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Valiant and Strong A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years


We want to congratulate

The Salvation Army for more than 150 years of helping those in need.

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Giving Givingyou youmore morecomfort comfortsince since1870 1870 ByBy giving a little, giving a little, wewe say a lot say a lot Thank Thank youyou for your for your long-standing long-standing

commitment commitment to the to community. the community. As aAs a company company that’s that’s also also beenbeen in business in business nearly nearly 150 150 years, years, we look we look forward forward to to continuing continuing to work to work withwith The The Salvation Salvation Army Army for many for many moremore years years to come. to come. Throughout Throughout our nearly our nearly 145-year 145-year history, history, we have we have championed championed similar similar goalsgoals and and havehave worked worked withwith you you to provide to provide assistance assistance programs, programs, services services and and other other support support to the to the communities communities we serve, we serve, including: including: HeatShare: HeatShare: A community A community assistance assistance program program founded founded by CenterPoint by CenterPoint Energy Energy in 1982 in 1982 as a as safety a safety net for net for people people whowho havehave exhausted exhausted all other all other resources resources for paying for paying energy energy bills bills or making or making heating-related heating-related repairs. repairs. Under Under HeatShare, HeatShare, nearly nearly $400,000 $400,000 is donated is donated annually. annually. To make To make a onea onetimetime or monthly or monthly contribution, contribution, visitvisit CenterPointEnergy.com/HeatShare. CenterPointEnergy.com/HeatShare. RedRed Kettles, Kettles, Toy Toy Shop Shop andand more: more: EachEach year,year, CenterPoint CenterPoint Energy Energy employees employees ring ring bells,bells, collect collect toystoys and and needed needed items items suchsuch as hats, as hats, gloves, gloves, mittens mittens and and socks. socks. In 2013, In 2013, our one-day our one-day Red Red Kettle Kettle triple triple match match honoring honoring our 30-year our 30-year HeatShare HeatShare program program raised raised moremore thanthan $62,000. $62,000. MOST MOST Amazing Amazing Race: Race: 20142014 marked marked CenterPoint CenterPoint Energy’s Energy’s first first yearyear as a as a presenting presenting sponsor sponsor of this of this fundraiser, fundraiser, which which raised raised moremore thanthan $105,000 $105,000 for for foodfood and and housing housing programs. programs. Holidays Holidays in Houston: in Houston: MoreMore thanthan 60 60 Houston-area Houston-area employees employees volunteered volunteered at the at Christmas the Christmas Warehouse Warehouse and and adopted adopted moremore thanthan 620 620 angels. angels. Board Board leadership: leadership: CenterPoint CenterPoint Energy Energy executives executives havehave served served on The on The Salvation Salvation Army’s Army’s board board of of directors, directors, providing providing leadership leadership and and community community insights. insights.

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CenterPoint CenterPoint Energy Energy congratulates congratulates TheThe Salvation Salvation Army’s Army’s 150-year 150-year mission mission to bring to bring aidaid andand comfort comfort to people to people in in need. need. And And wewe thank thank ourour customers customers andand employees employees for for their their help help andand support. support.


Valiant and Strong A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years By Lt. Colonel Allen Satterlee


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Introduction Had William Booth been born 50 years before or after 1829, The Salvation Army would probably not have existed as a force for good in the world for 150 years and counting. While The Salvation Army was a product of its time as well as the genius of William and Catherine Booth, Salvationists believe first and foremost that God raised it up to fulfill its unique purpose in the world. The era of the Industrial Revolution provided the setting and the founders were the instruments. This book is an attempt to sketch out not only a history of the movement but to capture its spirit as well. Though The Salvation Army has changed its methods and appearance over 15 decades, its mission remains intact: “to save souls, grow saints and serve suffering humanity” (Gowans). Despite suffering setbacks and internal difficulties, it has nonetheless continued to expand its borders, add to its numbers, and become more integral to the fabric of the nations in which it labors. At 150 years old, The Salvation Army has only reached its adolescence. It has been a privilege to work on this book, but I could not have completed it without help from a number of individuals. I would like to thank Major Steven Grinsted and his staff at the Salvation Army International Heritage Centre in London, as well as Susan Mitchem and Tyler Boenecke at Salvation Army National Archives in Alexandria, Virginia. A special word of appreciation goes to the many territories and commands in the world that contributed pictures from their own archives. I would like to thank Commissioner William Roberts and Commissioner David Jeffrey, both serving in succession as National Commander of The Salvation Army, for their unswerving support, help, and guidance. On my own staff in the Publications Section at The Salvation Army National Headquarters, I owe a particular debt of gratitude to Major Frank Duracher and Erin Thibeau for their editorial help and suggestions, along with Jeff McDonald, Gloria Hull, Cindy Edelen, and Melissa Hollinger for providing various and sundry acts of assistance along the way. The Salvation Army has a glorious past and a most promising future. God bless you, and God bless The Salvation Army.

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“The Salvation Army is Marching Along” Come, join our Army, to battle we go, Jesus will help us to conquer the foe; Fighting for right and opposing the wrong, The Salvation Army is marching along. Chorus Marching along, marching along, The Salvation Army is marching along; Soldiers of Jesus, be valiant and strong; The Salvation Army is marching along. Come, join our Army, the foe must be driven; To Jesus, our captain, the world shall be given; Foes may surround us, we’ll press through the throng; The Salvation Army is marching along. Come, join our Army, the foe we defy, True to our colors, we’ll fight till we die; Saved from all sin is our war cry and song; The Salvation Army is marching along. Come, join our Army, and do not delay, The time for enlisting is passing away; Fierce is the battle, but victory will come; The Salvation Army is marching along.

William James Pearson (1832-92)

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Valiant and Strong Table of Contents Letter by General Cox...................................................................................................5 Introduction........................................................................................................................7 Interlude: “The Salvation Army is Marching Along�............................9 Chapter 1: The Beginning................................................................................ 14 Interlude: Aging of William Booth..................................................................22 Chapter 2: Like a Mighty Army...................................................................26 Interlude: Drum............................................................................................................36 Chapter 3: Darkest England........................................................................38 Interlude: Salvation Navy......................................................................................58 Chapter 4: Advance and Adapt....................................................................62 Interlude: Timbrels....................................................................................................80 Chapter 5: The World Besieged.................................................................82 Interlude: War Cry.................................................................................................... 102 Chapter 6: From the Ashes.......................................................................... 104 Interlude: Kettles.......................................................................................................118 Chapter 7: The Spirit of Service........................................................... 120 Interlude: Royalty..................................................................................................... 146 Interlude: Heads of State..................................................................................... 150 Chapter 8: Marching Along....................................................................... 156 Interlude: Pause and Reflect............................................................................ 192 Interlude: Salvation with a Smile.................................................................. 196 Bibliography................................................................................................................ 200


Valiant and Strong A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years

Published by Faircount Media Group 701 N. West Shore Blvd. Tampa, FL 33609 Tel: 813.639.1900 www.faircount.com EDITORIAL Editor in Chief: Chuck Oldham Managing Editor: Ana E. Lopez Editor: Rhonda Carpenter Writer: Lt. Colonel Allen Satterlee DESIGN AND PRODUCTION Art Director: Robin K. McDowall Designers: Daniel Mrgan, Kenia Y. Perez-Ayala Ad Traffic Manager: Rebecca Laborde ADVERTISING Ad Sales Manager: Jim Huston Account Executives: Matt Bannon, Jared Crews OPERATIONS AND ADMINISTRATION Chief Operating Officer: Lawrence Roberts VP, Business Development: Robin Jobson Business Development: Damion Harte Financial Controller: Robert John Thorne Chief Information Officer: John Madden Business Analytics Manager: Colin Davidson Events Manager: Jim Huston FAIRCOUNT MEDIA GROUP Publisher, North America: Ross Jobson Publisher, Europe: Peter Antell

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Chapter 1: THE BEGINNING

Left: The reign of Queen Victoria overlapped the life and ministry of the Booths, and the strength and expanse of Victorian England greatly aided The Salvation Army’s rapid expansion worldwide. Queen Victoria had reached middle age when the Booths began their ministry in the East End of London in 1865, but she is pictured here as the newly crowned 18-year-old sovereign in 1837. Above: Although at the time of The Salvation Army’s founding the Industrial Revolution had made vast changes in England’s landscape, agriculture remained an important pillar in the national economy. A contemporary illustration depicts farmers harvesting wheat.

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Clockwise from left: While the men worked the fields, women labored mostly from the home in rural Great Britain. This is a typical scene from an Irish farm in the 19th century. • For those who remained in Britain and chose to abandon farming but were not fortunate to be employed by factories, manual labor was the only option left. Many occupations in the factory, on ships, in mines, and the military were fraught with danger, greatly lowering life expectancy. Pictured here are miners boring a hole to receive an explosive charge. • The allure of money and prosperity brought thousands into the cities. But the promise of future wealth and happiness was quickly dashed by the reality of working long hours under slave-like conditions in factories that belched smoke. • Women and children often found employment in factories. Due to the abundant workforce and desire for profit, most factory machinery had no safety features. With children readily available, employers made provisions for their shorter arms and legs, though these were often lost in accidents with the machines.

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Left: Education was seen as a means to escape the bleak prospects of the poor. For impoverished boys, education was hardly more than a dream, but for girls it was nearly impossible. The prevailing attitude was that girls were to grow up to be wives and mothers and, therefore, had no need for an education. Schools such as the one pictured here were few and far between, but they did offer hope for the few who could avail themselves of the opportunity. Right: City life was decidedly more exciting than rural life. Streets were crowded with sights, sounds, and a wide assortment of human behavior. This scene from Whitechapel, in London’s East End, was typical. The conditions of the East End worsened because of poor housing, people and animals alike trying to find a place to live. Poor ventilation and overcrowding drove people to spend long hours on streets, which became a breeding ground for crime and violence. Whitechapel would become one of the first fruitful fields of ministry for the Booths, as well as the stalking ground for Jack the Ripper. Below: The lot of the working class was a constant struggle with poverty and near hopeless conditions. And because people continued to pour into the cities seeking work, there was little sympathy for those who could not keep up. This cartoon from Punch magazine illustrates the landlords’ greed, the parents’ despair, and the children’s miserable living conditions.

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Top left: John and Sarah Mumford, the parents of Catherine Mumford, were deeply religious people, serving in the Methodist church. Living in the suburbs of London, they provided a strong Christian example for their daughter, pictured here. Young Catherine was quite precocious, and though she suffered from poor health throughout her childhood, she read the Bible through several times before she turned 12. With staunch beliefs in temperance and the equality of women and men, she picked up her pen early on to exercise her gift of communication through writing. Top right: William Booth’s birthplace and childhood home. William was born to Samuel and Mary Moss Booth in Nottingham, the second of five children. Because of Samuel’s wildly speculative nature, William’s childhood was marked by periods of wealth and poverty. When Samuel died, he left his family penniless, forcing William to go out and support them. Although he felt called to be a minister of the Gospel, William was apprenticed as a pawnbroker, a trade he thoroughly hated. Through the kindness of Mr. Rabbits, he was sponsored in the first years of his ministry. It was also through Mr. Rabbits that William met and fell in love with Catherine Mumford. Left: William and Catherine were married in 1855. Complementing each other, William was full of zeal and enthusiasm, while Catherine’s nature was shy and retiring. William appreciated his wife’s clear thinking and irresistible logic. Knowing of her convictions about women preaching the Gospel, he actively encouraged her to do so. She resisted, but after a while resolved to live up to the beliefs she espoused and began her own public ministry.

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Above left: Eventually ordained as a minister in the Methodist New Connexion after briefly considering ministry in the Congregationalist Church, Booth enjoyed immediate success as an evangelist and pastor, 1859. Left: Unfortunately, disagreements with the Methodist New Connexion led William to resign. He began an itinerant ministry, joined by Catherine even as their family was growing rapidly in number. Catherine enjoyed increasing popularity as a speaker, and her engagements supplemented the struggling family’s income. But life soon took an unexpected turn after William Booth’s visit to London one July afternoon, 1865. Above right: The Blind Beggar Pub, located in Mile End Waste, East London, at the end of the 19th century. It was here that William Booth came across a group of missioners holding an open-air meeting. Asked if anyone wanted to say a word, Booth stepped forward. The missioners immediately asked him to join their evangelistic campaign. Returning home to his wife, he said, “Kate, I have found my destiny!”

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Clockwise from above left: The missioners were holding meetings in a tent on an unused portion of a Quaker burial ground. It was in this place that the Christian Mission, and later its successor, The Salvation Army, marked its birthplace. Pictured here is a commemorative marker at the Quaker burial ground. • An artist’s rendering of a meeting in the tent at the Quaker burial ground. William Booth is shown preaching to the crowds who found his style and message most compelling. • When the tent was destroyed by a combination of vandals and bad weather, the Mission sought more permanent headquarters in a dancing hall a short distance away. This is the dancing hall as it appeared in the late 1940s. It is the tallest building pictured. The mission met on the second floor. • Although initially Booth preferred to rent buildings to aid in the mobility of the Mission, there were times when buildings were owned. Pictured is one of the first Mission halls to be constructed.

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Left: A very early picture of some of the evangelists of the fledgling Christian Mission, circa 1868. Right: The People’s Mission Hall was the first substantial building occupied by the Christian Mission. For a time, it also had a cheap food depot run by William and Catherine’s son, Bramwell. However, poor finances forced this early expression of social work to close. Below: Inside the People’s Mission Hall. Although it could hold large crowds, the air was often thick and barely breathable because of the naphtha lamps. Still, thousands attended the meetings and hundreds of conversions were witnessed. Growth from the increasing numbers allowed the Mission to spread to other parts of the city as well as the surrounding suburbs. Eventually it branched out across much of England, at one point reaching as far as a short-lived Mission station in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

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Clockwise from above: A typically attired Christian Mission evangelist. This is John Lawley, who faithfully served first the Mission and then The Salvation Army until his death more than 50 years later. • Mission stations quickly sprang up across East London. Most were in very small places and tended to be occupied for only a few months. Stations moved often because of limited finances, outgrowing the space, or being forced out by landlords displeased with the activities of the Mission. Pictured here is a typical early Mission station in East London. • A cornerstone of a Christian Mission building that was laid jointly by William and Catherine Booth in 1871. • This picture of the Christian Mission evangelists was taken around 1877. Although the Mission had been enjoying growth, it was plateauing. In a radical move, Booth urged the Mission to abandon democratic decision-making in favor of his autocratic rule. They agreed to this, and with increased efficiency, the Mission began growing again.

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Interlude: Aging of William Booth

Left: The image of William Booth remains to the present day a favorite photograph for Salvationists. While no photographs from his youth are available, starting at age 30 he had photographs taken regularly. As he approached the last 25 years of his life, he was viewed as a prophet among a growing number of people, while his appearance reinforced that. As close as we can approximate, these are the years that this series of pictures were taken. This one is the oldest known, when Booth had just celebrated his 30th birthday in 1859. Above: William and Catherine Booth, 1860.

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Clockwise from left: William Booth, 1879. He had not yet begun to wear a uniform. • William Booth, circa 1884. Note the crest is on the collar instead of the S. • William Booth, circa 1900.

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Clockwise from above: William Booth in his robes to receive his honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree from Oxford University, 1907. • Working from his desk at home, Hadley Wood, 1907. • Just before he went into surgery for the last time. By now he had already had one eye removed, hence the smoked glass in the left lens, 1911.

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Chapter 2: LIKE A MIGHTY ARMY Top: The Christian Mission had been steadily taking on a more militaristic flavor. William Booth, the General Superintendent, was increasingly referred to as just the “General.” And Elijah Cadman, an enterprising Mission evangelist in Whitby, used this notice as a means to rally people using a military metaphor. Middle: In 1878, Booth met with his son, Bramwell, and George Scott Railton, to review the printer’s proof for the annual report of the Christian Mission. The title read, “The Christian Mission is a Volunteer Army.” Bramwell retorted, “I’m a regular or nothing!” Booth strode across the room, scratched out “Volunteer” and wrote ”Salvation.” Meant at first to be descriptive of the Mission, in short order it became the name of the organization. Bottom: With the change in name, The Salvation Army quickly adopted military language and trappings. One of the first innovations was the introduction of a uniform, although there was hardly anything “uniform” about them. The first officially approved uniforms were worn by George Scott Railton and the Hallelujah Lassies as they sailed to officially open the United States in 1880. At that time, one of the first flags, designed by Catherine Booth, was also presented.

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Clockwise from left: An early letterhead with William Booth’s writing, reflecting the change in name. • Catherine Booth became widely known for her powerful, intelligent, and persuasive preaching. At a time when women preachers were soundly condemned by most in the Christian world, she was able to fill large halls. Many of her sermons were transcribed and compiled into books, still available today. • Catherine Booth in her uniform. In designing the uniform, she wanted something that would not mirror current fashions but instead make a statement against worldliness as well as a positive one marking the wearer as a bold witness for Christ.

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Clockwise from above left: The Booths’ oldest son, Bramwell, became the first Chief of the Staff. Although young, he had a brilliant business mind and gift for organization. While William Booth generated ideas and inspired the troops, Bramwell figured out how to make it all happen. This is one of the few pictures that show him with an ear trumpet. His hearing was permanently damaged when he was attacked by other schoolboys because of his Christian witness. • All the Booth children served in the ranks of The Salvation Army at one time or another. Particularly distinguished service was given by Evangeline Booth. When this picture was taken, she was the corps officer at Marlyebone, a corps that suffered severe persecution. • Another Booth daughter, Catherine, named for her mother, after successful appointments in Great Britain, was selected to spearhead The Salvation Army invasion of France. She is pictured here with the first French Salvation Army flag.

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Clockwise from left: Convinced that the Lord would return following the conversion of all humanity to Christ, Salvationists were motivated to evangelize using every means to speed the spread of the Gospel. “Village warfare,” as it was called, included stopovers in smaller towns to proclaim the Gospel. When a call to decide for Christ was issued, the drum was turned on its side to serve as a penitent form, as shown in this picture. • In an early Army meeting, General William Booth pleads with the crowd as he invites them to make decisions for the Lord. Appeals were almost always accompanied by music, often as the crowd sang along. • The dynamism of The Salvation Army could hardly be contained in one country. When Eliza Shirley and her family emigrated to the United States in 1879, she asked for and was granted permission to begin the Army unofficially. Her work was wildly successful, leading to an official opening in 1880 by George Scott Railton. The first meeting in New York City by Railton and the Seven Hallelujah Lassies is pictured here.

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Clockwise from above: One of the early objectives of The Salvation Army in the United States was to reach the ethnic African population, many born into slavery but freed after the Union victory in the Civil War. They remained largely disenfranchised and beset by poverty. Although numerous campaigns were launched to reach the black population, it took many years before the Army had any measurable success. • Ballington Booth, second son of William and Catherine Booth, and his wife, Maud, pioneered work among the wealthy to both witness to them but to also enlist their support for The Salvation Army’s work. They formed auxiliaries, comprised of mostly women, who hosted drawing room meetings where the work of the Army was explained and collections or pledges collected. The auxiliaries were the forerunners of the advisory boards. • The most distant land evangelized by the Army was India. The door opened there when Frederick Tucker, a British civil servant, read about The Salvation Army through its magazine, the War Cry. Convinced that The Salvation Army had the key to reaching India’s millions for Christ, he contacted it and joined. He believed that the only way to effectively witness to the Indian people was to shed his Western dress in order to dress, eat, and live like the Indian people. He is pictured here in his uniform modeled after the dress of the lowest Indian caste. • Not long after Tucker began his ministry, his wife, Louise, died in a cholera epidemic. He met and married Emma, another one of William and Catherine Booth’s children, and changed his name to Booth-Tucker. Emma BoothTucker threw herself into the work. Here she is shown speaking at an open-air meeting in an Indian village.

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Clockwise from above: Jack Addie and Joe Ludgate, who commenced The Salvation Army in Canada in London, Ontario, in 1882. • Salvationists in Canada reach a lumber camp to hold meetings. • Neepawa Salvation Army Barracks in Canada, 1888. The style of the building was typical for the day. Called barracks, halls, or citadels, they were often patterned after castles with battlements and sometimes turrets. • Brass bands became an integral part of the Army. Starting with the Fry family in Salisbury, England, in 1878, brass bands grew in number. They were highly effective in attracting crowds for the open-air and served to involve a number of people in the meetings. Pictured here is the unofficial Canadian Staff Band around 1890.

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Clockwise from above: Pioneering the work in France was difficult. But Catherine Booth, dubbed “The Marechale,” opened the work in Paris with her future sister-in-law, Maud Charlesworth. The artist’s rendering shows her witnessing in a neighborhood tavern, where the patrons were likely as fascinated by hearing a woman preach as they were by what she said. • From France, the Army quickly “invaded” Switzerland. It enjoyed rapid growth, but it also experienced unexpected opposition from the Swiss government. Salvationists found this particularly ironic since the Swiss boasted about their religious freedom. • The Salvation Army quickly fanned out across Europe, reaching the Netherlands in 1887. It enjoyed immediate success in attracting large crowds while at the same time attracting the persecution that marked almost all openings during this time period. • Typical of many who were attracted to the Army in its early days was Hanna Ouchterloney of Sweden. A bookshop owner, she came into contact through Bramwell Booth, who held meetings in Sweden while recovering from an illness. She was converted, became an officer, and was sent by William Booth to open the work in Sweden.

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Clockwise from above: In New Zealand, a twofold attack was planned. Beginning with the English population, it soon turned its attention to the native Maori people. Early converts were pressed into immediate service to reach their own kin. The musical party pictured here in 1889 used traditional music and instruments as part of their outreach. • The explosive growth and success of The Salvation Army in New Zealand is evidenced in this photograph taken at the first congress in 1883, scarcely a year after the Army opened. • The Salvation Army’s peculiarities, while attractive to many, also served as magnets for ridicule and persecution. The Salvation Army insisted on conducting street meetings, usually preceded by a march to the meeting location. Because so many of the converts were former drinkers, the pubs often agitated against The Salvation Army. Athough much of the persecution was mild, at times it turned deadly. Salvationists were often knocked down and injured. This illustration depicts Sheffield, where opposition exploded into a riot that involved bloodshed, the destruction of Salvation Army equipment, and a wholesale attack and ransacking of The Salvation Army hall. Led by a group that mimicked the Army called the Skeleton Army, the attacks were all the more brutal because law enforcement refused to intercede on behalf of the Salvationists. • In instances when law enforcement did intercede, it was most often to arrest Salvationists for disturbing the peace. Refusing to pay the fines, Salvationists were imprisoned by the hundreds. They opted for a court trial that either resulted in their further imprisonment or their release from jail with the happy result that their right to march and assemble in the open-air was upheld. Here shown in their prison garb are officers imprisoned in Ballarat, Victoria (Australia), for marching in the street in 1891.

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Clockwise from above: Opposition came not only in the streets but in the press as well. The Salvation Army was frequently attacked in editorials and ridiculed in news stories. The satirical magazine Puck particularly enjoyed poking fun at the Salvationists and the Founder, William Booth. This cartoon portrays the common feeling that the Army at the very least was a public nuisance. • In spite of the opposition and constant financial pressure, the Army continued to advance. In what proved to be an extremely shrewd move, The Salvation Army was able to locate its headquarters at 101 Queen Victoria Street in London, in the shadow of the landmark St. Paul’s Cathedral. The location, still in use today, has served The Salvation Army for over a century. • Full involvement was expected from cradle to the grave. Infants were dedicated to the service of God and the Army in a public ceremony under The Salvation Army flag. • Salvationism was displayed in the marriage ceremony as well. This is a Salvation Army wedding at New Brunswick, New Jersey (USA), featuring the marriage of “Hallelujah Ned” and Miss Lulu Wolmington and the singing of The Hallelujah Chorus after the ceremony.

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Clockwise from above: Although a somewhat idealized picture, the Salvationist family was expected to be a model of heavenly life with regard to respect and love for each other as well as dedication to the work of the Lord through the Army. Since many of the converts were alcoholics, criminals, and other ne’er-do-wells, the transformation that salvation made in the individual and the family was indeed miraculous. • Because the Army’s work was so successful among the poor and its ranks were filled with converts from the most dire circumstances, it was well acquainted with their needs beyond the purely spiritual realm. While trying to maintain a purely evangelistic focus, it nonetheless felt it had to devote some of its energy to reaching out to those in poverty. An early expression of this was the slum sisters, who went into homes, caring for the sick, elderly, and children, cleaning when needed, and always witnessing along the way. • The Salvation Army flexed its muscle on behalf of young girls lured or sold into prostitution. What became known as the Maiden Tribute Campaign took England by storm as the trade was revealed in the pages of the newspaper Pall Mall Gazette. The resulting outrage forced a reluctant House of Commons to raise the age of consent to better protect victims of sexual trafficking. Shown here is a coiled petition that was 2 miles long carried into the House of Commons demanding the change.

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Interlude: DRUM

Above: The drum has been called the “church bell of the Army.” Not only is it used for music, in the open-air it is often turned on its side to provide a place for penitent people to kneel and pray. This picture of it used that way is from England, 1895. Top right: Woman drummer in Ceylon, Sri Lanka, in the 1930s. Middle right: A Chinese Salvationist poses with his drum in the 1930s. Right: Drummers with handcrafted drums from a bush corps in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1971.

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Above left: When the prepared Mercy Seat was filled, a drum was turned on its side so a seeker could kneel, Sweden, 1973. Above right: A young bandsman holds a vintage drum at The Salvation Army’s Boys’ Home, which has its own band, Myanmar. Left: Home League drummer, Zambia, 1996. Below: Drummers at the Sunday afternoon open-air concert, Hong Kong, 2010.

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Chapter 3: DARKEST ENGLAND

Left: Catherine Booth, the Army Mother, had served as the theological and mystical leader of the Army from the beginning, but late in the 1880s, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After enduring painful surgery, it became apparent that her condition was not improving. Several notices appeared in the War Cry’s pages seeking information on any successful treatments for the dreaded disease, but none were found and her condition worsened. On several occasions, Catherine appeared close to death. One time, it seemed that there was no hope for her to rally, and the family was called in from around the world. Except for Ballington, all the children came to her bedside. She rallied yet again. Finally, she succumbed on Oct. 4, 1890. She was “promoted to Glory,” The Salvation Army’s terminology for a victorious death in Christ. Her death was cause for deep mourning. Tens of thousands packed the Olympia for her funeral service, with many more thousands lining the funeral route. Right: Catherine Booth was buried at Abney Park in Stoke Newington, London. The burial was occasion for another meeting and celebration of her life.

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Right: Soon after Catherine Booth’s death, William Booth released his landmark book, In Darkest England and the Way Out. The book outlined a plan for social redemption that presumed religious conversion as the cornerstone. It then proposed a three-tiered program that began in the City Colony, progressed to the Farm Colony, and ended with the Overseas Colony. The diagram illustrates this upward movement. Below: The City Colony met poverty where it was most clearly manifested. On the front lines of this phase of the battle were the slum sisters, a force already established in several countries. This brigade worked in Australia.

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Clockwise from top left: Slum sisters were much beloved because of their practical ministry. Here, slum sisters care for a sick girl in her home. Diseases such as influenza swept through the inner city due to crowded conditions as well as poor hygiene and nutrition. At the risk of their own lives – and many suffered as a result – the slum sisters bravely ministered to the sick. • Labor strikes or times of economic depression caused thousands more to go hungry than usual. In response, the Army set up mobile feeding stations to meet the need. This one is serving in the streets of a German city.• Serving another vital need were the coal wagons that plied the streets of the cities. This one is in New York City, 1929. • When William Booth saw men sleeping on the banks of the River Thames, he demanded that his son Bramwell “Do something!” An old warehouse was immediately rented and refitted for men to go for shelter. Homeless shelters were opened eventually around the world. Today, shelters, while housing women and children as well as families, still largely serve single men. Currently in the United States, The Salvation Army has more beds for homeless people than all other organizations combined. This one in Canada offers a variety of services for the homeless man.

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Clockwise from right: Salvation Army wood collection in Helsinki, Finland. Wood collecting was a big part of Salvation Army social work in the early years of the 20th century. The Army employed homeless men to collect and cut the wood, which was then sold at highly discounted prices or given away to the poor. • Salvation Army social work eventually included special efforts to make Christmas brighter for the poor. The lassie pictured here delivers a food basket to a home in New York City during a winter snowstorm, but Christmas aid also included visiting the sick and the infirm in hospitals and nursing homes. The League of Mercy, a program started in Canada, organized volunteers for systematic visitation and care not only at Christmas but also throughout the year. The program, now renamed Community Care Ministry, continues to this day. • An important feature of the City Colony was a recycling program that sent men out to collect reusable goods to be refurbished, distributed to the poor, or sold at discounted prices to the public. The handcart shown here collected old newspapers in a Canadian street. • Urban ministry also included laundry services. This laundry collection cart worked the streets of Auckland, New Zealand.

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Above left: Originally called Industrial Homes, then Men’s Social, and then – when women also became involved – Adult Rehabilitation Centers, the program helps people with substance abuse issues, most who have become homeless as a result. Spiritual help, counseling, education, and job training are given to help participants become independent and successful. Pictured here is a workshop that rehabilitated donated goods for resale. Above right: The second tier in the Darkest England Scheme was the Farm Colony. William Booth believed that city life was unnatural and that just getting people out of the city and back to the farm would be restorative. Those who went to a farm colony were given a plot of land to farm for themselves, and they also farmed on a communal plot that served the needs of the colony. While the program was extremely successful, it was financially untenable and was eventually abandoned. Right and below right: The third phase of the Darkest England Scheme was the Overseas Colony. Carefully vetted people would be resettled elsewhere in the sprawling British Empire. Prime destinations were Australia, Canada, and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), as well as others. Tens of thousands emigrated, met by Salvationists when they arrived who helped them settle in their new adopted homes.

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Above left: Another aspect of the Darkest England Scheme was inexpensive resorts and vacation housing for the poor, implemented on a very limited basis. One was in Wellington, New Zealand. Pictured here is the opening day of the People’s Palace in 1908. Above right: A longer-lasting effort to provide recreation for the poor was outings and eventually camps. This outing at the beach was a rare treat for children who lived in the city. Left: The worst disaster in American history took place in Galveston, Texas, in 1900. A category 5 hurricane swept in suddenly, bringing with it a tsunami that flattened the city. It carried more than 7,000 people out to sea, never to be seen again. It marked the first time that The Salvation Army served in a disaster anywhere in the world. The aid to disaster victims was illustrated on the cover of the War Cry. Below: The Salvation Army expanded rapidly in all corners of the globe. Appointed as Travelling Commissioner, George Scott Railton wandered the globe encouraging troops, reporting to International Headquarters, and filing reports regarding future prospects for Army expansion. Here, he stops for a photo while visiting comrades in Germany.

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Above: The Salvation Army in the Caribbean grew rapidly. Pictured here is an integrated group of Salvationists in Barbados, 1899. Right: Expansion into Africa began in earnest in South Africa. Not all of the Army’s efforts were appreciated, such as when Zulu Jim played his violin in an African village, 1897. Below: Zulu Jim pictured with some of the early converts in the bush of South Africa.

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Clockwise from left: Salvationists share the Gospel in the open-air in the western town of Rockaway, California. • Pioneers hold a meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1892. • Finland pioneer Hedvig von Haartman shares the Scriptures with other Salvationists. • Captain and Mrs. Young on dogsled on their way to their appointment in Sault St. Marie, Michigan, USA, 1896.

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Clockwise from above: The Salvation Army emphasized the incorporation of local cultural expressions that were not contrary to the Bible’s teaching. Evidence of this is found in the village band from northern India, 1917. • The all-women’s headquarters musical party in Norway. • Commandant Herbert Booth rolls up his sleeves to strengthen his witness among men in the Australian Outback by helping them dig a ditch. • A number of outreach efforts endeavored to reach those in the remotest areas of their respective countries. This one from New Zealand was known as the “Flying Brigade.”

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Congratulations on 150 Years of The Salvation Army! From ASBURY UNIVERSITY, Your Long-Standing Partner in Ministry and Education

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Left: Cavalry Fort “the Australian” in South Australia, 1892. Right: “Charioteers” in the U.S. West Territory on their way to hold camp tent meetings.

Here’s to 150 years of never selling out. Take a bow. Congratulations to everyone at The Salvation Army, from the team at The O2 A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years

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Valiant and Strong


Clockwise from top left: The Salvation Army was one of the pioneers in movies, making the first full-length feature ever. Based in Melbourne, Australia, a special unit called the Biorama wrote, produced, and filmed the presentations. • The Army frequently made Gospel presentations through “limelight” glass slide shows, which were immensely popular in those days, with whole communities turning out for the shows, 1911. • Open-airs were often the only form of clean live entertainment in many places. The Army used these to great effect. • Florence Booth, the wife of Chief of the Staff Bramwell Booth, started the Home League, one of the largest women’s organizations in the world, in the early 20th century. Originally founded to help women with Christian fellowship and practical education to become better homemakers, it continues to minister to the needs of women around the world. This picture shows the Home League in action in Leytonshire, England, circa 1907.

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Clockwise from above: The oldest of The Salvation Army’s scouting programs for boys and girls, the Girl Guards, or Guides in some countries, began in 1915. The glass slide shows them at a U.S. encampment. • Unusual methods of evangelism proliferated. An event advertised as an auction of children crowded Salvation Army halls; some people expected to actually purchase a child. Salvationists in the audience bid on the children until finally another Salvationist stepped forward to proclaim, “This child was purchased by Christ’s precious blood.” A baby dedication followed. • A legendary figure in the USA was Captain Joseph Garabed, aka, “Joe the Turk.” Actually Armenian, Joe was a champion for the right of The Salvation Army to hold open-air meetings. He would find out where local authorities were interfering with this right, go to the community, and get arrested and jailed, always insisting on a court trial. Consistently, the Army’s right to hold street meetings was upheld. Joe was arrested 53 times in his illustrious career.

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Top right: Danger abounded for Salvationists. An unknown number were martyred by violence directed at the Salvationists for their aggressive witnesses. Others were miraculously spared. The captain pictured here found his life spared when the pistol pointed at him misfired, 1900. Above: Persecution was widespread throughout the 1890s but began to taper off as the century turned. This picture is from 1896. Right: International congresses were held in 1896 and 1904. They met in a hall built specifically for the occasion and dismantled after the congress.

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Top left: Netherlands delegation, 1896. Left: Australian staff officers. Above: Japan delegation. Below: Alaska delegation.

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Top: The Coloured Songsters, one of the groups representing the United States. Above: Newfoundland delegation. Left: William Booth embraced any technological advance that could be harnessed for spreading the Gospel. Seeing immediately the advantage of the motorcar, he ordered that one be painted white at a time when all other vehicles were black. The open car allowed him to stand up at any time to preach. The tours through England were highly anticipated as much to see the now venerated leader as to hear what he had to say.

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Top: William Booth addressing a typical crowd on one of his stops. Above: In 1903, Booth went to the Holy Land, visiting the Temple Mount, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Golgotha, and other sites around Jerusalem. Here, he stands in front of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount. Left: Booth continued his world travels. He was thrilled to reach Japan, where he greeted with enthusiasm the Salvationists and others gathered to greet him. Below: In New Zealand, Booth mounts a ladder to be seen and address the crowd gathered.

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Top: William Booth poses with a territorial band in South Africa. Right: Booth, joined by Commissioners T.H. Kitching and Edwin Oliphant, in Rome. Below: Booth meeting with George Washington Carver, AfricanAmerican scientist and civil rights advocate. Bottom: Booth, scorned and ridiculed for so long, was honored in 1905 by being awarded with the Freedom of the City of London.

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Getty

Above left: After surgery failed to stave off his blindness, William Booth began to weaken. He was promoted to Glory from his home in Hadley Wood on Aug. 20, 1912. His death was headline news around the world. In this picture, hundreds of thousands lined the streets of London to watch his funeral procession. (Getty) Above right: Forty Salvation Army bands joined 10,000 Salvationists as the funeral procession to the cemetery wound its way through the streets of London. 40,000 people attended his funeral service, including Queen Mary, who slipped in almost unnoticed. (Getty) Left: Newly named general of The Salvation Army Bramwell Booth leaves International Headquarters with his wife, Florence, to walk behind the caisson carrying William Booth’s body. (Corbis) Below: Booth was buried next to his wife, Catherine, at the Abney Park Cemetery in an unpretentious grave.

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Interlude: SALVATION NAVY

Above: Watalpa, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), 1887. Above right: The Delfzijl Corps in the Netherlands conducts outreach through the many waterways in the country. Right: The Glory, Sweden, circa 1915.

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Clockwise from above: The Catherine Booth lifeboat in Norway, 1920s. • The plan for the Salvationist, a sailing ship in Newfoundland. • The S.S. Salvo, Darwin, Australia, 1945. • The “Dedication of the Boats,” India, 1960s. • On a boat on the Sumida River, Salvationists host Christmas celebrations for the children of boatmen and fishermen, Tokyo, Japan, circa 1950. • Soldiers from the Maluku Corps in the Democratic Republic of the Congo set out to take the Good News to an outpost, 1960s.

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Above left: Transportation is very difficult in Borneo, Indonesia, as often the only option is to go by boat. Major Paulus Rigo and his wife served in East Kalimantan, circa 1975. Above right: The En Avant was a tugboat that took a yearlong voyage to an island near Antarctica, where, at that time, only three people had ever visited, 1977, France. Left: General Eva Burrows and her namesake, a tugboat commissioned in 1992, New South Wales, Australia. Below: Mrs. Lydia Ayson, a recruit, with Mrs. Lieutenant Emerita Damgo in a boat provided by Scotland Home League Helping Hand, Legaspi, Philippines, 1990s.

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Chapter 4: ADVANCE AND ADAPT

Left: Following William Booth’s death in 1912, his successor was revealed. Unsurprisingly, it was his oldest child, Bramwell Booth. Bramwell had served as his righthand man for decades as Chief of the Staff. He was unquestionably the most qualified to take over The Salvation Army. While his father was an inspirational and visionary leader, Bramwell was a meticulous planner and organizer. His genius gave shape to The Salvation Army today. Below: One of Bramwell’s early actions was to take the same motorcar tour through England that his father made famous.

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Left: An international congress was planned for 1914. The Canadian Staff Band and other delegates departed from Canada in high spirits. But the trip ended in tragedy on May 29, 1914, when the ship they were traveling on, the Empress of Ireland, was struck by a Norwegian coal ship, the SS Storstad, in the St. Lawrence River. Above: More than a thousand people died in the accident, 167 of them Salvationists en route to the congress. Pictured here is the Canadian Staff Band on the day they set sail. Of the 41 members in the band, 29 were lost. Below: Thousands attended the memorial service a week after the wreck.

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Clockwise from above: Though deeply saddened by Canada’s tragedy, the 1914 Congress went on. Gathered at the famed Crystal Palace in London, thousands attended the weeklong event. • Many national groups took commemorative photos. This one is of the West Indies Singing Party, from the Caribbean. • The Netherlands. • France. • Italy.

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Left: Zulu contingent from South Africa. Below: South American staff officers. Bottom: Sweden.

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Fostering Youth and Furthering Education

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Above: After some negotiations, The Salvation Army was allowed to send some of its personnel to serve the troops on the front lines of the First World War. Aware of both the opportunity and responsibility, USA National Commander Evangeline Booth gave a charge to the troops that one newspaper described: “She called the little company of workers together and gave them such a charge as would make an angel search his heart.” Right: Upon reaching England on their way over, General Bramwell Booth inspects the Army personnel. The women would affectionately be known as “Doughnut Girls” to parallel the moniker of American troops, “Doughboys.” Below: Once in place, Salvationists found ways to serve the troops. When one soldier commented that nothing would taste better than one of his mother’s homemade doughnuts, they made a batch. The doughnuts were so popular they became a staple as well as a symbol of Salvation Army service. (Pies were also popular but more rare, because ingredients and ovens were hard to come by.)

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Clockwise from above: The Salvation Army lassies worked as close to the front lines as they were allowed. • Fresh doughnuts eagerly awaited. • Salvation Army workers giving fresh doughnuts to soldiers, Varennes-en-Argonne, France, Oct. 12, 1918. (Corbis) • When the troops couldn’t come to the kitchens, doughnuts were delivered to them.

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Clockwise from above: Services did not only include cooking. Here, a lassie writes a letter home for a wounded soldier. • Joining a soldier in the trenches, the Doughnut Girl takes a letter for him as he works on his machine gun. • With her sewing machine perched on an orange crate, a lassie repairs a soldier’s uniform while he waits. • Away from the front lines, the Army had “rest rooms” that allowed recreation and down time for the troops.

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Š2011 The Coca-Cola Company.


Clockwise from above: For its service during the war, The Salvation Army received universal acclaim. Here, Evangeline Booth receives recognition on behalf of The Salvation Army. (Getty) • When the armistice was proclaimed on Nov. 11, 1918, thousands came to the Army’s Armistice Service led by General Bramwell Booth in London outside the Mansion House. • Just before the war began, The Salvation Army had invaded Russia. The Army prospered for a short time before the Bolshevik government that overthrew the czarist reign banned it. Commissioner Karl Larsson, pioneer officer, poses with some of the first Russian officers, circa 1915. • Even while The Salvation Army was deeply involved with helping those in the war effort, evangelism proceeded unabated. Pictured is Joe the Turk with his famous cart drawn by goats. No longer in danger of arrest, he traveled widely telling stories of his arrests and preaching the Gospel.

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Clockwise from above: The idea of charioteers continued with modern motor vehicles. This truck hit the roads in the United States in the 1920s. • Japanese Salvationists setting out to announce an evangelistic campaign at their corps. • An Army officer stops for a picture with some First Nations children, Canada. • Open-air in the Chinese village of Kuo Chung.

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Clockwise from above: Commissioner Victor Rolfe consults with Commissioner Gunpei Yamamuro regarding future expansion of The Salvation Army in Japan. • Congress March in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1928 with the slum sisters leading the way. • When a person feels called by God to become a Salvation Army officer, it almost always involves leaving home to go to one of the Salvation Army training colleges. While in training, they receive their first official rank, “cadet.” In Australia, this young lady, Cadet Orames, leaves home to begin her journey. • Rather than being known as the class of a certain year, each cohort of cadets is part of a session with a specially chosen name. Pictured here is the “Hallelujah Session” that attended the training college from 1924 to 1925 in India.

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Clockwise from above: Following the war, there was widespread economic depression, especially in Europe. The Salvation Army’s social services were strained. This is a labor bureau operated by the Army in Norway. • Feeding hungry children at the Army corps in the Eastern United States. • Australia led the way in providing care to prisoners when they were released. The Prison Gate Brigade met men as they left the prisons, offering them a place to stay, assistance with finding a job, and guidance as they reentered society. • Food distribution in Concepción, Chile.

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Clockwise from above: One of the original emergency disaster canteens in 1922. The original caption reads, “On behalf of The Salvation Army, Envoy Fuller (wearing first hat presented through Mayor Culrey of Boston, Massachusetts, USA). This lunch auto will answer all fire alarms. Manned by an Army crew, the Sallies will dispense from this lunchwagon hot beverages and sandwiches to the fire fighters.” (Corbis) • When a coal mine exploded in 1922 in Spangler, Pennsylvania, USA, the Army arrived to provide refreshment and comfort to the rescuers and the families of the victims. • While serving others during times of disaster, sometimes Salvationists found themselves among the victims. When a devastating earthquake hit Tokyo, Japan, in 1923, the territorial headquarters was destroyed. • Services to the homeless continued to expand. Canada served through this multistory facility, one of several operating across the country.

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Clockwise from above: Men’s Industrial Homes spread across the world as well. In Buenos Aires this one was in full operation, recycling paper, furniture, and clothing. • The workshop in Buenos Aires. • Salvation Army wood collection in Helsinki, Finland. • Paper recycling in the United States. • During the 1920s, Boozer Parades in New York were part of the Army’s support of Prohibition. Those who had elected a life of sobriety were allowed to ride a special wagon in the parade. Those who did not remain sober were said to have “fallen off the wagon.” That phrase has made its way into American expressions to signify someone who attempted to live a sober life but slipped back into alcohol abuse.

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Clockwise from above left: In 1927, General Bramwell Booth continued a motor tour that took him around the world. Here, he kisses a child held up to him as he rides through Scotland. • In Singapore, the General poses with leading officers in 1926. • The General addresses a Salvation Army gathering. • Thunderous applause greets General and Mrs. Bramwell Booth.

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Top: General Bramwell Booth had been fully active in the work of The Salvation Army since he was 15 years old. Instead of slowing down as he aged, his schedule intensified, and it took its toll. His health starting to fail, General Booth nonetheless rallied his strength to lay the cornerstone of the William Booth Memorial Training College in April 1928. It would be his last public appearance. He suffered from insomnia and depression, rendering him unable to fulfill the duties of his office. Above: Because of his inability to continue in office and his refusal to retire, Salvation Army leaders convened the first High Council in February 1929 to name his replacement, choosing Edward Higgins. Below left: Commissioner Samuel Logan Brengle on his way to the High Council. He considered Bramwell Booth to be a close and trusted friend. He was among those who personally asked the old General to retire, only to be refused. It was with deep regret that he voted to replace the General. Bottom: On June 16, 1929, Bramwell Booth was promoted to Glory. As they had for his father, thousands crowded the London streets to bid him a final farewell. Here, Mrs. Bramwell Booth and her eldest son, Lt. Colonel Bernard Booth, follow the hearse carrying the body of General Bramwell Booth to the cemetery. (Corbis)

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Clockwise from left: Timbrels, also called tambourines, became a part of The Salvation Army when a converted Romani (Gypsy) brought her musical talent to The Salvation Army march. A timbrel drill involves intricate moves, sometimes in unison while at other times with carefully choreographed counter movements and steps. For formal presentations, ribbons are attached, usually using the Army colors of yellow, red, and blue. Although dominated by women timbrel players, males also perform timbrel drills in many places. This is one of the earliest pictures of a timbrel brigade at the Cherry Tree Nursery in New York City, circa 1900. • The Soldiers of Christ were all involved as timbrelists in the Philippines, 1960. • Young timbrelists from the United Kingdom perform at the 1978 International Congress in London.

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Interlude: Timbrels

Top left: A junior soldier timbrelist in Kenya finds an unusual place for her timbrel, 1980. Top right: Timbrel players catch the attention of the crowd during the centenary celebrations of The Salvation Army in Korea, 2007. Above: The lambadi dance, India Central Territory, 1984. Right: A child’s musical number includes the timbrels, South America East Territory, 2014.

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Chapter 5: THE WORLD BESIEGED

Above: Chief of the Staff Edward Higgins had served Bramwell Booth with absolute loyalty. Under difficult circumstances, he assumed the office of General as the third international leader of the movement. Here, he is pictured with his wife earlier while serving at International Headquarters. Right, top: General Edward Higgins preaches to England through the radio, an emerging technology. Right, middle: Like his predecessors, General Higgins reached the United Kingdom via the motor tour. Right, bottom: The motor campaign met with more than the crowds in the streets. Here in Scotland, the sheep had the right of way.

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Clockwise from above: Because of legal procedures in changing over The Salvation Army’s government and the Depression deepening worldwide, General Higgins did not travel as extensively as his predecessors. Nonetheless, he was able to travel somewhat. Here he is visiting South Africa. • As the Great Depression cast its shadow on country after country, The Salvation Army mobilized to reach those in greatest need. In Chile, Army workers reach out to those who live in caves outside Santiago. • Meal distribution in the Netherlands in the 1930s. (Nederlandsch Christelijk Persfotobureau) • Mobile soup and bread kitchen, Auckland, New Zealand, 1931.

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Above left: Food distribution in the 1930s in Shanghai, China. Above right: Homeless men line up for soup in the United States. Right: Serving people sleeping out on the streets. Below: A lassie serves meat pies to men in the United States.

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Right: Social concern went beyond feeding and housing the needy. Camps were open around the world to help both children and parents. This day camp operated in Helsinki, Finland. Below: The Boys’ Industrial Home in Seoul, Korea, serves Christmas dinner. Below right: Lassies deliver a Christmas food basket in the United States. Bottom: While serving as U.S. National Commander, Commissioner Evangeline Booth shares toys with some delighted youngsters.

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“ . . . Th e Sa lv ati o n Ar m y do es n o t have a mission, t he Mission has a Sal vat ion A r my.” —Re ggie McNea l

T H E S A L VAT I O N A R M Y

USA EASTERN TERRITORY


Clockwise from above: Free breakfast for children, Australia, 1932. • Medical services continued to advance in India. This research lab operated in Khandagar in Western India. • When a Category 5 hurricane slammed into Belize, British Honduras, the damage included destruction of the corps building and school in Belize City. • In Curitaba, Brazil, the Army gathers aid for hurricane victims, 1938. • Motor caravan in South Africa prepared for action, 1933.

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Cadwalader is honored to work with The Salvation Army and pleased to support this commemorative publication. We salute you for 150 years of tireless service to those most in need. Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP www.cadwalader.com


Above left: Major Thörnkvist, Major and Mrs. Wilks, and Lt. Colonel Ahlm spare no effort to reach this family in Sweden. Above right: The legendary Major Cecil Brown worked in the remote areas of North Carolina and Tennessee to reach those other churches had abandoned. Here, she meets with a family in their home who used magazine covers as wallpaper. Left: A kraal meeting in South Africa at the Army’s Mountain View Farm, which included a corps, hospital, boarding school, and day school on more than 4,000 acres. With no roads to the site, the guests had to travel many miles on horseback. Below: Salvationists use a traveling billboard to advertise the congress meetings in Buenos Aires, 1934.

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Above: Bedside visitation in the Southern United States. Right: Colonel E. Marion and Captain T. Barani en route to Empulua, Indonesia. Below: The Salvation Army opened for a short time in Egypt but closed its operations due to growing hostilities from the war. Bottom: Before the Nazi invasion in 1939, an open-air in Prague, in the former Czechoslovakia. The speaker is Josef Korbel.

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Left: Cadets set out for fieldwork at the Amstelveen Training College in the Netherlands. Below: The very name “Devil’s Island” conjures up scenes of horrendous conditions and inhumane treatment of prisoners. The Salvation Army in France campaigned against this for years, sending Major Charles Péan to work among the prisoners and, where possible, help them get back home. Charles Péan is pictured here (center, wearing pith helmet) with liberated men at St. Laurent du Maroni, Devil’s Island. Bottom left: In 1934, Evangeline Booth was elected as the fourth General of The Salvation Army. She had served for 30 years as the national commander of the United States after she had served six years as the territorial commander in Canada. Her greatest claim to fame was the work done by the Army on behalf of the military during World War I. Here, she is shown in her Doughnut Girl uniform. Bottom right: General Booth frequently associated with well-known people. She is pictured here with aviation pioneer Amelia Earhart.

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Clockwise from above: General Evangeline Booth traveled around the world. Here she is with Swedish pioneer and friend to William Booth, Minister Herman Lagercranz. • General Booth takes a ride in a rickshaw while visiting Singapore in February 1937. • General Booth poses at The Salvation Army hospital in Southeast India while Commissioner Blowers, international secretary, protects her from the sun with an umbrella. • In 1934, the Salvation Patrol asked The Salvation Army to take over its operation in Mexico City. Negotiated and approved at the congress in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, members of the Salvation Patrol in their traditional Mexican dress met General Booth on the platform. Leaders of the group were commissioned as officers in The Salvation Army.

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Clockwise from top left: Following General Evangeline Booth into the office of General was George Carpenter, an Australian. He took office in 1939 as the clouds were gathering for World War II. As a result, he worked under the greatest restrictions ever faced by a Salvation Army international leader. He took to the airwaves to share Christ and to inspire a world under siege. • World War II severely restricted General Carpenter’s travel. He did, however, manage to visit some far-flung parts of the world. Here, he addresses a crowd in the Botanic Gardens in Brisbane, Australia. • As International Headquarters was located in London’s business district, it was destroyed during the Battle of Britain. Unfortunately, many Salvation Army historical records perished in the flames. Headquarters relocated to the William Booth Training College, where it remained until 1962 when a new building was opened. • The General and Mrs. Carpenter move to their new offices, whose walls are protected by sandbags, at the William Booth Training College in London.

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Clockwise from top left: The reality of the war was upon the Salvationists. Where the Germans, Italians, and Japanese were victorious, The Salvation Army was shut down altogether or, if allowed to operate, could only do so with severe restrictions. In other countries, it sought to provide comfort and support to those who lost their homes or family members as well as the military. Here, a Salvation Army canteen is at work in a bomb-torn area of London. • A Swedish officer fits clothing on a Norwegian refugee child. • The Army in Canada opened centers for soldiers to congregate for recreation and so avoid many of the evils associated with life around military bases. • A lassie serves doughnuts to military personnel in Australia.

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Above: When military personnel could not get to Army centers, mobile canteens brought them refreshment. The Canadian Red Shield Services operated along the same lines as the United Service Organizations (USO) centers elsewhere. Left: Mrs. Marjorie Lancaster and Major Kauppinou collect furniture in Helsinki for evacuees from war areas. When the Russians invaded, the rest of Finland became overrun with refugees. Below: Salvation Army car and soldiers going to war territory, Sortavala, Finland, 1941.

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Faith. Innovation. Hard Work. Sacrifice. A great tradition to build on. We praise God for His faithfulness and thank those who join with us in “Creating a Shared Future.�

USA Central Territory centralusa.salvationarmy.org


Top left: ANZAC legend ChaplainMajor (Brigadier) William McKenzie. With unparalleled courage and an uncompromising witness, McKenzie was an inspiration to fellow Salvationists as well as the Australian troops, commonly known as “diggers.” Top right: In the 1940s, the ANZAC troops fought largely in the jungles of Papua New Guinea and other Pacific islands. The fighting was extremely bitter and difficult, not only from the enemy but from the oppressive heat and diseases. Salvation Army Red Shield workers, known as padres, served at the very front. Many times their forward tents or buildings were riddled with bullet holes. Left: Red Shield representative Aubrey Hall with wounded Australian soldiers in Borneo, 1945. Below: Johno’s Jungle Joint coffee post on Shaggy Ridge, Papua New Guinea, 1944.

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Top: Red Shield Services in the War Years: Wellington Train Station Institute, New Zealand, 1943. Above: Flying padre Captain Vic Pedersen stands next to a bullet hole in his airplane, Australia. Left: Red Shield sewing room, the United States. Below: Salvation Army USO canteen in the United States. The Salvation Army joined with other religious and service organizations to form the USO. It would eventually leave the organization when the USO started serving alcohol in its centers.

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Top: A Canadian Red Shield worker shares a Christmas gift. Above: In the United States, a Red Shield worker distributes welcome gifts at Christmas. Left: Salvation Army workers serve African American troops. During World War II, the races were segregated. The Salvation Army served everyone. Below: In Copenhagen, Denmark, Salvationists entered a military barracks in the early morning as the troops were having breakfast. When the troops finished, they joined in with the singing.

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The Salvation Army & The Chesterfield Companies

67

Partners in Risk Management Since 1948

We are proud to congratulate The Salvation Army on their 150 years of service

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Clockwise from above: Red Shield canteen at the front in Europe, 1944. • Soon after their country was liberated, Belgian Salvationists open a center for allied troops, 1944. • There was widespread need in war-torn areas, and The Salvation Army mobilized to serve the masses of hungry people. • The Nazi regime had banned The Salvation Army in Germany, and Salvationists had hidden their uniforms and instruments, hoping for the day they could serve again. Finally, with their cities reduced to rubble, German Salvationists and Salvationists from other countries marched once again down the streets to proclaim the good news of Jesus Christ.

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Interlude: War Cry Counter-clockwise from left: A War Cry seller displays the African War Cry in the United States, 1886. For a time, special editions of the paper magazine were also available in German, Swedish, and Italian. However, none of these versions lasted very long. • War Cry sellers share the Christmas edition of the paper, USA Eastern Territory, circa 1915. • Cadets line up in marching formation to go out and sell the War Cry in Stockholm, Sweden, 1925. • Two lassies share a copy of the War Cry with an interested party in Melbourne, Australia, circa 1930.

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Clockwise from above: When copies of the War Cry were sold in taverns and pubs, the Army term was “pub booming.” Here, a lassie “booms the Cry” to patrons, Denmark, circa 1950. • War Cry distribution to musical accompaniment in pubs, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, circa 1950. (Photo by Egbert Munks) • Young men buy the War Cry on the streets of Rome, Italy, 1987. • A War Cry seller enjoys a light moment with pub patrons as she sells the War Cry, Germany, circa 1990.

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Chapter 6: FROM THE ASHES

Top: Following the German retreat, The Salvation Army set up operations in Rouen, in the Normandy region of France. Allied bombing had leveled the city, but somehow the Salvation Army’s canteen unit survived. It was quickly pressed into service. Right: The civilian population suffered greatly. A distribution center set up in Rouen provided supplies from overseas to address the area’s needs, 1946. Bottom: With vehicles for civilian use in short supply, the Industrial Home in Paris resorted to a means of collecting goods used generations before: People, rather than animals, pulled carts.

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Above left: Fleeing from the Russian armies, hundreds of thousands of German refugees came to the west. With the cities there already severely damaged, housing was difficult to find. Pictured here is a family living in a single room in Kiel, Germany, under the Army’s care, 1947. Above: In Brussels, Belgium, a Salvationist administers medication to a malnourished child. Left: With continued shortages, the Army’s Christmas parcel distribution provided vital help during Christmas in Brussels, Belgium, 1945.

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Above left: Bread distribution in Pincasa, Italy. Above right: In 1946, Commissioner Albert Orsborn was elected the sixth General of The Salvation Army. The Army had suffered significant losses in its property and the lives of its people. It also faced retreat for the first time as communism spread to governments in many fields of its operations. With few exceptions, The Salvation Army was banned in the communist countries. Left: General Orsborn stops for a moment to play with young girls. Below: General Orsborn watches a boy in an Army-run shop as he shows off his carpentry skills, St. Louis, Missouri.

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Left: The Army children’s home was still allowed to operate in Jablonec, Czech Republic. Here, girls perform a traditional dance. Below left: Salvation Army relief teams took supplies up the steep mountain trails to aid victims of the Peruvian earthquake in 1946. Captain Henry Taramasco, district officer for Peru, helps prepare a mule train for its journey to an almost inaccessible village in the Andes. Below right: A man at work in the Zurich, Switzerland Industrial Home, 1946. Bottom: In Northern India, prayer precedes surgery.

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Congratulating the Salvation Army for

150

We congratulate The Salvation Army on 150 years of ministry...

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Above left: Congress march to welcome the meeting of the Finnish Congress, women social officers with Lt. Colonel Mary Ljung, 1949. Above right: Young boys play tug-ofwar at the Army’s children’s home in Hong Kong. Below left: In Paraguay, an oxcart journey finishes at a leper colony, July 1948. Below right: On the march at Chikankata, Zambia.

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Clockwise from above: An open-air in China. • An Army officer visits a tree house family in central Celebes, Indonesia. • The first Salvation Army International Youth Congress took place in 1950 with more than 1,200 delegates in attendance. Here, Miss Eva Burrows, of Australia, straightens the pugaree worn by William Massey, of Punjabi, North India. • Street service in cosmopolitan Bombay (now Mumbai).

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Clockwise from above: Many Salvationists perished when North Korea invaded South Korea in 1951. Pictured here is a reenactment of the Seoul Boys’ Home Band marching off under North Korean guard. The boys were never heard from again. • An open-air scene from the congress in Santiago, Chile, October 1951. • Women carry bricks and stone for new corps building construction in La Paz, Bolivia. • Panama Blind School Exhibition, January 1953. The Salvation Army advocated for the handicapped individuals in its care not only by providing necessary services but also by helping others to understand the potential in those who had been marginalized.

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Clockwise from above: Wilfred Kitching became the Army’s seventh General in 1954. While the Army had lost ground with the countries that had fallen to communism, in the Western countries it was a time of unparalleled growth. In addition, colonialism was beginning to disappear, allowing for former colonies to emerge as independent nations. With independence in many of these places, The Salvation Army began to show significant advance. • General Kitching shares tea with up-and-coming evangelist Billy Graham. • The General holding up the inscribed roll brought by Lt. Colonel Whang Chong Yul, from loyal Salvationists in Korea. • The Salvation Army, for many years before the Internet made information readily available, had an enviable record in finding missing persons. Here, an officer speaks to a police officer about the whereabouts of a person who used to live at this address. • Adjutant Sw Ba Sein and YPSM Joy Thomas superintend the distribution of eggs at the Tamwe Convention Centre in Myanmar, following the Sunrise Service on Easter Sunday.

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Counter-clockwise from above: Prison visitation in Germany. • Children at the Kwong Wing Primary School in Hong Kong pray before lunch. • When the work opened in Papua New Guinea, one of the most vital needs was medical services. Well-meaning donors furnished an ambulance fully equipped. On its maiden trip, it found that the bridges of Papua New Guinea were not quite able to handle the load, 1956. • Teaching printing skills at El Amanecer Boys’ Home, Tres Arroyos in Argentina. • The Salvation Army in India manufactured hand-operated tricycles for those who were amputees or could not use their legs. This provided a needed service as well as skilled training and employment for the boys.

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Clockwise from above: Cadets of the Courageous Session leave for appointments in Pakistan, 1958. • South America Relief 1962 (Argentina). • Chief Uno, a Salvationist from Zimbabwe. The Army’s rapid advance in Africa reached deeply into the villages of rural Africa as well as the great cities. • The Glory Shop, Times Square in New York, where Lyell Rader conducted a fruitful ministry for a number of years. • Amsterdam Christmas chocolate milk distribution, 1960.

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OUR PASSION IS HELPING OTHERS.

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Counter-clockwise from above: Sunday school class, Buenos Aires. • Mexican children with Bible portions distributed through villages in Mexico. • A Salvation Army captain tends to a patient in Germany. • Salvationists were always trying to find ways to better serve. An ingenious device was the “Walkie Coffee,” one model for hot drinks, another for cold ones. Here, a Salvationist volunteer draws a cup of water for those working the forest fire (USA). • A Salvation Army officer reaches a man buried in his home, 1960 (USA).

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Interlude: KETTLES

Clockwise from above left: Captain Joseph McFee introduced the kettle to the world. During a dockworkers’ strike in San Francisco, California, in 1891, McFee took his empty soup kettle to the streets, urging passersby to throw change in to “keep the pot boiling.” Colonel William McIntyre heard about it and realized it was a creative way to collect funds. The kettle rapidly spread across the United States and eventually the world as a unique expression of The Salvation Army during the Christmas season. • During World War I, U.S. National Commander Evangeline Booth manned a Christmas kettle wearing her doughnut girl uniform to collect funds for the Army’s war work. • An early photograph of a Christmas kettle in New York City, circa 1900. • Child star Shirley Temple used her celebrity status to help The Salvation Army’s cause in the 1930s. • A Christmas kettle in Finland, 1930s. • A kettle in Paris, France, 1950s.

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Clockwise from top left: A Christmas kettle in Canada, 1960s. • Integration was a major issue in the United States in the late 1960s and 1970s. The Salvation Army in the United States fully embraced this societal change. • A Christmas kettle in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the Canary Islands, Spain, 1986. • The Salvation Army in the United States began a National Christmas Kettle Kickoff with the help of the NFL Dallas Cowboys during the Thanksgiving Day game halftime show. National Commander Commissioner Robert Watson, country music star Reba McIntyre, and National Community Relations Secretary Lt. Colonel Tom Jones greet the media during the show, 1996. • The annual Christmas kettle kickoff in Seoul, Korea, in a heavy snowstorm, 2013. • A boy donates to the kettle in Sweden.

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Chapter 7: THE SPIRIT OF SERVICE Left: In 1963, a rebuilt International Headquarters opened on Queen Victoria Street in London on the site of the old headquarters, destroyed during the Battle of Britain in World War II. Middle: Frederick Coutts was elected the ninth General of The Salvation Army in 1963. During his administration, The Salvation Army marked its 100th year. It was also a time of huge societal shifts in the West, with the turbulent emergence of nations formed from former colonies and the threatening specter of the Cold War. Bottom: Aided by vastly improving air travel, General Frederick Coutts traveled extensively around the world. Here, he takes the salute in Barbados.

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Left: General Coutts with admirers in Korea. Above: In the centennial year, 1965, General Coutts leads a service of praise at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City. Below left: General Coutts standing in front of the centennial year logo. Bottom: General Coutts at Mgulani Rehabilitation Centre Primary School, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 1968.

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Clockwise from above: A helicopter drops Christmas gift parcels at sea in the Netherlands, 1959. (Photo by Bert Buurman) • Korean Salvationists serve their countrymen during the winter, 1962. • The Salvation Army Home and Hospital was a program under the Women’s Social Service. Operating for more than 80 years around the world, the program gave unwed, pregnant young girls a safe place to go for comfort and care while awaiting childbirth. The hospitals started closing when birth control became more widespread and the stigma of having children outside of marriage subsided. • A brigade of cadets in the United Kingdom conducts a children’s open-air, much to the amusement of their audience. (Getty) • A float represents The Salvation Army’s worldwide reach, Canada.

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Clockwise from left: Discharged patients leaving via bullock cart from Evangeline Booth Hospital, Nidubrolu, Madras Territory, India. • The Salvation Army canteen serves a scuba diver serving during the airline crash of American Flight 1 in Jamaica, New York, 1962. • Major Dorothy Purser brings a newborn to her mother at Booth Memorial Hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. • As part of the centennial emphasis, a fundraising campaign was conducted with the slogan, “For God’s Sake, Care!” This photo and the next were used in the publicity.

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Top left: In 1965, The Salvation Army celebrated the centenary with an International Congress in London. Top right: Thousands gather for the outside demonstration at the Centennial Congress. Above: Dampong Singing Company, Ghana, 1966. Left: Outback Sunday school in Australia, under the direction of the Flying Padre, 1965. Bottom: A Salvation Army school in Zimbabwe, 1967.

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Clockwise from right: Started as a contemporary group at the International Training College, the Joystrings combined old-fashioned gospel with new rock sounds. Their appeal spread beyond The Salvation Army, receiving both acclaim and scorn internationally. Particularly controversial was their appearance at the London Playboy Club, which was in the spirit of the Army’s technique of reaching sinners where they were. The group performed for several years before it disbanded, as officers’ careers led them to relocate. • The Taipei Home League attends to a patient at Easter, Taiwan, 1968. • Captain Fred Ruth distributes goods to Koreans in need, 1967. • Boys busy at work at a Salvation Army camp in the Eastern United States.

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Clockwise from above: In 1969, Erik Wickberg of Sweden was the first General elected who was born outside the Commonwealth of Nations. During his administration, he quietly replaced territorial leaders in the developing world, mostly British, with national leaders who had proven capable. A quiet man, his leadership was steady and firm. • General Wickberg greets young visitors in his office at International Headquarters. • The Salvation Army School for the Blind in the Bahamas started manufacturing mops to provide employment and helped fund the program. These mops became the best-selling brand in the country. • When refugee children fled from the attempted breakaway nation of Biafra, there were not enough clothes for them. Army workers used whatever materials were available, including the USAID food sacks, 1969. • With thousands of Indian children not attending school, The Salvation Army opened schools wherever and however possible. Despite studying under primitive circumstances, the children were happy to have the opportunity to learn.

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Above left: Dudley Gardiner gave legendary service through his efforts to feed the poor in Calcutta (now Kolkata), despite suffering from a debilitating disease in his legs. Above right: Teaching village children in Pakistan to read and write. Left: Captain Rosemarie Haefeli from Switzerland began years of service in Haiti, educating thousands of Haitian youth. Below left: A Salvationist witnesses in Peru. Below right: Bergen International Scout Camp in Norway, 1970.

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The management and staff warmly congratulate

The Salvation Army on 150 years of significant global Christian Ministry that has impacted the lives of millions.

www.maranatha.co.uk


Above left: A class of teenage boys at Howard Institute, Zimbabwe. Above right: John Gowans and John Larsson worked together to write several musicals over a 20-year period. The first, Takeover Bid, showed in multiple languages across the world. This scene is from the production in New Zealand. Right: A passerby finds a listening ear in a Swedish street, 1971. Below: Fishermen display Army-provided nets in Andra Pradesh on India’s southeast coast. A cyclone had destroyed their fishing equipment, robbing them of their livelihood, 1972.

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Above left: The first Canadian to be elected General, Clarence Wiseman assumed command of the Army during a time of international upheaval. Concerned about developing leadership in emerging African nations, he commandeered the International College for Officers (ICO) in 1976 to train only African and Asian leaders. Above right: In Melbourne, Australia, General Wiseman delights in leading the band. Left: General Wiseman joins with Salvationists in Nairobi, Kenya. Below left: An officer serves a police colonel at the site of a plane crash in the Philippines, 1978. Below right: In Australia, a fire brigade Salvation Army chaplain comforts a victim who lost her home.

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Clockwise from above: Rice harvest at the Rajaginya Boys Home, Sri Lanka, 1974. • Led by one of their own, children from the Seoul Girls’ Home in Korea perform a song. • On the march at the Finnsnes Corps, Norway, 1976. • Lt. Barrington Young became the second blind officer commissioned in the Caribbean, joining only four other blind Salvation Army officers then serving worldwide. Young entered Kingston, Jamaica’s School for the Blind as a child, where he trained in agricultural work. He was an accomplished musician, the top seller of War Cry magazine among the cadets, and shared the top academic award. • Dozens of young student nurses have trained at The Salvation Army hospital in Surabuya, Indonesia. Several hospitals provide similar training across Indonesia.

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Clockwise from above: The future? • In Kenya, cadets reenact the opening of The Salvation Army in England, 1977. • Arnold Brown, a gifted speaker and writer, became The Salvation Army’s 11th General, serving from 1977 to 1981. While serving in his home country of Canada, he pioneered Salvation Army radio ministry with the program This is My Story and television programming with the series The Living Word. As General, he instituted the Missionary Literature and Translation Fund as well as the South Asia College for Officers for officers from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar. • General Brown handles an Australian football while hosting a group of young people.

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Clockwise from above: General Brown leads the Boys’ Home band in Rangoon, Myanmar. • General Brown signs programs for his young fans. • General Brown conducts a review of officers in Batala, Northern India, 1980. • An accomplished musician, General Brown reviews a score with Bandmaster Robert Redhead. • General Brown receives the postage stamp commemorating the 70th anniversary of The Salvation Army, Chile, 1979.

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Clockwise from above: Officers stand back to back to compare the traditional Western uniform, with a bonnet, with the new uniform, featuring lapels and a hat, 1980. (Getty) • Mrs. Captain Hetta and two comrades set out rice seedlings in paddy fields. Captain J. Laus holds a handful of seedlings to help, Kalimantan, Indonesia, 1981. (Muara Mujan) • Salvationists on their way to an open-air meeting in Ghana, circa 1980. • As The Salvation Army’s emergency response became more widely known and sophisticated, major companies began to contribute. Airlines in particular were generous in flying vital supplies and personnel to disaster areas around the world. • Two of a thousand pupils at the William Booth Secondary School in Hong Kong, circa 1980.

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Above: In Cochabamba, Bolivia, young people visit the hospital to share Christian songs and witness, circa 1980. Right: Florence Guatizo in a radio drama in Zambia, 1980. Below: Captain David Botting (center) looks on as Yoko Ono moves through the press following the assassination of her husband, John Lennon. Botting was a personal friend of Lennon’s from his days administering Strawberry Field, a Salvation Army children’s home. Lennon grew up behind the home, which he memorialized with the song “Strawberry Fields Forever” in 1967.

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Left: Salvationists march triumphantly on their way to congress in Zambia, March 1981. Middle: During the field day held at Camp George L. Carpenter, these young people presented a program of gospel music in Buenos Aires, Argentina, at the first Territorial Youth Congress. Bottom: A home for 32 physically and mentally handicapped children operates on the island of Cheung Chau, Hong Kong. Here is Captain Maureen Wu with some of the children.

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Above left: The 12th General of The Salvation Army was Finn Jarl Wahlström, serving as General from 1981 to 1986. Highlights of his administration included the International Leadership Conference held in communist East Berlin in 1985. The second International Youth Congress, the first international congress held outside the United Kingdom, was held in 1985 in Illinois, the United States, with 5,000 delegates. Above right: General Wahlström enjoys a special moment with a child in South Asia. Right: In India, an elderly soldier is delighted to meet General Wahlström. Below: Phil Wilson recruiting collectors for the Red Shield Appeal in the Australia Eastern Territory.

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Clockwise from above left: A collector takes advantage of stopped traffic to collect donations for the Army’s Annual Red Shield Appeal in the Australia Southern Territory. • Salvationists on the march in Canada. • Ghanaian Salvationists dance on the way to present their tithes and offerings. • Mothers’ class at a newborn clinic in Bangladesh, 1982.

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Clockwise from above left: Youths in Germany use puppets to present the Gospel, 1982. • With the Alps in the background, Salvationists in Switzerland conduct an open-air. • A probation worker gives advice to a prisoner on his future once he is freed, Netherlands. • Chang Yuen Fa, paralyzed since he was 1 year old, and his sisters at the Keelung Corps in Taipei, Taiwan. Thanks to the insistence of corps officer Lieutenant Hu, the Christian clinic agreed to perform surgery on the boy.

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Clockwise from above: In Kenya, Salvation soldiers of the Isinga Corps participated in a 2-mile march of witness through the Kandundo Division. The color bearers were in front and the sergeant major was in back with a bell to warn for cars passing the procession. • Young people witnessing in Chile, July 1984. • In Peru, Chan-Chan uses its tuneful music to attract crowds and evangelize. • Relief work in Capiz, the Philippines, December 1984.

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From news of The Salvation Army to stirring voices on complex social issues, New Frontier Publications will inform and empower you to communicate the Army’s mission and activate you to do good. www.newfrontierpublications.org

SAVN.TV is a new online initiative designed to tell The Salvation Army’s story and win the world for Christ through the innovative use of new media. In branching out and adapting this ministry, SAVN.TV features live chats with spiritual counselors, Live Video Chats for Bible studies or Recovery groups, and opportunities for other ministries to expand their reach through “Channels,” all while hosting hundreds of inspirational videos.

The Salvation Army USA West Territory tells stories on their Expect Change blog about the “do gooders” who make it possible for the Army to share the Gospel and meet needs through programs and ministries, regional and local initiatives, corporate partnerships, and personal testimonies. You can find content that’s appropriate for donor, volunteer and inside-the-Army audiences at www.salvationarmyexpectchange.org

Western Territorial Headquarters | 180 E. Ocean Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90802 | www.usawest.org


Clockwise from above left: In Zimbabwe, the shofar is played to announce the beginning of congress meetings. • Since 1920, The Salvation Army Rose Parade Band has marched in the New Year’s Day parade, preceding the annual Rose Bowl football game, one of the major sporting events in the United States. The parade is broadcast to millions of viewers across the United States and Canada. • The Canadian Staff Band marches with the Rocky Mountains in the background. • A canteen unit on its way to reach disaster victims in the Southern United States.

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Clockwise from left: The Salvation Army conducts regular outreach to the many squatters who live along the railroad in Jakarta, Indonesia. • In the India Central Territory, the Krupa Orchestra at work, 1983. • An officer conducts a short meeting in a narrow alley in Bombay (now called Mumbai). • The Northeast Pioneer Group on the verge of the Sao Francisco River in Bahia, looking toward Petrolina, Brazil. • Child evangelism in Hong Kong.

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Above: Field Training cadets campaign among alcoholics on Avenida Matta in Santiago, Chile. Right: An officer shows boys how to work with bees and honey at El Alba, Santiago. Below left: Commissioner Catherine Bramwell-Booth speaking at a Salvation Army event. Long after her retirement, Malcolm Muggeridge interviewed Commissioner BramwellBooth on television, which led to her renewed popularity in the United Kingdom and in the Army. She delighted people with her fervor, outspokenness, and stirring messages. Below right: Commissioner Catherine Bramwell-Booth with her sisters, Colonel Dora and Lt. Colonel Olive. Commissioner Catherine was promoted to Glory at 104 years of age.

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Interlude: ROYALTY

Above left: Princess Juliana of the Netherlands joins Salvation Army leaders, circa 1920. Above right: Emperor Hirohito and Empress Nagako of Japan with Major Uyeda (far right) at the Tokyo Girls’ Home, circa 1955. Below: General Wilfred Kitching greets King Olav V in Oslo, Norway, 1963.

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Above left: General Frederick Coutts bows to Queen Elizabeth II as she arrives at The Salvation Army’s Centennial Congress in London, 1965. Above right: Major Alida Bosshardt and Princess Beatrix in Amsterdam’s red light district, the Netherlands, 1965. Left: Queen Fabiola of Belgium and Major Clair Matin at The Salvation Army Home for Children in Brussels, circa 1970. Below: General Erik Wickberg with the Queen Mother, the United Kingdom, 1974.

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You’re an army of servants To us, that makes you an army of heroes

We salute you To learn more, please reach out to your health care representative or go to anthem.com. Thank you for 150 years of service to the hungry, the hurting and the needy all over the world We’re honored to serve close to 15,000 Salvation Army officers. As you strive to balance stability with innovation in your service, we seek to do the same for you. You work so hard to meet needs. Our goal is to meet yours — with high-quality, affordable and responsive health care. Congratulations on this historic milestone.

Anthem Blue Cross is the trade name of Blue Cross of California. Independent licensee of the Blue Cross Association. ANTHEM is a registered trademark of Anthem Insurance Companies, Inc. The Blue Cross name and symbol are registered marks of the Blue Cross Association. Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield is the trade name of: In Colorado: Rocky Mountain Hospital and Medical Service, Inc. HMO products underwritten by HMO Colorado, Inc. In Connecticut: Anthem Health Plans, Inc. In Indiana: Anthem Insurance Companies, Inc. In Kentucky: Anthem Health Plans of Kentucky, Inc. In Maine: Anthem Health Plans of Maine, Inc. In Missouri (excluding 30 counties in the Kansas City area): RightCHOICE® Managed Care, Inc. (RIT), Healthy Alliance® Life Insurance Company (HALIC), and HMO Missouri, Inc. RIT and certain affiliates administer non-HMO benefits underwritten by HALIC and HMO benefits underwritten by HMO Missouri, Inc. RIT and certain affiliates only provide administrative services for self-funded plans and do not underwrite benefits. In Nevada: Rocky Mountain Hospital and Medical Service, Inc. HMO products underwritten by HMO Colorado, Inc., dba HMO Nevada. In New Hampshire: Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc. Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc. HMO plans are administered by Anthem Health Plans of New Hampshire, Inc. and underwritten by Matthew Thornton Health Plan, Inc. In Ohio: Community Insurance Company. In Virginia: Anthem Health Plans of Virginia, Inc. trades as Anthem Blue Cross and Blue Shield in Virginia, and its service area is all of Virginia except for the City of Fairfax, the Town of Vienna, and the area east of State Route 123. In Wisconsin: Blue Cross Blue Shield of Wisconsin (BCBSWi), which underwrites or administers the PPO and indemnity policies; Compcare Health Services Insurance Corporation (Compcare), which underwrites or administers the HMO policies; and Compcare and BCBSWi collectively, which underwrite or administer the POS policies. Independent licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. ANTHEM is a registered trademark of Anthem Insurance Companies, Inc. The Blue Cross and Blue Shield names and symbols are registered marks of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Georgia, Inc. is an independent licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association. The Blue Cross and Blue Shield names and symbols are registered marks of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association.

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Above: From the hand of King Carl Gustaf of Sweden, General Wickberg receives the Great Cross, the highest civil award, while Queen Silvia looks on, 1980. Above right: Diana, then Princess of Wales, with Commissioner Peter Chang at The Salvation Army Home for the Elderly, Kwachun City, Korea, 1992. Right: Princess Anne of the United Kingdom speaks at the opening of the new International Headquarters building as General John and Commissioner Freda Larsson listen, 2004. Below: The Duke of Cambridge, Prince William, greets Colonel Gillian Downer, territorial commander of the Singapore, Malaysia and Myanmar Territory, Singapore, 2012.

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Interlude: HEADS OF STATE

Left: President Harry Truman enjoys a moment with General Albert Orsborn, circa 1947. Above: The first prime minister of the newly independent Republic of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, meets with General Orsborn in his office in 1949. Below left: President Vincent Auriol of France meets with General Orsborn, circa 1950. Bottom: President Julius K. Nyerere greets young students at the Mgulani Rehabilitation Center, Tanzania, 1968.

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Counter-clockwise from above: President Augusto Pinochet of Chile greets General Arnold Brown with Commissioner Allemand, territorial commander, circa 1980. • General Erik Wickberg meets with President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines, 1972. • President Urho Kaleva Kekkonen of Finland greets General Jarl Wahlström and Finnish territorial leaders, 1981. • President Francisco da Costa Gomes and First Lady Maria Estela Furtado de Antas Varejão of Portugal receive General Wahlström on April 21, 1985.

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Above left: Two outstanding women leaders came together when Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher met General Eva Burrows, 1986. Above right: General Eva Burrows and Commissioner Andrew S. Miller pray with President Ronald Reagan, circa 1986. Right: President Daniel Arap Moi of Kenya signing a guestbook during the official opening of the new Officer Training College, May 11, 1991. Below: Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada receives a print of a montage representing the history of The Salvation Army in Canada in its centennial year, 1992.

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Clockwise from above: Fidel Castro of Cuba had a soft spot for The Salvation Army that dated back to his days as a minor league baseball player in the United States. Although the Army endured many hardships under his rule, it was allowed to operate. In 1992, Castro received General Eva Burrows along with the territorial leaders of the Caribbean, Colonel and Mrs. David Edwards, and the divisional leaders, Major and Mrs. Felipe Prieto. Lt. Colonel Anna Gibbons from Mexico served as translator. • Over the years, South Korean presidents have received several Salvation Army leaders. At the Blue House, President Kim Dae-jung and First Lady Lee Hui-ho receive General Paul and Commissioner Kay Rader. The Raders gave many years of service in Korea. • General John and Commissioner Freda Larsson visit the Prime Minister of Antigua, the Honorable Lester B. Bird, in 2003. Bird served as a Salvation Army officer for a short time and attended The Salvation Army whenever he was in the country. Salvationists participated in his official state funeral and Major Keith Graham, regional commander of Antigua and Barbuda, did his committal. The airport in St. John’s, the capital of Antigua, is the only one in the world named after a Salvationist: V.C. Bird International Airport.

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Who have you helped today? College of the Ozarks® mirrors the Christian Goal of the Salvation Army. 

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Above: Pope Francis became the first Pope to grant a private audience with Salvation Army leaders. The Pope shakes hands with General André Cox following their meeting. (©L’Osservatore Romano. All rights reserved.) Left: Prime Minister D. M. “Di Mu” Jayaratne of Sri Lanka welcomed General Linda Bond to his office for an interview, 2013. (Photo provided by the prime minister’s office) Below: President Barack Obama meets with Salvation Army leadership in the Oval Office, Aug. 5, 2014. Participants include: Commissioner David Jeffrey, National Commander; Commissioner Barbara Jeffrey, National President of Women’s Ministries; Lt. Colonel Ron Busroe, National Communications Director, and Lt. Colonel Carol Busroe, Public Policy Director. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

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Chapter 8: MARCHING ALONG Top left: Eva Burrows, an Australian, served as the 14th General of The Salvation Army, from 1986 to 1993. Among her accomplishments was a true internationalization of International Headquarters, the appointment of nationals, where possible, in key leadership positions in their home territories, the creation of the International Doctrine Council, and the designation of the United Kingdom Territory as its own entity. Immensely popular, General Burrows logged more than 1 million miles visiting Salvation Army locations around the world. Left: General Burrows in the carpentry shop of the Suzano Children’s Home in Brazil. Below left: After spending 17 years of her officership in Zimbabwe, General Burrows learned to join in and enjoy African dances of praise, 1988. Below: When communism imploded in Europe and the former Soviet Union, General Burrows saw the opportunity to reclaim countries lost to the Army following World War II and to launch new ones. Here, General Burrows stands with pioneer officers being sent to reopen the work in Hungary with the first Hungarian Salvation Army flag.

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Above left: General Burrows has a word with a fellow servant of Christ, Mother Teresa, upon meeting in India. The General often spent time in the company of world leaders and other important figures. Above right: Kwaipo Village dancers greet General Burrows during her visit to Papua New Guinea, 1996. Left: General Burrows enters a Sao Paolo, Brazil, favela by crossing an open sewer. Below: The General meets with Afghan elders at the Haripur refugee camp in Pakistan to discuss The Salvation Army’s response to their needs, 1989.

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Clockwise from above: Congress celebrations in Zimbabwe, 1990. • Street witnessing in Moscow soon after the work reopened there, 1991. • Mary Ljubimova from Moscow in Kiev, Ukraine, June 1993. • Drought relief, Masvingo, Zimbabwe, 1990.

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Clockwise from left: Mrs. Colonel N.J. Samuel, Territorial Home League President, gives a woman a goat with the territorial commander’s assistance. • At Hopehaven Home, special needs children in Malaysia enjoy worship. • Making bricks following an earthquake in Ecuador, 1987. • Boys learn to type at the Blind Boys’ Home in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1987.

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Top: Major S. Peranginangin, Territorial Home League Secretary, plays tug-of-war with Home League members from the Bandung II Corps, Indonesia, 1988. Above: A group of newly enrolled soldiers in Malawi, 1991. Left: A fashion show featuring donated clothing from the Army thrift stores in Helsinki, Finland. Below left: Retired officers who served in the Army before it was banned by the Communist Party rejoice to see The Salvation Army reopen in their native land, Budapest, 1990. Below right: In India, children listen attentively as a Salvationist reads from a children’s Bible, 1991.

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Clockwise from right: In Norway, youth sing in the openair. • Captain Malcolm Herring with students, Oamaru, New Zealand, 1990. • Emergency relief for cyclone victims in Bangladesh, May 1991. • General Bramwell Tillsley served from 1993 to 1994 – the shortest time period of any General. Diagnosed with serious heart problems, he resigned from office and returned to his native Canada. • General Tillsley speaks at his welcome meeting after his election, 1993.

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Clockwise from above: A young Salvationist works with an elderly woman as she sews, Hong Kong. • An officer shares her testimony with a bystander during corps outreach, Canada. • In 1993, a Salvationist explains the way of salvation to a person listening to the open-air service, Santa Cruz, Spain. • General Paul A. Rader was the first American-born General, leading The Salvation Army from 1994 to 1999. Inspired by his wife, Commissioner Kay Rader, Rader worked to promote the status of women Salvationists, especially officers. Married women officers for the first time carried their own rank apart from their husbands, and women were given more access to leadership positions at all levels. General Rader also engaged on a limited basis with China during his administration, and he launched the International Spiritual Life Commission. • General Rader meets the press following his election at Sunbury Court, London, 1994.

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Clockwise from above left: The Raders at Havirov Home for Mothers and Children, the Czech Republic. • Commissioner Kay Rader and Lieutenant Lisa Brodin weigh a child in Rwanda. Following the genocide in this Central Africa country, the Army began humanitarian work, which led to its official opening shortly afterward. • Residents from the Rajagiriya Boys’ Home ride elephants in the welcome parade. Rumesh Premakumara is carrying the Salvation Army flag while riding an adult elephant, followed by Indujan Ramanathan on a baby elephant. (Photo by Charles Withana) • Ceremony for the re-opening of the work in Estonia, 1995. • Mass timbrel drill during the East Africa Territorial Congress in 1996.

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Clockwise from above: Searching for victims following a tornado in the USA Eastern Territory. • Majors Charles and Shirley White started the Angel Tree program in Lynchburg, Virginia, USA Southern Territory. It subsequently spread rapidly across the United States and other countries. A donor sponsors a child by taking a tag from the tree, and the Army gives Christmas gifts to the child’s family. • The Soul Warmers knitting project at Helsinki Headquarters, Finland, involves knitting clothes for babies in Estonia. • The United Gospel Chorus performs at the Stockholm, Sweden, Congress in 1997. • Salvationists present the Gospel message through a street performance to capture the attention of passersby, Finland, Aug. 12, 1998.

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Clockwise from above: General John Gowans, a gifted writer and speaker, served as the international leader from 1999 to 2002. General Gowans encouraged open discussion regarding a number of aspects of The Salvation Army. During his administration, the Commission of Officership presented their findings and recommendations. For the first time other than a youth congress, an international congress was held outside of the United Kingdom when the Millennial Congress convened in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, in 2000. Here, the General gives his Bible message in Darling Harbour Sydney Convention Centre, Sydney, Australia, 2002. • Much to the delight of the boys who crowd around him, the General becomes a member of Arica Band during the congress parade in South America Western Territory. • In Bermuda, the General assists the town crier. • In Fiji, women participate in a craft program.

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Clockwise from above: The airplane used for many years by the Flying Padres was replaced with the more maneuverable helicopter. Pictured here is Captain Mark Bulow of the Australia Eastern Territory. (Photo by Shairon Paterson) • The Wairarapa Corps Health Bus wends its way on the roads of New Zealand to deliver much-needed medical services. • After a visit by corps cadets, a Bible class meets in a remote area of Portugal. • On Sept. 11, 2001, when terrorists attacked New York City, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania, The Salvation Army was among the first to respond. This is the scene at Ground Zero in New York City, September 2001. • Commissioner John Busby, U.S. National Commander, addresses the press about The Salvation Army’s response to the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. He stands in front of the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside of Washington, D.C.

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Clockwise from above: The Bitare singing group at the Rwanda Regional Congress Women’s Meeting, Easter 2001. • General John Larsson was elected the 17th General, serving as international leader from 2002 to 2006. A gifted musician and composer, he also possesses great writing ability. A quiet man, he provided steady, unpretentious leadership during his administration, bolstering The Salvation Army’s strengths while addressing its weaknesses. Here, General Larsson preaches at the Australia Eastern Territory Congress in the Sunday morning meeting in 2004. • In the United Kingdom Territory, General Larsson enjoys a good laugh at a question posed to him by 12-year-old Gary Pitt. • General and Commissioner Larsson make their way through a crowd of well-wishers in Bangladesh, 2003. • The General speaks about The Salvation Army’s International Year for Children and Youth in 2005 in the Australia Eastern Territory.

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Clockwise from above: An artist’s impression of the new International Headquarters building and the walkway leading from St. Paul’s Cathedral to the Millennium Footbridge and Tate Modern art gallery. The property at 101 Queen Victoria Street in London, the Army’s home for more than a century, was divided into two buildings. One half is occupied by International Headquarters; the other half is leased to provide the funds to operate it. • Phil Wall with the Raynes Park Salvation Army flag at the North Pole, 2004. • Commissioner Lim Ah Ang leads a service for residents of The Salvation Army’s Peacehaven Nursing Home, one of the largest in Singapore. • Major Mike Olsen surveys gas bottles safely delivered to Umm Qasr in Iraq, 2003. The Salvation Army provided services to the Iraqi people in the wake of the Second Gulf War.

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Congratulations to The Salvation Army on 150 years of service In 1885, William Booth spoke to seminary students in Boston, and Samuel Logan Brengle – a student at the school that would become Boston University School of Theology – was inspired to a life of ministry. Brengle would become one of The Salvation Army’s most influential teachers and preachers. Today, a theological education at Boston University School of Theology is preparing leaders who are called to provide prophetic, pastoral answers to 21st century issues. Our graduates serve as parish ministers, chaplains, campus ministers, nonprofit leaders, social workers, teachers, advocates, and more. With a 1:8 faculty-student ratio and rich spiritual life, students find mentors among the country’s leading theological faculty. Choose from five MDiv tracks: Pastoral Ministry, Global and Community Engagement, Church and the Arts, Religion and the Academy, and Chaplaincy. Come prepare to do good.

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Clockwise from above: Captain Simon Andrew, Major Cedric Hills (of International Headquarters), Brian Oxley (team leader), and Muntajeb Ibrahim (Iraqi staff supervisor) with Iraqi schoolgirls at a sewing graduation ceremony. • A scene from The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, which debuted at The Salvation Army’s reopened Times Square Corps in New York City. • Thousands of delegates kneel at the Mercy Seat after the General’s Bible message at the Pan-African Congress, 2005. • A Salvation Army worker helps an earthquake survivor, South America Western Territory, 2007. • A flag bearer at the 125th Anniversary Congress in Bern, Switzerland, 2007. (Corbis)

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Clockwise from above left: Care packages prepared for the sick and elderly, Norway and Iceland Territory. • Seniors at The Salvation Army Praisehaven Nursing Home in Singapore participate in Intergenerational Day, sponsored by the Singapore government. • Salvation Army workers distribute clean bottled water to flood victims in Bangladesh, 2004. • Fun at a youth meeting at the 2005 Congress in Helsinki, Finland. • The Salvation Army in Finland received worldwide media attention when Mies vailla menneisyyttä (The Man Without a Past), directed by Aki Kaurismäki, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 2002.

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Clockwise from above: Salvation Army scouts celebrated 90 years in Finland in 2005. These are uniforms from different decades. • Salvation Army officers brave floodwaters to distribute food in the India Western Territory, 2005. • A Salvation Army team gives medical treatment in Sawahan, a village in Indonesia, 2006. • Work therapy at supported housing in Helsinki, Finland. • Miramar Corps Salvationists pray around a map of New Zealand, 2005.

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Salvation Army, You Deserve a Fanfare! Congratulations on your milestone! Yamaha salutes the important work you do, from music ministries to hunger relief, and so much more. We’re proud that our instruments have helped your music programs bring joy and fulfillment to so many; thank you for allowing us to share in your achievements. We wish you continued success for the next 150 years – and beyond.


Clockwise from above left: General Shaw Clifton served as The Salvation Army’s international leader from 2006 to 2011. Educated as an attorney, as General he demonstrated a willingness to address thorny issues. During his administration, he and his wife, Commissioner Helen Clifton, actively campaigned against sexual trafficking and helped establish the International Social Justice Commission. Despite a cancer diagnosis, the General stayed in office. Sadly, Commissioner Clifton was also diagnosed with cancer. Soon after their retirement, she was promoted to Glory. • General Clifton addresses the congregation during the Catherine and William Booth College Graduation Exercises at Knox United Church in Winnipeg, Canada, 2007. • General Clifton prays at the grave of Captain Lucas, India Northern Territory, 2007. • Commissioner Christine MacMillan releases a dove symbolizing freedom from the captivity of oppression in a ceremony in the specially designed garden at the new International Social Justice Commission Headquarters, 2008. • The General charges Captains Lee, Min-ho and Chang, Mi-hyun to begin work in Mongolia, Korean Territory, 2008.

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Clockwise from left: Commissioner Helen Clifton preaching while wearing traditional Zambian clothing, Zambia Territory, 2009. • General Clifton interacts with Salvationists in Santiago, Chile, South America Western Territory, 2009. • Young people conduct an open-air at the boardwalk in Old Orchard Beach, Maine, USA Eastern Territory. The Salvation Army has conducted annual outdoor meetings every summer since the 1880s. • Salvation Army candles manufactured in a sheltered workshop in Norway. • Rod Allen, Creative Arts Production Designer and creator of Agents of T.R.U.T.H., with Bally, the last remaining Tasmanian tiger, Australia Eastern Territory. (Photo by Shairon Paterson)

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Clockwise from above: Salvationists provide aid during a flood in Indonesia. • Major Sirkka Paukku and Finnish music legend Katri Helena at a televised Christmas Kettle Concert in Finland, 2008. • Salvationists from Hong Kong distribute clothes to women and children in the aftermath of an earthquake that hit Bachu County, China, 2008. • Worship in one of the new outposts in Isiolo on the way to Northern Kenya. • Executive officers with hands on a map of Korea pray for the nation.

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Clockwise from above: Salvationists of the First Nations in Canada perform a piece using modern and traditional instruments. • A Christmas broadcast with famous Dutch showmaster Paul de Leeuw, the Netherlands, 2008. (Photo by MWDL) • Salvation Army team members set out to help clean up areas affected by a typhoon in Taiwan, 2009. • The Canadian Staff Band marches from Buckingham Palace during the 120th anniversary celebration of the International Staff Band, 2011. • Linda Bond served as General from 2011 to 2013. A charismatic leader and speaker, she was known for making herself readily available to Salvationists, often staying hours after meetings were over until everyone who wanted to shake her hand had the opportunity to do so. She traveled extensively during her short tenure, which ended with her retirement in June 2013. Here, she salutes the crowd at the International Conference of Leaders in Toronto, Canada.

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Clockwise from above: General Linda Bond (center front) helps International College for Soldiers delegates and staff spell out “ICS.” 2012 was the first year the event was held. (Photo by Brent Forrest) • General Bond with new Salvationists from the Kingdom of Cambodia, 2013. • General Bond in 2012 with flag-waving students from College Verena in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. (Photo by Yves Montoban) • General Bond with an elephant from the welcome parade complete with the International Vision logo, Sri Lanka, 2013. (Photo by Charles Withana) • The General is welcomed to Duakwa, Ghana, by the traditional chief, 2012.

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Clockwise from above left: The France and Belgium Territorial Band plays to the crowds in St. Peter’s Square at the Vatican as part of 125th anniversary celebrations in Italy, 2012. • Retired officers in a meeting, Kenya Eastern Territory. • Boys playing soccer, Tanzania, 2011. • When a horrific earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010, The Salvation Army was the first agency to distribute aid, even though their own buildings were rendered unusable. Here, a retired Salvation Army officer from the United States, 72-year-old Lt. Colonel Herb Rader, undertakes an operation in the Salvation Army clinic in Port-au-Prince. (Photo by Jeremy Watt/The Salvation Army Canada and Bermuda Territory) • Most of the medical help came from outside Haiti, making translation essential. This Salvation Army officer assists both the doctor and the patient in the first days following the quake.

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A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years


Clockwise from above: Guarded by United Nations troops, Salvation Army scouts help unload food for distribution in Petit Goave, Haiti, an area also severely damaged in the earthquake, 2010. (Photo by Lt. Colonel Danny Morrow) • After the earthquake, thousands of refugees crowded into a soccer field behind the Salvation Army compound. The United Nations turned over administration of this makeshift camp to the Army. With little to do, some boys found some scraps amid the debris and made kites to play with. (Photo by Lt. Colonel Danny Morrow) • Lieutenant Luigi Muedas gives instructions to Salvation Army soldiers from the Madrid Central Corps, Spain, 2011. • A Salvationist helps at the Christchurch City memorial service for earthquake victims, Hagley Park, New Zealand, March 18, 2011. • Commissioner Andrew Kalai, the territorial commander for the Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands Territory, enrolls the first soldiers for the newly opened work in the nation of Solomon Islands, 2012.

A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years

Valiant and Strong


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Above: Officers of the Eastern Europe Territory welcome international leaders with the traditional gifts of bread, salt, and flowers, 2012. Left: Junior soldiers sing during a congress meeting in the USA Eastern Territory. Below left: In the USA Eastern Territory, soldiers and officers celebrate during the African American Heritage weekend. Below right: Captain David Kotrikadze (left), a finance and property officer for the Georgia Region, and Captain Beso Nebieridze, an officer for the Tbilisi Central Corps, assess a severely flooddamaged area of the Tbilisi Eastern Europe Territory, 2012.

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Clockwise from above: Scouts bring the light at the 2011 Roots Congress in Finland. • Children in Myanmar play a game, 2010. • A scene at the Mercy Seat at the Penang Corps, Malaysia. • A volunteer stands among the bags of toys for children before Christmas distribution, USA Southern Territory, 2012.

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A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years


Above left: Young people from Turkana, Kenya, collect water from a Salvation Army bowser, 2011. Above right: A sewing class in the South America Eastern Territory. Below left: Salvationists take telephone donations in Hong Kong, 2011. Below right: Major Stanley Griffin, the divisional commander for the Eastern Jamaica Division in the Caribbean Territory, helps distribute food and water to young disaster victims, 2012.

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Above: An assessment meeting with people in a village affected by drought in Uganda, 2011. Left: An officer hands a packed meal to a girl in Sendai, Japan, following the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Below left: The International Staff Band marches to Buckingham Palace, 2011. (Photo by Paul Harmer) Below: As Chief of the Staff, Commissioner André Cox had to assume control of The Salvation Army after General Bond’s retirement. In 2013, the High Council met to select Bond’s successor and named Cox the 20th General of The Salvation Army. General Cox has called for The Salvation Army to reaffirm its highest principles and beliefs. This picture is from his visit to the USA Central Territory.

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Clockwise from above: Commissioner Silvia Cox, the international president of Women’s Ministries, salutes Salvation Army leaders from around the world at the International Conference of Leaders in Singapore, 2014. • Born in Zimbabwe to officer parents, General Cox spent his early life in Africa. Here, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, he uses a megaphone to address the welcome crowd just outside the airport terminal, 2014. • Commissioner Cox accepts the traditional welcome garland when she arrives in Pakistan, 2014. • General Cox waves the 2015 Boundless flag next to Colonel Mark Tillsley, Chief Secretary, in Canada at their 2014 commissioning. • Some of the 144 senior soldiers enrolled at the opening of the Army work in Togo, 2012.

A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years

Valiant and Strong


Above left: A Salvation Army soldier enjoys a quiet moment to pray and reflect in a Salvation Army chapel, Norway. Above: A marching relay at the 125th anniversary of The Salvation Army in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012. Left: Heilsarmee performs “You and Me” live on Swiss TV for Eurovision, Switzerland, 2013. (Photo by Martin Kuenzi/ The Salvation Army) Below: After a Junior Home League seminar, Junior Miss members light candles to mark the start of keeping their purity, Kenya Eastern Territory.

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A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years


Counter-clockwise from above: A first responder with an Army-provided drink in Waco, Texas, USA Southern Territory, 2013. • A Project 614 bus in Melbourne, Australia Southern Territory, 2013 • A territorial gathering in the Kenya Eastern Territory, 2013. Territorial gatherings in Africa regularly attract crowds of more than 15,000. • In 2013, an EF5 tornado swept through Moore, Oklahoma, USA, killing 24 people, including several children in an elementary school that was flattened. Outside the school, a Salvation Army volunteer hugs a parent awaiting news of her child.

A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years

Valiant and Strong


Counter-clockwise from above: Salvationists reach out to people living on the streets in Uruguay, South America Eastern Territory, 2013. • Typhoon Haiyan, also known as Typhoon Yolanda, hit several Pacific nations in November 2013. Particularly hard hit was the Philippines, where 6,300 people died and more than 20,000 went missing. The coastal city of Tacloban on Leyte was almost totally washed away. Here, a Salvation Army officer surveys some of the storm damage as the Army prepares its response. • In The Hague, the homeless receive knitted clothing, the Netherlands, 2013. • Lieutenants Yvonne Nyiramahoro and Tharcisse Maseruka are appointed to the Republic of Burundi. Cadets have similar reactions around the world when they receive their first appointments as newly ordained and commissioned Salvation Army officers.

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Counter-clockwise from above: New territorial leaders Commissioners Ken and Joline Hodder join the congregation in a traditional dance, Kenya Western Territory, 2013. • In the midst of the Ebola crisis in West Africa, The Salvation Army operated a distribution center to share needed supplies for families quarantined in their homes in Monrovia, Liberia, 2014. • Salvationists pray outside Mediclinic Heart Hospital in Pretoria, where ailing former president of South Africa and Nobel Peace Prize winner Nelson Mandela lay dying, 2013. (Corbis) • Officers and soldiers of the Kabanjahe Corps in the North Sumatera Division, Indonesia, feed 1,200 refugees every night. Pictured is Major Ketut Putrayasa, who leads the relief effort, cooking up a barrel of rice.

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Interlude: PAUSE AND REFLECT

Above: A Salvation Army van used to reach victims of the Parana forest fire in Brazil, 1964. Left: A homeless man at a Salvation Army shelter from the “For God’s Sake, Care” campaign in the United Kingdom, 1965. Below left: Compassion in action through the “For God’s Sake, Care” campaign, the United Kingdom, 1965. Below: Salvation Army aid came too late for the malnourished children of refugees from the Biafran War, Nigeria, circa 1968. (Photo courtesy of The Daily Telegraph)

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Left: Milk distribution for refugees during the Bangladesh Liberation War, 1971. Below: A Salvationist comforts mourners at the caskets of the Invicta plane crash victims in Switzerland, April 1973. Bottom: A Salvation Army nurse cares for a malnourished woman in Bangladesh, circa 1975.

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Top left: Captain Will Cundiff carries an elderly man during flooding in Shreveport, Louisiana, USA, 1989. Top right: A Salvationist stands with a rescue worker at the site of the Swissair 111 crash off Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1998. Above: Lieutenant John Autry surveys the damage at an elementary school where several children died during a tornado in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 2012.

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Interlude: salvation with a smile

Top right: During the Second World War, in South Africa, a young volunteer points a soldier to the Salvation Army soldiers’ rest room, circa 1943. Above: Salvation Army nurses at Toronto Grace Hospital welcome newborns to the world, 1960s. Right: A junior soldier smiles from a Salvation Army disaster truck, Mexico, circa 1970.

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Left: A young bandsman from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1970. (Getty) Below: A Sally from the Tottenham Citadel Corps in London, circa 1973. (Getty) Below left: A pigeon finds a resting place at the 1978 International Congress in London. (Getty) Bottom right: “They start really early in this territory!” said General John Larsson when one young boy copied his Salvation Army salute, Finland, 2005. Bottom left: Lt. Colonel Rebecca Sjögren with a young friend at a veteran’s housing dedication, USA Central Territory, 2005.

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Top left: Ten-year-old Torbjørn Solevåg interviews General Shaw Clifton at the Norway, Iceland, and the Faeroe Islands Territorial Congress in Norway, 2006. Top right: A kindergarten student at The Salvation Army College Verena shares his snack with General Linda Bond during her visit to his classroom, 2012. (Photo by Yves Montoban) Above left: A Maori leader welcomes the Chief of Staff, Commissioner Israel L. Gaither, with a hongi, the traditional Maori greeting, New Zealand, 2004. Above: Cadet Xavier Bösiger displays the happiness felt by newly commissioned officers around the world when they receive their first appointments, France, 2013. Left: Cadet Kory Strand makes a remarkable discovery at the Training College in Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2014.

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Bibliography Barnes, Cyril. God’s Army, Lion Publishing. Beckhemsted, Herts, 1978

Luck, Peter. This Fabulous Century, Lansdowne Press. Sydney, Australia, 1980

Bate, John M. Destination Unknown, Frontier Press. Long Beach, 2012

McElvaine, Robert S. The Great Depression, Times Books. New York, NY, 1984

Begbie, Harold. The Life of General William Booth, MacMillan Company. New York, 1920

McKinley, Edward H. Marching to Glory: The History of The Salvation Army in the United States, 1880-1992, William B. Eerdman’s Publishing Company. Grand Rapids, 1995

Brown, Arnold. The Gate and the Light, Bookwright Publications. Toronto, 1985 Chesham, Sallie. Born to Battle, Rand McNally & Company. Chicago, 1965

Moyles, R. G. William Booth in America: Six Visits 1886-1907, Crest Books. Alexandria, VA, 2010

Collier, Richard. The General Next to God, Collins. Glasgow, 1965

Satterlee, Allen. Sweeping through the Land: A History of The Salvation Army in the Southern United States, The Salvation Army. Atlanta, 1988

Dalziel, Sylvia. The Joystrings: The Story of The Salvation Army Pop Group, Shield Books. London, 2013

Salvation Assault: The History of The Salvation Army in Papua New Guinea, The Salvation Army. Port Moresby, 2006

Daniels, Patricia S. and Hyslop, Stephen G. Almanac of World History, National Geographic. Washington DC, 2003

Determined to Conquer: The History of The Salvation Army in the Caribbean Territory, Crest Books. Alexandria, VA, 2012

Gariepy, Henry. General of God’s Army: The Authorized Biography of General Eva Burrows, Victor Books. Grand Rapids, 1993

Tate, Lillian. Hallelujah Lads and Lasses, The University of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, 2001

Christianity in Action: The International History of The Salvation Army, William B. Eerdman’s Publishing Company. Grand Rapids, 2009

This Fabulous Century, Time Life Books. New York, NY, 1970 Prelude, 1870-1900 Vol I, 1900-1910 Vol II, 1910-1920 Vol III, 1920-1930 Vol IV, 1930-1940 Vol VII, 1960-1970

History of the World in Photographs, 1850-Present Day, Black Dog and Leventhal Publishing. New York, NY 2008 Hunt, Carol Ferguson. If Two Shall Agree, Beacon Hill Press. Kansas City, 2001 Jennings, Peter and Brewster, Todd. The Century, Doubleday. New York, NY, 1998 Larsson, John. Say Yes to Life, Crest Books. Alexandria, VA, 2007

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Winston, Diane. Red-Hot and Righteous: The Urban Religion of The Salvation Army. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999 Wisbey, Herbert A. Soldiers Without Swords, MacMillan Company. New York, 1955

Valiant and Strong

A Pictorial Celebration of The Salvation Army’s 150 Years

Valiant and Strong: A Pictoral Celebration of The Salvation Army's 150 Years  
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