, from the beginning of recorded time until 2003, humans had created in totality an estimated 5 exabytes (5 billion gigabytes) of data. The same amount is now being created every two days. In the midst of the big data revolution, it won’t be long until zettabytes and yottabytes come into the equation. To put this into perspective, an exabyte is above 2.5 million terabytes and a terabyte can contain, for example, enough CD-quality music to play continually 24 hours a day for two and a half months. To give a real world example of big data, consider the trail of cookies that you leave behind you when browsing the World Wide Web. A cookie, also known as an HTTP cookie, web cookie, or browser cookie, is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored in a user’s web browser while the user is browsing that website. Tremendous volumes of cookies are collected, processed and used to advise companies on buying and browsing patterns and can be used to great effect to decide the placement of advertisements or recommendations from internet stores and much more. A huge data collation, analysis and application is happing in the online world. Big data analysis can be compared to a form of mining. It may be that the vast majority of the data that is collected is not beneficial apart from a small number FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

of hidden ‘gems’ within the data sets that are waiting to be discovered.

‘ships of the future will be sentient, self-correcting and diagnostic’ This requires the data mine to be sifted through (by computers or software applications) in order to dig out the hidden gems of knowledge, which would otherwise be invisible.

The Shipping Industry Shift

The shipping industry is witnessing a colossal shift towards greater automation within ship operations; data collecting and analysis software now sits at the heart of many ship operations and in fact for many owners, operators and charterers, may be as important as the machinery that powers the ship. The advances in and expansion of satellite technology and related services has sparked the shipping industry’s data revolution, also the lessening of the costs associated with satellite communications has opened the door to greater transfer of data from ship to ship and from ship to shore (and vice versa). The possibility that the ships of the future will be sentient, self-correcting and diagnostic with the possibility of full remote-control via data transfer to a centralised location shore side, is certainly a scenario to lend some thought to.

The Here and Now

Ships, particularly newbuilds, are now becoming equipped with a multitude of sensors, software and satellite communication equipment that provide flows of ship performance and condition data that can be used to operate and maintain equipment at a higher performance levels and lower cost. With the correct data monitoring tools, a ship can produce and process upwards of 2 billion data points during a month. Over an entire fleet these data points can reach up to and in excess of a trillion per year.

This volume of data demand drives the need for innovative software that can not only process vast volumes of data at the speed required but also (and often the principal driver) ease the burden on crew and shoreside staff by turning the data collected into meaningful outputs and actionable information. This is an extremely hot topic within the shipping industry. Not only is the aspect of processing and storing the data imperative, the communication and transfer of the data back to the shore is of growing importance for the industry. The increasing number of sensors, gauges and monitoring equipment now permit the possibility for an individual or at least a smaller team to manage and ensure that all of the onboard systems for a ship or fleet are operating to their optimum requirements, from the comfort of the bridge or even the company HQ. Such systems, of varying complexity, often come under the term ‘integrated systems’. The use of any system- simple or complex- can deliver substantial fuel savings, reduction in maintenance and repair costs, and greater assurance of environmental compliance if the data in analysed and acted upon correctly.

Example Big Data Application: Ship Performance

Ships and their operating equipment are becoming increasingly technical and as the management and operation of ships and their performance deepens in complexity, the number of innovative software solutions and software providers is increasing. Their ferocious desire to snap up any opportunity to develop an innovative software solution to aid operations may sometimes seem like a ploy to attack the ship owner’s pocket, but these technology companies have seen the future and the future will bring increasingly sophisticated ships and software. Efficiency of operations and more so fuel consumption efficiency has become a key parameter for ship performance measurement. A ship operates at its optimal efficiency when the begin service due to a plethora of factors including clean polished propellers, smooth exterior hulls and


FEATURE FOCUS finely tuned and lubricated engines for example. Such factors deteriorate over time, proportionally with the length and frequency of operation and age of the vessel. In the absence of data collecting sensors, the only way of really checking the main components is during regular dry docking. This is a costly process not only for repairs but also for the down time experienced through the ship being in active service. Time is money after all. The benefits for the deployment of data collecting sensors even simply across the artery equipment, machinery and structures and related software to process the data are limitless. Wouldn’t it be great to have software that constantly analyses huge reams of real-time data across all aspects of your ship? Software that would inform you of how much added resistance is coming from the fouled hull? To inform you of when engine maintenance is required and to advise you on your dry docking schedule in order to address a multitude of issues during the precious dry dock period? All of this is powered by big data and the uptake and application of processing of this big data ranging from fairly basic analysis to complex, integrated systems is increasing within the shipping industry. An example of the potential to streaml i nes op erati on s an d sh i p performance through the application of big data collection and monitoring is through a system called conditionedbased monitoring (CEM). CEM can monitor all of the operational parameters and define running conditions. These systems have the ability to convert the conditional data being fed into a centralised location into useful advanced warnings, extended maintenance recommendations, and, ultimately, a lowered cost of operation.

How To Manage All This Big Data?

The development of analytical software is only part of the story for big data expansion within the maritime industry. The world, its industries and inhabitants are only going to create more and more data. Likewise ships and their instruments, machinery and technologies are going to create expanding volumes of data so where is this going to be stored and how


do shipping companies then retrieve it for analysis? Generally the software providers collect data received at a shore based server. These servers have the ability to store huge amounts of data and can be expanded and scaled up to keep up with growth demands. The largest data practitioners – Google, Facebook, Apple etc. run hyperscale computing environments which, in the near future, may be adopted across much of the maritime industry. An example of a maritime storage system is the Maris LOG4000 which offers a solution for storing vital ship sensor data for a longer period than the days it would conventionally be stored on board. This allows for the opportunity to use the stored data for statistical analysis and automated customised reporting. Giving a huge 5 terabytes of storage, enough for approximately 5 years’ worth of operational data. Maris LOG4000 is able to offer operators substantial storage space. This data is securely stored in a centralised database and is only accessible to the customer’s designated personnel. It is possible to gain access to any data sets throughout the time period therefore allowing fleet management to run queries and data analysis directly via a standard web browser from any PC. The fact that the type of storage system that Maris and other companies on the market offer signals that the data revolution is upon the shipping industry and owner, operators and charters need to start thinking about and planning how they will transmit, store and potentially sell their stored data.

The Future Is Now

The benefits of embracing big data within the shipping industry are immense, extremely immense and very broad. Not only will operators see efficiency gains once they have grasped the concept of monitoring, processing and acting upon efficiency via data feedback, but there will also be huge potential for profit gains by selling this increasingly valuable data to independent companies and consultants for further analysis. But at present many ship operators are keeping their pockets firmly closed waiting for the right opportunity and maintaining commercially cloaked with regards to their data - many may not

even realise they are sitting on a gold mine, waiting to be tapped into. ‘A funny thing about data is that the more you collect it, the more you want it. And you want it in shapes and forms that you did not think about before, because now it’s possible. So data is growing faster than ever before.’ Never a truer word spoken by Ebay…

Example: The Wärtsilä CEM System Wärtsilä have developed conditionedbased monitoring systems such as their Propulsion Condition Monitoring Service (PCMS) for rotating equipment and Conditioned Based Monitoring (CBM) for engines and state that: “The shift is already strongly visible in new vessels. Regarding existing fleets, offshore operators such as drilling vessels have been early adaptors. A single component failure in, for example, the offshore business, can potentially cause revenue losses of up to 500,000 dollars a day. Condition based maintenance can increase the total availability of an installation – the equipment’s uptime – from 5–20%.” Both of the Wärtsilä systems provide the user with real-time data from which they can analyse their condition on their vessel. It is reported that the PCMS can detect required maintenance up to 2-6 months in advance and critical cases 7-30 days in advance. This advance warning of fault sources and emerging operational trends before failure occurs enables proactive maintenance and reduces the likelihood of expensive overhauls. Since much of the propulsive system is underwater it can be extremely difficult to monitor and even harder to access. Therefore to have a system that monitors and stores real-time data from all moving parts can result is constant updates of wear and tear on critical parts such as bearings and gears.


Smarter Operations Identifying optimal vessel performance requires innate know-how and smart data. We’re here to help you.

Multiple pressures on the global marine industry mean that ship owners and contractors can no longer afford to ignore the performance of their fleet. A ship’s energy consumption depends on a number of different parameters. To improve the consumption you need to measure these elements, transform collected data into actionable information and understand the impact of any action on the complete economic model. To do this, and to make the most of the cost and efficiency savings that Fleet and Vessel Performance Management undeniably offers, you need a partner who understands all of the complexities and challenges. A trusted team of experts that’s always on hand to support you. A partner like BMT SMART.





Increasingly freight rates sit in very close proximity to operating costs, leading to razor-thin margins, and, not infrequently, operating losses. Intelligent data management systems delivering real-time platforms and integrated performance monitoring can support in downsizing the operational costs of a vessel.


t is not surprising that given the confluence of business conditions in the maritime industry, companies are finding themselves in troubled waters and many face extinction unless vessel management is accompanied by a more intelligent approach to achieving operational efficiencies. Is it true that the future of the shipping industry could be in the hands of the technological expertise to measure vessel performance in order to achieve optimal fuel efficiencies and monitoring for compliance? It was only a few years ago that the industry woke up to the importance of energy-efficient solutions that additionally assist environmental compliance. This is an industry that still transports 90% of the world’s goods and the wake up call was the costs of bunker fuel rocketing.



FEATURE FOCUS Operators have started to appreciate intelligent data management systems on real-time platforms and integrated performance monitoring to expedite operational efficiency and downsize the operational costs of a vessel. Captain Melvin Mathews, director of regulatory and environment solutions, Eniram shared insight with Fathom on optimising fleet performance for optimum returns.

“We (Eniram) now have almost all ship types using the Eniram real time optimisation solutions, including complex trifuel LNG vessels. This indicates the flexibility and robustness of the systems.” Matthews continued. Eniram’s vast data store has been compiled from 5 million signals per day, produced during thousands of oceangoing hours, on 100 plus vessels of different types, allowing operators to benchmark

‘what you are is what you have been’ but ‘what you will be, is based on what you do now’ “There is a wise saying in Buddhism: ‘what you are is what you have been’ but ‘what you will be, is based on what you do now’. Buddha lived around 500 BC, hence if we think that performance management is a new concept, we are definitely wrong.” A ship’s performance is calculated by the efficient running of its machinery, hull, propellers, in line with overall safety and emission control. Good planning, speed management techniques and smart routing are being adopted by the crew to get closer to the ideal performance of a vessel’s operations Practical and accessible technology is helping ship’s crews to monitor and align the core key performance indicators (KPIs) of vessels, and overall operations. Monitoring vessel performance is about identifying an accurate operational baseline to help crew make informed decisions to achieve optimum vessel efficiency. The data collected is compared against the performance benchmark of similar ships of similar age across the ship owner’s fleet or across vessels in a comparable class. Benchmarking allows owners to compare and contrast performance over a period of time in order to achieve better results. Real time data can provide insights into the impact of hull performance, propeller friction, antifouling, engine loading and vessel trimming to achieve optimum voyage performance. These and many other readings are measured in the context of the prevailing weather conditions and sea state.


their efficiency against the average or peak performance of other vessels and fleets. “Where performance isn’t up to scratch, Eniram’s software delivers guidance for the adjustments that need to be made to instruments, speed and fuel use in order to fine-tune efficiency.” Real time KPIs allow crews to concentrate on the important tasks including reducing reporting errors, promoting analytical observations and ensuring a superior level of transparency between the onboard crew and the onshore staff through real visibility and actions. Matthews asserted, “Needless to say, unless all areas of a vessel are being operated efficiently, the vessel as a whole is not fit for optimum performance and this is where the individual vessel monitoring comes in”. Moving ahead fleet performance can be monitored in real time allowing base lining and benchmarking of the operational performance of individual ve s s e l s . D i ffe re nt i nf l u e n c e rs o f performance such as trim, sea state, squat, hull and propeller fouling, draught, speed, wind for example, are measured accurately in real time to minimise the

‘Where time is money and information is power, getting real time insight based on real time data is certainly the future.’

limitations of these factors. Monitoring the operational performance of a vessel and its efficiency gives transparent decision making capability into whether a vessel should continue to be operational or whether to invest in a new build – always bearing in mind the regulatory demands with regard to emission control. Strategic decision making on hull modifications, hull coating, dry docking, propeller modifications and fuel saving measures implemented during dry dock can be gauged with extensive data collected in real time. Having said that, ability to collect, analyse and act upon real-time data, taking account of all dynamic conditions, is the key. Operational excellence of a fleet depends on accurate real-time data without much human interface, transparency in data collection and analysis, and expertise of the crew in managing onboard execution and onshore follow-up. In recent survey conducted by DNV GL Maritime Advisory and TUHH on ship performance management practices a m o n g E u ro p e a n a n d A s i a n s h i p operators it was found that, in general, ship operators see large potential in performance management and rate the benefits of advanced performance m a n a ge m e nt a s h i g h . Vo ya ge optimisation, trim optimisation and main engine performance are considered as the most important drivers for better energy efficiency. The online survey focused on containership, tanker and bulker operators. A total of 114 operators were evaluated, 1/3 from Northern and Central Europe, 2/3 from South East and South Asia. Despite understanding the potential b e n e f i t s o f b e t t e r p e r fo r m a n c e management systems, most operators still apply yesterday’s approaches such as manual data acquisition and “intuitive” trim optimisation. Only a few trendsetters already employ best business practice for all elements. Captain Mathews concluded “In this day and age where time is money and information is power, getting real time insight based on real time data is certainly the future.”


EFFECTIVE MEASUREMENT IS KEY! Fuel efficiency is fast becoming the Holy Grail for the shipping industry, driven by both commercial and environmental factors.


he continuing rise in fuel costs and the introduction of new guidelines from the International Maritime Organization (IMO), has meant that fuel efficiency remains top of mind for ship owners, operators and charterers. Despite the fact that there are now thousands of energy saving initiatives around the world, all of which claim to help deliver fuel efficiencies, the industry still remains sceptical. Peter Mantel, Managing Director of BMT SMART, a subsidiary of BMT Group, believes the only way this cynicism can be eradicated is by introducing effective measurement of vessel performance. By utilising independent, performance monitoring tools, ship owners, operators and charterers can feel confident that the energy savings which are being claimed are indeed valid and real tangible improvements can be made to operational efficiency. Only then will the industry start to embrace these initiatives and realise their true potential.


GUEST FEATURE The monitoring, measurement and reporting of CO2 emissions is set to be the cornerstone of tomorrow’s shipping industry in its efforts to positively contribute towards the climate change challenges we face today. Indeed, the industry is already responding with the introduction of the IMO’s Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) guidelines. Couple this with rising fuel costs, the assessment of fuel consumption is fast becoming an integral part of ship owners, operators and charterers’ operational strategies. To secure market share, suppliers are now clambering over themselves to provide a multitude of initiatives such as energy saving devices (ESDs) to help the shipping industry save on its fuel costs. From inexpensive and simple solutions through to multi-million pound investments, these initiatives can include air lubrication systems, flettner rotors, integrated propulsion systems and weather route optimisation. Implementing these various ESDs can, according to suppliers, result in net savings of anything between one and ten percent – but if you aren’t measuring their performance, how are you able to demonstrate their effectiveness? Equally, if you decide to bring together a multitude of these devices in order to enhance the potential net savings to more than 50 percent, how can you be sure that the combination of these initiatives isn’t in fact, counteracting against one another, with the net effect worse than intended? This is the situation that many owners and operators are now finding themselves in and it is quickly leading to scepticism and reluctance to change. Some owners believe that delivering fuel efficiency is not an exact science. Indeed, it’s true to say that in all science, there is always going to be a level of uncertainty therefore, developing approaches to cope with those uncertainties is paramount so that new technologies can be embraced. For example, automated landing systems within the aviation industry still have to deal with a level of uncertainty, but it hasn’t hampered their adoption.


Eradicating this cynicism is crucial to give the shipping industry a fighting chance of securing real, long term improvements in operational efficiency. This can only be achieved through independently monitoring, reporting, verifying and analysing vessel and fleet performance, providing complete performance visibility on-board and onshore. By introducing accurate on board sensor technology, owners and operators can effectively obtain data related to the vessel’s outputs including shaft torque meter, GPS, speed log, ECDIS and fuel flow meters. However, despite there being similar forms of measurement in the industry, what they fail to do is integrate with the associated environmental conditions. Any measurements must fully align with sophisticated metocean data. Sailing a vessel in conditions where there are no waves or currents could possibly mean much less consumption of fuel than that of a vessel travelling under more ferocious forcing conditions such as high winds. Measuring the vessel parameters

without taking into account the forcing environmental conditions will not give you a true indicator of the ship’s actual performance. Systems such as the new generation BMT SMARTSERVICES product suite integrate comprehensive vessel recorded data with fully validated MetOcean data, including wind, wave and current values providing a true measure of vessel efficiency. The shipping industry is entering into a new era and over the next five years owners and charterers will need to recognise that effective measurement of vessel performance is vital to reaping the long term benefits of their energy saving initiatives. Technology supplier organisations must also realise the need to quantify their claims to secure the trust of their customers – this can only be achieved through an independent approach. Only then will the industry begin to embrace the technologies available and deliver improved operational efficiency. To measure is to know, to know is to understand and to understand is to improve.

‘The only way this cynicism can be eradicated is by introducing effective measurement of vessel performance’




These technology profiles have been developed independently to give you the information and key statistics that can assist with technology selection decisions. Greenlink Systems.............24 Micanti...............................25 Optimarin AS......................26 Oceanfoil............................27 ABS Nautical Systems.........28





GreenLink Systems

Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems About The Company

Key Facts

reenLink Systems was founded in 2011 in Anaheim, California. The GreenLink management team has over 30 years of experience designing and operating engine emissions testing laboratories to standards laid down by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) California Air Resources Board (CARB).

Technological Maturity?


GreenLink Systems was formed to specifically meet the challenges of changing maritime environmental legislation. The company has also produced the first products designed from the ground up to meet the requirements of IMO, CARB, US EPA and MARPOL emissions monitoring and testing regulations.

• • • •

GL CEMS – S: Continuous measurement of SO2 emissions GL CEMS – SC: Continuous measurement of SO 2 and CO 2 emissions GL CEMS – N: Continuous measurement of NOx emissions G L C E M S – T: C o n t i n u o u s measurement of SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, O2, CO, CO2 and HC

GreenLink Systems has also introduced the world’s first On Board Emissions Testing System that can perform the official ISO 8178 test protocol as required by the IMO, the US EPA and the CARB whilst the vessel is in operation at sea. The GreenLink Emissions Testing Unit can be used to verify emissions, engine performance and fuel consumption, delivering second-by-second data that is accepted by the regulatory authorities. The company design products specifically for the maritime industry FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

Applicable Ship Types?

The system can be adapted for all ship designs and engine types.

About The Technology The company serves two sectors: Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS) product and Emissions Testing (ETU) that performs to the ISO 8178. GreenLink Systems have developed a modular CEMS product range that will allow either the measurement of single gases or multiple gases. This allows the client to continually scale their capability according to requirement and budget ensuring that equipment is not wasted or becomes redundant with upgrades. The typical systems are below:

GreenLink Systems is in advanced discussions with ship operators for installations of its ETU and CMS systems in order to verify/validate retrofit scrubber installations. The company is also in discussions with wider bodies that provide verification and certification to ship operators.

with components that meet the strict international standards. For example, emissions samples are collected using a Heated Chemiluminescence Detector (HCLD), (thermally stabilised with Peltier Cooler). This ensures that the analysed conditioned sample is accurate whether the ship is in the tropics or arctic. This sampling system does not rely on fragile analytical instruments such as laser detection which is not compliant with international regulations. GreenLink Systems also utilises a cloud based data collection service to provide shore based staff near real-time information on ship emissions and a wide range of engine parameters. Therefore, an accurate emissions monitoring system will provide the ship operator with useful data on engine efficiency ensuring the operator remains compliant with the regulations (SECA/ECA) and can receive early warnings of engine or emissions performance. GreenLink Systems is unique in the breadth of this capability.

New-Build or Retro-Fit?

The system is suitable for both newbuildings and retro-fit application for existing ships.

Installation Considerations?

According to GreenLink Systems, the installation of CEMS is very simple and quick. Following a detailed survey, it can be carried out in less than a day.


GreenLink Systems’ equipment is modular and costs are based upon customer information.


GreenLink Systems offer a comprehensive package of support; guarantees and maintenance packages that are included in the total package price as provided in a quotation.



Micanti Thorn-D

About The Company

Key Facts

icanti was founded in 2006 as a spin-off from the Technical University of Delft where Micanti’s founder, Dr. Rik Breur, was working on his PhD to develop an effective non-toxic fouling defence technology. The result was a self-adhesive micro fibre foil which is applied on the hull of a vessel. By using specific short fibres, settlement of fouling is prevented. Dr Breur founded Micanti and the patented system is now marketed as Thorn-D.

Technological Maturity?


The commercialisation of Thorn-D began with the aquaculture industry in Turkey, with Micanti expanding into this industry internationally before carrying out the first tests for commercial ships in 2009. After several years of research with institutes such as MARIN, TNO, and Delft Technical University, Micanti now provides Thorn-D to a range of commercial vessels in Europe, the Middle East and the US.

About The Technology Thorn-D is a special type of non-toxic coating which uses microfibers to create a physical barrier against marine growth. A surface of nylon microfibers on a polyester film prevents micro-organisms like mussels and barnacles from attaching directly to a vessel’s hull surface. The basic thought behind Thorn-D is that the prickliness and swaying of microfibers makes the surface unattractive for organisms to settle. Tests with marine institutes such as MARIN have confirmed that these fibres have no negative effect on drag and will remain on a ship’s hull at speeds of up to 30 knots.


Micanti only started to market Thorn-D in the shipping industry in 2011, but has already applied the technology on a number of vessels. The largest vessel on which Thorn-D has been applied is a 140m long coaster with a total underwater surface of 3,600m².

Applicable Ship Types? All.

New-Build or Retro-Fit? Both.

Installation Considerations? Thorn-D lowers fuel costs by keeping the hull surface smooth and reducing drag, however the amount of fuel savings depend on operational factors, such as route, operating time, etc. Thorn-D is type approved by several classification societies, including ABS, Lloyds Register and Bureau Veritas, and is in full compliance with the IMO AntiFouling Convention.

Thorn-D can be applied on steel, plastic and aluminium and besides the hull, can also be used for nozzles, thrusters, grids, cooling tubes and seachests. For newbuilds, Thorn-D is applied directly on the anti-corrosive paint. For existing vessels, the hull needs to be hydrowashed to remove all marine growth and a primer will need to be applied to seal the old anti-fouling layer underneath.


Micanti states that Thorn-D does not require any maintenance, works whether the ship is sailing or moored and has an expected life of least 5 years. The lifetime is thus much longer than that of conventional anti-fouling coatings which on average need to be replaced every six months. Thorn-D is highly resistant against abrasion: a sharp knife with 500g of weight has been run over the foil a 1000 times, after which no single damage occurred. In case of mechanical damage, Thorn-D can easily be repaired by reapplying a new patch. Conventional ultra-sound surveys can be conducted through the foil which means that it does not impede maintenance inspections and class surveys.



Optimarin AS

Optimarin Ballast System About The Company

Key Facts

ptimarin was founded in Norway in 1994 as one of the first companies in the world to develop a system for environmental treatment of ballast water. The original ballast water treatment technology concept was presented to the Norwegian Maritime Authority two years later in May 1997. The technology was then tested at the Institute of Marine Research, Austevoll Aquaculture Research Station in April 1998. The results of these initial tests showed great promise and were presented at IMO in November 1998.

Technological Maturity?

Consequently, the technology received vast interest from early adopters and the media, which lead to Optimarin being invited to participate in several test and demonstration projects in Vancouver during 1999 and later in the Great Lakes as part of the Great Lakes Ballast Demonstration Project. Optimarin heralded finalist positions at ’The Seatrade Awards 2001’ and ’The Thor Heyerdahl International Maritime Environmental Award’ presented during NorShipping 2001. In 2002, Optimarin were finalists once again for the Lloyds List SMM Award in the category ‘Safety and the Environment’.

Applicable Ship Types?

About The Technology

Installation Considerations?


The Optimarin Ballast System is a nonactive, IMO type approved ballast water treatment system. The technology is based on a solid separation (filter) as pre-treatment and high doses of Ultra Violet irradiation for the inactivation of marine organisms, viruses and bacteria. The Optimarin Ballast System does not use or generate chemicals or biocides in its treatment or cleaning processes. It is based on the idea that such systems should be environmentally sound, simple, flexible and easy to install, and capable of operating on both new-builds and existing vessels.

The Optimarin Ballast System UV is based on a simple design with a powerful UV lamp. It uses a single lamp UV chamber (167 m3/h) for all ballast flow rates. For higher flows, 2 or more UV chambers are installed in parallel on a manifold to the required flow. The ballast water is UV treated during both ballasting and de-ballasting however water is only filtered during the ballasting stage.

The first Optimarin Ballast System was installed in April 2000. The current iteration of the system was IMO type approved and installed in 2009. To date, the Optimarin Ballast System has been sold to 280 vessels and 140 systems have been installed.

The modularised system is flexible for all ship types. It has a relatively small footprint and low weight, and will fit all vessel types and sizes.

New-Build or Retro-Fit?

Both. Approximately 25% of the systems sold are for retro-fit application.

The Optimarin Ballast System can be delivered as a complete skid or as a customised solution. It accommodates a wide range of ballast water capacities and can handle flows up to 3,000 m³/h (or higher upon request). The Optimarin Ballast System is usually installed in the pump or engine room, in close proximity to the ballast pumps. The equipment can be installed horizontally or vertically, on or suspended below deck, along the ship’s side or in several separate locations. It is relatively light in weight and adds no extra noise.


The cost of the Optimarin Ballast System is based on flow rate and the operating cost will vary depending on operating patterns and usage.


The Optimarin Ballast System is based on a simple and reliable design. There are few movable parts, which results in little or no system maintenance and ensures operational reliability. The patented UV chamber has a high water flow and high UV intensity, which makes the UV lamps and the internals of the UV chamber self-cleaning and ensures a relative long service life. FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014




Oceanfoil Wingsails About The Company


Key Facts

ceanfoil is a UK-based maritime technology company developing proven aerofoil technology for the global commercial fleet.

Oceanfoil works closely with naval architects Owen Clarke Design LLP to fully understand the savings potential of Oceanfoil’s wingsail, Oceanfoil also partners with the UCL Energy Institute to develop software to calculate fuel savings from a given data set.

Oceanfoil currently projects that its wingsails will be available commercially in early 2015.

Applicable Ship Types? All

New-Build or Retro-Fit?

About The Technology Oceanfoil wingsails are based on proven aerofoil sail technology initially developed in the 1980s that has been further optimised today. They generate forward thrust from the wind, thereby reducing the output required from the engine and lowering fuel consumption while still meeting the requirements of a modern commercial vessel. During the most recent trials in model testing, as well as in CFD analysis, the Oceanfoil wingsail technology has been shown to deliver potential reduction in fuel consumption of up to 20%. Each Oceanfoil wingsail consists of three aerofoils attached to a tail fin or rudder, with each sail resembling the wing of an aeroplane positioned vertically. The aerofoil is said to be the ideal shape for capturing wind for propulsion as the curvature of the sail allows for the optimum generation of directional thrust.

Technological Maturity?

Each wingsail is free to move on a central bearing, and when not in use remains in a feathered mode. The wingsails can be moved forwards towards the bow or aft towards the stern to provide access to a cargo hatch. As the tip of the highest wingsail is never higher than the tallest mast-head, wingsails do not impair the vessel from sailing whatever routes and from entering whatever ports it would typically have done prior to the fitting of the wingsails. Oceanfoil’s wingsails are automatically controlled via a computer from the bridge so do not require crew resource. Once turned on, the computer will automatically optimise the position of the wingsails relevant to the wind for maximum efficacy.

Initially developed for the retro-fit market, the wingsails will also be available for new-build vessels.

Installation Considerations?

Oceanfoil wingsails can be fitted on vessels from 10,000dwt up to the largest vessels afloat. The design and CFD analysis, together with recent model testing show that smaller (10,000 20,000dwt) vessels gain a considerable advantage from installing two Oceanfoil wingsails. Larger vessels will need a larger number, up to probably six on the largest vessels.


The expected installation cost of one Oceanfoil wingsail is US$375,000. There are very limited operating and no training costs. With today’s sustained high bunker fuel costs, Oceanfoil is able to offer customers an estimated payback period of between 15 and 18 months.


Maintenance costs of the vessel as a whole are lowered, due to the lesser load on the engine. Maintenance costs of Oceanfoil wingsails will be very low, as they are made of carbon or glass fibre. Oceanfoil anticipates providing a multiyear (at least 5 years) guarantee of each wingsail.




ABS Nautical Systems ABS NS5 Enterprise About The Company

Key Facts


BS Nautical Systems is the software product line within the classification society ABS. For more than 25 years, Nautical

Systems has been one of the trusted and leading providers of integrated fleet management software solutions to the marine and offshore industries. Solutions are available to assist owners/operators with Maintenance, Supply Chain, Workforce, Safety and Environmental management.

About The Technology The current suite of products, NS5 E nte r p r i s e , i s a f u l l y i nte g rate d information network that helps vessel owners and operators drive performance and attain operational and technical excellence across their organisation. The most recent module included in the suite is the Energy & Environmental Manager. It is a comprehensive solution that includes automation system integration for data collection of key operational data, while tracking and recording voyage-related events, including fuel consumption, cargo data and ballast activities. The Energy & Environmental Manager allows for the collection of data using an independent platform and stores it to a single repository giving users the ability to work within one system.

Data is captured and can be shared from ship-to-shore giving owners and operators the ability to quantify savings and achieve optimisation across an entire fleet. The operational data collection in NS5 is also compatible with ABS’ Vessel Performance services. The value of the software module is enhanced by the Trim Optimisation tool, which identiďŹ es trim and draft optimisation measures for enhanced fuel savings. It performs multiple analyses to obtain the most optimised trim configuration to achieve minimum hull resistance. The Trim Optimisation tool is offered in partnership with Herbert-ABS Software Solutions.

Technological Maturity?

The NS5 Enterprise suite of software products has provided solutions to the maritime industry for over 25 years and is currently in use on over 4,000 vessels operated by more than 300 companies worldwide. Enhancements to the software are continuously made based on industry and client needs to help improve operational efficiencies, simplify regulatory compliance and improve data collection.

Applicable Ship Types?

NS5 Enterprise can be used on both marine and offshore assets of all types

New-Build or Retro-Fit? Both

Installation Considerations?

H a rd wa re a n d o p e rat i n g syste m requirements include a common client/ server setup with local TCP/IP network connection where the NS5 Enterprise application is installed.


The cost of the NS5 Enterprise software is based on initial license fees depending on the modules chosen and the number of assets it will be installed on. Professional services fees are based on the selected solution and portfolio options.


Multiple levels of service and support are provided to customers around the clock. Dedicated account managers serve as the primary contacts for organisations. The product support team is tasked to resolve NS5 Enterprise software issues that might arise. In addition, product consultants are responsible for the implementation, training and professional services of the software.



The Impact of The EEDI on Ship Design S i n ce t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e 2 n d International Maritime Organization (IMO) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Study in 2009, reducing the gaseous emissions attributable to the shipping industry has become a principal objective for regulators, owners, operators and charterer. The 3rd edition of this defining study is currently under development and will no doubt lubricate the regulatory wheels that have been put in motion to drive the shipping fleet to a lesser environmental impact.


t was such a wheel ‘The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)’ that rather controversially, graced the agenda of the Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) for more than a decade. The EEDI rules and regulations for newbuild ships were rubber stamped in July 2011 and their ‘official’ arrival onto the shipping industry regulatory radar has impacted the efficiency of vessels and certainly been ever present in the trade press headlines ever since.

What Exactly is the EEDI?


The EEDI is a non-prescriptive, performance-based mechanism that provides a specific figure for an individual ship design, expressed in grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) per ship’s capacitymile (i.e. the smaller the EEDI the more energy efficient ship design) and is calculated by a formula based on the technical design parameters for a given ship. Newbuild ships (building contract as from 1st of January 2013 and the delivery of which is on or after 1 July 2015) will have to meet a required EEDI value. Following the two-year phase zero period (between January 2013 and January 2015), the reference level will be tightened incrementally every five years; in 2015, 2020 and 2025 (via 10% EEDI value reduction each time) to keep pace with technological developments of new efficiency and reduction measures.

SHIP DESIGN Evolving Ship Designs to Evolve EEDI? The Royal Institute of Naval Architects (RINA) believes that the EEDI offers a fair basis for comparison and should stimulate the development of more efficient ship design. During this two-year phase zero that the industry currently resides in, the industry has seen owners turn to their attentions to their future ship designs, but also to acting upon reducing fuel bills and EEDI values through the practice of slowing down – or ‘slow steaming’. According to many ship owners, the most effective - and most widely used – way to reduce a ship’s EEDI value is to go slower. In practice, the EEDI can be reduced by 10 percent just lowering the speed by 3 percent. However, owners, operators and charterers can apply a number of technical methods and operational strategies in order to reduce the EEDI value of a ship. As later phases introduce tougher restrictions, more fundamental changes in ships design will be needed in order for a vessel to comply with regulations. According to RINA , the EEDI will become an ever more important design parameter.

‘In practice, the EEDI can be reduced by 10 percent just lowering the speed by 3 percent’ A novel study entitled ‘Impact of EEDI on Ship Design and Hydrodynamics’ published in 2011 by S.M. Rashidul Hasan, stated that, amongst other conclusions drawn, the curves for different ship parameters showed that the influence of speed and length has the highest impact on EEDI, then the beam. Draft and prismatic coefficient does not have very high influence. Therefore, if a designer wants to change the value of EEDI for a particular ship, they should look in to the speed and length first, then beam, draft and the prismatic coefficient. The study also communicated the message that no matter how the hull design is improved or modified, it will not be enough to have a vessel that will have the same present speed with 30% reduction of EEDI (Phase three of CO2 reduction). The present efficient hulls are good FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

enough in most cases to comply with the current phase zero and, with some modification of hull parameters and improved hull design, phase one requirements can be achieved without reducing the speed, but are not possible for further phases. So, at present status, it can be said that it will cut off the ship speed and eventually the power requirement. Hasan also stated that the present EEDI formula will influence designers and ship owners to build small ships (in terms of dimension) in low speed range. An extremely interesting insight for the designers. Last year an instrumental man within the realm of EEDI and ship design, Hans Otto Kristensen, enlightened delegates at the 11th International Marine Design Conference with results from work he had conducted in the area of tanker and bulk carrier ship designs and the impact of design on EEDI. Kristensen’s study focussed on the changes to the main dimensions of tankers and bulk carriers (length, breadth, draught and displacement) over the last 30-40 years. A model that can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from bulk carriers and tankers, including emissions of CO 2 in addition to a calculation procedure for estimating the EEDI, was a principal output of the study. Therefore, the research set out to prove that by adjusting the vessel design, i.e. the main parameters, and varying the speed, it is possible to observe the influence of the different parameters on the power demand.

‘The EEDI, rather controversially, graced the agenda of the Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) for more than a decade. It was found that the design trend of bulk carriers and tankers has moved in the wrong direction when seen from an energy saving point of view. The block coefficient has increased during the last twenty years while the length displacement ratio (L/displ.volume1/3) has decreased over the same period. These two design changes have resulted in an increased EEDI.

Kristensen spoke of the analysis “The analysis revealed that the EEDI for the analysed ships in general increased over the last 30 years due to the higher power demand as a result of more unfavourable main dimensions. For most of the ship segments the ship speed increased, resulting in a higher Froude number (speed divided by the square root of the ship length), which also increases the propulsion power and the EEDI” The study stated categorically that this development must be changed in the coming years when the EEDI shall be reduced gradually. However, the study clarifies the way forward “through the use of generic computer models it can be shown that a reduction of the EEDI by 10–15 percent is obtainable by adjusting the main ship dimensions.”

EEDI-Centric Ship Designs of the Future

Whilst speed reductions, or slow steaming practices, are certainly an important factor in reducing EEDI values, it is not the only one. Long-term planning must be conducted by ship owners to ensure that their vessels meet the stringent requirements for EEDI values in the years, decades and centuries to come. The apparent regression of EEDI values based upon evolving tanker and bulk carrier ship designs as mapped by Hans Otto Kristensen must be addressed and the changes in length, breadth, draught and displacement of ships must be reflected to favour lower EEDI values. One saviour that we will explore in the June edition of the Insight is Eco-ship designs and their potential to deliver dramatic reductions on EEDI values for newbuild ships. The market is certainly evolving to welcome the EEDI and its effects on ship design, the designers and ship owners have but one choice – to accept regulations and amend their blueprints to reflect designs that will provide an acceptable EEDI value, not only for the near future, but for the longevity of the ship.




By Dr Tommy Hertzberg, Head of fire dynamics section at SP Fire Technology Head of SP Research Platform “Novel designs at sea; Shipping & Offshore”


he need for lightweight materials and lightweight design at sea is driven by the two main societal challenges of today: energy efficiency and environmental stewardship. A lighter vessel will use less fuel and a semi-submersible offshore platform can only fully attain an optimised weight distribution through proper lightweight design. An offshore wind turbine deprived of lightweight design and lightweight materials is scarcely imaginable. For many applications, however, the increased use of novel lightweight designs are being slowed down by tradition and conservative resistance to change, coupled with a lack of experience and knowledge. Sweden has a long tradition in lightweight ship building, in particular in using FRP composites for the design of naval vessels. The principal organisations behind this development have been Kockums ship yard in Karlskrona in conjunction with KTH, the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. To a large extent, activities have been motivated and funded by the Swedish Defense Material Administration, FMV. An important output from this work has been the 72m, fully composite Visby Class Corvette but also the Kockums production of composite corvette superstructures for the Indian Navy last year. The latter project was to some extent prepared for in the Swedish LASS-project where a composite superstructure for a RoPax vessel was investigated. Whereas the introduction of lightweight combustible composite materials on naval vessels has been possible, accomplishing the same “revolution” on civil vessels has been shown to be somewhat more difficult. The main barriers to the lightweight


revolution across the civil vessel market being are the strong steel building tradition and a lack of lightweight material knowledge. These are also coupled with an extent of unwillingness from the industry to take commercial risks. The apparent remedy to all of these aforementioned barriers to uptake is likely to be good examples of lightweight ship building and operation, some of which are emerging today. Several good examples, not the least with regards to economic and ecological advantages from lightweight ship design, have also been demonstrated in research projects – two of which are described in further detail within this feature.

strength (and weight) in the lower part of the vessel. The total weight gain, however, was still sufficient to include an extra half deck of cabins while keeping almost exactly the same ship behaviour (centre of gravity, displacement) as for the original vessel. This project also clearly demonstrated economic benefits from using lightweight materials in the design. The tasks initiated in the LASS-c project were basically finalised in the EU project BESST: “Breakthrough in European Ship and Shipbuilding Technologies” , where the same vessel and lightweight design was included as an object for study.

The LASS Project

A Swedish study, the “TankLightModule” project, investigated the economic potential from using a lightweight superstructure on a 9 200 dwt tanker, based on its actual trade. A weight optimisation calculation was also made for the interior materials used in the superstructure. It was found that FRP composite saved approximately 50% of the original steel weight (or 100 tons), which directly could be replaced by an extra cargo load. Depending on oil revenues per kg, the payback time was estimated to be 5-7 years. About 30 tonnes could also be saved by using more lightweight interior materials than on the existing vessel with a pay-back time of less than five years. One benefit of plastic composites rather than metallic materials is that it is easier to produce them in specific shapes and for example reduce air resistance. There are a growing number of research projects and initiates that will see the spotlight shine on the lightweight material potential for the civil vessel market and amendments to vital regulations in the past few years will open the doors for more industry action around the development and infiltration of lightweight composites into the market and into ship designs.

Between 2005 and 2008, the Swedish research project LASS (“Lightweight construction applications at sea”) gathered almost 30 Swedish and international industries in a study concerning the use of lightweight materials for ship structures. Six different objects, five vessels and one offshore living quarter, were redesigned using either FRP composites or aluminium, in order to make cost and environmental impact calculations, LCC and LCA. All analyses made showed a pay-back time of less than 5-6 years and clearly demonstrated environmental benefits of the lightweight design. Between 2008 and 2010, part of the previous LASS consortium, together with the Meyer-Werft ship yard, continued the investigation in a “LASS-c” study concerning use of FRP composite materials in the five upper decks of a cruise vessel . In contrast to previous studies where the lightweight material did not contributed to the hull girder, two of the decks were designed to participate in the global strength. The increase in ship hogging and sagging behaviour, due to the much lower E-module in the composite material compared to steel, was managed by an increase of steel



Propelling the Industry Forwards MAN Diesel & Turbo recently published a technical study focusing on utilising advanced technologies, in particular larger diameter propellers and super long stroke engine.


ith the introduction of the EEDI (the Energy Efficiency Design Index) the inherent CO2 design index of a newbuild ship will be reduced. Under the EEDI regulations, based on an average reference CO2 emissions from existing ships, the CO2 emission from new ships in gram per dwt per nautical mile must be equal to or lower than the reference emission figures valid for the specific ship. This drive may often result in operation at lower than normal service ship speeds compared to earlier, resulting in reduced propulsion power utilisation.

‘This drive for reduced CO2 under the EEDI, may often result in operation at lower than normal service ship speeds compared to earlier, resulting in reduced propulsion power utilisation.’


PROPULSION Small Tankers

The design ship speed for tankers in the range of 7000- 10,000 dwt at Normal Continuous Rating (NCR), including 15% sea margin, used to be as high as 14.0 knots. Today, the ship speed may be expected to be lower, possibly 13 knots, or even lower. A more technically advanced solution, proposes MAN Diesel & Turbo, is to optimise the aftbody and hull lines of the ship – including bulbous bow, also considering operation in ballast condition. This makes it possible to install propellers with a larger propeller diameter and, thereby, obtaining higher propeller efficiency, but at a reduced optimum propeller speed, i.e. using less power for the same ship speed.

‘the highest possible propulsive efficiency required to provide a given ship speed is obtained with the largest possible propeller diameter, in combination with the corresponding, optimum pitch/diameter ratio’ main engines with lower rpm. Thus, for the same propeller diameter, these propeller types can demonstrate an up to 6% improved overall efficiency gain at about 10% lower propeller speed. This is valid for propellers with Kappel technology and hence the advantage of the new low super long stroke engines engine can be utilised even if correspondingly larger propeller cannot be accommodated.

‘less power for the same ship speed’ The report details that, as the twostroke main engine is directly coupled with the propeller, the introduction of the super long stroke engines, such as the MAN Diesel & Turbo S30ME-B9 engine, with an even-lower-than-usual shaft speed will meet the need for the reduction in propeller speed. This moves away from the long stroke L-type engines, with relatively high engine speeds, that were traditionally applied as prime movers in very small tankers.

Major Propeller and Engine Parameters

In order to draw the conclusions, the report evaluated a small tanker of 8000dwt. with a service ship speed of 14 knots. In general, the highest possible propulsive efficiency required to provide a given ship speed is obtained with the largest possible propeller diameter d, in combination with the corresponding, optimum pitch/diameter ratio p/d So for example, a propeller diameter of 3.5 m may have the optimum pitch/ diameter ratio of 0.72, and the lowest possible SMCR shaft power of about 3,625 kW at about 219 r/min. However, as is demonstrated by MAN Diesel in the report, if a bigger propeller diameter of 3.9 m is possible, the necessary SMCR shaft power will be reduced to about 3,425 kW at about 179 r/min, i.e. the bigger the propeller, the lower the FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

Birger Jacobsen, Senior Research Engineer, MAN Diesel & Turbo optimum propeller speed. If the pitch for this diameter is changed, the propulsive efficiency will be reduced, i.e. the necessary SMCR shaft power will increase. The report shows however that propulsion-wise it will always be an advantage to choose the largest possible propeller diameter, even though the optimum pitch/diameter ratio would involve a too low propeller speed (in relation to the required main engine speed). Thus, when using a somewhat lower pitch/diameter ratio, compared with the optimum ratio, the propeller/ engine speed may be increased and will only cause a minor extra power increase. The efficiency of a two-stroke main engine particularly depends on the ratio of the maximum (firing) pressure and the mean effective pressure. The higher the ratio, the higher the engine efficiency, i.e. the lower the Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (SFOC). Furthermore, the higher the stroke/ bore ratio of a two-stroke engine, the higher the engine efficiency. This means, for example, that a super long stroke engine type may have a higher efficiency compared with a shorter stroke engine type. The application of new propeller design technologies may also motivate use of

‘The report shows however that propulsion-wise it will always be an advantage to choose the largest possible propeller diameter’


MAN Diesel & Turbo conclude from the report that small tankers and bulk carriers may be compatible with propellers with larger propeller diameters than the current designs, and thus high efficiencies They state that the new and small super long stroke engines meet this trend in the small tanker and bulk carrier market and that, depending on the propeller diameter used, an overall efficiency increase of 3-7% is possible when using these engine types compared with the old main engine type. In addition, they say, the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) will also be reduced when using super long stroke engines. In order to meet the stricter given reference figure in the future however, the design of the ship itself and the design ship speed applied (reduced speed) has to be further evaluated by the shipyards to further reduce the EEDI. A full copy of the technical report entitled ‘Propulsion of 7,000-10,000 dwt Small Tanker’, written by Birger Jacobsen, senior research engineer, MAN Diesel & Turbo is available online via www.



THE LOW LOSS CONCEPT EXPLAINED In this specialist propulsion feature, Fathom joined forces with Wärtsilä to explain the not so complicated ‘Low Loss Concept’.


lectric propulsion maximises efficiency by minimising the need to run a vessel’s engines at low loads, an operational mode which increases the amounts of fuel consumed and emission levels. The ability to match the number of gensets in operation to the total power need is particularly valuable for ships with a lot of variation in the mission profile and enhanced redundancy operation like dynamic positioning operation. Electric propulsion gives large freedom in propeller speed and the direction of rotation can be changed quickly. This makes it possible to use the FP propeller instead of the CP propeller to give the best propulsor efficiency for free sailing vessels. For vessels which require excellent efficiency when free sailing and during bollard pull (DP operation) a CPP may be used in order to get the maximum power from the electric motor in all conditions. The speed of the electric motor is controlled by changing the frequency of the electric power feed to the electric propulsion motors for which a power drive is used. A power drive throws unwanted harmonic distortions to the grid by which it is fed. In order to limit the harmonic distortions to the grid, phase shifting power transformers in the feed line of each drive can be used. Full motor power goes through these power transformers. A good transformer has an efficiency of about 98.5%. An alternative to the propulsion transformer is to use an active input rectifier instead of a passive input rectifier. In most cases the active rectifier is not enough to limit harmonic distortions to classification limits and additional filters are needed in series with the active


input rectifier. The active elements in the rectifier require energy to be operated and have some losses. Efficiency of active rectifier can be up to 98%. Efficiency of the input filter 99.5%. In a Wärtsilä low loss concept system each power drive is connected to 2 different sections of the switchboard which are phase shifted with a special transformer between them. One advantage of this system is that the powerdrive is directly connected to the grid without the full power going through the transformers. In this way the losses of propulsion transformer are avoided. The current going through the low loss transformer is about 1/3 of the power of the drive and therefor has only 1/3 of the losses of the propulsion transformer through which the full power is flowing. Because of the reduced electrical losses the systems is named “low loss concept”. The special transformer is named low loss transformer and is specifically designed for each project. Because the low loss transformer is dimensioned for much lower power than the input transformer it is much more compact than the power transformer and instead of 1 transformer for each powerdrive only 2 (or 4 for large systems) LLC transformers per system are needed reducing the amount of space required. Whilst a power transformer needs to be installed close to the power drive the location of the low loss transformer gives larger freedom to the ship designer. For vessels requiring a high degree of redundancy the low loss concept offers further benefits to improve the efficiency. The LLC system has a main switchboard built up as 4 separate sections with 1 generator connected to each section. The propulsors are split between these 4 sections in such way that each propulsor is fed from 2 different main switchboard sections. This means that in case one switchboard section fails, the power

drives remains available and hence the propulsion is not lost. A typical operation which requires a high level of redundancy is dynamic positioning. Dynamic positioning requirements are indicated with a number from 0 to 3. The higher the number, the higher the redundancy of the system. To ensure the vessel is able to maintain position also in case of a failure, redundancy is used for all critical functions. To determine the capability in “damaged” conditions only a single failure is to be considered allowing to change operations or restore capabilities. The dynamic positioning capabilities in case of a single failure have to be considered for the worse case single failure. The larger the impact on DP capability due to the worse case failure the more “over” capability the vessel needs to have in operation prior to the failure occurring. In case the capability of the system is not enough, in case worse case single failure occurs for the actual weather and wind conditions, operations need to be stopped. Thanks to the feed from 2 different sections from the switchboard in the low loss concept a propulsor is not lost in case one switchboard looses power. The consequence of a worse case single failure in case of low loss concept is limited to loosing one generator, or losing one switchboard section or loss of one propulsor. This gives the LLC system the highest DP capability in case a failure occurs. In practice this means that based on the actual conditions an LLC system needs to have less “spare” capacity installed or running than a traditional system. The actual power need is determined from the operations and independent of the power distribution concept. Therefore the running generators and propulsors in an LLC system are operated at higher loads giving better efficiency and lower emissions than with a traditional distribution system. FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

PROPULSION DP capability of a vessel is indicated with a number which shows the capability to maintain the position and heading when a combined force of wind and waves is applied in any direction. The number is named ERN= Environmental Regularity Number. The ERN consists of four groups of digits. The first group indicates the chance of the ship keeping position at a certain location in the North Sea, (defined by the DNV-rules), providing all systems are working. The second group of digits indicates the chance to keep position if the most in-effective thruster fails. The third group of digits indicates the chance to maintain position if the most effective thruster fails. The fourth group of digits indicates the chance to keep position in case of the worst case single failure. The highest possible rating is achieved with a score of 99 on all four items,

resulting in ERN Vessels with Wärtsilä low loss concept can be designed to achieve ERN with the smallest amount of total power installed! The success of Wärtsilä’s low loss concept is underlined by the fact that more than 80% of the electric propulsion configurations delivered by Wärtsilä are in LLC configuration. The system was introduced to the market in 2005 for 690V limiting driving motors up to 5500 KW and total system power up to 20000 KW. In order to provide the same benefits also features also to larger vessels with more installed power a 6600V systems has been added to the portfolio featuring 8000KW drives and total system power is possible up to 80000KW. The Wärtsilä Low Loss Concept (LLC) is a unique patented solution that enhances redundancy and reduces the number

‘DP capability of a vessel is indicated with a number which shows the capability to maintain the position and heading when a combined force of wind and waves is applied in any direction. The number is named ERN= Environmental Regularity Number.’

‘Vessels with Wärtsilä low loss concept can be designed to achieve ERN with the smallest amount of total power installed!’ of components in a vessel’s propulsion system. In traditional electrical power distribution concepts, a heavy and bulky power transformer is required for each propulsion unit. With Wärtsilä LLC these power transformers are not required, reducing losses and making additional space available for equipment or cargo. The high system redundancy of Wärtsilä LLC requires less gensets to be in operation to ensure continuation of operation in case a worse case single failure occurs, providing for a higher load of the running gensets which has a positive effect on the total vessel efficiency. The LLC concept is flexible and can be designed to fit any configuration of power generation and propulsion units, as well as other onboard consumers of electrical power.





nderstanding the properties of marine lubricants has not traditionally been high on the priority list for the average ship owner or operator. However, times have changed. Lubricants now represent a significant proportion of the operating budget with expensive mechanical issues such as liner scuffing, bore polishing and cold corrosion being seen with alarmingly increasing regularity. It now pays dividends to ensure that the right cylinder lubricant is being used in the right way in the right vessel. In order to do this, understanding the changing market, the developments and the issues is vital. In recent months, dominant players Total Lubmarine, ExxonMobil Fuels and Marine Lubricants and Shell and have all introduced 100BN lubricants to their ranges, whilst Castrol will be launching a 100BN product in May of this year. So why the introduction of this new lubricant type and does it impact your operation?

Back to Basics

Upon combustion, the sulphur in fuel forms both sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide, which in turn react with water to create sulphurous and sulphuric acids. Depending on the temperature in the cylinder, sulphuric acid will condense on cooler areas and if un-neutralised, will go on to corrode the cylinder liner. BN is the base number of a lubricant and is the milligrams of Potassium Hydroxide per gram of oil (mg KOH/g). Essentially, it is the reserve of alkalinity available to neutralise these acidic by-products.

‘The key word when it comes to the different new lubricants being introduced is evolution’

Excess alkalinity, i.e. there is a higher ’alkalinity’ (or BN number) than is required to neutralise the sulphuric acid byproducts of combustion, is likely to lead to an un-depleted base which can form hard deposits. A shortage in ‘alkalinity’ on the other hand, i.e. the cylinder oil does not have sufficient alkalinity (or BN number) to neutralise the sulphuric acid byproducts of combustion, can lead to excessive corrosion by the un-neutralised acid.


The varying sulphur content in fuel therefore is one of the factors that has a direct impact on cylinder oil lubrication. The less sulphur content in the fuel, the less sulphuric acid byproducts that are produced and thus the less alkalinity that is required to neutralise them and vice versa. Until recently, owners and operators have really had only three choices depending on their predominant operating profile: • With fuel with sulphur content of over 1% and up to the sulphur cap of 3.5% a BN 70 lubricant was recommended. • If a vessel was to remain using Low Sulphur Fuel Oil (LFSO) for a period of longer than two weeks, the lubricant should be changed to a lower BN lubricant (a BN40 or a BN50). • Alternatively a multi-fuel sulphur content oil solution could be used (which utilises more complex chemistry than just BN number according to the manufacturers) and is suitable in for use with both high and low sulphur fuels.

Why the Need for 100BN Lubricants?

This is explained well by Iain White of ExxonMobil Fuels and Marine Lubricants “the key word when it comes to the new lubricants being introduced is ‘evolution’. This evolution is being driven by changing fuel sulphur levels and changing engine emission requirements.” “So for example, we launched a single solution cylinder oil for use with fuels with sulphur contents ranging from 0.5% to 4% to fit a window between 2012-2015 to help customers overcome changing regulations on fuel sulphur levels. Similarly, ExxonMobil intend to launch a new low BN lubricant for 2015 for use with 0.1% fuel sulphur contents.” “Mobilgard™ 5100, our 100BN lubricant, is simply a further part of this evolution and is designed to mitigate the effects of cold corrosion in the new design two-stroke engines.” This is also echoed by Richard Holdsworth, Global Brand Manager for Shell “Our philosophy has always been to provide our customers with the most appropriate lubrication solutions for their current challenges. Our technology road mapping has always told us that there was likely a need for a range of higher performance products to meet evolving needs especially after 2015 with new fuel specifications given the considerations of the current refining industry.”


FUELS&EMISSIONS It is an evolution that has been brought about by regulation- albeit indirect regulation. Engine manufacturers have been responding to further constraints than just changing sulphur levels with their new generation of engines. They have had to respond to the reducing (Tier II) NO x requirements and also the drive down of CO 2 by EEDI regulations. These significant emissions regulations have forced engine manufacturers to make changes to engine designs and processes. However, these engines have shown to be prone to cold corrosion in cylinder liners, caused by the liners operating at temperatures below the acid dew point. The acid that forms can attack the cylinder liner and cause extensive damage. This is also further exacerbated by the advent of slow steaming and ultraslow steaming and it is not just in new engines that it can be a problem. Cold corrosion is also an emerging problem in engines modified for part load and low load operation to enable efficient slow steaming. Both the engine manufacturers and lubricant suppliers have been working closely together to develop solutions to these new problems. MAN Diesel & Turbo (MDT) have now issued new design criteria advising operators that 100 BN cylinder oils are an effective measure against cold corrosion for engine types mark 8.1 and newer. Whilst for Wärtsilä RTA, RT-flex and W-X 2-stroke engines operating continuously at low load (below 60% CMCR for more than 24 hours, the use of cylinder lubricating oil with a minimum BN of 70 is strongly recommended , but preferably higher.

Do 100BN Lubricants Replace Multi Fuel Sulphur Content Cylinder Oil Solutions and/or 70BN Lubricants?

According to manufacturers the answer to this is a resounding ‘NO’. It will entirely depend upon the engine and operating conditions, as the use of lubricants with too much reserve alkalinity can be as damaging as too little reserve. There are no longer blanket rules that can be applied to the choice of lubricant. The manufacturers point out that as requirements change so does the understanding and advancement of lubricant chemistry. “BN is a physicoFATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

chemical characteristic that alone, is not enough to explain the neutralisation performance of a cylinder lubricant. What counts is the kinematic of the neutralisation reaction- that is the oil’s ability to fight acids rapidly, irrespective of simply BN” explains Serge Dal Farra of Total Lubmarine. This fact was at the heart of the development of the multi fuel sulphur content solutions that can be used with both high and low sulphur content fuels. These solutions are not now re co m m e n d e d fo r t h e n e w t y p e or modified engines although the manufacturers are clear that 100BN lubricants, in no way, signal a move away from multi sulphur fuel content solutions. Dal Farra says “TALUSIA UNIVERSAL [Total Lubmarine’s multi fuel sulphur content solution] remains a viable option for 80% of the market operating using older vessels. However demand for TALUSIA UNIVERSAL 100 is growing from customers using vessels with new engine designs or modified engines. These customers benefit from TALUSIA UNIVERSAL 100’s higher basicity reserve, which leads to improved neutralisation efficiency when used in new generation engines.” Holdsworth from Shell supports this “Customers wanted operational simplicity hence we developed Shell Alexia S4 [multi fuel sulphur content solution] which delivered a wide range oil capability. It was never a ‘single cylinder oil’.” “Current new and modified engines face cold corrosion issues; hence we have developed Shell Alexia S5 and Shell Alexia S6 technology to help prevent corrosive wear, reduce deposit build up and prolong engine life. Our position has not changed – we will continue to products that address our customers’ current problems.”

Knowing Which Lubricant is Required

Lubricant oil analysis is a very wellestablished condition monitoring method and with changing conditions, it is considered more vital than ever. Engine manufacturers have actually gone even further and are now recommending more in-depth analysis than ever before. “With these changing conditions, whilst it was once just considered best

practice to do analysis of what is going on in the engine, i.e. scrape down oil analysis, it is now vital this is done to monitor what is happening inside the engine, and to optimise cylinder oil feed rates. Engine manufacturers now also believe that you need to look at total iron content in the scape down analysis which means analysing not just ferrous iron but also corrosive iron.” says Iain White of ExxonMobil . They have recently introduced a new on-board test that monitors the level of iron salts in the scrape down oil sample which provides an indication of corrosion of the liner wall (during cold corrosion, the sulphuric acid etches the liner wall, and the iron removed from the wall turns into iron salts). The choice of scrape-down analysis methods and services is wide ranging for ship owners and operators, with both onboard kits and lab analysis on offer from independent manufacturers, labs and lubricant manufacturers alike.

Getting the Right Lubricant for your Operations

Whilst it may seem like yet another added operational burden and cost to be regularly testing your cylinder scrape down oil, economically it actually makes a lot of sense. Excess cylinder wear and damage is a hugely costly business, but not only this, cylinder oil analysis can actually be used to identify the optimum lubricant feed rate which may well be less than is currently being used. This actually has the potential for significant savings particularly when multiplied across a fleet. Lubricant suppliers are highly aware that times have changed and customers need far more support than ever before in running their lubricant operations. Ship owners and operators should ensure that they maintain strong relationships with their suppliers and utilise this support as much as possible. Between this and engine manufacturer support, maintaining smooth operations should be no problem at all.




Biodegradable lubricants- or, more accurately, environmentally acceptable lubricantsare no longer a matter of choice. For any ship that is going to operate in US water, it is a matter of law.


s of the 19th December 2013, a revised version of the United States (US) Vessel General Permit (VGP) regulations came in to force affecting all vessels entering US waters replacing the 2008 VGP. One of the notable changes what that “All vessels must use an Environmentally Acceptable Lubricant (EAL) in all oil-to-sea interfaces, unless technically infeasible”. The actual definition of an EAL is very technical, but a number of manufacturers have now confirmed that they have products available that meet these stringent standards including Castrol, ExxonMobil Marine Lubricants, In a newsletter issued by DNV in June 2013, they clarified the understanding of the term ‘technically infeasible as being: 1. If the ship has seals that are not compatible with any EALs, it can continue to use mineral oil until the next planned docking, when the seals are to be replaced. 2. I f t h e o r i g i n a l e q u i p m e n t m a n u fa c t u r e r ( O E M ) h a s n o recommended seal-EAL combination for its product, the use of EALs can be considered “technically infeasible”. 3. For new ships or when replacing equipment, the use of EALs is “technically infeasible” only if no manufacturer can deliver an EALlubricated product that is suitable for the purpose. 4. If the use of an EAL in an oil-to-sea interface is claimed to be “technically infeasible”, the ship must carry documentation to that effect. Such a document/statement written by the manufacturer or owner shall be not more than one year old and confirm the factual situation.


Klϋber Lubrication, Lukoil, Shell, Total Lubmarine and of course Vickers the specialist biolubricant producer.

‘The EPA has stated that they have specifically included a transition period tied to drydocking schedule in the definition of technically infeasible.’ Therefore although in force, In many case changeover can wait until the next drydocking after the 19 th December 2013. The EPA has stated that they have specifically “included a transition period tied to drydocking schedule in the definition of technically infeasible. EPA has incorporated where lubricant types cannot be commingled in existing applications and the lubricants cannot be changed until the next drydock into the definition of technically infeasible for purposes of oil-to-sea interfaces. In these cases, use of an EAL can wait until the vessel’s next drydocking.” With it being an on-going process education and planning are considered to be two of the most important issues. “With respect to EALs and the VGP requirements it is still an education process with the owners and operators with awareness being raised by many different equipment suppliers” says Iain White of ExxonMobil Marine Lubricants, “there is product available and we are helping customers understand what they need to do. The important thing is planning.” This change has had a greater impact than just for on just those vessels operating in US waters. Paul Smailes, Sales & Marketing Director at Vickers says:

‘Shipping companies around the world are now putting plans into action to ensure they comply with the legislation’

“Since we launched our range of EALs in 2002, we have seen a steady increase in demand from those shipping companies concerned about their environmental footprint. The latest version of the Vessel General Permit has accelerated that growth in demand. Shipping companies around the world are now putting plans into action to ensure they comply with the legislation Moreover, many shipping companies do seem to be embracing the environmental changes being introduced throughout the marine industry, even in sectors or areas not immediately affected by the US legislation” One of the emerging issues that the industry has seen has been incompatibility between environmentally

‘With respect to EALs and the VGP requirements it is still an education process’ acceptable lubricants and the stern tube seal manufacturers. A number of manufacturers are now launching seals that are said to be specifically suitable for environmentally acceptable lubricants. Smailes explained that “Vickers has worked cooperatively, for more than 15 years, with all the leading sterntube seal manufacturers to test the compatibility of EALs with seals, and to mitigate any possible adverse effects.”


FUELS&EMISSIONS Recently some seal makers have reduced their previous restrictions on the use of EALs, whilst other makers are introducing new elastomers which have improved compatibility with EALs. “Overall it is now “technically feasible” to use EALs with most conventional sterntube seal designs, provided the appropriate elastomer is used. Of course, vessel operators should always check the latest approval position with the seal maker and the EAL provider, and should also regularly check the condition of the EAL through an expert EAL condition monitoring service” explained Smailes. Total Lubmarine have also been working on this saying “Compatibility with seals is one of the main parameters to check before any lubricant recommendation. Total Lubmarine works closely with seal makers to test EALs at the earlier stage of their formulation.


Our EALs are now marketed on a wider basis due to the Vessel General Permit implementation, and seal makers have launched new products to ensure compliance. Work is ongoing to test all Total Lubmarine EALs for compatibility with new seal designs.”

‘Overall it is now “technically feasible” to use EALs with most conventional sterntube seal designs, provided the appropriate elastomer is used.’

‘Other alternatives are water lubricated bearings’ Other alternatives are water lubricated bearings which, although requiring fitting initially, then do not have any ongoing lubricant costs. Thordon Bearings, manufacturer of water lubricant systems has seen increased uptake of these citing owners such as Princess Cruises, COSCO, Disney Cruise Lines, US Gypsum Corporation, CSL Group, Algoma Corp.,Flinter Group Conoco Phillips, Carisbrooke Shipping and Staten Island Ferries have all changed to water lubricated bearings.



SHIP ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES In a regular series, The Insight will feature excerpts from the ‘Ship Energy Efficiency Measures Advisory’ by ABS



lanning vessel voyages according to expected weather has been an accepted practice for a very long time. For at least 50 years computers have been used to aid weather forecasting and evaluate simulated voyages. The fundamental goal is to select a course from the departure port to the destination port that provides the safest passage and reliable on-time arrival while taking into account actual wind, wave and current conditions expected during the voyage. The biggest change in recent years has been the shift in focus from a fast and safe route to a safe and energy efficient route. Weather routing is now closely tied to voyage performance management where the goal is achieving the ‘optimum’ speed with as little fuel consumption as possible while protecting the safety of the crew, passengers, ship and its cargo. As such it is part of the solution providing just-intime logistics planning and it facilitates effective use of slow steaming. Weather routing at its core is a service (not a product). It is provided to the operator by a company that has developed expertise in gathering and interpreting meteorological data, determining resulting wind and sea


conditions and evaluating vessel responses in the predicted seaway. The service is only as good as the weather forecasting ability and meteorological experience of the service provider. There are continuing advancements in meteorology data collection, in mathematical modeling of the atmosphere and weather systems, and in the sophistication of ocean wave forecasting models based on the wind and current. Each provider tries to distinguish itself with these often-times proprietary computer models and techniques. Vessel performance computer models are also a distinguishing factor. The most critical vessel performance prediction is the amount of speed reduction in a seaway. Some providers use a generic vessel model that matches the type and size of the ship to make this prediction. Others use the exact geometric characteristics of the subject ship. The calculation algorithm can be derived from model test data, a simple empirical rule, full-scale measurements or be based on direct calculation of ship motions and added resistance. The weather routing service is available in various forms and with a variety of complimentary features. For instance, the weather routing information could simply be communicated to the ship via email. Or there could be shipboard and/ or shoreside computer applications that allow a wide range of vessel and fleet management functions. Added features that are becoming quite common include powerful shipboard computer applications to visually display route and vessel performance information and allow the Master to interact with the performance prediction tool.

Some tools endeavor to predict the actual vessel motions and hull girder stress and alert the crew to threshold exceedance (such as conditions where roll, slamming or hull stresses are too high). These tools predict changes in the ship response to heading/course changes allowing the Master to make immediate course corrections for severe situations. More advanced systems can incorporate user-specified environmental or safety constraints and voluntary speed reduction and heading change thresholds in the voyage selection algorithms. Shoreside fleet management systems that track each vessel are also now common, tracking the vessel’s planned versus actual course, and key performance indicators. Integration with third-party products such as Google Earth makes fleet tracking easier and widely available.

How it Works

The route selection process involves a simulation of numerous possible routes taking into account the wind/ wave/current condition along the track. The climate data is updated at regular intervals for the vessel’s predicted position and time and all the safety limits are checked. For the purposes of route selection the safety constraint or target includes limits on vessel motions for passenger/ crew comfort as well as cargo securing. There may also be limits related to a risk for structural damage due to slamming or green water impact on deck. Difficulty in course-keeping at certain heading and other operational guidance can be considered by the more sophisticated voyage modeling tools.

The full ‘Ship Energy Efficiency Measures Advisory’ can be accessed through


SHIP ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES The vessel’s ability to maintain speed given the heading and sea state is calculated using the vessel performance model. The speed and heading over the bottom is then determined and the predicted progress along the route recorded. If the safety limits are not satisfied at any point the route may be rejected and another route (heading, speed) selected.

Routing is based on different types of weather and meteorological forecasts Routing is based on different types of weather and meteorological forecasts. Short range weather forecasts out three to five days are now generally available and reliable. They are based on current observations, including surface and upper air pressures measurements, wave buoys and satellite data collection, and meteorological models. Extending the forecasts out to 14 days is usually done by matching historical weather patterns and global wave models to current conditions and using these to make predictions on sea states. The extended forecasts allow longer range study of possible course deviations, such as routing around developing storm systems. Regardless of the forecast, horizonplanned voyage routes should always be updated regularly (as often as twice daily) with information from vessel weather observations, current position and the current short-term weather forecasts at the position. Direct and frequent communication between the weather routing service and the ships at sea not only allows for this regular route update, but also allows the ship to receive alerts on expected storm severity and duration as well as expected vessel response (motions, speed slow down, etc.). Also very useful is feedback to the weather routing service at the end of


the voyage regarding weather and vessel performance to help them update their models.


Weather routing is most beneficial on longer voyages (over about 1,500 NM) where the route is navigationally unrestricted so that there is a choice of routes, and where weather is a factor on vessel performance. It is currently more commonly used on high-speed, fineform ships in liner services. These ships can be more susceptible to damage and significant slowdown in a sea way. Still, slower full form ships can achieve some benefits, especially when combined with charter agreements that allow just-intime arrival. In this case, simple weather guidance that helps avoid storms and minimizes average voyage speed would be sufficient.

When selecting a service provider, the operator should take into consideration the provider ’s experience and the sophistication of its computer models for obtaining reliable voyage plans.

Weather routing at its core is a service (not a product) The number of services offered is considerable. The operator is well advised to shop around carefully, and may wish to consider hiring an outside expert to find the most suitable options based on specific needs.


Savings vary depending on climate and voyage length, but can be significant in severe weather or where just in time arrival is possible.

Ship Type

All ships, but biggest improvements occur for ships on long routes in harsh climates




Cost is based on a per voyage fee plus optional shipboard software purchase. The range is from a very basic weather forecast to a sophisticated and regularly updated information stream. 200 per voyage to $1,000 per voyage.

The full ‘Ship Energy Efficiency Measures Advisory’ can be accessed through


We may have moved away from the days of pure sail power but the meteorological conditions can have a significant impact on in today’s world of powerful engines.


he IMO Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) identifies the planning and execution of voyages as key methods for improving fuel consumption with weather routeing having a high potential for increasing efficiency on specific routes. Today, weather routing is a sophisticated science based on complex analysis of oceanographic data-including ocean currents, tides, sea surface temperatures and wave forecastsas well as weather conditions and importantly the vessel and voyage parameters. Software is now widely available that combines both logistical planning with weather data to ensure that ships sail the safest and most efficient route given the weather it is likely to encounter. The use of this data is now an integral part of fleet management and passage planning systems in most shipping operations. Even with the rise in the price of fuel, and recent legislation concerning emissions causing a boom in technology designed to improve the efficiency of a voyage, these systems really must take the weather into account to be effective. The weather (including ocean currents) is arguably the single biggest factor that affects the performance of ships at sea. A trim optimisation system is of little use if the vessel is pounding into a 20 metre swell.


ELECTRONICS& SOFTWARE Case Study: Weather Routing

Applied Weather Technology is one of the industry experts in weather routing. To demonstrate the impact that weather routing can have they have shared a real life example from their files. During the month of January of this year, the North Atlantic suffered a storm which, at its peak, wave heights of up to 20 metres. The diagram shows the intended route of the Captain for a route from eastern England to the Gulf of Mexico going via the English Channel- a route that under other circumstances could be ideal however with the current conditions would take the vessel directly through the centre of the storm.

Ensemble Forecasts

Another benefit of weather routing can be confidence in setting speeds for ‘just in time arrival’. It is well known that slower speeds can have a significant impact on fuel conservation and why waste fuel on a vessel going full steam ahead only to arrive ahead of schedule. Any weather forecast is subject to error. They are created by estimating the current state of the atmosphere using observations, and then calculating how this state will evolve in time using a numerical weather prediction computer model. As the atmosphere is a chaotic system, very small errors in its initial state can lead to large errors in the forecast- this is why a completely accurate forecast can never been given. An ensemble forecast is one where Ensemble forecasts mean that instead of running just a single forecast, the computer model is run a number of times from slightly different starting conditions. The complete set of forecasts is referred to as the ensemble, and individual forecasts within it as ensemble members. When it comes to vessel route planning, ensemble forecasts can then be used to give confidence factors on how likely it will be for a vessel to arrive at the scheduled time based on a set speed.


> Through weather routing an alternative northern route was recommended and indeed followed. Whilst the route may have been longer in fact, at a minimum, it was calculated that there was a 15% reduction in fuel consumption avoiding the 15 metre waves that prevailed off the English Channel at the time.

Example A

In this example, ensemble forecasts show a relatively small spread of estimated speed required to reach the port by the targeted time.

84% of the ensemble forecasts support a power of 16 knots whilst just 14% support a marginally higher speed. Therefore there can be a fairly high confidence on a speed of 16 knots.

Example B

In this other example of a trans-Atlantic westbound voyage, there is a more significant spread in the forecast results, and therefore, less confidence that the slowest speed can achieve the desired arrival time. In this instance the ship operator may prefer to choose a slightly higher speed to build more of a buffer in.





Oceanographic data has only moved from the domain of government agencies and scientific institutes to being commercially available in the last five years, or so. A specialist environmental data company in Tasmania (Australia), Tidetech, is making waves with oceanographic data for voyage optimisation. Tidetech does not provide routing directly, but supplies data to partner companies who offer a range of solutions from shore-side weather routing, to onboard voyage optimisation, performance monitoring and fleet management applications. Managing director Penny Haire says the shipping industry is moving quite quickly from traditional blue water weather routing to ‘complete voyage optimisation’, where a full suite of environmental data is used in the management of the voyage. Up to fifteen different parameters of data are available, including global combined tidal and ocean currents, regional high-resolution tidal currents, and a full set of wave and weather products.

Current Challenges

Haire stated that one aspect of voyage optimisation that has been under exploited is the potential for improved efficiency in coastal waters. Speed optimisation in coastal tidal waters offers significant potential for savings, particularly in heavily trafficked northwest European and Asian waters, where there are many strong tides. A simulation for an 8000 TEU vessel transiting the English Channel, for example, shows that correctly timing the vessel’s arrival at the entrance to the channel can achieve a best-case transit 32 minutes faster (steaming at 19 knots) than the worst-case transit (at 21 knots) – a difference of approximately 35.8 tons

of bunkerage. Tidetech is already supplying NAPA with oceanographic data for speed and voyage optimisation on three vessels, including two northern European ferries and a cruise ship in Asia.

Not Just Ships

The recent America’s Cup demonstrated the influence of tide on performance, using Tidetech’s high-resolution tidal data – a first in Cup history. Those ‘vessels’ only weigh 5,900kg (13,000lbs) and don’t burn any fuel at all, yet current is seen as critical to performance optimisation and competitive advantage. The shipping sector is beginning to see that, too.

Step-by-Step Guide to Ballast Water Management The Guide, written with Capt. Peter Lundahl Rasmussen, Senior Marine Technical Officer, gives shipowners and operators full understanding of how ballast water management regulations and options affect their operations. It provides full insight, comprehensive guidance and practical tools for decision-making and implementation, including: - Regulatory requirements and what they mean. - Key considerations - planning for compliance. - A technical breakdown of ballast water treatment technology. - Installation considerations (newbuild and retrofit). - Step-by-Step guide to complying with the Convention. - A review of all providers and systems


For more information:

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ver the past decade, an increasingly wide and sophisticated array of tools has become available for optimising the operational performance of ships. However, quantifying true ship performance is a very complex, if not impossible, task as there are numerous contributing factors interacting with each other, as shown in Figure 1. Ships are subjected to wind, waves and currents plus, the condition of the engine, hull and propeller can all deteriorate over time. All of these factors reduce a ship’s overall efficiency. Not only this, the effects of changing environmental and loading conditions (draft and trim) are interrelated, making it difficult to isolate causes of inefficiency. Traditional methods of monitoring performance largely rely on manual data from logs such as ship speed, horsepower, propeller rpm, slip and fuel consumption. These manual measurements only indicate really significant efficiency changes due to the high percentage of inaccuracy. Dr. Henry Chen, Chief Naval Architect at Jeppesen Marine has been studying, and solving, this problem for many years. He explains that a performance monitoring system must in fact identify the degradation in ship efficiency and translate this trend or performance metrics into recommendations for improving overall fuel efficiency. Therefore, before addressing the question of how to improve ship efficiency, one must properly define efficiency and establish a reasonable benchmark as the basis for comparison. See Figure 2, for further information on this. During the ship design phase, engine, propeller, hull and propulsive efficiencies are estimated and optimised for a specific size, service speed and vessel type.


Figure 1

Although the performance of the entire ship is then confirmed during sea trials and accepted by the shipowner, it is accepted that fuel efficiency will drop from that of the sea trials. In fact, the specific fuel consumption at various power outputs should not change compared to the test results, unless the engine is out of tune or the quality and calorific value of the fuel are in question. As such, specific fuel consumption is a good metric to use in detecting degradations in engine efficiency. On the other hand, trying to separate the effects of hull fouling, propeller roughness, wind, waves, and draft/trim on ship performance is much more complex and requires extensive instrumentation. There are certainly now many systems that aim to do just this. Dr Chen contends that the most cost-effective approach is

to take an aggregate measurement and compare it with a series of established benchmarks based on model tests, theoretical calculations or past records taken at the time when the hull was clean. He says that by doing this it becomes more interesting to detect the trends over time rather than the quantitative values. By introducing an Operational Efficiency Benchmark (see Figure 2) you can then measure the reduction in performance attributable to hull fouling. Operational efficiency is an aggregate measure of ship performance at a certain speed and draft/trim, corrected for wind, waves, and current. By plotting the same metric across the entire speed range and loading conditions over time would show the trend in performance degradation, since hull

‘Although the performance of the entire ship is then confirmed during sea trials and accepted by the shipowner, it is accepted that fuel efficiency will drop from that of the sea trials.’


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fouling affects ship performance under all these conditions. To evaluate the effectiveness of weather routing and speed management, a voyage efficiency benchmark can be used – another aggregate measure of ship performance for a particular passage. Since weather, current, ship loading conditions and schedule requirements are different for each passage, it is necessary to normalise the performance to the best scenario one could achieve for the same departure and arrival times, as well as loading and environmental conditions during the same period.

Software for the job

There are indeed a plethora of systems on offer that can measure, analyse and advise owners on efficiency. These range from very simple systems relying on flow meters and shaft power meters right though to systems that analyse conditions in real time and suggest optimal vessel operation during a passage. FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

27.02.2014 07:51:27

‘For many operators, there is a careful balance between the advantages and accuracy of the systems and the investment cost. With costs ranging from US$10-20,000 to US$100200,000 there is a great variety on offer.’ In Dr. Chen’s opinion, a combined approach is best. By using customised ship performance models alongside optimisation software, such as Jeppesen’s Voyage and Vessel Optimization Solution (VVOS), owners and operators obtain highly accurate information to help them optimise overall voyage performance. For many operators, there is a careful balance between the advantages and accuracy of the systems and the investment cost. With costs ranging from US$10-20,000 to US$100-200,000 there is a great variety on offer.

Figure 2

Efficiencies Engine Efficiency = Delivered HP / Fuel Consumed Propeller Efficiency = Thrust HP / Delivered HP Hull Efficiency = Effective HP / Thrust HP Propulsive Efficiency = Engine x Propeller x Hull Operational Efficiency Benchmark Operational efficiency = Actual Tonnes per Mile / Baseline Tonnes per Mile Benchmarking Voyage Efficiency Voyage efficiency = Actual Consumed / Optimal Consumed for the Same Loading and Schedule




n today’s shipping market many operators have to face unpredictable and long idle periods. Not only are long idling periods bad for business, they are also bad news for the build up of biofouling on the exterior hull. Even with the most innovative antifouling hull coating products, an idling ship will still amass biofouling. The reason is that antifouling coatings are designed and applied to meet a number of specific criteria such as vessel speed, activity and water temperature. Therefore, the idling of ships for more than 2-3 weeks lies outside these parameters, especially the speed parameter. As bunkering costs rise, fleet operators are asking for more from their fouling defence coatings. At present, the majority of operators still prefer antifouling coatings to fouling release coatings due to doubts about the fuel efficiency performance of fouling release over an entire docking interval. However the fact is that regardless of if a vessel’s hull is coated with an antifouling or fouling release coating, both technologies provide their best performance once the ship is sailing. Antifoulings typically contain two different types of biocides which are released very slowly to hinder fouling organisms that grow on the coating. The trick is in the timing of the release. Release too fast and the biocide is wasted, release too slow and fouling organisms get a chance to settle.


STRATEGIES Fouling release coatings do not contain biocides but instead rely on special properties on the surface that combine with the coating’s flexible properties. Fouling organisms can, to some extent, settle on the surface but find it hard to create sufficient adhesion and therefore are dislodged once there is sufficient water flow along the hull. Hence the name of the technology – fouling release.

A Revolutionary Solution?

In lieu of the issues surrounding biofouling and ship idling, global marine coating manufacturer Hempel have developed and produced a new solution for the market that combines the advantages of both antifouling and foul release product types and combats the issue of ship idling biofouling build up. The name of this revolutionary product - HEMPAGUARD. HEMPAGUARD i s a fu si o n o f antifoulings and hydrogel based fouling release. With a small amount of biocides being active in the hydrogel layer, the coating provides increased fuel efficiency compared to antifoulings by maintaining a smooth surface that minimises friction when sailing, and at the same time deters fouling with the help of biocides. Due to the hydrogel technology used, Hempel has succeeded in developing a


truly innovative product using only 5% of the amount of biocide compared to antifoulings offering the same service time. Claes Skat-Rørdam, Hempel Marketing Manager, Fouling Control spoke of the product’s development “There was an obvious need for something far more effective than conventional antifouling and fouling release solutions,” “Coating suppliers have tried to supplement these technologies with various extra features, but they have not yet succeeded in delivering a satisfactory solution to the increasing fuel efficiency needs of an ever more competitive shipping industry” he continued. The HEMPAGUARD solution not only provides impressive fuel savings it also offers extreme capacity for being idle – therefore addressing the ship idling befouling build up issue. To guarantee that the product delivers on it ’s promise of combatting this problem, Hempel offers a 120 day idle guarantee in the first year post product application product guarantees. According to Claes Skat-Rørdam the effect is always the same, regardless of the speed and activity of the vessel and, in particular, when slow steaming or even during extended idling in aggressive

waters. He commented that HEMPAGUARD is recommended for all ship types whose owners wish to benefit from flexible trading, fuel savings and fouling defence at any speed or during idle periods. He elaborated on the product’s features and flexibility “HEMPAGUARD is extremely flexible, eliminating the need to find a product suited to a particular sailing route, sailing speed or idle periods,” Claes Skat-Rørdam underlines. “Our tests have shown that HEMPAGUARD retains its effectiveness when switching between slow and fast steaming anywhere in the world as well as during extended idle periods. “This is particularly interesting for bulk carriers that can be redirected at short notice as well as larger container vessels and tankers that may wish to increase speed to meet schedules or slow steam to achieve extra fuel savings, “ he adds. “In fact we are so confident about the performance of HEMPAGUARD that we are offering a satisfaction guarantee contract for our top-tier product HEMPAGUARD X7 on full blasted vessels. This means that if the customer is not satisfied, Hempel will pay for the conversion of HEMPAGUARD X7 to conventional antifouling with no questions asked.“




By Simon Doran, Managing Director of GAC EnvironHull Ltd.


ith bunker costs remaining high and the search for fuel efficiency solutions a defining characteristic of today ’s maritime market, concerns about mandatory hullcleaning are no longer limited to vessel owners. After a BIMCO Circular issued late last year redrew the lines of responsibility between owners and charter parties in respect of hull maintenance in instances of slow steaming and idleness, finding an efficient solution is now also a major consideration for charterers. Under the clause, following prolonged periods of idleness - around 15 days in most cases - particularly in areas and environments where invasive species are most prevalent, charterers are now liable for hull cleaning, at their own cost and on their own time. The need to operate efficiently, maintain profitability and keep up with increasingly stringent environmental regulations has created the conditions for a shake-up of the hull cleaning market. Shipping is under immense pressure from all directions, and we need forwardlooking solutions that enable owners and operators to meet their environmental responsibilities and comply with regulations, without jeopardising their ability to make a profit, now and in the future. That’s why innovative technology and solutions tailored to the changing needs of the industry are paving the way to a more cost-effective and sustainable response. While traditional hull cleaning solutions rely on divers using brushes and abrasive materials to manually scrub the hull - an arduous, time-consuming and expensive process that can remove 10-30% of the protective coating with each clean – GAC EnvironHull’s HullWiper Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) uses a brushless cleaning technology to remove fouling from ships’ hulls, thus increasing the lifecycle of expensive protective coatings.


The diver-free system sprays seawater through adjustable-pressure water jets to dislodge unwanted bio-foul from the hull surface, whilst simultaneously collecting the waste, rather than just releasing it into the sea as with traditional techniques. After filtration onboard the support vessel, only clean water is released back into the sea. The residue and pollutants collected are filtered and disposed of in an environmentally friendly way once the cleaning is complete to ensure that foreign invasive species are not released into the local eco-system. Though relatively compact, HullWiper can clean up to 2,000 square metres of hull per hour. It can clean the vertical sides of a VLCC, approximately 8,000 square metres, in around seven hours half the time the same job would take using conventional cleaning methods with divers. The vehicle is fitted with a light and camera so that it can be remotely operated from shore, and the entire operation is also recorded and presented along with cleaning reports so that owners and operators have a record of the work done. As there is no diver intervention, there is no risk to life, and as HullWiper makes no direct contact with the hull, expensive coatings are protected. The entire operation is all remotely operated from GAC EnvironHull’s support vessel alongside, so hull cleaning can take place while a vessel is in port resupplying, loading cargo or between voyages, saving considerable time and money by avoiding additional downtime.

Just as the market for emissions abatement technologies has been driven by the need to meet costly sulphur emissions regulations, GAC EnvironHull has brought a technology-driven solution to the market to improve compliance options for bio-fouling regulations. GAC EnvironHull has been granted permission by the Norwegian Climate and Pollution Agency KFT to perform cleaning within all Norwegian ports, and by the UAE Environmental Department and DP World for use in inner harbours and at all quays inside the port of Jebel Ali. A number of leading global maritime paint and coatings companies have also approved the technology.

Simon Doran, Managing Director of GAC EnvironHull Ltd. FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014




ast year the International Standards Organization (ISO) commenced t h e d eve l o p m e nt o f a n International Standard for measurement of changes in hull and propeller p e r fo r m a n c e – t h e I S O 19030 – fuelled by a coalition of industry supports, led by Jotun and the Bellona Foundation. Fathom, caught up with Jotun for an update as to the progress of the standard development and the massive industry involvement to drive this standard to successful adoption by the industry.

Developed with Deep Involvement from the Industry

In February 2012, Jotun and the Bellona Foundation, as part of the Clean Shipping Coalition, called to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for a transparent and reliable standard for the measurement of changes in hull; and propeller performance through the submission MEPC63-4-8. It was within that groundbreaking submission, that it was estimated that the potential fuel cost and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions directly related to improvements in hull and propeller performance lie between 7 - 10 percent across the global fleet. This 7-10% in fuel and emissions savings translates into US$30 billion in additional fuel costs and 0.3 percent of all man-made carbon emissions. It was argued that the main barrier to realising this 7-10% potential was the lack of commonly accepted methods for accurately isolating hull and propeller performance from all the other factors affecting the fuel consumption of a ship in service. The submission was largely well received and, as such, the International Standards Organization (ISO) offered to assist in developing a new International Standard during the plenary discussions. FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

Post-Submission: What Happened Next?

The Bellona Foundation and Jotun hosted a well-attended workshop in January 2013, the output from which formed the base for the preparation and submission of an ISO New Work Item Proposal by Standard Norway. The overarching objective of the proposed new work item was to create a commonly accepted method for measuring ship specific hull and propeller performance available to the industry for use on a voluntary basis. Further discussion ensued at stakeholder workshops held in Tokyo in April 2013 and London in May 2013 further. These discussions demonstrated that reaching International consensus on a standard would be challenging but ultimately doable and there was broad agreement that the effort would be worthwhile. By the close of the stakeholder workshop series the swell of experts, institutions and companies that were actively involved have amassed to over 100. Experts representing ship owners, class societies, academic institutions, performance monitoring companies, marine paint manufacturers and other stakeholders were actively involved in discussing the “Why? What? And How?” of the proposed standard.

Adhering to the ISO Process

The New Work Item Proposal was approved by the 14 national standards organisations with voting rights in ISO Technical Committee 8 – Sub Committee 2 on the 30th May 2013 – this signalled that work on ISO 19030 could begin. At a Sub Committee 2 plenary meeting in June 2013, a Jotun representative, Geir Axel Oftedahl, was appointed to the position of Project Manager of ISO 19030 and a Bellona Foundation representative, Svend Søyland, was elected into the position of Convener of Working Group 7 - the working group established to draft the standard. In a subsequent first working group meeting agreement was reached regarding the organisation of the standard and the stakeholders that would adopt

the task of developing a first set of drafts that could serve as a starting point for subsequent work and revisions by the working group were identified. Following the circulation of a first set of drafts, 32 of around 50 registered experts and observers convened for a 2nd working group meeting in Tokyo in November 2013. At this meeting a number of revisions were discussed and agreed upon. Also, several correspondence groups were established to ensure progress on particularly challenging issues in preparation for the next working group meeting. Finally, it was agreed that further harmonisation with the updated ISO 15016 (Guidelines for the assessment of speed power performance by analysis of speed trial data) should be considered where appropriate.

Target Date for Final Approval Set as June 2016

Reaching consensus on something as complex as a method for measuring changes in hull and propeller performance in such a large and diverse working group will take time. Once the drafts are mature additional time will be allocated towards seeking and digesting input from the broader industry. Heading into 2014 considerable progress has already been made however. A 3rd working group meeting will be convened in June, and the working group is in agreement that a December 2014 target date for the submission of a Draft International Standard is realistic. Once a Draft International Standard has been finalised the working group believe the efforts undertaken to secure involvement from the industry every step of the way will pay off, and therefore that the June 2016 deadline set by ISO for final approval of ISO 19030 will be well within reach. A voluntary International standard that allows the industry to accurately and reliably isolate hull and propeller performance from all the other factors affecting the fuel consumption of their ships in service will be an important step towards a more fuel efficient fleet.


In each issue of Ship Efficiency: The Insight, The Bunker Detectives, in association with Ship & Bunker (, will share insight and advise around bunkering best practices to make sure bunker buyers get the bunkers they for. Keep your eyes peeled for vital information that could help slim your bunker fuel bill! The Bunker Detectives, a division of AVA Marine, are a dedicated team who primarily help ship charterers’ & bunker brokers deal with bunker quantity disputes (which do not fall under P&I cover for charterers’), and also offer an exclusive service to ship charterers’ dealing with ‘Bad’ Bunker dispute claims, such as the supply of contaminated or offspecification bunkers.

Tricks of the Bunker Trade by Kaivan H. Chinoy, Ava-Marine / The Bunker Detectives in association with Ship & Bunker.

There are many dubious practices that can be employed by bunker fuel suppliers during a typical bunker stem operation. These mal-practices are more prevalent in Asian ports than in North America or Europe. Having said that no matter which part of the world the vessel is fixed to stem bunkers, the importance of accurately measuring the barge fuel tanks before and after delivery is a crucial phase in any bunker stem operation.


t is therefore very important that the vessel’s bunker operation team methodically take the barge tank measurements, applying the correct trim/list before and after bunkering, recording the actual temperature of the bunker fuel before/after delivery etc. Proper temperature measurement alone can save thousands of dollars! Disputes can arise either by innocent mistake or deliberate short supply by the barge; like introducing air to froth up the fuel (cappuccino effect) or giving incorrect temperatures and so on. Also when bunker is being transferred from a refinery to a storage tank and to the barge and then delivered to the vessel, there is a lot of scope for errors and deliberate manipulations that will result in a difference (sometimes quite significant) between the quantity claimed to have been supplied and the quantity received by the ship. If this is due to an innocent mistake then probably with fullest co-operation of the barge company/ fuel suppliers and full disclosure of stock movement records might indicate the “missing” bunker. However, often this is not the case and experience tells us that when disputes do arise over quantity transferred, any ‘post- delivery’ investigation on quantity shortages are often inconclusive especially if the shipboard personnel involved in


bunkering operation have neglected the basic principles of safeguarding it’s owners/charterers’ rights in way of collecting and preserving evidence. Protests, legal fees, etc. all add on to costs with usually neither party actually concluding with certainty what transpired on board. A success of any bunker dispute claim will largely depend on the detailed contemporaneous written evidence by the shipboard personnel at the time the supply is made. Considering the present bunker fuel prices we deem “bunker stem survey” absolutely necessary, in order to make sure that the quantities as mentioned on the Bunker Delivery Note (BDN) are true and correct. However, there are many ship operators who leave the above procedure to the Chief Engineer to save on survey cost with the vessel often ending up with an incorrect supplied quantity and a commercial loss of thousands of dollars for the operators. It is important to note that when a surveyor is appointed by the charterers / owners to oversee the stemming operation, the Master/Chief Engineer is still in charge of ensuring proper steps have been taken to prevent such malpractices and that the surveyor should be assisting and working under the Chief Engineer’s supervision and not the other way around.


SHIP&BUNKER Understanding the Fuel Density & Weight Relationship Marine fuel is always sold by weight (mass) and delivered by volume. Hence for this reason bunker receipts must always be signed “For Volume Only” and adding the words “weight to be determined after testing of the representative sample”. Never sign for weight if uncertain about the density. What many bunker surveyors do not realise is that the density given in the supplier’s bunker delivery note (BDN) may not be true and thus the weight determined by calculation should be considered as the ‘preliminary’ weight of the fuel transferred to the vessel. The actual weight is only determined after the density is verified by an independent fuel testing authority and then factored into the final recalculation of the actual weight of the fuel delivered onboard. That is why it is incredibly important to accurately obtain bunker samples both onboard the vessel and the barge.

Below is typical scenario of how density can affect the weight of fuel transferred on board. A ship owner/charterer has a fleet of 20 vessels bunkering an average of 1000 MT each month. Fuel Cost $ USD /MT Bunker Stemmed per month x 20 vessels Density of Fuel @ 15 C (BDN Value) Density of Fuel @ 15 C (TESTED VALUE) Density Differential Short Delivery per vessel per month (approx.) Commercial Loss per vessel per month Fleet Commercial Loss per month Fleet Commercial Loss per year

650.00 $ USD 20,000.00 MT 0.9889 0.9865 0.0024 -2.50 MT -1,625.00 $ USD -32,500.00 $ USD -390,000.00 $ USD

Now imagine a charterer operating a fleet of 50, 70 or 100 vessels – the commercial loss would be valued in millions of dollars every year!

Key Notes: • •

If the density of fuel cannot be verified onboard or independently verified at the time of bunkering, the BDN should be signed only for ‘volume’ and not for weight Remember whenever in doubt or have concerns always issue a letter of protest

Understanding the Fuel Temperature & Volume Relationship Petroleum products have a high rate of thermal expansion which must be taken into account when several thousand tons are transferred or purchased. The barge will often try to under-declare the temperature during the opening gauge and over-declare during the closing. This malpractice is quite common in day to day bunkering and therefore it is important the ship officers that are responsible for bunkering operations to be extra vigilant and check the temperatures of all bunker tanks during the opening gauge and thereafter periodically check and record the temperature of the fuel as it is pumped onboard. The temperatures should be checked both at the barge and the ship’s manifold. If temperature gauges are provided it would be prudent to take photographs where permissible.

There have been cases where the glass in the mercury cup case thermometer is gently heated to create a bubble effect to prevent the correct registering of the temperature of the fuel oil. This malpractice could be illustrated by the following example:


Actual Temperature Declared Temperature GOV m3

Density @ 15 C (g /ml)

Temp C

VCF T (54B)

GSV m3 @ 15 C

Weight (MT) (in Air)












970.81 -8.89

Approx. Commercial Loss


Loss $USD

Within a large fleet the loss could run into millions of dollars a year!

Key Notes: • • •


53.0 (oC) 40.0 (oC)

Always check and record the temperatures of the fuel tanks before and after and periodically during bunkering operation Carry own infra-red laser temperature gun as a part of your equipment Remember whenever in doubt or have concerns always issue a letter of protest


SHIP&BUNKER The Cappuccino Effect: (also sometimes known as the Coca Cola Effect) This essentially may be described by frothing/bubbling effect caused by compressed air blown through the delivery hose. The aerated bunkers when sounded will give the impression that the fuel is delivered as ordered. In fact after sometime when the entrapped air in suspension settles out of the fuel oil the oil level drops and a short fall is discovered. In large bunker deliveries this could be considerable with huge financial implications. It has often been asked why the flow meter cannot detect the air being introduced in the system and compensate accordingly. Well, most flow meters in use today are of either the wrong type or the wrong size. In other words are not technologically advanced. All the standard flow meters will only measure the volume of throughput and not the actual mass of fuel being delivered. As a result when air is introduced into the system, which is essentially ‘small air bubbles’ - the flow meter will register it as volume.

However, there are flow meters out in the market which are capable of measuring the true quantity (mass) of the fuel delivered. One such meter is the ‘Carioles Mass Meter’ - it has been in existence for quite some time now and only getting better. Carioles meters take direct mass flow measurements using the Carioles Effect (a deflection of moving objects when they are viewed in a rotating reference frame). Carioles meters are less sensitive to pressure, temperature, viscosity, and density changes, allowing them to measure liquids, slurries and gases accurately without the need for compensation. These meters having no moving parts require little maintenance however, the initial cost and line modifications is usually a deterrent for many ship operators for not installing it.

Key Notes: • • • •

Cappuccino Effect can be eliminated by sounding the fuel tanks prior to blowing through. Look out for any signs of foam on the surface of the fuel or excessive bubbles on the sounding tape. Look out for any unusual noises from the bunker barge or excessive vibration of the bunker delivery hose (especially if you know that the tanks on the bunker barge will not be empty and thus stripping of the tanks could be safely ruled out) Remember whenever in doubt or have concerns always issue a letter of protest

Fuel Delivered with High Water Content Traces of water in bunker fuel are normally very low about 0.1-0.2% by volume. ISO 8217:2010 Fuel Standards for ‘Marine Residual Fuels’ gives the maximum allowable water content to be 0.5% v/v. Water can originate from number of sources like heating coil damage causing leakages and tank condensation; however deliberate injection cannot be ruled out. In case large quantity is found then a letter of protest should be issued immediately. However, the exact quantity of water can only be determined after the settlement phase where the water would have settled down at the bottom of the bunker tank.


Key Notes: • •

• •

High water content causes other issues like removal costs to ashore if the OWS (Oily Water Separator) onboard is not able to filter it out and also reduces the fuel’s specific energy Fuel samples provided by the barge may not have any traces of water as the samples may have been taken prior to bunkering and mixing of water. Always ensure that the fuel samples are collected during bunkering and not before or after. For these reasons never sign labels in advance or sign for samples of unknown origin. Samples should only be signed for those actually witnessed. Use of water-finding paste on the sounding tape is good for distillate fuels only and does not work with residual fuels. Even incorrect type of ‘water-detecting’ paste could be used. On-site testing should be done for water-in-oil test. It may be not viable for the ship operators to invest in high end equipment for such purposes but as a minimum the vessel should be able to test a bunker representative fuel sample for water, test for density and compatibility. Remember whenever in doubt or have concerns always issue a letter of protest





Singapore Bunker Price History

With bunker price indications for over 150 of the world’s top bunkering ports, in addition to daily news and market intelligence, Ship & Bunker is the world’s leading free-to-access website focused on marine fuel. FATHOM INSIGHT MARCH 2014

There is no registration process, or username and password to remember. Simply visit for immediate access to the critical business information you need, fast.



BIMCO BALLAST WATER SUMMIT HAMBURG, APRIL 2014 The summit was held at the start of what could be a crucial year for the shipping industry in regards to ballast water operations, with the ratification of the IMO Ballast Water Convention presumed to be very close. The Summit was part of the BIMCO and Fathom Ballast Water Guidance Series which commenced with the publication of a practical Step-by-Step Guide to Ballast Water Treatment and was followed by an interactive Webinar and culminating in The Summit.

Some Event Highlights Insight from ABS

Debra DiCianna, Senior Engineer, Environmental Solutions ABS stressed that owners need to review ship IOPP surveys and dry-docking schedules in preparation and planning for BWMS implementation.

Insight from the Financier

Thomas Ankele, Project Manager KFW IPEX conveyed that a state of the art vessel which has a BWMS would have more employment worldwide and better chartering potential. This may lead to better asset collateralization through high asset values and could reflect higher repayment potential through better marketability.

Insight from the United States Coastguard

John Morris, an Environmental Protection Specialist from U.S. Coast Guard gave The US Perspective – Critical updates and Clarification on US Regulations. In answer to “how long will we have to wait until there is a US Type Approved system on the market?” ”Are there any systems that are going through the process for Type Approval at the moment?” Mr Morris said that is in the process of identifying laboratories for testing, two independent labs have been identified thus far with hope for another in the near future. Morris was not aware of any companies that had started testing with those labs at this point, also stating that no type approved system is likely to come out this year.


Morris presented crucial information to the delegates under the term “Response to Rumors” as detailed below: • The Coast Guard is NOT changing any Implementation Dates contained in the Final Rule • The Coast Guard is NOT removing any systems from the AMS Acceptance List • The Coast Guard does NOT have preference for any type of treatment system technology • The Coast Guard does NOT need ETV shipboard testing protocols to Type Approve Ballast Water Treatment Systems • The Coast Guard will NOT wait to issue a type approval certificate if an application demonstrates that all criteria for type approval has been met.





Big data will be a big part of shipping’s future; the price of fuel has seen to that. But there is a bigger picture emerging too. When the IMO held a Symposium on Ship Safety ahead of last year’s Maritime Safety Committee, the role of the human factor, use of new technology and the importance of data were the big takeaways.


f the IMO does decide to re-write the SOLAS Convention, the data requirement will be huge and that’s to say nothing of the data already being collected and crunched in the cause of operational efficiency. It’s an accepted part of the High Throughput Satellite story that more and faster bandwidth will finally unlock the potential for data gathering across the ship. Futurenauts like Roger Adamson think the vessel of the future could be sentient and semi-autonomous, if not completely remote-controlled with streams of data flowing back and forth. For some owners that will probably be the case – the boffins tend to lead the regulators of course – but the regulators are probably the ones with greater long term influence. What happens when, for example, the IMO, class societies and their consultants come calling for shipping’s big data in the cause of new regulations? Surely it can’t have escaped the notice of canny owners that the data that their ships produce is going to go up in value as more people seek to analyse and interpret it. Owners might already have a clear understanding of the need to secure and licence that data if want to gain the maximum value from it themselves. The premium being paid for Ecoship designs and the search for performance improvement from energy saving devices both suggest that this data, applied correctly, could make a competitive difference to a shipowner in good times or bad. And there is a clear precedent here from consumer markets, where we are only just beginning to understand the value of our data, both that which we have already given away and that which internet companies yet want us to provide. Economists are already arguing that consumers are only now waking up to the value of the data they are giving up to advertisers who are expert in aggregating consumer data.


Transpose that to shipowner and IT consultant and the same applies: the former might start off giving up data because they are unaware of its value but as it starts to become apparent what innovations and opportunities flow from design and operational data, then the price to the ‘buyer’ will rise – fall and rise again. It’s not hard to imagine a situation where bidders might compete for data if they recognised its true value. The lack of a price on this data so far means arbitrage opportunities exist. The originators might see that as their opportunity not only to make some money but to monetise the data for themselves. If the pendulum swung too far the other way and owners and yards decided that what they have is too valuable to share, then plans for a new data-driven SOLAS Convention might stay on the drawing board.

Neville Smith is Director of Mariner Communications and provides Media and PR consultancy to a range of shipping industry interests. In his spare time, he blogs about communications and new technology at:



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Ship Efficiency: The Insight Issue #01  

Ship Efficiency: The Insight is dedicated to providing the most up-to-date news on ship efficiency and clean technology developments in the...