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Ornamental and Miscellaneous Metal

Fabricator Fabrica-

The official publication of the National Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metals Association

Jan/Feb 2003

$6.00 US

Shop Talk

Member Talk

Options for coating aluminum, page 42

Kolka perfects the art of teamwork, page 50

Biz Side

Tips for coping with burnout, page 68

Job Profiles

Traditional gate styles remain popular page 32 Meet the 2003 METALfab exhibitors, page 32


Janaury/February 2003 Vol. 44, No. 1

The Ground Zero wall helps to honor a sacred place, page 62.

Tips & Tactics

Member Talk

Biz Side

Ask Our Expert 7 Stainless steel requires responsible handling to achieve maximum benefits. Problem/Solution 9 Let your computer do more work by using AutoCAD’s “array” command. Step-By-Step 10 Reduce waste and costs by following four tips to improve HVLP spraying.

Two artists, one shop: Skiles & Fiorini team up 50 A husband and wife team work collaborate on various projects.

How do you deal with burnout 68 The challenges and solutions to dealing with a major industry problem.

Students honor past dean 53 Shop students at Augusta Technical

Five steps for growing a healthy website 72 An effective web site requires careful research and planning. By Jack Cameron

Job Profiles

Special Features Lawler Foundry Corp. makes a major commitment to NEF 16 A generous corporate gift helps to raise the foundation to a higher level. By Todd Daniel

Get ready for METALfab 2003 18 Come see the latest products and services of over 70 exhibitors

Traditional forged gates 56 remain popular Heavy stock and dark colors are still preferred by many clients. Building a fence at Ground Zero 62 A fabricator finishes a mammoth project in time for 9/11 observances. By Tom & Dan Doyle

Shop Talk Tubing: Are you getting what you expect? 32 The thickness you order may not be exactly what you receive. By John L. Campbell

Should you anodize, paint, or powder coat? 42 Learn about the three basic options for finishing aluminum.

By Penn McClatchey

President’s Letter Another one bites the dust!!!


One of 40 birds adorning the Aspen rail.

Forging an Aspen forest from 13,000 pounds of bronze 65 Over 240 lineal feet of railing is crafted for a Wyoming ranch.

Editor’s Letter 8 Fabricator receives a facelift

By Thomas G. Dolan

How to hire the right person 74 Invest more time in the interview process to avoid future problems. By William Lynott

What’s Hot! Biz Briefs 80 OSHA accepts NFPA egress standards. Coming Events 88 Get ready for METALfab 2003. NOMMA News 90 Members are spotlighted in journal. People 94 A moment with Matthew Maynard. Literature 95 A new book shares forming techniques. Products 96 Bristle brushes and a portable shear.

Classifieds 101

Reader’s Letters 9 A familiar railing, a “thank you,” and the real Alex

Bealer. Fabricator Poll 102 Should you accommodate

Cover photo: This automated gate is framed with heavy wall steel tubing. The scrollwork at the top was hand forged. The finials that sit on the top of the steel tubes were custom turned from aluminum. Accenting the gate are custom bronze ornaments. Fabrictor: Design Metals, Gresham, OR.

President’s Letter

Dedicated to the success of our members and industry.

As I write this the last of the shopping

NOMMA Officers President Belk Null Berger Iron Works Houston, TX President-Elect Chris Maitner Christopher Metal Fabricating Grand Rapids, MI

Curt Witter Big D Metalworks of Texas Dallas, TX Immediate Past President Michael D. Boyler Boyler’s Ornamental Iron Bettendorf, IA

Vice President/ Treasurer

NOMMA Directors Doug Bracken Wiemann Iron Works Tulsa, OK Breck Nelson Kelley Ornamental Iron Peoria, IL Chris Connelly DeAngelis Iron Work South Easton, MA Fred Michael Colonial Iron Works Petersburg, VA Rob Mueller Mueller Ornamental Iron Works Elk Grove Village, IL Rod Stodtmeister Stodtmeister Iron Sparks, NV

David T. Donnell Eagle Bending Machines Stapleton, AL Bob Paxton Lawler Foundry Birmingham, AL Pam Beckham Mittler Bros. Machine & Tool Foristell, MO Executive Director Barbara H. Cook NOMMA Forest Park, GA

Fabricator Staff Editor J. Todd Daniel Associate Editor Rachel Squires Operations & Marketing Manager Cynthia Smith Senior Writers John L. Campbell John L. Cochran, PhD Executive Director Barbara Cook

Another one bites the dust!!!

2003 Fabricator Advisory Council Patrick S. Kelly Decor Cable Innovations Sharon Picard South Attleboro Welding


is done, the presents are wrapped, and Christmas is upon us. That means New Years is around the corner and another year is gone. They seem to go by so fast. This is a good time to reflect on the events of last year and what we have accomplished …or failed to.

Proud Accomplishments As President of NOMMA, I am proud of what our organization achieved in 2002. We have become an accomplished player in the code arena and have won several victories in the fight to keep codes and standards reasonable and fair. In Tim Moss, our Technical Consultant, we have a consistent face representing us at code hearings across the nation, which is a major goal we have accomplished. In the area of technical publishing, we were sought out to participate in the updating of the NAAMM architectural metal manuals. This year, we have completed one manual (the Stainless Steel Finishes Manual is ready for print) and another one, the Aluminum Finishes Manual, is in its final rewrite. This joint venture will go a long way in putting NOMMA in the offices and on the minds of architects and spec writers across the nation. Foundation Takes Off The NOMMA Education Foundation (NEF) is no longer in its infancy. It has proudly taken those important first steps and is walking more steadily each day. It is already the premier source of education and knowledge for

our industry. While there are other associations that touch on parts of our trade, the NEF is the only organization with educational programs that specifically address ornamental and miscellaneous metalwork. The NEF is something we can all be proud of and a part of. Volunteer Power These are all wonderful accomplishments, Belk Null is but they didn’t just poresident of happen on their own. the National They are the result of Ornamental and hard work by volun- Miscellaneous Metals Associateers and staff, and tion. I want to personally thank each person who has worked so hard this year to make them a reality. Where have we fallen short? We could use more help with the reviewing and editing of the NAAMM manuals. We could use new faces presenting educational programs and demonstrations. We could benefit by having each of you become more involved in your association. Remember, you will only get something out of NOMMA if you put something in. I look forward to seeing each of you in Covington, KY for METALFAB 2003, March 4–8.

Magazine Association of Georgia Proud Member

Plan now for

METALfab 2003

March 4–8, 2003 • Covington, KY


Fabricator n January–February 2003

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Ornamental & Miscellaneous Met­al Fab­ri­ca­tor (ISSN 0191-5940), is the of­fi­cial pub­li­ca­tion of the Na­tional Or­na­men­tal & Mis­cel­la­ne­ous Metals As­so­cia­tion (NOMMA). 532 Forest Parkway, Suite A For­est Park, GA 30297 (404) 363-4009 Fax (404) 366-1852 E-mail: Fabricator is published bi-monthly on the 15th of January, March, May, July, September, and No­vem­ber. Opinions expressed in Fabricator are not necessarily those of the editors or NOM­MA. Articles appearing in Fabricator may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express permission of NOMMA. Circulation Fabricator is targeted to managers and owners of ornamental and miscellaneous metalworking firms. Cir­cu­la­tion: 9,000. News, literature, product releases, and other editorial matters Please contact associate editor, Rachel Squires, at (404) 363-4009, ext. 14, or Magazine display advertising Insertion order deadline: first Fri­day of the month prior to pub­li­ca­tion date Cam­era-ready art or film deadline: second Friday of month prior to pub­li­ca­tion date. Please call for a rate card and calendar. Classifieds $25 for up to 35 words, $38 for 36–55 words, $50 for 56–70 words. No logos or boxed ads. Pre-payment only. Send items to: Rachel Squires, Fabricator, 532 Forest Parkway., Ste. A, Forest Park, GA 30297. Ads may be faxed with credit card information to: (404) 366-1852. Deadline: Second Fri­day of the month prior to pub­li­ca­tion date. Subscriptions, address changes: 1-year: U.S., Canada, Mexico — $30; 2-year: U.S., Canada, Mex­ic­ o — $50; 1-year: all other countries — $44; 2-year: all other countries — $78. Pay­ment in U.S. dol­lars by check drawn on U.S. bank or money order. For NOMMA mem­bers, a year’s sub­scrip­tion is a part of membership dues. Contact: Liz Ware at (404) 363-4009, ext. 20 or Magazine subscription information is available online at: • Subscribe/renew • Change your address • Report duplicate issues. NOMMA Supplier Directory Published each December as a separate issue. Space reservation deadline is July 31. Deadline for all advertising materials is August 31. For info, contact Rachel Squires at (404) 363-4009, ext. 14 or Reprints Reprints of articles are available. For a quote, contact Rachel Squires at (404) 3634009, ext. 14 or



How to reach us

Editor’s Letter

Fabricator Receives A Facelift I am proud and overjoyed to present to you the rollout of the “new” Fabricator. Throughout the issue, you’ll notice a more colorful, sharper, and more organized look. This redesign is the result of much thought and planning that began in 1999.

What’s New The first thing you’ll notice is a completely fresh look that features new typefaces and a different layout style. The purpose for this change is to make the information in the magazine more useable and accessible for our busy readers. Probably the next thing you’ll notice is more color. Hurray! Starting with this issue we’ve jumped from 45 percent color to 100 percent. This allows us to breathe new life into the departments in the back of the magazine. The third most visible change is the addition of more articles that are quick to read, yet more indepth. These articles are intended to provide the “nuts and bolts” information that so many of you have requested over the years. Behind the Scenes One of the biggest changes we made is not even noticeable. Starting with this issue, we are 100 percent digital. In short, that means we are increasing efficiency and quality by eliminating film. This arrangement completely cuts out the old time camera work and stripping that was once required to prepare a magazine for printing. Now, we transmit the magazine in a readyto-print format. A Little History For years we’ve added new departments and features to Fabricator magazine, but it has been in a hodgepodge fashion. It was sort of like expanding our shop with an addition here and there with no real masterplan. Over the summer, we hired a

magazine consultant to demolish our old shop and rebuild from scratch. What we came up with is a design that is linked by similar typefaces, colors, and styles. At the core of our redesign is the idea of “service journalism.” What this means is that it’s our job to go a step further in providing you with detailed information, rather than leaving the work or guessing up to you. We will continually try to provide this added level of information through lists, boxes, and charts Some Special ‘Thank Yous’ All of these changes could not have been possible without a few special people. First, a thanks to our printer representative, Don Greene of C & O Printing Inc., who has helped and supported us every step of the way. Second, a special thanks to Robin Sherman, our magazine consultant, who spent many hours tending to every detail of this design. Thirdly, and most importantly, I’d like to thank our associate editor Rachel Squires. Her talent and hard work has allowed us to get ahead enough to the point where we can do more longrange planning, as opposed to just focusing on the next issue. Conclusion As always, two way interaction is encouraged and is what gives any publication “life.” Your letters, story ideas, columns, and other feedback are always welcomed. Let me know what you think by sending an e-mail to:

Fabricator n January–February 2003


Reader’s Letters That railing looks familiar! I always read the Fabricator to keep up with old friends and new products, and it is a fine publication. It was a real surprise to see on page 12 in the latest issue [Nov/Dec 2002] a railing that I built in 1987. This was built for a really nice house in Dallas. We also did a set of entry gates, an interior balustrade, several small and large balconies, and some miscellaneous items. This stair was called “the maid’s stair” as it led directly from the motor court to the maid’s quarters over the garage. The house still stands and is on its third owner. They have all been good customers. I thought that you might like to know. David D’Avignon Iron Craft Studio Inc.

Dallas, TX Who’s Alex Vaeler? It looks like Thomas Dolan didn’t take very good notes [Are You An Artist or Craftsperson, Nov/Dec, p. 36]. At this moment, Alex is somewhere in the next world flailing at smiley faces on his anvil that resemble Dolan. Do you hear the thunder? Actually, it’s Alex BEALER, not Vaeler, who probably single handedly helped to revive American blacksmithing in the 1970s. Does it have to have a story to be art, and command an absurd price? Dan Tull Dan T’s Inferno Newnan, Ga.

reviews in Fabricator. I can place all the reviews in the world on our website, but that is not worth one review in printed format. People like you and others make me look good! And for those interested in more reviews, the web address is: /reviewers/. Chuck Hamsa Reviewers Consortium Lafayette, LA W RI TE !

Tell us what you think

Mail Letter to the Editor, c/o Fabricator, 532 Forest Pkwy., Ste. A, Forest Park, GA 30297 E-mail Fax (404) 366-1852 Please include your name, company, address, telephone number, and e-mail. Letters are subject to editing for clarity and length.

Mr. Tull is a past president of the Alex Bealer Blacksmith Association. Thanks For the Reviews I just returned from a tour of the Gulf Coast and was delighted to see the latest issue of Fabricator upon my return. Thanks for publishing my literature

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Tips& Tactics

Ask Our Expert


Stainless steel still requires special care

Stainless steel is exactly what its name implies: it stains ‘less.’ Care and precaution is required to maximize the benefits of this nonferrous metal. Most people are familiar with stainless

steel, but many have a misconception of the metal and are surprised to learn that stainless steel can, indeed, rust or corrode in certain applications. Stainless steel is not actually stainless as the name implies. More accurately, stainless stains “less” and is more resistant compared to other metals. Stainless steel is also not rust-proof, rather it is stain resistant. Any stainless steel type can show some form of corrosion or deterioration depending on the degree of contaminants that the metal has been exposed to. For this reason, it is paramount that the correct or best grade is chosen and proper handling procedures are followed.

QWhat gives stainless steel its special qualities to retard corrosion? AIn the early 1900s metallurgic engineers discovered that by adding chromium and nickel to ordinary carbon steel it would become more stain and corrosion resistant. It was also discovered that an invisible chromium oxide film was present on the surface that protected this new steel from various forms of corrosive attack. The film on stainless steel has been proven to be resistant in many corrosive conditions such as exposure to air, water, alkalis, etc. This protective film is so thin and transparent that it escapes detection by the naked eye. When scratched, nicked, or otherwise penetrated, a fresh film forms to preserve its corrosive resistance. QWhat grade should I use for general

ornamental work? AThrough the years, a multitude of grades have been introduced to the market. These new grades provide various modified chemical as well as physical compositions that are more corrosion resistant and designed for severe applications. Examples are types 316, 317, L grades (low carbon content), 309, 310, and 321. Over the years, Type 304, which is a chromium/nickel alloy, has emerged as the main general purpose alloy. It is used in everything from ocean vessels to household kitchenware.

tile chemicals such as sodium chlorine.

Our Expert

Jim Goldsmith is Executive Vice President and co-owner of Stainless Tubular Products Inc. (STP), Fairfield, NJ. STP is one of the nation’s largest suppliers of stainless steel tubing, pipe, and bar stock to the architectural industry.

QAre there situations when Type 304 stainless is NOT the best choice? AYes. In extremely harsh environments, such as saltwater, types 316 or 316/L may be considered. This should be the decision of the engineer, architect, or designer. In most cases, choosing a more resistant grade is a matter of weighing cost against durability and maintenance. In addition to saltwater, other environments where another grade may be considered include swimming pools, sewage treatment plants, lawn areas where fertilizers are used, and any areas that are exposed to hos-

QWhat precautions are required at the job site? ANew construction sights can sometimes contribute to the contamination of stainless steel. One danger is the muratic acid and other chemicals that are sometimes used to clean up new masonry or cement work. Muriatic acid aggressively attacks Type 304 stainless within hours. Its effect is so hostile that even after it is washed away, the fumes linger and rusting problems begin within weeks.

QWhat precautions are also needed in the shop? AA fabricating department can also contribute to the product eventually rusting in spots. Many fabricators use work tables made of carbon steel. As the job is dragged across these tables, they can pick up carbon particles. These particles contaminate the stainless and will eventually create a rusting problem in the scratched areas.


If you have topics for an Ask Our Expert tutorial, please let us know the idea. For consideration, please contact the Editor at 532 Forest Parkway, Ste. A, For­est Park, GA 30297, Phone (404) 363-4009, Fax (404) 363-2857, E-mail

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Tips& Tactics n

Case Study

The problem

Too much time is spent “drawing” objects in AutoCAD rather than “designing” them. By Dave Filippi FABCAD.USA One of the challenges with learning to draw on the computer is in taking full advantage of the features that CAD programs offer. People new to CAD have a tendency to use draw commands to create their drawings. To take full advantage of CAD a user needs to learn how to use the edit commands. One of the most powerful commands AutoCAD has is the array command. The array command is like a multiple copy command but with lot more power and options. The array command has two components: • Rectangular array • Polar array The rectangular array replicates items either in columns (pickets) or rows, which would depict pipe rail runs or rungs on a ladder. The column array is particularly useful when designing a rail with a purchased forging or casting. Column arrays are also used when designing plain picket rails. Array commands simulate a fabricator laying out pieces on a bench. That’s why I call it building a rail rather than drawing a rail. This command and most edit commands simulate shop layout work. As shown in the photo above, the user can easily input the data needed to depict the rail or gate and it also provides an opportunity to preview the work and modify it without starting from scratch. As you see in the dialogue box there is a preview area that indicates that you are on the right track. Below the preview area is a preview button January–February 2003 n Fabricator

You can also input the degree figure in the adjoining box. One caution about diagonal arrays: the column offset distance is figured on the diagonal, not horizontally. For instance, a 41/2 inch € horizontal measurement will be 51/2 inch on a 35 ° rake. The advantage is that if you do put in wrong data, you can see it in the preview and make changes. The rectangular array can also be used for layout beam lines and column grids. By using both rows and columns, you can do what I call a double array—across and Rectangular arrays are ideal for down. The double array is great for pickets, while the polar array making grilles that have a repeat(inset) is suitable for medalable pattern. The second type of array is that depicts what you have set up like the polar array, as shown in the inset the drawing above the dialogue box. If photo. The polar array is used to make the layout does not look right, you can medallions like the one illustrated. The modify it and then preview it again. polar array is also used to lay out circu The offset boxes in the lar and spiral stairs. The dialogue box middle of the dialogue box require the for the polar array also has a preview center to center spacing. You can set screen and a space to input the number the spacing different ways: you can of items you want to array and there calculate the center to center measureis a place for the coordinates for the ment either on a calculator or in a center point of the array. In most cases, spreadsheet program. You can create a you will use the “center” snap and pick horizontal reference line, use the divide the center of the circle, pipe mast or command, and point to the nodes that stair arc as the center point. divide up the line. In this case you There are two choices for would click on the arrow box next to input of the overall angle of the array. the column offset box and snap to the One is to put in the angle to fill if you adjacent nodes. When performing free were doing a 90° circular stair you form designs, you can simply input a input 90 in the angle to fill and then the number in the column offset box and number of treads in the total number of preview the work. You can keep aditems box. If you are drawing a spiral justing the figures until the piece looks stair you could choose “angle between right. items” and put 26° or whatever angle Below the “column offset” size of tread you are drawing. box you see another box called angle of You can find more informaarray. To set the angle of the array you tion about arrays in the AutoCAD® can just use the near to snap and pick reference manual and on the Learning two points on a bottom bar line or pick Assistance disk. If you use our Fabcad the nose of two steps to set the angle. software, refer to our beginner tape. 13

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Tips& Tactics n


Four steps for using HVLP sprayers

Use High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) sprayers to maintain fast, high-quality finishing while decreasing cost and waste. High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP)

spraying is known for its efficiency and cost effectiveness, producing the same fine finish at the same speed as conventional compressed air spray guns, without all the over spray, bounce back, and air pollution. HVLP sprayers were introduced in 1970 by Apollo Sprayers Inc. The following are some basic steps for effective HVLP spraying. Select the right system

If you do not have a suitable air compressor, or you need portability, or you like the idea of clean, dry, moisture free air, then a TrueHVLP™ Turbine system is best for you. The type of coatings you intend to spray will dictate which turbine system you should use. If you own a large air compressor and have a good moisture/oil filter on it, or if you are engaged in production spray finishing, or if equipment mobility is not important, then a TrueHVLP™ Air Conversion spray gun is a good choice. Using your spray gun

Apollo TrueHVLP Multi-Task Spray Guns are quite easy to use. Apollo turbine system spray guns and 5100 series HVLP compressor spray guns offer a Kwik-Click air cap. Revolving the air cap sets the position for a horizontal or vertical fan or a unique round spray pattern. Fan size is easily controlled by moving the spray gun closer or farther back from the work surface. You can also adjust the

fan size by rotating the air cap locking ring. If you need to spray a large flat horizontal surface, or maneuver into tight places the Apollo turbine spray gun provides an optional second air hose connection above the paint flow screw for these special applications. You can also reduce the air flow to further control overspray.

in the spray gun overnight. Apollo Spray Guns are quite easy to clean. There are no “O” rings, all fluid components are stainless steel, and cups are Teflon coated. First, empty any Turbine System Model 1200 excess paint in the cup into a proper container. Pour 8400 Conversion Gun about 1 inch of the appropriate solvent or cleaner into the spray gun cup. Be sure to comply with Application all environmental Apply finishing rules and standards products in a for your locale. Take clean, wellall safety precautions ventilated environwhen using solvent 5025 Turbine Gun ment. It’s important materials. Lock the that the finishing cup onto the spray environment is neigun and shake genther too hot or too cold. The same is tly. This should loosen any paint matetrue of the finish and the surface to rial from the side of the cup. Next, be sprayed. Be sure to wear a proper spray the solvent cleaner through the respirator when spraying. Prepare spray gun. Evacuate the material in a materials by stirring thoroughly to safe and compliant manner. Clean and ensure that any settled particles mix wipe components of spray gun with a within the coating. Adjust the viscosity clean rag. If necessary, remove needle of your coating as directed to achieve assembly and spray nozzle. Reassemgood atomization and a good finish. ble the spray gun and store next time. Filter all paints before use. Editor’s Note: This information was Clean up obtained from Apollo Sprayers Inc.’s Spray guns should be cleaned at web site. For more complete instructhe end of the work session. It tion and product information visit: is not a good idea to leave paint, or call (888) 900-4857.


Fabricator would like to publish your step-by-step tutorial. For consideration, please contact the Editor at 532 Forest Pkwy, Ste. A, For­est Park, GA 30297, Phone (404) 363-4009, Fax (404) 363-2857, E-mail

January–February 2003 n Fabricator


Special Feature

Lawler Foundry Corp. Makes A Major Commitment To NEF A generous gift helps to move the fledgling NOMMA Education Foundation to the next higher level. By Todd Daniel, Editor Barely a year old, the fledgling NOMMA Education Foundation (NEF) received a monumental boost in December with the announcement that Lawler Foundry Corp. has committed $100,000 to the foundation, which will be given over a four-year period. The major donation from one of NOMMA’s oldest supplier members will propel NEF to a higher level and allow it to provide more programs and services to the industry. “It’s rather overwhelming that Lawler Foundry would do such a thing, but then again it’s not surprising given the level of support they have given the industry over these years,” said Lloyd Hughes, the NEF’s chair. “A ‘thank you’ is certainly not a sufficient way to acknowledge this gift.” Barbara Cook, NOMMA’s executive director, had equally strong praise for the announcement, stating, “I want to thank Lawler Foundry Corp. for committing the resources to help make a difference. This company and individuals within the company have supported NOMMA in every way possible over many decades. As NOMMA gets ready to celebrate 45 years in business, we are excited

Lawler Foundry Corp. started from humble beginnings during the Great Depression.


to see this support also extending to the foundation.” A History of Giving Throughout NOMMA’s history, Lawler Foundry has been a consistent and dedicated supporter of the association. Since joining in 1960, the company has enthusiastically sponsored convention and trade show events, participated in membership drives, passed out Fabricator magazines to customers, supported chapters, and helped in countless other ways. The Lawler staff also has a long history of volunteer work with NOMMA. In earlier years, CEO Stan Lawler served as a supplier director and participated in the Publicity and Membership committees. For his outstanding service, he received the Julius Blum Award in 1979. Other past contributors included the late Phyllis Beavers, who tirelessly recruited members, and Phyllis McCombs, a past director. More recently, Operations Manager Bob Paxton has remained a dedicated volunteer who has served on the Membership and Technical Committees and is currently a NOMMA director and NEF trustee. Dedicated To Education All funds from the Lawler gift will go toward NEF education programs. Since its founding on October 20, 2001, the NEF has already produced an impressive series of education videos and created a Top Job CD-ROM. In addition, the foundation presented the education program for METALfab 2002, and also has an outstanding program planned for this year’s

l to r: NEF program director Martha Pennington, Lawler CEO Stan Lawler, and Barbara Cook, NOMMA/NEF executive director.

Support the NOMMA Education Foundation Your tax-deductible gift can be sent to: NEF, 532 Forest Pkwy., Suite A, Forest Park, GA 30297. You can also give on-line at www.nomma. org/nef. Donated items are also needed for the 2003 NEF Silent Auction. For more information, call Liz at (404) 3634009, ext. 20.

Fabricator n January–February 2003

Stan Lawler (left) and Lawler Foundry Corp. have been an integral part of NOMMA for decades. Here, Stan is shown working the Lawler booth during the 1989 convention in Las Vegas.

convention that includes two special workshops on CAD and estimating. Exciting New Programs For the future, the NEF Board of Trustees is exploring new education services that include on-line education programs, independent study packages, more continuing education programs, certification, partnerships with technical schools, and eventually the creation of a training facility. To date, industry donors have given NEF over $20,000 in cash donations, plus an additional $10,000 was raised during last year’s Silent Auction in Galveston, TX. The Lawler Foundry gift represents by far the foundation’s largest gift, and the hope is that the donation will pave the way for more corporate donors. “We hope that others will see the benefits of a strong education program within the industry and will in some way follow Lawler’s lead,” Hughes said. In presenting the donation, Stan Lawler sees the gift as a way of giving back to the industry. Working in the foundry business since 1954, Stan has a strong empathy and appreciation for the shop fabricators and forgers. He sees a certain parallel between the foundry business and fabrication shops, in that both must confront daily obstacles. “They have a tough job out there,” Stan says. Just like many hundreds of other shops in the industry, Lawler Foundry started out in a small building with four employees. Founded during the January–February 2003 n Fabricator

dark days of the Great Depression in 1933, the Lawler family definitely understood the challenges of operating a small business in a harsh business climate. “Our roots in the foundry business go back 70 years,” Stan says. “Every morning when you turn on the switch for the foundry, visually, to an outsider it appears to be the same old thing, but the variables make it a totally different job every day. Foundry people are faced with the same problems [as the fabricators and forgers], and I saw how they worked them out. In military terms, they are the people in the trenches. They have to make those sudden decisions under stressful conditions, and these people are making a living for their family, just like we are. Anything that Lawler can do to help them be better prepared, we want to do that.” Along these lines, Stan wants to see the Lawler gift “hit the floor where the average fabricator and forger gets some real satisfying and tangible benefit from it.” And he feels that NOMMA and the foundation have the right framework to accomplish this goal.

required to get through the IRS, attorneys, and other organizational issues. Now it’s time to find the resources necessary to build a secure future for NEF.” In addition, the gift shows that the industry is solidly behind the efforts of the foundation, as well as the industry. “By helping the foundation move forward with goals related to education, the entire industry will benefit,” Barbara adds. “I think if you ask the long-time supplier firms why they support NOMMA and participate at so many levels, they will tell you that helping NOMMA helps everyone in the industry.” Operating in a comparatively small trade for so many years, Stan has come to see the industry as family. He envisions an environment where everyone works together and supports one another for the common good. “This is not competitive in nature,” Stan concludes. “There are others who feel the same way, and I bet they can come up with even more ways to help. It will benefit us all, and it’s in everyone’s interest. I hope this is only the beginning.”

The Value of Education Over the past decade, Bob Paxton has also come to see the value of education and how it can help not only the craftsperson in the shop, but also the suppliers and the entire industry. To him, the gift is an important investment in the industry. “Education has come to the forefront in the past 10 years,” Bob says. “I truly understand the importance of, and what can be done with stronger education. People still get excited about what they learn, and knowledge is a great thing. Knowledge is what makes America so great.” For the volunteers and staff who spent many hours getting NEF off the ground, the Lawler donation serves as an exciting confirmation that the foundation is picking up steam. “The foundation is still in the early days of its life,” Barbara Cook says, “and a significant donation like this is an important event. We survived the planning and dreaming required to develop the idea of a foundation, and even the hard work and patience

NEF resources on the Web Visit the NEF web site for a wealth of information: • Publication order form • Shirts & accessories • Top Job CD (members only) • On-line auction • Contribution form • News about new videos and continuing education opportunities.


Special Feature

Get Ready For

METALfab 2003 Over 70 Exhibitors Are Lined Up For This Year’s Show March 6-8 • Covington, KY Northern Kentucky Convention Center

At the METALfab trade show you’ll see aisle

after aisle of cutting-edge products and services for the industry. As you walk through the exhibit hall, you’ll view ornamental components, heavy machinery, gate operators, hand tools, shop accessories, and much more. Take advantage of on-site specials, meet your favorite vendors, and stay on top of new techExhibitors as of 12/26/02 Advanced Measuring Systems/Scotchman Industries     Forney, TX 972-552-3337 Fax: 972-552-3339 Quick-loc stop gauging with teeth, no-slip gauging, etc. Aegis, a Division of Pach and Co. San Clemente, CA 949-498-2951 • 888-678-7224 Fax: 949-498-6879

Exhibit Hours

Thursday, March 6 3:30 p.m–7:30 p.m. Friday, March 7 11:00 a.m.–2:30 p.m. Saturday, March 8 10:30 a.m.–2:00 p.m. Telephone entry and access control products/accessories. Alloy Casting Co. Inc.     Mesquite, TX 972-286-2368 • 800-527-1318 Fax: 972-557-4727 Aluminum castings/hardware. Aluminations Services Inc.     Fort Myers, FL 239-694-9887 Fax: 239-694-9888 Treads and collars.

AP Automation Cumming, GA 770-205-2213 • 800-892-6049 Fax: 770-887-9947 Gates, fencing, automated gate systems and controls. Apollo Gate Operators     San Antonio, TX 210-545-2900 • 800-226-0178 Fax: 210-545-2915 Automatic gate operators. Arcadia Steel Houston, TX

713-466-1834 Fax: 713-466-1934 Forged, wrought and cast iron, ornamental components, etc. Architectural Iron Designs Inc. Plainfield, NJ 908-757-2323 • 800-784-7444 Fax: 908-757-3439 Ornamental iron, architectural metals - balusters, scrolls, handrails, gates, etc. Baroque Arts Gilders Paste

L & R: The METALfab trade show provides the opportunity to get close-up looks at new products and meet vendors one-on-one.


Fabricator n January–February 2003

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pipe and tube. Byan Systems Inc. Lusk, WY 307-334-2865 Fax: 307-3342028 Hydraulic gate operators and access control systems. CML USA Inc. Ercolina Davenport, IA 563-391-7700 Fax: 563-3917710 Angle rolls, twist scroll, tube and pipe. The Cable Connection     Carson City, NV 775-885-1443 Fax: 775-8852734 Cable railing products. Cleveland Steel Tool Co.     Cleveland, OH 800-446-4402 Fax: 216-681-

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7009 Ironworkers, portable press, shear and drill. Colorado Waterjet Co.     Berthoud, CO 970-532-5404 Fax: 970-532-5405 Abrasive waterjet shape cutting services. Controlled Products Systems Group Denver, CO 909-371-7212 Fax: 909-371-1941 ekosinski@controlled Gate operators, access control, telephone entry systems, etc. Counsel Industries LLC     Tuscon, AZ 520-320-0680 Fax: 520-320-0681

Gate hardware, tools, and operators. Crescent City Iron Supply Inc.     Westchester, IL 708-345-6660 Fax: 708-345-6664 Spears, finials, brass fittings, steel forgings, etc. CrossRiver Metals       San Antonio, TX 210-824-1750 Fax: 210-824-6195 Steel tubing. Custom Ornamental Ironworks LTD Richmond, BC Canada 604-275-6435 Fax: 604-273-7985 Ornamental iron. D.J.A. Imports Ltd.       Bronx, NY 718-324-4063 • 888-933-5993 Fax: 718-324-0726 Orn. metal, stainless steel, gate/ door hardware, cantilever gate system. DKS, DoorKing Systems     Inglewood, CA 310-645-0023 • 800-826-7493 Fax: 310-641-1586 Access control products. Decorative Iron Houston, TX 713-991-7600 • 888-380-9278 Fax: 713-991-6493 Internet sales of decorative and ornamental iron products. Dist. De Aceros Estructurales S.A. (DAESA) Ecatepec, Mexico 011-52-555-898-9900 866-323-7287 Fax: 011-52-555-898-9902 Forgings, ornamental iron. Doringer Cold Saws    

Fabricator n January–February 2003

Gardena, CA 310-366-7766 Fax: 310-366-7577 Cold saws, saw blades, coolant. Eagle Bending Machines Inc.     Stapleton, AL 251-937-0947 Fax: 251-937-4742 www.eaglebendingmachines. com sales@eaglebendingmachines. com Tube/pipe benders, scroll and bar twist machines, etc. Eastern Metal Supply Inc. Charlotte, NC 704-391-2266 Fax: 704-391-2267 Standard and custom aluminum extrusions—railings, wall systems, etc. Elderfield & Hall Chicago, IL 312-930-5811 Fax: 312-930-9499 Bandsaws, sanders, welding machines. Elite Access Systems Inc. Lake Forest, CA 949-580-1700 Fax: 949-580-1701 Automatic gate operators, telephone entry, and access control products. EURO-FER SRL. Castelgomberto (VI), Italy 011-39-044-544-0033 Fax: 011-39-044-544-0351 Ornamental wrought iron components for gates, stairs, and windows. FAAC International Cheyenne, WY 800-221-8278 Fax: 307-632-8148 Slide and swing gate operators. FABCAD.USA Petersburg, VA 804-862-8807 • 800-255-9032 Fax: 804-861-6379 Fill in 134 on Reader Service Card


Fabricator n January–February 2003

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Ornamental & miscellaneous cad software. FabTrol Systems Inc.     Eugene, OR 541-485-4719 • 888-FABTROL Fax: 541-485-4302 Steel fabrication software. FSB USA LLC Orlando, FL 407-351-7017 Fax: 407-351-6369 Ornamental iron machinery and metal fab. machinery. Glaser USA Inc. Park City, IL 847-782-5880 • 888-668-8427 Fax: 847-782-5881 Machines and tools to fabricate quality wrought iron parts. GTO Inc. Tallahassee, FL

850-575-0176 • 800-543-4283 Fax: 850-575-8912 Full line of automatic gate operators and accessories. Hartford Standard Stamping & Plating Co. Inc.     Hartford, KY 270-298-3227 Fax: 270-298-7869 Complete line of steel post caps from fl. Hebo GmbH Gemunden/Grusen, Germany 011-49-645-391-3321 Fax: 011-49-645-391-3325 Wrought iron machine systems. House of Forgings Houston, TX 281-443-4848 Fax: 281-443-1133 bborsh@metrostairshouston. com Forged ornamental

components. INDITAL U.S.A. Houston, TX 713-694-6065 • 800-772-4706 Fax: 713-694-2055 Forged and wrought iron architectural metals. Interstate Mfg. Associates Inc.     Newport, NH 603-863-4855 Fax: 603-863-3811 Hinges. ITW Ransburg Electrostatic Systems Toledo, OH 419-470-2000 • 800-909-6886 Fax: 419-470-2112 Electrostatic paint application equipment. Jamieson Mfg. Co. Stafford, TX 888-286-3362 Fax: 281-498-5247

Custom gates, gate operators, and access control. Jerith Mfg. Co. Inc. Philadelphia, PA 215-676-4068 Fax: 215-676-9756 Aluminum ornamental fence. Jilin Province Textiles Group, Machinery & Electronics Changchun, Jilin, China 510-483-5900 Fax: 510-483-5903 Ornamental iron products. King Architectural Metals Dallas, TX 214-388-9834 • 800-542-2379 Fax: 214-388-1048 Ornamental and architectural metal components for wrought iron, etc. Lavi Industries Valencia, CA 661-257-7800 Fax: 661-257-4938

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January-February 2003 n

Fill in 140 on Reader Service Card • Stainless steel and brass railing components. Lawler Foundry Corp. Birmingham, AL 205-595-0596 • 800-624-9512 Fax: 205-595-0599 Ornamental metal components and accessories. Marks U.S.A. Amityville, NY 631-225-5400 Fax: 631-225-6136 • Ornamental iron locksets. Master-Halco La Habra, CA 562-694-5066 • 888-MH-FENCE Fax: 562-691-4686 Fence systems–ornamental iron. McGill Distribution Simpsonville, SC 864-963-2521 Fax: 864-963-5325 Henrob welding and cutting torch. Mittler Bros. Machine & Tool Foristell, MO

It ’s F ree ! Register Now For the METALfab 2003 Trade Show

Speed up your wait at the Registration Booth by registering now for the Trade Show. To pre-register, simply fill out and fax the form on page 5. You can bring as many coworkers from your shop as you’d like, but a separate form must be completed for each person. 636-463-2464 • 800-467-2464 Fax: 636-463-2874 Ultimate tubing notcher and bender, plasma parts, and smart tools. Frank Morrow Co. Providence, RI 401-941-3900 • 800-556-7688 Fax: 401-941-3810 Decorative metal stamping, banding, filigree, and cast iron designs.

New Metals Inc. Laredo, TX 956-729-1184 • 888-639-6382 Fax: 956-729-1185 Expanded metal, expanded metal grating and ornamental iron components. NOMMA/NEF Forest Park, GA 404-363-4009 Fax: 404-366-1852 • • NOMMA is the industry’s trade association. NEF is a charitable education foundation. Ohio Gratings Canton, OH 330-477-6707 Fax: 330-477-7872 Grating. Omega Coating Corp. El Dorado, KS 316-322-8200 • 888-386-6342 Fax: 888-476-6342 Paint coatings. Production Machinery Inc. Baltimore, MD 410-574-2110 Fax: 410-574-4790 Roll bending and cold sawing equipment. R & B Wagner Inc. Butler, WI 414-214-0444 • 800-786-2111 Fax: 414-214-0450 Handrail components, glass rails components; extrusions, pipe and tube. Rail Wizard Clinton, MD 301-868-5603 Fax: 301-868-5085 • RailWizard—computer software that eliminates rail layout. Regency Railings Inc. Dallas, TX 214-742-9408 Fax: 214-742-9402 Stair rail components, forged components. Rik-Fer SRL Villota di Chions, PN, ITALY 011-39-43-463-0031 Fax: 011-39-43-463-0431 •

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January-February 2003 n

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Wrought iron and stainless steel and furniture elements. Rockite, Div. of Hartline Products Co. Inc.       Cleveland, OH 216-291-2303 • 800-841-8457 Fax: 216-291-4482 ROCKITE expanding, fast setting, nonshrinking, anchoring, and patching cement. Rogers Mfg. Inc. Mineral Wells, TX 940-325-7806 Fax: 940-325-7156 Iron working machines to punch and shear metal. Sharpe Products New Berlin, WI 800-879-4418 Fax: 262-754-0374 Sharpe products. Signon USA Ltd. Brooklyn, NY 718-485-8500 Fax: 718-485-8400 • Unique, contemporary, and classic wrought iron design. Sparky Abrasives Minneapolis, MN 763-535-0016 • 800-553-7224 Fax: 763-535-2708 Abrasives. Sumter Coatings Inc. Sumter, SC

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803-481-3400 Fax: 803-481-3776 Specialty paints and primers for ornamental iron. Satin Shield is our feature product. Tennessee Fabricating Co. Memphis, TN 901-725-1548 • 800-258-4766 Fax: 901-725-5954 • Decorative metals, hardware, and forgings.

Aluminum and steel decorative tubing. Universal Entry Systems Inc. Cleveland, OH 216-631-4777 • 800-837-4283 Fax: 216-631-4779 Gate operators and access control devices.

Texas Metal Industries Crandall, TX 972-427-9999 • 800-222-6033 Fax: 800-472-3807 Aluminum castings, hardware, forgings, furniture, and more. Tracker CNC London, ON, Canada CNC shape plasma cutting machine. Triple-S Steel Supply Houston, TX 713-697-7105 Fax: 713-697-5945 • Welding equipment, access controls, ornamental and builders hardware. Tubo Decorado S.A. de C.V. San Nicolas De Los Garza, Nuevo Leon, MEXICO 011-52-8-313-9834 Fax: 011-52-313-7723

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January-February 2003 n

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Shop Talk

Tubing: are you getting what you expect? What you’ll learn! n When

it comes to tubing thickness, what you order is not necessarily what you’ll receive. This is an important concern, since the incorrect material may become a problem when bending and welding.


inch on the low side to .054 inch at its heaviest, not .036 to .038 inches. “I’m not bound by those ASTM standards,” Guthrie said. “When has anyone ever bought tubing that was delivered with a heavier wall than you ordered?” He feels that the tolerances established on tubing by ASTM and AISI are much too generous. “To stay within ASTM specs tubing wall thicknesses will always be within the10 percent minus-­side of what is ordered,” Guthrie said. The fact that tubing manufacturers buy steel by the pound and sell tubing by the foot explains why tubing is seldom sold with walls on the high side of nominal thicknesses. Thicknesses Are Not Regularly Checked

Considering Ron Guthrie’s experience, other fabricators might ask themselves, “Are we getting what we’re ordering?” For instance, when was the last time wall thickness was checked, and is there a micrometer available suitable for measuring tube thicknesses? The Differences Between Pipe and Tube

In talking with other NOMMA members about their experiences with tubing, we learned that there are a few misconceptions among people in the metals industry about piping and tubing. One manufacturing engineer freely admitted he wasn’t sure what the difference was between pipe and tubing. Another engineer knew one of the differences was size. Pipe is designated by the size of the inside diameter; whereas tubing is sized to the outside diameter. Thus, 2-inch diameter

A typical micrometer with bull-nose contacts sells for about $300. It’s a necessary tool for checking wall thicknesses and tubing.

For your information


By John L. Campbell Nothing makes us angrier than to discover, or even imagine, we’ve been taken. It’s like the fast-food chain that thought they were buying Idaho potatoes for french-fries, and after years, discovered their spuds were coming from Antigo, WI. Or, the celebrity who paid a huge premium price for a Norwegian moose-hide jacket only to find out later that the jacket is made from the hides of white-tail deer. That’s why Ron Guthrie, President of U.S. Pool Fence Co., voiced his anger about the tubing his company was buying. “When I order tubing, specifying a .049 inch wall, that’s what I expect to get. We’re a wrought iron shop. I’ve never had a micrometer in my hands before. We were dealing with our metal supplier in good faith.” Guthrie feels deceived. For seven years U.S. Pool Fence in Glendale, AZ, experienced lost production time due to problems with welding 5/8 inch square steel tubing. A consultant, whom they engaged to solve a shearing problem, discovered that the wall thickness on the tubing they were receiving was a nominal .038 inch and as thin as .036 inch. In retrospect, Guthrie believes that the wall thickness of the tubing they were using explained some of their blows in welding. The ASTM A-500 specification for carbon steel square hollows is plus or minus 10 percent of the wall thickness. Guthrie’s company ordered 5/8 by 5/8 by .049 inch wall. Under those terms the tubing should be within .044

The Issue: Tubing that is spec’d as .049 inch may have a 10 percent variance, but in some cases tubing may be even thinner. Resources: Fabricators should check to make sure they are getting what they pay for. Using a micrometer is one way to make sure. For further reference: There are seven standards on tubing published by the American Society of Testing & Materials. These documents cover everything from grades to alloys (see pg. 36).

Fabricator n January–February 2003

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Sanborn Tube Sales of Wisconsin, a distributor of alloy tubing, checks all incoming deliveries as part of their ISO-9000 certification requirements.

pipe is larger than a 2-inch diameter tube; and a 11/2 inch Schedule 40 pipe, an industry standard, looks a lot like a 2-inch diameter tube. (See Figure 1). One of the most common misunderstandings involves ordering endcaps for either pipe or tubing. An endcap for a 2-inch pipe is not going to fit a 2-inch tube because the inside diameters are not the same. Tom Berry at Selby Ornamental Iron in St. Paul, MN, said he doesn’t buy tubing for handrails. He uses a Schedule 40 11/2 inch pipe, as many Figure 2

Comparative Sizes of Pipe v. Tubing

2” Pipe 2.375” OD x 2.067” ID Schedule 40 .154” wall Wgt. 3.65/foot

2” Tubing 2.000” OD x 1.688 ID .156” wall (similar to Schedule 40) Wgt. 3.65/foot

11/2” Pipe 1.9” OD x 1.610 ID Schedule 40 with .145” wall wgt. 2.718 lbs./foot Fill in ?? on Reader Service Card


Fabricator n January–February 2003

Quality square tubing is formed by roll forming a square of rectangular shape from round welded tubing, keeping the weld shadow in the middle of a flat, not at a corner.

fabricators do who install commercial handrails. The 1.9 inch diameter meets the building code of 2 inch, and 11/2 inch pipe, with the same wall thickness as 2 inch tubing, is cheaper. Mike McKinney, Inside Sales Manager at Marmon/Keystone’s warehouse in Bolingbrook, IL, said that the cost difference between 11/2 inch pipe and 2 inch tubing (assuming similar wall thicknesses) will be 8 to 10 percent. McKinney pointed out a key difference between pipe and tubing, a fact many users overlook. He said, “Pipe

Figure 2

ASTM Tubing Specifications*

A-500 Covers cold formed welded and seamless carbon steel square, rectangular or special shape tubing for general structural purposes. The three grades include: Grade A - 39,000 psi minimum yield strength Grade B - 46,000 psi minimum yield strength Grade C - 50,000 psi minimum yield strength A-501 Covers a hot formed welded and seamless carbon steel square, rectangular or special shape tubing for general structural purposes. A-511 Covers seamless stainless steel tubing for mechanical applications, rounds up to 12fl” diameter, both hot and cold finished. Suitable for general corrosion and high temperature strength applications. A-512 Covers CDBW, Cold-DrawnButt-Welded carbon steel tubes, round, square or rectangular, for mechanical purposes. A-513 Covers round, square, and rectangular tubing for mechanical purposes made from either hot or cold rolled carbon steel as-welded, sink drawn, mandrel drawn, and special smooth inside diameters. Common grades in warehouses are 1010, 1015, 1020, and 1026. A-519 Covers a multitude of carbon and alloy steel tubing in squares, rounds, and rectangular shapes for mechanical purposes. It covers both hot finished and cold drawn tubing up to and including 12fl” diameter. A-618 Covers three grades of hot formed welded and seamless high strength low-alloy square, rectangular, and round tubing for structural purposes like bridges and building construction.

*The above ASTM specs should cover most NOMMA applications. There are special tubing specifications like ASTM A-312 for low carbon stainless steels used in the dairy industry and ASTM A-213 and A-249 alloy tubes for heat exchanger and boiler applications. Source: Marmon/Keystone Corp., Stock Catalog, FAX (412)283-0558, Butler, PA.

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Fabricator n January–February 2003

is designed to carry either liquids or gases, whereas tubing can be structural or mechanical. Straightness tolerances for pipe are less critical; and straightness problems with pipe can also jump up and bite you, especially if you’re using it to machine parts.” When a screw machine cuts parts, the raw material revolves at a high rate of speed. The whipping action of tubing that isn’t straight cannot be tolerated. Marmon/Keystone is a metals supplier selling tube and pipe based on ASTM specifications. McKinney pointed out that a few metal sources use ASME

sumter coatings

rather than ASTM specs. The ASTM specs for NOMMA members’ applications will generally fall under ASTM A-500 and A-501 for structural applications and ASTM A-512, A-513 and A-519 for mechanical applications. ASTM A-511 and A-249 cover stainless steel grades(See Figure 2). Structural tubing can be manufactured using either a hot rolled, pickled grade of steel or a hot mill-finished coil or strip. The outside diameter (OD) weld flash is either rolled or cut, while the weld flash on the inside diameter (ID) of a structural tube is left as-welded.

The ID flash can be one third the wall thickness of the tubing. Because the OD and ID weld flash is not critical for structure tubing; it’s less expensive than mechanical tubing. In addition, the straightness tolerances for mechanical tubing are tighter than for structural tubes. One of the complexities in understanding tubing differences is the method of manufacturing. There are seven different methods for tube forming, and for the neophyte buying tubes, ordering could be a daunting challenge. Jim Sanborn, the retired CEO of Sanborn Tube Sales of Wisconsin, makes the following suggestion, assuming you have a trustworthy supplier. “If you’re a buyer of tubing,” said Sanborn, “the first thing you want to do is explain to the sales person you’re dealing with exactly what you intend to do with the product. For example, if you’re going to bend tube, you should know that the standard industry practice dictates that you’re not supposed to bend tubing tighter than three times the tube diameter. That means that the bend radius for a 3 inch diameter tube should not be less than 9 inches. If you require tubing that will bend to a tighter radius than 3 times the tubing diameter, you better specify that to your supplier. Often, the mill can manufacture to a tighter specification for bending.” Manufacturing Process Determines Tube Properties

The way in which tubing is manufactured will determine surface finish, tolerances, wall thicknesses, mechanical properties, and cost. Hot rolled (HR) structural tubing will be less expensive than mechanical tubing because structural is formed by the hot process, where the OD and ID flash is not a factor in its use. The surface finish will have mill scale. So, it’s not suitable for chrome plating or painting unless it’s pickled and oiled. Cold Rolled Electric Welded (CREW) tubing will likely have a higher tensile strength and be priced higher. Cold Drawn Butt Welded tubing (CDBW) is a mandrel forming process requiring two or three operations for sizing and straightening. The surCircle 80 on Reader Service Card


Fabricator n January–February 2003

face finish is not suitable for gauge aluminum bronze tube chrome plating, but is good is .0403 inch, and an 18 gauge enough for powder coating. steel tube, like Ron Guthrie If chrome plating is required, was ordering, is .049 inch. further surface finishing is reNonferrous alloys, copper quired. The material will likely base, and aluminum, use have a higher tensile strength, Brown & Sharp measureand the price will be higher. ments, and steel uses BirFor more demanding requiremingham-Wire Gage (BWG). ments, both cold and hot rolled As a result, 18 gauge BWG tubing can be drawn over a measures .049 inch. Brown & mandrel for better finish and Sharp is .0403 inch and the closer tolerances. It is often sheet steel manufacturing referred to as DOM tubing, standard for 18 gauge is .0478 drawn-over-mandrel. inch. All of which differ from The ends of these stainless steel tubes have had metal burrs Hot Rolled Seamless (HRS), wire gauge dimensions. removed after cutting. tubing drawn-over-mandrel Nobody seems to know why (DOM), and HY or High Yield welded tubing are not prowe contend with all these gauge differences. For serenity’s cesses normally required for ornamental work. sake, we accept those things we cannot change. However, HRS is done by piercing a hot billet, where heavy walls are for your own protection use decimal dimensions, not gauge, required and the steel can be a high-strength 8630 alloy with when ordering tubing. molybdenum content, which is a type of steel typically used Mr. Campbell is a senior writer for Fabricator. for automotive bushings and bearing rings. Tubing DOM will have no evidence of seams on the ID. This type of tubing is specified for hydraulic applications such as cylinders and oil lines. HY welded tubing has high strength applications, typically over 50,000 p.s.i. and is suitable for scaffolding or outside advertising supports. Tubing buyers often error in ordering the wrong specification and/or the wrong grade. On pipe there’s a 12.5 percent undersize and a 10 percent oversize tolerance on the OD. Pipe manufacturers will aim to be 8 percent undersize. The economic reason for this is that hey buy strip by the pound and sell pipe and tubing by the foot. Terry Driscoll, President of Custom Iron Inc. at Zumbrota, MN, said the only problem he knows they’ve had with square tubing was when the inside weld seam was too close to the corner radius. According to Jim Sanborn, the reason for Driscoll’s problem is the way in which the square tubing was formed. The higher quality square tubing starts with a round welded tube that is gradually rolled on all four sides to the dimension desired. This process gives clean perpendicular sides and sharp corners. The weld shadow ends up in the middle of a flat. Less expensive square tubing is made by pre-forming the strip, bending it so that two edges meet at a corner. The weld is made along the outside of that corner, which is why weld flash appears in a corner on the inside. In determining the wall thickness of square tubing you should measure the thickness of two flats and divide by two. With round tubing you have to use a ball-nosed micrometer, measure in two places, 180 degrees from each other, and divide by two. Tolerances will vary with the tube diameter, wall thicknesses, and method of manufacture. For good reasons, it’s safer to order by decimal thicknesses than by gauge. For those of us unfamiliar with tubing it’s hard to believe that there’s a difference between gauge thicknesses of steel tubing and nonferrous tubes. The wall thickness of an 18 Fill in 157 on Reader Service Card January–February 2003 n Fabricator


Shop Talk

Shall you anodize, paint, or powder coat? n Need

your aluminum coated? Learn the advantages and challenges of each of the major finishing systems.

By Penn McClatchey Southern Aluminum Finishing Co. Anodizing is a simple electrochemical

process developed more than 50 years ago that forms a protective coating of aluminum oxide on the surface of the aluminum. The lifetime of the finish is proportional to the thickness of the anodic coating applied. Aluminum oxide is a hard, durable, weather resistant substance that protects the base metal. The coating may be colored by dyeing or may exhibit bronze tones through diffraction phenomena produced by the coating. The coating grows from the base aluminum metal by this electrochemical process. The coating is integral to the metal and cannot peel or flake. The structure of the coating is many small hexagonal pores, which are filled with a “seal” that hydrolyzes these pores to fill them with inert aluminum oxide. In 1988 the Aluminum Anodizer’s Council was formed by a group of anodizers who were concerned that the market was unaware of the benefits of anodizing. The paint manufacturers were comparing excellent paint to poor anodizing. It was no longer common knowledge in the commercial construction industry that there is a difference between good and bad anodizing. Anodizing that is improperly sealed has poor chemical resis-


tance. Brand new Exterior applications, such as this pedestrian bridge in Bethesda, MD, require an extra durable finish. If an insufficient finish is chosen, pitting, staining, and erosion may occur within a few years.

anodizing with a thin coating thickness is nearly identical in appearance to an Aluminum Association Class I (very thick!!) anodized finish. Very thin (sub-Class II) anodized coatings are unsuitable for use on many exterior applications. Advantages and Disadvantages of Anodic Coatings

The advantage of a thicker anodic coating is its durability and longer life. The Achilles Heel of anodizing is its chemical resistance. Eventually the surface of an anodic coating may succumb to acidic pollutants in urban environments. Anodized surfaces, like other building components, must be protected from acidic attack during construction. After many years, anodized surfaces may accumulate dirt and stains that look similar to chalking paint. This “chalk” can be removed with a mild detergent combined with an abrasive cleaning technique. A small amount of the anodic coating can actually be removed, leaving behind a renewed anodized finish that can last for another 20 years. This is why anodizers say their product is “renewable.” Once an organic coating has failed, the only options are to re-coat the surface

For your information


What you’ll learn!

Problem: Deciding which type of coating system to use when coating architectural aluminum. Solution: Consult your needs with your finisher or your finisher’s suppliers, and consider environmental factors and breaking developments in the finishing industry, as well as the application and desired finished appearance. Southern Aluminum Finishing Co. 1581 Huber St. NW Atcontact lanta, GA 30318 404-355-1560 Fax: 404-350-0581. E-mail: or Aluminum Anodizers Council 1000 N. Rand Road, #214, Wauconda, IL 60084. 847/526-2010 Fax: 847/526-3993

Fabricator n January–February 2003

If you are not completely satisfied with any products ordered from Triebenbacher Bavarian Iron Works Co. at any time, return it to us, at our expense, and receive a full refund for your returned material.


Quality. Whatever it takes. T. 1.800.522.4766 F. 1.888.699.9666 e-mail

Art Deco



A style of decorative art of the 1920s and 1930s marked by the use of geometric designs and bright colors.

ca. 75 elements or pre-fabricated panels


Art Deco CAD library in DGW format, available to selected custom fabricators


Elements for French Style Railings ca. 75 forged elements in steel or forged brass PN 107 PN 138

PN 101

PN 110 PN 142

PN 119

PN 141

Elements/CAD library in DGW format, available to selected custom fabricators

Problem You have too much work but not enough skilled help to finish new projects.


We could custom forge the different elements to your Designer’s or Architect’s specifications and CAD drawings. You would be able to use the pre-fabricated elements for final fabrication in your shop.

Mtl. Wrought Iron Bronze Stainless Steel Aluminum

Triebenbacher Bavarian Iron Works Co. T. 1.800.522.4766 F. 1.888.699.9666

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with another paint or replace the metal. When an anodized coating appears to have failed, cleaning often results in a renewed appearance. Anodizing and the Environment

Anodizing appears to be compatible with today’s environmental concerns. Though more research is needed to determine the total environmental impact of different aluminum finishes, from a finisher’s point of view, anodizing does far less damage. The chemicals from anodizing can be used by municipal waste water treatment facilities. The aluminum sulfate from anodizing plants’ effluent actually improves the solids settling efficiency of some waste water treatment plants. Anodizing emits no ozone producing solvents (VOCs), and there are no heavy metals involved in the process. Paints and Powder Coatings

The performance of any organic coating (paints or powders) depends on the pretreatment, resin, and pigmentation. With aluminum the pretreatment is of utmost importance. This is why organic coatings for aluminum should be factory applied. Resins are often the weak link in an organic coating system. Some resins, such as PVDF, have outstanding weatherability, while epoxy coatings are meant only for interior use. There are many resins available for architectural use such as Urethanes, Polyurethanes, Aliphatic Urethanes, Polyesters, Silicon Polyesters, Polyester TGICs, PVDF, etc. Only a few of these coating systems will last for more than five years in exterior architectural applications. The American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) has several excellent performance specifications for aluminum coatings, and AAMA 2605-98 is the most stringent specifi-

Anodizing can be environmentally beneficial. For instance, at wastewater treatment facilities, such as this one in Cobb County, GA, the aluminum sulfate from the anodizing process can actually improve solids settling efficiency.

cation for spray coated aluminum used in architecture. An important aspect of AAMA 2605-98 is the requirement for actual 10-year exposure in South Florida. It is a good idea when evaluating different coatings to ask to see the results of Florida exposure. PVDF coatings have been shown to pass AAMA 2605-98 in the widest variety of colors. (For coil coated products there is no universally accepted specification although long term warranties are available.) PVDF coatings are usually formulated as 70 percent PVDF and 30 percent other resins, acrylic usually predominating. While 50 percent PVDF coatings are available, they do not meet AAMA 2605-98 in all colors. Chemical resistance and resistance to UV light are the strengths of PVDF coatings. PVDF has come to dominate the curtainwall and metal roofing markets because of its weatherability, and because of the wide variety of colors available. Until 1990 all PVDF resin came from Pennwalt under the trade name Kynar 500. What are Powder Coatings?

Liquid paint is composed of pigment, resin, and solvent. Powder paint is simply pigment encapsulated in a powdered resin and is thus simply thought of as “Paint without the solvent.” Powder coatings and liquid coatings made from the same resin and pigment will have practically the same performance characteristics. For a given resin, the decision to use a powder or liquid coating is simply a question of application technique. Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Coating

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The real advantage of powder is the reduction in air pollution compared to liquid coatings. When powders are cured in an oven they emit no VOCs. A disadvantage of powder is the large batch sizes that are typically required by powder coatings. The powder manufacturers are aware of this problem and a few of them keep colors in stock that they distribute in small batches. Several companies manufacture exterior Fabricator n January–February 2003

Advantages of Anodizing

• In general anodizing is less expensive than painting with the exception of coil painted products. • Anodizing is harder than PVDF. Anodizing is better for aluminum in high traffic areas where the coating is subject to physical abuse and abrasive cleaners. • Anodizing cannot peel off. The coating is actually part of the metal. • Anodizing gives aluminum a deeper, richer metallic appearance than is possible with organic coatings. This is because an anodized coating is translucent, and one can see the base metal underneath the coating. This translucence contributes to color variation problems, but anodizers are doing a much better job of controlling the amount of color variation than in the past. Computerized color matching with quantitative, objective color data is now possible. • Anodizing is unaffected by sunlight. All organic coatings will eventually fail due to exposure to ultra-violet light. grade powders using a Polyester TGIC resin. Polyester TGIC powders are currently available in more stock colors than any other powder. Several companies stock hundreds of various colors of Polyester TGIC powders.

Some resins are more easily manufactured in liquid coatings and some are more easily manufactured in powder coatings. A particular resin is usually manufactured in either powder or solvent based coatings, but not both.

Examples of this are epoxy which is predominantly a powder coating, and PVDF which historically has been manufactured as a liquid coating. Many of the perceived advantages of powders over liquid coatings such as hardness and gloss are actually characteristics of the resin. Powder coatings from most manufacturers are only available in large batches and custom colors can be very expensive. This is because each batch of powder must be ground to order using expensive grinding equipment. Solvent born colors will continue to maintain their niche in the market because of the ease with which small batches can be mixed. The ability to “mix and match” gives painters and their customers unequalled flexibility and ease of use. One note of caution about powders: they are prone to orange peel and the coating may appear to be textured. Powder Coating Considerations

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All the resins I have mentioned can theoretically be made in either solventborn or powder coating formulations. Some resins are easier to manufacturer and/or apply using solvent-born formulations, but solvents cause air pollution. The force of regulation weighs heavily on the construction industry, especially on solvent-born coatings. Solvent-born coatings for long-term exterior architectural applications are mostly solvent-based where typically between 70 and 80 percent of each gallon of paint is evaporated during the paint curing process. Included in the fumes are hydrocarbons, which are termed VOCs (volatile organic compounds) by the EPA, and are a precursor to ozone formation similar to automobile exhaust. Ozone is a major component of smog and can cause eye, lung, and throat irritation. Regulations such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery act (RCRA) and the Clean Air Act will reduce ozone formation, though it will take years for the Federal Regulations to translate into local action plans. If Southern California is an indicator of future environmental regulations for the rest of the country, it may soon be illegal in the U.S. to spray many solvent based coatings including PVDF without

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Fabricator n January–February 2003

Advantages of Powder or PVDF Coatings

• PVDF is relatively chemically inert and will outlast anodizing in corrosive environments. Window washers can be less discriminating about the types of chemicals they use to clean a building. If extremely corrosive cleaners are used, however, even PVDF will show signs of damage. • PVDF coatings offer nearly an unlimited selection of colors and are easy to manufacture in small batches. • Coil painted sheet is less expensive than anodized sheet and does not craze as badly when fabricated. • Color consistency is usually better than with anodizing. It is surprising, however, how many of our customers do not expect the slight variations that are seen in the color of painted products. Metallic metal flake coatings are especially prone to color variation. To improve color consistency, all the metal for a project should be painted by one applicator in one set-up. costly environmental equipment. This is driving up the cost of solvent-born coatings. Organic coating manufacturers may be forced to decide between recommending their applicators install costly pollution control equipment and developing powder coating technology. Powder coatings produce no air pollution and are becoming fullfledged competition for anodized and solvent-born coatings. In order to meet AAMA 2605-98 all organic coatings for architectural aluminum including solvent born and powder coatings require a hexavalent chrome pretreatment. This pretreatment is required for long-term adhesion for exterior use, but it requires that applicators have extensive water pollution control equipment. While this technology is well known and produces excellent adhesion results, the sludge from this process is a hazardous waste and is difficult and costly to

dispose. In light of these new developments, specifiers may wonder what the best way is to specify a long lasting painted finish. Our advice is to consult with your finisher, specify AAMA 2605-98, and to rely on the expertise of coating manufacturers. Exterior Recommendations

Earlier in this article, it was mentioned that PVDF had captured the curtainwall and metal roofing markets. This is because for curtainwall and metal roofing, color consistency and color selection are more important than abrasion resistance. With PVDF, a specifier may choose any color he wants, and it is likely to be readily available since most applicators have the capability to mix their own coatings. In most situations PVDF coatings exhibit excellent color consistency. This does not mean that color consistency

is perfect with paint. Contractors must be careful to have their metal coated at the same time in the same place whenever possible to reduce the probability of color variation caused by different batches of paint or application conditions. Often there is severe color variation within three and four coat metallic PVDF coatings. Architect’s objections to metallic paints are reminiscent of their objections to anodizing. Care must be taken when applying touch-up paints because a perfect match is impossible between the factory applied finish and a finish applied in the field. Touch-up paints are a problem for both painted and anodized coatings. Touch-up paint should never be sprayed on, but touched on lightly with a brush. Touch up paint usually fades and chalks at a different rate than the underlying coating. When a live, translucent building exterior is desired, anodizing is a good finish for curtainwall. Architects should require color range panels from the anodizer. The installer should be aware of the variability expected from anodized panels. An installer may be able to sort some of the panels by elevation for a desired effect. Sorting may also be required with metallic painted coatings. If a panel is outside the approved color range, the finisher should not ship it. Importantly, it is also the installer’s responsibility to avoid installing metal that is not within range. When specifying anodizing for monumental use, be sure to specify SAFINISH (Aluminum Association Class I). For an explanation of Aluminum Association Designations contact the Aluminum Anodizer’ Council (847) 26-2010, or visit: The reason for specifying SAFINISH anodizing (Class I) is to make an anodic coating as durable as possible. Coating thickness is the most significant indicator of durability for anodized coatings. Coating thickness for architectural use can be specified as either Class 1 (0.7 mils) or Class 2 (0.4 mils) per Aluminum Association DAF 45, but often there is no specification. The “cheapest thing” is then installed and in a few short years the

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Fabricator n January–February 2003

finish is pitted, stained, and eroded. Cheap anodized sheets are often sold with a coating thickness of 0.10 mils. A finish of this thickness also might be called a 200, A21, A22 or A24. While this coating thickness is suitable for many applications, specifiers should know that the integrity of this finish will not last more than a few years in exterior architectural applications. The expected lifetime is much less in coastal environments. Coating thickness makes an even more important difference in the durability of colored finishes. Colors will fade more quickly with thinner coatings because they contain less of the coloring agent. There is often enormous pressure to sell the “cheapest” product available. If a specification simply reads “Clear Anodized,” a 0.2 mil coating is the likely result. On the other hand, if a thickness of 0.8 mils is specified, the coating will last at least four times longer. Simply restated, the life of an anodic coating is proportional to its coating thickness, and a Class I coating is twice as thick as a Class II coating. This means that in most situations, Class I coatings will last twice as long as a Class II on the exterior of a building. As previously mentioned, anodizing can be renewed by cleaning. Anodizing can often be restored when it looks like it has failed, but when painted coatings fail there is little that can be done short of repainting the entire building. Repainting a building is normally much more expensive than the cost of the original factory applied finish, and quality control is not good on a job site. Both anodized and painted coatings require regular maintenance, something most building owners do not consider.

This is always a mistake. Field applied PVDF coatings are also available. If a field applied PVDF coating is used, the resulting finish will last longer than conventional paint, but its abrasion resistance will still be lacking compared to factory-applied PVDF or anodizing. Anodizing will always have a place in the storefront market. Its abrasion resistance and cost effectiveness for storefront applications are not likely to be matched by any organic coating. Specify SAFINISH coatings for the most durable, long lasting finish. Conclusions

The finish of choice depends on the application, and is not merely a matter of personal preference. Anodizing is best suited where a rich metallic appearance is desired. There are many options available for finishing aluminum which is why it is such a popular construction material. The question of which finish to apply is not always an easy decision because of all the options available. When deciding which coating system to use for architectural aluminum, take the following steps: 1) Communicate your needs with your finisher or your finisher’s suppliers. 2) Forecast, or consider environmental regulations behind many new developments — there will soon be even more options to the already vast array of finishes available for aluminum.

Anodizer Resources

Visit the web site of the Aluminum Anodizers Association for some excellent resources: • Reference guide • Documents • Member directory

Storefront and Handrails

Architectural elements that receive the most abrasion from traffic should be anodized. Anodizing’s superior abrasion resistance means it will outlast paint on a door stile, kick-plate or push/pull bar. On the other hand, painting aluminum framing materials above the doors adds a nice accent to a storefront. Sometimes, one will see aluminum doors installed in a mill finish to be painted at the job site. Fill in 38 on Reader Service Card January–February 2003 n Fabricator


Member Talk

Two artists, one shop: Skiles and Fiorini team up What you’ll learn!

to create artistic patterns. She acquired her interest in metal chasing while attending n A husband and wife team have the University of Illinois, where she did her separate hours for shop time, but undergraduate studies. Kirsten earned her often collaborate on projects. Master of Fine Arts degree at San Diego State University. “Working the metal from the side opposite the finished piece, is called repoussé, a By John Campbell French word, the same technique that was used to create the features in copper for the What she doesn’t do, he does; and what Statue of Liberty,” Kirsten explained. “I usuhe doesn’t do, she does. That’s the way the ally work the metal from the finished side, husband and wife team of Kirsten Skiles which is called chasing.” and Bill Fiorini work. In fact, the couple Bill does heavier fabrications in a well makes up the complete staff of Koka Metalequipped shop behind their home, and he smiths, a NOMMA member firm located in has become a specialist in Damascus steel Dakota, MN, on the edge of the Mississippi replicas, patterns of laminated, forge-welded River. steel popular among collectors of decorative With two young children, an infant daughter swords and knives. Kirsten creates the deliand a two-year-old son, they have their own cate artistic trim in gold and silver for Bill’s daycare arrangement. Bill Fiorini works in knives, like the gold fish on the handles, and the mornings, while Kirsten watches the kids. the silver flower on the end of the stag knife In the afternoons, Kirsten takes over the shop handle. and Bill becomes “super dad.” Their schedule “Metal chasing requires a certain amount of works well because neither spouse physical hands-on labor,” Kirsten gets in the way of the other, while admits. “Some of my women See more of both complete their work. Perhaps students take classes and never their work a better word is artistry, not work, continue to do anything with what online at: when you like what you do for a they’ve learned because working http://hostliving. metal is tedious and physically ing.acegroup. Kirsten does metal chasings, a demanding.” cc/~koka/ technique of pushing and pinchEverything Bill and Kirsten create ing metal with various punches

To coordinate daycare duties, Bill works in the mornings and then Kirsten takes over in the afternoons. Shown with mom and dad are son Ian and daughter Stella.


For your information

Shop: Kota Metalsmith, Brookfield, WI Overview: Shop produces highly artistic structures ranging from Damascus steel knives to general repoussé. Member since: 2002 About the metalsmiths: Bill Fiorini leads up the team with 30 years of experience as a blacksmith, knifemaker, and jeweler. Kirsten Skiles specializes in repoussé, relief panels, and small interior ironwork such as chandeliers, wine racks, and drawer pulls. They teach classes! This summer, Bill is teaching Damascus bladesmithing and Kirsten is leading a class on relief chasing during consecutive workshops at the Touchstone Center for Crafts in Farmington, PA. For more information on classes: Touchstone Center For Crafts www.touchstonecrafts. contact com 800-721-0177 724-329-1370. Bill’s class takes place the last week of July, and Kirsten is teaching the first week in August. Since classes at Touchstone fill up quickly, participants are encouraged to enroll early.

Fabricator n January–February 2003

starts with a sketch or scale drawing. That in itself requires some artistic ability. For chasing, the drawing is transferred on metal in the form of dots. With dots, rather than lines, the metal is less likely to break through. Kirsten’s latest work-in-progress is a bronze name plate that will be mounted on a beam in someone’s cabin. To give the plate some support, while working on it, Kirsten used a type of clay-pitch. The material looks like asphalt, and softens with heat and hardens when cooled. “I often use 16 gauge steel, a 1006 alloy,” Kirsten said, which is .0538 inch thick. “I order a forging grade of bronze. Copper is too soft. For gold chasing I use 18 caret.” She describes the forming with various handmade tools as pushing and compressing the metal. “You get higher definition working the metal from the front than you get with the repoussé technique,” Kirsten said, as she hammers a blunt-nosed chisel like a cobbler repairing a shoe. “A number of my commissions come from the Minnesota State Arts Board,” Kirsten said, in reply to a question about how she obtains her commissioned projects. “There’s a statute in Minnesota which requires that 1percent of the cost of all state construction projects be allocated to public art.” The ornamental round panels on the entrance gate at the Itasca State Park north of Grand Rapids, MN are Kirsten’s chasings. She recommends that ornamental metal producers register with their state art boards. For suppliers to public works projects, many states have art boards or agencies who maintain registries of artists and metalworkers. Kirsten submits illustrations of her work to the Minnesota Art Board as photos on slides and computer discs. She buys laser cut oak leaves in steel that she forms and finishes with a tung oil varnish. Adding the acorns she forms and a ribbon makes a nice Christmas gift. “For riveting or welding, I let Bill do that. I can weld, but I don’t like it,” says Kirsten. Bill stands aside and smiles as Kirsten talks about her work, while fourmonth-old baby Stella nestles in a sling on her hip. In his office Bill

right: Bill displays an owl chasing. below: Kirsten has demonstrated the technique of metal chasing at numerous workshops throughout the U.S. and Canada.

top: Kirsten uses an asphalt-like material that serves as both a holder and a backing to the piece of metal she’s chasing.

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left: Kirsten makes an assortment of steel leaves and acorns by the dozens, which are finished with a protective lacquer. top: Bill Fiorini’s Damascus steel knives have tiny pieces that fit with clock-like precision.

lays half a dozen pieces of laminated pattern-welded steels on a sheet of paper with three chisels he has made to stamp out the bolsters. He’s making a knife in replicated Damascus steel, pieces as clean and precise as parts for a pocket watch. Both Kirsten and Bill teach. During the last week in July, Bill conducted a workshop in the blacksmith’s studio at Touchstone, PA, south of Pittsburgh. The following week Kirsten instructed students in the art of chasing and repoussé at the same location. Combining their skills, Skiles and Fiorini exemplify how today’s modern metalsmiths can forge a life doing what they love as two artists in a blacksmith’s shop. Mr. Campbell is a senior writer for Fabricator.

A close-up of Fiorini’s Turkish Damascus steel, a blade about six inches long, reveals the unique pattern created by a process of laminating, folding, and forge-welding several layers of different alloys multiple times. Fill in 132 on Reader Service Card


Fabricator n January–February 2003

Spotlight on Schools

Member Talk

Students honor past dean What you’ll learn! n Honoring

a past college dean becomes a great learning exercise for a group of enthusiastic students.

Students at Augusta Technical College in Augusta, GA are

making progress in the creation of a 12-foot sculpture titled, “Mr. Gilbert.” A class project, the completed sculpture will honor a former school dean who was extremely supportive of the Welding Department. The idea for Mr. Gilbert evolved from a drawing, to a cardbold sculpture, and then to a 2-foot metal replica. According to Thomas Lyles, director of the Welding and Joining Technology Program, “In the near future the final phase will begin, which is very exciting for my students and myself.” On the following two pages are photos of other projects as well as the welding lab. In addition to a regular welding curriculum, Augusta Technical College, Augusta Technical also offers an which elective that covers ornamental joined iron fabrication, blacksmithing, NOMMA in and iron sculpting. February

For your information

2002, is one of about five schools that belong to the association as an affiliate member. As revealed in the last membership survey, the need for qualified craftspersons remains a top industry concern, and it is institutions like Augusta Technical that are providing shops across the U.S. with badly needed skills. This feature is part of an on-going series we are doing on high schools and colleges that provide ornamental-related programs.

A model replica of a 12-foot sculpture that will be created by students at Augusta Technical College. The project provides an opportunity for students to put newly learned skills to

left: The 50-year-old forge comes from a local blacksmith shop and helps to give students a sense of history. right: The welding lab where Mr. Gilbert will come to life.

January–February 2003 n Fabricator


When completed, Mr. Gilbert will already have a friend. Shown is a student project completed in 2001.

The sculpture is made out of scrap and old machinery parts.

Students crafted this highly ornamental divider and gate, which leads to the forging area.

The well-equipped shop features a state-of-the-art power hammer. On the wall is a cleverly designed rack for holding scrolls and parts. Fill in 84 on Reader Service Card


Fabricator n January–February 2003

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Cover Feature

Job Profiles

Traditional forged driveway gates remain popular What you’ll learn! nA

peek at recent Top Job entries shows that consumer preference for heavy scrollwork and dark colors remains strong.

Heavy stock and a love for dark finishes is a telltale sign that the Old World look is alive and well. In the 2002 Top Job competition all entries received in the driveway gate category featured significant hand forging and the “wrought iron” look. In fact, last year there were not even enough non-forged gates to open the category. Of all the gates entered in 2002, most used solid materials, which were twisted, forged, and formed into traditional designs.

above & top: To insure privacy, a translucid sheet was inserted in the middle of this gate frame. Most of this double-swing gate was designed and hand forged by the fabricator. It is hinged with the 11/2” bars attached to columns made with a series of vertical bars. The top is also 56

double sided and made with rectangular bars, bended, and then twisted by hand. The finish is a three-step process that ended with a “ferrum” texturized effect. Approx. labor time: 1,000 hrs. Fabricator: TNC Industrial, Miami, FL. Award: 2002 Bronze. Fabricator n January–February 2003

For your information


More Images... To see more Top Job entries, visit the NOMMA website at and click on “Top Job Gallery.” From there, you can see the gold, silver, and bronze winners from 14 categories, as well as the Mitch Heitler Award for Excellence winner.

The surprising thing about this 17’ tall x 22’ wide gate is that it doesn’t open in the middle. Rather, it is built with 1/3 and 2/3 openings so that emergency vehicles can pass through. It was reproduced from a 1901 original design. The original gate was misplaced and never returned. The gate was made with about 1,000 pounds of aluminum, and features scrolls made of 3/4” x 11/4” flat bar, with bolt ends. The finish is a satin black. Approx. labor time; 2,000 hrs. Top Job Award: 2002 Silver. Fabricator: Klahm & Sons Inc., Ocala, FL

Artist-Blacksmith’s Association of North America

Join the Revival!

Two Quarterly Publications: The Anvil’s Ring The Hammer’s Blow Resources: Supplier Directory Hot-Line Help Job Listings & Referrals

LeeAnn Mitchell ABANA P.O. Box 816 Farmington, GA 30638-0816 Ph: (706) 310-1030 Fax: (706) 769-7147 E-mail: Web: Fill in 142 on Reader Service Card January–February 2003 n Fabricator

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Crafted in an “Art Nouveau” style, this project consists of an opening central section, two side pieces, two fences on each side, and four decorative wrought iron lanterns that are set atop stone pillars. In addition, the fabricator created the forged mailbox and house numbers. Designed by the owner, the gate is 13’ long by 9’ high. Labor time: Approx. 360 hrs. Fabricator: Wrought Iron Art Ltd., Toronto, Canada.

The gate is manufactured from different types of mild steel and decorated with forged leaves, flowers, rosets, rivets, and textured decorative elements, such as intertwined scrolls. Top Job Award: 2002 Gold.

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Fabricator n January–February 2003

This job consisted of a 20’ wide x 15’ tall entry gate, 36 stanchions, 12 sections of fencing, and two lanterns. The chosen finish was green paint with extensive gold leafing. The project was made from an in-house, computer generated design. The components for the entire job were fabricated from forged solid bar; various sizes were used to create details and shadows. Custom bearing hinges were made within the gate leafs themselves to carry the 1,300-pound leafs. With no one finished section of the project weighing less then 500 pounds, material handling was the greatest challenge. A total of 34,000 pounds of finished work was delivered. Fabricator: Storybook Metal Shop Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

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The design of this gate was a joint effort between the architect and fabricator’s designer. The gates are 17’ high gates are made of 2” x 2” box section frame, 2” x 13/8” curved top frames, and 3/4” solid infill bars. The hand forged scrolls are made with 11/4” x 1/2” material. The bottom section has a woven mesh “sandwiched” between cut scrolls, which are placed back to back. Approx. labor time: 300 hrs. Fabricator: B. Rourke & Co. Ltd., Burnley, Lancashire, England.

Hand-forged daisy panels are 56” x 20” and make up the central feature of each gate leaf. The flowers reflect the name of the property, “Daisy Fill in ?? on Reader Service Card


Fabricator n January–February 2003

Overlooking Lake Michigan, this stately mansion is about 475 miles from the fabricator’s shop. The stone piers were already in place, so 10” box towers were made from 11/2” square solid to carry the bearing system. Fabricator: Herndon & Merry Inc., Nashville, TN.

As shown in this view, footings were engineered with embedded plates to anchor the bearing towers.

The wrought panels are 1/2” x 1” and 3/8” x 1” flat bar with 1” x 11/2” scrolls at top center.

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Job Profile

Building a fence at Ground Zero What you’ll learn!

n How Brakewell Steel Fabricators

came to build a fence memorial at Ground Zero in time for commemorative events on September 11, 2002.

By Dan and Tom Doyle Brakewell Steel Fabricators In mid-July of this year when Barry

Drimmer of Kraman Iron Works in New York City called to say that he was sending us some preliminary drawings of a “fence” on which he’d like a price, our initial reaction was probably less than enthusiastic. Fences don’t excite us. Brakewell Steel Fabricators, established in 1968, has built its reputation as a job shop supplier of heavy sheet and plate weldments (curved stairs, conveyor beds, highway center dividers), most of which rely on its bending (press brake) capabilities. But then, somewhere in the conversation, the word “fence” was replaced by “Memorial Wall,” and we learned that it was to be at Ground Zero in lower Manhattan.

For your information


Fabricator Brakewell Steel Fabricator’s, Chester, NY Key contacts Bob Messler, V & S Galvanizing, South Amboy; 62

The fence memorial consists of about 1,800 feet of wall, mostly along Liberty and Church streets in lower Manhattan.

Our plant in Chester, NY, is located in what is known as a “bedroom community” for The Big Apple’s firemen. So some of our employees had friends killed or injured on 9-11. What a difference a couple of words made! Now we knew that we had to come in with the best price and, even though our shop was booked solid for several months, that we’d have to do whatever was necessary to finish the portion of the wall that was needed for the memorial events on September 11, 2002. The fence consists of about 1,800 feet of wall, mostly along Liberty and Church streets. The framework is made primarily of 8 by 4 and 4 by 4 tubing, formed into panels 13 feet high with columns about 13 feet on center. A major portion of the frames are filled in with special grating to

NJ; Barry Drimmer, Kraman Iron Works, New York, NY; A&T Iron Works of New Rochelle, NY The GC; Yonkers Contracting. Description of job A fencememorial to block off the big hole left by the destruction of

allow visitors to look but not to pass through. At various points, photos and descriptions of past events of the area are depicted. Plaques listing the names of all who died from the Twin Towers attack are mounted on the wall, and we expect there will be presentations of the planned rebuilding. We knew from the beginning that many dignitaries, including President Bush, Governor Pataki, and Mayors Giuliani and Bloomberg, were scheduled to be at the site on September 11, 2002. Since Kraman said that they’d need a couple of weeks to erect the major portion of the wall, which The Port Authority had specified as the initial phase, we were determined to have that section completed by the end of August. The thought of that deadline kept our blood circulating for

the World Trade Center. Favorite materials Tubing Toughest issues Time constraints and heightened safety concerns. Business philosophy Sometimes you don’t do a job to make money. You do it simply

because the job has to be done.

co nt ac t

Dan Doyle and Tom Doyle, Brakewell Steel Fabricators Inc. 55 Leone Ln., Chester, NY 10918-1300 Phone (888) 914-9131 Fax (845) 469-7618 E-mail Web

Fabricator n January–February 2003

several weeks. The following sequence of events provides a glimpse into the types of challenges and pressures that kept our collective hearts pumping. n July 23. While we still had preliminary drawings, we went out on some flimsy commitment limbs and were notified that we were getting the job. Later in the day we were given instructions as to welding procedures; qualifications required for welders (which we thought would be no problem since we have many welders certified by The American Welding Society, The Port Authority, the New York City DOT, and other governmental agencies), and information necessary for a Quality Assurance Program. Kraman had previously told us that they would supply the tubing cut to size, and they now told us that the first trailer load would arrive the next day. We explained that we still didn’t have approved drawings, but they pointed out certain portions of the work on which we could get started. n July 24. We were given a new sequence of the work required and sent out copies of our welder certifications. We pointed out the necessity of putting air-escape holes into most of the tubing since they were to be hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication, and that caused a whole string of phone, fax, and e-mail messages. n July 25. Still no approved drawings. Sizes of some members changed. We issued warnings to the chain (Kraman, the GC, Yonkers Contracting, and the Port Authority) about wasted time and the need for accurate approved drawings. Some tubing arrived. n July 26. We received a few approved drawings, but not all that we expected. Of course we had planned to fabricate all like items at one time but what the heck, we wanted this job! n July 29. We experienced more confusion on weld symbols and specs and were given approval on locations of air escape holes in tubing. n July 30. Welds were approved as we had proposed. But we found some of the tubing to be as much as a fi inch short. So we had to sort and check several loads, separating the good from the bad. n August 2. Without advance warning we received revised drawings for

The framework is made primarily of 8” x 4” and 4” x 4” tubing. The panels are 13’ high.

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material that we’d already started fabricating. We then had to break down and rework jigs. n August 8. We received notification that several of our welder certificates needed more information in order to satisfy the special safety requirements of this job. New revised drawings arrived. n August 9. We conducted new tests for ten welders. n August 12. We lost the day waiting to hear that our welders passed. n August 14. We shipped the first load of frames to V&S Galvanizing in South Amboy, NJ. Fortunately, since they were galvanizing the frames for us and the Orso Grilles (grating inserts) provided by A&T Iron Works of New Rochelle, NY, Bob Messler (of V & S Galvanizing) agreed that V & S would provide people to do the aftergalvanizing assembly if we’d provide the supervision. That saved us the time and double-handling of trucking everything back to our shop and then to the jobsite. n August 20 thru August 28. We sent final shipments to the jobsite and completed our required portion of the

Many of our people agreed to work from 4 a.m. till noon, others

from noon to 8 p.m. Staff members not involved in the job agreed to do likewise to keep our other customers happy. job on time. We could breathe again. November 5. As of this writing the entire wall is basically complete with some minor exceptions (large gates, etc) because final drawings haven’t been completed. Our work required about 2,500 man-hours. Many of our people agreed to work from 4 a.m. till noon, others from noon to 8 p.m. to complete the job on time. Staff members not involved in the job agreed to do likewise to keep our other customers happy. Did any of us get rich on this job? Absolutely not, but once in a while you have to do things just because they have to be done. Design of the wall was by The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Something was needed that would allow relatives and friends, as well as the thousands of daily visitors to the site, an opportunity to gaze into the big hole and to watch the progress of the rebuilding. They wanted to protect the well-intentioned from


injury and to prevent any possible ill-intentioned from impeding construction. Plans for the permanent World Trade Center site have still not been finalized, so they knew it would be several years before completion. They were determined to provide a separation which would help visitors to remember the people and things of the past; respect those presently around them and the workers toiling within the area, and help envision the beauty of the future. We think they accomplished their goals and encourage those reading this article to visit the site. Most visitors find themselves deeply moved and leave with a great appreciation of all that they have and are more determined than ever that no power on earth will be allowed to bring us down. Brakewell Steel Fabricators has been a NOMMA member since 1996.

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Fabricator n January–February 2003

Job Profile

Forging an Aspen forest from 13,000 lbs of bronze For your information


Fontanini made his pattern from photographs he took of an Aspen tree forest.

What you’ll learn! nA

Wyoming metalsmith and his three-person crew hand-forged 243 lineal feet of rail to look like an Aspen tree forest—birds included.

By Rachel Squires Associate Editor Looking back, Steve Fontanini of Steve Fontanini Blacksmithing, Jackson, WY, says he would have done one thing differently concerning the fabrication of his silver award winning 2002 Top Job entry. He says he still would have photographed Aspen trees in February to come up with a pattern for the 243 lineal feet of forged silicon bronze rail. The pattern basically consists of eight trunks and their various January–February 2003 n Fabricator

branches and a certain amount of dead leaves that stayed all winter. And he still would have hand-forged the job’s 1,000 leaves. Or rather he still would have had two of his assistants forge those leaves. But instead of forging by hand all 40 birds included in the rail, patterned from four types of birds indigenous to Aspen forests, he would have just cast 10 or so of each. And then he could have hand chiseled them to make them unique. But he actually cut 40 silhouettes out of fl inch plate bronze and carved, hammered, chiseled, and grinded them to add roundness and wing structure. “It took three to four hours to make the biggest: the Mountain Blue Bird,” says Fontanini. But by the end it only took him roughly two hours per bird. Still, casting all of them would have saved time. “They would have looked cast but we could have detailed them from there. None were exactly the same. 65

Project Interior and exterior rails for a Ranch in Teton County WY, eight miles northeast of Jackson, WY. Fabricator Steve Fontanini Blacksmithing Jackson, WY Description of Job Interior/exterior rail comprised 243 total lineal feet. Interior rails included two spiral staircases stacked on top of each other, a balcony, and straight stairway run; exterior included two balconies and one angled staircase. Primary Materials 13,000 lbs of Silicon Bronze (mostly square). Favorite Tool Used Steve’s friend and coworker, Martha, made good use of the shop’s two power hammers: a 200 lb self-contained Williams White and 300 lb Utility Chambersburg. Things he would have done differently Cast the project’s 40 birds rather than forge them.

We wouldn’t have lost anything on a project this big,” says Fontanini, who used 13,000 pounds of bronze on this job. To authentically nestle the birds in their natural, forged habitat, Fontanini would finish an area and then decide where to put the birds by what looked right. “You couldn’t tell that there was a pattern at all once everything was put together.” In addition to the interior rail, which consists of two spiral staircases stacked on top of each other, there were two

more staircases, one interior and one exterior, and two exterior balconies. All were forged of silicon bronze, including the carved birds and forged leaves. Panels were made to fit between 3.5 inch square oak newels and an independent rail cap. Fontanini mainly used square bar, even on the branches, because he says when you taper it, you start with square and turn it out round. He had to special order milled 1⁄ inch square bar from Farmers Copper & Industrial

Supply in Galveston, TX (800-2319450). “I shopped around and there was only about three places in the country where I could special order silicon bronze,” says Fontanini, who ordered all of his special mill materials at once to save money per pound. “It was a lot of phone work,” he adds. “For the top and bottom rail we ordered fl inch by 1 inch; fl inch and fi inch square for the branches, and then we also used some round.” Fontanini says he used 1⁄ inch square bars to make the tree trunks. Rail cap was

Each of the four types of birds depicted in the rail were water-jet cut from 3/4” bronze plate, and then modified to add authenticity. The birds are indigenous to Aspen tree forests.

made of 1fi inch round bar, which he textured with knots, bark, and cutoff branches. The finish was liver of sulfur, Scotch Brited, and clear-coated. Although he avoided outsourcing, Fontanini didn’t have to make the rail all alone. “I usually have two to four employees, especially for this project because the material is so heavy. Bronze weighs more than steel anyway,” says Fontanini. As mentioned, Eric Enstrom and Joshua Bean forged the leaves. And Martha Preston, Fontanini’s long-time friend and coworker, had quite a time with the tree trunks. “We were in the middle of doing another tree trunk job, and Martha could hone her tapering skills under Fill in 31 on Reader Service Card


Fabricator n January–February 2003

the power hammer until she was doing 89 trunks a day. She had two forges going and both hammers (a 200 pound self-contained Williams White and a 300 pound Utility Chambersburg). She was in this zone,” says Fontanini with awe in his voice. They all stamped their initials in the work when it was complete. In all, labor took five months. “When asked about current projects, Fontanini says he just finished a house where he and Preston built a staircase weighing between 500 and 600 pounds. They used stainless steel supports and riveted it all together. They built the railing from an architect’s design. “The joints were all mortise and tenon, no welding,” says Fontanini. They fabricated 150 lineal feet for the inside and 200 for the outside. Fontanini says this particular job, unlike the Aspen forest rail, is not typical of the work he usually does. “It looked like it came from a welding shop—straight lines, cut holes, tubing, minimal forge work,” he explains. Right now I’m working on getting some big gates and sculptural work from the city of Boise, ID,” says Fontanini. “I’m doing a presentation February 10 where I’ll show some drawings and sample pieces. The city is leaving it pretty open as long as it applies to Idaho’s and Boise’s past and future. That’s typical of public projects,” explains Fontanini, who spends a lot of time in Idaho and is looking forward to the opportunity. When asked about his personal business philosophy, Fontanini says his crew just works hard and does the best they can everyday. “We wouldn’t know what else to do.” Fontanini started his high-end business in Jackson, WY in 1984. Before then he shoed a lot of horses and made a lot of hooks. “There was only a tourist industry here until 1990, when the big houses started moving in.” Fontanini has lived in Jackson since 1975. Oddly enough he says he moved there because he wanted to spend a winter blacksmithing in a place where it doesn’t snow too much!

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Point of View

Biz Side

How do you deal with burnout? If you work in the fabrication business, you work hard, very possibly, too hard. So you know what burnout is— the carpal tunnel syndrome of the spirit. Find out how these fabricators deal with it.

Acting like a businessman zaps this artist’s creative energy. He copes by talking with friends and family. By Michael Bondi

“I think burnout is a real problem with this industry, and I’m facing it myself,” says Michael Bondi, Michael Bondi Metal Design Inc., Richmond, CA. “One of the biggest burnout factors is that most of us don’t come from a business management background. NOMMA has tried to address this fact. But, by the time you feel confident with all of the tools you need, you can already be in the burnout stage. Most fabricators are under-capitalized and can’t afford to hire good support people at the right time.” “I never considered myself an artist in the past,” says Bondi. “It didn’t matter to me what I made. I just wanted to have it well executed. But, as time went on, I’ve developed my own tastes, aesthetics, and style. I’ve found that traditional work is no longer as satisfying as my creative work. But, because of a large overhead, I have to go where the business is. So there is a real conflict between doing my creative work and doing what I have to do to make a living. I still do my creative work, but it’s a much smaller part of my repertoire than I would like.” In dealing with these pressures, Bondi says, “I don’t have any clear answers yet, but one thing I do know is that you have to communicate with your family what you are dealing with. You don’t want to make the mistake of waiting until it is too late.” 68


n Communicate!

About the fabricators

Michael Bondi, Michael

n Scale!

By keeping his business small, this fabricator focuses more on creating metalwork rather than managing other metalworkers. By Greg Eng

Zeroing in on what he really wants has helped Greg Eng, of Greg Eng Metalsmith, Vista, CA. “I created a real stressful situation for myself about a year ago,” Eng says. The stress came when Eng added four people to his small shop. “I was spending my time managing, not making very much money, and not creating very much,” says Eng. However, Eng adds, “It took me only half of a year to figure out that problem. I cut back to two people, and I’m not producing any less. I’m real meticulous, and when I’m out on the project I can make decisions if something is taking too long or is going in the wrong direction. The two men working with me are more extensions of myself than people I let run the shop while I sit in the office.” Eng also says, “I control the work rather than being driven by what comes in the door. I’m real selective as to what I want to do, and that helps control stress.” Eng keeps the scale of his business small so he can concentrate on the creative process. “If I got myself into the logistics of running a larger business, I would get burned out,” he explains. “On the other hand, I’ve met others who love the logistics of running a business, who are great on concepts, but would feel stressed out spending all day in the shop, so they hire others to execute the work. The best way to avoid burnout is to find what you really enjoy doing, and focus on that.”

Bondi Metal Design Inc., Richmond, CA This 20’ x 6.7’ driveway gate by Bondi won a silver award in the forged driveway gate category of the 1998 Top Job contest. Bondi has been a NOMMA member since 1983. Greg Eng, Greg Eng Metalsmith, Vista, CA

This window grill by Eng was entered in the 2002 Top Job contest. Scrolls range from 1/4” to 1”. Birds are cut from 3/16” plate. Eng has been a NOMMA member since 2000. These viewpoints were gathered by Thomas G. E PA RT IC IP AT Dolan. To share your point of view, contact the Editor: 532 Forest Pkwy, Ste. A, For­est Park, GA 30297. Phone (404) 363-4009, Fax (404) 363-2857, E-mail

Fabricator n January–February 2003

Six ways to manage burnout What you’ll learn! n Burnout

may be inevitable, especially if you plan on doing what it takes to make your business successful. But there are ways to manage it.

By Thomas G. Dolan The first thing to realize is that if you

are working at a hard job and have challenging goals, stress is not going to go away. You are, in a sense, bringing it on yourself. And stress, for the most part, is the main cause of burnout. The question then is how to reduce stress. Try these six suggestions.

1Vent safely

One approach is through finding safe ways to vent pent-up feelings. Michael Stahl, president of Motivational Concepts, Orlando, FL, suggests

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having an “accountability partner,” a spouse or friend you can really trust to spill out all your deepest feelings, even your negative ones, without fear of retribution. Nick Nicholas, president of The Attitude Enrichment Center, Orlando, FL, recommends writing a letter totally blasting anyone who has really gotten on your nerves, reading it aloud, if only to yourself, including your signature, then not sending it.

2 Detach yourself

Emotional detachment is another technique. Stahl reminds us that it’s long been known that laughter is a great tension release; so keep your sense of humor going. And Nicholas points out that most events are neutral, but we often charge them with negative emotions, sometimes habitually, when a little analysis would show that the event does not really have an impact on our lives unless we let it— like congested traffic and thoughtless drivers.

Try detaching yourself from sources of stress. To a large degree communication technology adds to stress. “People are working long hours; they are hating their jobs, and marriages are breaking up,” says Mark Ellwood, president of Pace Productivity Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada. “There are a lot of causes for this, but one big one is technology, which is not making people feel better. People are bombarded by e-mail, cell phones, beepers. They feel their boss or em-ployees or customers expect instant access at all times. But it’s up to you to set your own limits and carve out space for yourself.” Traditional ways to detach yourself from the world and allow your unconscious self to release your spirit are prayer and contemplation. There are also more informal ways. It’s been found that many highly productive and creative people take an hour off every day to do absolutely nothing, and do it in a way that they most enjoy. By


switching from overdrive to neutral, your unconscious is free to bubble up and rejuvenate you with hopes and dreams, enriching your fantasies.

3Eat right and exercise

There are many ways in which a healthy body is a buffer against stress. “Exercise is king,” says Wayne Pickering, ND, ScM, president of The Center for Nutrition, Daytona Beach, FL. He himself is a tri-athlete involved in intensive swimming, bicycling, and distance running, and advises cardiovascular (aerobics) and muscular development efforts. To

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really get into shape takes a sustained discipline of several hours a week but is well worth it. On the other hand, Pickering says, as many experts do, that walking is the best form of exercise. A good 2–4 mile walk every day can do a lot for you. One illuminating book, Stretch & Strengthen, by Judy Alter (Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston) shows how to do both with just your body. Her instructions are detailed, but once you get them down, the exercises work. But, almost more importantly, her book illustrates the infinite variety of motions your body is capable of. With

a little discipline and imagination, you can incorporate many little “fun” stretches in your everyday activities to keep you limber and strong.

4Breathe deeply

Breathe deeply, you are told— though few people do. It’s a natural process in an infant, for you can see the jolly baby’s tummy pumping up and down. But this natural process is lost in most adults. The reason is the “fight or flight” syndrome that results in shallow upper chest breathing for many people. Animals relax once the threat is past. Adults carry the threat around with them. It’s their stress. A remarkable book by Gay Hendricks, PhD is called Conscious Breathing (Bantam Books). He makes the observation that a tenth of a liter of blood flows through the top of the lungs every minute, compared with two thirds of a liter per minute in the middle, while at the bottom of the lungs well over a liter flows each minute. Imagine what it would be like having a full liter flow through you each minute instead of getting along on only one tenth the amount. Hendricks maintains that what he calls “breathwork” or simply deep breathing, is the key to treating a host of psychological and medical ills and is a tremendous stress reliever. But there is a Catch 22. The diaphragm is a convex muscle that goes down when we breathe and rebounds when air is released. However, this is an unconscious activity. Trying to become conscious of an unconscious activity only serves to acerbate the stressful upper chest breathing you are trying to avoid. Look for these books to help reduce stress. Stretch and Strengthen (Houghton and Mifflin) Written by Judy Alter ISBN: 068511807X Conscious Breathing (Bantam Books) Written by Gay Hendricks ISBN: 0553374435 Your Body’s Many Cries for Water (Global Health Solutions Inc.) Written by F. Batmanghelidj, M.D. ISBN: 0962994235

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Fabricator n January–February 2003

A way to avoid this is indirection, becoming conscious of something else. For instance, try breathing slowly in through your nose to consciously fill the air ducts around the back of your ribs. Try this just three times, feel your posture straighten and how full and relaxed you become. Then imagine breathing that way all day long. Read Hendrick’s book to help you learn how.

5Drink water—really!

Also remarkable is the work of F. Batmanghelidj, M.D. An early victim of the Iranian Revolution, Batmanghelidj has written many books on pain and healing. His most notable work is Your Body’s Many Cries For Water, published by Global Health Solutions, Falls Church, VA. Batmanghelidj’s position is that modern medicine has missed the boat by neglecting what should be the first diagnosis of most ills, dehydration. Thirst is only one of the many indications. Pain is another. A wide variety of pains, including stomach distress, back pain, and headaches are often cries for water. He points out that 75 percent of the body and 85 percent of

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Breathe deeply, you are told — though few people do. It’s a

natural process in an infant. But this natural process is lost in most adults. The reason is the “fight or flight” syndrome that results in shallow upper chest breathing for many people. the brain is water. So it makes sense to keep yourself lubricated. Everybody says drink eight glasses (two quarts) of water a day. But how many do? Anyway, read his book, then start drinking two or more quarts of water (not including other liquids) a day, combined with deep breathing, and see how good you feel.

6Take control

Yet, even if you do all of the right things, will you be spared emotional pain or spiritual anguish? Probably not. And realizing that can be liberating. There is suffering in the world, and you will experience your share. And what is burnout, but being overwhelmed by suffering? You can take control of not only your spirit and body, but the rest of your life as well to keep from being so overwhelmed. Prioritize. Ruthlessly set aside for yourself what you really

need in terms of your minimum daily health, pleasures, fun, and joy, and make sure you get them. In terms of your job, again ruthlessly prioritize. Starting with what’s important and required, do what you can realistically do, and don’t fret about the rest. Strive for perfection, but don’t try to be perfect, for that in itself is a cause of stress. For instance, there are those of us who can live without love, but feel life without a good cup of coffee or glass of wine is a life hardly worth living. So continue to work hard, but lighten up. Remember, do everything in moderation— including moderation.



Biz Side

Five steps for growing a healthy web site What you’ll learn!

n Once you realize the importance of

having a web site, follow these steps to help you design and implement it effectively.

By Jack Cameron Andrew Crawford is the founder and owner

Step one: Research

The first step is research. Browsing the web and looking at many different sites is the best way to figure out what is available and what you want. This allows one to become familiar with details such as backgrounds, fonts, picture size and quality, as well as, general layout, and menu orientation. Based on a little research, Crawford decided he wanted a very simple and casual feel to his site. He wanted the focus to be on ironwork and sculpture. Most of his potential clients would be more interested in easily accessing images, descriptions, and articles rather than fancy animation, sound, and confusing web graphics. 72

Crawford broke his site down into four major sections with the main menu: ironwork, sculpture, press, and contact information.

Step two: Make lists

The next step is making lists; list all photos, statements, articles, and resumes. This enables one to clearly establish groups of images and documents. These lists will later become the menus. The menus on the site establish different areas specific to certain groups. For example, Crawford broke his site down into four major sections with the main menu: ironwork, sculpture, press, and contact information. Each one of these areas has another menu inside it. For instance, the ironwork menu has gates, furniture, fountains, and drawings as sub-headings. Step three: Plan the layout

Once the lists or menus are established, it is time to figure out the layout of the site. Crawford sketched out every page. This allowed him to have a clear image of arrangements and readability. Also at this time, he wrote all the captions for the photos. Simple descriptions of each piece include material, size, date completed, and maybe one or two interesting facts about the work. With all the pages drawn out on paper, you can actually stack the pages the way they would occur on the Internet so you can

For your information


of the Andrew T. Crawford Ironworks, in Atlanta, GA. In early 2001, he established his company’s web site: The development of the site is the continuation of a strict regiment of self promotion and client cultivation. With consistency as his primary goal, the always available and indiscriminate Internet seemed to be the perfect arena for his company’s growth. Crawford’s decision to get a web site was spurred by a conversation with a client who happened to be the head of one of Atlanta’s most prominent public relations firm. Her advice to Andrew was that if he wanted to grow his company and improve the public perception of his work, he needed a web site. Crawford’s reaction was to get right to work planning and brainstorming the details of what would become

Web Designer William David Barr is the Creative Director of brixtonmedia. com, a web design and development firm based in Atlanta, GA. Web www. Fabricator Andrew T. Crawford Ironworks joined NOMMA in 2002 and is based in Atlanta, GA. About the author Jack Cameron is a professional writer and small business promoter. He writes articles, proposals, and press releases for Crawford. For a listing of of web site developers recomended by NOMMA members, visit NOMMA’s web site at, and click on the member’s only section.

Fabricator n January–February 2003

understand the flow of the site. In addition, having all the pages sketched out makes the next step a no brainer . . . execution. Step four: Design

The most expensive part of the process of establishing a web site is the design. If the majority of the design is done already, the job of the web master is more of a technical endeavor than a conceptual one. However, it is critical to remember that web designers should be consulted and trusted when it comes to technical logistics and design capabilities. No metal worker wants to be told how to do a piece. Remember that when you tell a web designer how to build your site. It is possible to maintain artistic control while being responsive and respectful to the input of a professional. Another way to save time and money is to be very organized and thorough. Make sure that all the images are available. Both digital and traditional photos can be used. Bad photos can be touched up and drawings give potential clients insight into ones creative or technical process. All text should be clearly typed or written in an organized format. The less leg work the web master needs to do, the less money it takes to get the web site off the ground.

No metal worker wants to be told how to do a piece. Remember

that when you tell a web designer how to build your site. It is possible to maintain artistic control while being responsive and respectful to the input of a professional. view completed projects, read articles, and contact the craftsman with any questions or comments on their own time and at their leisure. While emails and digital images will never replace the handshake and the site visit, the Internet provides an efficient means of reaching and communicating with potential buyers.

Andrew Crawford established to cater to anyone who had an interest in his work. “It is short sighted to think that only potential buyers should visit the site,” says Crawford. “People get interested, they talk, and this is how a business grows.”

Step five: Execute

Once the site is posted on the Internet and people begin to visit it, it is difficult to pinpoint the positive ef-fects on the public perception of the company. Crawford relates the acquisition of the web site to having em-ployee uniforms, respectable trucks, and decent stationary for correspondence with clients. The web site is the most outwardly public representation for any company. It can single handedly establish or alter the legitimacy and respectability of a company. The most practical and financially justifiable reason for having and maintaining a web site is client cultivation. As the world gets more complicated, it is not as easy to establish business relationships through shop visits and personal meetings. The web site allow potential clients to Fill in 20 on Reader Service Card January–February 2003 n Fabricator


Biz Side

How to hire the right person What you’ll learn! n Suggestions

from experts in the fields of human resources and labor issues give tips for making the most of interviews when searching for ideal employee candidates. Careful planing can make hiring the right person easier.

By William Lynott On the surface, it appears to be a rou-

tine business chore. A job vacancy exists and someone has to interview the applicants and select the most promising individual. In truth, interviewing job candidates today is anything but routine. “There has never been a time when pre-employment interviewing skills have been more important than they are now,” says Therese A. Hoehne, Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR). Hoehne is Director of Human Resources, Aurora University, Aurora, IL. She cautions, “You must always keep in mind that there are many complex laws that govern the interviewing/hiring process today.”

For your information


Issue Preparing for and conducting effective interviews with employee candidates. Strategies Listen carefully, stay on track, don’t ask dis-


Selecting the right person from among a group of job candidates has never been easy, and today’s legal restraints have made the job more complex than ever. Fortunately, there are simple techniques that can help you negotiate that difficult path. Fabricator asked three experts to give us their best advice. Here’s what they told us: Tips for an effective interview Talk less; listen more

“Most interviewers talk too much,” says Emory Mulling, chairman of The Mulling Companies, Atlanta, GA, and author of The Mulling Factor: Get Back Your Life by Taking Control of Your Career. “The interviewer’s role is to get information from the candidate. Too often, interviewers spend

criminating questions or give discriminating tests, and avoid any promises of permanent employment until you know your candidate will work. Key Contacts Therese A. Hoehne, Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR)and Director of Human Resources, Aurora University, Aurora, IL; Emory Mulling, chairman of The

too much time talking about the job and the company and not enough time asking relevant questions of the candidate.” Human resources professionals agree that talking too much during an interview is a common mistake. Remember, your job during a preemployment interview is to obtain as much meaningful information from the applicant as possible. You can’t listen when you’re talking. Examine resumes and applications carefully

While complete honesty on a job application may not be the norm today, most experts advise employers to question the obvious. Take a close look at time gaps between jobs. “Look for ‘short-timers’—people who seems to switch jobs every 12 months,” says

Mulling Companies, Atlanta, GA, and author of The Mulling Factor: Get Back Your Life by Taking Control of Your Career; Labor Attorney John C. Romeo, Philadelphia, PA; James Walsh, author of Rightful Termination: Defensive Strategies for Hiring and Firing in the Lawsuit-Happy 90’s; Bob Dickson, former Director of Labor Relations & Personnel, Merck & Co., West

Point, PA. About the Author William J. Lynott is a freelance business writer for the manufacturing and construction industry.

Fabricator n January–February 2003

Ms. Hoehne. “If the applicant is new to the job market and has already had two or three jobs, this may or may not be a warning sign. However, if the applicant has 10 year’s experience and 10 jobs, you will want to discuss the reasons. This could indicate a job-hopper at best and a problem employee at worst.” Keep the interview on the right track

As with any conversation, a preemployment interview can stray far off track if not carefully controlled. “If I had a friend conducting an interview, I would advise him to ask only those job-related questions that he needs to ask to make a lawful hiring decision,” says Labor Attorney John C. Romeo, Philadelphia, PA. “I would advise him to pay close attention to the direction the conversation takes during the interview. An interview can easily turn into a conversation about family, religion, or national origin,” he says. “If the interviewer sees the conversation going in this direction, he should make a con-

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“If the applicant is new to the job market and has already

had two or three jobs, this may or may not be a warning sign. However, if the applicant has 10 year’s experience and 10 jobs, you will want to discuss the reasons.” certed effort to stop and switch gears—get the conversation onto a proper and legal topic.”

90’s, advises starting with what hiring experts Check Out call structured questions. The Mulling Factor: Get “Ask them of every Back Your life by Takcandidate and base your ing Control of Your Prepare a list Career comparisons on their of questions (Mulling Companies) answers.” He suggests You must not ask male Written by Emory Mulling using a standardized ISBN: 0970844476 and female applicants worksheet to do this, Rightful Termination: different questions. To checking off each appliDefensive Strategies do so is to risk violation cant’s strengths against for Hiring and Firing of discrimination laws. the job skills required in the Lawsuit-Happy “I usually create a list of for the position. 90’s questions that I’m going Bob Dickson, former Di(Silver Lake Publishing) to ask all candidates Written by James Walsh rector of Labor Relations before the interview & Personnel, Merck & process starts,” says Co., West Point, PA, also believes in Hoehne. “I then put those questions using a carefully structured set of queson a sheet of paper with space between tions prepared before the interview. “I them to take notes.” recommend that you summarize what James Walsh, author of Rightful Termiyou have learned immediately after the nation: Defensive Strategies for Hiring interview. One way to do this is to list and Firing in the Lawsuit-Happy relevant answers and information next


“A candidate who thrives in competition among co-workers won’t

fit in a team-based culture that values partnership.”

to each question on your list.” Be aware of compatibility

“Ask questions about the candidate’s preferred management style to determine if he or she will fit with the potential boss,” says Mulling. “For example, a candidate who likes to work independently won’t fit with a boss who’s a micro-manager. “You should also ask the candidate to describe the best work environment he

or she ever had. Again, you’re looking for compatibility with the work environment in your shop. A candidate who thrives in competition among co-workers won’t fit in a team-based culture that values partnership over competitiveness.” When possible interview your candidate more than once

“This is a given when hiring managers or shop supervisors. Applicants for these jobs usually expect to be inter-

viewed more than once,” says Walsh. “It can pay off with other people in your organization too. The second and third interviews give both the applicant and the interviewer every opportunity to test compatibility.” Dickson suggests that more than one person do the interviewing. “Whenever possible,” he says, candidates should be interviewed by two people. This will greatly improve your chances of making the right choice.” Listen carefully to the answers

“Even after asking the right questions, some interviewers make the wrong choice because they didn’t listen carefully to the answers,” says Mr. Mulling. “Don’t kid yourself into thinking you can overcome potential conflicts and make someone fit in just because you like them or because their skills are a perfect match for the job.” Places you don’t want to go

This is a low res plese insert hi res file Sur-Fin pu from 11-02 pg. 56

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Don’t get tripped up by illegal questions

In the early 1990s, courts made it illegal for interviewers to ask questions that lead applicants to provide discriminating information. Now, an interviewer who asks them may face a discrimination lawsuit. “The Americans With Disabilities Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1991 make hiring a potential nightmare,” says Walsh. It’s in an interviewer’s best interest to know what questions may lead to litigation. Interviewers must not ask any questions concerning so-called protected classes, including race, sex, age, national origin, religion, or disabilities. In general, questions about workers’ compensation or health history are also prohibited. Avoid questions about pregnancy. “Except in limited circumstances (e.g., health reasons), employers cannot make hiring decisions based on an applicant’s pregnancy,” says Labor Attorney John C. Romeo. “If an interviewer asks an applicant whether or not she was, or planned to be, pregnant, the employer is setting itself up for a discrimination claim. “Watch out for questions that seem innocuous but lead to information that Fabricator n January–February 2003

could be used to discriminate against the applicant,” Romeo adds. “For example, asking an applicant what year he graduated from high school can give rise to an age discrimination claim since the applicant could allege that the employer used the information to figure out the applicant’s age. A better question is, simply, “‘Did you graduate from high school?’” Romeo says do NOT ask these questions during an interview

n Are you planning on having a family? n Do you have children? n Have you ever been injured on the job? n What year were you born? n Do you have a disability? In Rightful Termination author Walsh cautions that this list of pitfalls is likely to grow over the years as the courts seek to gauge the meaning of vaguely worded discrimination laws. “I suggest that interviewers think of it this way,” says Mr. Romeo. “Don’t ask a question if you cannot lawfully base a hiring decision on the answer. You cannot discriminate based on information you do not have. So, if you don’t need to know, don’t ask.”

As they say in a courtroom, “Don’t lead the Witness”

Mulling cautions interviewers not to give away too many details of what they are looking for in a candidate. “If you do that,” he says, “the candidate will mold his or her answers to what the interviewer wants to hear. That can result in the candidate being hired, qualified or not.” Don’t focus exclusively on hard skills

“Some interviewers take a resume point by point and discuss only the candidate’s hard skills,” says Mulling. “Technical skills are not always the best indicator of success on the job. The candidate must also be a good fit for the boss and the work environment. Two candidates can be equally qualified in technical skills, but vastly different in terms of personality and work-style preferences.” Avoid promises of permanent employment January–February 2003 n Fabricator

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“The employer’s vulnerability in a wrongful discharge suit begins in the early stages of the relationship,” Says Walsh. “The courts sometimes find a contractual relationship in seemingly harmless statements about job security or advancement opportunities. Even an oral promise of a salary review after a specified length of time should be avoided; the courts may find a contract of employment for that length of time in any such promise.” Make sure pre-employment tests measure relevant skills

A 1971 Supreme Court decision, Griggs v. Duke Power Co., provided a major

precedent in pre-employment testing. An applicant for a janitorial job was required to take an intelligence test and show a high school diploma. When the company did not hire him, the applicant sued and took his case all the way to the Supreme Court. The court ruled that a high school diploma was irrelevant to the janitorial position. The court also ruled that pre-employment testing must measure only skills directly related to performance on the job being sought. While pre-employment tests are still widely used, most have been carefully designed to comply with the 1971 Supreme Court decision.

It’s suffice to say that pre-employment interviewing should never be taken lightly. “The information you obtain from the candidates will become the most important factor in your final decision,” Dickson says.

12 Tips for conducting effective interviews


Interview more than once

Talk less and listen more


Examine resumes and applications


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6 7

Don’t get off track Carefully prepare questions Carefully listen to answers Don’t ask illegal questions Don’t lead the witness

8 Consider


9 Consider more

10 11

than hard skills Avoid promises Design appropriate skills tests

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Fabricator n January–February 2003

Thank you sponsors of METALfab 2003 Covington, KY March 4–8, 2003


Lawler Foundry Corp. R & B Wagner Inc.


J.G. Braun Co.


Architectural Iron Designs Inc. Julius Blum & Co. Inc. Carell Corp. Crescent City Iron Supply Eagle Bending Machines Inc. Innovative Hinge Products Inc. Mittler Bros. Machine & Tool Regency Railings


Colorado Waterjet Company D.J.A. Imports Ltd. Fab Trol Systems Inc. Rogers Mfg. Inc. Sharpe Products Yavus Ferforje A.S.

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What’s Hot? n Biz Briefs Put the brakes on spam by following a few tips Spam floods the Internet with many copies of the same message, forcing the message on people who would not otherwise choose to receive it. Here’s how you can prevent it from flooding your inbox: n Use an Internet Service Provider that offers advanced junkmail filters. As a second line of defense, activate the filters on your mail program as well. n Be careful about disclosing your e-mail address. Any time you post your e-mail addresssomewhere, there is a possibility that it will be collected and sold. One idea is to obtain a second email from one of the free services like Hotmail or Juno, and use this address when registering products, etc. n Don’t respond to those cute little contests or surveys—that’s just another way of collecting your e-mail. n Don’t try to “unsubscribe” from a junk e-mail. That just confirms to the spammer that your e-mail is valid. You’ll end up just getting more spam. n Report spammers to your ISP provider. Firms like AOL and MSN will investigate spam originating from their systems. If you’d like to educate yourself on the menace of spam, visit TRUSTe (, an independent organization dedicated to building consumer trust on the Internet or CAUCE, ( the Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial Email. 80

Inside Biz Briefs 80 Coming Events 88 NOMMA News 90 Museum Briefs 91

NOMMA Chapters 92 People 94 Literature 96

OSHA revises its rules and accepts NFPA 101 standard The U.S. Occupational Safety and

Health Administration (OSHA) has revised its standards for “means of egress,” concluding that NFPA’s 2000 edition of the Life Safety Code® provides comparable safety to OSHA’s Exit Routes Standard. The OSHA final rule, which went into effect December 7, permits employers to comply with NFPA 101-2000 in order to meet means of egress standards. “OSHA’s revision to the federal egress standard is a noteworthy benefit to employers and the general public,” says NFPA President James M. Shannon. “Today, more than ever, people are aware of the enormous benefits of a fast and thorough emergency building evacuation. The state-of-the art egress provisions found in the Life Safety Code make an important contribution to public safety.” The Life Safety Code, which is used in every U.S. state and adopted statewide in 34 states, sets minimum building design, construction, operation, and maintenance requirements necessary to protect building occupants from dangers caused by fire, smoke, and toxic fumes. The Life Safety Code also provides prompt escape requirements for new and existing buildings, including healthcare occupancies. The Life Safety Code is a key element of the Comprehensive Consensus Codes™ (C3) set (www. The C3 set offers state

The OSHA final rule, which went into effect December 7, permits employers to comply with NFPA 101-2000 in order to meet means of egress standards.

and local governments the first opportunity to select a full set of codes developed through ANSI-accredited processes. That set is being developed through a partnership involving NFPA, the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO), Western Fire Chiefs Association (WFCA), and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). In states that adopt key elements of the C3 set, NFPA and IAPMO will make available free training and associated codebooks to code enforcers. For electronic copies of the final rule log on to For additional information on the Life Safety Code and NFPA, visit

“There must have been a bottle of laughing gas in that last order.” Fabricator n January–February 2003

What’s Hot n? Biz Briefs NOMMA, AFA, and DASMA develop ASTM standard The Automated Vehicular Gate Construction standard, developed by NOMMA, AFA, and DASMA, is now an ASTM standard and available under the designation of ASTM F2200-02. The new standard is harmonized with UL 325 and provides construction guidelines for automated driveway gates. For an in-depth review of the new standard and its relationship with UL 325, fabricators are encouraged to attend the “Automated Vehicular Gate Construction” class that takes place during METALfab, NOMMA’s 45th convention and trade show in Covington, KY, March 4–8, 2003 (See Convention Guide for

ASID and Traditional Home offer consumers web-based interior design referral service In what may become an exciting precedent in the home building industry, the American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) has teamed up with Traditional Home magazine to launch a web-based interior design referral service for customers. Called Designer Finder, the service can be found at According to ASID president Don Bowden, “ASID is delighted to team up with Traditional Home to provide another tool to match consumers with qualified interior designers in their local communities. Many visitors to this web site will not have used the services of an interior designer and not know how to locate a qualified professional. Designer Finder will provide an easy way for these individuals to be matched with ASID

designers, who are specially trained to create interiors that exceed expectations and stay on budget.” To access the referral service, got to the Designer Finder web site and click on the “Find a Designer Now” icon. Completing a short survey matches you instantly with local ASID interior designers. In addition, Designer Finder also provides a wealth of information on the interior design profession and ASID, how to effectively choose and work with an interior designer, etc. Send news and business briefs to Fabricator, attn: Editor, 532 Forest Pkwy,. Ste. A, Forest Park, GA 30297, or e-mail: fabricator@

Low res plese insert hi res of North East Gate pu from 7-02 pg. 46

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What’s Hot n? Biz Briefs details.) Play The Iron Shop’s new web site game The Iron Shop recently launched an arcade game called “Forklift Maze” on its web site. To play, visitors drive through a virtual warehouse on a forklift, picking up spiral stair kit boxes along the way. The object of the game is to load three spiral boxes onto a truck at a loading dock in a limited amount of time. The game challenges players by placing many obstacles in their way, including barricades and workers moving and working throughout the warehouse. There’s a foreman that won’t leave driver’s alone as they make their Continued opposite page.

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Researchers produce strong copper that retains ductility

Combining old-fashioned metalwork-

ing techniques with modern nanotechnology, engineers at The Johns Hopkins University have produced a form of pure copper metal that is six times stronger than normal with no significant loss of ductility. The achievement, reported in the October 31 issue of the journal, Nature, is important because earlier attempts to strengthen a pure metal such as copper have almost always resulted in a material that is much less ductile; meaning it is more likely to fracture when it is stretched. Strength, on the other hand, refers to how much stress a metal can tolerate before its shape is permanently deformed. “We were able to get the strength of the pure copper up to and beyond

The researchers started with a 1” cube of pure commercial copper and dipped it into liquid nitrogen for three to five minutes at a temp-erature of -196° C (-321° F). Then they rolled the copper flat to a final thickness of about 1 mm.

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What’s Hot n? that of copper alloys without adding any other metals to it and without sacrificing ductility,” said En Ma, a professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and a co-author of the paper. To make the pure copper stronger, the Johns Hopkins engineers had to employ extreme cold and mechanical manipulation, followed by a carefully designed heat treatment. “A real significance of this project was that we showed what traditional metallurgical processing can do in the new era of nanotechnology,” said Yimin Wang, a doctoral student and lead author of the paper. Ma is Wang’s faculty advisor. A change in strength occurs because of the reduction in grain size. When the grains are smaller, Ma explains, more grain boundaries exist to block the moving dislocations, and the metal’s strength is increased. Other co-authors of the Nature paper

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Biz Briefs way through the warehouse. Make the foreman happy and drivers get to post their score with other top forklift drivers. Disappoint him and you’ll get an earful from their grumpy boss. To play, visit: www. Mouse down to the bottom of the page and click on “Arcade Games.”

According to the researchers, En Ma (left) and Yimin Wang (right) the final mix of ultra fine grains and larger ones, described as a “bimodal distribution,” is what gave the new copper its coexisting high strength and ductility.

Planning for succession?

The Foundation of the American Subcontractors Association has a newly revised CD-ROM that can help you create a successful transition plan for your business. Cost is $37 for ASA members and $45 for nonmembers. To order, visit www. contractorsknowledgenetwork.

are Mingwei Chen, an associate research scientist, and Fenghua Zhou, a postdoctoral fellow, both affiliated with the Johns Hopkins Department of Mechanical Engineering. The National Science Foundation provided funding for the research.

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What’s Hot n? Biz Briefs

org, or call (888) 374-3133. New web-based program to improve manufacturing Enerpac, a hydraulic technology company, has developed Enerpac University Program. The program is a monthly web-based educational series on hydraulic workholding. Hydraulic workholding involves using hydraulic clamps in place of manual or toggle clamps to hold workpieces or tools in place during stamping. Enerpac’s new educational program, developed as a service to the manufacturing industry, teaches new design ideas and innovations in fixturing technology, and provides application assistance and training. For info, call (800) 433-2766, or visit: www.

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Subcontractors enjoy victory in Florida ‘duty to defend’ ruling In November, the Sunshine State became a little sunnier, thanks to the American Subcontractors Association (ASA) and several subcontractors that appealed a trial court’s decision. On Nov. 15, the Florida 2nd District Court of Appeal handed down a decision that helps Florida subcontractors avoid paying the defense costs of general contractors pursuing invalid indemnity claims. Endowed by its Subcontractors Legal Defense Fund (SLDF), ASA submitted an amicus curiae, or “friend of the court,” brief supporting the subcontractors in the case of Barton-Malow Company v. Grunau Company et al. “It is indeed a brighter day for subcontractors in Florida,” said ASA President Anne Bigane Wilson, CPC, PE.

The case before the 2nd District Court of Appeal stems from a $9 million settlement agreement between the construction team and the occupants of a so-called “sick building” that was evacuated. After the settlement, the general contractor sued the subcontractors for the legal fees it incurred, arguing that the indemnity provision within the subcontract stipulated a distinct “duty to defend” the general contractor. The trial court held that the indemnity in the subcontract agreements was prohibited by Florida’s anti-indemnity statute but that the subcontractors nevertheless owed a share of defense costs. The appellate court rejected general contractor Barton-Malow’s contention that “it was entitled to recover

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What’s Hot n? On November 15, the Florida 2nd District Court of Appeal

handed down a decision that helps Florida subcontractors avoid paying the defense costs of general contractors pursuing invalid indemnity claims.

all its defense costs and attorney fees because the ‘duty to defend’ was severable from the duty to indemnify.” ASA’s brief argued that a subcontractor should not be forced to pay defense costs when the underlying indemnity obligation is void: “The Lower Court erred in finding the subcontractors had an independent duty to defend BartonMalow after ruling the indemnification clause—which contained the language regarding defense fees and costs—unenforceable and invalid pursuant to Florida’s anti-indemnity statute. Such a ruling allows through the back door what Florida’s legislature intended to foreclose from the front door: riskshifting and costly liability for nonnegligent parties.”

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Biz Briefs Rate guide makes renting equipment easy If renting equipment is a better option for you than buying equipment, check out HSSRentX. The company offers a network of tool, equipment, and special event rental stores. Their free, 200-page catalog features specifications for more than 850 models of construction, building, maintenance, and groundskeeping equipment. You can order their catalog or visit their web site for a comprehensive rental rate guide for half-day, one-day, weekly, and monthly rentals. HSSRentX serves the needs of contractors, industrial firms, homeowners, and event planners. For info, call (877)

For information about this case, contact ASA Construction Law & Contracts Counsel Brian Cubbage by e-mail: ASA’s Subcontractors Legal Defense Fund supports ASA’s critical legal activities to protect the interests of all subcontractors and is funded solely by contributions. SLDF funds are invested to defend subcontractors in precedentsetting cases. For example, ASA successfully challenged a legal argument that, if accepted, would have disallowed delay damages in New York state. ASA also participated in the landmark California and New York cases abolishing contingent payment in those states.

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What’s Hot n? Biz Briefs 711-7368, or visit: www.hssrentx. com. New supplier of ornamental & architectural components Strong Forge & Fabrication LLC (SFF) announces its establishment as a supplier of heavy-duty machined forgings, weldments, and fabricated parts. Strong Forge & Fabrication succeeds Batavia Metal Products Corporation. SFF also introduces “StrongSource,” a global parts sourcing service. For medium and large quantities, SFF will engineer and provide prototype parts, then match customer specifications with offshore suppliers who meet standards and time-tables. For

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A small business goldmine for managing employees A recent NOMMA mem-

bership survey reveals that finding and retaining good employees remains a top issue for our industry. To provide help with this most challenging task, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce offers a goldmine of employee management material on their web site: www.uschamber. com/sb/sbresources. For a small business especially, employees can be your greatest blessing, but also your worst headache. The

U.S. Chamber web site approaches employee issues similar to handling assets and investments. According to the Chamber, every time you hire, train, pay, discipline, or terminate an employee you’re managing a major investment, just like buying and maintaining a piece of equipment. Of course, humans are more complex than machines, and learning to become an effective manager requires a lot more than simply reading an instruction

manual. However, a little reading is a good starting point, and the U.S. Chamber web site can prove helpful. Areas covered in the web site module include recruitment and hiring, compensation, benefits, rules, motivation and rewards, discipline, and termination. Each section is written in “plain English” and is especially suited for someone new at supervising workers. While a lot of the information on the site may seem like common sense,

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What’s Hot n? it’s at least reassuring to know that your practices are in line with recommended procedures. For example, what do you do when a new hire wants a lot more money? While you may want to follow your “gut” and show him

or her the door, the web site offers more a list of questions to help you make a sound business decision. Most importantly, following sound guidelines such as those provided by the U.S. Chamber can

reduce frustrations and help to ensure happier and more productive employees. Such guidelines may also protect you from increasingly common wrongful discharge claims.

Biz Briefs info, call (585) 343-5251, or visit: Lawrence Metal Products lowers prices Lawrence Metal Products, a manufacturer of pedestrian line management systems and hospitality fixtures, has reduced prices for a wide range of products. Reductions range from 20 to 40 percent off previous 2002 list prices. Price have been lowered on Lawrence’s hospitality fixtures products, like food shields, bar fixtures, and decorative railing. According to Betty Castro, vice president of sales and marketing, the price reductions were made possible as a result of improved supply chain management and productivity gains in manufacturing. For info,

Centaur Forge legacy opens two new companies: consulting and supplies Amy Pieh, former vice president of Centaur Forge Ltd., and daughter of the late Bill and Bonnie Pieh (Centaur Forge Founders), has opened two new companies. Pieh puts to work over 20 years of experience in the blacksmith and tool industry with Pieh Consulting, which provides assistance in product design, training, product selection, competitive

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marketing analysis, and promotion. Pieh Tool Company Inc. provides farrier, veterinary, equine, bovine, and blacksmith supplies. Both companies are located at 437 General Crook Trail, Camp Verde, AZ 86322, Phone (888) 743-4866, E-mail, Webs and www.

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What’s Hot n? Coming Events March 23–26, 2003 METALFORM ’03

METALFORM is a premier metal stamping and fabricating exposition. This year’s show features 9,200 square feet of space devoted to tool and die equipment at the Donald E. Stephens Convention Center in Rosemont, IL. For info, call (216) 901-8800, or visit: March 24–27, 2003

WESTEC Advanced Productivity Exposition

Westec holds its annual metalworking and manufacturing event at the Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, CA. For info, call (800) 733-4763, or visit: April 8–10, 2003

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Event Spotlight

Don’t miss METALfab 2003 March 4–8 in Covington, KY place in featuring classes on hinging and rivet-

METALfab 2003 takes

Covington, KY (across the river from ing; door, stair, and rail fabrication; Cincinnati). The event features educafinishing; anchoring and fastening, tion sessions, networking events, shop fabricating overseas; working with tours, and the Ernest Wiemann Top architects; employee management; Job Competition. The trade technical affairs, and show takes place the last insurance purchasing. METALfab three days of the event and NOMMA’s 45th conSchedule at a features the industry’s latest vention also includes a Glance first-time orientation, machinery, products, and Estimating and CAD Seminars annual membership busiservices. March 3–4 ness meeting, Party for a Typically education classes Education SesPurpose Theme Dinner, begin on Wednesday. But sions and the annual Awards this year a two-day CAD March 5–7 Banquet. and Estimating Seminar Trade Show Remember the METbegins on Monday, March March 6–8 ALfab trade show is 3. Regular education sesopen only during select sions begin on Wednesday,

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What’s Hot n? Coming Events 2003 AWS Welding Show

The American Welding Society (AWS) celebrates 50 years at its 2003 Welding Show in Detroit, MI, at Cobo Hall. For info, call (800) 443-9353, or visit: www. May 20–22, 2003

EASTEC Advanced Productivity Exposition

Buyers and sellers of machine tool and metalworking technologies come together to discuss production challenges and solutions at the Eastern States Exposition Grounds in West Springfield, MA. Over 7,000 exhibitors expected. For info, call (800) 733-4763, or visit: www.

Scenes from METALfab 2002. left: McGill’s cutting torch. right: Waterjet cutting samples made at Triple-S steel.

hours: Thursday, March 6 from 3:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.; Friday, March 7 from 7:30 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.; Saturday, March 8 from 10:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. It will be held at the Northern Kentucky Convention Center and admission is free. The Cincinnati Marriott RiverCenter in Convington is the host site for

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METALfab 2003. The hotel is located on the south bank of the Ohio River and offers a spectacular view of the Cincinnati skyline and riverfront. For more details, consult your METALfab 2003 convention guide booklet (included with this mailing). Or call NOMMA (404) 363-4009, ext. 20, E-mail, Web

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What’s Hot n? NOMMA News NOMMA Members In the News NOMMA members were featured in a recent issue of JOM, a publication of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. The article includes pictures and details about the 2002 Top Job gold award winning projects of Flaherty Iron Works, Christopher Metal Fabricating, Design Metals, Mudge Metalcraft, and John Medwedeff. Plus, the spread lists all 2002 Ernest Wiemann Top Job gold award winners. For info on JOM, visit: html

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New Members as of 11-2-02 C.A.N. Art Handworks* Detroit, MI Carl A. Nielbock Fabricator Capone Iron Corp. Rowley, MA Stephen J. Capone Fabricator Counsel Industries Tucson, AZ Skip Bengtson Local Supplier Crossroads Iron Works Inc. Gordonsville, VA Michael Dailey Fabricator Dan’s Ornamental Iron Works Inc.* Patchogue, NY

Joe Rollings Fabricator Darling’s Blacksmithing Tollhouse, CA Reuel Darling Fabricator Division 5 Metalworks Kalamazoo, MI Greg Terrill Fabricator ELECTRO-TECH Healdsburg, CA David Ratzlaff Fabricator Ferro Artistico– Venezio Iron Works Brooklyn, NY Pat Parrella Local Supplier

* Denotes returning member. Forerunner Engineering dba Forerunner Creation Brooklyn, NY Marie Lodato Fabricator Hosford & Co.* Ann Arbor, MI Jon Hosford Fabricator Ideal Wrought Iron Inc. Detroit, MI Larry Krench Fabricator The Metal Shop North Branford, CT Kevin Care Fabricator National Mallfront

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What’s Hot n? & Design Phoenix, AZ Steven R. Yoder Fabricator Paradise Valley Iron Works Scottsdale, AZ Tim Steelman Fabricator Pearson’s Studio Grants, NM Jan Pearson Fabricator Sanford Regional Vocational Center Sanford, ME Ernest L. Eaton Affiliate Shoreline Stainless Fort Myers, FL Douglas Billings Regional Supplier

Stephens Pipe and Steel LLC Russell Springs, KY Ted Eysenbach Nationwide Supplier Patsy Strocchia & Sons Iron Works Inc.* Brooklyn, NY Ralph J. Strocchia Fabricator Vaclav Metal Craft Middletown, NY Vaclav Barina Fabricator

Tallahassee, FL Kenny Small Fabricator

Museum News Dec. 10 , 2002–Feb. 16, 2003 Exhibit: Some like it hot

Curated by Director Jim Wallace, the Metal Museum’s latest exhibit explores issues of scale, material, and design through the work of metalsmiths known for their architectural scale ironwork.

Trinity Fabricator’s Inc. Green Cove Springs, FL Mike Ginther Fabricator

W.T. Welding & Cont. Co. Mt. Laurel, NJ Bill Twaddell, III Fabricator

Metalsmiths include Jeff Medwedeff whose 18 ft sculpture won a 2002 Top Job gold award.

Tallahassee Welding & Machine Shop

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What’s Hot n? NOMMA Chapter Briefs Florida Chapter holds Tallahassee meeting On Saturday November23, the Florida chapter met at Jerry Grice Welding. Attendees enjoyed a forging demonstration by Past NOMMA President Jerry Grice. Current Chapter President Bob Ponsler announced that volunteers are needed to serve as board members and to host future chapter meetings. Their next meetings will be held at convention. Details TBA.

Northeast Chapter builds Kinyon Air Hammer Ronald Picard of South Attleboro Welding, South Attleboro, MA, hosted the Northeast Chapter of NOMMA on October 5, 2002 and demonstrated the simplicity of building a Ron Kinyon Air Hammer. Picard disassembled his own hammer that he built using Ron Kinyon’s plans prior to the meeting. Then Picard went through the building process, step by step, detailing the process,

and the time table, while emphasizing the simplicity of the hammer’s building plans. The group talked about the hammer’s uses, its basic mainframe design, and head assembly including guides and brass shims. The complete plans can be acquired through ABANA and cost $12 roughly (plus shipping). Ralph Sproll, New England Blacksmiths, demonstrated the results of using various tooling and angles on die blocks with the Kinyon Air Hammer. The group then talked about different materials used for power hammer dies, specifically 4140 which he heat treats after forming to about a Rockwell 45 to 48. According to Sproll, these dies are the toughest and least expensive.

Photo courtesy of

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Chapter Spotlight

materials, acquisition of the materials,

After collecting plans and parts, this Kinyon Air Hammer took three people at Magic Hammer Forge in Bogalusa, LA, one week to build. The hammer uses a 4” x 4” x 10” square ram with a 4” x 4” flat die. Fill in 82 on Reader Service Card


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What’s Hot n? Midwest Chapter fabricates items for NEF silent auction The Upper Midwest Chapter met at

Kelly Iron Works in Peoria, IL on December 7. During the morning business session there was a discussion on insurance issues and estimating, which was followed by a lunch. For the afternoon, attendees broke

into three groups and produced three items for the NEF Silent Auction. Thirty people attended. NOMMA members and nonmembers came from as far away as Wisconsin and Iowa.

Chapter Contacts Florida Bob Ponsler (904) 786-0144 Wonderland Products Inc. New York Paul Montelbano (631) 543-3600 Duke of Iron Inc. Northeast Keith Majka (973) 247-7606 Majka Railing Co. Inc.

Attendees of the Midwest Chapter’s December meeting broke into three groups and created items for the NEF Silent Auction. The auction will be held on March 7, 2003 between 7 p.m. and 10 p.m., during the Party for a Purpose at METALfab 2003 in Covington, KY.

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Southern California Joe Campbell (800) 495-7530 Custom Lights & Iron Hans Duus (805) 688-9731 Hans Duus Blacksmith Upper Midwest Breck Nelson (309) 697-9870 Kelley Ornamental Iron LLC

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What’s Hot n?

People Profile

Matthew Maynard does high-end custom rail in Lawrenceburg, KY Matthew Maynard of Lawrenceburg, KY, joined NOMMA in May 2002. He runs a one-man shop and specializes in high-end custom residential rail that combines metal with other media such as wood or stone. Fabricator How did you get started?

Maynard I set up my first coal forge in my grandfather’s barn in Eastern Kentucky around the age of 12 in the fashion described in the Fox Fire series of books. This is what started it all. I continued to work with metal as I grew older. While living near Asheville, NC. I worked in a Tool and Die shop running CNC equipment for seven years, all the while doing ornamental metalwork either for myself or on the side for others, honing my skills and figuring it out for myself. Then I moved back to my home state to, among other things, pursue working for myself full time.

Fabricator What do you specialize in, and what is the market in your

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This interior rail is 70 lineal feet of brushed and clear-coated mild steel.


Maynard I do my best to focus on high-end metalwork, although that is never the only thing that comes in the shop doors. There’s always somebody’s tractor that needs to be fixed or a myriad of other small projects. But as far as my specialty, I’d have to say interior railings. In particular high-end, custom designed ones. The more complex and intricate, the more I like it. I especially enjoy when a railing combines wood and metal. I’ve worked with both of these materials for many years and feel they work

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What’s Hot n? very well together. There seems to be a growing trend in this combination and the market here for it seems to be fairing the economic slump. Fabricator What are your goals?

Maynard I plan on continuing to grow my name in association with the custom metals market in and out of Kentucky. But as a one-man operation, I’m the business operator, designer, salesperson, fabricator, finisher, and installer. I’d like to grow my shop to the point that I could hire at least one other person, maybe more, but I never want to loose sight of the artistic side of it all. I want to always have my hands physically in the shop. Fabricator Do you consider yourself a blacksmith or a fabricator or somewhere in between? What do you think distinguishes the terms? Maynard If I had to limit my-

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self to a description I would probably settle on Artist/Blacksmith or maybe Artist/Metalworker. I shape metal, wood, and sometimes stone, by whatever means I must to achieve the desired result. It seems that, at least for me, it’s better to focus less on what I want to be called and more on the types of items I want to produce. As far as distinguishing those terms, I think that depends on where you are in the world. I am just a few miles from the Kentucky Horseshoeing School. So, around here, a blacksmith shoes horses. But as a good general overview, I would have to say that a blacksmith uses a hammer and anvil about the same amount that a fabricator uses a torch and welder. Though that’s not to say that one cannot draw on the other at any given time. Ever seen a fab shop without an old anvil of some sorts hanging around somewhere? Ever seen a blacksmith that

People GTO

GTO Inc. a manufacturer of automatic gate operators and accessories, recently appointed Bradley D. Hollis as National Sales Manager for the GTO/PRO Product line. In his new position, Hollis says he plans “to provide guidance and direction to sales managers and then get out of their way and allow them to excel in their job.” He will also continue to push for a high level of safety with GTO/ PRO’s customers and within the gate and access industry.

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What’s Hot n? Literature A reprint of English ironwork

Decorative Iron and Metalwork: Great Examples from English Sources

Improved portable metal fabricator

By R. Goodwin-Smith

This 9 3/8 by 12 1/4 inch book provides a study of decorative English iron and metalwork with 140 illustrations ranging from the 14th through the 20th-centuries. Goodwin-Smith begins with a general history of the craft and follows with chapters on various kinds of antique ironwork, ironwork inspired by historic design, and modern designs. To order, contact: Dover Publications, 31 East 2nd St., Mineola, NY 11501, Phone (516) 294-7000, Web ISBN: 0486420582

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notching a variety of stock shapes and sizes. Contact: Wayne Haas, The Cleveland Steel Tool, Phone (800) 446-4402, Web Dual-cylinder press brake

Tennsmith Inc. Tennsmith Inc. has engineered the Titan, a new press brake that is geared toward highly technical applications that demand accuracy. Through the

Cleveland Steel Tool Co. announces the availability of its recently improved Porta-Shear, a lightweight metal fabricating machine. With a rated capacity of 20 tons, the Porta-Shear includes standard and additional attachments for shearing, punching, bending, and

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Fabricator n January–February 2003

What’s Hot n? Products use of precision proportional valves and simple-to-use controls, the series circuit design delivers full tonnage across the ram and bed at .0008 inch repeatability. Contact: Mike Smith, Tennsmith Inc., Phone (931) 934-2211, Web www.

temporary, Vintage, and Traditional Knobs and Pulls. The hardware is available in an assortment of styles, shapes, sizes, materials, and finishes. Contact: Outwater Industries Inc., Phone (888) 772-1400, Web www.

Cabinet and furniture hardware

TIG welder

Outwater Plastics Industries Inc. Outwater has just supplemented its variety of cabinet and furniture hardware with a new collection of Con-

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Literature A long look at Repoussé Moving Metal: The Art of Chasing and Repousse

By Adolph Steins

Translated from German, the book addresses the workroom, tools, materials, working surfaces (including carpeting and pitches), transfer of designs, sinking, raising, stamping, chasing, repoussé, engraving, soldering, etching, and the coloring and protection of metal surfaces. There are 218 photographs and drawings. To order, contact: Blue Moon Press, Blue Moon Rd., Huntingdon, PA 16652, Phone (866) 6276000, Fax (814) 627-6922, E-mail, Web ISBN: 0970766491

Lincoln Electric Co. The new Power TIG 275 and 375 units from The Lincoln Electric Co. uses square wave and MicroStart™ TIG technology to improve arc precision. The units are ideal for specialty alloys and aluminum and can be used in a variety of TIG fabrication applications. Contact: The Lincoln Electric Co., Phone (888) 355-3213, Web www.


Nationwide Supplier Members Bold denotes new members A Cut Above Distributing 800-444-2999 Advanced Measuring Systems 818-988-1831 Allen Architectural Metals Inc. 800-204-3858 Allied Pacific Resources 330-866-1776 Alloy Casting Co. Inc. 800-527-1318 Alvin Products Inc. 978-975-4580 American Punch Co. 800-243-1492 American Stair Corp. 800-872-7824 Antech Corp. 520-320-1810 AP Automation 770-205-2213 Apollo Gate Operators 210-545-2900 Arcadia Steel 877-501-3200 Architectural Iron Designs Inc. 201-222-7444 Armstrong-Blum Mfg. Co. 847-803-4000 Arrow Iron 201-955-9151 Arteferro Miami LLC 305-836-9232 Artezzi 800-718-6661 Automatic Gate Supply Co. 800-423-3090 Aztec Castings Inc. 800-631-0018 Bayou Steel Corp. 800-535-7692 Julius Blum & Co. Inc. 800-526-6293 J. G. Braun Co. 800-323-4072 Builders Fence Co. Inc. 800-767-0367 Byan Systems Inc. 800-223-2926 C.O. Iron Ltd. 604-273-6435 The Cable Connection 775-885-1443 Carell Corp. 334-937-0947 CI Banker Wire & Iron Works Inc. 262-679-9609 Classic Iron Supply 800-367-2639 The Cleveland Steel Tool Co. 800-446-4402 CML USA Inc. 407-857-1122 Colorado Waterjet Co. 970-532-5404 COMEQ Inc. 410-933-8500 Crescent City Iron Supply Inc. 800-535-9842 Cross River Metals 210-824-1750 D & D Technologies (USA) Inc. 714-430-1100 D.J.A. Imports Ltd. 800-933-5993 DAC Industries Inc. 800-888-9768 DECO Orn. Iron Supply Inc. 630-350-0900 Décor Cable Innovations 312-474-1100 DKS (DoorKing Inc.) 800-826-7493 Doval Industries 800-237-0335 Duff-Norton 704-588-0510 Eagle Bending Machines Inc. 251-937-0947 Eastern Metal Supply 800-343-8154 Eastern Ornamental Supply Inc. 800-590-7111 EDF Equipment Sales Inc. 407-351-7017 Elegant Aluminum Products Inc. 810-293-1020 Elite Access Systems Inc. 949-582-1700 Encon Electronics 800-782-5598 EURO-FER SRL 011-39-044 5440033 Euro Forgings Inc. 800-465-7143 FAAC International Inc. 800-221-8278 FABCAD.USA 800-255-9032 FabTrol Systems Inc. 541-485-4719 Feeney Wire Rope & Rigging Inc. 510-893-9473 Fouts Bros. Truck Center 800-948-5044 FSB USA LLC 407-351-7017 The G-S Co. 410-284-9549 Geo. Bezdan Sales Ltd. 800-663-6356 Glaser USA 847-782-5880 GTO Inc. 800-543-4283 Hartford Standard Stampings & Plating Co. 270-298-3227 House of Forgings 281-443-4848 Indiana Gratings Inc. 800-634-1988 INDITAL U.S.A. 800-772-4706 Industrial Coverage Corp. 800-242-9872 Intercorp Inc. 414-383-2021 Interstate Mfg. Associates Inc. 603-863-4855 The Iron Shop 800-523-7427 Italfer Architectural Iron Inc. 905-455-6100 ITW Ransburg Electostatic Systems 800-909-6886 Jamieson Mfg. Co. 214-339-8384 Jancy Engineering Co. 563-391-1300 Jansen Ornamental Supply Co. 800-423-4494 Justin R.P.G Corp. 310-532-3441 King Architectural Metals 800-542-2379


Joachim Krieger 011-49-64-258-1890 Kuwait & the World Co. 011-965-484-9577 Lavi Industries 800-624-6225 Lawler Foundry Corp. 800-624-9512 Lecky Metal Ornaments Pte Ltd. 011-65-749-9651 Lewis Brass & Copper Co. Inc. 800-221-5579 Liberty Brass Turning Co. 800-345-5939 Mac Metals Inc. 800-631-9510 Main Steel Polishing Co. Inc. 214-951-0574 Marks U.S.A. 631-225-5400 Master-Halco 888-643-3623 Mittler Bros. Machine & Tool 800-467-2464 Frank Morrow Co. 800-556-7688 Multi Lock Inc. 954-563-2148 Multi Sales 562-803-3552 New Metals Inc. 888-639-6382 Ohio Gratings Inc. 800-321-9800 Omega Coating Corp. 888-386-6342 Overseas Supply Inc. 713-290-9885 Pass West 303-288-1700 Polished Metals Ltd. Inc. 800-526-7051 Premier Powder Coating Inc. 713-453-6282 Production Machinery Inc. 410-574-2110 R & B Wagner Inc. 800-786-2111 Regency Railing 972-407-9408 Rik-Fer 011-39-043-4630031 Robertson Grating Products Inc. 877-638-6365 Robinson Iron Corp. 256-329-8486 Rockite, Div. of Hartline Products Co. 216-291-2303 Rogers Mfg. Inc. 940-325-7806 Sahinler Form Metal San. Ve Tic. 011-90-224-4700158 SECO South 888-535-7326 Sharpe Products 800-879-4418 Signon USA 866-744-6661 Sparky Abrasives Co. 800-328-4560 Stainless Steel Stock Exchange Inc. 908-206-9008 Stairways Inc. 800-231-0793 Steel Masters Inc. 602-243-5245 Steel Supply Inc. 713-991-7600 Stephens Pipe and Steel LLC 800-451-2612 Steptoe & Wife 800-461-0060 Striker Tool (USA) Inc. 866-290-1263 Sumter Coatings Inc. 888-471-3400 Sur-Fin Chemical Corp. 800-282-3533 Tennessee Fabricating Co. 800-258-4766 Texas Metal Industries 800-222-6033 Texas Stairs & Rails Inc. 800-633-6874 Torch-Made 800-590-7804 Triebenbacher 800-522-4766 Triple-S Chemical Chemical Products 800-862-5958 Triple-S Steel Supply 800-231-1034 Tri-State Shearing & Bending 718-485-2200 Tubular Spec. Mfg. Inc. (TSM) 800-421-2961 Universal Entry Systems Inc. 800-837-4283 Universal Mfg. Co. Inc. 800-821-1414 Wrought Iron Concepts 877-370-8000 Wrought Iron Handicrafts Inc. 800-456-7738 Yavuz Ferforje Ve Demir Tic San 011-90-258-269-1664 *Join NOMMA 404-363-4009

Fabricator n January–February 2003

Join NOMMA Today ... Membership Category - Check One q $305 - Fabricator q $465 - Nationwide Supplier (Firms selling to fabricators beyond 500 miles of their headquarters) q $355 - Regional Supplier (Firms selling to fabricators within 500 miles of their headquarters) q $280 - Local Supplier (Firms selling to fabricators within 150 miles of their headquarters) q $230 - Affiliate (Teachers and educational organizations) Company Name __________________________________________ Your Name ________________________________________ Address __________________________________________________________________________________________________ City _____________________________ State _________ Zip _________________ Country ______________________________ Phone ____________________________ Fax __________________________ Sponsor (if any) ____________________________ E-mail _______________________________________ Web _______________________________________ Company Description/ Specialty ________________________________________________________________________________ Signature ___________________________________________ Payment Method: q Check q VISA q MC q AMEX q Discover If paying by credit card: Acct. No. _______________________________________________________ Exp. ______/______ Exact name on card ______________________________________ Signature ______________________________________ Checks should be made payable to NOMMA (U.S. dollars, check drawn on U.S. bank)

By signing this application, you agree to abide by NOMMA’s Bylaws and Code of Ethics upon acceptance.


Return To: NOMMA, 532 Forest Pkwy., Suite A, Forest Park, GA 30297. (404) 363-4009. Fax: (404) 366-1852. Membership dues payments are not deductible as charitable contributions, but may be deducted as an ordinary and necessary business expense.










These are just some of your benefits as a NOMMA member. • Starter Kit. As a new member, you receive a Membership Directory, Supplier Directory, educational publications, and sales aides. • Discount Rates. You receive discounts on all NOMMA publications and association sponsored events, including educational seminars and METALfab (NOMMA’s annual convention and trade show). • Affiliation. As a member of the industry’s trade association, you show customers that you support the industry and subscribe to NOMMA’s code of ethics. You also receive a membership certificate, decal, and camera-ready logos to use on your stationery and business forms. • Chapters. If there is a local chapter in your area, you may participate in educational programs, social events, and other chapter activities. • Subscriptions. You receive a subscription to our industry trade magazine, Ornamental & Miscellaneous Metal Fabricator, and membership newsletter, The Scroll. The newsletter contains valuable industry information that you won’t find in the magazine, including an economic report, code updates, and news on government agencies that affect our industry (OSHA, EPA, IRS, etc.). Better yet, we also include a copy of The Business Owner, a newsletter that covers small business issues such as taxes, business succession, etc.. • Industry Awards Competition. Enter your best work in the Top Job Awards Competition for an opportunity to compete with the best in the industry. Press releases are sent to local newspapers, and the publicity is GREAT!

Updated: 5/02

January–February 2003 n Fabricator



De­scrip­tion Curved Stair Rail Fabrication (EDU3 - 70 min.) Follow the complete process, from design to fabrication, with emphasis on detailing/layout. Almost the Last Word in Finishes (EDU2 - 72 min.) A complete primer on finishes covering everything from patinas to gold leafing. Straight Stair Railings (EDU1 - 60 min.) Complete rail fabrication process, including mea­sur­ing, installation, design and layout. Special Finishes (98A - 113 min.) Covers faux fin­ish­es, surface prep., books to read, rust, aged cop­per, and antiquing. Basics of Forging (97A - 120 min.) Learn the fun­da­men­tals of hot metal forging. Meth­ods, tech­niques, and short cuts are covered. Aluminum & Brass Forming (97B -120 min.) Covers temperature ranges, alloy se­lec­tion, forming meth­ods, and power ham­mer usage. Spiral Stairs (96A - 100 min.) Dem­on­stra­tion of spiral stair systems built both horizontally and ver­ti­cal­ly, ma­te­ri­als planning, and layout tips. Forging Aluminum, Bronze, and Brass (96B 120 min.) Forging alu­mi­num, brass, and bronze using a gas forge and torch. Practical Jig Making (94A - 90 min.) Jigs, cus­ tom tooling; also touches on forging, stair layout, and struc­tur­al. Forming Brass/Bronze Cap Rail (94C - 90 min.) Covers both hot and cold bending tech­ niques. Designing for the 4-Inch Picket Spacing Rules (94D - 120 min.) Creative de­sign so­lu­ tions that comply with the 4-inch spac­ing codes. Installations (93C - 70 min.) Tips & tricks for organizing your truck and managing your crews. Also covers structural installations. Metal Finishing (92F - 105 min.) Paint fin­ish­es and what rules affect each. Stair Layout and Planning (92G - 105 min.) Spiral, circular, and railing stringers- see a unique jig for laying out spiral stairs. Pipe Rail Fabrication (92H - 105 min.) Short­

Total Videos

NOMMA Mem- Nonmember ber Price Price

































NOMMA Mem- Nonmember ber Price Price

Ideas in Ornamental Metal (29A) An “idea $8 $12 book” for showing customers. The 23-page $120 $80 book features over 200 color photos. for 25 for 25 Ornamental Ironwork (29B) A 21-page $5 $8 bro­chure featuring sketches of practical $110 $75 or­na­men­tal metal applications. for 25 Glossary of Architectural Metal Terms for for 25 Stairs and Railing (29D) Contains over 200 def­i­ni­tions. Ideal for educating ar­chi­tects and $11 $7 employee. A Guide to the Development of the Iron­ work­er’s Skills (29F) A 9-page guide on fabricating, tools, terms, and stair lay­out. $11 Driveway Gate Brochure (29H) Four-page $7 full-color, glossy brochure that highlights 15 drive­way gate designs. Ideal sales tool. $3 $2 Guideline 1: Joint Finishes (29I) Vol­un­tary $60 $40 guide for weld joint finishes. Includes tubing, for 25 for 25 piping, and solid bar. Contains 16 photos. Interior Railing Brochure (29J) This full- $3 $5 col­or brochure shows a wide spectrum of $45 $65 rail­ing de­signs available to home own­ers. for 25 for 25 Walkway Brochure (29K) A full-color pre­ $2 $3 sen­ta­tion of 14 gate designs, ranging from $40 $60 straight pickets to elaborate forged jobs. for 25 for 25 Code Comparison Guide (29L) Chart and reference section for the three model codes,$2 $3 plus ADA, and overview of code pro­cess. $40 $60 Corrosion Protection Of Ferrous Met­als for 25 for 25 (29M) Fight rust! This booklet covers paint sys­tems, sur­face preparation, main­te­nance, $6 $9 and reference sources.



Total Publications Mail, phone, or fax order to:

Grand Total

NOMMA Education Foundation 532-A Forest Pkwy., Forest Park, GA 30297 (404) 363-4009. Fax: (404) 366-1852.

Checks should be made payable to: NOMMA Education Foundation Prices include shipping. • Allow 4-6 weeks delivery. • Additional charge for express. Company _______________________________________ Name_________________________________________ Address_______________________________________________________________________________________ (No P.O. Box please)

City______________________________________ State _______ Zip/Postal Code __________________________ Country _________________________________________ Phone _______________________________________ Payment: q AmEx q VISA q MasterCard q Discover q Check (check must be drawn on U.S. bank and payable in U.S. dollars) Card No. __________________________________________________________________________________ Exp. _________/________ Signature ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cardholder’s Name _________________________________________________________________________________________________

Updated: 11/02

For images and more detailed descriptions visit:

NOMMA Education Foundation Videos & Publications


Classifieds Recruiter Employment nationwide in structural/miscellaneous steel fabrication. ProCounsel is in communication with over 3,000 structural/miscellaneous steel fabricators. We can market your skills (estimator, project manager, detailer, shop manager) to the city or state of your choice without identifying you. Employer pays fee. The right location, the right job, at the right money. ProCounsel: Buzz Taylor.

Call toll free (800) 545-5900, or (214) 741-3014. Fax: (214) 741-3019.

good pay, full benefits, medical dental, 401K, profit sharing, and good growth potential. Fax resume (732) 332-1924.

Employment Opportunities Well-established railings/architectural metal fabricator NY/NJ/ PA area looking to add: Estimator/ project manager, CAD draftsman/ field measurer, shop foreman/lay-out person. Miscellaneous iron experience helpful. Will help to relocate, offering

Job Opening–Installer Ornamental iron installer position opening. Preferred candidates will have related experienced and speak fluent English. Send or fax resume to Bay Ornamental Iron, 757 Newton Way, Costa Mesa, CA. Fax: (949) 548-7580.

To place a classified ad, send text and payment by check or credit card to Fabricator, Attn: Rachel Squires, 532 Forest Pkwy., Ste. A, Forest Park, GA 30297 Phone (404) 363-4009, ext. 14 Fax (404) 366-1852 E-mail

Advertiser’s Index RS#


Company Name

54 ning 84 20 165 60 173 94 Corp. 61 89 115 10 Inc. 103 33 water 105 57 83 25 22 Paste 86 48 169 73 Inc. 20 95 94 95 137 97 26 24 Tool 132 52 Tool 132 46

Acme Metal SpinAll-O-Matic Inc. Amazing Gates American Spiral Antech Corporation Arch. Iron Designs Arch. Prod. by OutABANA 142 Atlas Metal Sales Baroque Art Gilders Blue Moon Press Julius Blum & Co. Byan Systems Inc. Carell Corporation Classic Iron Supply The Cleveland Steel The Cleveland Steel Colorado Waterjet

January–February 2003 n Fabricator

Rates: 1–35 word = $25 36–55 words = $38 55–70 words = $50

Bold denotes new advertisers

Co. 107 78 COMEQ Inc. 10 44 Counsel Industries 168 58 Crescent City Iron Supply 41 41 CS Unitec Inc. 170 35 D & D Technologies Inc. 48 3 D.J.A. Imports Ltd. 118 30 DECO Orn. Iron Supply 147 34 DécorCable Innovations 171 71 Decorative Iron 1 31 DKS, DoorKing Systems 19 51 Duff-Norton 77 45 Eagle Bending Machines 120 57 Elderfield & Hall Inc. 174 29 Elite Access Systems Inc. 4 87 Encon Electronics 57 Pg# Company Name RS# 52 49

55 FABCAD.USA 87 82 Glaser USA 123 92 The G-S Co. 82 26 GTO Inc. 56 79 Hawke Industries 16 30 Hebo GmbH 150 81 E.G. Heller’s Sons Inc. 102 25 House of Forgings 130 7 INDITAL U.S.A. 111 78 International Gate 24 46 Interstate Mfg. Assoc. 114 104 The Iron Shop 11 70 Ironwood LLC 70 96 Jansen Orn. Supply Co. 75 92 Jax Chemical Co. 23 88 Jesco Industries Inc. 93 83 Kayne & Son Hardware 81 96 75 King Architectural Metals 136 63 FAAC International 93 Laser Precision Cut101


Fabricator Poll

Accommodate flaws by other trades? You don’t want a customer to complain about your installation. But how much money and time are you willing to spend to fix underlying problems made by other subs?

Should your metalwork be built to fit the existing out-of-line structure? —question previously raised on NOMMA’s ListServ Rob Rolves Foreman Fabricators Inc. Saint Louis, MO My general answer is “no,” however I believe it is a call that needs to be made by the customer. The other work needs to be called out to the customer and they should decide if they want to pay more for our work or if they want the other trade to fix their work. We have had this situation happen many times. In the past we would have tried to make it work, but we found that when we get into a corner no one is willing to cut us any slack. Doug Bracken Wiemann Ironworks Tulsa, OK In those situations where we must fit up to another trade’s rough work, I will almost always choose to build a rail that looks good and eases the roughness of the other trade lines. This is always difficult work for the fabricator and the owner or client must be informed of this decision in advance of starting any work because the railing will often magnify the discrepancies of the work that is directly adjacent to it. This also comes at a price, which will be higher

than if we have a clean, true, finished surface to measure and work on. Dave Filippi FabCad USA Petersburg, VA The issue of adjoining work not properly performed should relieve you of responsibility. If the customer is reasonable, they should know that in order for your work to meet their expectation, the work to which you attach must first past their quality standard. If you were to build straight and true over something that is incorrect, the overall look would be worse because the visual mistake of the original work would be more pronounced. I would hold that following existing work is the standard unless specified otherwise. Gib Plimpton Myers & Company Architectural Metals Basalt, CO I agree wholeheartedly with what Dave just said, but I would add something that we constantly stress to our field people and project managers. As soon as you become

aware of any sort of discrepancy or inconsistency, which was probably when you did the field measuring, the architect or owner should be notified. At that point, the options and decisions are theirs and any additional impacts or costs can be discussed then. Anywhere beyond this point you may be at risk no matter how good your intentions. Terry Driscoll Custom Iron Inc. Zumbrota, MN I think the answer is “yes” and “no.” In the broadest sense, we don’t build railings, we build safety devices that have significant visual appeal. We often have an opportunity to improve the overall effect of our work by taking into account all conditions at the site and providing the best solution. We also have to involve the customer, who may have different perceptions than we do and who needs to approve the related changes in the cost if we haven’t already built that cost into our price. A typical example is a railing on a curving stair with a straight section. There is a transition where the pitch changes. On a “curbed” stair, the stair builder will “ease” this transition. On an open-cut, non-curved stair, this same “easing” should occur.


Send Us Your Ideas? Do you have a question you’ve been anxious to ask fabricators? Telephone the Editor at (404) 363-4009, ext. 15; Fax (404) 363-1852, or e-mail your question to 102

Fabricator n January–February 2003

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Low res file please insert hi res file for Iron Shop pu 11-02 pg. 100

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2003 01 fab  
2003 01 fab