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July 2016 Fadlan Maulana, 12512163 fadlan.maulana@gmail.com +62 822 4032 6066 Islamic University of Indonesia Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning Department of Architecture Bachelor Design of Architecture Adaptable Vertical Kampong, Gajah Wong Riverbank, Yogyakarta Supervisor : Ilya Fadjar Maharika, Ir., MA, Ph.D Examiner : Yulianto Purwono Prihatmaji, Dr. ST, MT


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Acknowledgements Alhamdulillah, first of all I gratitude to Allah SWT who has given me the grace and the guidance in giving ease through all this process, so I can finish my Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Report titled “Adaptable Vertical Kampong, Gajah Wong Riverbank, Yogyakarta�, in order to fulfill one of the requirements of graduation to become a Bachelor Design of Architecture at the Islamic University of Indonesia. I realize that without their help, guidance, and support from supervisor and various parties, it is difficult for me to complete this Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Report. So on this occasion I would like to thank for those who have given direction, help, and guided in the realization of this report. To Mr. Ilya Fadjar Maharika, as the supervisor who constantly provide and input superb ideas, give more direction, and guiding me to obtain an original idea for my Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis. Mr. Yulianto Purwono Prihatmaji, as the examiner who has many inputs and corrections that can help the products of my Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis to be better. To my Parents and Family that are always giving me advices, prayers, and supports that are always committed me to be consistent in doing everything. My bestfriends that is often support me ranging from the aspects of accommodation, financial, and contribute me to the smooth running of the period of study in Architecture and my Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis. The last I would like to thank for all those involved directly or indirectly in the preparation of my Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis whose name can not be mentioned one by one.

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Abstract The emergence of the Kampong settlements with the urban context led to the term which is often called the Urban Kampong, in the most case of Urban Kampong is no longer lift the image of the Urban Kampong, in which the image occur in the community is the physically be the main reason, so that the slum problem is very complicated in the face of the Kampong growth in the middle of a big city. Vertical housing solutions that were unfavorable for the citizens as a solution of the growing residential horizontally raises major issues such as Social Housing solutions that do not fit the target and the main reason is the relocation that they do not live on the Social Housing because too far away with their livelihoods. Social Housing solution does not always resolve the problem that is essentially and especially decent occupancy rights for Low-Income Communities, the most cases is that many monopolized by ‘persons’ and fragmented with only one housing unit selection, Adaptable Architecture in the concept of Vertical Kampong solutions is the right solution that inhabited housing process is back to the inhabitants in terms of material construction, financing, and the possibility of additional expansion of family members, so that the building is not viewed in a particular period but also seen as a solution in the future. The concept of Open Building as the main basis that the system of ‘Support’ is returned to the architect, governments, and investors as the main structure and the ‘Infill’ system is back to the community as a filler material and the home regulator in the future space needs. Keywords : Vertical Kampong, Adaptable Architecture, Open Building

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List of Abrevations and Acronyms RT Rukun Tetangga (Neighbourhood)

Territorial division in Indonesia under Rukun Warga. Rukun Tetangga is not including the division of government administration, and its formation is through by local community meetings. Rukun Tetangga chaired by the Chairman of Rukun Tetangga elected by its citizens. Rukun Tetangga consists of a number of houses or households.

RW Rukun Warga (Hamlet)

Territorial division in Indonesia, under the Village. Rukun Warga (Hamlet) is a Community Institution established through deliberation by committee of Rukun Tetangga (Neighborhood). Rukun Warga working area is within the framework of government and public service that is recognized and fostered by the regional government established by Village Head.

APMD Housing

APMD is a university that consistently paid attention to the development of rural communities, APMD a private university located in Yogyakarta. APMD Housing is a residential housing which is adjacent to APMD campus.

DIY (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta)

The Special Region of Yogyakarta (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, or DIY) is a region of Indonesia in the middle of Java. Its administrative capital is The City of Yogyakarta.

Kulo Nuwun

Senenan

Senenan is a term in the Javanese language which means the activities carried out every Monday, Senen means Monday.

Angkringan

Angkringan (derived from the Javanese ‘Angkring’ which means the appliance and the place for food sales which is the shape of the shoulder pole is curved upward) is a mobile cart that sells various foods and beverages commonly found on each roadside in Central Java and Yogyakarta.

TAABAH (Tim Advokasi Arus Bawah)

TAABAH (Tim Advokasi Arus Bawah, or Undercurrent Advocacy Team) is a team that facilitate the activities and advocacy in the Ledhok Timoho Kampong, in order to be fulfilled their basic rights as citizens of Indonesia.

Batako

Batako is building material which is made from a mixture of sand, volcanic ash, and cement.

GCR Green Coverage Ratio

Green Coverage Ratio is the comparison of percentage figure between the area around the open space outside the building intended for landscaping / greening and land planning area controlled by appropriate spatial planning, urban design and environmental planning.

Kulo Nuwun is the Javanese Language which means Kulo = “I” and Nuwun = “Excuse Me”, so it means a request for admission or permissions.

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Contents Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................................i Abstract.......................................................................................................................................................ii List of Abrevations and Acronyms.......................................................................................................iii Contents.....................................................................................................................................................iv Introduction...............................................................................................................................................7 1.1 Background Design Issues...............................................................................................................8 1.1.1 General Background.......................................................................................................................8 1.1.2 Specific Background.......................................................................................................................18 1.2 The Statement of Design Problems and Constraints ................................................................22 1.2.1 Problem Mapping............................................................................................................................22 1.2.2 Radical Design Constraint Research Question.........................................................................23 1.2.3 Practical Design Constraint Research Question.......................................................................23 1.3 Proposed Problem-Solving Design Methods................................................................................24 1.3.1 Data Collection Methods...............................................................................................................24 1.3.2 Data Processing Methods.............................................................................................................25 1.4 Design Problems Solving Prediction (Design-Hypothesis)........................................................25 Site Context and Architecture...............................................................................................................27 2.1 General Profile of The Site................................................................................................................28 2.1.1 General Profile of The Area Along The Gajah Wong Riverbank.............................................28 2.1.2 General Profile of Ledhok Timoho Kampong............................................................................29 2.2 Site Physical Conditions....................................................................................................................32 2.2.1 Home Typology and Material Usage Data.................................................................................32 2.2.2 Ledhok Timoho Kampong Settlements Development............................................................36 2.3 Location Data and Relevant Building Regulations.......................................................................38 2.3.1 The Guide of Land Use Planning and Building Intensity.........................................................38 2.3.2 The Guide of River Border Function Development...................................................................38 2.3.3 The Guide of Green Open Spaces................................................................................................38 2.4 Site and Buildings Size Data.............................................................................................................40 2.4.1 Site Boundaries................................................................................................................................40 2.4.2 Site Area............................................................................................................................................40 2.5 Clients Data..........................................................................................................................................42 2.5.1 The Activities of The Inhabitants in Ledhok Timoho Kampong.............................................42

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2.5.2 Livelihoods Citizens Data..............................................................................................................45 2.5.3 Citizens Data Based On The Number of Family Members.....................................................46 2.5.4 Citizens Data Based On The Productive Age.............................................................................46 2.5.5 Citizens Data Based On The Gender...........................................................................................46 Thereotical Design Framework.............................................................................................................49 3.1 The Approach of Architectural Design Theory References........................................................50 3.1.1 The Principle of Open Building......................................................................................................50 3.1.2 Adaptable Architecture...................................................................................................................50 3.1.3 Adaptability.......................................................................................................................................51 3.1.4 Adaptable Architecture Frame Cycle...........................................................................................53 Precedents.................................................................................................................................................57 4.1 NEXT21.................................................................................................................................................58 4.2 Wohnanlage Genter Strasse.............................................................................................................60 4.3 Rapidly Deployable Inflatable Containers (RDIC).........................................................................62 4.4 Bandarharjo Social Housing.............................................................................................................64 Design Development................................................................................................................................67 5.1 Proposed Design Strategy................................................................................................................68 5.1.1 Building Programatic Scenario.....................................................................................................72 5.1.2 Housing Module Unit......................................................................................................................74 5.1.3 Housing Block Ground Floor Plan................................................................................................79 5.1.4 Housing Block Typical Floor Plan.................................................................................................80 5.1.5 Housing Block Rooftop Plan.........................................................................................................81 5.1.6 Actor Design Scenario....................................................................................................................86 5.1.7 Macro Design Intervention............................................................................................................94 Design Evaluation.....................................................................................................................................105 References..................................................................................................................................................108

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Introduction

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1.1

Background Design Issues

1.1.1 General Background The Issues of Slums in Major Cities of Indonesia Relating to The Aspects of The Inadequate Housing as A Result of Urbanization The development of a city is very pecially with the needs of city dwellers directly proportional to the rate of popula- who come suddenly, because of the high tion growth, rapid urbanization cause ur- price of rental housing and not allowed to bans trying to seek a livelihood from a big rent housing or even build a house (Marcity, and among urbans that have a pur- bun, 1990). The consequence is that many pose and a different background, which urbans who grew up in urban areas are the biggest reason is to meet the needs more dominated by urbans who have the for economic sustainability of their lives. low economic background, so for residenPrimary needs such as food, clothing, and tial needs, illegally they are forced to build housing has become an essential require- on the land in informal unplanned (Squatment to live in urban areas, in this case ter), so the negative impacts are becomhousing needs are becoming very funda- ing congested settlements and physically mental aspect to reside and live decent the quality is not feasible in terms of inlives, where the process of resides is not frastructure, facilities, and general utility only meets the needs for survival, but also which consequently appears slums. about the way of life in society. The negative impact of urbanization seen from almost all of the city can not provide decent housing facilities, es-

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Figure 1.1 Main Background and Negative Impact of Urbanization in Indonesia

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The growth area of slums in Indonesia in 1996 reached 38,000 ha, then increased in 2004 to 54,000 ha, and in 2009 further increased to 57,800 ha, within the period the Indonesian government was only able to deal with the problems of slum area of 655 ha, and can be expected in 2025 will increase to 71 860 ha (Prayitno, 2014). However, from the data that can be handled by the government, it looks that they have not indicated handling significantly to the problem of the slums, when the subject of housing and residential areas have previously been regulated in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 1 of 2011 that every citizen is entitled to a residence decent and healthy, and the state is responsible for ensuring its citizens to obtain proper housing, healthy and affordable.

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Figure 1.2 Slums and Squatters Type and Development in Indonesia

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Concerning to adequate and healthy housing, not all citizens in Indonesia can reach the facility, the emphasis with Social Housing solutions as a program that is regulated by the government, which the target of inhabitants for the Social Housing is aiming for Low-Income Communities, but the reality is just as the fulfillment of the occupancy commodities market, because most cases is monopolized by certain persons and the inhabitants of Social Housing are not all intended to Low-Income Communities, so a mismatch targets of inhabitants and far away from the source of their livelihood will only trigger the emergence of new slums.

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Figure 1.3 Slums and Squatters Solution in Indonesia

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The Growth of Slums That Spatially Grow Horizontally Resolved With Vertical Housing Solution The emergence of the kampong with the urban context led to the term that is often referred as the urban kampong, in the most cases the picture of the urban kampong is no longer lift the image of the urban kampong, which in its formation that the urban kampong can start and grow traditionally or grow new by urbans from outside the city, and in general the picture of urban kampong physically be the main reason that the slum problem is very complicated in the face of the kampong growth in the middle of a big city. Correlation of the impact of slum led to the main reason that the settlement with horizontal growth due to the growth of spatial uncontrolled and supported with limited land gave rise to the establishment of slums settlements, and provide a strong background that the vertical housing solution can provide a quick solution to the limited land issue. Optimizing the use of limited land with vertical housing solution with the objectives is a slums caused numerous problems and the various aspects that are not only related to the aspects of the need

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for housing. However, social, cultural, and locality of a kampong is the biggest challenge, where the impact of social activity that often goes with the environmental context horizontally must be accommodated vertically. Drastic changes occurs when they should settle vertically is an important consideration that the humanist scale environment should be created, in which the social pattern that has built is a major focus that Vertical Kampong solutions can be conveyed clearly. The social aspect of a kampong that turned into a vertical settlement as much as possible should bring their communal spaces into that function just like kampong life in general, and mutually bound to each other, including residential that are close to each other to bring the life of the neighbors, the open field or a multi functional area for community activities, educational facilities, places of worship, an area for planting, as well as their business space for the community as the economy needs for additional support.


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Figure 1.4 Slums and Squatters Solution Qualities and Proposed Solution

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The Housing Solution Views From The Inhabitants Adaptation Process to The Solution of Housing Growth Housing growth in a kampong life is related to the home as a place to stay, especially with the social context in Indonesia, that the house should be able to act and bring the space that can accommodate and adapt to the possibilities for growth of the inhabitants when the arrival of relatives and neighbors when they visit or stay. Therefore, when the house is only regarded as a commodity of finished goods, fragmented and without a chance to grow and adapt, it is not appropriate to the context of the family in Indonesia are likely to have the type of extended family, where the need to provide opportunities for the families who inhabit is be able to plan their houses that can respond in accordance with any changes (Budiharjo, 1997). Housing needs in Vertical Kampong as the primary solution of occupancy should be able to answer the needs of inhabitants, meet the livable quality and economically reachable by Low-Income Communities, so the housing solution that can adapt to the needs of inhabitants in the process of growth in occupancy and construction process in accordance with a background in economics society is emphasized, without having to remove the

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

functional aspects that should be owned by every inhabitant. The process of construction systems that occur in the community shows any adaptive elements and highly relevant to the cultural context in the building, conformity with the context of the locations will be occupied, to the suitability of the house functions that are based on the needs of inhabitants, for examples of small things in a house construction occurring in the community is material selection is back to the inhabitants because it is based on the economic capability of inhabitants, so that physically visible the diversity of material that was created in a kampong life. Adaptable Architecture approach that thorough to the solution of Vertical Kampong brings a solution to the housing that is built in Vertical Kampong is responsive to the function and space requirements that have implications on the needs of inhabitants, still functional with a minimum limit, and can be reached by all circles of society, so that the solution of Vertical Kampong can be achieved and adjusted to the condition of the inhabitants who will always be changing in the future.


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Figure 1.5 Indonesian Family Type and Proposed Housing Solution

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1.1.2 Specific Background The City of Yogyakarta as The Largest Area of Slums in The Special Region of Yogyakarta Province Slums area in The City of Yogyakarta, according to an article compiled from radarjogja.co.id, March 15, 2016. Based on data from the Department of Public Works, Housing, Energy and Mineral Resources Special Region of Yogyakarta, 400 hectares area of slums in Special Region of Yogyakarta, 278.7 hectares area in The City of Yogyakarta. The City of Yogyakarta accounted for 69 percent of slum areas in Special Region of Yogyakarta province. The area of slums is the largest in the province. With an area of slums that is quite large because from Yogyakarta City area of 32.2 square kilometers, or about 8.6 percent if calculated in square kilometers (2.78 km2) is a slums area. from these data it can be concluded that the area of The City of Yogyakarta into a emergency of slums, that the development should be focused on the availability of adequate

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housing facilities for inhabitants of slums and became necessary urgency for Yogyakarta future planning. Slums context in The City of Yogyakarta mostly in the context of river banks, which includes the Code, Winongo, and Gajah Wong River, so the ecological aspects of the river has also become an important target for the sake of a healthy and livable environment, the most case is to inhabit in the area of the river border and should not be used as a settlement, because the function of river conservation becomes impaired. In fact, regarding the rules on the river border area has been contained in the Government Regulation No. 38 of 2011, and at least within 3 m (three meters) from the outer edge of the foot of the embankment along the river channel.


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Figure 1.6 Spesific Background Site Context

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Conditions, Spatial development, and Settlement Solutions for Ledhok Timoho Kampong The location of Ledhok Timoho Kampong is located in the area of administrative Muja Muju village, Umbulharjo sub-district, Yogyakarta. The growth and history of Ledhok Timoho Kampong originated from a lack for urbans to obtain or renting adequate housing facilities, in order to get eligible economic income in a big city, they live in areas along the Gajah Wong riverbank who was once a former sewer covering. The access to reach the Ledhok Timoho Kampong has only one access in the form of a small alley measuring approximately 2 meters, so that access is accessible only passable on foot or by using two-wheeled vehicles. The land status in Ledhok Timoho Kampong belongs to the cash holdings of Muja Muju village and allowed with informal system called kulo nuwun (ask permission), because of the need for the housing needs of the growing and proximity to livelihood, the growth of settlements rapidly in the area of the Ledhok Timoho Kampong was started in 2006, causes the condition of settlement of Ledhok Timoho Kampong

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currently looks dense and some regional areas appear slum, although growth in occupancy in Ledhok Timoho Kampong is not as crowded as the kampong like on the banks of Code and Winongo River, but it can be predicted that growth and housing needs will continue to grow anually. The design of the kampong that will be achieved and can be applied to Ledhok Timoho Kampong is to maintain the urgency of the needs of housing, limited land, the ecological aspects of the river, and a system of community patterns that must be reorganized again with a Vertical Kampong solution, suppression with Adaptable Architecture approaches in patterns and construction system of houses in the community be the ultimate goal, in order to remain a kampong settlement area that can accommodate and adapt to the growth of occupancy, so the area of the settlement into the kampong settlement area are arranged and grow well, and be the positive region for surrounding environment.


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Figure 1.7 Ledhok Timoho Kampong Existing Condition

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1.2

The Statement of Design Problems and Constraints

1.2.1 Problem Mapping The model who was appointed to resolve the problem is using the design constraints model by Bryan Lawson, which is the area is limited by the design constraints regions that are internal and external, with the restriction function consists of the function of radical, practical, formal and symbolic constraint. In the case of this design function that will be restricted and focused on the constraint to the function of a radical and practical, which is radically related to the system solutions of new typologies and practically closely linked to the reality of producing,

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creating, or making the design, and associated with problems related to technology (Lawson, 2005). Some research questions raised to determine the extent to which the research is based on the design could be useful to develop a design strategy which will be completed within this report, which will be limited by the problem formulation through boundaries of radical and practical function, so in detail some of the research questions will be described and answered at the end of design result.


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1.2.2 Radical Design Constraint Research Question 1. What kind of new systems and typolo- the inhabitants in the present and future in gies that can be adapted to the growth of Vertical Kampong solutions? 1.2.3 Practical Design Constraint Research Question 1. What kind of structure system that is appropriate to the context of the object design, especially related to the system of ‘support’ that can be integrated to the system utilities? 2. What kind of construction systems in accordance to the background of prospective inhabitants and citizens related to the systems and occupancy growth pattern that will grow gradually? 3. How does the scenarios and occupancy growth pattern which simply readable and can be implemented by prospective

inhabitants and citizens who will inhabit? 4. What kind of communal area implementation that can be functional but also can serve as a liaison between residential areas? 5. How does the placement and availability of public facilities and social facilities integrally can adapt the structure system and housing construction? 6. What kind of circulation system that can reduce the maintenance cost and can be accessible to all people?

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1.3

Proposed Problem-Solving Design Methods

1.3.1 Data Collection Methods The process of data collection is done using the methods: • Field surveys directly to obtain socio-cultural and characteristics of society, knowing the environmental conditions along the Gajah Wong riverbank ecologically, as well as the construction system used by the inhabitants of Ledhok Timoho Kampong and the construction process to build a house. • Interviews with community leaders and the head of the community of TAABAH Ledhok Timoho Kampong and Regional Planning Board of The City of Yogyakarta linked to the conditions of the environmental and housing as well as the direction of the planning of Gajah Wong riverbanks regulated in the guide of Gajah Wong River

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Revitalization issued by Regional Planning Board of The City of Yogyakarta. • The study of literature to gain theoretical basis and approaches that are relevant to the context of the design, sourced from print and electronic media (internet). • The case studies and typologies do to get the approach that has been applied in the case of the specific and relevant design, especially with the solutions of Vertical Kampong and specific to Adaptable Architecture approach, in this case that has been built and that are still proposed, in the context of Indonesia and overseas, so that the output can be a solution which achieved into a new typology of Vertical Kampong solution.


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1.3.2 Data Processing Methods Data were analyzed and resulted in the synthesis of the initial idea to the idea of the object context of Ledhok Timoho Kampong using Vertical Housing solution, which is the Adaptable Architecture approach be a major focus as the solution to be designed and planned, to meet the original idea of the several aspects that must be processed to produce, the initial hypothesis of the design are: • Enviromental Aspect Obtained aspect is related to solving problems linked to the building regulations as well as the revitalization plan of Gajah Wong river regulated by Regional Planning Board of The City of Yogyakarta on the context of the design environment, the ecological aspects of river banks became a major potential, and the condition of the kampong housing typology related to the scale and environment.

1.4

• Human Aspect Human aspect becomes the most vital aspects related to the housing needs of the implications for the needs of inhabitants, capacity, needs the space required, and the pattern of activity related to the social space is available, as well as the circulation patterns of people between the buildings with the surrounding area. • Architectural Aspect Existing process data of the location analyzed with architectural theory to obtain the synthesis of the initial design to get an idea in the process of transforming the design, and the search for solutions related to design strategies based on the theory of Adaptable Architecture analyzed with the existing condition of the location of the design.

Design Problems Solving Prediction (Design-Hypothesis)

The design process is done that is limited by the clinical issues, in this case related to the specific kampong location, but the purpose of this scheme seeks to generate a new typologies and innovative solutions for the completion of the slums along the riverbank, healthy and humanist scalez, and responsive to adapt chang-

es in the growth of the inhabitants in the present and future. The discussion of the design focused and limited to the context of the location of Ledhok Timoho Kampong to answer the issues of architectural and non-architectural with Adaptable Architecture approach in Vertical Kampong solutions. Adaptable Vertical Kampong, Gajah Wong Riverbank, Yogyakarta Center For Socius Design


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Site Context and Architecture

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2.1

General Profile of The Site

2.1.1 General Profile of The Area Along The Gajah Wong Riverbank Gajah Wong river is one of the three rivers that across of The City of Yogyakarta in the east, has a length of only 20 km, by splitting The City of Yogyakarta via Umbulharjo and Kota Gede sub-district. In terms of location, the area along the Gajah Wong riverbank is in the city center with the potential for high economic value with settlements on the riverbank. The territory of site selection design is in the area of the Gajah Wong riverbank, which the region of Gajah Wong riverbank delienated and agreed upon by the leaders and citizens with related parties that are divided into three (3) zones, including the North Zone, Central Zone and South Zone (Regional Planning Board The City of Yogyakarta, 2014).

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The selection of the design location are in the North Zone with a limit on this zone was Railroad Gendeng (Gondokusuman village) until the Gembira Loka bridge. In this zone there are two RW, and is further divided into two segments, included (Regional Planning Board The City of Yogyakarta, 2014): • 1st segment has a limit of Gendeng railroads until Balerejo bridge. • 2nd segment has a limit Balerejo bridge until Gembira Loka bridge. The area of design is in the North Zone in 1st Segment, where the boundaries of the design is focused on Ledhok Timoho Kampong.


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2.1.2 General Profile of Ledhok Timoho Kampong The selection of design location is located at Ledhok Timoho Kampong and included in the administrative area of Balerejo region RT/RW 50/05, Mujamuju village, Umbulharjo sub-district, Yogyakarta. Ledhok Timoho Kampong grew around 2006 is located behind the APMD housing, the condition of the kampong is in contrast with the surrounding conditions, where the existing condition of the kampong is right behind the walls of the APMD housing and has only one access in the form of a small alley measuring approximately two meters. In terms of livelihood, the inhabitants in Ledhok Timoho Kampong work ed as scavengers, street musician, casual

workers, pedicab drivers, and some there are who work as street vendors. The land status is the land of cash village, where the process is going on is an informal system called kulo nuwun (ask permission), so that the administrative area of Ledhok Timoho Kampong has not recognized by the RW of local citizens of Balerejo, because the inhabitants of Ledhok Timoho Kampong are dominated by citizens outside The City of Yogyakarta. Access to health facilities and infrastructure facilities is very difficult to reach for the inhabitants in Ledhok Timoho Kampong because the identity status of citizens and administratively they have not been fully recognized by the local vil-

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lage, but socially they actively participated in the various activities of local neighborhood, such as community meetings in every month, neighborhood gathering, and activities of mutual cooperation. The number of inhabitants in Kampung Ledhok Timoho now reached 151 inhabitants with the number of heads of household amounted to 44 (Kamil, Hernawa, and Singsingan, 2012). The conditions of Ledhok Timoho Kampong were right in the area along the Gajah Wong riverbank and there is a Bangeran floodgate, in terms of the densi-

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ty and spatial settlements, Ledhok Timoho Kampong is not as crowded as the other kampong that are located on the riverbank, just like on the riverbanks of Code and Winongo river, but with increasing occupancy continues to increase anually, the conditions of Ledhok Timoho Kampung now appear slum in some specific areas, caused due to planned settlement still not grown organically and lack of appropriate structuring of regulations related to the riverbanks that serve as residential areas.


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Figure 2.1 Gajah Wong River and Ledhok Timoho Kampong Common Profile

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2.2

Site Physical Conditions

The structure of the settlement in Ledhok Timoho Kampong looks organically with one main road access as a liaison between the group of home, the main access just an alley measuring approximately 2 m (two meters) which can only be passed by a two-wheeler to secondary roads as connections between houses,

the topography has a sloped contours of about 15%, most of the area with residential buildings are located on the flat contour and a small area of residential built on a ramps contours with the response of soil covering to gain the flat ground in order to facilitate the process of building construction.

2.2.1 Home Typology and Material Usage Data Typology of houses in Ledhok Timoho Kampong almost the same like the house in the kampong life generally and dominated by a one-story house with an area average of occupancy reached only 42 sqm, the material conditions of homes affected by the inhabitants financial background, that the construction system is dominated by half-wall construction, such as concrete blocks and clay bricks com-

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bined with light wall material filler such as wood boards, plywood boards, asbestos boards, and bamboo thatch.The foundation systems using continuous and pedestals foundation, which is strongly associated with the use of the system structure using reinforced concrete columns and wood or bamboo column structure.


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Figure 2.2 Site Physic Conditions, Typology and Materials Used

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The function room in each home is different according to the financial background and the needs of the number of inhabitants, which is distinguished by the use of materials, the required amount of bedrooms, as well as the separation of sanitary facilities, about 5 sanitary facilities are available in Ledhok Timoho Kampong supplied to inhabitants who do not have toilet facilities inside the home. Space zoning in most of homes already shows the separation between the functions of the public, private, and

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service, the system of WWTP have been managed and integrated by the residents, and clean water source is obtained with a source of water comes from a well, but it looks at some areas some inhabitants still throw garbage and liquid waste dumped into the Gajah Wong river, who physically appear dirty and smelly disturbing, a few houses still visible put the liquid sewage pipes discharged directly into the river.


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Figure 2.3 Typology and Environmental Conditions

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2.2.2 Ledhok Timoho Kampong Settlements Development Spatial growth of settlements from aerial maps looks that the growth of settlements began in 2003 and began to grow in 2006, with some of the houses are built with a separate position, and began rapidly during the period between 2007 to 2012, in which of housing grew irregularly but clustered, with speculation that housing growth is following the land area and the environment road, especially the areas of land that right behind the walls of APMD housing, because existing structure of the settlements along the wall of APMD hous-

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

ing limited by main circulation access, and the rest of the settlements grow up and fill the area along the riverbank. The condition of settlement in Ledhok Timoho Kampong showed an uncontrolled density, that almost the entire area of the region has been inhabited and built by the house which grown organically, with the possibility that the growth of occupancy will continue to fill the land that has not been fully developed with growth of home between 1-2 houses anually.


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Figure 2.4 Settlements Growth Timeline Source: Google Earth

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2.3

Location Data and Relevant Building Regulations

2.3.1 The Guide of Land Use Planning and Building Intensity 1st Segment area of Gajah Wong river is a region that dominated by the settlements land use with medium density, which is generally that the BCR, FAR and GCR in settlements with medium density that has been set in the Draft of Gajah

Wong River Grand Design, as follows (Regional Planning Board The City of Yogyakarta, 2014): • BCR 60% • FAR 1,6; and • GCR 15%

2.3.2 The Guide of River Border Function Development River Border that has been set is determined based on the ecology, morphology and hydraulic data, and indirectly can be readily understood by the public because the limit is to be understood directly on the site. The demarcation line of

the river in the area of Gajah Wong River Embankment is a distance of 3 m (three meters) from the outer of river dike (Regional Planning Board The City of Yogyakarta, 2014).

2.3.3 The Guide of Green Open Spaces Availability of GCR minimum of the total area is 30%, in which of green space area in the the area along the Gajah Wong river is not sufficient to serve the region, especially that Gajah Wong riverbanks is

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

one of the location of the three area of a river in The City of Yogyakarta and probable maintained to be green space (Regional Planning Board The City of Yogyakarta, 2014).


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Figure 2.5 Building and Regional Regulations Source: Regional Planning Board The City of Yogyakarta

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2.4

Site and Buildings Size Data

2.4.1 Site Boundaries The site that became object of the aries of Gajah Wong River on the west, design is limited and focused on just one APMD housing wall on the east, and the area of Ledhok Timoho Kampong, which is existing forests in the south. only limited by the administrative bound2.4.2 Site Area The area of the overall site in Ledhok Timoho Kampong taken by river border is an area of 10402.61 sqm with the calculation of BCR, FAR and GCR as follows:

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

• BCR 10.402,61 m2 x 60% = 6.241.56 m2 • FAR 10.402,61 m2 x 1,6 = 16.644,176 m2 • GCR 10.402,61 m2 x 15% = 1.560,39 m2


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Figure 2.6 Site Boundaries and Site Area

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2.5

Clients Data

2.5.1 The Activities of The Inhabitants in Ledhok Timoho Kampong 1. Community Savings Community savings started since the establishment of Kampung Ledhok Timoho in 2001, preceded by a meeting of mothers and regular weekly meetings to saving, a portion of the money is rotated into cash savings for its members, including to support micro-enterprises. This community savings system is in order to develop and handled professionally, so now it can be proved with their special home for saving transaction and train people about the banking system and is accessible during office hours from 08.00 a.m until 15.30 pm. 2. Education In the field of education activities carried out in Kampung Ledhok Timoho includes: a) Formal Education The main objective is to obtain and access to free education from the government in the municipality or provincial level, because children in Kampung Ledhok Timoho is mostly school age are constrained by an inability to economically and collided with the bureaucratic administration of the child’s identity status. b) Alternative Education School of Early Childhood Education (ECD) is available in Kampung Ledhok Timoho with the material provided is based on the learning activities through play and Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

playground facilities are available. c) Mothers Discussion Forum Mothers Discussion forums are routinely held every week, with the goal of socialization and counseling related to women and / or housewives. d) Qur’an Education Learning Educate the younger generation in order to behave and apply religious and social norms based on to the Qur’an. e) Qur’an Discussion Forum Qur’an Discussion Forum carried out routinely every Friday night in every week by inviting all inhabitants of Ledhok Timoho Kampong, with the aim to gain spiritual cleansing as well as strengthen the bond of friendship among fellow citizens. f) Community Library Provision of library facilities with the aim to encourage and increase the reading culture in children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly, thus gaining insights and comprehensive information and build personal to face the world outside. 3. Regular Meetings and Social Gathering for All Members of The Community Community meetings routinely performed on every 15th or in the middle of the month, with the aim to create a sense of togetherness and familiarity among fellow citizens, so that if any problems can be overcome with this forum, as well as used


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as a media for deliberation or community meetings to plan, execute , control and evaluate any existing activities in Ledhok Timoho Kampong. 4. Mutual Cooperation Mutual cooperation is done to help fellow the citizens in Kampung Ledhok Timoho to built houses, public facilities and infrastructure, and many other activities undertaken by mutual cooperation. 5. Community Contribution Community Contribution activity is a routine called a term senenan because the fee collected in every Monday, this fee is compulsory for each household amounted to one thousand rupiahs, with the aim to support the needs of the community that have been planned and will be

useful for the interests of all citizens. 6. Jathilan Art Jathilan Art incorporated in Jathilan Turonggo Wiwoho Art Group formed by inhabitants of Ledhok Timoho Kampong with the characteristic describes the activities and daily life of citizens with simple equipment and property. Jathilan Art is often an invitation to fill people’s events, weddings, circumcision, celebration, and many more. 7. Health Access Health access of poor people are registered as members and cooperate with BAPEL JAMKESOS DIY to get a card Jamkesos group, and can be used as a relief from the cost of health services in several hospitals in the DIY province.

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Figure 2.7 Ledhok Timoho Kampong Activities

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2.5.2 Livelihoods Citizens Data The livelihoods of inhabitants in Ledhok Timoho Kampong showed that of a total of 153 people, 22% work as construction workers, 18% work as scavengers, 15% as students, 4% work as street musicians, 6% as housewives, 2% worked as traders, 1% works as pedicab drivers, 1% work as domestic workers, and the remaining 31% has not been recorded with the speculation that is dominated by the children were not attending school and elderly inhabitants. Profession as a construction worker dominated by the head of the family which they work only coverage around The City of Yogyakarta, and usually their projects they are working including hotels, apartments and other buildings that large projects are being intensively carried out around The City of Yogyakarta. Scavengers proffesion is become a dominated profession by the inhabitants in Kampung Ledhok Timoho, from the scavenged levels that are only collecting bottles of mineral water to the level of scavenged that

already become collectors of all plastic waste. Street vendors profession dominated by Madura satay food vendors and angkringan, the placement of the their trade carts the inhabitants do not bring the trade carts into their house, but has been placed in the location which they trade, because access to bring their trade carts is very difficult because access to the Ledhok Timoho Kampong only be a small alley. Street musicians are dominated by immigrants with productive age and they are not married, they stay home and take shelter in TAABAH community. The mothers role as housewife and have sideline jobs as scavengers and open a kiosks. Pedicab drivers and domestic workers profession only a few citizens who through it, especially the data says only 1% of the total inhabitants, and the rest are children and teenagers who do not continue their education or have not even go to school and elderly inhabitants who are parents they take to stay together.

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2.5.3 Citizens Data Based On The Number of Family Members The number of family members living in Ledhok Timoho Kampong showed that 40% were inhabitants with a total of 1 person, which the number of members of the inhabitants of 1 person there who live indeed in the house and there were live collectively in one house and take shelter

in the community house, 18% were inhabitants with a total of 4 persons, 16% were inhabitants with a total of 3 persons, 16% were inhabitants with a total of 2 persons, 6% were inhabitants with a total of 5 persons, and the remaining 1% was the inhabitants with a total of 6 and 8 persons.

2.5.4 Citizens Data Based On The Productive Age Productive age of inhabitants in Ledhok Timoho Kampong showed that in the age range above 40 have a very large percentage that is 44%, followed by the age range between 25 to 40 is 19%, then dominated by the adolescent age between

13 to 18 amounting to 15 %, 9% is an age of transition from adolescence to maturity by the age range of 19 to 24 years, and the rest are children ages 6 to 12 years at 12% and the age of the age of toddlers at 1%.

2.5.5 Citizens Data Based On The Gender The gender ratio of Ledhok Timoho Kampong showed that the inhabitants with gender of male are dominated by 61% and the inhabitants with gender of female

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

by 39%, from these data showed that the inhabitants of Ledhok Timoho Kampong more dominated by gender of male and mostly are productive age ,


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Figure 2.8 Ledhok Timoho Kampong Inhabitants Data

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Thereotical Design Framework

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3.1

The Approach of Architectural Design Theory References

3.1.1 The Principle of Open Building Open Building concept originated from a quote of John N. Habraken that “We do not need to predict what will happen, but try to make the provisions of the unexpected” (Habraken in Cuperus, 2001). Open Building in concept is a building that can respond to user needs , therefore the user plays an important role to participate in determining the change, so the concept of open building itself simply is that the building is designed and manufactured to be ‘Open’, so that the preference of the

building is facilitated with all the changes that come from internal factors in the design of it (Permadi, 2011). The concept of Open Building fundamentally consist of a base of the building that is as ‘support’ and the filler that is as ‘infill’ and treated as a separate entity with different life cycles, in order to build an environment that can respond to the individual needs of the inhabitants (Cuperus, 2001).

3.1.2 Adaptable Architecture Adaptable architecture is the ability to adapt that refers to the building capacity in order to accommodate a substantial change, and act during the lifetime of the building. The changes that can not be avoided, both in terms of social, econom-

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

ic and physical, as well as the needs and expectations of the inhabitants. Adaptability and flexibility have played an important role in experimental architectural projects in the Industrial era (Ismail & Rahim, 2011).


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3.1.3 Adaptability As a survey shows how clear adaptation as design characteristics that defined the principle of consciousness of Time and Layers • Time Design considerations that the building has a dynamic system and interact with a set of demands endogenous and exogenous developments, which require the capacity to accommodate the changing rooms, function, and parts of the building over time. • Layers Design considerations relating to the organization and the interface between components from different lifespans and functions are implemented. The ability to adaptive increase the capacity changes over time while reducing the effort and expenditure, through the process of how a building is designed, with the aim to increase the longevity of the building (sustainability), and is a fundamental change in the way we look at the building and its composition as construction static through the dynamic system. Stewart Brand explains his understanding in his book How Buildings Learn about the building as a shearing layers composition (Schmidt III, Austin, & Brown, 2009).

The diagram model has been expanded by Brand and has six layers, including: (Lawson, 1999): • Site The basis of model (building) stands, and unite with the surrounding environment, has the longest level changes. • Structure The foundation and load-bearings as the main element, and very rarely change. • Skin The structure is covered by a skin of the building as the outermost layer, where most buildings now turned much more frequent than in the past, the building skin as the need for higher standards or as simple as the display style. • Services Services are available such as wiring, plumbing and ducting. In accordance with the advancement of technology and service usage patterns may be replaced in whole or in part to be replaced is quite often. • Space Plan Space plan acts as an internal wall and partition system, jointly with the floor and ceiling finishing, in other words, is the surface that we see when in the interior of

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the building. • Stuff Stuff is more accurately described as furniture, fixtures, such as shelving and equipment, computers, and television sets. The development of Brand’s Layer Diagram translated and added in accordance gathered from adaptablefutures.

com, 5 April 2016, that there is an additional layer that is the Social Layer to include the people in and around buildings and Surroundings Layer thorough the factors of surrounding locations, Both additional layers can be subdivided into their own series of layers (highlighted with the surroundings layer)

Figure 3.1 Brand's Layer Diagram as Adaptable Futures Diagram Source: http://adaptablefutures.com/toolkit/d03-building-layers/

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3.1.4 Adaptable Architecture Frame Cycle The purpose of the frame cycle is compiled from adaptablefutures.com, 5 April 2016, is explicitly show how the nature of adaptability desired. Six design strategy that showed the presence of products, systems and tactics includes: Adjustable 1. Plug and play elements 2. User control 3. Stackable (easily stored) 4. Non-fixed objects 5. Detachable connections 6. Operable elements Versatile 1. Movable Walls 2. Variety of room sizes 3. Wide coorridor widhts 4. Frame construction 5. Flexible ducts 6. Storage space 7. Excess service points Refitable 1. Access points 2. Standard shapes 3. Dry connections 4. Coordinated systems 5. Interchangeable components 6. Minimize points of contact

Convertible 1. Loose fit 2. Raised floor 3. Simplicity & legibility 4. Dropped ceilings 5. Multi-functional spaces 6. Excess service capacity Scalable 1. Product platform 2. Local materials 3. Known techniques 4. Structural redudancy 5. Modular units 6. Extra spaces 7. Dividable/joinable rooms Movable 1. Inflatable 2. Component weight 3. Kit-of-parts 4. Easy connections 5. Collapsable 6. Component scale

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Figure 3.2 Adaptable Architecture Frame Cycle

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Precedents

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4.1

NEXT21

Building Type : Residential Adaptive Strategies : Versatile, Refitable, Convertible Location : Osaka, Japan Organization : Osaka Gas Company, Obayashi Corporation, and 13 different architects Year of Completion : 1993 Total Area : 4,577.2 sqm Website Source : http://adaptablefutures.com/our-work/case-studies/ http://www.open-build ing.org/ob/next21.html http://www.ad.arch.hku.hk/~cmhui/japan/next21/next21-index.html

NEXT21 project is a unique example of an experimental housing, centered on a very individualistic lifestyles, in the context of high urban density and the conservation of resources committed by Osaka Gas Company. The building is developed with two main concepts of building systems and housing two stages: • Building Systems The building system refers to a building, consisting of a series of sub-systems that are defined by differences in age and production lines (structure, cladding, infill, and plumbing). • Two-Stage Housing Two-stage signifies the separation of the building housing into two categories: frame (permanent. Property shared

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

infrastructure) and infill (shorter, individual property) The changes of exterior panels can be done from the inside without having to use scaffolding. “Building Systems” refers to buildings that use methods to customize the individual components of the building systems, such as the main structure, exterior walls, and windows that have been set. NEXT12 project is a highly flexible architectural system included into practical terms. System components are divided into four groups according to what is required by each component and production lines, and then produced as a separate module system, so that the outer walls, bathroom and toilet, as well as a garden can be moved.


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Figure 4.1 Exterior View of NEXT21 Figure 4.2 Circulation Path and Ecological Garden of NEXT21 Source: http://www.ad.arch.hku.hk/~cmhui/japan/next21/next21-index.html

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4.2

Wohnanlage Genter Strasse

Building Type : Terrace Adaptive Strategies : Versatile, Refitable, Movable Location : Genter Strasse, 80805 München Year of Completion : 1972 Number of Units : 5 Residential Units + 2 Office Units Number of floors : 3 Floor Website Source : http://www.steidle-partner.de/bauten/genter/genter.htm http://www.afewthoughts.co.uk/flexiblehousing/house.php?house=54 https://issuu.com/brandon.j.smart/docs/thesis_book_adaptable_architecture_ http://www.pixelrakete.de/modulhaus-in-der-genter-strasse-in-muenchen/ http://aplust.net/blog/steidle__partner_housing_munich/

Other projects related to the flexible and adaptive housing is Wohnanlage Genter Strasse, by Otto Steidle & Partners as a multi-family building in 1972. The building design allows for constant changes with the flexibility of “support” as the adaptability of the “detachable unit” and transformation residential units following the preferences of the user. This building is a breakthrough project in 1972 and allows the flexibility that has been created as a space that can be adjusted. In order to achieve that components made of prefabricated and are not permanently fixed to each other. Expression and character of the building is only based on functionality. The connections are exposed, load-bearing structure, materiality facades and floors are all made

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

separately from the structural component that provides real beauty in the whole building. The modules can be maneuver and allows space and volume that can be expanded or reduced according to the wishes of the user. The relationship between the parts which can be connected and a permanent structure, based on the dry connections and a residential block makes various types of units and the spatial organization of the different housing typologies. The composition of the units has been changed several times since the original layout design created. Wohnanlage Center remains an example occupancy of implementing Open Building design and how the process of building construction.


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Figure 4.3 Exterior View of Wohnanlage Genter Strasse Source: http://www.pixelrakete.de/modulhaus-in-der-genter-strasse-in-muenchen/ Figure 4.4 Building Expression and Dry Connections of Wohnanlage Genter Strasse Source: http://aplust.net/blog/steidle__partner_housing_munich/

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4.3

Rapidly Deployable Inflatable Containers (RDIC)

Building Type : Residensial Adaptive Strategies : Versatile, Refitable, Movable Location : New York, North America Organization : Vira Line - James Vira and Jason Cadorette, NYC Office of Emergency Management Total Area : 19 m2 (per one unit installed) Website Source : http://www.viraline.com/#/1826 http://adaptablefutures.com/our-work/case-studies/

RDIC combines the benefits of rigid containers and inflatable architecture into a quick solution to post-disaster and temporary housing. Developed for the NYC Office of Emergency Management after winning the competition ‘What if New York ...’ in 2008, a compact prefabricated dwelling units (3 Units RDIC = 1 40 ‘containers by long delivery) take an advantage of the rapid development, flexible setting, pre-installed services, and storage furniture. A unit that will be applied is measuring 9 sqm and can be expanded to 19 sqm, the size is doubled than the minimum size, and can be combined with other units to create a double occupancy configuration, using a knock-outs panels system which are placed on both sides of the wall with flexible fabrics connections and floors using steel panels (steel pegs inserted in the four corners). A unit can be used as studios while the combination varies between 1 to 3 bedrooms with prefabricated

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

kitchens, wardrobes and bathroom units are installed according with the needs and removable furniture is packed in an unassembled to minimize space requirements. Each module consists of two parts, one rigid (standard components steel structure which can hold up to 8 units above) and the other one inflatable (two separate layers of translucent fabric that can enter the soft light). Connection to the service is made prefabricated and installed on the surface, while the each housing module has a single connection point for all services. The wall on the back of the floor and folded to become a part of the inflatable, where the bottom is derived through the use of manual crank with folding mechanism incorporated into a concrete floor. The road that connects between housing units rotating and dropped from the front wall and pivot into place by folding fence system.


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Figure 4.5 RDIC Exterior View From Street Level Figure 4.6 Residential Unit Exploded Section View of RDIC Source: http://www.viraline.com/#/1826

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4.4

Bandarharjo Social Housing

Building Type Adaptive Strategies Location Year of Completion Total Area Housing Unit Type

: Residensial : Versatile, Scalable, Convertible : Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia : 1994 : 240000 sqm, : 27 sqm, 36 sqm, and 54 sqm

The initial concept of Bandarharjo Social Housing is as a solution of settlements rejuvenation with “building without displacing� concept, which aims to the settlements where the people who inhabit at the same location to get rejuvenation with decent housing. Planning of dwelling units forward the concept of open layout plan which of each unit is not given a partition or given a permanent or semi-permanent wall with an open layout condition, so the interior preferences of each units depends on the inhabitant, except for Bathroom (Purwanto & Wijayanti, 2012). Facilities at Bandarharjo Social Housing basically is not complete, the facility issues resolved and overcome by its own citizens and inhabitants, and is a significant problem to overcome. One solution to solving problems related to the facility is the way to use some other room being a particular function that is needed

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

for the inhabitants, by means of deliberation of citizens and get a decision together, so that citizens have a sense of belonging to their social housing environment (Purwanto & Wijayanti , 2012). The communal facilities for inhabitants to congregate and multifunctional area for inhabitants in Bandarharjo Social Housing is not specifically provided, but using of the lobby, corridors, and residential units that are not occupied. Bandarharjo Social Housing have a lined housing pattern with elongated mass of one side and the access link using the corridor at the front of the housing unit, that serves as a terrace and a common room (Purwanto & Wijayanti, 2012). Bandarharjo Social Houising divided into three blocks with each block having two or three types of units, including units of type 27, 36, and 54 sqm.


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Figure 4.7 Exterior View of Bandarharjo Social Housing Source: http://planologie-tale.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/si-gedung-vertical-berlandaskan-rob.html Figure 4.8 Exterior View of Bandarharjo Social Housing From Street Level Source: Pola Ruang Komunal Di Rumah Susun Bandarharjo Semarang, 2012

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Design Development

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5.1

Proposed Design Strategy

Referring to the primary approach that has been discussed is the implementation of Adaptable Architecture, that the limitation in finding form and mass of the building is intended to meet the fundamental need is housing solution that can grow and in accordance with user preferences, and the context is Ledhok Timoho Kampong, then selected the limitations of which consists of six strategies that can be taken several strategies adapted to the the context of the design, including: • Adjustable 1. User Control User controls are expected and returned to the user’s needs, which in the context related to the needs of family members at each of the head of the family, hence it needs to be adapted to the desires of the user, and therefore can not be equated the character of the housing needs of families with each other, and the growth of module housing unit are fully delivered to users. 2. Operable Elements Elements such as walls, floors, ceilings and windows can be operated according to the needs of inhabitants, the intent element is operated in the context of this scheme refers to the use of elements that can be selected according to the needs and desires, elements that can be operated such as the selection of a window form, opening windows direction, window openings area, the position of the Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

window, to the finishing of the window. • Versatile 1. Variety of Room Sizes The created space on each module housing units will indirectly create differences in size due to many factors that are associated with the character of the inhabitants, particularly related to the the background of the number of inhabitants and the ability of inhabitants in organizing space that shows their occupancy status between one another. 2. Wide Corridor The wide corridors intended that inhabitants can interact and supervise each other, the function of the corridor as well as a replacement of space neighbors when staying horizontally, so as to achieve the purpose essence of the social life of the actual kampong life, and also serves as an area that can facilitate the process of building construction in the process of growth modules housing units in order not to disturb other housing units. 3. Frame Construction The selection of construction which acts as a support system is using the construction of reinforced concrete frame is provided as load bearing of housing up to four floor, providing the framework construction is a columns, beams and girders confined to the module units that are only available bathroom facilities and a concrete floor slab, the rest for expansion handed over to the user, the availability


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of dry connections is using steel beam profile that can be customized with other construction systems such as using wood materials. • Refitable 1. Dry Connections Dry connections applied only to the structural system of steel beams profiles are applied following in accordance with the needs of inhabitants if they want to add module housing unit, steel beams supported by a concrete corbles that have previously been incorporated with the structural beams concrete core which acts as the support of structure, the floor slab can be customized by the user’s wishes, by using concrete materials supported with metal decks or with wood material

which is supported by wood decks. • Convertible 1. Simplicity and Legibility Simplicity and readability meant is inhabitants especially prospective inhabitants can read and know the limits and how to build a module housing unit in accordance with the guidelines of growth that has been arranged and provided, the aspects of simplicity is applied in a pattern on a modular design support system that can be adapted quickly by inhabitants. 2. Multi-Functional Spaces Multi-functional space is provided as an application of the modular system, which is such functions of communal space can be directly created from the terrace made by inhabitans in each hous-

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ing, communal corridor that surrounds of each module housing unit and communal areas specifically in the area of the center in each housing sub block. Scalable 1. Local Materials Local materials utilized to minimize the cost of accommodation so that the house was built is not burdened by excess of costs, so that citizens can choose their own material needs by utilizing existing resources around them, as an example of the potential of batako independently of their production to the needs of the wall material. 2. Known Techniques Construction phases attempted in order to facilitate citizens to undertake growth of module housing units, the conventional construction in accordance with the context of the location and the habits

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

of citizens in building becomes the main reason that expansion process remains with the construction that is easy to follow and are known by the citizens, and can raise the possibility of this type of different construction related to the material selection which correlates with a support system / base structure. 3. Modular Units (Modular Units) Modular units system easier for residents to take the growth of the module housing unit, with the smallest module measuring 3x3 m allows users to read growth flow of module housing unit growth, and closely connected with the grid structure is provided and maximize space efficiency based on the needs of each family in one module housing unit, consists of a combination of several modules.


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Figure 5.1 Design Strategy

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5.1.1 Building Programatic Scenario Building construction and programmatic scenario solved including by: • Core functions of module housing unit as its main function to be inhabitated by villagers of Ledhok Timoho Kampong as prospective inhabitants. • Support functions including the communal corridor that serves as a communal area, which also serves as access to each module housing unit, as well as the area to facilitate the construction process for each inhabitants if they want to expand on each module housing unit. • Ramp access function as the main vertical circulation is accessible to all people, humanist scale, and can reduce the cost of maintenance.

Figure 5.2 Housing Block Programmatic Construction Scenario

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Figure 5.3 Housing Block Programmatic Zoning

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Figure 5.4 Housing Modul Unit Adaptable Scenario

5.1.2 Housing Module Unit Module housing units available in 4-module types with modul housing units growth scenario remained on a reference that has been made, and openly still pro-

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

vide space selection function that is based on the characters and the different number of inhabitants in each module housing units.


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Figure 5.5 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C Module Unit

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Figure 5.6 2D, 3A, 3B, 3C Module Unit

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Figure 5.7 3D, 4A, 4B Module Unit

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Figure 5.8 4C, 4D Module Unit

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana


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Figure 5.9 Housing Block Ground Floor Plan

5.1.3 Housing Block Ground Floor Plan Housing block ground floor plan focused on the function of communal connected with public access, the placement of vertical circulation ramps connected directly and linearly with the site entrance access, the innercourt located on the ground floor of that section area of

the ramp and the area of sub-block housing, serves as the circulation of air flowing from ground floor for further forwarded through the void in the area of housing module unit and the ramp area with stack ventilation system.

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Figure 5.10 Housing Block Typical Floor Plan

5.1.4 Housing Block Typical Floor Plan Housing block typical floor plan focused on the main function is as place for a module housing unit to be occupied with the design strategy of adaptable architecture, the placement of strater core of each module housing units centered on the Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

center of each sub-block housing in order flow growth for module housing units can be controlled well and connected with access to the communal corridors, communal areas, and main vertical circulation ramps.


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Figure 5.11 Housing Block Rooftop Plan

5.1.5 Housing Block Rooftop Plan Housing block rooftop plan focused on the function of the productive activity of citizens in urban farming activities, and can independently fulfill the food needs of citizens. The availability of rainwater catchers can be a backup at least water

needs in fulfilling the needs of flush toilets, watering plants, cleaning latrines, in addition to the source water from municipal waterworks or from the wellbore.

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Figure 5.12 Housing Block East Elevation

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Figure 5.13 Housing Block South Elevation

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Figure 5.14 Housing Block Longitudinal Section

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Figure 5.15 Housing Block Transversal Section

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5.1.6 Actor Design Scenario Stages of planning and designing submitted to a professional team in the process remain involves citizens in the participatory design process mediated by architects, local government only provide a reference regulations with regard to the concept of revitalization of the Gajah Wong river, building regulations, land regulations, and also partially fund the construction of development in terms of main structure system that acts as a ‘Support‘ and the starter for the core of modules housing

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

units will be occupied by inhabitants. Prospective residents simply fill in a ‘container’ for module housing unit, where residents can change the preference module unit dwellings, which of them can choose their own material walls, elements of doors and windows, and can have a facade that is adapted to the character of the inhabitants, so in terms of financing concept can even press the funds up to 50% compared with the conventional concept of social housing.


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Figure 5.16 Housing Block Principal Section

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Figure 5.17 Housing Unit Module Exploded Axonometric

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Figure 5.18 Housing Sub-Block Exploded Axonometric

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Figure 5.19 Interior Sequence of 4 Modules Housing Unit

Figure 5.20 Interior Sequence of 1 Module Housing Unit

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Figure 5.21 Interior Sequence of 3 Modules Housing Unit

Figure 5.22 Interior Sequence of 2 Modules Housing Unit

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Figure 5.23 Interior Sequence of Module Housing Unit Void

Figure 5.24 Interior Sequence of Ground Floor Area

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Figure 5.25 Interior Sequence of Ramp Area

Figure 5.26 Interior Sequence of Rooftop Area

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Figure 5.27 Macro Desig

5.1.7 Macro Design Intervention Intervention design on a macro scale includes: • Pedestrian Access Pedestrian access has an access path surrounds the building and open space on the ground floor, easily accessible with the recreational aspect of green open space which is on the river border that can be passed bicycles and humans up to 3 people. • Vertical Circulation Ramp Circulation ramp on each block are connected with pedestrian access on the ground floor, towards entry to the linear ramp with direction sign site and dealing with each block housing. • Greneery Area Green open space responded by utilizing the river border area and the area Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

around the site as water catchment areas, supported by public space and plaza for inhabitants and visitors from outside the site. • Daylight Control Control of natural lighting in residential blocks responded with their void and innertcourt placed on each dwelling unit module, ramp area, and the area between the housing sub-block. • Air Control Air control naturally responded to the interventions in line with the design of daylight control, using a stack ventilation system to facilitate wind can flow from the ground floor to be able to pass each voids that are located on each floor.


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gn Intervention Diagram

• Local Materials Local materials used in the aspect of building ‘infill’ that is module housing unit and building facades that the preference is left entirely to the residents, batako material produced independently by residents in Ledhok Timoho Kampong become the major potential and can reduce the cost of construction due entirely governed by local communities in terms of its empowerment. • Rainwater Cather The placement of rainwater catcher are located on thr rooftop in order to maximize the flow of water that can be captured and stored as a backup water in addition to using from municipal waterworks and the wellbore, design applications combined with the interpretation of tropical gable roof which identifies where the building is constructed.

• Urban Farming Urban farming activity is maximized on the rooftop in order to support the productive activities of inhabitants in terms of farming, urban farming area placements are one roof with rainwater catcher function that part of the roof of urban farming area purposely made half-open in order to the sun can directly illuminate the plants.

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Figure 5.28 Adaptable Vert

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tical Kampong Master Plan

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Figure 5.29 Adaptable Vert

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tical Kampong Aerial View

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Figure 5.30 Exterior Vie

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ew From Riverfront Area

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Figure 5.31 Exterior Vie

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ew From Entrance Area

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Design Evaluation

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Thoroughly that Adaptable Architecture approach originated from the concept of Open Building issued by John N. Habraken, which is the strategy that the building is considered as a layer that varies according to the time and adapted to the the needs of users, the concept of Adaptable Architecture represents a new approach to the architectural subject and its still developing, but fundamentally it is already have a basic concept of Open Building. The advantages of Adaptable Architecture approach is that each restriction framework cycle has its own criteria that have been referred clearly to the architectural solution, so it follows that the level of this approach was limited to the architectural concept and not included in the method of participatory design process, the authors remain data collection to the object of Ledhok Timoho Kampong by conducting interviews with some relevant figures on the development of residential and direction of the development of Kampung subsequently if the Kampong will be planned as Vertical Kampong, the process of participatory design methods actually

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

take a long time and need to be supported by the relevant team, so I’ll just implement data collection and interviews were dominated by the TAABAH Community by taking the profile data of citizens and residents in Ledhok Timoho kampong activities. The next stage is to take the initial hypothesis that is adapted to approach, typology of vertical kampong, social housing, and precedents that are relevant and then get the limits of the framework cycle approach of Adaptable Architecture appropriate to the context of the design, and the authors apply it to a process of trial and error until finally getting the relevant design and it is essentially able to grow without disturbing other module housing units and the design envisaged that this approach can already be applied properly. The process of financing scenarios and the actor who played it is clear that inhabitants develop the infill system and government provide the support structure for conveying it to the inhabitants with referrals designer. The system of property rights applied intended to make inhabitants aware of the existence of their envi-


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ronment and the ownership of their housing. the financing of housing can also be controlled in accordance with the needs of inhabitants, and each one of housing unit is intended for one family and if the inhabitants will move the system of property rights can be handed over to another family in accordance with module housing units that has been growing, and it is not allowed in a single module housing unit can be filled by another family. Lastly that this design is intended as a new solution of Adaptable Vertical Kampong, which is returned to the citizens so that the need for housing and financing system is fundamentally back to the inhabitants, the development of kampong that previously inhabited be the right strategy that is used the realignment of settlement without having to be relocated to another place, which until now the problem of social housing is so difficult to face the problems of mismatches the inhabitants, financing system, and a location away from the source of livelihood of the inhabitants can be resolved properly with this design solutions.

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References Budiharjo, E. (1997). Arsitektur & Kota Di Indonesia (4th ed.). Bandung: Alumni. Marbun, B. N. (1990). Kota Indonesia Masa Depan Masalah dan Prospek (2nd ed.). Jakarta: Erlangga. Prayitno, B. (2014). Skema Inovatif Penanganan Permukiman Kumuh (1st ed.). Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Lawson, B. (2005). How Designers Think (Fourth). Architectural Press is an imprint of Elsevier. BAPPEDA Kota Yogyakarta. (2014). Penyusunan Grand Desain Sungai Gajahwong. Kota Yogyakarta. Cuperus, Y. (2001). An introduction to open building. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference of the 9th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, 10. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.202.7917&rep=rep1&type=pdf Ismail, Z., & Rahim, A. A. (2011). Adaptability and Modularity in Housing : a Case Study of Raines Court and Next21. International Islamic University Malaysia. Retrieved from http://irep.iium.edu. my/8927/1/nex_21_(icudbe).pdf Kamil, F. A., Hernawa, B., & Singsingan, P. A. (2012). Representasi Informal Leader Di Daerah Led-

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Fadlan Maulana

hok Timoho, Kota Yogyakarta, 1–8. Retrieved from https://id.scribd.com/doc/78169169/Informal-Leader-Di-Ledhok-Timoho Lawson, B. (1999). The Language Of Space. Burlington, MA: Architectural Press An imprint of Elsevier. Permadi, A. (2011). Perancangan Apartemen di Surabaya Dengan Konsep Open Building. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November. Retrieved from http://digilib.its.ac.id/ITS-Master-3100012046299-/18773 Purwanto, E., & Wijayanti. (2012). Pola Ruang Komunal Di Rumah Susun Bandarharjo Semarang. DIMENSI - Journal of Architecture and Built Environment, 39(1), 23–30. Schmidt III, R., Austin, S., & Brown, D. (2009). Design Adaptable Buildings. Adaptable Futures, (October), 1–4. Anon. (2013). Profil Komunitas Ledhok Timoho. Komunitas Taabah http://www.radarjogja.co.id/blog/2014/12/04/ kota-jogja-terkumuh-di-dij/. Retrieved March 15, 2016. http://adaptablefutures.com/our-work/ case-studies/. Retrieved April 5, 2016.


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http://www.open-building.org/ob/next21.html. Retrieved April 7, 2016. http://www.ad.arch.hku.hk/~cmhui/japan/next21/ next21-index.html. Retrieved April 7, 2016. http://www.steidle-partner.de/bauten/genter/genter.htm. Retrieved April 6, 2016. http://www.afewthoughts.co.uk/flexiblehousing/ house.php?house=54. Retrieved April 6, 2016. https://issuu.com/brandon.j.smart/docs/thesis_ book_adaptable_architecture_. Retrieved April 6, 2016. http://www.pixelrakete.de/modulhaus-in-dergenter-strasse-in-muenchen/. Retrieved April 6, 2016. http://aplust.net/blog/steidle__partner_housing_ munich/. Retrieved April 6, 2016. http://www.viraline.com/#/1826. Retrieved May 1, 2016. http://planologie-tale.blogspot.co.id/2012/11/ si-gedung-vertical-berlandaskan-rob.html. Retrieved May 5, 2016.

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Adaptable Vertical Kampong, Gajah Wong Riverbank, Yogyakarta Center For Socius Design


Adaptable Vertical Kampong - Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis - by Fadlan Maulana  

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Report - Supervised by Ilya Fadjar Maharika - Department of Architecture Islamic University of Ind...

Adaptable Vertical Kampong - Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis - by Fadlan Maulana  

Undergraduate Architectural Design Thesis Report - Supervised by Ilya Fadjar Maharika - Department of Architecture Islamic University of Ind...

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