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Impact Assessment

FairFishing Activities (2013-2018)

Berbera, Somaliland

Final Report Submitted by:

Nordic Consulting Group Date: 09/01/2019


List of Contents Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................................1 FairFishing Activities...................................................................................................................2 Methodology .............................................................................................................................4 Context of the Fishing Activities .................................................................................................7 Findings ................................................................................................................................... 10 Improving the Supply Side of Fisheries ...........................................................................................................10 Beneficiaries of the FairFishing Activities.......................................................................................................16 Socio Economic Development ...........................................................................................................................22 Food Security ..........................................................................................................................................................24 Sustainability of the FairFishing activities ......................................................................................................27 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 30 Annex 1: Matrix ..........................................................................................................................i Annex 2: Field Programme and people met ................................................................................ v Annex 3: Impact Assessment Data Collection tools ................................................................... vii Tool 1: Household Questionnaire....................................................................................................................viii Tool 2: Interview and FGD Guide Boat Owner .............................................................................................. xi Tool 3: Interview and FGD Guide FF staff .....................................................................................................xiii Tool 4: Interview and FGD Guide Employees of boat owners ................................................................. xv Tool 5: Interview and FGD Guide Spouses .................................................................................................... xvi Tool 6: FGD Guide Foot Fishermen ................................................................................................................xvii Tool 7: Interview Guide, External Stakeholders ....................................................................................... xviii Tool 8: Questionnaire for Fish Shop owners/managers/staff................................................................. xix Tool 9: Questionnaire for fish buying customers ....................................................................................... xix Tool 10: Questionnaire for people who sell cooked fish ........................................................................... xx

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List of Tables Figure 1: Average monthly ice production 2015-2018 ...................................................................... 10 Figure 2: Fish volumes, 2014.............................................................................................................. 12 Figure 3: Fish volumes 2017............................................................................................................... 13 Figure 4: Fish volumes 2018............................................................................................................... 13 Figure 5: Income increase for beneficiaries (2012-2018) .................................................................. 16 Figure 6: Fish consumption among respondent households, 2014-2018 ......................................... 24 Figure 7: PSU and station net results 2017 ........................................................................................ 28 Figure 8: PSU and station net results 2018 ........................................................................................ 28 List of Figures Figure 1: Average monthly ice production 2015-2018 ...................................................................... 10 Figure 2: Fish volumes, 2014.............................................................................................................. 12 Figure 3: Fish volumes 2017............................................................................................................... 13 Figure 4: Fish volumes 2018............................................................................................................... 13 Figure 5: Income increase for beneficiaries (2012-2018) .................................................................. 16 Figure 6: Fish consumption among respondent households, 2014-2018 ......................................... 24 Figure 7: PSU and station net results 2017 ........................................................................................ 28 Figure 8: PSU and station net results 2018 ........................................................................................ 28 List of Abbreviations BEF CSR EU FAO FF FGD GDP ILO KII NDP NECFE NGO OBP POFF PSU SOS UN UNDP USD

Berbera Economic Forum Corporate Social Responsibility European Union United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization FairFishing Focus Group Discussion Gross Domestic Product International Labour Organisation Key Informant Interview National Development Plan North-East Coast Fishing Enterprise Non-Governmental Organisation Oceans Beyond Piracy Producer Organisation FairFishing Partner Supply Unit Somaliland Shilling United Nations United Nations Development Programme United States Dollars

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Executive Summary Introduction This report presents findings from an impact assessment of FairFishing’s activities in Somaliland. FairFishing is a Danish-Somali international non-government organization (INGO) with management offices in Denmark (Copenhagen) and Somaliland (Berbera). Since late 2011, the organization has worked with fishermen, fishery companies, local and national organisations, ministries and authorities to develop artisanal fisheries in Somaliland, as well as in Puntland since 2016. The organization aims to create jobs and economic development, as well as contribute to regional stability through the establishment of a sustainable fishery industry and value-chain. FairFishing’s activities in Somaliland have been in existence since 2011, and have seen a steady growth and expansion since their inception. Initially, the organization was focused on the construction of its FairFishing station, which produces ice and cool storage facilities for fishermen. The station opened in October 2013 at the harbor of Berbera, a coastal town in North Western Somaliland. It provides a range of services to the users of the station (referred to as partners) including ice, cooling and storage facilities. It also has facilities to weigh and clean the fish, before it is either stored or loaded on to cars for transport to markets. The project has also established a “Partner Supply Unit”, which is a shop where the partners can buy gear, equipment, nets and other fishing materials. In June 2016, the organization entered into a partnership with the European Union (EU) and received a grant to develop its concept and expand to additional locations at the Horn of Africa. The EU project is titled “Income, livelihood and nutrition through a fishery-based economy” (LOT2) and is implemented from mid 2016 to mid 2019. As a result of the EU project, FairFishing’s activities are now present in four additional sites in Somaliland (Burco, Saylac, Laasqorey and Buluhar) and in three sites in Puntland (Qardo, Galkayo and Garacaad). Different facilities have been established in these seven new locations with fish markets constructed in Burco, Qardo and Galkayo, fish stations established in Saylac, Laasqorey and Garacaad, and a small cold store facility in Buluhar. The station in Berbera is considered a “center of excellence” and has served as the model for the constructions and establishment of the new facilities. This report is a follow-up to an early assessment carried out in 2014 and hence comes four years after the first assessment. Its overall purpose is to identify and analyze the impact of FairFishing’s activities and outcomes for its direct beneficiaries, as well as wider outcomes related to food security and socio-economic development in Somaliland specifically and the Horn of Africa more generally. The methodology has included both qualitative and quantitative data collection. Data collection took place in the period 1-11th October 2018, where the consultant visited three sites: Berbera, Burco and Hargeisa. Julie Thaarup from the Nordic Consulting Group has carried out the assessment.

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Findings of the Impact Assessment Improving the Supply Side of Fisheries FairFishing’s activities have contributed significantly to an improvement of the supply side of fisheries in Somaliland. This has been achieved through establishment of service units that provide ice and cold storage facilities, gear and equipment for fishermen, and capacity building of fishermen. The volumes of fish that are landed at the FairFishing station have increased substantially in the period 2014-2018. As an example, the volume was less than 25.000 kilograms (kgs.) in August 2014, with about 140.000 kgs. in August 2018 – more than five times an increase in volume. The provision of available ice at an affordable price and storage capacity is central to the success of the organization, as it has allowed the fishermen to boost their capacity to maintain the freshness of the fish both while in the boats at sea and on land. As the fish are washed and stored in a clean environment, it also means that the quality of the fish is improved. The organization has contributed to the development and upgrade of human resources of people engaged in the fisheries and in the FairFishing activities. From 2013–2017, a Danish fisherman was periodically stationed in Berbera to support the activities by building the capacity of fishermen in terms of navigation, locating fish, use of nets and equipment, storage of fish, and knowledge of fish species. His presence and skills benefitted the fishermen in Berbera and he has also been engaged in wider skills and capacity building through his involvement in several other local fishery projects. In terms of trainings, FairFishing has increased its portfolio of trainees and types of training. Whereas the initial capacity building mainly targeted fishermen and focused on strengthening the fishing skills and preservation of the freshness of the fish, the activities now also include trainings on business management and preparation and cooking of the fish (“Fresh Fish on the Dish”). The target groups for the training comprise graduate students from the Berbera Maritime Fisheries Academy, fishermen, householders, and restaurant owners. With the “Fresh Fish on the Dish” trainings, the activities strengthens its focus on the “user” end of the fish value-chain. Beneficiaries of the FairFishing Activities The assessment collected data on the employment history and level of income among boat owners, crew of boat owners and FairFishing staff. The 2018 data was compared with data from 2014 where survey respondents had provided data on 2012 levels of income. The average monthly income for boat owners was reported to be USD 264 in 2012 and USD 1.288 in 2018. In a period of six years, their income has thus increased with 487%. With regard to crew, the income increase is also notable. Their average monthly salary was reported to be USD 152 in 2012, whereas it has increased to USD 470 in 2018 – an increase of 309%. Finally, with regard to the FairFishing staff their salary has also increased notably compared to 2012. Their average monthly income was reported to have increased from USD 128 in 2012 to USD 593 in 2018; an increase of 462%. In terms of job and livelihood creation, FairFishing directly employs 16 people in Berbera, however its reach is more expansive. The Impact Assessment estimates that the number of active fishers in Berbera has increased from approx. 400 in 2014, to around 600-1000 in 2018. Around 500-800

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fishers are using the FairFishing Station today. Assuming an increase of 400-500 fishers in Berbera the last years, and using FAO estimates that “one job at sea creates another four on land,” it can reasonably be estimated that FairFishing activities help support the livelihoods, at least in part, of around 2.000-3.200 people. In addition to these three beneficiary groups, foot fishermen have also benefitted from the activities and use the services for both ice and equipment. This group also reports that their income has increased and that they are more active now than before. Additional benefits were also highlighted including knowledge and awareness of fish and its health and nutritional benefits. In terms of gender, men dominate the productive sectors in Somaliland including the fisheries valuechain. Boat owners and crew members are all male, whereas the FairFishing station and office have four female employees out of a total of 16 staff. Men are also in charge of the transport of the fish to markets, and the majority of shops and restaurants in Burco and Hargeisa. However, women benefit from the fisheries at two points of the value-chain: As sellers in markets and shop owners, and as street vendors frying and selling fish in the streets to by-passers. The assessment saw evidence of women being employed in at least four shops in Berbera and Hargeisa. Socioeconomic Development in Somaliland With the increased catch and activities at the FairFishing station and office, more people have been employed since 2014. Since the start of the EU project and up to today, an additional 30 people have been employed to manage and run the new facilities being established, e.g. a workshop manager, fish market managers, technicians, training assistants, etc. Furthermore, the increased catch means more opportunities for people engaged in the transport and selling of fish. According to the Director of Fisheries at the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, the activities have contributed to a significant development of the sector: “The fishing industry is growing fast; it is growing well. Now the ministry sees it is going better and better.” The markets in Hargeisa are the main recipients of the fish from the Berbera. Markets have been able to absorb the increased amounts of fish, although some mentioned that in the high season, the shops cannot keep up with the availability of fish, that their freezers get full and that they have to tell the boat owners not to bring fish for a period until they have space for it again. As was the case in 2014, there is still hope that Ethiopia (as well as other foreign markets including Europe and United Arab Emirates) could become a big market for the Berbera fish and potentially provide large scale opportunities for the boat owners and fishermen. Food Security Somaliland has experienced serious droughts with devastating effects on the livestock sector. Meat from goat, camel and sheep is currently less available and more expensive than normal, due to the effects of the drought. In this context, the availability of fish therefore contributes to improved food security. Comparing survey findings on food consumption in 2014 and 2018, the pattern is that people eat less livestock meat, but not more fish today than in 2018. Fish is today the most consumed meat among survey respondents, but in terms of actual consumption, the fish consumption has not gone up among the three beneficiary groups (boat owners, crew and

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FairFishing staff). However, the assessment noted that the frequency of consumption of fish has increased, as have attitudes towards fish with fish now being the most common meal served in households. This pattern of stagnant overall consumption could also be different in Hargeisa, where shops have absorbed the increasing volumes of fish from Berbera and sold to customers there. According to fish shop owners in Hargeisa, the main trend is an increase in demand for fish. Sustainability of the FairFishing Activities Considerations about the future organizational set-up of the organization have been part of FairFishing’s activities since their inception. There is a strong desire and interest by both partners and the government for the activities to continue. The activities contributes to the objectives of the government strategy for fisheries as described in the “National Development Plan II.” The boat owners have experienced a notable increase in income since joining the activities, and they have a high degree of self-interest in the continuation of the activities. How to combine the partners, the government and the FairFishing organisation in one organizational structure is currently being considered, including its legal and institutional structures. FairFishing is taking the lead in finding a sustainable solution to the future organizational set-up. The financial sustainability looks promising with impressive levels of surplus generated by the station and the PSU during 2017 and 2018. It is a rare achievement among development projects to reach at such a level of financial robustness five years after their initiation. Finally, the cold storage facilities and ice machines are large consumers of fuel, and it would therefore be relevant to continue to look for alternative energy sources to run the facilities. Conclusion FairFishing’s activities have established a range of positive results and it is highly appreciated by all involved stakeholders including the foot fishermen, boat owners, crew members and the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. The activities contribute to the aspirations and objectives of the government and FairFishing has been successful in establishing activities and services in new locations in Somaliland and Puntland. The grant by the EU is a sign of recognition of FairFishing’s capacity to deliver results in a very challenging context, where conflicts and insecurity imply that any actors operating there must have sound judgement and a strong and well-functioning organizational setup. The key results of the activities include increased income and increased fishing activities for fishermen and boat owners. The raise in income is significant for these groups and provides the individual beneficiaries with tangible results. Quite unique in a development context, the station and Partner Supply Unit are now financially sustainable and even generate a significant surplus. This aspect is a key strength of the FairFishing concept and now that new stations have been established elsewhere in the region, the potential for creating a sustainable and effective fisheries sector has been strengthened even further.

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Introduction An early impact assessment of FairFishing’s activities (focused on the FairFishing station in Berbera) was carried out in 2014. The assessment found that the activities had within a relatively short time period managed to create a range of positive results for its beneficiaries. This report is a follow-up to the 2014 assessment and hence comes four years after the first assessment. Its overall purpose is to identify and analyze the impact of the FairFishing activities with a focus on the four groups of direct beneficiaries: 1) Boat owners, 2) Employees of boat owners (full time, part time, seasonal etc.), 3) Foot fishermen, and 4) employees of FairFishing. In addition to the outcomes for direct beneficiaries, the assessment also analyses the contribution of the activities to wider outcomes including food security and socio-economic development in Somaliland specifically, and the Horn of Africa more generally. The assignment is carried out in the period August-November 2018 by consultant Julie Thaarup from the Nordic Consulting Group, Denmark. Local assistant Aden Ahmed has supported the assignment in various aspects and assisted the consultant during fieldwork with interpretation during interviews and meetings, and translation of primary data. Following the field work Mr. Ahmed also supported the reporting with follow up on outstanding data and proof reading of parts of the report. In parallel to the impact assessment, Julie Thaarup has also developed a baseline report on the fish value-chain in Somaliland. The baseline assessment is presented in a separate report and describes and analyses the linkages between the catch of the fish in Berbera and the markets where the fish is sold. The outline of this report is as follows: Chapter 2 presents a short a description of FairFishing’s activities, followed by the methodology for the assessment in chapter 3. A context description of Somaliland and the fisheries sector in Berbera is provided in chapter 4. Findings are provided in Chapter 5 and the conclusions in chapter 6. Attached as annexes are 1) The impact assessment methodology matrix outlining key questions, data collection tools and sources of information and 2) Field programme and list of people met, and 3) Data Collection tools.

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FairFishing Activities FairFishing aims at creating jobs and economic development and contributing to regional stability through the establishment of a sustainable fishery industry and value-chain. FairFishing activities have been in existence since 2011, and have seen a steady growth and expansion in terms of activities sites and activities since their inception. Initially, the activities were focused on the construction of the FairFishing station, which produces ice and cool storage facilities for fishermen. It opened in October 2013 at the harbor of Berbera, a coastal town in North Western Somaliland. The station itself has expanded over the years, and where it originally was constructed out of five containers, it now consists of seven merged and refitted reefer containers and two ice machines. The station provides a range of services to the partners, including ice, cooling and storage facilities and has furthermore facilities to weigh and clean the fish, before it is either stored or loaded on to cars for transport to markets. The activities has also established a “Partner Supply Unit”, which is a shop where the partners can buy gear, equipment, nets and other fishing materials. The main users of the station are referred to as partners; majority of those are also members of the “Producer Organisation FairFishing” (POFF). The majority of these are boat owners, but associations of individual foot fishermen are also among the partners. Both boat owners and foot fishermen must be legally registered entities and go through a formal application procedure with the FairFishing office in Berbera before they are approved as partner. As of October 2018, there were a total of 52 partners of FairFishing, of which 35 are reported to be active (and 17 not active). The FairFishing partners represent approximately 80% of the total amount of boats, about 200, of which about 150 are active (and 50 in-active). Estimates by FairFishing and others show there are currently about 600-1000 fishermen in Berbera. There are about 4-5 bigger businesses not partnering with FairFishing who own boats and some are selling ice and purchase fish from the fishermen. FairFishing’s headquarter is in Copenhagen where the Secretariat manages FairFishing’s activities with oversight from its the Board. The Board includes representatives of the Somali diaspora in Denmark and is the decision-making organ of the organisation. A total of 16 staff members are currently employed at the FairFishing office and station in Berbera. From 2011 to 2016, the financing of the FairFishing activities only came from private and corporate channels – mainly through the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policies of companies but also through broader interests in contributing to international development. Numerous private sector foundations, individuals and companies have provided in-kind, equipment and financial support to FairFishing over this period. There was thus no “conventional” donor support to the activities in the 2011-2016 period, however this changed in June 2016, when FairFishing entered into a partnership with the EU and received a grant to develop the FairFishing concept and expand it to more locations at the Horn of Africa.

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The FairFishing station in Berbera has over the years become financially self-sufficient. The aim of FairFishing is to generate a surplus in order to enhance the self-sufficiency and in order to be able to re-invest in the station for its continued development and to save for unexpected breakdowns or needed investments. In addition, FairFishing has also carried out a series of trainings “Fishery technical training at sea� for fishermen and academic students (maritime studies) as part of the EU program. Participants have been trained on navigation, identification of fish, storage of the fish, etc. Since their beginning, the FairFishing activities have been concerned with strengthening both the supply and demand side of the fisheries, although focus has mainly been on improving the supply structures. FairFishing is currently partnering with the Trafigura Foundation, a private foundation connected to the global trading company Trafigura. The partnership focuses on the demand side of the fish value-chain and includes trainings for different groups of stakeholders including households, fishmongers, fishermen, restaurant owners and cooks on the preservation, treatment and preparation of fish and the nutritional benefits of eating fish. The primary markets for the fish from Berbera are found in Hargeisa, where FairFishing partners supply fish shops in (mainly) two central markets. Burco is also becoming an important market for the FairFishing partners, who supply different markets there, including the newly opened (August 2018) FairFishing fish market. Berbera offers opportunities for sale of fish but is mainly supplied by smaller producers including the foot fishermen. Other locations also receive fish from the FairFishing partners – these include Erigavo and Ethiopia. Ethiopia is of key interest to the FairFishing partners but so far little export is made, mainly due to limitations in transport, storage and formalities related to importing to Ethiopia.

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Methodology The current impact assessment has the objective of analyzing the impact of the FairFishing activities since their start in 2013. It comes four years after a first impact assessment carried out in 2014, which was termed an “early� impact assessment and its findings serve as a baseline against which the current assessment can be compared. Various data collected in 2014 and presented in the early impact assessment report is therefore included in this report for comparison. The focus of the assessment is also the same as in 2014, assessing the impact of the FairFishing station in Berbera for fishermen, boat owners and FairFishing staff. The framing of the assessment was developed through discussions with FairFishing staff on the scope, focus, key themes and main questions to guide the process. The consultant drafted a design document as part of these discussions. Based on this document, an overall matrix was developed structured around five overall questions. For each question, the data collection tool and sources of information were defined, including sub-questions to be explored under each overall question. The matrix and all data collection tools have guided the data collection and are enclosed as annex 1 (matrix) and 3 (tools). The methodology has included both qualitative and quantitative data collection tools. Data collection took place in the period 1-11th October 2018, where the consultant visited three sites: Berbera, Burco and Hargeisa. Surveys Survey in Berbera A survey was carried out among three direct beneficiary categories of the activities: FairFishing partners, staff of boat owners (boat crew / fishermen), and FairFishing staff in Berbera (station and office). Those three categories were included 2014 and were therefore repeated in 2018. The quantitative survey included questions on employment and income, food consumption patterns in the households and physical and materials aspects of their houses. The questionnaire also included qualitative open-ended questions, where the respondents were encouraged to provide comments in general, including their perceived results of the FairFishing activities. The data on income and employment is compared against two sets of baselines: 1) Findings from the survey in 2014, and 2) In cases where respondents had an employment prior to their current one, data is provided on both current and previous income levels. Data on food consumption is compared with the 2014 data in order to detect any developments around fish consumption among respondents. The distribution of the questionnaire was done with the assistance of two local enumerators (one male, one female). The field assistant translated the questionnaire into Somali, and it was tested on the first day of the fieldwork, with subsequent quality check and feedback to the enumerators. Sampling of respondents was random, but was carried out in areas where fishing activities took place. The enumerators spent five days around the harbor in Berbera, and approached fishermen

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at the FairFishing station, near the fishing boats, at the fish market, etc. For the FairFishing staff, these were approached at the FairFishing office and station. The survey includes a total of 105 respondents. They represent 24 boat owners, 73 crew/fishermen, and eight FairFishing staff (mix of station and office staff). The sample size for the 2018 assessment is bigger than the 2014 assessment, where a total of 56 respondents were included in the survey. The proportions of the respondents’ categories are as follows: Table 1: Sample sizes, 2014 and 2018

2014 Boat owners Crew FairFishing staff Total

Number 7 45 4 56

2018 % 12,5 80,4 7,1 100

Number 24 73 8 105

% 22,9 69,5 7,6 100

There is a slight variation in the proportion of boat owners and crew, where the boat owners are represented with about 10% more in 2018, and the crew about 10% less in 2018 compared to 2014. Data is presented disaggregated for some of the findings, and as overall figures for others. The variation is not found to pose any methodological weaknesses, as the variation is small. Surveys in Hargeisa In Hargeisa, small “mini-surveys” were carried out among three groups of fish shop managers, customers buying fish, and street vendors (persons who sell prepared fish in the streets). The three questionnaires (one for each group) were short (about 10 questions) and included questions on the fish demand, origin of fish, condition of the fish, providers of the fish etc. The two local enumerators applied the questionnaires. Sampling of respondents was random, but was carried out in the two main markets in Hargeisa. The enumerators spent two days in the Wahen market and one day at the Gobinimo market. The mini-surveys included a total of 44 respondents: 15 shop managers, 4 street vendors and 25 fish customers. Qualitative Data Collection In addition to the questionnaire, qualitative data collection was carried out, consisting of focus group discussions (FGDs), key informant interviews (KIIs), home visits, and observations. FGDs were carried out with foot fishermen1, “Fishery technical training at sea” participants, boat owners, crew of boat owners, and FairFishing office staff. The issues discussed in the FGDs focused on results, professional development, fisheries development in Berbera, markets, fish consumption, 1

The reason for not including them in the survey was because they were not included in the 2014 survey.

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livelihoods etc. The FGDs were an important tool to engage in discussions with more people at the same time, hence ensuring direct interaction with a notable number of beneficiaries in relatively short time. Semi-structured KIIs were carried out with stakeholders in Berbera, Burco and Hargeisa. In Berbera, the consultant met with representatives from the Berbera Maritime and Fisheries Academy, the NGO “Yvenco”, Berbera Municipality, the Berbera office of the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development, fish restaurants owners, fish street vendors, fish shop managers, spouses, and FairFishing office and station staff. In Burco, the consultant interviewed the fish market manager, fish business/sales persons, and customers who came to by fish. In Hargeisa, the consultant met with the following: Fish shop owners at two central markets (Waheen and Gobinimo) and in one smaller market (Ingi), customers who came to by fish, street fish vendors, the German Corporation for International Cooperation (GmbH/GIZ), and the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. In Berbera, three home visits took place with the purpose to engage women in the assessment and get to know about their perspectives, in particular about fish consumption, effects of the FairFishing on the household, and in general to understand better the situation of women affected indirectly by the activities. An FGD was proposed initially, but the consultant was informed, that it would be more appropriate to meet the women in their homes. Observations and “on-the-ground” interactions have also been part of the fieldwork in Berbera, Burco and Hargeisa. Observations took place at the FairFishing station, the workshop, the Berbera fish market, and around the harbor area. In Burco, the consultant visited and observed the fish market, sales and purchase of fish by customers. In Hargeisa, fish shops in the Waheen, Ingi and Gobanimo markets were visited, and visits made to street fish vendors in public spaces in Hargeisa. Finally, data provided by FairFishing has been included on key indicators of the activities including the amount of fish passing through the station, income and expenses of running the station, salary levels for FairFishing staff, overview of FairFishing partners including information about which markets they supply.

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Context of the Fishing Activities General Context The Republic of Somaliland is situated in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Djibouti to the west, Ethiopia to the south, and the Puntland region of Somalia to the east. Somaliland has a 740 kilometers coastline with the majority lying along the Gulf of Aden. On May 18, 1991, after the collapse of the central government in Somalia in the Somali civil war, the territory asserted its independence as the self-described Republic of Somaliland. It remains unrecognized by any country or international organisation as a sovereign state. In the 27 years since Somaliland declared independence; it has succeeded in many of the ways the rest of Somalia has failed. It has maintained relative stability, held elections; and it has a working political system, government institutions, a police force and its own currency. Somaliland has enjoyed relative peace and stability for nearly three decades as war plagued the rest of Somalia. There are however warnings2 that a longstanding military standoff between Somaliland and Puntland over the disputed Sool and Sanaag regions is in danger of escalating. Both sides are reportedly massing large numbers of troops close to Tukaraq, a strategically located town that has become a front line in the battle for control. The frequency of artillery and mortar shelling around the town has increased since 22 June 2018. Successful suppression of piracy off the coast of Somalia is evidenced by the stark decline in attacks since 2012. Whereas the current level of piracy is low, data points towards an “uptick” in piracy activity from the inter-monsoon season of 2016 onwards, primarily around Socotra Island off Puntland. The “2017 State of Piracy Report” from Oceans Beyond Piracy (OBP) notes that the number of incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships in East Africa has almost doubled compared to 20163. Unlike Puntland, Somaliland does not have any known pirate bases. Somaliland’s coastline and territorial waters host one of the busiest maritime lanes in the world, for which it has national and international obligations to keep it safe and open. The Government has determined that development and management of its marine resources is a priority, which also includes prioritization of its fisheries. This too requires a stronger coast guard to manage illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, a problem, which does exist for Somaliland. The economy of Somaliland mainly depends on livestock, although estimates of its contribution to the country’s GDP vary. One source 4 states that it employs about 70% of the population and contributes approximately 60% of GDP and 85% of export earnings, whereas another source 5 mentions that almost 30% of GDP is derived from the livestock industry followed by 20% from 2

https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/horn-africa/somaliland/141-averting-war-northern-somalia Jacobsen, Katja and Julie Høy-Carrasco: “Navigating Changing Currents – A forward-looking evaluation of efforts to tackle maritime crime off the Horn of Africa”. University of Copenhagen, Centre for Military Studies, September 2018. 4 Mugunieri, Lawrence Godiah et al: Enhancing the provision of livestock marketing information in Somaliland, 2014. 5 http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2014/01/29/new-world-bank-gdp-and-poverty-estimates-forsomaliland 3

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wholesale and retail trade (including the informal sector); 8% from crops and 6% from real estate activities. Regardless of the size of the contribution, the livestock sector is the main GDP contributor in Somaliland. For the past decades, Somaliland has seen an increase in hazardous events such as droughts, flash floods, massive land degradation, and invasion of alien species. However, drought remains the only major disaster causing huge damages to its populations and the economy. Somaliland was affected by the 2011 regional drought that killed an estimated 260,000 people, although its gravest impact was in south and central Somalia. Again, at the end of 2016, a new severe drought hit in the Horn of Africa causing displacements, famine, malnutrition and disease outbreaks amongst the population of Somaliland. It has been estimated that up to 80% of livestock were killed during the drought 2016-20176. Fisheries The government of Somaliland has outlined its development strategies and visions in the two documents “Vision 2030” and the “National Development Plan 2017-2021” (NDP II). According to Vision 2030, Somaliland should be a nation whose citizens enjoy a sustained economic growth and reduced poverty levels. The Somaliland National Vision 2030 identifies seven priority areas of its economic agenda: - Agriculture, livestock and fisheries - Trade and financial services - Tourism - Manufacturing - Mining and extractives - Private sector and investment - Diaspora The NDP II also outlines the priorities for the Fisheries’ sector7: - Build the institutional capacity of the Ministry of Fisheries 
 - Develop appropriate fisheries policies and regulations for the industry 
 - Establish cold chain facilities from producing ports to consuming markets - Build fish markets in the main urban centers to promote consumption 
 - Set up training and research facilities - Promote fish exports to key importing markets - Support and promoting the fish processing and canning industry 
 According to the NDP II, fisheries contribute with 0,3% to Somaliland’s GDP (2015 figure), and it is referred to as an “Underdeveloped segment of the economy”. It goes on to mention that according to various reports published by international organisations, fisheries in Somaliland remain

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https://www.voanews.com/a/official-says-80-percent-of-livestock-dead-in-somaliland/3780112.html Republic of Somaliland National Development Plan 2017-2021.

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untapped. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates the abundance of fish in the national marine fisheries at 180.000-200.000 tons and maintains that a maximum sustainable yield of about 40.000 tons (20-22%) could be harvested without endangering the stocks. At present the current exploitation of the potential is less than 10%. Findings from feasibility studies undertaken in the coastal fishing areas and on the fish value-chain reveal that Somaliland’s marketing and distribution of fish is still in a very poorly developed state apart from a few fishing locations where cooling facilities exist and where marketing is done in a more formalized way. The NDP II furthermore mentions that an increasing number of business people are willing to invest in fishingrelated activities. On the demand side, demand for fish in world markets continues to be high and there has been an increasing acceptance of fish in the diet of urban households in Somaliland. Berbera is placed in one of the few natural sand slips on the Somaliland coastline, which insulate a natural harbor. Due to this placement it has historically been small-scale fishery for many years. The city of Berbera is a fishing town, which is also seen in the presence of a maritime academy and university maritime departments. Recent developments around the Port of Berbera have boosted expectations that both Berbera and Somaliland as a whole will benefit from the future port developments. In May 2016, the company “Dubai Port World” (DP World) signed a USD 442 million agreement with the government of Somaliland to annex and operate a regional trade and logistics hub at the Port of Berbera. The Port of Berbera opens a new point of access to the Red Sea and will complement DP World’s existing port at Djibouti in the Horn of Africa. On 1 March 2018, Ethiopia became a major shareholder following an agreement with DP World and the Somaliland Port Authority. DP World holds a 51% stake in the activities, Somaliland 30% and Ethiopia the remaining 19%. As part of the agreement, the Government of Ethiopia will invest in infrastructure to develop the Berbera Corridor as a trade gateway for the inland country, which is one of the fastest growing countries in the world. There are also plans to construct an additional berth at the Port of Berbera, in line with the “Berbera Master Plan”, which DP World has started implementing, while adding new equipment to improve efficiencies and productivity of the port. FAO has also been active in developing the Port of Berbera. On 21 January 2018, Berbera fishing port was officially opened, which FAO (with support from Norway) has rebuilt, revamped and expanded 8 . The North-East Coast Fishing Enterprise (NECFISH) operates the fish port. The Norwegian government has provided the funds for the refurbishment of the Berbera fishery jetty and for new safe fishing boat designs for the fishery community in Berbera, Bosasso and Mogadishu. The activities has comprised capacity transfer of fiberglass boat building skills to Somali artisans, men and women. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) has also been engaged in activities in partnership with the Berbera Economic Forum (BEF) to provide small grants to fishermen to buy boats and fishing equipment. With funds from UNDP, BEF has provided capacity building to about 35 foot fishermen. The funds were part of an emergency response to the drought.

8

https://www.norway.no/en/somalia/news-and-events/news2/berbera-fishing-port/

9


Findings Improving the Supply Side of Fisheries Q1: How has the FairFishing station developed during the past five years in terms of infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.?

This question analyses the development of the FairFishing activities over the past five years and how these developments have created results for the partners of the organization and other stakeholders. FairFishing activities have grown and expanded since the opening of the FairFishing station in 2013, and this growth is reflected in various ways including the staff situation, the capacity of the FairFishing station, and increased catch of fish. The FairFishing activities have established three service units in Berbera: The FairFishing station, the PSU, and a workshop. The workshop has been established as part of the EU project and is not yet opened. The role of the FairFishing station and PSU is described and analyzed in the following. Service Units Since its inception, the size of the FairFishing station has expanded from five to seven containers. A five tons ice machine was installed in 2013, followed in 2015 by a second five tons ice machine. Due to technical problems, only one of the machines was operational in 2016 and 2017. In mid 2018, a new additional three tons machine was installed, and as a result, the ice production increased from mid 2018 onwards. The below graph illustrates the production of ice, and it can be seen that the production peaked 2015, followed by a drop in 2016, and then again with an increasing trend from 2017. It is expected by FairFishing that the ice production level in 2018-2019 will reach the 2015 level, which is likely to happen soon. Figure 1: Average monthly ice production 2015-2018

Monthly average kg ice 90.000 80.000 70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 0 year 2015

year 2016

year 2017

10

year 2018


The provision of ice and cold storage for fish has been key to the fishermen. This is reflected in the responses given by the respondents in the questionnaire. Out of the 75 respondents who mentioned key changes that had been achieved by the FairFishing activities, 60 respondents mentioned the availability of ice. Of these 60 replies, 44 stressed the availability of “cheap” ice, others stressed that ice is “always available”. Furthermore, four respondents recommended that the station should increase its ice production capacity in order to allow for more people to benefit from the services. In the FGDs and interviews with fishermen it was a mentioned that during the peak fishing season the capacity of the station was strained and that they had experienced having to wait at sea for a few extra days, because there was no storage available at the station: “When the fish is booming, we can only go twice to the sea, then the containers are full. When the fish is scarce there is enough capacity. At times we wait in our boats 2, 3 or up to 4 days. Sometimes the fish get rotten, we then have to throw them back into the ocean” (FGD, crew). There are a few alternative ice producers in Berbera, but their ice was reported to be expensive, and the station remains the preferred ice provider. “We take ice from FairFishing, it is cheaper. FairFishing has defeated the other ice suppliers because they are cheaper. The other providers still exist.” (FGD, foot fisherman). The foot fishermen mentioned that about 80% of all foot fishermen use the station. The provision of available ice at an affordable price and storage capacity is central to the success of FairFishing, as it has allowed the fishermen to boost their capacity to maintain the freshness of the fish both while in the boats at sea and on land. As the fish are washed and stored in a clean environment, it also means that the quality of the fish is improved. 20 survey respondents highlight the storage as a key result, and seven others highlight the freshness and cleanness of the fish as examples of main results of the FairFishing. “A clean fish with a high standard of hygiene”, ”Fish taken out from the storage containers in the station is always clean and fresh.” The PSU was opened in 2015 and is managed by one staff member. Any fisherman who is based in Berbera can use the shop, but the PSU does not sell to other shops, as the intention is to sell directly to the fishermen at low prices. Prices are more competitive than shops as the purpose is not to make profit, but rather to supply fishermen with modern gear and equipment at break-even costs. The materials available in the PSU are imported from different countries including Denmark, China and India. Among other groups, the foot fishermen expressed high appreciation of the PSU mentioning that that because of the PSU, they can now fish with better nets.

11


“We as foot fishermen, we now use nets of good quality, and more nets are available. The price for nets is okay (75 USD / net), it is a good investment, because we will get the money back from the fish.” Another FGD participant however stated that “the price of nets is too high; the price of nets should go down.” The representative from the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries also highlighted the provision of better, cheaper and different equipment as one of the key achievements of the activities. Catch The growth and expansion of the FairFishing station is directly linked to the development in catch that FairFishing partners have had since the opening of the station. The increase in catch is presented in this section. As the below graphs illustrate, there has been a substantial increase in the amount of fish that passes through the station since 2014 and up to 2017-2018.9 The graphs also show the seasonal fluctuations with peaks in December, and low season in May-July. Figure 2: Fish volumes, 2014

9

Data gaps exist in the years 2015 and 2016 and can therefore not be presented.

12


Figure 3: Fish volumes 2017

Opera ons Berbera 2017 140000 120000 100000

Total fish (kg)

80000 60000

Produc on of ice (kg)

40000 20000 0 Jan

Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Figure 4: Fish volumes 2018

Opera ons Berbera 2018 160000 140000 120000

Total fish (kg)

100000 80000 60000

Produc on of ice (kg)

40000 20000 0 Jan

Feb Mar April May June July Aug Sep

Oct Nov Dec

Comparing the figures on fish volumes, it can be seen that the fish volume has increased substantially in all months. As an example, the volume was less than 25.000 kgs. in August 2014, with about 140.000 kgs. in August 2018 – more than five times an increase in volume. “FairFishing is the mother of fish and is very important. Before FairFishing there were no experienced fishermen; there were fishermen but they were not experienced. Now people start to store the fish with ice. Without FairFishing it would be very difficult. All the improvements and increase in fishing you see here is because of FairFishing. The capacity has increased and so the production follows, if more containers are added to the container the capacity can increase, which is needed. FairFishing is very different

13


from other places. There are other ice providers here, but FairFishing is different because we are consulted, that is special” (FGD, Boat owner). The number of active FairFishing partners has remained rather constant since 2014. In 2014 10 , FairFishing had 36 active partners, who combined owned 101 boats, employed 91 skippers and an estimated number of 400 fishermen (the number of both skippers and fishermen fluctuates with the seasonal weather changes). As mentioned in Chapter 2, the number of partners today is 52, with 35 of them being active. Whereas the fish production has increased significantly, the number of active partners has remained constant. This means that individual FairFishing partners have increased their turnover notably in the period. As described below in section 5.2, this is also reflected in the income levels among boat owners and fishermen. Several fishermen and boat owners have also mentioned that they are “busier” now compared to earlier. “FairFishing has done many good things to us including the station. The number of boats has increased by six times and the fish catch has increased by 60%. The availability of ice is good, I make a good earning and now have six boats. I enjoy it” (FGD, Boat owner). Capacity Building of Fishermen and FairFishing Staff The FairFishing activities have contributed to the development and upgrade of human resources of people engaged in the fisheries and in the FairFishing activities. From 2013–2017, a Danish fisherman (Kurt Christensen) was periodically stationed in Berbera to support the activities through building capacity and improving skills of fishermen in terms of (among others) navigation, locating fish, use of nets and equipment, storage of fish, and knowledge of fish species. His presence and skills benefitted the fishermen in Berbera and he was also engaged in wider skills and capacity building through his involvement with several local fishery projects. FairFishing has increased its portfolio of trainees and types of training. Whereas the initial capacity building mainly targeted fishermen and focused on strengthening the fishing skills and preservation of the freshness of the fish, the activities now also include trainings on business management and preparation and cooking of the fish (“Fresh Fish on the Dish”). The target groups for the training comprise graduate students from the Berbera Maritime Fisheries Academy, fishermen, women, and restaurant owners. With the “Fresh Fish on the Dish” trainings, the activities strengthens its focus on the “user” end of the fish value-chain. As illustrated the activities at the FairFishing station have expanded over the years and has therefore also meant an increase in staff at both the station and the office. With the EU grant, new people and new profiles have been brought to the FairFishing office. The FairFishing office now employs eight persons, including programme managers, bookkeepers, fishery expert and housekeeping staff. An FGD was held with the FairFishing staff where they shared their experiences from working with the FairFishing activities. They mentioned that they had “grown professionally” through working with an international NGO, getting exposed to people from

10

Data presented in the 2014 Impact Assessment.

14


different countries, getting experience from working with new computer soft wares (including excel), and that they had expanded their knowledge about the fisheries sector. Summing Up This section has demonstrated how the FairFishing activities have strengthened the fisheries supply structures in Berbera. The services available at the FairFishing station and PSU are key in this regard, as fishermen now have access to cheap and reliable ice, fish storage, fishing equipment and skills development. These improvements have had a direct effect on the catch of fish, which has increased significantly in the period from the opening of the station in 2013 and up until today.

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Beneficiaries of the FairFishing Activities Q2: What have been the outcomes of the FairFishing activities in relation to the direct beneficiaries of the activities – in terms of employment, income generation, and professional development? And how do men and women perceive these outcomes?

There are two main groups of direct beneficiaries of the FairFishing activities: 1) Boat owners and 2) Fishermen (crew of boat owners and foot fishermen). In addition to these, other beneficiaries include all those whose livelihood and professional opportunities are affected by the activities. These include FairFishing staff, and “dealers” in the fishing industry including fish shop owners, restaurant owners, street fish vendors and those engaged in the transport of fish to markets. Employment and Income Generation The income opportunities that have been provided by the FairFishing activities are central to an assessment of the impact of the activities. As part of the 2014 impact assessment, a survey was carried out among boat owners, crew of boat owners and FairFishing staff on, among others, employment history and level of income. The same questions have been repeated to the same stakeholders for this assessment in order to compare the current and past income levels among these three groups. In terms of job and livelihood creation, the FairFishing in Berbera directly employs 16 people, however its reach is more expansive. The Impact Assessment estimates that the Berbera station is used by approximately 500-800 local fishermen. Couple with FAO estimates that “one job at sea creates another four on land,” it can reasonably be estimated that FairFishing activities help support the livelihoods, at least in part, of around 2.000-3.200 people. As the below graph illustrates there is a significant increase in income among all the three groups of boat owners, crew/fishermen and the FairFishing staff (both office and station staff). Figure 5: Income increase for beneficiaries (2012-2018) 1400 1200 1000 800

2012 (USD)

600

2014 (USD)

400

2018 (USD)

200 0 Average income/ month - Boat owners

Average income/ Average income/ month - crew month - FairFIshing staff

The average monthly income for boat owners was reported to be USD 264 in 2012 and USD 1.288 in 2018. In a period of six years, their income has thus increased with 487%.

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With regard to crew, the income increase is also notable. Their average monthly salary was reported to be USD 152 in 2012, whereas it has increased to USD 470 in 2018 – an increase of 309%. Finally, with regard to the FairFishing staff their salary has also increased notably compared to 2012. Their average monthly income was reported to be USD 128 in 2012; this has increased to USD 593, in 2018; this represents an increase at 462%. For all three groups, the increase is measured as an average of the 2018 income levels compared with income levels in 2014 and 2012. The figures for 2012 and 2014 are figures developed in the 2014 impact assessment11. The graph above shows that all three groups experienced a notable income increase in the period 2012–2014, where the income of all three groups more than doubled. This doubling trend has continued for the boat owners in the period 2014-2018, and they now have an average monthly income of close to USD 1.300. The volumes in terms of catch of fish have increased significantly, whereas the number of FairFishing partners has remained rather constant. This means that the increase in catch has not meant an increase in boats or recruitment, but rather that boat owners, skippers and fishermen have become busier and more productive with an increase in income as a direct result. The income span is wide for the boat owners – ranging from USD 100–4.000. As the below table shows, the most frequent income level is USD 1.000-1.500, followed by USD 3.000. Table 2: Income level, Boat Owners, 2018

Monthly income (USD) 100 350 400 500 600 800 900 1.000 – 1.500 3.000 4.000 TOTAL

Number of boat owners 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 6 4 1 24

Whereas the data clearly shows that boat owners have experienced the highest level of income increase, there is also a substantial increase in income for some of the crew members. The below table shows the monthly income for all 73 crew members:

11

This only applies to only boat owners and crew for the 2014 figures.

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Table 3: Income level, Crew, 2018

Monthly income (USD) 60 - 90 100 – 150 200 - 250 300 - 350 400 500 600 700 900 1.000 2.000 3.000 TOTAL

Number of crew 4 9 9 11 11 10 11 3 1 1 1 2 73

As the table shows, the income span is very wide for crew members, although majority falls within the span of 100–600 USD / month. The lowest reported level of income is USD 60, and the highest is USD 3.000. Four crew members report a monthly income of USD 1.000 or above. In 2014, the highest reported income was USD 900, which applied to one person only. This shows a new situation, where some crew members have managed to achieve a high level of income, which is equal to some of the boat owners. There is awareness among the crew members that income for boat owners is good, and some aspire to become one themselves: “I am under the leadership of one boat owner. The containers of FairFishing are limited; at times I am being told to wait in the boat with my fish. It brings additional expenses when we have to wait for the purchase of the ice. For the boat owners the business is good, but for me it is not so good. I would like to be a boat owner myself. I have no money to buy nets” (FGD, crew of a boat owner). With regard to FairFishing staff, the salaries vary widely across the 16 employees; between USD 100 and 1.000 for station staff, and between USD 125-1.450 for the office staff. Additional Outcomes The FGD with foot fishermen was held in order to understand how they benefit from the activities. As mentioned, foot fishermen have access to both the station and the PSU, and are partners of FairFishing as a joined group (Association). The feedback from the FGD showed that foot fishermen have also benefitted from the activities and experienced an increased level of catch: “Before FairFishing, there was no place for cooling for fish. Now we have a place for cooling, and we have a place to buy equipment. We get a chance to get nets. Earlier I only had 2 nets, now I have 20 nets. I use five nets at a time, I now catch more fish”(FGD, Foot fisherman).

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“Economically we do better now, we are busy. Before there was no availability of fishing equipment, so we were not so busy.” (FGD, Foot fisherman). One foot fisherman expressed a frustration about the income from the fish and mentioned that the price was too fixed: “I sell 1 kg of fish at 1 USD. There is no free trade, although the demand is high” (FGD, Foot fisherman). Whereas the employment and income is central to the objectives and activities of the FairFishing activities, beneficiaries also highlight other results. Comments about results in the questionnaires include knowledge about fish and fishing methods: “We learned different types of fish; we also learnt the names of fish”, “Before FairFishing, fishermen did not know how to fish effectively”, “l also learnt how to catch fish with hooks” and “we learned how to cook fish.” Whereas knowledge about fish was also found among the results in 2014, the “learning to cook” fish is a new achievement, which was not part of the results in 2014. This statement is likely to relate to the trainings that FairFishing has carried out in 2018 on keeping fish fresh and ways of cooking it. The health benefits from fish are also mentioned in the questionnaire “I became a healthy person because of eating fish” and have also been highlighted as a change in FGDs and interviews. Reference was made several times to the ”nutritional value” of fish and that fish is being increasingly consumed in the households. During one home visit to the spouse of a FairFishing employee, she mentioned that during school breaks, she would make sure to cook fish three times a day in order for the children to eat a lot of fish. Despite these statements during interviews and FGDs, data from the questionnaire indicates, however, that fish consumption has not increased among the beneficiaries of the activities since 2014. This data is presented in section 5.4. Gender The fisheries sector in Somaliland is dominated by men, as is the case for other productive sectors and economic activities in general in Somaliland. Women are usually in charge of the households including domestic chores and raising children, and do not engage much in spheres outside the house including business activities or employment. Men therefore also dominate the fisheries value-chain and the FairFishing activities, although women are present in some positions and with specific tasks. The boat owners and crew members are all male, whereas the FairFishing station and office have four female employees out of a total of 16 staff. Men are also in charge of the transport of the fish to markets, shops and restaurants in Burco and Hargeisa. However, there are also women who benefit from the fisheries value-chain. At two points of the chain, the assessment witnessed the engagement of women: Sellers in markets and shops (Berbera,

19


Burco and Hargeisa) and as street vendors frying and selling fish in the streets to by-passers (Hargeisa and Berbera). In Berbera, the fish is mainly being sold in fish shops that are located near the harbor. Recent attempts by GIZ to revamp and furnish the Berbera Fish Market have not resulted in a functional fish market, although the building structure is there12. There are about 20 fish shops in Berbera and all are owned by men. Men also work in the shops expect in one case, where two women are employed. In the (newly opened) fish market in Burco, two women are engaged in selling the fish, which is being brought to the fish market and make the profit from the sales. There are three main markets in Hargeisa that sell fish. In the two biggest markets, men own and run all 31 shops (17 in Wahen and 14 in Gobanimo). In the smaller, and newer “Ingi” market, there are two shops (out of five) owned and staffed by women. One woman explained her motivation for opening a fish shop: “I used to live in Djibouti, where I worked with fish as an employee. When I returned to Hargeisa, I decided to open my own shop. In Mogadishu there is a woman who owns a boat and she is even the skipper.” A second woman shop owner had a different background for opening the shop: “I opened the shop to make a living. Fish business is unique. Before I had another business, I sold second hand clothes, but the market was poor. Selling fish is physically harder, but I make better business.” With regard to the street vendors, there are about 10 women street vendors in the main streets of Berbera. Two women were interviewed in Berbera; their selling spot are located on the side of the street, sitting on a chair with a frying pan (using charcoal) and people would buy the fish as they passed by. According to one vendor she was the first woman to start selling in 2009, and she mentioned that the level of business is high and that she wants to continue frying and selling fish. In Hargeisa, two fish frying stalls were visited near the bus station, and each had a restaurant where customers could consume the fried fish as well as some accompaniments such as rice and vegetables. One of the traders had previously traded other meats such as camel and sheep but the price was now too expensive so the business was scarce. She then decided to swop to fish trading, and now she has a busy business and two employees. As the above shows, women are also engaged in the fisheries value-chain. The scope of their engagement is limited compared to men, which is a reflection of the general context in Somaliland, where women’s roles are mainly confined to the households. 12

According to GIZ, the main reason for this is that there has been a controversy over the land ownership, and as the controversy has not been solved, the market is dormant.

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Customers buying fish were also interviewed as part of the assignment. Several mentioned that one advantage of cooking fish is that it uses less energy (which is most often charcoal) and that cooking fish takes less time than other meats. It was mentioned that cooking meat such as goat or camel takes an average of three hours, whereas cooking fish takes a maximum of one hour. In addition to other advantages from eating fish, there is thus also a time saving advantage, which benefits the women directly (and the environment). Summing Up This section has looked at the benefits of the FairFishing activities and how different groups of people have benefitted from the activities. One of the key and tangible benefits is the employment opportunities and significant income increases, which all three groups of direct beneficiaries have experienced. Additional benefits have also been highlighted including knowledge and awareness of fish and its health and nutritional benefits. Looking at how men and women benefit from the activities, as men are mainly involved in the fisheries, they are also the main beneficiaries. This reflects a general division of labour between men and women in Somaliland. However, there are also women who benefit and who make a living out of the sector, including FairFishing staff, fish vendors and traders.

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Socio Economic Development Q3: To which extent has activities contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland?

General Perspectives This question looks at whether the FairFishing activities have contributed to socio economic developments in Somaliland; understood as changes that go beyond the direct outcomes described in section 5.2. As outlined in section 5.1, there has been an improvement of the fisheries supply structures in Berbera, and that these improvements have led to increased income for both boat owners and crew. With the increased catch and activities at the FairFishing station and office, more people have been employed since 2014 by the FairFishing. Since the start of the EU project and up to today, an additional number of approximately 30 people have been employed to manage and run the new facilities being established, e.g. a workshop manager, fish market managers, technicians, training assistants etc. Furthermore, the increased catch means more opportunities for people engaged in the transport and selling of fish. According to one trainee who had undergone training provided by FairFishing; the developments in the fisheries have also contributed to a better image of the fishermen: The image of fishermen has also improved; now it is considered positive to be a fisherman, everybody wants to be part of it, because people can see there is good income, you get more money, the market is there” (FGD, “Fishery technical training at sea” trainee). According to the Director of Fisheries at the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, FairFishing has contributed to a significant development of the sector: “The fishing industry is growing fast; it is growing well. Now the ministry sees it is going better and better.” The increase in catch presents a potential for increased government revenues. Whether the increased catch has actually led to increased payment of government revenues is not clear, but the potential is there. As described in the previous section, the fisheries sector is male dominated, although some women are engaged in preparing and selling the fish. There is potential for targeted interventions that could enhance increased women participation in the fisheries value-chain. Furthermore, several fishermen aspire to become a boat owner but do not have the means for the investment it would require. There is an unmet demand for access to finance for purchase of boats and such an opportunity could facilitate more people to become boat owners. The markets in Hargeisa are the main recipients of the fish from the Berbera. Markets have been able to absorb the increased amounts of fish, although it has been mentioned that in the high season, the shops cannot keep up with the availability of fish, that their freezers get full and that

22


they have to tell the boat owners not to bring fish for a period until they have space for it again. As was the case in 2014, there is still hope that Ethiopia (as well as other foreign markets including Europe and United Arab Emirates) could become a big market for the Berbera fish, and that if it would happen, could provide large scale opportunities for the boat owners and fishermen. According to the Ministry of Fisheries, the main limitations for accessing such markets are the processing and quality of fish. When FairFishing was established, one of their main objectives was to development the fisheries in order to provide viable alternatives to piracy and other illegal activities. As mentioned in the context section, piracy is not an actual problem in Somaliland and has not been so for many years. One interviewee stated that even if there are no piracy “opportunities” in Somaliland as such, some people might still be prone to travel to other regions of Somalia to seek pirate networks if they become desperate for income. In this light, the prevention aspect is still relevant in Somaliland through creation of employment opportunities as alternatives to illegal activities. As the report from the University of Copenhagen13 states “As is often the case, poverty and lack of licit employment opportunities push people into criminal activities.” The report also quotes an interviewed (imprisoned) pirate for saying: “the thing that could have stopped me from becoming a pirate is employment from the Government. If the Government creates more opportunity for the youth, it would be a good measure to counter piracy.”14 Summing Up This section has looked at the ways in which the FairFishing activities have contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland. As a starting point the employment and income opportunities are central to this, and as described, employment of additional staff in new locations has been part of the EU program. The “uplifting” of the fisheries sector is a key result of the activities, and is noticed by the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries. This also includes an improvement in image, and that the sector attracts more people than previously, because “people can see there is good income.”

13

Jacobsen, Katja and Julie Høy-Carrasco: “Navigating Changing Currents – A forward-looking evaluation of efforts to tackle maritime crime off the Horn of Africa”. University of Copenhagen, Centre for Military Studies, September 2018, page 18. 14 Ibid.

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Food Security Q4: To which extent has the activities contributed to improved food security in Somaliland?

Fish Consumption The recurrent droughts in Somaliland illustrate the vulnerability of the livestock sector and climate change will contribute further to this vulnerability in the future. In this context, availability of other types of food therefore contributes to improved food security. During interviews and FGDs with different stakeholders, it was mentioned that due to the drought, the availability of meat such as camel, goat and sheep has gone down with increasing prices as a result. In general, people have reported that they eat less meat such as camel, sheep and goat, and that fish provides a viable alternative as it is more available and at a lower cost. The current price of meat is about 6-7 USD/kg, whereas for fish, the price is about 1,5-2 USD/kg in Berbera and 4 USD/kg in Hargeisa. Questions about meat and fish consumption were also included in the survey questionnaire. Respondents were asked: “How many meals per week (average) served in the household contain fish?� The replies were: Table 4: Fish consumption among respondent households, 2014-2018

No of meals/week containing fish 0 meals/week 1-3 meals/week 4-6 meals/week 7-9 meals/week Above 10 meals/week Total

2014 Number % 0 0 29 52 20 36 5 9 2 3 56 100

2018 Number % 1 1 77 73 24 23 3 3 0 0 105 100

Figure 6: Fish consumption among respondent households, 2014-2018 80 70 60 50 40

2014

30

2018

20 10 0 0 meals/week

1-3 meals/ week

4-6 meals/ week

24

7-9 meals/ week


The data shows that, fish consumption among direct beneficiaries has declined since 2014. The majority of households are still within the 1-3 meals/week containing fish, followed by the 4-6 meals/week category. In terms of proportions, the share of people in the range 4-6 meals/week has decreased from 36% in 2014, to 23% in 2018. On the other hand, the share of people in the 1-3 meals/week category has increased from 52% in 2014, to 73% in 2018. The questionnaire also asked people to rank the types of meat, which is most frequently consumed in the households (“What is the main type of meat served in the household?”): Table 5: Ranking of different types of meat in the household

Main type of meat served Ranked as no 1

Ranked as no 2

Total sample size

2014

2018

Goat (30)

% 54

Fish (70)

% 67

Fish (25)

45

Goat (24)

23

Fish (29)

52

Goat (48)

48

Goat (24)

43

Fish (34)

32

56

105

As can be seen from the table, there is now a shift in terms of which type of meat is most frequently served in the households. Whereas goat was the main meat served in 2014, this is now fish. For the second rank, this was previously fish, but is today goat. In other words, fish and goat have changed positions as the two most served types of meat among the respondents15. The findings in Tables 7 and 8 show although people today eat more fish than livestock meat, they do not eat more fish than in 2014. This shows that the main reason for fish being the main meat of fish served today is because the consumption of livestock meat has declined, and not because people eat more fish than previously. The findings contrasts several statements provided by people in interviews and FGDs. The general feedback was that fish consumption has increased, but also that livestock meat is still the main preference: “In terms of quality, the fish is better, but Somalis prefer other meat, but the price for fish is better.” (FGD, foot fisherman). In Hargeisa, a questionnaire was applied to customers in fish shops to understand their motives for buying fish. The 25 respondents gave the following replies to the question “How do you compare fish to other meats such as camel or goat?”:

15

Other types of meat included in the responses are camel, cow, sheep and chicken. The extent to which these types of meat are served in the households is very limited.

25


Table 6: Replies on fish compared to other types of meat, 2018

Reply Fish is better Fish is cheaper It requires less fuel consumption It is healthier / more nutritious Total

Respondents 14 3 2 6 25

The shop managers in Hargeisa were also asked about their perceptions on the fish demand trends in Hargeisa. Out of 15 replies, 10 mentioned that the demand is growing, whereas five said that the demand is stable. None replied that the demand is declining. Given the fact that the markets and shops in Hargeisa have managed to absorb the increased volumes of fish from Berbera the past five years also indicate that the demand there is increasing. The potential of fish in relation to food security in Somaliland is enormous and incidents of droughts do not have the same devastating effects on the availability of fish, as is the case for livestock. Summing Up Somaliland has experienced serious droughts with devastating effects on the livestock sector. Meat from goat, camel and sheep is currently less available and more expensive than normal, due to the effects of the drought. In this context, availability of fish therefore contributes to improved food security as an added and valuable alternative to livestock. Comparing survey findings on food consumption in 2014 and 2018, the pattern is that people eat less livestock meat, but not more fish today than in 2018. Fish is today the most consumed meat, but in terms of actual consumption, the fish consumption has not gone up among the three beneficiary groups (boat owners, crew and FairFishing staff). This pattern could be different in Hargeisa, where shops have absorbed the increasing volumes of fish from Berbera and sold to customers there. According to fish shop owners in Hargeisa, the main trend is an increase in demand for fish.

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Sustainability of the FairFishing activities Q5: To which extent is the activities sustainable?

FairFishing activities have led to positive developments in various ways and for different target groups. This chapter assesses to which extent these achievements are likely to continue beyond the activities. The sustainability concept can be analyzed from different angles; this report focuses on organizational, financial and environmental sustainability. Organizational Sustainability Considerations about the future organizational set-up of FairFishing have been part of the activities since its inception. Originally it was expected that the partners of FairFishing would take over the ownership and management of the FairFishing structures, but with time it has become clear that there are legal and organizational challenges with this model. The partners have not yet presented the viable governance model and their place in it. At the same time, the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries has aired that they see themselves as part of a management structure in the future. There is a strong wish and interest by both FairFishing partners and the government for the FairFishing activities to continue. The activities contributes to the objectives of the government strategy for fisheries as described in the NDP II. The boat owners have experienced a notable increase in income since joining the FairFishing, and they have a high degree of self-interest in the continuation of the activities. Among both FairFishing staff and boat owners there is an interest to maintain the status quo whereby the FairFishing organisation is in charge of the activities. There is a view that the government does not have the capacity to manage the station and that they should be part of the activities as a guarantor but not with management responsibilities. How to combine the FairFishing partners, the ministry and FairFishing in one organizational structure is currently being considered including its legal and institutional structures. FairFishing is taking the lead in finding a sustainable solution to the future organizational set-up. Financial Sustainability The two service units, the station and the PSU, have separate accounts and their expenses and income has been tracked by FairFishing since the beginning of the activities. The running costs include salaries, fuel, electricity, maintenance and purchase of equipment. Data from FairFishing shows that both the station and PSU made a surplus in the year 2017: USD 5.684 from the PSU and USD 5.259,65 from the station. This provided FairFishing with a total surplus of USD 10.944 from the two units in 2017, which can be reinvested into to the improvement of the station. The below figure shows how the net results are achieved during the different months of the year:

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Figure 7: PSU and station net results 2017

Net result 2017 (USD) 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 -1000 -1500

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Net Station

Jun

Jul

Aug

Net PSU

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Total

For the year 2018 (January-October), the surplus will surpass the results of 2017 significantly. For the first ten months of the year, the surplus from the PSU is USD 10.596, and from the station, the surplus is USD 29.046. Combined this amount to a total surplus of USD 39.642 from the two units. Figure 8: PSU and station net results 2018

The financial situation of the PSU and station is promising for the future of the FairFishing activities in terms of sustainability. It reflects that FairFishing will be in a strong position to plan for on-going operations and maintenance, make future investments and ensure the continuation of the services.

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It is unique for a development activities to have achieved such financial results and even so within a short period of time. The financial achievements also pose new questions in relation to what the priorities of the FairFishing activities should be in the future as self-generated funds are now available and with continued strong potential for income making. Maintenance of the station and other investments made by FairFishing need to be secured to ensure the sustainability of the activities. At the same time, the positive financial prospects of the station and PSU could also contribute to new types of results. As has been described in the report, there are people and needs that could benefit from the activities to a larger extent than what is currently the case. These include in particular women and persons who aspire to become a boat owner but who still need opportunities for accessing finance. Would FairFishing consider establishing mechanisms for targeting individuals or groups that are disadvantaged in the current context? Such a measure could enhance the social sustainability of the activities and introduce new benefits and types of services that could develop the FairFishing activities further. Environmental Sustainability The FairFishing station has a high level of fuel consumption to keep the facilities cool and to produce the ice. The FairFishing organisation has assessed options for installing solar panels to run the station and is currently testing a solar panel in its (smaller) fishery unit in Buluhar. As regards the station in Berbera, transiting to solar has not been deemed feasible mainly due to the vast energy needs, the Berbera hot climate and the structure of the FairFishing station, which is not be able to host the number of panels needed. There are also concerns about maintenance and relying on solar energy for the station, which needs a reliable energy source that can be accessed constantly. In terms of other aspects, findings show that cooking of fish requires less energy than other meats such as camel and goats. This is a positive contribution to environmental sustainability of the activities. The assessment also noted that FairFishing procured the use of rockwool insulations for its cold room supporting ice production as the station in order to reduce overall fuel consumption. Summing Up This section has analyzed the sustainability of the FairFishing activities from organizational, financial and environmental angles. The FairFishing activities is currently in a process of assessing different organizational models that can accommodate all three stakeholders of the FairFishing partners, the government, and the FairFishing organisation. The financial sustainability looks very promising with impressive levels of surplus generated during 2017 and 2018. It is a rare achievement among development projects to reach at such a level of financial robustness five years after the initiation. Finally, with regard to environmental sustainability, the cold storage facilities and ice machines are large consumers of fuel, and it would therefore be relevant to continue to look for alternative energy sources to run the facilities.

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Conclusion As this report has described the FairFishing activities have established a range of positive results for its beneficiaries. The FairFishing station is highly appreciated by all involved stakeholders including the foot fishermen, boat owners, crew members and the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. The activities contribute to the aspirations and objectives of the government and has been successful in establishing activities and services in new locations in Somaliland and Puntland. The grant by the EU is a sign of recognition of FairFishing’s capacity to deliver results in a very challenging context, where conflicts and insecurity imply that any actors operating there must have sound judgement and a strong and well functional organizational setup. The key results of the activities include increased income and increase in fishing activities for fishermen and boat owners. The increase in income is significant for these groups and provides the individual beneficiaries with tangible results. There is a trend of concentration of income with the boat owners, although the crew members have experienced a steady increase in income since 2012 as well. Quite unique in a development context, the station and PSU are now financially sustainable and even generate a significant surplus. This aspect is a key strength of the FairFishing concept and now that new stations have been established elsewhere in the region, the potential for creating a sustainable and effective fisheries sector has been strengthened even further. Certain groups could benefit better from the activities if measures are introduced to enhance the participation of women and through efforts to facilitate access to finance for fishermen who aspire to become boat owners. The current efforts to scale up the consumption of fish and train people on how to maintain the freshness and quality of fish are also still relevant for future efforts. The potential for increased catch still exists and with climate change and risk of future droughts, fish provides a huge potential for both income and food security. Other actors have an eye on the fisheries and its potential for investments. Foreign markets have still not been reached, but with the upcoming developments at the Berbera port and involvement of Ethiopia and United Arab Emirates in Berbera, these might enhance the export opportunities in the future. This assessment comes at a time where prospects for financial sustainability are good and where the EU project is in its last phase and will be closed in the coming year. The financial sustainability of the project looks very promising, and will allow the FairFishing organisation to focus their efforts to strengthen the demand as well as the supply sides of the fisheries value-chain.

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Annex 1: Matrix Overall Evaluation question with sub-question(s) Data collection Methodology Source of information 1) What have been the outcomes of the FairFishing activities in relation to the direct beneficiaries of the project – in terms of employment, income generation, and professional development? And how do men and women perceive these outcomes? How do beneficiaries perceive the outcomes of the FairFishing activities in - Household survey - Boat-owners & employees relation to their livelihoods, employment and income opportunities? - Semi-structured interviews - Fairfishing staff - Focus Group Discussions - Foot Fishermen - Spouses & relatives of employees Have beneficiaries developed their professional skills and capacities? If yes, - Semi-structured interviews - Boat-owners & employees which ones and how? - Focus Group Discussions - Fairfishing staff - Foot Fishermen Has the household experienced an increase in income due to the - Household survey - Boat-owners & employees employment/FairFishing partnership? If so, what has this meant for the - Semi-structured interviews - Fairfishing staff household / family? - Focus Group Discussions - Foot Fishermen - Spouses & relatives of employees Has the project impacted the lives of men and women differently? If yes, how? - Household survey - Boat-owners & employees - Semi-structured interviews - Fairfishing staff - Focus Group Discussions - Foot Fishermen - Spouses & relatives of employees Which other results of the project have been identified by beneficiaries? - Household survey - Boat-owners & employees - Semi-structured interviews - Fairfishing staff - Focus Group Discussions - Foot Fishermen

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Overall Evaluation question with sub-question(s)

Data collection Methodology

Source of information - Spouses & relatives of employees 2) How has the Fairfishing station developed during the past five years in terms of infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? How is the FairFishing station different today compared to five years ago? For - Semi-structured interviews - Boat-owners & employees example in relation to infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff - Focus Group Discussions - FairFishing staff etc.? - Data overviews - Foot fishermen How has the use of the station developed the past five years in terms of - Semi-structured interviews - Boat-owners & employees amount of fish, services at the station, users of the station etc.? - Focus Group Discussions - FairFishing staff - Data overviews Has the market for fish changed during the past five years? If yes, how? - Semi-structured interviews - Boat-owners & employees - Focus Group Discussions - FairFishing staff - Data overviews - Government authorities and - Documents review other external stakeholders 3) To which extent has project contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland? How has the establishment of the station improved the fishing industry in - Semi-structured interviews - Boat-owners & employees Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? - Focus Group Discussions - F FairFishing staff - Data overviews - Foot fishermen - Documents review - Government authorities and other external stakeholders - Restaurants, fish markets Are there indications that the project has contributed to the development of - Semi-structured interviews - Boat-owners & employees Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? - Focus Group Discussions - FairFishing staff - Data overviews - Government authorities and - Documents review other external stakeholders Are there any indications that the project has contributed to prevention of - Semi-structured interviews - Boat-owners & employees piracy in the waters off Somaliland? If yes, how? - Focus Group Discussions - FairFishing staff - Data overviews - Government authorities and - Documents review other external stakeholders Has the project made any improvements in the lives of women in Berbera and - Semi-structured interviews - Boat-owners & employees wider Somaliland? If yes, which ones and how? - Focus Group Discussions - FairFishing staff

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Overall Evaluation question with sub-question(s)

Data collection Methodology - Data overviews - Documents review

4) To which extent has the project contributed to improved food security in Somaliland? To which extent does the project contribute to improved food security in - Semi-structured interviews Somaliland? - Focus Group Discussions - Data overviews - Documents review - Household Questionnaire What is the awareness and consumption of fish at the household levels?

- Semi-structured interviews - Focus Group Discussions - Household Questionnaire

Are there any indications that the consumption of fish has increased in Berbera and wider Somaliland due to the FF project?

- Semi-structured interviews - Focus Group Discussions - Household Questionnaire

5) To which extent is the project sustainable? Is the project in alignment with the government of Somaliland’s development priorities? If yes, how?

- Semi-structured interviews - Documents review

How does the government of Somaliland and partners of FF perceive the future of the FF station in terms of ownership and management?

- Semi-structured interviews - Focus Group Discussions

To which extent is the FF station financially sustainable?

- Semi-structured interviews

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Source of information - Spouses & relatives of employees - Government authorities and other external stakeholders - Restaurants, fish markets - Boat-owners & employees - FairFishing staff - Spouses & relatives of employees - Government authorities and other external stakeholders - Boat-owners & employees - FairFishing staff - Spouses & relatives of employees - Boat-owners & employees - FairFishing staff - Spouses & relatives of employees - Restaurants, fish markets - Government authorities and other external stakeholders - FairFishing staff - Boat-owners & employees - FairFishing staff - Government authorities and other external stakeholders - Boat-owners & employees


Overall Evaluation question with sub-question(s)

Data collection Methodology - Focus Group Discussions - Data overviews - Semi-structured interviews - Focus Group Discussions - Semi-structured interviews - Focus Group Discussions - Semi-structured interviews - Focus Group Discussions

To which extent is the FairFishing station technically sustainable? To which extent is the FairFishing station environmentally sustainable? What are the recommendations in terms of strengthening the sustainability of the FairFishing station?

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Source of information - FairFishing staff - Boat-owners & employees - FairFishing staff - Boat-owners & employees - FairFishing staff - Boat-owners & employees - FairFishing staff - Government authorities and other external stakeholders


Annex 2: Field Programme and people met Date 30/9/18

Location Berbera

01/10/18

Berbera

2/10/18

Berbera

3/10/18

Berbera

4/10/18

Berbera

6/10/18

7/10/18

Burco

Berbera

Activity Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Focus Group Discussion Focus Group Discussion Focus Group Discussion

Home visit I, Interview Home visit II, Interview Focus Group Discussion Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Observations Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Observations Key Informant Interview Observations Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Observations Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Focus Group Discussion Key Informant Interview

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Name & Title Abdilahi Ali, Area Manager, Ministry of Fisheries, District of Berbera Yusuf Abdilahi Gulled Regional Program Manager, FairFishing Lot 2 9 trainees “At sea” training 9 Boat owners FairFishing Office Staff: 1) Mohammed Hilal, Workshop Administrator 2) Eid Saleban, Fisheries Training Assistant 3) Ayan Ismail, Accountant 4) Abdireshid Yussuf, Book keeper 5) Mahad Ahmed, National Project Coordinator Sarah, Spouse of FairFishing Station staff Jamad, Spouse of FairFishing Station staff 12 foot fishermen Jim’ale Abdulahi Jama, Director of Planning & Development Department, Berbera Municipality Shaban Abdilahi, Programme Manager, Yovenco Abdiqadir Hussein Abdillahi, Vice President, Berbera Maritime Fisheries Academy Visit to the FairFishing Station Mahamud Ashur, Station Manager, FairFishing Station Mahamed Hilal, Workshop Manager, FairFishing Workshop Berbera Fish Market Sakariye Jama, Station Manager, Burco Fish Market Fish sale at the Burco fish market 3 customers at the Burco fish market 2 business women who sell fish at the Burco fish market Restaurant selling fried fish (male) Restaurant Owner Nageye Mahamed (fadiku Eesh fishhouse) Street vendor, woman selling fried fish Fish shop owner (male) 4 fishermen Abraham Saleban; Area Manager for Ceelderad, Ministry of Fisheries


Date

Location

Activity Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Home visit III, Interview

8/10/18

Hargeisa

Key Informant Interview

9/10/18

Hargeisa

Observations Key Informant Interview Observations Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Observations Key Informant Interview Observations Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview Observations Key Informant Interview Key Informant Interview

10/10/18

11/10/18

Hargeisa

Hargeisa

Name & Title Fish shop owner (male) Restaurant Owner, Al Xayaad (Fish Restaurant) (male) Fardus Jama, Spouse of FairFishing Partner (Boat Owner) Yusuf Abdilahi Gulled Regional Program Manager, FairFishing Lot 2 Wahen Market, Fish Section 1 Fish shop owner (male), Wahen Market Ingi Market, Fish Section 3 Fish shop owners (2 female, 1 male), Ingi Market Mustafe Muse Mohamed, Market Development and Logistics, FairFishing Wahen Market, Fish Section 3 Fish shop owners (male), Wahen Market Bus stand, fish frying vendors 2 street vendors, women selling fried fish Ahmed Aden Madobe, Director, Ministry of Fisheries Sadam Ahmed, Puntland Coordinator, FairFishing Gobinimo Market, Fish Section 3 Fish shop owners (male), Gobinimo Market 1) 2)

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Carola Von Morstein, Progam Manager, GIZ Mustafa Ahmed, ICT and Monitoring and Evaluation Advisor, GIZ


Annex 3: Impact Assessment Data Collection tools This annex contains the following data collection tools:

Tool 1: Household Questionnaire (boat owners, staff of boat owners, and FairFishing staff) Tool 2: Interview and FGD Guide Boat Owner Tool 3: Interview and FGD Guide FairFishing staff Tool 4: Interview and FGD Guide Employees of boat owners Tool 5: Interview and FGD Guide Spouses Tool 6: FGD Guide Foot Fishermen Tool 7: Interview Guide, External Stakeholders

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Tool 1: Household Questionnaire QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HOUSEHOLD, FAIR FISHING PROJECT A: Basic Data of Household Total number of pax in household Number of children (below 18) Number of adults (above 18) Does the house belong to the employee?

A1 A2 A3 (Indicate Y=yes, N=no)

Questionnaire Data Enumerator's Name Date

A4

B: Employment (Boat owner, fisherman/crew or Fair Fishing staff)

If no, to who does the house belong? A5 Does the employee pay rent? (Indicate Y=yes, N=no) A6

Employment category (put x) Boatowner (selfemployment)

B1

Age of boatowner (years)

Crew/fisherman

B2

Age of crew/fisherman (years)

FairFishing staff

B3

Age of FF staff (Years)

B1 a B2 a B3 a

The following questions relate to the employment of the person who has been contacted by FairFishing for this interview:

Date for starting current employment (month/year) Month How many people in the household make an income to the household? Do you have additional types of income than the employment?

B4a

Year

B4 b

B5 Y=Yes, N=No

B6 B6 a

If yes to B6: From where does the additional income come? Y=Yes, Is the employment the main source of income in the household? N=No B7 Did you have employment before the current employment? (within the last 12 months leading up to current employment)? Y=Yes, N=No B8 If yes to B8: Which employment: B9

How is your current income from the employment / self-employment compared to your income before this employment? (put x) Higher B10 What was your previous salary (USD/month)? The same B11 B13 Lower B12 What is your salary today (USD/month) B14 If yes to B10: How much higher? 0-25% more

B15

26-50%more

B16

51-75% more

B17

76-100% more

B18

If yes to B12: How much Lower? 0-25% less 26-50% less 51-75% less 76-100% less

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B20 B21 B22 B23


More than double

Less than half

B19

C: Fish Consumption How many meals per week (average) served in the household contain fish? 0 meals/week 1-3 meals/week 4-6 meals/week 7-9 meals/week Above 10 meals/week

B24

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

What is the main type of meat served in the household (put 1 for most, 2 for next most etc) Camel C6 Goat C7 Cow C8 Fish C9 Sheep C10 Chicken C11 Other C12 If Other is included, Please specify other:

C13

D: Condition of the house Please indicate which of the following characteristics apply to the house (tick off one of the following): SIZE

1 room 2 rooms 3 rooms 4 rooms or above

Is the house electrified?

D1 D2 D3 D4 Y=Yes, N=No

D5

Which of the following appliances are seen / found in the house? (Tick off) (If non-electrified skip the following) Category: Home Fan Television Radio Mobile phone Internet Satellite dish Computer CD Player DVD player

D6 D7 D8 D9 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15

How many mobile phones? Not if on mobile phone

Other, please specify: D16 D17

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D1 0


Category: Kitchen Kettle (for boiling water) Electric Rice cooker Electric cooker (warm plates) Refrigerator Deep Freezer

D18 D19 D20 D21 D22

Other, please specify: D23 D24 E: Results of the project What most important changes have you experienced after the opening of the FairFishing Station? list 3 most important changes. E1

E2

E3

F: FINAL OPEN ENDED QUESTION: Any other comments to the fishing, employment and Fair Fishing Station?

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Tool 2: Interview and FGD Guide Boat Owner Ad 1) What have been the outcomes of the FF project in relation to the direct beneficiaries of the project – in terms of employment, income generation, and professional development? And how do men and women perceive these outcomes? What has the FF project meant for you in relation to your life, including employment and income opportunities? Have you developed their professional skills and capacities as part of the project? If yes, which ones and how? Has the household experienced an increase in income due to the employment/FF partnership? If so, what has this meant for your household / family? Are there other results of the project you would like to mention? 2) How has the FF station developed during the past five years in terms of infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? How is the FF station different today compared to five years ago? For example in relation to infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? How has the use of the station developed the past five years in terms of amount of fish, services at the station, users of the station etc.? Has the market for fish changed during the past five years? If yes, how? 3) To which extent has project contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland? How has the establishment of the station improved the fishing industry in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there indications that the project has contributed to the development of Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there any indications that the project has contributed to prevention of piracy in the waters off Somaliland? If yes, how? Has the project made any improvements in the lives of women in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, which ones and how? 4) To which extent has the project contributed to improved food security in Somaliland? Has the consumption of fish has increased in Berbera and wider Somaliland due to the FF project? 5) To which extent is the project sustainable?

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How does the government of Somaliland and partners of FF perceive the future of the FF station in terms of ownership and management? To which extent is the FF station financially sustainable? To which extent is the FF station technically sustainable? To which extent is the FF station environmentally sustainable? What are the recommendations in terms of strengthening the sustainability of the FF station?

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Tool 3: Interview and FGD Guide FF staff Ad 1) What have been the outcomes of the FF project in relation to the direct beneficiaries of the project – in terms of employment, income generation, and professional development? And how do men and women perceive these outcomes? What has the FF project meant for you in relation to your life, including employment and income opportunities? Have you developed their professional skills and capacities as part of the project? If yes, which ones and how? Has the household experienced an increase in income due to the employment/FF partnership? If so, what has this meant for your household / family? Are there other results of the project you would like to mention? 2) How has the FF station developed during the past five years in terms of infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? How is the FF station different today compared to five years ago? For example in relation to infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? How has the use of the station developed the past five years in terms of amount of fish, services at the station, users of the station etc.? Has the market for fish changed during the past five years? If yes, how? 3) To which extent has project contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland? How has the establishment of the station improved the fishing industry in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there indications that the project has contributed to the development of Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there any indications that the project has contributed to prevention of piracy in the waters off Somaliland? If yes, how? Has the project made any improvements in the lives of women in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, which ones and how? 4) To which extent has the project contributed to improved food security in Somaliland? To which extent does the project contribute to improved food security in Somaliland? Has the consumption of fish has increased in Berbera and wider Somaliland due to the FF project?

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5) To which extent is the project sustainable? Is the project in alignment with the government of Somaliland’s development priorities? If yes, how? How does the government of Somaliland and partners of FF perceive the future of the FF station in terms of ownership and management? To which extent is the FF station financially sustainable? To which extent is the FF station technically sustainable? To which extent is the FF station environmentally sustainable? What are the recommendations in terms of strengthening the sustainability of the FF station?

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Tool 4: Interview and FGD Guide Employees of boat owners Ad 1) What have been the outcomes of the FF project in relation to the direct beneficiaries of the project – in terms of employment, income generation, and professional development? And how do men and women perceive these outcomes? What has the FF project meant for you in relation to your life, including employment and income opportunities? Have you developed their professional skills and capacities as part of the project? If yes, which ones and how? Has the household experienced an increase in income due to the employment/FF partnership? If so, what has this meant for your household / family? Are there other results of the project you would like to mention? 2) How has the FF station developed during the past five years in terms of infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? How is the FF station different today compared to five years ago? For example in relation to infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? How has the use of the station developed the past five years in terms of amount of fish, services at the station, users of the station etc.? Has the market for fish changed during the past five years? If yes, how? 3) To which extent has project contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland? How has the establishment of the station improved the fishing industry in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there indications that the project has contributed to the development of Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there any indications that the project has contributed to prevention of piracy in the waters off Somaliland? If yes, how? Has the project made any improvements in the lives of women in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, which ones and how? 4) To which extent has the project contributed to improved food security in Somaliland? To which extent does the project contribute to improved food security in Somaliland? Has the consumption of fish has increased in Berbera and wider Somaliland due to the FF project? 5) To which extent is the project sustainable?

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How does the government of Somaliland and partners of FF perceive the future of the FF station in terms of ownership and management? What are the recommendations in terms of strengthening the sustainability of the FF station?

Tool 5: Interview and FGD Guide Spouses Ad 1) What have been the outcomes of the FF project in relation to the direct beneficiaries of the project – in terms of employment, income generation, and professional development? And how do men and women perceive these outcomes? What has the FF project meant for your family and household? Has the household experienced an increase in income due to the employment/FF partnership? If so, what has this meant for your household / family? Are there other results of the project you would like to mention? 3) To which extent has project contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland? How has the establishment of the station improved the fishing industry in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there indications that the project has contributed to the development of Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there any indications that the project has contributed to prevention of piracy in the waters off Somaliland? If yes, how? Has the project made any improvements in the lives of women in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, which ones and how? 4) To which extent has the project contributed to improved food security in Somaliland? To which extent does the project contribute to improved food security in Somaliland? Has the consumption of fish has increased in Berbera and wider Somaliland due to the FF project?

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Tool 6: FGD Guide Foot Fishermen Ad 1) What have been the outcomes of the FF project in relation to the direct beneficiaries of the project – in terms of employment, income generation, and professional development? And how do men and women perceive these outcomes? What has the FF project meant for you in relation to your life, including employment and income opportunities? Have you developed their professional skills and capacities as part of the project? If yes, which ones and how? Has the household experienced an increase in income due to the FF project? If so, what has this meant for your household / family? Are there other results of the project you would like to mention? 2) How has the FF station developed during the past five years in terms of infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? How is the FF station different today compared to five years ago? For example in relation to infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? Has the market for fish changed during the past five years? If yes, how? 3) To which extent has project contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland? How has the establishment of the station improved the fishing industry in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there indications that the project has contributed to the development of Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there any indications that the project has contributed to prevention of piracy in the waters off Somaliland? If yes, how? Has the project made any improvements in the lives of women in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, which ones and how? 4) To which extent has the project contributed to improved food security in Somaliland? To which extent does the project contribute to improved food security in Somaliland? Has the consumption of fish has increased in Berbera and wider Somaliland due to the FF project? 5) To which extent is the project sustainable? What are the recommendations in terms of strengthening the sustainability of the FF station?

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Tool 7: Interview Guide, External Stakeholders

2) How has the FF station developed during the past five years in terms of infrastructure, size, functions, equipment, skills of staff etc.? Has the market for fish changed during the past five years? If yes, how? 3) To which extent has project contributed to socio economic development in Somaliland? How has the establishment of the station improved the fishing industry in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there indications that the project has contributed to the development of Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, how? Are there any indications that the project has contributed to prevention of piracy in the waters off Somaliland? If yes, how? Has the project made any improvements in the lives of women in Berbera and wider Somaliland? If yes, which ones and how? 4) To which extent has the project contributed to improved food security in Somaliland? To which extent does the project contribute to improved food security in Somaliland? Has the consumption of fish has increased in Berbera and wider Somaliland due to the FF project? 5) To which extent is the project sustainable? Is the project in alignment with the government of Somaliland’s development priorities? If yes, how? How does the government of Somaliland and partners of FF perceive the future of the FF station in terms of ownership and management? What are the recommendations in terms of strengthening the sustainability of the FF station?

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Tool 8: Questionnaire for Fish Shop owners/managers/staff Date:

Enumerator:

Location (which market): Sex of customer (Male / female): 1) From where does the fish in this shop originate? (supplier / company) 2) Who owns this shop? 3) How many people work in this shop ? (including manager, owner, sales personnel) 4) How many people mentioned above in (3) are men and women? 5) How did the fish get here? (transport how and by who) 6) How much fish is being sold in this shop? (average daily sale) 7) Which types of fish do you sell in this shop? 8) How is the fish kept cold here? 9) How is the fish sold (frozen, cooled, filleted)? 10) How do you see the demand for fish in Hargeisa (growing, stable, declining)? Tool 9: Questionnaire for fish buying customers Date:

Enumerator:

Location (which market): Sex of customer (Male / female): 1) Do you from where the fish in this shop originate? (geographic location / town) 2) In which shop(s) do you normally buy your fish? 3) If you prefer certain shops, why is that so? 4) How often do you buy fish? (per day or per week) 5) Is the fish for domestic or other consumption? If yes, specify.

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6) How many meals in your household contain fish (per week)? 7) Do you have preference for certain types of fish, if yes which ones? 8) What do you pay for your fish? (price per kg, specify time of year) 9) What do you think about fish when you compare it to meat such as goat or camel? 10) What do you think can be done to increase the demand for fish?

Tool 10: Questionnaire for people who sell cooked fish

Date:

Enumerator:

Location (which market): Sex of customer (Male / female): 1) How is the fish that you sell cooked or prepared? 2) For how long how you sold cooked fish? 3) How do you keep the fish before it is cooked? 4) From where do you buy the fish? 5) Do you have preference for certain types of fish, if yes which ones? 6) What do you pay for the fish? (price per kg, specify time of year) 7) What do you earn on cooking and selling the fish (price per kg, specify time of year) 8) What do you think about fish when you compare it to meat such as goat or camel? 9) What do you think can be done to improve the quality of fish? 10) What do you think can be done to increase the demand for fish?

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Profile for Toyah Hunting

Impact Assessment FairFishing Activities (2013-2018) Berbera, Somaliland  

Impact Assessment FairFishing Activities (2013-2018) Berbera, Somaliland  

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