Rumah Gadang the minangkabau legacy
â€œ Rumah gadang bari bapintu nak tarang jalan kahalaman kalau dikumpa saleba kuku jikok dikambang saleba alam â€?
Published by Department of Architecture Kuliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design International Islamic University of Malaysia Jalan Gombak Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia www.iiu.edu.my Editors Asst. Prof. Dr. Zaiton Abd Rahim Asst. Prof. Dr. Zuraini Denan Authors 窶連isyah Fajri Johari Akmal Aisya Abdul Aziz Farhana Mohammed Isa Nuraimi Idris Nurulhuda Ahmad Faris Ruhil Athirah Alias Research Group Abdul Azim Marzuki Abdul Fattah Ghani Azizul Hakim Musa Che Raiskandar Che Rahim Irfan Hassan Khazani Kahadi Hanis Abd Razak Mohd Reza Afandy M. Radzi Mohd Safuan Azman Mhd. Hafiz Karami Mhd Zain Mohd Fadhli Ilias
Mohd Hisyam Mohamed Yusoff Mohd Nazirulhaq Abdul Wahab Muhammad Afiq Ibrahim Shukri Muhammad Firdaus Zamin Muhammad Khaliq Yazit Norsyila Mohd Zain Nur Amirah Abd. Samad Nur Balqis Ahmad Safawi Nurafni Anissa Musa Salwa Mohamed Seth Shafinaz Ahmad Shazalli Tasnim Mohd Hatta
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writting from the publisher
TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword by Dean Foreword by Head, Department of Architecture Foreword by the Course Coordinator Acknowledgements Preface
ix x xi xii xv
Introduction Minangkabau History Pariangan Rumah Gadang
2 4 6 8
Overview of Rumah Gadang Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo Suku Piliang and Suku Pisang Contextual Factors Space Planning Facade Design
12 13 14 16 18 22
Art of Construction Introduction Foundation Columns and beams Roof Floor Wall Openings Staircase Ornamentation
26 28 29 31 35 38 42 45 46
Conclusion Photo Album Photo Album 1 - Faces and Culture of Pariangan Photo Album 2 - Architecture of Pariangan Photo Album 3 - Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum Photo Album 4 - Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo Photo Album 5 - Minangkabau Architecture
50 52 54 56 58
This book is dedicated to all students who have contributed to the making of this book and also to the people of Pariangan.
FOREWORD BY DEAN Assalaamualaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
Pulau pandan jauah ditangah,
West Sumatra, known for its Minangkabau architecture is rich in
dibaliak pulau angso duo,
Minangkabau villages, among them, Pariangan which is one of the
hancua badan dikanduang tanah, budi baiak dikana juo.
earliest Minangkabau settlement with priceless inherited rumah gadang. It is blessed with beautiful highlands and rich land which contributes significantly to the economy of the people. Since the advent of Islam in the Minangkabau lands, the religion
enjoyed development together with the existing customary law or adat and stood through the test of time. The Minangkabau people have a strong relationship with nature or alam and believe that nature guides them and acts as the best teacher to them. This is in line with their philosophical value of nature, Alam Takambang Jadi Guru. The community is rich in culture and custom which affects the built environment as well. I believe that all the information gathered and work done by the students on the rumah gadang will further explain the diabolical relationship between the Minangkabau society, its culture and the built environment in general, and contribute to knowledge on the architecture in West Sumatra. I thank all those who involved in the production of this invaluable work especially the third year architecture students who were involved in Heritage Studies on the rumah gadang in Pariangan. Thank you, Wassalaam.
Prof. Mansor Ibrahim Dean, Kulliyyah of Architecture & Environmental Design (KAED)
FOREWORD BY ARCHITECTURE
FOREWORD BY THE COURSE COORDINATOR
Assalaamualaikum warahmatullahi wabaraktuh,
Assalaamualaikum warahmatullahi wabaraktuh,
The people of Minangkabau are known for their strong connection
Alhamdulillah, the Heritage Studies 2009 has been successfully
with the customary law or adat which influenced all aspects of their
completed by the third year architecture students. Their determination
society and built environment. The history and development of
and hard work in completing the course can be seen in every detail
the Minangkabau architecture namely the rumah gadang explored
of this exhibition. Both the motivation to go to Pariangan village,
throughout the heritage studies proved to be an interesting topic.
to feel the culture and environment of the earliest settlement of
The trip was not only fruitful to the students in acquiring knowledge
Minangkabau and the gathering of information are not only for their
of the Minangkabau architecture but also developed friendship and
own personal satisfaction, but also for the benefit of others too.
network with their Muslim brothers and sisters in West Sumatra.
The heritage trip provides a holistic learning experience, not only
In this book, the rumah gadang, the architecture of Minangkabau
bounded in the classroom but also by exploring the world outside
focusing on Pariangan village shows how the Dutch colonization
the four walls of their classroom. Horizons are widened by interacting
and the advent of Islam to the Minangkabau lands influenced its
with people of other countries as well as getting accustomed to their
architecture. Islamic architecture is rich due to the different cultures
culture and built environment.
which embraced the religion. The study on Islamic architecture is very important for the Muslims to appreciate and realize the greatness of Islam as the guidance of life and its influence on the built environment. I am confident that the works done by the students will be a mean and contribute to the knowledge on the rich culture and architecture of the Minangkabau people. I would like to congratulate the third
It is hoped that all the work done by the students including this book will greatly benefit everyone. Throughout the semester we managed to foster a sense of appreciation in every student and also to hold on to the principle that knowledge is meant to be shared. Thank you, Wassalam.
year architecture students from the 9th batch 2009 for their hard work in making this book a success. Thank you, Wassalam. Assoc. Prof. Ar. Datin Norwina Mohd Nawawi Head, Department of Architecture, KAED
Asst. Prof. Dr. Zuraini Denan Course Coordinator, Heritage Studies 2009, KAED
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. With the blessings of His Almighty we are able to complete this
We would also like to extend our gratitude to other fellow lecturers
Heritage Studies successfully and managed to publish this short
supervising this course including Asst. Prof. Dr. Zuraini Denan, Asst.
book without any shortcomings. May what we have gone through
Prof. Dr. Zaiton Abd Rahim Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ali Raza Soomro, Asst. Prof.
strengthen our faith towards Him and by that, we look forward to
Dr. Aida Kesuma Azmin, Asst. Prof. Ar. Dr. Abdul Razak Sapian and Asst.
share our knowledge for the benefits of the ummah as a whole.
Prof. Dr. Noor Hanita Abdul Majid, for their advices and assistance throughout the whole semester.
We would like to express our deepest gratitude to both caretakers of the houses, Dt. Kayo Jufri, and Dt. Mengkudum Drs Dalimi
Our credit also goes to our family for their moral and financial support
Kassim for granting us permission to study their houses.
throughout this coursework. Last but not least to the group members of PADANG â€˜09, for your diligences and full and tireless commitments
Our further acknowledgement goes to Wali Nagari Pariangan, April Khatib Saidi, Secretaris Nagari Pariangan, Pak Aswardi, Pak Mayor, Khairudin and all the residents of Nagari Pariangan, Tanah Datar, West Sumatra. Their acceptance and warm welcome made our stay in Pariangan a very valuable one. We would also like to express our deepest thanks to lecturers and students of Kuliah Arsitektur, Universitas Bung Hatta, Padang, to whom we feel deeply indebted. Thank you, Pak Rifan, Ir. Harmaini Darwis, Ir. Syamsul Asri and Pak Zulherman for your warm welcome, invaluable assistance and support.
towards the accomplishment of this work and to those who gives hands on helping us intentionally or unintentionally.
PREFACE Minangkabau people are known to be the largest ethnic group on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The clans believe in a philosophical of nature, Alam Takambang Jadi Guru (Nature is the best teacher). Thus, their ancestors correlated this belief along with other factors i.e. material, environment condition, social and need of space have influenced their architecture style and the built environment. Rumah gadang or the great house of Minangkabau acts as a symbol of wealth for families and a centre place to conduct various events related to the culture of Minangkabau. This book focuses on two rumah gadangs of different matriclans or suku. The first is owned by Dt. Mangkudum of Suku Piliang and the latter by Dt. Kayo of Suku Pisang.
Minangkabau or ‘menonkobu’ is derived from old
Nature is important to the Minangkabau people
Sanskrit words which means the land of origin.
and provides guidance in their lifes. its importance
However many Minangkabau people believed that
is reflected in their philosophy ‘Alam Takambang
the name is a combination of two words ‘minang’ and
Jadi Guru’. This philosophy influenced all aspects in
‘kabau’. Based on the folklore, the words signified
their lifes, from their daily life to built environment.
their victory in a buffalo fighting competition upon a
This is practiced until today despite through various
territorial dispute with a neighboring prince.
colonization including Dutch, Japan, etc. of the land.
Minangkabau society is known to be the largest ethnic group with tracing descent and inheritance through the female line. They live mainly on the island of Sumatra, particularly in the west central highlands
which are claimed to be their cultural heartland. The Minangkabau people are not only well known for their matrilineal system, but also their elegant
archtiecture, craftsmanship from textile, embroidery,
wood and silver carving. Majority of Minangkabau 3
people are agrarian. Planting paddy contribute significantly to their economy. This is made possible given the geography of the land which is blessed with 1 2 3
Pacu jawi or cow race event Highland agriculture Wood carving craftmanship
good volcanic soil.
The Great House of Minangkabau or known as Rumah Gadang The art of textile
Austronesian expansion to Southeast Asia
Establishment of Pagar Ruyung Kingdom
Spread of Islam
The history of Minangkabau started around 500 BCE
The colonization put an end to the monarchic ruling
during the arrival of Austronesian people to Sumatera
system. Minangkabau has gone through various
as part of their expansion from Taiwan to Southeast
changes including their acceptance of Islam which
Asia who were believed to be the ancestors of the
their embraced. Furthermore, they are also shifting
Minangkabau people. However, the establishment
the economic source to agricultural sector due to its
of the prominent Minangkabau kingdom of Pagar
Ruyung by Adityawarman only took place during the early 15th century. After 28 years of ruling Pagar Ruyung, the reign of Adityawarman in Pagar Ruyung were divided into 2
three main powers led by three kings of Rajo Tigo Selo which are Rajo Alam, Rajo Adat and Rajo Ibadat.
Land of Gold The land of Minangkabau was rich in gold. The invasion on Minangkabau started during the mid of 16th 3
century by Aceh Sultanate, followed with 200 years 1 Istana Pagaruyung, Batu Sangkar 2 Surau Nagari Lubuk Bauk 3 Mount Marapi, Pariangan
of Dutch colonization, and interference from Japan, resulting in the decrease in gold in Minangkabau.
Tambo Alam Minangkabau
The Minangkabau society has its own history of social development as claimed by the traditional historiography, the Tambo Alam Minangkabau. The first Minangkabaus were said to have arrived by ship and landed on Mount Marapi which protruded from a surrounding body of water. The tambo claims that the ship was sailed by a descendant of Iskandar Zulkarnain. After the water receeded the Minangkabau people proliferated and dispersed to the slopes and valleys
surrounding the volcano. The royal family led by Dt.
4 Jam Gadang, Bukit Tinggi 5 Masjid Raya Nagari Lima Kaum, Tanah Datar
Suridirajo descended to a place called Galundi nan Baselo which is is later known as Pariangan.
Situated on the southern slopes of Mount Marapi, with the altitude of 860m and approximately 15 km from the nearby market town of Batu Sangkar, Pariangan is significant to Minangkabau society in terms of its history and culture as it is claimed to be 1
the first Minangkabau settlement by the locals. With the total of 452 hectares, it is part of the Nagari Pariangan - Padang Panjang. The village of Pariangan consists of 8 matriclans or suku which are Koto, Piliang, Dalimo Singkek, Dalimo Panjang, Melayu,
Piliang Laweh, Pisang and Sikumbang. At present, the whole village is being preserved under the national legislation as a cultural historical site; it is rich in Minangkabau traditional houses, the rumah gadang which is the subject of study of this book.
1 2 3 4 4
Paddy field of Pariangan The Rumah Gadang of Suku Piliang The Settlements The Rumah Gadang of Suku Melayu Location Plan of Pariangan
The great house of Minangkabau or rumah gadang is
There are various types of rumah gadang. The house
an inherited house. The identity of the Minangkabau
form was influences by the Minangkabauâ€™s adat or
traditional architecture is portrayed by its elegant roof
customary law and response to the changes around
form. The sophisticated construction techniques and
them such as colonialization and the acceptance of Islam
the intelligent use of the materials allow the house to
as a way of life. The house has evolved over years due
withstand natural disasters such as earthquake and
to these influences, changes in lifestyle and availability
flood and last for a very long time.
of materials and technology. Four prominent types of
Also known as rumah adat, this particular house is a striking feature of the Minangkabau people and
rumah gadang are: Gajah Maharam, Surambi Papek, Bapaserek and Baranjuang.
claimed to be one of the distinctive and refined variations of the Austronesian saddle-back roof to be 2
found in Indonesia (Waterson, 1999). 2
The great house of Minangkabau is not just grandeur in its physical appearance, but also accomodates the needs of the inhabitants according to the culture of the matrilinieal Minangkabau people. It acts as a symbol of wealth and status. It is not a subject of individual
possession but belongs to the clan, utilized as a host 3
for several of Minangkabau rituals (Navis, 1984).
1, 2 & 3 The earliest rumah gadangs in West Sumatra, Indonesia
1 2 3 4
Rumah Gadang Gajah Maharam Rumah Gadang Surambi Papek Rumah Gadang Bapaserek Rumah Gadang Beranjuang
RUMAH GADANG DT. MANGKUDUM
RUMAH GADANG DT. KAYO
The Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum is located at
The Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo is located at No 163,
No 76, Suku Piliang, Dusun Balai Saruang, Jurong
Dusun B. Panjang, Jurong Pariangan, Nagari Pariangan,
Pariangan, Nagari Pariangan, Kecamatan Pariangan.
Kecamatan Pariangan. The Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo is
This Rumah Gadang Tiga Ruang or three-spaces
a Rumah Gadang Lima Ruang or five-spaces rumah
rumah gadang was built to replace the five-spaces
gadang. It is estimated to be 300 years old and may
rumah gadang for the family which was destroyed by
have been constructed in three phases. The house is
a fire. It was believed to be built 200 years ago on the
a rumah pusaka or an inherited house of Dt. Kayo of
tanah pusaka or inherited land and has undergone
Suku Pisang or Pisang matriclan which originated from
three renovations. The renovation reflects the Dutch
Koto Pisang. It was built by tukang tuo Dt. Garang. The
and Islamic influences particularly in the addition of
present owner of this house is Dt. Kayo Jufri while the
the sarambi or verandah and changes in materials
past owner was Dt. Kayo Dabur, who passed the house
used. This rumah gadang belongs to Suku Piliang or
to his only son, Dt. Kayo Nursan. It was then inherited
Piliang matriclan. It was built by architect (tukang
by the ibu kecil who is the youngest daughter of Dt.
tuo) Dt. Mangkudum Kinciak. The rumah gadang
Kayo Nursan, named Nurhaya. Unfortunately, Nurhaya
was built according to the familyâ€™s wealth, status and
and his husband, Datoâ€™ Paduka Rusli has no daughter
composition. At present, it is inhabited by the family of
and therefore the house was passed down to their
the fifth descendent, Dt. Mangkudum Dalimi Kassim.
son, Dt. Kayo Jufri. The rumah gadang has been
He is also the caretaker of the house, inherited from
inhabited by six descendents and Dt. Kayo Jufri is the
his mother, Tiani.
last inheritor, as he has no female siblings.
Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum Roof finial (gonjong)
4 5 6
Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo Two granaries (rangkiang) Side elevation of Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo
SUKU PILIANG AND SUKU PISANG
Suku Piliang is one of the oldest clan in Minangkabau. The word Piliang is from the words pele meaning ‘many’
Mangkudum’s family is among the families from the Suku Piliang, headed by Dt. Sinaro as the pucuak adat or chieftain. The clan stills preserve the surau and
paddy field, which are identified as the components of the Minangkabau clans. The surau used to be a place for teaching religious education to young males of the clans. The Suku Pisang originated from Koto Pisang, Pariangan. At present, the Suku Pisang is left with
2 1 Surau Suku Piliang 2 Surau Suku Pisang
only four families who reside in Koto Pisang. Dt. Kayo, as the pucuak adat of Suku Pisang, expanded the clan’s territory by building their house away from Koto Pisang. According to Dt. Kayo Jufri, the current chieftain, the clan still preserved their surau and paddy field. However, at present, the surau is used as a dwelling by a family of Suku Pisang. The location of the paddy field and surau can be identified in the Master Plan of Pariangan.
MASTER PLAN OF PARIANGAN VILLAGE
CONTEXTUAL FACTORS OF PARIANGAN VILLAGE As Pariangan village is situated at the foot of Mount Marapi, both houses are oriented and constructed to take advantage of the mildly cold weather and
17 Legend for Site Plan 1 Rumah gadang 2 Tabek 3 Dapuar 4 Rangkiang 5 Orchard
wind. The front part of the house is oriented to face the sunrise. The side wall of the house (pangkal) face Mount Marapi. This allows natural light to penetrate 1
into the houses during the day while the rear part of
4 Site plan of the Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum of Suku Piliang 5 Site plan of the Rumah Gadang Dt.Kayo of Suku Pisang
the houses face the Qiblah. Within the compound of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum, there are a kitchen house (rumah dapuar) and a pond (tabek). The function of the tabek
is not only as a source of economy but also to reduce the heat from the sunlight directly entering the house. 2
On the other hand, within the boundary of the Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo, there are two granaries (rangkiang), two rumah dapuar and a small pond to wash feet before entering the house (cibuak). Rangkiang is used to store paddy. The configuration of the rangkiang is quite similar to the rumah gadang. An orchard is located behind the house. It is planted with various 3 1 Rangkiang 2 Tabek 3 Dapuar
types of trees and plants. 5
A 1 2
5 B 1
Neighbourhood Context A
Legend Section of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum from Tantejo Gurhano’s Street
1 2 3 4
Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum Rumah Gadang Suku Melayu Rumah Gadang Suku Piliang Common House
Section of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum from Simpang Taluak
1 2 3 4 5
A sundry shop (Lapau) Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum Rumah gadang Suku Piliang Common House
The Tantejo Gurhano Street is the main route that
The neighborhood context of the site is surrounded by
leads to Pariangan Village. Both houses face the main
rumah gadang of different matriclan, common houses,
route that heads towards Mount Marapi.
ponds (tabek), small sundry shop (lapau), Kantor Wali
The site boundary is set by a boundary stone, which is
Nagari and numerous types of vegetations.
used to mark the territory of each land owner. Since
Other than the rumah gadang type of house, the
the area is of clustered dwellings, the boundary for
surrounding neighbourhood also contains modern
each house is in irregular shape.
brick houses of different matriclans.
Legend Section of Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo from tantejo Gurhano’s Street
1 2 3
A sundry shop (Lapau) Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo Rumah Gadang Suku Pisang
Section of Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo towards Gunung Marapi (North)
1 2 3 4
Settlements of Suku Pisang Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo Tantejo Gurahano’s Street Common House
20 Ground Floor pen(kandang) First Floor bedroom (biliak) hallway (labuah) interval space (bandua) meeting place (balai) verandah (sarambi) Second Floor attic (loteng)
The spaces in rumah gadang are determined by the arrangement of the columns which creates row (lanjar) and space (ruang). It is divided into several main parts. The first part is the verandah (sarambi), located in the middle and extended out to the front. It is covered by a steep and pointed roof (gonjong). It is flanked by two staircases at both sides. The sarambi can be considered as the public space of the house where guests are entertained and limited to. This part of the house is an addition influenced by Dutch
colonization, arises from the need to entertain the Dutch officers who frequently visited the head of the clanâ€™s house. The second part of the rumah gadang is the main house, which has the shape of a long rectangle. It is divided into four main spaces; the meeting place (balai), hallway (labuah), interval space (bandua) and bedrooms (biliak). The balai is located next to the entrance door to the main house. Labuah is an elongated space in between balai and bandua. Bandua stretches across the entire lenght of the house and is one level higher than labuah and balai. It is used for various activities such as having meals and performing prayers.
1 Section A- A’ of Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo 2 Section B- B’ of Rumah Gadang Dt.Kayo
Biliak are located next to bandua and divided into odd numbers, occupied by unmarried daughters. This is the most private space of the house for resting and sleeping. The upper level of the house is the attic or loteng used to store paddy while the lower level of the house is designed as a pen or kandang to keep animals such as
Figure above shows the volume of upper part of the house known as loteng or attic. Loteng functions as storage for paddy and utilities. Formerly, paddy was stored in rangkiangs or granaries at the front compound of the house.
hens and ducks. The rumah gadang is raised two metres from the ground. It is elevated on posts creating a space
beneath the living floor called kandang. This space
Section A- A’ of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum
is enclosed by plaited bamboo panels. The ceiling
of the house is three metres high. The sarambi was
Section B- B’ of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum
originally constructed of timber with bamboo stairs. It was eventually replaced by concrete staircases.
The most fascinating element of the
house is the roof form. The double layer roof resembles the shape of a boat or the horn of a buffalo. The curved pointed roof provides good protection from the rain and ventilation to the 1 Front elevation of Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo 2 Left elevation of Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo 3 Front elevation of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum 4 Right elevation of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum
house. The adaptation of
or metal finials which is located at the roof summits is believed to be influenced by the Pagar Ruyung era which represents status and prosperity of the rulers (Waterson, 1999).
FACADE DESIGN RUMAH GADANG DT. KAYO
RUMAH GADANG DT. MANGKUDUM
This type of rumah gadang is Rumah
This great house of Dt Mangkudumâ€™s
Gadang Bapaserek which contains two
family is a Surambi Papek type of
layers of roof. The extended roof ridge
rumah gadang. Its curvy roof profile
creates elegant curves of rabuang
is identified as sapik kalo or scorpion
membasuik or bamboo shoot type of
tweezers type of roof curve. Apart from
curve. This rumah gadang is built with
its roof, other uniqueness of the house
more lavish building patterns such as
is that the faĂ§ades are elaborately
carvings, paintings and decorations to
carved with ornamentations. Among
represent the status of Dt. Kayo as the
the decorations and carvings
chieftain of Suku Pisang.
bungo matahari, dedaun, saikgalamai, ako cino and bungo daun bodi.
INTRODUCTION TO CASE STUDIES The rumah gadang is very unique in many ways
Even though it has undergone
not only its distinctive physical appearance. The
architecture is influenced by the Minangkabau culture,
construction of both houses
its geography and climate. Its sustainability is seen in
remained relatively the same.
its construction and material and the ability to adapt
However, some minor changes
to the changes such as colonization and the embracing of Islam as a way of life. The construction of the rumah gadang is subjected to specific regulations according to the adat or customary 1
law, observed throughout the process. It was built by the tukang tuo or traditional carpenter with the help pf the clan members. The skill to built the house is
2 1 Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo Jufri 2 Rumah Gadang Dt.Mangkudum
were observed in terms of the construction techniques and material used. For example , the use of nails
in connecting the structural components, Dutch
and using zinc to
replace ijuk as the original
inherited from one generation to another.
material for the roof.
This chapter will focused on the architecture of
The rumah gadang mainly
Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum and Rumah Gadang
uses the post and beam
Dt. Kayo Jufri located in Pariangan Village. Both rumah
construction. The construction
gadang has evolved over time due to colonization,
introduction to Islam and availability of technology
foundation to the roof will
be discussed throughout in
the following sections in this chapter. a 3 Structural components of Rumah Gadang
COLUMNS AND BEAMS
Footing foundation is used for both rumah gadang.
The columns and beams of rumah gadang provide
It is placed at the bottom of the substructure and
stability to the house. The columns have an
transfer the building loads directly to the supporting
important function of transferring the loads to the
soil by vertical pressure. The footing of rumah gadang
other structural components. The beam acts as
is known as batu sandi usually obtained from the river
the horizontal structural components jointing the
of Pariangan village. Frequently the sandi or stone
columns. A bonding between columns and beams
used are black coloured ones. The sandi is distributed
operate as a medium to transfer both dead load
to every column after the structure of the house is
and live load to the foundation. Timber is used as a
completed. The foundation system is constructed
main construction material for columns and beams.
on the ground by having some of the footings half
Timber framing system is used in both Rumah Gadang
buried in the soil. Columns are assembled onto the
Dt. Mangkudum and Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo Jufri.
footing without nails or any jointing but are placed on top of the sandi to endure earthquake. However the foundation type used for verandah is different which is masonry footing construction.
The first column to be constructed in any rumah gadang is the central post or tonggak tuo. There
are five main columns of different length used to
Legend a column b beam
construct the house. Different beams such as roof beam or baliang-baliang and wide beam or rasuak are
connected to the column. The peak of each column has a hole to place the rope in the process of erecting it. The column will be laid down on the ground and 1 Batu sandi as foundation
pulled up straight on the site of the house by the
2 Load transfer diagram of the structural components of rumah gadang
villagers using the rope. Another set of beam are the
3 Masonry footing foundation at verandah
long beam or palanca and the roof beam or paran.
1 Timber posts (tonggak) in rumah gadang 2 Connection between beam and column
The roof is the most significant of the rumah gadang. The big and curved roof with multiple gables and upsweeping ridge creates an interesting characteristic to the house. The roof was constructed before the
floor to protect it from rain. Both Rumah gadang
and Dt. kayo have similar roof
construction but differ in size and shape. Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum uses sapik kalo type of Legend 1 Tonggak Tuo 2 Baliang-baliang 3 Rasuak atas 4 Rasuak bawah 5 Palanca 6 Paran
roof while Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo uses rabuang mambasuik type of roof. The structural components of the roof are the beams or paran, truss or kuda-
c) Sapik Kalo
kuda, rafter or kasau, and purlin or turang. The roof structure are made of timber and is covered with zinc.
The traditional methods are used for the construction
b) Rabuang Mambasuik
of the roof such as tongue and grooves and mortise 3 Structural system of Rumah Gadang
Each of the columns is shaped with twelve or eight
and tenon method for jointing. Pegs are used to
faces symbolizing the Minangkabau Undang-undang
strengthen the connection between the roof beams
Dua belas (Law of Twelve) and Undang-undang Lapan
and columns. Basically the load of the roof is supported
(Law of Eight) depending on its usage and importance.
by the columns and beams. The roof is constructed
The law of twelve is more important as cmpare to the
once the skeleton of the house is completed.
Law of Eight. These columns are located at the balai, labuah, and bandua, the spaces where communal meetings and ceremonial celebration take place.
a) Bulan Sahari 4 4 Types of roof form of Rumah Gadang. Source: Junaidi (2006)
36 Construction of the roof starts by placing the transverse beam including the ridge beam on top of the column using mortise and tenon joint at every portion of the house including the sarambi. Rafters and roof beams serve as the main load bearing member. Rafters are then placed on top of the transverse beam using bird mouth joint to support the rafter and prevent it from lapsing. Distance between them varies from each other due to the applied load, rafter size and spacing. Placement and arrangement of the rafters play significant role in making the roof curvier. Purlin is then embedded on top of the rafter using tongue and groove system to provide support for the zink. However, not every purlin uses the traditional method of jointing, some of them are nailed to the rafter. The purlin will automatically shape the curve when it follows the rafter arrangement.
37 To construct the jack roof, a piece of wood is attached to the rafter to lift up the roof and determined the height of the curved roof. The sizes of each rafter varies. Its construction and method of jointing is similar to the main roof.
a Connection between roof beam and column using mortise and tenon joint.
b Tongue and groove connection at purlin and rafter c Connection between rafter and beam using bird mouth joint and the connection of additional wood to specify the height of the jack roof.
2 1 Section showing the roof jointing and arrangement of rafters that shape the curve roof 2 Section of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum showing roof construction of verandah
The verandah roof at Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum is constructed by connecting the ridge beams to the center rafter of the main roof. Rafters and purlins are then laid on top of each other using
like mortise and tenon and Legend
tongue and groove but some has use nails to secure the
1 Biliak 2 Bandua 3 Labuah 4 Balai 5 Sarambi
connection. Bumbung for
for the verandah at
Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo. The
roof is similar to the Malay
The construction of the floor in the both houses differs depending on the space. The post-and-beam
Traditional House. Tongue and groove is used for the
floor system is used to construct the whole floor area
in the rumah gadang, which are the sarambi, balai, labuah, bandua and biliak. Bamboo is used for the floor finishes in all the spaces except for the sarambi which uses timber floor finishes replacing the original
d Roof trusses, purlins, rafters, beams and columns
bamboo floor. The floor construction of balai, labuah,
e Connection between two roof beams and center column f Verandah of Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo using bumbung limas type of construction
bandua and biliak is of three components which f
support the floor finishes consisting of beam, and two different floor joists made of timber and bamboo.
40 The traditional method is applied for the floor construction, also using nails to secure the connection at the verandah floor area. Basic floor construction of the rumah gadang consists of beam, primary joist, secondary joist, and floor finishes. However, material used are different according to the spaces.
The Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum applies three types of construction methods uses at different spaces while the Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo applies two different constructions between the verandah and the inside of the house. Floor construction in Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum rooms shows the early floor construction of the rumah gadang. Material used for the construction is bamboo.
1 Legend 1 2 3 4
The floor is constructed by connecting the primary joist to the beam using tongue and groove system. On top of that the secondary joist is placed in an opposite direction.This is to prevent the bamboo floor from sagging. Floor finishes is then laid on top. Some of the finishes are nailed to the joist.
Column/post (tunggak) Wide beam (rasuak) Secondary Beam (sigitan) Long beam (palanca)
5 Bamboo floor joist 6 Secondary bamboo joist 7 Bamboo floor
Legend 1 2 3 4
Column Long beam Wide beam Joist
5 Secondary joist 6 Bamboo floor 7 Timber board to cover the split level
The floor construction of the verandah is slightly different where it only uses primary timber floor joist. Secondary joist is not applied since the material of floor finishes has been changed to floor timber boards.
3 Section of floor showing the split level between bandua and labuah in the house.
2 Legend 1 Column/post 2 Beam 3 Timber floor joist
4 4 Secondary bamboo joist 5 Bamboo floor (lantai buluah)
1 Room floor construction of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum. 2 Floor construction method applied at bandua, labuah and balai of both houses. The same floor construction is used for rooms in Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo.
Legend 1 Timber floor board 2 Timber floor joist
4. The verandah floor construction which is similar to the other floors but uses timber floor board and timber joist instead. The floor board is nailed to the joist to secure the connection.
The walls in both rumah gadang are unique in their own way. It reflects the understanding of material and the function of the wall to provide protection from the external elements while providing comfort to the people living in it. The construction of the walls differs depending o the type of wall and its location. The walls at both sides of the houses are made of woven bamboo or sasak 1
bugis which gives a very unique facade for the houses.
Dinding / bukaan
It consists of two layers, the internal layer and the external layer. The double walls prevent animals or
insects from getting into the house and at the same
time act as a protection from the rain.
There are two type of walls in the rumah gadang. The
3 1 Sasak Bugis (woven bamboo) located at dinding tapi. 2 Salangko 3 Papan sakapiang
front wall or dinding ari is the wall located at the front
The wall panels enclosing the lower part of the house
side of the house. It is made of timber. The carvings
or salangko are called papan sakapiang. This wall has
with different designs generated from the nature can
openings to allow ventilation of the kandang. the
be seen on this owner.
breezing passing through this area also helps to cool the floor and ventilate the house. 5
4 Elevation of dinding ari 5 Wood carving at dinding ari
The walls at the sides of the house are called dinding tapi. These walls are made of woven bamboo called sasak bugis. This wall is constructed after the completion of the structural components of the house. The bamboo used for treated by soaking it in the water for a duration of time. This process protects te bamboo from termite and makes it strong and long lasting. It was woven on site and attacted to the 1
structural components of the house by grooves or takuk which hold the walls firmly. Legend
The upper part of the sasak bugis is pegged to the
1 Singo 2 Sasak Bugis 3 Kampias Sasak
columns and positioned between the roof gable (singo) and the columns. The use of peg or pasak is a common technique used. This technique require no
2 1 Perspective view of dinding tapi 2 Kampiar sasak on dinding tapi
nails. The roof gable (singo) has ornamentation on it
The verandah or sarambi in both Rumah Gadang
to enhance the aesthethic of the sasak bugis.
Dt. Mangkudum and Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo are of masonary construction. With the arrival of Dutch in Pariangan, concrete and stone had been applied as material in the wall construction system. However, the construction of sarambi maintained the traditional construction techniques. No nails is used in timber walls in the sarambi.
4 3 Construction of dinding tapi 4 Concrete and stone used for wall construction at sarambi
OPENINGS Openings provide ventilation and natural lighting to the
There are two types of doors in the rumah gadang,
rumah gadang. Windows are located only on the front
the external door and the internal door. The external
side of the house which is at its front. The North-South
door is located at both sides of the sarambi. It
orientation of the house means that the front of the
provides protection and security from the external
house which faces the East gets maximum exposure to
elements. The internal doors provides privacy for the
morning sun through the windows and openings.
family members. The internal doors are located at he
The windows consist of double panels, the internal which is made of glass and the external panel made of timber. The glass panel allows view and daylight during
entrance to the main space of the house connecting the sarambi which is the public space of the house to the private space of the house, and the biliak.
the day while the external timber panel with louvers
The doors panel are made of softwood or hardwood
provides ventilation during the night.
which is durable material. Some of the doors are
The window frame is constructed before the panels
painted to make them more attractive.
were slotted into it. The glass panel is slotted into the
The door leaf consists of panels of two types; raised
window sash using tongue and groove technique. The
timber panel and louvers, stiles and rails panel. The
window sash consists of a frip cap or head casing and
stiles and rails are connected using mortise and tenon
side casing which are connected using mortise and
joint. The door panels are slotted into the stile using
tenon joint. Hinges are used to connect the window
tongue and groove. The door leaf is connected to the
panles to the window frame.
door frame by hinges. The mortise lock is used for the door lockset.
5 1 Windows only on front side of the house 2 Internal window with glass casement 3 External window with louvers 4 External single leaf timber panel door 5 Interior double leaf timber louvers door
48 Legend 1 2 3
Side casing Head casing / drip cap Glass panel
1 Side casing 2 Head casing / drip cap 3 Glass panel
The staircase of the rumah gadang was originally made of timber and bamboo. However, in times, the staircase has been changed to concrete, an influence of Dutch colonization. There are two staircases at both sides of the verandah. The straight run staircases provide segregation
between male and female, a possible influence of Islam.
7 Front view of staircases of Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum 8 Side elevation of staircase of Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo
7 Legend 1 2 3
6 7 8
Top rail Stile Raised panel
Window construction Double layered window Door construction
1 Top rail 2 Stile 3 Raised panel
Ornamentation are applied on both exterior and interior of the rumah gadang, either carved or painted, each signifying the culture and society of the Minangkabau. They are represented symbolically or philosophically. The ornamentations are inspired from
the alam or nature and symbolizes the ownerâ€™s status and wealth.
6 1 Mangkuto Belanda on top of bedroom doors 2 Painting of peacock and floral motif on bedroom doors 3 Bungo Daun Bodi on interior door frame 4 Gonjong or roof finial 5 Ako cino on roof gable 6 Satu satangah gagang on roof gable
1 Mangkuto Belanda on top of bedroom doors 2 Painting of peacock and floral motif on bedroom doors 3 Bungo Daun Bodi on interior door frame 4 Gonjong or roof finial 5 Ako cino on roof gable 6 Satu satangah gagang on roof gable
CONCLUSION The study which focused on Rumah Gadang Dt. Mangkudum and Rumah Gadang Dt. Kayo in Pariangan village, gave a great understanding on the socio-culture of the Minangkabau people and concept of the great house in the Minangkabau society. The rumah gadang that went through slight changes starting from the Pagar Ruyung Empire to the present time was affected by the outside influence namely the colonialization of another power, the Dutch and the adaption of religious influence after the embrace of the Islamic faith in the Minangkabau lands. The study was successful in discovering how the Minangkabau architecture evolved, adapted to its environment and responded to the changes around them due to modernization and outer elements. This is portrayed by the change of materials used, functions of spaces inside the house and addition and omission of spaces. Furthermore, the architectural aspects of the rumah gadang is appreciated and understood with the study of space planning, construction technologies, materials and the overall houseform.
Adat: Customary law Adat Basandi Syara’, Syara’ Basandi Kitabullah: tradition is founded upon Islamic law, Islamic law is founded upon al-Quran Adat Pepatih: Democratic System that been founded by Dato Perpatih Nan Sebatang Adat Ketemanggungan: Aristocratic System that been founded by Dato Ketemanggungan Alam Takambang Jadi Guru: Nature is the teacher Anjuang: annex
Balai: A place for meeting among ‘penghulu’ or head of the village Balai Adat: Community hall Baliang-baliang: Secondary roof beam Bandua: Interval space Bapaserek: type of a Great House Batabo: felling of the tree Batang Bengkaweh: Bengkaweh River located at Pariangan village Batu sandi or batu keras: footing made of river stone; Bendaharawan: treasurer Biliak: Room; bedroom; family apartments Bodi Caniago: democratic; also known as one of the earliest matriclan of Minangs Bulan Sahari: type of the rumah gadang roof Buluah or buluh: Bamboo
Cibuak: a small pond to wash feet before entering rumah gadang
Dapuar: kitchen Dapuar Ibu kecil: Ibu kecil’s kitchen Dapuar Ibu tuo: Ibu tuo’s kitchen Dinding ari: front wall Dinding tapi: side wall Dinding bukaan: wall that has openings
Gajah Maharam: type of a Great House Gonjong or bagonjong (pucuak atap): steep and pointed pitched roof
Ijuk: sugar palm fibre
Jeriau: Floor Joist Jurong: village Jerajak: series of stick in vertical alignment
Kabupaten: regency Kamar kecil: toilet Kampiar sasak: bracket that holds sasak bugis Kantor: office Kandang: pen Kapit: groove Kasau: rafter Kampiar sasak: bracket Koto Piliang: autocratic; also known as one of the earliest matriclan of Minangs
Labuah: hallway Lajur: row
Lantai:Floor Lambai-lambai: wall panel Lapau: a small sundry shop Lareh Nan Panjang: the origin of Bodi Caniago and Koto Piliang which practices both system of democratic and aristocratic Lengset: closet Lesuang or lesung: mortar for crushing food Loteng: attic Luhak: regency
Makam: Tomb Maorak Rabo: Site clearing Masajik/musajik (pl.): Mosque Musyawarah: deliberation Minangkabau: A society of Minangs in West Sumatra
Nagari: country Ninik: eldest women Ninik Mamak: eldest
Paku: nail Palanca: Long Beam Pangkal: root Panin: wall panel Papan kuniang: a type of yellow in color of wall panel decoration Papan sakapiang: wall panel located at the front wall of rumah gadang Paran: Roof Beam Pasak : peg Penghulu: chieftain Pondasi: Foundation Pucuak : Head Pusaka: heirloom; inheritance
Rabuang mambasuik : a type of the Great House roof design Rangkiang: Granary Rangkiang Kaciak: Small granary
Rasuak: wide beam Ruang: spaces Rumah Adat: the Great house of Minangkabau Rumah Gadang: the Great house of Minangkabau Rumah dapuar: kitchen house
Sangkutan Agung : beam Sandi: an act of footing Sasak : woven bamboo Sasak bugis: a type woven bamboo which is constructed at the structural element of rumah gadang Sapik Kalo:type of Great house roof design Sarambi : verandah Surau : musolla Surambi Papek : type of the Great house Salangko: wall enclosing space under a house that has been built on stilts Sigitan: Secondary Beam Si Bayau:Bayau : a type of granary Si Tangguang Lapa : a type of granary Si Tinjau Lauik : a type of granary Singo: roof gable Suku: matriclan Surau: praying place for Muslim that is smaller than a mosque and cannot conduct Friday prayer
Tabek: pond Tadir : woven enau as partition wall Tambo: legend Tambo Alam Minangkabau: historiography of Minangkabau Tajuak: verandah roof Tapian Mandi : Public bath Tanggam: Tongue and Groove Takuk: groove Taratak : shelter Tiang: Column Tonggak: Column /post
Tonggak Tuo: Central Post Tukang: carperter Tukang Tuo: house builder Turang: purlin
Ujung: End Ukiran: ornamentation Ulayat: land Universitas:university
Wali Nagari: Country Officer Wisata:Tourism