C H I N A S T U D I E S AT H A R VA R D 哈佛大學的中國研究 2 0 1 8 –1 9 A N N U A L R E P O R T 哈佛大學費正清中國 研究中心2 0 1 8 –1 9周年 報 告
“GREAT UNIVERSITIES STAND FOR TRUTH, AND THE PURSUIT OF TRUTH DEMANDS PERPETUAL EFFORT. TRUTH HAS TO BE DISCOVERED, REVEALED THROUGH ARGUMENT AND EXPERIMENT, TESTED ON THE ANVIL OF OPPOSING EXPLANATIONS AND IDEAS.” LAWRENCE S. BACOW PRESIDENT OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY SPEECH AT PEKING UNIVERSITY, MARCH 20, 2019
偉⼤的⼤學堅持真理，⽽追求真理需要不懈的努⼒。真理需要被 發現，它只有在爭論和試驗中才會顯露，它必須經過對不同的解 釋和理論的檢驗才能成⽴。 ⽩樂瑞, 哈佛⼤學校長 北京⼤學演講會, 2019 年三⽉⼆⼗⽇
ANNUAL REPORT 2017–18
Harvard President Lawrence S. Bacow meets President of the People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping. March 2019
Fairbank Center Director Michael A. Szonyi. 費正清中國研究中心主任宋怡明 Photo: Lisa Cohen
ABOUT THE FAIRBANK CENTER FOR CHINESE STUDIES AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY 關於哈佛大學的費正清中 國研究中心 Founded in 1955, the Fairbank Center is the home for China Studies at Harvard University. 哈佛大學費正清中國研究中心 成立於1955年，致力於在哈佛 大學推進各領域的中國研究
Stone lions stand guard outside Harvard’s Department for East Asian Languages and Civilizations. Photo: James Evans
A WORD FROM THE DIRECTOR 主任寄語 The 2018–19 academic year was a challenging time for all of us at the Fairbank Center who devote ourselves to the study of China. The U.S.-China bilateral relationship continues to deteriorate and there are few signs that the trend will be reversed. As scholars and observers of China, we have been asking ourselves, as we must, how best to respond to a range of unsettling developments, including the ongoing human rights crisis in Xinjiang, and, as I write these notes, the tense situation in Hong Kong. At the same time that we have concerns about developments inside China and in U.S.-China relations, we must also acknowledge the worrying tendencies in U.S. domestic and foreign policies. We must redouble our efforts to ensure that the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University, and indeed the United States, remains a welcoming place for students, scholars, and other visitors from the PRC to pursue academic exchanges. In contemporary China, years that end in the number “nine” are freighted with heavy significance. A number of important events were held in 2018-19 to commemorate anniversaries: a major conference, organized by David Wang, on the centenary of the May Fourth movement; a panel on the hopes and tragedies that are forever linked with June 4, 1989; an event marking the fortieth anniversary of the Taiwan Relations Act; and a large conference, organized with China’s Unirule Institute of Economics in Beijing, on forty years of “Reform and Opening Up.” Although the year raised challenging questions, the day-to-day operations of one of the world’s leading centers for the study of China continue. It is not only the quality of our speakers but also the diversity of our programs that give us this reputation. Among the highlights were Stephen Owen’s presentation of the Reischauer Lectures, and former Acting Assistant Secretary of State Susan Thornton’s Neuhauser Lecture, with the timely title, “Can We Live with China? A Roadmap for Co-evolution.” We also hosted Adrian Zenz, who delivered an important presentation about the current situation in Xinjiang. While many of our visitors are the “rock stars” of China Studies, this year we also hosted literal “rock stars,” welcoming four leading songwriters and musicians in a celebration of “Mandopop: 40 Years of Chinese Popular Music and Culture.” In terms of Harvard’s broader relationship with China, the most dramatic event of the year was Harvard University President Lawrence S. Bacow’s March visit to Hong Kong, Beijing, and Shanghai. Executive Director Dan Murphy and I were honored
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
to accompany President and Mrs. Bacow and other university leaders on the visit. That President Bacow’s first formal foreign trip as Harvard President was to China is an important symbol of the University’s commitment to engagement with China. In addition to meetings with local alumni and academics, the delegation met in the Great Hall of the People with Chinese President Xi Jinping and other senior leaders. At Peking University, President Bacow delivered a powerful speech on the importance of academic freedom. The speech was widely read in China, and several Chinese colleagues have been in touch to thank him, and Harvard, for his public statement. As President Bacow told a rapt public audience, and repeated in private meetings with Chinese academic and political leaders, on occasion universities are able to accomplish results that governments cannot. The past year was sadly marked by the passing of our former director, and long-time supporter and friend of the Center, Professor Roderick MacFarquhar. There have already been many occasions, and I am sure there will be more, when I wish that I had the guidance of Rod’s wise counsel. Even in these challenging times, my colleagues and I strive, through our research, teaching, and public activities, to do our very best to promote scholarship and understanding, and to ensure that the American public and American policymakers are as wellinformed as possible about China. We share these goals with the broader scholarly community as well as with our counterparts in China.
MICHAEL SZONYI 宋怡明 Director, Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies 費正清中國研究中心主任 Frank Wen-Hsiung Wu Memorial Professor of Chinese History, Harvard University 哈佛大學吳文雄講席教授
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
ENGAGING CHINA 走進中國 In March 2019, Harvard University President Lawrence S. Bacow conducted his first overseas visit as Harvard president to China and Japan. During his visit, he met with President of the People’s Republic of China Xi Jinping, presented a speech at Peking University on the values of academic freedom, and attended an academic symposium organized by the Fairbank Center and held at the Harvard Center Shanghai. The symposium focused on the fortieth anniversary of China’s Reform and Opening-Up policy, and invited professors from both Harvard and China to present their research on international relations, sociology, public health, and history.
William C. Kirby, Chairman of the Harvard China Fund, opens the Fairbank Center’s academic symposium at the Harvard Center Shanghai, with special guest President Lawrence S. Bacow.
President Bacow’s trip came at an increasingly important time for Harvard’s relations with China. As political engagement between Beijing and Washington remains challenging, the Fairbank Center is in a unique position to facilitate dialogue between the U.S. and China through the exchange of ideas. Indeed, our promotion of dialogue between the U.S. and China stems from our mission to facilitate a better understanding of China in its multifaceted forms through conversation and scholarship.
Ya-Wen Lei, Assistant Professor of Sociology, speaks at our academic symposium on 40 years of Reform and Opening-Up at the Harvard Center Shanghai, March 2019
President Bacow speaking at Peking University on March 20 Photograph by Yi Wang/Harvard Center Shanghai
“OUR INSTITUTIONS HAVE A RESPONSIBILITY TO CONTRIBUTE POSITIVELY TO OUR OWN SOCIETIES AND TO THE NATIONAL GOOD AS WELL AS TO THE WORLD AT LARGE. BUT AS UNIVERSITIES WE FULFILL THIS CHARGE PRECISELY BY EMBODYING AND DEFENDING ACADEMIC VALUES THAT TRANSCEND THE BOUNDARIES OF ANY ONE COUNTRY.”
“我們都有責任為各⾃的社會做出貢獻，促進各⾃國家以及全 世界的發展。⽽我們作為⼤學，要真正承擔起這樣的責任， 唯⼀的⽅法就是踐⾏和維護那些能夠超越國界的學術價值。” LAWRENCE S. BACOW, PRESIDENT OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY SPEECH AT PEKING UNIVERSITY, MARCH 20, 2019 ⽩樂瑞, 哈佛⼤學校長 北京⼤學演講會, 2019 年三⽉⼆⼗⽇
Members of the Taiwan Studies Workshop at the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University, meet Vice President Chen Chien-jen 陳建仁 in the Presidential Office in Taipei. Photo: Liu Tinming
TAIWAN STUDIES WORKSHOP 哈佛大學台灣研究計劃 Members of the Taiwan Studies Workshop at the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University, have annually visited Taiwan and mainland China since the administration of Chen Shui-bian (2000–2008). Members of the delegation meet with academics, think-tank scholars, and government officials to discuss cross-strait relations. This year, the group visited Taipei, Kaohsiung, Tainan, Beijing, and Xiamen. Workshop Director Steven Goldstein reports from the trip: This year’s visit came at an interesting juncture in crossstrait relations. In November 2018, elections in Taiwan resulted in a stunning defeat for the ruling Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) in the county magistrate and mayoral elections, with the Kuomintang (KMT) gaining nine seats since the last local elections in 2014. This was a startling reversal of fortunes that begged explanation. Were the results indicative of a revival of the KMT? Or were they reflective of President Tsai Ing-wen’s declining popularity? And if so, was it due to the domestic policy of her government or its policy toward the mainland? 2019 began with two important speeches — one by President Tsai on New Year’s Day and the other one day later by President Xi Jinping. In her speech, Tsai codified
Taiwan’s own requirements for progress in crossstrait negotiations: what she called the “four musts.” This reflected a stronger tone, perhaps prompted by a determination to demonstrate resolve after her party’s recent election defeat. The occasion for President Xi’s speech was quite different. It marked the anniversary of an initiative from the mainland that spoke of “peaceful unification” rather than “liberation” as the primary policy goal for resolving the conflict with Taiwan. As with President Tsai’s speech, there were no new initiatives. However, unlike in previous speeches, this speech presented essential elements of the mainland position in either a different manner or with greater emphasis than previously. For example, President Xi’s speech explicitly linked the “1992 Consensus,” which had earlier made cross-strait negotiations possible due to its loose definition by each side, to acceptance of the mainland’s “one China principle” that claims Taiwan is a part of China, with the ultimate goal of reunification. Finally, the speech highlighted “one country, two systems” as the formula for unification, with the suggestion that the specific form of unification with Taiwan would be the result of “democratic consultations” across the strait. As before, President Xi linked Taiwan’s return to China with the realization of his trademark vision of the “great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.”
Our meetings in Taiwan and on the mainland were by dominated by analyses of these two speeches and their possible influence on the future trajectory of cross-strait relations.
It became apparent in our discussions that Xi’s speech had struck a nerve. The tone of the reaction on the island was set by Tsai’s New Year’s speech, in which she rejected the “1992 Consensus” as a basis for discussion, arguing that Xi had associated it with two other unacceptable elements: the “One China Principle” and “One Country, Two Systems.” Repeating the “four musts” Tsai once again asserted that the results of the November “elections absolutely do not mean that grassroots public opinion in Taiwan favors abandoning our sovereignty, nor do they mean that the people want to make concessions regarding Taiwanese identity.” President Xi’s speech was, as one local commentator wrote, seemingly “tone deaf” to the mood on the island. So what was the reasoning behind it? Some observers noted that while the election results on Taiwan or the developing tensions with the U.S. might have prompted Xi to take a more provocative stance on cross-strait relations, domestic politics were also a factor — and, in the view of one interlocutor on Taiwan, the principal factor. Regardless, it was seen in Taipei as presaging a new formulation of policy toward Taiwan that shifted the discussion toward unification. It would be, another interlocutor argued, the formulation for China’s future Taiwan policy. The consensus was that Tsai had gained from the exchange, whereas the position of the Kuomintang had been weakened. Xi’s speech appeared to have eliminated any ambiguity and with it the core element in the KMT’s mainland policy. In our meeting with KMT Party officials, they disagreed with Xi’s interpretation of the “1992 Consensus” and argued that the party’s more flexible interpretation remains the best way to stabilize the cross-strait situation by making it clear that the KMT is not pursuing independence, but rather simultaneously balancing preservation of Taiwan’s identity with the economic gains of positive relations with the mainland. However, overall it was clear that Xi’s speech had, for the moment at least, placed the KMT in a difficult position. As one might expect, our interlocutors on the mainland did not see Xi’s speech as damaging to the KMT, nor did they feel that it complicated cross-strait relations. Rather, the speech was presented to us as an indication of Xi’s distinctive contribution to the further development of Beijing’s policy toward Taiwan. One analyst told us that it was a signal to the people of the Chinese mainland of the continued commitment by the leadership to solve the Taiwan issue. It was also a response to the U.S. policy which, judging from the recently passed Taiwan Security Act, was seeking to restore the alliance with Taiwan. There were suggestions that the recent exchanges might portend a significant change in the nature of cross-strait relations by bringing the most volatile and irreconcilable issue to the top of the agenda in an election year: conflicting claims to sovereignty. It seems that after three years of uncertainty, both sides are locked into starkly conflicting positions on what appears to be a fundamental, but irreconcilable, question.
Previous meetings of the Taiwan Studies Workshop from top to bottom: Ross Terrill and Chen Shui-bian in 1993, Steven Goldstein and Ma Ying-jeou in 2015, Michael Szonyi and Tsai Ing-wen in 2018, and Steven Goldstein with Ko Wen-je and Han Guo-yu in 2019.
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
SUPPORTING RESEARCH AND CONTRIBUTING TO ACADEMIC DISCOURSE ON CHINA 支持並投身於和中國相關的學術討論 SPEAKER AND SEMINAR SERIES 系列講座與研討會 Our nine speaker and seminar series bring together leading scholars of China to discuss the latest research in their respective fields with academic experts and public audiences. Our lecture series focus on contemporary issues, modern history, the humanities, Taiwan Studies, the Chinese economy, gender studies, religion, the environment, and film. In addition to our nine lecture series, the Center hosts conferences, panel discussions, and special lectures. This year, we were pleased to welcome 154 speakers to present their research on a range of topics relating to China Studies. We also welcomed nineteen delegations from universities and organizations in Greater China, including a delegation from the Unirule Institute of Economics in Beijing, to participate in an important workshop on the 40th anniversary of Reform and Opening-Up.
Vice Provost for International Affairs, Mark C. Elliott, speaks at the Fairbank Center event on 40 Years of Reform and Opening-Up at the Harvard Center Shanghai, June 2019
154 Speakers at our public events and conferences 名我中心公眾活動及學術會議演講者
73 Public events, plus an additional 87 co-sponsored events with 45 centers across campus 場我中心舉辦的公眾活動； 此外中心與全校45個研究中心 聯合舉辦了87場校內活動
9 Faculty-led seminar series in the humanities and social sciences 堂由我中心教員主導的人文 及社會科學系列討論課
19 Delegation visits from leading universities in Greater China 個來訪的大中華區頂尖大學代表團
Event posters from 2018-19 public events series. Designed by James Evans
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
A YEAR OF ANNIVERSARIES AND SPECIAL EVENTS 颇具历史和纪念意义的一年 Participants at the “May Fourth at 100: China and the World” conference, which marked the centenary of the events of May 4, 1919.
Panelists at the “Tiananmen at 30” discussion, marking 30 years since the events of June 4, 1989. Left to right: Wang Dan, Rowena He, Louisa Lim, Jeffrey Wasserstrom, Michael Szonyi, and Hao Jian.
Photo: Lisa Abitbol
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
This academic year marked several major anniversaries in China. The centenary of the May 4th movement, 40 years since Reform and Opening-Up, 40 years of the Taiwan Relations Act, and 30 years since the events at Tiananmen Square of June 4, 1989, were all marked with public discussions that noted the lasting impact each of these events continues to have on contemporary China. These discussions, many of which would be impossible in China, highlight both the Center’s academic fortitude, as well as its importance as a nexus for open academic debate on China. Susan Thornton, former Acting Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia, presented our 2019 Charles Neuhauser Memorial Lecture, provocatively entitled, “Can We Live with China? A Roadmap for CoEvolution.” Named in honor of Harvard alum Charles Neuhauser, this annual lecture series invites practitioners to talk to an academic audience about their experiences related to U.S.-China relations. We were honored to invite Stephen Owen, James Bryant Conant University Professor and Professor of Comparative Literature, Emeritus, to present the 2019 Reischauer Lectures. At these annual lectures scholars present a holistic view of their respective fields across East Asia. The Center also hosted a panel discussion on “40 Years of Chinese Popular Music and Culture,” featuring Lo Ta-yu, Gao Xiaosong, Fang Wenshan, and Yin Yue, hosted by Professors Xiaofei Tian and Jie Li.
Posters marking special events, designed by James Evans.
Right: Lo Ta-yu, Gao Xiaosong, Fang Wenshan, Yin Yue, Jie Li, and Xiaofei Tian speak at a panel on “Mandopop: 40 Years of Chinese Popular Music and Culture.”
Above: Annual lecture speakers Stephen Owen (left) and Susan Thornton (right). Below: Taiwanese rockstar Lo Ta-yu speaks at our “Mandopop” event.
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
PROGRAMS 项目 The Fairbank Center coordinates China Studies scholars from Harvard and across the globe to further their research through residency at the Center. Together, our Visiting Scholars, Postdoctoral Fellows, Associates in Research, and Graduate Student Associates create a lively community for interdisciplinary exchanges. Our 2018-19 programs included:
3 AN WANG POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS 王安博士後研究員
The Fairbank Center supports junior scholars from the humanities and social sciences as An Wang Postdoctoral Fellows. Our Fellows spend one year at the Fairbank Center conducting research, developing book manuscripts, or articles, and presenting research.
1 HOU FAMILY FELLOW
JENNIFER HSIEH HOU FAMILY FELLOW
“The Hou Family Fellowship supported my research on the scientific, bureaucratic, and audiovisual practices underlying the production of noise as a regulatory object from early twentieth-century Taiwan to the present.”
AN WANG POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW “My research focuses on the history of migration in early medieval China and the environmental history of the Huai River in pre-modern China. This fellowship was vital to my research goals.”
The Hou Family Fellowship for Taiwan Studies sponsors pre- and post-doctoral scholars who research Taiwan as visiting fellows at the Fairbank Center.
6 GRADUATE STUDENT ASSOCIATES 學生研究員
The Fairbank Center welcomed 6 advanced doctoral students from throughout the university for a year-long residence with the Center.
AN WANG POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW “The An Wang Postdoctoral Fellowship furthered my research into the evolution of Chinese state-owned enterprises – from staterun factories to today’s multinational corporations.”
14 VISITING SCHOLARS 訪問學者
Visiting scholars hail from across the globe, with a commitment to further research in China Studies. This year’s scholars included a range of academics with varying topics of research.
113 ASSOCIATES IN RESEARCH 合作研究員
The Center’s Associates in Research are China Studies scholars who use Center resources and participate in Center activities.
MALCOLM THOMPSON AN WANG POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW
“The Fairbank Center’s invaluable support enabled me to continue my exploration into China’s ‘population problem’ in its connection to issues of economic development in the twentieth century.”
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GRANTS AND STUDENT FUNDING 獎學金與研究基金 The Fairbank Center provides financial grants to students at Harvard to further their studies of China and Taiwan. In 2018-19, we granted $370,000 for research, language study, and other activities. We also supported students from Taiwan studying at Harvard, master’s degree students focusing on Chinese Studies, and others involved in academic engagement with China. UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS 9 students awarded $31,760 to support research in China
1 student awarded $10,000 for language study in Taiwan
3 An Wang Postdoctoral Fellows awarded $135,000 in research fellowships
$3,100 awarded to student organizations on campus that are involved with China and Taiwan
1 Hou Family Fellow awarded $28,000 for research support
GRADUATE STUDENTS 15 students awarded $53,460 for research and language study 6 Graduate Student Associates awarded $6,000 to support their research 2 students awarded $25,560 from the Desmond and Whitney Shum Fellowship 9 students awarded $4,500 for conference travel 1 student awarded $1,700 for research on Taiwan $10,000 awarded to support 2 Regional Studies East Asia A.M. candidates
Photo: Professor Winnie Chi-Man Yip speaks at the Harvard Center Shanghai, March 2019
50 Student, postdoctoral fellow, and faculty research projects received grants totaling $370,000 個學生、博士後和教授研究 項目獲得資金支持共計$370,000
FAIRBANK FACULTY $58,000 awarded to our faculty to conduct workshops and to support research
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
Books published by Harvard University Asia Center Publications Progam and by our faculty.
The Fairbank Center contributes to the publication of monographs. This year, we sponsored the publication of Paul Cohen’s memoir, A Path Twice Traveled, as well as two books through the Harvard Asia Center Publications Program.
A Path Twice Traveled: My Journey as a Historian of China
Becoming Taiwanese: Ethnogenesis in a Colonial City, 1880s-1950s
Voting as a Rite: A History of Elections in Modern China
by Paul A. Cohen
by Evan N. Dawley
by Joshua Hill
Our faculty also continue to publish award-winning and fielddefining books across the breadth of China Studies, including:
Insects in Chinese Literature: A Study and Anthology
Beyond Regimes: China and India Compared
Just a Song: Chinese Lyrics from the Eleventh and Early Twelfth Centuries
China and Japan: Facing History
Wilt L. Idema Cambria Press
Prasenjit Duara and Elizabeth J. Perry Harvard University Press
Stephen Owen Harvard University Press
Ezra F. Vogel Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
H. C. FUNG LIBRARY
Calligraphy in the Fairbank Center Collection of the H. C. Fung Library, donated by Li Honglin, “No Forbidden Spaces for Reading Books” (as published in the first issue of Dushu in 1979).
FAIRBANK CENTER FOR CHINESE STUDIES COLLECTION 費正清中國研究中心藏書，在美國哈佛大學馮漢柱圖書館 The Fairbank Center Collection in the H. C. Fung Library continues to provide a world-leading collection of resources on contemporary China. Under the stewardship of Librarian Nancy Hearst, the library’s China collection continues to grow. The collection includes a number of unpublished works that are uniquely available in our collection. Specializing in difficult-to-find Chinese-language publications, including statistical sources and unpublished documents, these materials complement other collections at Harvard in the field of Chinese Studies. The library currently holds approximately 30,000 volumes, about half of which are in Chinese. In 2018–2019 the Fairbank Center Collection in the Fung Library continued to attract scholars from all over the world. Nancy Hearst made an acquisition trip to Beijing in October 2018 and secured a number of privately published materials that are not available on the open market.
750 New books acquired in the Fung Library Fairbank Center Collection 部費正清研究中心的新書收藏於 哈佛大學馮漢柱圖書館
SUPPORT THE FAIRBANK CENTER COLLECTION IN THE H.C. FUNG LIBRARY 支持費正清研究中心在哈佛大學馮漢柱 圖書館的藏書 The Fung Library’s Fairbank Collection annually acquires a wide range of publications, documents, and other materials previously unavailable in the West. The Fung Library was pleased to receive several generous financial donations this year: an endowed contribution from an anonymous library user, financial support to cover the librarian’s annual trip to Beijing; and a generous contribution from former Fairbank Center library assistant, Ying-Ming Lee, which will enable us to expand our holdings of Chinese-language social science materials on Taiwan.
Our best wishes to Library Assistant Ying-ming Lee (center), who retired after 20 years of service. We are pleased to welcome our new Library Assistant, Charlotte Cotter, to join Librarian Nancy Hearst (left).
Ask us how you can help support the Fairbank Center’s unique library collection: FAIRBANKCENTER@FAS.HARVARD.EDU
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
ENGAGING PUBLIC AND POLICYMAKING COMMUNITIES 促進來自公眾和決策層受眾的關注 Since the Fairbank Center’s founding in 1955, our mission has been to advance scholarship in all fields of China Studies at Harvard. Digital communications and social media allow us to advance our outreach far beyond Harvard. Our nine public-events series, combined with our award-winning blog, podcast, infographics, and social-media presence, engage worldwide public audiences with our research. Learn more about our public outreach by subscribing to our “Harvard on China” podcast, reading our latest commentaries on the Fairbank Center Blog, and joining us for our public events and exhibitions.
180,000 Blog post readers 名博客讀者
80,000 Podcast Listeners 名播客聽眾
21,000 Social-media followers 名社交媒體追隨者
Below: Infographic on “China’s Economic Governance,” developed by Yuan Wang and James Evans
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
AN EXCERPT FROM OUR BLOG 博客的精選 RE-HARMONIZING CHINA: DISSONANT TONE CLUSTERS, A CONSONANT NATION Below is an excerpt from the Fairbank Center Blog by Rujing Huang 黃儒菁, Ph.D. Candidate in Harvard’s Department of Music, and a former Graduate Student Associate at the Fairbank Center. Here, she explores the musical roots of “harmony” in Chinese history. Read more on our blog at medium.com/fairbank-center. “Harmony” has become China’s alleged overriding political value during the past decade. Today, the ideal of harmony is most often evoked to point to a kind of social order in which all the elements co-exist and interact with one another in a beautifully frictionless state. In the current discourse, however, little attention has been paid to the fact that early Chinese understandings of “harmony” (he 和) derive from and remain central to the musical sphere: the character he derives from an ancient mouth organ (yue 龠) that gradually evolved into the modern day sheng 笙, one of the few traditional instruments in China capable of sounding multiple pitches simultaneously.
Etymology of the character he (和), from Tracing the roots of Chinese characters: 500 cases (Li 2005)
In the Chinese context, the character he (和) can mean to play along or to echo. Music since early China has often been associated with the coming together of distinct parts to form a consonant or melodious whole. As the
Performance of yayue (雅樂) during a Qing dynasty imperial wedding, Forbidden City Magazine, no.8, 2006. Scanned by Huo Yi.
Book of Music writes, “To unite and harmonize is the objective of music; variance and discernment are the objectives of ceremony.” The concept of harmony also has the ability to differentiate, to exoticize, and to fashion a particular kind of collective Chinese self-image. Drawing on my ethnography of twenty-first century revivals in Beijing of yayue (雅樂) ritual music historically performed in the Chinese courts, I aim to recover early models of harmonization. In particular, I interpret the revivalists’ emphasis on dissonant musical intervals as a self-exoticizing gesture seeking to re-compose a distinct and sophisticated sound of China. The effect of harmony in this case transcends coherence and unity. Foregrounded instead is its inner dialectic between the creation and resolution of tension and, by extension, a similarly nuanced relationship that the cultural revivalists are eager to establish with the world. In privileging the past over the present, and the courtly over folk modals of harmonization, there is an active nationalist program enacted through an internal, exoticist gesture seeking to make an other out of what is already one’s own. Harmonic practices from a past perceived as musically developed are channeled into the present as a superior internal other to contrast the much-studied folk traditions and to combat its Western counterpart. By calling for a unifying theory of harmonization that accentuates the dissonant intervals otherwise uncommon in existing narratives of Chinese music, revivalists are eager to upgrade China’s image from one of musical primitivism to that of a sophisticated musical hegemon. In this process, however, they are often caught up in a long chain of paradoxes, further destabilizing the already fluid construct of Chineseness.
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
OUR STRATEGIC PRIORITIES 首要戰略目标 In the 63 years since the Fairbank Center’s establishment, the landscape of China Studies has shifted dramatically. As China Studies expands into new fields, we are here to develop and support research that defines what it means to study China. Our unrivaled faculty expertise ensures our adaptability and invaluable position as a partner for China-related research at Harvard and beyond. To maintain the Fairbank Center’s position as one of the leading centers for China Studies outside of China, we are pioneering new directions for research. Our strategic priorities focus our research in three valuable areas:
TRANSFORMING DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP ON CHINA 更新技术 向數字化的中國研究轉型 The use of digital technologies for scholarly research, collaboration, and communication is one of the most exciting developments in academia. To support this ground-breaking research, we recently received a grant from the Hou Family Foundation and the Chiang Chingkuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange.
INSPIRING RESEARCH ON CHINA ON THE WORLD STAGE 鼓励创新 促進世界範圍內的中國研究 China’s growing role in global affairs requires greater research and public understanding about the interactions between Greater China and the rest of the world. In partnership with leading research centers at Harvard, the Fairbank Center is building on our team of specialists on U.S.-China relations to engage in innovative studies on China’s relationships with Africa and India. In addition, we are continuing our three-year project on “China on the World Stage,” and with Sichuan University through our research partnership on western China.
ENGAGING PUBLIC AND POLICY-MAKING COMMUNITIES 多面合作 促進來自公眾和決策層受眾的關注 The Fairbank Center is committed to contributing to public discourse on China by engaging the non-academic and policy-making communities. Our publications, event series, blog, podcast, infographics, and social media all connect global audiences with our research.
Photo: Lisa Abitbol
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
GET INVOLVED WITH OUR WORK 加入我們 For over 60 years the Fairbank Center has been redefining the boundaries of China Studies. We continue to achieve this by building a community of world-class China scholars not only at Harvard but also throughout the world. This community enables the Fairbank Center to address the greatest challenges and most important questions in China Studies today. By attending one of our many public events, applying to our programs, or donating a financial gift to the Center, you will help to continue the Fairbank Center’s legacy as North America’s leading multidisciplinary China Studies institution.
ATTEND OUR EVENTS LISTEN TO OUR PODCASTS READ OUR PUBLICATIONS APPLY TO OUR PROGRAMS VISIT THE FUNG LIBRARY DONATE TO THE CENTER
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Mark Wu, Henry L. Stimson Professor at Harvard Law School, speaks at the Harvard Center Shanghai, March 2019
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
APPENDIX 附錄 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND CORE FACULTY 理事會與 核心教職人員 Michael A. Szonyi 宋怡明 * ** Director, Frank Wen-Hsiung Wu Memorial Professor of Chinese History William Alford 安守廉 * ** Jerome A. and Joan L. Cohen Professor of Law Barry Bloom 白瑞·布隆 Joan L. and Julius H. Jacobson Professor of Public Health, Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor Peter K. Bol 包弼德 * Charles H. Carswell Professor of East Asian Languages and Civilizations James Cheng 鄭炯文 * Librarian of the Harvard-Yenching Library Paul A. Cohen 柯文 * Professor of History, Emeritus, Wellesley College, Fairbank Center Associate Richard Cooper 理查德·库珀 Maurits C. Boas Professor of International Economics Nara Dillon 温奈良 ** Senior Lecturer on Government Mark Elliott 欧立德 * ** Vice Provost for International Affairs, Mark Schwartz Professor of Chinese and Inner Asian History Joseph Fewsmith 傅士卓 * Professor of International Relations and Political Science, Boston University, Fairbank Center Associate Rowan Flad 傅羅文 * John E. Hudson Professor of Anthropology Arunabh Ghosh 郭旭光 Associate Professor of History Merle Goldman 戈德曼 Professor of History, Emerita, Boston University, Fairbank Center Associate Steven Goldstein 戈迪溫 * Sophia Smith Professor of Government, Emeritus, Smith College, Fairbank Center Associate Susan Greenhalgh 葛苏珊 * Professor of Anthropology, John King and Wilma Cannon Fairbank Professor of Chinese Society Janet Gyatso 珍妮·嘉措 * Hershey Professor of Buddhist Studies
William Hsiao 萧庆伦 K. T. Li Professor of Economics C. T. James Huang 黄正德 * Professor of Linguistics Alastair Iain Johnston 江忆恩 * ** Governor James Albert Noe and Linda Noe Laine Professor of China in World Affairs William C. Kirby 柯偉林 * T. M. Chang Professor of China Studies, Spangler Family Professor of Business Administration, Harvard University Distinguished Service Professor, Chairman of the Harvard China Fund Arthur Kleinman 凱博文 * Esther and Sidney Rabb Professor of Anthropology, Professor of Medical Anthropology in Social Medicine, Professor of Psychiatry Shigehisa Kuriyama 栗山茂久 * Reischauer Institute Professor of Cultural History Ya-wen Lei 雷雅雯 ** Assistant Professor of Sociology Jie Li 李潔 ** Associate Professor of East Asian Languages and Civilizations Wai-Yee Li 李惠仪 * Professor of Chinese Literature Jennifer Li-Chia Liu 刘力嘉 * Professor of the Practice of Language Pedagogy, Director, Chinese Language Program Felicity Lufkin 盧飛麗 Lecturer on Folklore and Mythology Roderick MacFarquhar 麦克法夸尔 Leroy B. Williams Research Professor of History and Political Science, Emeritus Ali Malkawi 马加维 Professor of Architectural Technology, Director of the Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities Erez Manela 馬內拉 Professor of History Michael McElroy 迈克尔•迈克艾罗伊 Gilbert Butler Professor of Environmental Studies Nicole Newendorp 柳云嫦 ** Lecturer on Social Studies Stephen Owen 宇文所安 * James Bryant Conant University Professor, Professor of Comparative Literature Dwight H. Perkins 德懷特•珀金斯 * Harold Hitchings Burbank Research Professor of Political Economy, Emeritus Elizabeth J. Perry 裴宜理 * ** Henry Rosovsky Professor of Government, Director of the HarvardYenching Institute Michael Puett 普鸣 * Walter C. Klein Professor of Chinese History
Meg Rithmire 任美格 F. Warren McFarlan Associate Professor of Business of Administration James Robson 羅柏松 * James C. Kralik and Yunli Lou Professor of East Asian Languages and Civilizations Robert S. Ross 陆伯彬 * Professor of Political Science, Boston College, Fairbank Center Associate Anthony Saich 托尼·赛奇 * ** Daewoo Professor of International Affairs, Director of Harvard Ash Center Victor Seow 萧建业 Assistant Professor of the History of Science Hue-Tam Ho Tai 谭可泰 * Kenneth T. Young Professor of Sino-Vietnamese History, Emerita Karen Thornber 唐丽园 * ** Professor of Comparative Literature and of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, Director of Harvard University Asia Center Xiaofei Tian 田晓菲 * Professor of Chinese Literature Leonard van der Kuijp 范德康 * Professor of Tibetan and Himalayan Studies Ezra F. Vogel 傅高义 * Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences, Emeritus Rudolf Wagner 瓦格納 * Senior Professor, University of Heidelberg, Fairbank Center Associate David Der-Wei Wang 王德威 * ** Edward C. Henderson Professor of Chinese Literature Eugene Yuejin Wang 汪悦进 * Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Professor of Asian Art Yuhua Wang 王裕华 Assistant Professor of Government Robert Weller 魏乐博 * Professor of Anthropology, Boston University, Fairbank Center Associate Odd Arne Westad 文安立 * S.T. Lee Professor of U.S.-Asia Relations Martin K. Whyte 怀默霆 * John Zwaanstra Professor of International Studies and Sociology, Emeritus Ellen Widmer 魏爱莲 * Mayling Song Professor of Chinese Studies, Wellesley College, Fairbank Center Associate Mark Wu 伍人英 * ** Henry L. Stimson Professor of Law Xiang Zhou 周翔 Assistant Professor of Government * = Executive Committee Member ** = Advisory Committee Member
ANNUAL REPORT 2018–19
RODERICK L. MACFARQUHAR 麥克法誇爾 1930-2019 - IN MEMORIAM
Photo Courtesy of Ellen Wallop for the Asia Society
FACTS & FIGURES 相關數據
Harvard faculty working on China 位教授從事和中國有關的研究
Affiliated scholars worldwide 名來自世界各地的附屬學者
Students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty funded by the Center 名學生受本中心資助
Awarded in grants to students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty 授予學生、博士後和教員的獎學金
New books acquired for the Fairbank Center Collection in the Fung Library 部費正清研究中心的新書收藏於 哈佛大學馮漢柱圖書館
Books published by our faculty and Harvard University Asia Center Publications Program 部哈佛亞洲研究中心出版的書籍
Public events 項公眾活動
Social-media followers 名社交媒體追隨者
FAIRBANK CENTER STAFF 費正清中國研究中心行政團隊 Daniel Murphy 慕浩然 * ** Executive Director, Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies and Harvard China Fund Julia Cai 蔡珏 Assistant Director, Harvard China Fund and Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies Karen Christopher 卡倫•克里斯 Finance/Administrative Associate Charlotte Cotter 嚴江雯 Library Assistant Nick Drake 卓鴻濤 Office and Program Coordinator James Evans 詹艾文 Publications Coordinator Sarah Gordon 薩拉•戈登 Director of Finance Mark Grady 馬瑞迪 Events Coordinator Nancy Hearst 南希 Librarian, Fairbank Center Collection in the H.C. Fung Library Emmeline Liu 劉夢雪 Program Coordinator, Harvard China Fund Ying-ming Lee 李(楊)英敏 Library Assistant, Fairbank Center Collection in the H.C. Fung Library Justin Wong 黃學勤 Program Assistant
Annual Report authored and designed by James Evans
The Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies at Harvard University presents it 2018-2019 Annual Report.