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The Marineterrein Bathhouse, Bridging the flows of waste, energy & water in Amsterdam

Fallon Walton 4503899 Technical Research Paper Tutors: Roel van der Pas & Jan Jongert January 2017


ABSTRACT This year the City of Amsterdam commissioned the report, ‘Circular Amsterdam,’ which highlights the untapped potential of food waste as a valuable source of energy and a link to a more circular economy. Concurrently, Amsterdam’s Marineterrein is transitioning from a restricted naval site to public space. The city is looking for ways to connect the Marineterrein to the urban fabric, draw on its historical identity and connection to water, and include smart energy infrastructure and a ‘circular city’ approach. My objective is to combine the management of food waste and public water leisure program of a bathhouse as a way to reimagine energy production as contributing to valuable urban social space on the Marineterrein. The subject of this report investigates the existing flow of (food) waste, energy and water in Amsterdam. Using the knowledge and criticisms of the existing situation, innovative and alternative techniques are explored to better integrate and optimize the flows of food waste, energy, and water into the design of a bathhouse. The proposed techniques to manage waste, energy, and water flows along with the size of the bathhouse programs and user capacity are combined to determine the spatial implications as well as the larger urban impact of the results.

CONTENT Introduction Background........................................................................................................................ Relevance........................................................................................................................... Technical Research Question............................................................................................ Method............................................................................................................................................ Results 1. Existing flow of waste, energy & water in Amsterdam 1.1 Waste................................................................................................................ 1.2 Energy............................................................................................................... 1.3 Water................................................................................................................ 2. Integration of flows into Marineterrein bathhouse 2.1 Integration of municipal food waste to energy production........................ 2.2 Energy types, consumption & optimization in a bathhouse....................... 2.3 Integrated alternative sources & sinks of bathhouse water........................ 3. Spatial implications & large scale impact.................................................................... Conclusion....................................................................................................................................... References....................................................................................................................................... Appendices Appendix A: Marineterrein Plan...................................................................................... Appendix B: Program Inventory....................................................................................... Appendix C: Calculations.................................................................................................

1 1 2 3

4 6 7 10 13 17 22 23 30 32 36 44

List of Abbreviations: AD CHP CW MSW

anaerobic digestion combined heat and power constructed wetland municipal solid waste

MSFW HFCW WWTP

municipal solid food waste horizontal flow constructed wetland waste water treatment plant


INTRO

INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND

Since Amsterdam’s establishment over seven hundred years ago, the city has witnessed multiple urban expansions to accommodate population growth, its booming economy and infrastructure (Minkjan, 2013). Especially since the industrial revolution, the energy demand of large city has created the need for energy infrastructure. In the early years of public power infrastructure, electrical plants were placed within the city centre due to the inability to transmit high voltage over long distances. Consequently, the aesthetic responsibility and public space of this energy infrastructure was important. However, in recent decades conventional energy plants, along with waste management facilities, have required large areas of land and were often noisy and polluting, and were thus pushed to the periphery of urban centres (Fig. 1). By distancing this infrastructure from the public sphere, architectural responsibility and the relationship to public space was lost (LAGI, 2011). Amsterdam is witnessing an influx of people, its borders are expanding rapidly, and space must be made use of efficiently. There is an opportunity to re-integrate energy and waste infrastructure into the city centre as it transitions from polluting to renewable sources so as to contribute, once again, to urban public space and as a way to showcase innovation in sustainability and design. RELEVANCE This year (2016) the City of Amsterdam commissioned a report, titled ‘Circular Amsterdam’. The report investigated the potential of transitioning to a circular economy in Amsterdam. Circular economy differs from a traditional linear economy because it focuses on extending the lifespan of resources by recovering and regenerating products, often transgressing many industries and demands (WRAP, n.d). The document highlights two neglected waste streams that have the potential to contribute to a more circular process; construction materials and food waste. The report, and its focus on food waste, became a guiding inspiration in my own research because it explores the untapped potential of food waste as energy, a source that everyone can contribute to.

Figure 1: Waste & energy plant in Westpoort, Amsterdam

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INTRO

The specific context in which this research takes place is Amsterdam’s Marineterrein (Fig. 2). The Marineterrein was established in 1655 by the Admiralty of Amsterdam, later known as the Dutch Royal Navy. The location of the site was chosen to allow access to prominent waterways, as well as occupying a central location in the city, enabling easy exchange of trades and labour. Over the centuries, the use of the site shifted from a ship-building wharf to an administrative centre, and the morphology of the site reflects this shift (Appendix A). The original 17th century architecture, such as the gatehouse that separates the site from the rest of the city, are still visible. However, the majority of existing buildings were erected between 1960-1980 (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2012). Currently, the Marineterrein is transitioning from a restricted naval site to open public space. The City of Amsterdam is looking for ways to connect the Marineterrein to the urban fabric, draw on its historical identity and connection to water, and include smart energy infrastructure. The City is encouraging a ‘circular city’ approach and stresses that interventions should consider the adaptive and flexible needs of society. My objective is to combine the management of food waste with the public water leisure program of a bathhouse as a way to re-imagine energy production as contributing to valuable urban social space on the Marineterrein and the greater urban fabric. This paper attempts to understand the flows of waste, energy, but also water as it is strongly related to the theme of the bathhouse and the Marineterrein. The report builds upon innovative and alternative techniques that can be integrated, from the beginning, as part of the design.

Figure 2: Marineterrein, Amsterdam

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METHOD

noord

west nieuw-west

Centre

oost 1 km

TECHNICAL RESEARCH QUESTION

zuid

How can the flows of food waste, energy, and water be locally managed and integrated into the design of a public bathhouse? Sub-Questions: 1. What are the existing flows of waste, energy & water in Amsterdam? 2. How can these three flows be integrated into a bathhouse on the Marineterrein? 3. What are spatial implications of the processes and the large scale urban impact of the implemented research?

METHOD The primary method used during this research included literature and case studies. Recently published scientific literature provided significant information on the anaerobic digestion of food waste, as well as decentralized waste water infrastructure and sustainable swimming pool design. Government documents were useful in understanding existing flows, future goals and current statistics for Amsterdam. Case studies were used for comparative analyses in order to make educated assumptions in regards to energy, waste & water consumption. Email interviews and inquiries were performed with the City of Amsterdam and Hitachi Zosen Inova, a manufacturer of anaerobic digesters, to acquire further information about waste infrastructure and energy calculations for the anaerobic digestion process. The result of the research is structured so that Part 1 & 2 clearly delineate the three flows of focus; waste, energy and water, and analyses the existing systems and best practice design guidelines that meet the needs of the Marineterrein bathhouse. Part 3 combines the research of Part 1, Part 2, the desired sizes of the bathhouse programs and user capacity in order to understand the spatial implications of the results. Various initial combinations are explored based on the aforementioned results, and external design requirements are also considered. Additionally an analysis of the larger urban impacts of the results are reviewed. 3


PART 1

PART 1: Existing flow of waste, energy & water in Amsterdam WASTE

In the Netherlands, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is defined as all residue from private households and gardens, commercial waste from shops and restaurants and institutional waste from schools, prisons and public bodies (Sperl, 2016). MSW consists of paper, glass, plastic, metals, textile household biowaste, and others, such as electronic waste, diapers, etc. The management and separation of MSW is determined by local municipalities. The municipality of Amsterdam requires residents to separate glass, plastic and paper from their residual waste (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2015). Annually, a resident of Amsterdam produces 370kg of waste, of which 27% is separated and processed while the remaining 78% residual waste is sent to the AEB depot, located in Westpoort (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2015). The composition of all residual waste is indicated in Figure 3. Figure 4 illustrates the existing flow of household waste from separation, collection, processing and output. The largest component of separated waste is MSFW. On average, a resident of Amsterdam produces 92kg of food waste annually (Circular City, 2016). Local initiatives that are managing MSFW include community composting, small-scale production of

78% residual waste 25% organic & green residual waste

Other

Metal

Paper

Cat Litter

Glass

Garden

Sanitary

Textile

Organic

73%

x x x

53% other residual waste

Large

Residual Waste

Plastic

370 kg Annual Waste/Resident of Amsterdam x x x

27% recycled waste

Other Wind

Metal

Miscellaneous Cat Litter Biomass Glass Hydro

Sanitary

Textile

Large

Plastic

Paper Garden Organic

Figure 3: Composition of waste in Amsterdam in 2015

4

x x x

Nuclear

Natural Gas Coal

27%

x x x


PART 1

biogas at Westerpark and de Ceuvel, and a few collection points in Amsterdam’s Nieuw-West which is processed at Orgaworld, located next to the AEB (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2015). Nonetheless, there is currently no waste management of MSFW within the Centre and Marineterrein district where a high density of residents live. The lack of separation of food waste is also prevalent within the restaurant sector. Annually, a restaurant produces an average of 9000 kg of food waste (Appendix C). The Marineterrein’s location in the Centre, and the city’s ambition to bring more restaurants to the site, suggests there is great opportunity in separating and collecting both household and restaurant MSFW. The collection and transportation of municipal waste is also the responsibility of the City of Amsterdam. In the Centre there 86 499 residents and almost 25 000 tons of unseparated residual waste is collected each year. The average Amsterdam garbage truck loading rate is 7 tons, therefore approximately 3566 garbage trucks travel between the Centre and AEB each year (Wildenburg, 2016).

x x x

aeb Heat

Electricity

Bottom Ash

Residual Waste 75% Re-useable Metal x x x

95% Re-melted New Glass

x x x

96% Re-useable Paper

x x x

75% Re-useable Plastic

Figure 4: Existing flow of household waste

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PART 1

ENERGY In Amsterdam, the production of electricity and heat is largely dependent on the burning of fossil fuels, which is both imported from abroad and extracted in the Netherlands (City of Amsterdam, 2015). The majority of energy is provided by NUON power station in Diemen. Figure 5 indicates the proportion of natural gas, coal, hydro, nuclear, wind and biomass energy sources that Diemen’s power station relies on. This diagram illustrates that 85.9% of these energy sources come from non-renewable fossil based sources (N.V. Nuon Energy, 2014). The combustion of these fossil fuels release high amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere, which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The second largest source of energy is supplied by the AEB waste incineration plant. 1.4 million tons of municipal solid waste (including local and imported waste from the UK) is incinerated at the waste-to-energy plant. The process generates heat which is distributed to the district heating network and electricity is delivered to households and the city’s public transport Other infrastructure (Sperl, 2016). Although AEB provides energy from a source that might otherwise sit in a landfill, waste-to-energy technology also results in some negative environmental and Cat Litter health effects. The incineration process emits fly ash which contains toxins such as heavy Sanitaryalso metals, dioxins and furans which are released into the atmosphere. Waste-to-energy plants rely on a minimum amount of waste supply, and therefore indirectly stimulate the continued Large production of waste (Salman, 2008). In addition, incineration of municipal solid waste includes all residual waste. There is an opportunity to generate energy with a neutral carbon footprint, for example through the separation and processing of MSFW. Finally, both NUON and AEB supply their energy through underground networks. However, this energy must travel a significant distance and a substantial amount of energy is lost between the producer and consumer (City of Amsterdam, 2015). Other

Organic

Cat Litter

Metal

Paper

Glass

Garden

Textile

Organic

Sanitary

Plastic

Large

Garden

Metal

Glass

Paper

Textile

Plastic

4.2%

3.6%

Other Natural Gas

0.1% Organic

Sanitary

10.4% 46.8% Garden

13%

Garden

Glass

Wind

Watersource: Lek Organic Textile

Miscellaneous Plastic Large

21.9%

Purification via Water Dunes

Pre-water Purification Loenderveen

Post-water Purification Weesperkaspel

Watersource: Amsterdam Rijnkanaal

Natural Gas

Nuclear

Coal

Wind

Miscellaneous

Biomass

Watersource: Bethunepolder

Figure 5: Composition of energy sources used by NUON in 2014

6

Biomass

Pre-water Purification Nieuwe Gein

Hydro

er

Hydro

Cat Litter

Coal

Paper Nuclear

Metal


PART 1

WATER In Amsterdam, water is sourced from Lek, Bethunepolder and the Rhine Canal. From these sources, various pre-purification processes take place, including purification using coastal sand dunes. After passing through post-purification plants, water is pumped from different stations to Amsterdam’s municipal taps. Rainwater is managed depending on the location in the city. Outside the Centre, rainwater is collected via rainwater drains and is directed to the nearest body of water. However, in the Centre rainwater is mixed with waste water due largely to its historic infrastructure. All waste water, which includes black and grey water, is transported to the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) located nearby the AEB plant. At the WWTP, treated water is disposed of in the North Sea Canal and black water sludge is processed and sent to the AEB (Fig. 6). The Marineterrein is located within the Centre and although it is surrounded by water, waste and rainwater are collected together and transported over 10km to be treated at the WWTP. Therefore, the design of a bathhouse should incorporate techniques that distinguish rainwater from waste water.

Rain Water (Outside Centre)

Nearest Body of Water/ North Sea Channel

Rain Water (Within Centre)

Pre-water Purification Nieuwe Gein

Purification via Water Dunes

Black Water

aeb

Amsterdam

Pre-water Purification Loenderveen

Post-water Purification Weesperkaspel

WWTP

Heat

Electricity

Grey Water

Figure 6: Existing flow of water processing, transport and treatment

7


PART 1

AEB

Orgaworld

WWTP Lek Watersource

Restaurant

Lek Watersource

Nieuw-West

AEB

esources

ating Network

Lek Watersource

Orgaworld

WWTP

Stations

rastructure Route

rein Nieuw-West Flow of Resources Urban Heating Network Highway Pumping Stations Water Infrastructure Route Marineterrein

8


PART 1

10 km

5 km

1 km Restaurants

CENTRE

Households NUON NUON

Rijnkanaal & Bethunepolder Watersources

2 km 9


PART 2

PART 2: Integration of flows into Marineterrein bathhouse WASTE: Municipal food waste to energy production

When MSFW decomposes in a landfill or is burned in an incinerator, it releases methane and carbon dioxide, which are recognized as polluting and harmful for the atmosphere. However, under controlled conditions, MSFW can be a valuable source of energy. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process in which micro-organisms break down organic material in the absence of oxygen (Khalid, 2011). The result is a primarily methane-based gas, known as biogas, as well as effluent which can be used as natural fertilizer. Biogas can be used or converted into heat, electricity, biomethane and vehicle fuel. Some of the many benefits of AD include the reduction of CO2 and methane emissions, the absence of odour, and the high generation of renewable fuel. The process of anaerobic digestion is used for a variety of organic waste substrates including manure, industrial food and agricultural waste, sewage, waste water, and municipal food waste. In general, the process of AD involves the pre-treatment, digestion and post-treatment of the substrate. Pretreatment includes the source separation of unwanted material and the grinding of the substrate to enhance the digestion rate. Depending on the required use of the energy, post-treatment often includes the conversion of biogas into electricity and heat through a combined heat and power (CHP) unit. There are various types of anaerobic digestion processes. The type of digester required depends on the operating criteria such as the substrate used, the local context and the required energy. In regards to my project, the requirements that the AD process must meet are: (1) suitable for the urban context of the Marineterrein, (2) use MSFW as the primary substrate, and (3) be able to produce enough energy to satisfy the needs of the bathhouse. Figure 7 illustrates the classification of anaerobic digesters. Firstly, digesters are classified as “wet” or “dry” digesters. Wet digesters, also known as low solids, consists of waste that has a solid content between 10-15%. Dry digesters, otherwise known as high solids, consists of waste that has a solid content between 20-40%. There are two types of feeding methods for digesters, continuous and batch. A continuous digester allows for feedstock which is frequently added to the digester without interrupting the AD process, whereas batch requires that the feedstock is Figure 8: Diagram of a typical continuous plug-flow digester

Plug-flow Digester Waste Bunker

10


PART 2

added and sealed for the duration of the digestion process. Depending on the temperature at which the digester is heated, the retention time can take between 14-30 days. The operating temperature is directly related to the amount of energy produced within a time period. A plug-flow digester is a horizontal tank in which feedstock is added at one end and naturally pushed through the digester. A fully mixed digester is a vertical, round, insulated tank that uses a motor-driven mixer to enhance energy production. Conventional digesters function at two different temperature ranges; mesophilic and thermophilic. The higher the temperature, the shorter the retention time. Mesophilic conditions (20-35ยบC) requires less energy input, and often takes 15-30 days. Thermophilic conditions (50-65ยบC) require more energy input, and takes approximately 14 days (Chaudhary, 2008). Figure 7: Classification of the anaerobic digestion processes Anaerobic Digestion

Dry

Wet

Continuous

Thermophilic

Mesophilic

Continuous

Batch

Thermophilic

Mesophilic

Thermophilic

Digestate Digestate Biogas (Fertilizer) (Fertilizer)Upgrade

Plug-flow

Fully Mixed

Mesophilic Thermophilic

BiogasBiogas Upgrade Storage

Biogas CHP Storage

Batch

Thermophilic

Mesophilic

Mesophilic

CHP Heat & Heat & Electricity Electricity

11


PART 2

The digester best suited to the above-mentioned requirements is a dry continuous plug-flow reactor at thermophilic conditions. Figure 8 is a diagram of this process. This process is best suited to my operating criteria for the following reasons:

• MSFW is categorized as a dry substrate as its contents are more then 15% solid • Food waste will be collected frequently, therefore a continuous process reduces the size of the waste storage bunker • A plug-flow digester is technically more simple, and the reactor tank is smaller because no additional water is required for the mixing process • Thermophilic conditions are preferred for a plug-flow system because minimal water allows for a favourable heat balance for operation, more biogas is produced & the cost of heating at higher temperatures often pays off in the long run

Evidently, the amount of energy produced by anaerobic digestion is based on the amount of substrate added. Hitachi Zosen Inova is a Switzerland-based manufacturer of Kompogas, a system that specializes in dry continuous plug-flow digestion of MSFW at thermophilic conditions. Literature surrounding the Kompogas system suggests that 1000 kg of MSFW produces approximately 160 Nm3 of biogas & 370 kg of natural fertilizer (Hitachi Zosen Inova, 2015). Biogas engines, such as a CHP unit, transforms the gas into energy in the form of heat and electricity. 1 Nm3 of biogas has approximately 10 kWh energy content. If combusted in a CHP unit with an electrical efficiency of ~42%, 390 kWh of electricity is produced. The same CHP unit would also produce 370 kWh of usable heat, assuming a thermal efficiency of ~40%. The remaining ~18% are efficiency losses which is technically very difficult to recover (Heer, 2016). It should be noted that ~10% of thermal heat generated is required to operate the digester at thermophilic conditions, therefore the actual available thermal heat is 333 kWh. The decentralized AD process relies on households and restaurants to separate their waste. Effective solutions for the separation of food waste is difficult in densely populated historic urban centres. The ‘Circular City’ report proposes ‘smart street containers’ with sensors which enable the automatic separation of waste streams in one container (Circular City, 2016). This system is relevant if the waste is being collected and transported by one party. However, within the context of this project, food waste will be locally managed. Alternatively smart street containers can separate glass, paper, plastic and residual waste streams, and the extra space allows for separate MSFW containers. In Amsterdam, residents often ‘beautify’ public space by placing planters in front of their houses, often near or in front unattractive waste collection points. To add value to the neighbourhood, and showcase/symbolize the benefits of the Marineterrein’s AD process, containers will be accessorized with a planter filled with plants and the natural fertilizer effluent produced by the digester (Fig. 9).

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PART 2

+ relevant if the waste is being transported byMSFW one body. However, within the Figure 9: Circular City’s ‘smart streetcollected containers’and in combination with container/planter context of this project, organic was will be locally managed. Alternatively smart street containers separate glass, paper, plastic waste streams, and the extra space allows for Technicalcan Design Guidelines: separate MSFW containers. In Amsterdam, residents residents often beautify public space by placing plantersrequired: in front of their houses, often near or in front collection • Digester dry continuous plug-flow reactor at unattractive thermophilicwaste conditions points. To add value to the neighbourhood, and showcase/symbolize the benefits of the AD • 1000 kg MSFW = 390 kWhel, 333 kWhth & 370 kg natural fertilizer process, containers will be accessorized with a planter filled with the fertilizer effluent. • MSFW containers, AD fertilizer planters Technical Design Guidelines: • Digester required: dry continuous plug-flow reactor at thermophilic conditions ENERGY: Types, consumption & optimization in a bathhouse • 1000 kg MSFW = 390 kWhel, 333 kWhth & 370 kg natural fertilizer • MSFW containers, AD fertilizer planters & other transport infrastructure The design of the bathhouse should meet the desired spatial qualities while also optimizing energy use. Initial design decisions in cana directly influence the energy consumption 2.2 Energyit’s types, consumption & optimization bathhouse of the bathhouse and its overall environmental impact (Saari et al, 2008). Thewhile required The design of the bathhouse should meet the desired spatial qualities also energy types for the are electricity anddirectly heat. Ininfluence order tothe estimate optimizing it's bathhouse energy use.program Initial design decisions can energy the average consumption of the electricity and heat per square metre,impact two case studies were examined. consumption of bathhouse, and therefore a lesser on the environmental (Saari et al, 2008). The required energy types for the bathhouse program are electricity and heat. In order to estimate Kirkkonummi Uimahalli, built ofinelectricity 2000, is and a public swimming bath in the average consumption heat per square metre, twoKirkkonummi, case studies Finland with an estimated 450 visitors/day (Saari et al, 2008). Bambados Hallen, built in 2011, were examined. Kirkkonummisports Uimahalli, in 2000, isGermany, a public swimming bath in Kirkkonummi, is a passive-house bathbuilt in Bamburg, and accommodates 1100 visitors/day Finland with an estimated 450 people/day (Saari et al, 2008). Bambados Hallen, built they in 2011, is (Passivhaus Institut, 2015). The aforementioned projects were chosen because both a passive-house sports bathlarge in Bamburg, Germany, accommodates 1100 people/day include swimming pools, scale saunas and and steam rooms; programs that will also be (Passivhaus 2015). The aforementioned projects were they both found in theInstitut, Marineterrein bathhouse. Figure 10 outlines thechosen annualbecause energy consumption per include swimming pools, large scale saunas and steam rooms; programs that will also be found metre square of both case studies and the projected energy consumption of the Marineterrein in the Marineterrein bathhouse. Figure # outlines the electricity and energy consumption per bathhouse. metre square of both case studies and the projected energy consumption of the Marineterrein bathhouse. Figure 10: Case study of energy consumption

Electricity (kWh/m2/year)

Heat (kWh/m2/year)

Total (kWh/m2/year)

Kirkkonummi

240

396

636

Bambados

156

258

414

Marineterrein

200

300

500

The Bambados project reflects passive house strategies that focus on efficient energy use and 13 incorporation of sustainable building concepts, particularly in regards to the building envelope and technical equipment. Therefore its consumption per metre square is significantly lower then that of Kirkkonummi. However, in the Kirkkonummi report, it was stated that in


PART 2

Kirkkonummi Uimahalli, Finland

Bambados Hallen, Germany

The Bambados project reflects passive-house strategies that focus on efficient energy use and the incorporation of sustainable building concepts, particularly in regards to the building envelope and technical equipment. Therefore, its consumption per metre square is significantly lower then that of Kirkkonummi. However, in the Kirkkonummi report, it was stated that in comparison to other similar Finnish pools, studies revealed that the energy needs of the Kirkkonummi swimming bath are larger then the average consumption (Saari et al, 2008). With regards to the Marineterrein bathhouse I intend on incorporating passive-house strategies found in the Bambados Hallen. Nonetheless, to maintain a cautious outlook on potential energy consumption in order to predict the amount of waste needed to supply the bathhouse, the approximate average energy consumption is assumed. Therefore, annually, the bathhouse will consume 200 kWh/m2 of electricity and 300 kWh/m2 of heat, with a total energy consumption of 500 kWh/m2. 14


PART 2

Predominant factors that effect the consumption of energy in a bathhouse are space heating and ventilation, water heating and treatment, lighting, motors and drives. Almost 16% of total energy costs are spent on lighting (Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group, 2012). The amount of artificial lighting used can be reduced during the day by integrating as much natural light as possible. The use of roof glazing is more efficient then low level windows in the facade, particularly for deep spaces such as a swimming pool hall. If windows are used in the pool hall, the pool should be oriented north-south, with windows located on these ends so as not to create glare for swimmers (Weber, 2014) (Fig. 11). Figure 11: Best-practice natural lighting dimensions for a pool hall

Rooflight: - 50% of pool area - internal shading recommended

N x 2x

8.6 m

(Weber, 2014)

S

The program of the bathhouse requires that several spaces be heated at different temperatures. Appendix B indicates a list of the various programs and their corresponding temperatures. In order to minimize heat loss, it is good practice to zone programs of similar temperatures together. Heat loss can also be mitigated by internally insulating these zones and by incorporating barriers such as thermally insulted doors (Fig. 12). With regards to outdoor heated pools, protection from the wind and removable covers greatly avoid heat loss.

Figure 12: Heat efficiency and insulation techniques

Sauna 60-90ºC

Steam

Sauna 60-90ºC41ºC

Hot Pool 43ºC Café 18-21ºC

Café 18-21ºC

Steam 41ºC

Hot Pool 43ºC

43ºC 33ºC

43ºC

33ºC

15


PART 2

1m²/30L water

3/4n metres nm Ventilation is a necessary of the bathhouse. Recommendations suggest that etaspect ers there should be 4-6 air changes/hour and air should travel at a low velocity for user comfort. The air temperature should be approximately 1ºC above water temperature, therefore air must be heated beforehand (Sport England, 2011). However, the typology of the bathhouse encourages users to frequently move from various temperature zones, as well as transitioning between the bathhouse and cafe and between the interior and exterior, which results in measurable heat loss and draught. In order to limit heat loss and maintain a comfortable environment, a glazed buffer zone, otherwise known as a winter garden, will be incorporated. 3/4n metres -1% slopezones allows for The winter garden has many advantages for the bathhouse. The transitional variation between thermal environments where adjacent spaces have substantial temperature change including conditions between indoors and outdoors (Alonso, 2011). Figure 13 illustrates the advantages and preferred orientation of a winter garden. The technique not only acts as Constructedpre-heated Wetland ventilation system, the floor can buffer space, but also asHorizontal a natural Flow or mechanically act as heat storage in the evenings, and it limits draught and overheating. In pool areas, it is recommended that air flow is directed upwards at the foot of the walls in a laminar flow and to provide separate air flows for the bathhouse programs and other programs so that bathhouse air does not need to be brought down to the limiting moisture content demand for structural -1% slope protection. Finally, by incorporating a heat recovery ventilation (HRV) system, supply air can be heated by reclaiming the lost energy in the exhaust air (Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group, 2012).

ed Wetland Figure 13: Guidelines and benefits of a winter garden

N 50-60º

15ºC

22ºC

30º

30º

S

S

32ºC

Draught

Buffer Space

South-facing Winter Garden

Naturally Pre-heated Ventilation

15ºC

22ºC

Buffer Space

en

16

32ºC

Naturally Pre-heated Ventilation

Mechanically Pre-heated Ventilation

Overheating


PART 2

Technical Design Guidelines: • Annual energy consumption: 300 kWhth/m2 & 200 kWhel/m2 • Wind protection & cover for exterior heated pools • Grouping and internal insulation of spaces with similar thermal temperatures & operable insulated barriers between thresholds • South-facing winter garden with 50-60º slope from horizon • Optimize day-lighting, with roof lighting in large pool hall • Airtight & well-insulated building envelope (recommended U-value 0.164 W/(m2K) (Passivhaus Institut, 2015) • Provide two separate air flow systems for bathhouse & non-bathhouse programs; ventilate bathhouse spaces upward from foot of walls, use an HRV system

WATER: Alternative sources & sinks of bathhouse water The program of a bathhouse requires a significant amount of water. Standards suggest that 30 L of fresh water should be exchanged with every new user (Sport England, 2011). Water is used for the pools and steam room, toilets, showering and kitchen. However, the source and sink of water can determine the efficiency of the bathhouse and its impact on the environment and surroundings. In this situation, ‘source’ is used to define the input flow of water and ‘sink’ refers to the output flow of water. The source water for pools, drinking water and showers needs to meet conventional standards, therefore water will be sourced from the existing municipal infrastructure. However, to reduce overall water consumption, toilet water can be flushed with harvested rainwater. Annually the Netherlands receives 765 mm of rainwater (World Weather & Climate Information, 2015). This technique will reduce municipal water consumption by 6 L for each user, with the assumption that each visitor of the bathhouse will use the toilet once (Conserve H2O, 2016). This technique will also make use of the rainwater which would nonetheless be directed to the WWTP as a result of the Marineterrein’s location in the Centre. There is an even greater opportunity to improve the sink of the bathhouse waste water. Two types of waste water will be managed differently: (1) waste water from the bathhouse pools, and (2) waste water from everything else such as toilets, showers, kitchen. The water used in the bathhouse involves a significant volume of water. However, if bathers are encouraged to use the toilet and showers prior to entering the pools, this can reduce pollutants such as sweat, urea, dirt and bacteria from contaminating the pool water. The provision and use of biodegradable soaps should also be encouraged. In this way, due to the relatively known

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PART 2

and minimal contaminants in the pool water, it can purified on site instead, and only the waste water showers, toilets and kitchen water need to be transported to the centralized WWTP in Westpoort. A recommended process for on site purification of waste water is a constructed wetland (CW). Waste water input travels through a series of planted channels that filters out particles and microorganisms and mimics the purification process that occurs in natural wetlands. At the end of the process, the effluent can be discharged to the nearest water body. Types of CW include horizontal subsurface flow, vertical flow, free-water surface and hybrid flow. Each technique has its advantages based on the context and type of waste water. The technique best suited for treating the Marineterrein bathhouse water is a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HFCW) because it is more tolerant to colder climates, requires less maintenance then other systems, is less expensive, requires no source of electricity, and there is no odour nuisance as the waste water is not above ground level (SSWM, 2014). The basin should be lined with an impermeable liner to prevent leaching, and gravel ranging in diameter from 3-32 mm should fill the bed. It is possible to use waste concrete rubble as long as it is cleaned prior to set up. Native plants with deep, wide routes that are suitable for a nutrient-rich Figure 14: Section diagram of a horizontal flow constructed wetland and suitable plant species

1m²/30L water

3/4n metres nm

ete

rs

-1% slope

Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland

Phragmites Australis

18

Typha Latifolia

Scirpus Lacustris

Equisetum Hyemale


PART 2

environment are possible to use. In regards to the area of a HFCW, the rule of thumb suggest that for every 30L water, 1m2 of wetland is needed and the length of wetland should be 3-4x its width (Wastewater Gardens, 2012). Figure 14 illustrates the basic design of the HFCW and appropriate plant species. Not only does the wetland avoid waste water being transported to the WWTP, it provides an aesthetically natural landscape. In addition, permeable surfaces avoid rainwater from being redirected to the sewage pipeline. In many public pools and bathhouse programs chemical products, such as chlorine, are commonly used to keeps water free of bacteria. However, to reduce damage to waste water and the ecosystem, and due to the fact that bathhouse water will be treated and purified on site through the HFCW system, an alternative water treatment method must be used. Ionization is a process that uses metallic ions to disinfect the water. It is a common process that is safe for humans, as well as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-algae. The water flows through the pump and then into a sanitation chamber where copper and silver ion rods are located. The ions breakdown the outer membranes of bacteria, fungus and viruses, and prevents photosynthesis of algae. The system is computerized and monitors water quality and indicates when ion rods need to be replaced (Beer, 1999) (Fig. 15). Figure 15: Diagram of integrated ionzation filtration system Electrical Switchboard

Ionizer Switchboard

Filter Ionizer

Pool

Pump

(Hidrion.com)

Technical Design Guidelines: • Considerations for roof area for rain harvesting: • Annual rainfall: 765 mm; water consumption: 6 L/user • Distinction between change room/washing water & bathhouse water • Encourage swimmers to shower/use toilet before entering bathhouse zone • Horizontal flow constructed wetland: • 1m2 of wetland for every 30L water • Length of wetland should be 3-4x its width • Permeable exterior surfaces to reduce rainwater entering sewage pipe • Ionization system to eliminate chemicals from being released into HFCW

19


PART 2

AEB

Orgaworld

WWTP

Restauran Lek Watersource

Nieuw-West

AEB

esources

Orgaworld

ating Network

Lek Watersource

WWTP

Stations

astructure Route

rein Nieuw-West Flow of Resources Urban Heating Network Highway Pumping Stations Water Infrastructure Route Marineterrein

20


PART 2 10 km

5 km

Agriculture 1 km Restaurants

CENTRE

Bathhouse & Digester

Urban Garden

Households NUON

Rijnkanaal & Bethunepolder Watersources

2 km 21


PART 3

PART 3: Spatial implications & large scale impact In order to apply and integrate the above mentioned techniques, the bathhouse’s area and daily user capacity must be determined. The Therme Vals in Switzerland, by Peter Zumthor, is approximately 4000m2, accommodates 200 visitors/day and offers a quiet and exclusive atmosphere. Kirkkonummi Uimahalli is 4120 m2, accommodates 450 visitors/day and acts as a busy public multi-sport and recreational centre. The desired user capacity for the Marineterrein bathhouse is 250 people/day and 2200 m2 with the hope of achieving public space that promotes social interactions in parallel with a place of refuge within the city centre. With this information, we can determine the amount of MSFW required to generate energy for the bathhouse, as well as determine the spatial implications of the anaerobic digestion process and other capacity-sensitive techniques. In order to provide enough energy for a 2200m2 bathhouse, 660 000 kWh of thermal heat and 440 000 kWh of electricity are required each year. Therefore, the minimum amount of MSFW that needs to collected and processed is 2000 tons/year. See Appendix C for calculations. Figure 16 illustrates a map indicating the necessary MSFW collection zones surrounding the Marineterrein. If everyone in these zones and the restaurants on the site separate their food waste, the bathhouse is able to function as an energy neutral system year-round. The plug-flow digestion tank and biogas storage are slightly larger then necessary to accommodate the potential of excess energy for unforeseen future growth on the Marineterrein. Given the heat/electricity ratio output for every 1000 tons MSFW, and the fact that more heat is required then electricty, an excess of Figure 16: Map of waste collection districts in Amsterdam.

1

km

5

00

21 740 Residents Collection Points Marineterrein

22

m


PART 3

340 000 kWh electricity is produced annually. This excess electricity can be fed back into the urban energy grid or supplied to surrounding programs on the Marineterrein. In regards to water source and sink techniques, the roof catchment area for rainwater harvesting and the dimensions of the Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland are also dependent on user capacity and size. In order to harvest enough rainwater to flush 6L of toilet water 250 times/day, 540 000 L of water is needed annually. Therefore the catchment area of the roof must be a minimum of 706 m2 and the rainwater storage tank must be 27 m3. 30 L of water must be exchange per person, therefore the HFCW will require 250m2 of land. See Appendix C for further calculations and Appendix B for a complete list of programs/systems and their dimensions. Figure 17 visualizes the techniques that will be integrated into the Marineterrein bathhouse. Figure 18 is a Material Flow Analysis overview of the combined annual waste, energy and water flows proposed in the design. Figure 19 & Figure 20 illustrate an example of initial schematic design studies that are currently in process. The implementation of the above mentioned integrated techniques into the Marineterrein bathhouse offer obvious local benefits, however these decisions also have large scale urban impacts. As previously stated, all waste in Amsterdam must travel from its source to the AEB in Westpoort. However, if all MSFW is collected from the indicated zones, unseparated residual waste will decrease from 78% to 52% of the 370 kg total annual waste produced per person. Within the Centre alone, the annual number of garbage truck trips required to transport residual waste to AEB is reduced to 3259, thereby reducing transportation trips by 9%. However, the MSFW will still need to be transported a short distance to the Marineterrein, and therefore approximately 285 local trips will be required to collect and delivery MSFW to the site each year. The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion is a carbon-neutral system, thus reducing toxins that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere by waste incineration. The effluent can be used as a natural fertilizer which can then be sold to the agricultural industry or local gardens. Finally, by integrating and making visible the food waste-to-energy infrastructure into the design of public space, the Marineterrein bathhouse also acts a showcase for sustainability and education. Conclusion The objective of this report was to investigate how the flows of organic waste, energy, and water can be locally managed and integrated into the design of a public bathhouse. Understanding the existing situation of these three flows within the context of Amsterdam and the Marineterrein was essential in order to have a critical view on current techniques and explore alternative and innovative opportunities, at both the urban and building scale. This research will be used as a reference point throughout the duration of the project. As I move forward, the intention of this research is to integrate these techniques, from the beginning, as a valuable part of the architectural design of the bathhouse and re-imagine energy production as contributing to valuable urban social space on the Marineterrein and the greater urban fabric. 23


PART 3

Rainwater Catchment Roof

HRV

Rainwater Storage

Roof Daylighting maetS Cº14

Internal Insulation

anuaS Cº09-06 looP toH Cº34

33ºC Cº34 43ºC

Cº33

éfaC Cº12-81

<50-60º

Ionization Filt Natural & Mech. Ventilation

Heat Re Outp

South

CHP

Winter Garden

Horizontal Flow Constrcuted Wetland

Figure 17: Diagram of integrated techniques to optimize waste, energy & water flows in the bathhouse.

24

Supply Excess Electricity


PART 3

Rainwater Storage WWTP

Roof Daylighting To Kitchen/Sinks/Showers Municipal Water Supply

Upward Floor Airï¬&#x201A;ow

Ionization Filtration System

MSFW Collection

Heat Recovery from Output Water Waste Bunker Biogas Storage CHP

Digestion Tank

Supply Excess Electricity Digestate Agriculture

25


PART 3

Annual Waste, Water & Energy Flow of Marineterrein Bathhouse

People IN

75 000 25.8T

Rainwater

Potable Municipal Water

3.2 T Urine

540 T

7 850 T

Feces

Toilets

1 800 T

Showers

2 800 T

Kitchen

2 250 T

Thermal Heat

74 000 kWh

440 00 CHP

MSFW Collection Trucks

2000 T 286

MSFW Storage

2000 T

Figure 18: Material Flow Analysis of waste, energy & water per year

26

Anaerobic Digestion

320 000 NmÂł

Biogas

740 T 286

Digesta Storag


PART 3

People OUT

75 000

569 T

1 800 T

Black Water

WWTP & AEB

Grey Water

2 800 T Grey Water 5 169 T

Bathhouse

2 250 T

HFCW

2 250 T

Grey Water

Treated Water

Canal Water 2 250 T

HRV Unit 85 % 440 000 kWh

P

Electricity

660 000 kWh

Thermal Heat

340 000 kWh

Local Energy Grid

Electricity

6 000 kWh Thermal Heat Digestate Storage

346 000 kWh 740 T 286

Natural Fertilizer Collection Trucks*

Agricultural Industry 740 T

* Collection trucks should leave site with residual waste, fertilizer, or other. Focus is that trucks should not leave empty.

27


PART 3

Figure 19: Initial Schematic Design #1

7

1 2

6

3 4 8-9-10-11 5

Existing Building

Plan 4

10 3

5

9

8

1-2

6

11

Section A-A’ Explanation:: This design stronger focuses on the north-south orientation of the pool to 1 - cold spaces

accommodate windows, as well as a south-south-west facing winter garden that

2 - hot spaces

is sloped 55ª. The pool hall severs an existing building in order to optimize the

3 - main pool

lighting, views and connection to water.

4 - large sauna 5 - winter garden

Disadvantages:

6 - constructed wetlands

X Lack of connection between water & ‘rear’

7 - digestion process

X Separation between bathhouse & energy production digester

8 - café/lobby

X Lacking defined entrance

9 - changeroom/wash

* A feature that must still be addressed in both schematic designs is how the user

10 - office

moves from the different bathhouse programs. An up-to-date schematic design

11 - technical room

with be included to the report after P2.

28

7


PART 3

Figure 20: Initial Schematic Design #2

2

12 1 5 3 6

8 4

7-9-10

13

11

Existing Building

Plan 4 9 3

7 10

1

2

Section A-A’ 1 - cold spaces

Explanation::

2 - hot spaces

This design attempts to bridge the ‘water-side’ and back side’ in order to create

3 - main pool

a stronger connection by using a raised corridor. This element, which I imagine

4 - large sauna

to be very transparent, allows the user to view the digester and other integrated

5 - constructed wetlands

techniques that are being showcased. The programs are more spread out to create

6 - digestion process

a complex--like design, allowing users to feel apart of the Marineterrein, rather

7 - café/lobby

then a single building on the site. The pool is oriented in the same direction as the

8 - changeroom/wash

existing buildings, and will rely mostly on roof lighting.

9 - office 10 - technical room

Disadvantages:

11 - floating saunas

X Currently no winter garden as buffer zone

12 - ampitheatre

X Digester & wetlands can still be better integrated into bathhouse programs

13 - harbour pool

X Transition from bathhouse to harbour can still be better connected -

29


REFERENCES

REFERENCES Alonso, C. et al. “Potential for energy saving in transitional spaces in commercial buildings.” International Conference CleanTech for Sustainable Building. Lausanne: 2011. Beer CW, Guilmartin LE, McLoughlin TF, White TJ. 1999. Swimming pool disinfection: efficacy of copper/silver ions with reduced chlorine levels. J Environmental Health, 61(9): 9-12. Best, Elly P. Netherlands wetlands: proceedings of a symposium held in Arnhem, the Netherlands, December 1989. Dordrecht u.a.: Kluwer, 1993, 145. Chaudhary, Binod. “Dry Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Municipal Solid Waste in Thermophilic Conditions.” Asian Institute of Technology, May 2008. Circle Economy, Fabric, Gemeente Amsterdam and TNO. “Circular Amsterdam: A vision and action agenda for the city and metropolitan area.” 2016. City of Amsterdam. Towards Amsterdam Circular Economy. Amsterdam, 2015. “Collecting and Using Rainwater at Home.” CMCH-SCHL (2013). https://www.cmhc-schl. gc.ca/odpub/pdf/67925.pdf. “Constructed Wetlands to Treat Wastewater.” Wastewater Gardens, January 05, 2012. “Energy Efficiency in Swimming Pools.” Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group. January 2012. http://pwtag.org/technicalnotes/energy-efficiency-in-swimming-pools/. Gollwitzer, Esther, Florian Gressier, and Søren Peper. “Passivhaus-Hallenbad Bambados Monitoring.” Passivhaus Institut, August 2015. Gemeente Amsterdam (2015). Afvalketen in beeld Grondstoffen uit Amsterdam. Gemeente Amsterdam. “Kerncijfers Amsterdam 2016: Onderzoek, Informatie en Statistiek.” Amsterdam. (May, 2016). De Haan, Klaas-Bindert. “Interactive Maps.” Gemeente Amsterdam. http://maps.amsterdam. nl/bouwjaar/?LANG=en. Heer, Lukas, and Fallon Walton. “Kompogas Energy Production.” Interview. Hitachi Zosen Inova AG, November 22, 2016. “Historisch stedenbouwkundige analyse & inventarisatie van monumenten en beeldbepalende gebouwen.” Gemeente Amsterdam: Bureau Monumenten & Archeologie, February 2012. Hitachi Zosen Inova. ”Waste Is Our Energy.” (2015). http://www.hz-inova.com/cms/ wp-content/uploads/2016/01/HZI_Company-Brochure_EN_web.pdf. “Horizontal Subsurface Flow CW.” SSWM. 2014. http://www.sswm.info/category/ implementation-tools/wastewater-treatment/hardware/semi-centralised-wastewater-treatments/h. Minkjan, Mark. “Amsterdam’s Morphology, A History.” City Breaths. January 11, 2013. http://

30


REFERENCES

citybreaths.com/post/40011703127/amsterdam-morphology-a-history. “Netherlands Weather and Climate: Average Monthly Rainfall, Sunshine, Temperatures, Humidity, Wind Speed.” World Weather & Climate Information, 2015. https:// weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine-in-Netherlands. “N.V. Nuon Energy Annual Report 2014.” N.V. Nuon Energy, Amsterdam, 2014, 7. “Rainwater Harvesting - Made Simple.” Oasis. http://oasis-rainharvesting.co.uk/sizing_the_ tank. “Renewable Energy Infrastructure and Public Space.” LAGI: Land Art Generator Initiative. August 22, 2011. http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/1583. Saari, Arto, and Tiina Sekki. “Energy Consumption of a Public Swimming Bath.” The Open Construction and Building Technology Journal TOBCTJ 2, no. 1 (2008): 202-06. Sperl, Louisa K. “Innovative Waste Management for a Circular Economy in the Netherlands.” Trier University of Applied Sciences Business School, February 10, 2016. “Swimming Pools Updated Guidance for 2011.” Sport England, February 2011. “Toilet.” Conserve H2O. Accessed November 20, 2016. http://www.conserveh2o.org/ toilet-water-use. Tsang, Ernest. “Resilience in Adopting Green Building Design - Natural Lighting for Indoor Swimming Pools.” Network. http://network.wsp-pb.com/article/resilience-in-adopting-green-building-design-natural-lighting-for-indoor-swimmi. Uggetti, Enrica, Bruno Sialve, Eric Trably, and Jean-Philippe Steyer. “Integrating Microalgae Production with Anaerobic Digestion: A Biorefinery Approach.” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 8, no. 4 (2014): 516-29. Vasudevan, R., O. Karlsson, K. Dhejne, P. Derewonko, and J.C. Brezet. “The Methanizer: A Small Scale Biogas Reactor for a Restaurant.” TU Delft, October 2010. Weber, C. “Energy Efficiency in Public Indoor Swimming Pools.” Passipedia. November 6, 2014. https://passipedia.org/planning/non-residential_passive_house_buildings/swimming_ pools/energy_efficiency_in_public_indoor_swimming_pools. Wildenburg, Marcel (Beleidsadviseur Afdeling Schoon & Heel, Gemeente Amsterdam, Stadsdeel Centrum). ”Loading Rate & Numer of Amsterdam Garbage Trucks.” E-mail interview by author. November 29, 2016. “WRAP and the circular economy.” WRAP and the circular economy | WRAP UK. http://www. wrap.org.uk/about-us/about/wrap-and-circular-economy. Zafar, Salman. “Negative Impacts of Incineration-Based Waste-to-Energy Technology.” Alternative Energy News. September 2008. http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/negative-impacts-waste-to-energy/.

31


APPENDIX A

Area of Focus

32


APPENDIX A

1:2500 33


APPENDIX A

1:25000 Amsterdam Centre

Before 1860 1860-1919 1920-1945 1946-1965 1966-1990 After 1990 Unknown

Expansion of Amsterdam 34

(Gemeente Amsterdam, n.d)


APPENDIX A

1660

1782

1875

1950

Water Land 2016 Morphology of the Marineterrein 35


APPENDIX B PROGRAM

SIZE REQUIREMENTS

- Access by truck delivery - Reduce smell via door positioning

Waste Bunker

- Dry continuous plug-flow reactor at thermophilic conditions

Digestion Tank

Digestate

- 1000 kg MSFW = 370 kg natural fertilizer

Biogas Upgrader & Storage

- 1000 kg MSFW = 160 Nm3 biogas

- 160 Nm3 biogas = 390 kWhel, 333 kWhth

CHP Unit

HF Constructed Wetland

- 1m2/30L water - length 4x width

Rainwater Storage & Roof - Tank: 27 m3 Catchment Area - Roof Area: 706m2

36

TECH. REQUIREMENTS/NOTES

- Basin lines with impermeable liner - Gravel layer 3-32 mm diametre - Native species: Phragmites Australis, Typha Latifolia, Scirpus Lacustris, Equisetum Hyemale

- Average annual collection: 540 000 L


APPENDIX B BASIC VOLUME (1:500)

REFERENCES

1m²/30L water

3/4n metres nm

ete

rs

-1% slope

Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetland

37

N 50-60º

15ºC


APPENDIX B PROGRAM

Main Pool

SIZE REQUIREMENTS

TECH. REQUIREMENTS

Area: 540m2 Water Area: 220m2

Air Temp.: 33ºC Water Temp.: 32ºC - Natural roof lighting - Windows only on N & S, height should be halft the length of the deck - upward-directed laminar air flow

Winter Garden

Area: 300m2

Air Temp.: 25ºC - South-facing with 30º tolerance - Glazed roof at 50-60º - Provides mechanical or natural ventilation

Large Sauna

Area: 48m2

Air Temp.: 60-90ºC - Use internal insulation & insulated ` barriers

38

Sm. Sauna 1

Area: 12m2

Air Temp.: 70-90ºC

Sm. Sauna 2

Area: 12m2

Air Temp.: 70-90ºC

Steam Room

Area: 12m2

Air Temp.: 41ºC 85-100% humidity


APPENDIX B BASIC VOLUME

REFERENCES

39


APPENDIX B

PROGRAM

SIZE REQUIREMENTS

TECH. REQUIREMENTS

Wash

Area: 50m2

Air Temp.: 25ºC

Changerooms

Area: 200m2

Air Temp.: 25ºC

Hot Pool/Room

Area: 48m2

Air Temp.: 43ºC Water Temp.: 42ºC - Use internal insulation & insulated ` barriers

Ex. Hot Pools

Area: m2

Water Temp.: 35-40ºC - Shield pools from wind & use covers to avoid heat loss

Cold Pool

Area: 38m2 Water Area: 15m2

Air Temp.: 15ºC Water Temp.: 14ºC - Use internal insulation & insulated ` barriers

40


APPENDIX B

BASIC VOLUME

REFERENCES

41


APPENDIX B PROGRAM

SIZE REQUIREMENTS

TECH. REQUIREMENTS

Lobby

Area: 100m2

Air Temp.: 18-21ºC

Cafe

Area: 150m2

Air Temp.: 18-21ºC

Office

Area: 50m2

Air Temp.: 18-21ºC

Storage

Area: 100m2

Air Temp.: 18ºC

Cafe WC

Area: 16m2

Air Temp.: 18ºC

Harbour WC & Changerooms

Area: 16m2

Air Temp.: 18ºC

Technical Space

Area: 100m2

Air Temp.: 18ºC - Location of Ionization system

42


APPENDIX B BASIC VOLUME

REFERENCES

43


APPENDIX C

Restaurant: Annual Food Waste Production

Small restaurant food waste: 20kg/day (Vasudevan, 2013) Large restaurant food waste: 41kg/day (Vasudevan, 2013) = Average restaurant food waste 30 kg/day • 300 operating days = 9000 kg/year food waste Catchment Roof Area & Tank Size Calculation (a) Daily user capacity = 250 (b) Annual operating days = 300 (c) Toilet water used per flush = 6 L (Conserve H20, 2016) (d) Adjustment for loss = 20% (CMHC-SCHL, 2013) Maximum rainwater collection (e) = (d)[(a)•(b)•(c)] = 1.2[250•300•6] =540 000 L (f) Annual Rainfall in Netherlands = 765 mm (World Weather & Climate Information, 2015) Catchment Roof Area = (e)/(f) = 540 000 L/765 mm = 706 m2 Tank Size = 5% of Annual rainwater demand (Oasis, 2015) 540 000 L•0.05 =27 000 L = 27m3 Required waste for energy needed in Bathhouse Assumed area of bathhouse: 2200 m2 1000 kg organic waste = 333 kWhth & 390 kWhel Required energy = 660 000 kWhth & 440 000 kWhel 1000[333 kWhth • 660 000 kWhth ] = 1.9826 kg 1000[390 kWhel• 440 000 kWhel] = 1.1286 kg 1.9826 kg is greathen then 1.1286 kg, therefore 1.9826 kg organic waste is required. To generalize asumptions, lets assume 26 kg of organic waste is required. Therefore, if each resident produces 92 kg organic waste, a minimum of 21 740 people are required. Shower Use Average Flow Rate: 8 litres per minute Average Shower: 3 minutes Annual # of people: 75 000 Annual amount of shower water: 1 800 000 L

44


APPENDIX C

Existing Residual Waste Transport in Amsterdam Centrum Amsterdam garbage truck loading rate: 7000 kg (Wildenburg, 2016) Amount of garbage trucks available in Amsterdam Centrum: 7 (Wildenburg, 2016) Annual amount of garbage collection days in Centrum: 104 (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2015) Population of Amsterdam Centrum: 86 499 (Gemeente Amsterdam, 2016) Total annual amount of residual waste in Centrum: 86499•(78%•370kg) = 24 963 611 kg Annual required # of trucks for residual waste collection in Centrum: 3 566 Average Daily Trip for one truck: (3 566/7 trucks)/104 annual collection days = 5 Proposed Residual Waste Transport in Amsterdam Centrum Total annual amount of residual waste in Centrum: 86499•(78%•370kg) = 24 963 611 kg Population in Centrum not required to separate MSFW: 64 159 -> Annual amount of residual waste: 64 159•(78%•370kg) = 18 516 287 kg Population in Centrum required to separate MSFW: 22 340 -> Annual amount of residual waste: 22 340•(52%•370kg) = 4 298 216 kg Total annual amount of residual waste in Centrum: 22 814 503 Annual required # of trucks for residual waste collection in Centrum: 3 259 Decrease in annual amount of trucks required to travel to AEB: 9% Residents required to collect MSFW: District Code

District Name

Population

A04a

Oosterdokseiland

469

A04b

Scheepvaarthuisburt

728

A04c

Rapenburg

1017

A04d

Lastage

1067

A04e

Nieuwmarkt

1625

A04f

Uilenburg

1145

A04g

Valkenburg

1161

A08d

Plantage

2077

A09a

Marineterrein-Etablissement

A09b

Kattenburg

1703

A09c

Wittenburg

2211

A09d

Oostenburg

1557

A09e

Czar Peterbuurt

1973

A09i

Kadijken

2819

M33a

Oostelijk Handelskade

Total

63

1485 21100

45

The Marineterrein Bathhouse: Bridging the flows of waste, energy & water in Amsterdam  

This year the City of Amsterdam commissioned the report, ‘Circular Amsterdam,’ which highlights the untapped potential of food waste as a va...

The Marineterrein Bathhouse: Bridging the flows of waste, energy & water in Amsterdam  

This year the City of Amsterdam commissioned the report, ‘Circular Amsterdam,’ which highlights the untapped potential of food waste as a va...

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