CIRCULAR AMSTERDAM A vision and action agenda for the city and metropolitan area
Cities are the hotbed of innovation and
1. INTRODUCTION: MUNICIPALITY AMSTERDAM AS A PIONEER City Circle Scan
2. VISION OF A CIRCULAR CONSTRUCTION CHAIN IN AMSTERDAM Strategies for a circular construction chain Smart design Dismantling and separation High quality recycling and re-use Marketplace and resource bank Spatial vision Barriers Action points Roadmap Potential economic and environmental impact
14 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 38 40
3. VISION OF A CIRCULAR ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS CHAIN Strategies for organic waste Central hub for biorefinery Waste and reverse logistics Cascading of organic flows Recovery of nutrients Spatial vision Barriers Action points Roadmap Potential economic and environmental impact Scalability map
44 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 68 70 72
4. CURRENT STATE Circularity measured Flows through the metropolitan region Selection of chains Circular Economy indicators
74 76 78 82 84
5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS Project team References
86 88 90
circularity is now on the agenda; politically, socially
identify and implement circular solutions at the city level will lead to job creation, a cleaner environment, new or rejuvenated industries, and competitiveness in global markets. The circular economy provides solutions for many environmental,
challenges that cities worldwide are facing. The first Circle City Scan was completed with the city of Amsterdam, which is a pioneer in the field of circular economy. This report identifies
2. VISION CONSTRUCTION vision strategies barriers action agenda
areas in which circular business models can be applied and highlights strategies to accomplish practical implementation of these sustainable solutions. The Circle City Scan addresses where and how to start with tangible projects, and what the impact is in terms of jobs, environment and added (economic) value.
3. VISION ORGANIC RESIDUALS vision strategies barriers action agenda
4. CURRENT STATE
5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As a pillar of Amsterdam’s sustainability policy,
which 47 billion is accounted for by the city of
creating a circular economy is high on the
Amsterdam (2013) (CBS, 2015). The following
municipality’s agenda. Results from the study
‘Circular Amsterdam: A vision and roadmap
roadmap that have been developed for both
for the city and region’ provide guidance to the
chains and the impact that the implementation of
municipality regarding potential steps towards
these would have on the economy and the use of
increased circularity. The roadmap explicitly
connects with and builds on the many initiatives Construction chain
that are already being implemented.
By organising the building chain in a circular way The City Circle Scan approach consists of four
while fulfilling the growth ambition to realise 70
phases. In phase 1, the main material and energy
thousand new homes by 2040, the municipality
flows as well as the employment levels in the
can achieve a 3% productivity increase worth
economic sectors in the region were analysed,
85 million euro per year. This economic growth
creating a solid base for phase 2. In phase 2, a
is realised in large part by value retention due
comprehensive analysis of the value chains that
to material reuse and efficiency improvements.
connect multiple sectors within Amsterdam was
However, this cannot be realised overnight.
the study determined which chains can achieve
Growth in productivity results in increased
the greatest impact from a circular perspective.
employment opportunities; over time, about
The results were discussed during a round
700 additional jobs can be created. 75 thousand
table discussion with representatives from the
people are currently employed in the Amsterdam
municipality and local stakeholders, resulting in
building sector. For the most part, the additional
the decision to perform a detailed analysis of the
jobs would be for low- to medium skilled
construction chain and the organic residual flow
conducted. Utilising macro-economic statistics,
circular future. This future vision provides a view
The outlined improvement of the reuse of materials
of how the chains (and their interactions with
leads to material savings of 500 thousand tonnes,
other chains) can be set up to be more effective.
which is significant when compared to the current
In phase 4, an action agenda and roadmap were
annual import of 1.5 million tonnes of materials.
drawn to kick-start relevant circular projects, and
Greenhouse gas emissions are estimated to
potential barriers were identified.
decrease by half a million tonnes of CO2 per year
chain. Phase 3 explored the two chains in an ideal
FACILITATING RESOURCE AND MATERIAL STORAGE
STIMULATING HIGH-VALUE REUSE
STIMULATING MATERIAL PASSPORTS
Matching demand and supply of building materials and resources requires temporary storage. Two possible roles on which the municipality can focus are: (1) allocating locations for the physical storage of these materials, and (2) playing a facilitating role in drawing up the conditions that the materials have to meet in order to qualify for storage and reuse.
High-value reuse of building materials can be encouraged by the government in two ways in the current early stage of development: (1) contributing to the development of procurement guidelines and building codes with specific requirements for high-value reuse, and (2) being a launching customer for recycled and reused building materials.
A materials passport for buildings captures information on materials and processes used, and the possibilities for material reuse. The municipality can recommend or make mandatory a basic version of material passports for new construction projects and implement material passports for its own properties.
A follow-up analysis is needed to study changes in the construction material flows in the city both for large demolition projects and new construction. Complemented by available knowledge on zoning plans and a structural vision, such analysis can identify locations for the (temporary) storage of raw materials.
The municipality could develop criteria for building regulations, ensure compliance calls for an increase in commitment, and co-invest in new processing technologies through the AKEF or a Fund for Circular Development. The municipality’s precondition could be that the activities are based in Amsterdam and benefit the city.
Involvement of the municipality and city officials is required to determine how the materials passport for buildings can be embedded in policy. Input and information on facilities from the land registry are also required for the passport.
The municipality, the Port of Amsterdam, the Cirkel Stad collaborative partnership, “start-up in residence”, Westas partners and AEB.
Constructionand waste companies, such as BAM, Heijmans, AEB, Van Gansewinkel, Icova and Stonecycling, Circkelstad and the Dutch Green Building Council.
Construction-, wasteand ICT companies, such as BAM, Heijmans, AEB, Van Gansewinkel, IBM, Icova and Stonecycling, IBM and Delta Development Group.
- equivalent to 2.5% of the current annual CO2Results of the study show that Amsterdam has
emissions of the city of Amsterdam.
the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas
Dismantling and separation: efficient dismantling
roadmap and action agenda in the study present
emissions and material consumption while, at
The above impacts are based on four strategies
and separation of waste streams enables high-
a large number of short and long term actions that
the same time, realising economic growth and
that improve the circularity of the construction
value reuse. (3) High-value recycling: high value
can contribute to transforming the construction
sector: (1) Smart design: commit to smart design
recovery and reuse of materials and components.
chain and, thus, to the realisation of the impacts.
economic activity of the Amsterdam metropolitan
of buildings in order to make them more suitable
(4) Marketplace and resource bank: exchanging
The table on the right presents a brief overview of
region amounts to 106 billion euro annually, of
for repurposing and for the reuse of materials. (2)
the top 3 action points for this chain.
TITLE Organic residual streams chain
annual import of 3.9 million tonnes of biomass
High-value processing of organic residual streams
for the entire metropolitan region. The material
for the city of Amsterdam can, over a period of
savings consist mainly of materials that can be
five to seven years, lead to an added value of 150
replaced by the higher-value processed waste
million euro per year.
flows. For example, the production of high-quality
protein from organic waste can replace protein This future circular scenario is based on a variety
imports such as soy for animal feed, and the
of adopted measures, including source separation
production of bio-plastics could replace oil-based
of organic waste in all 430 thousand households
plastic production. As a result, the expected
in Amsterdam. Separate collection makes it
reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is in the
possible to direct the organic waste stream to
order of 600 thousand tonnes of CO2, nearly
new uses, such as the production of protein for
3% of the annual CO2-emissions of the city of
animal feed, biogas and building blocks for the
chemical sector, including the production of bioplastics. In addition, organic waste streams from
The above impacts are based on four strategies
the food processing industry in the port area
that can enable the higher-value recycling of
offer opportunities for higher quality processing,
organic residual streams: (1) Central hub for
contributing to additional value creation.
bio-refinery: a central hub for the valorisation industrial waste and waste streams from the
create an additional 1200 jobs in Amsterdam, on
industry. (2) Waste separation and return logistics:
top of the current total of 10 thousand jobs in the
smart waste separation and return logistics to
agriculture and food processing industry. Some
deploy the logistics hub of Amsterdam in a smart
of the jobs created will arise from the required
way and to increase the value of residual flows.
adjustments to the waste infrastructure, including
(3) Cascading of organic flows: to deploy organic
the installation of underground containers, pick
residual streams in the smartest way possible. (4)
up services for the separate waste streams and
Retrieving nutrients: retrieve essential nutrients
the more complex processing of waste flows.
to close the nutrient cycle.
In addition to direct employment effects in the agricultural and food industry, there are chances
The roadmap and action agenda in the study
for indirect increases in the number of jobs in
present a large number of short and long term
areas such as engineering and logistics.
actions that can contribute to transforming the chain and, thus, to the realisation of the impacts.
The material savings that can be achieved may
The table on the right presents a brief overview of
add up to nearly 900 thousand tonnes per year,
the top 3 action points for improved processing of
a significant amount compared to the current
organic residual streams.
In the long term, this scenario is estimated to
of organic residue streams from household and
VIRTUAL RESOURCE PLATFORM
CIRCULAR FREE ZONE BIO-REFINERY
The municipality can further develop and make publicly accessible digital (commercial) platforms for organic waste. Such a platform would offer a transparent overview of the supply, the demand and the use of organic residual streams in Amsterdam (and beyond). In addition, it can address the uncertainty in the market by improving the balance of supply and demand.
The municipality can initiate circular free zones. This could take away certain (legislative) barriers that currently hinder innovation, such as the ban on the use of digestate on agricultural land. This is currently blocking an important and essential part of the business case for anaerobic digestion as the current market value of digestate is low.
The municipality can introduce criteria in its purchasing policy to stimulate locally produced grass, wood (as in street furniture) and food (catering). The large buying power of the municipality itself can create an important and constant demand that allows local parties to further develop and professionalise.
The investment in setting up a platform consists largely of the development of the ITinfrastructure and the time it takes for the conceptual development of a platform. The municipality can be the initiator; however, there are many market participants, including large IT parties, which develop such platforms.
The designation of circular free zones can be an effective way to neutralise the barriers described in the local barrier overview. It is a measure that requires investment in establishing proper supervision and enforcement. The measures to be taken fall completely within the perspective of the Municipality Act.
The effects of these measures may soon be visible since there is a direct market demand for local products. This is expected to be quickly absorbed by the market.
AMS, Floow2, Oogstkaart, TNO, Municipality Wageningen UR
Orgaworld, SkyNRG, Schiphol Group, KLM, Port of Amsterdam and Sita
Municipality, Caterers and suppliers of facility management, Local producers, Exter, Kromkommer, Provalor, GRO, Holland, Taste Before You Waste, Instock, Food banks, Meerlanden and Fruityourworld
TITLE 1. INTRODUCTION: MUNICIPALITY OF AMSTERDAM AS A PIONEER
The urgency of the transition to a circular economy Our linear way of producing and consuming is under pressure. The world’s population will grow to nine billion people by 2050, and, as the city of Amsterdam urbanises and grows by 10 thousand inhabitants per year, the demand on resources rises. This demand, combined with the finite supply of resources, will lead to scarcity and strong price fluctuations. More and more companies are, therefore, opting for the transition to a circular economy, which offers opportunities for innovation and export of new production techniques and business models, while reducing dependency on imports. For citizens, a more circular city will improve their quality of life, create new jobs and form new business models for entrepreneurs. Amsterdam wants to be the front-runner in circularity, and the Amsterdam region is in a good starting position for transitioning to a circular economy. The region has many entrepreneurial and innovative businesses, citizens, start-ups, organisations and knowledge institutions that are already working within the framework of a circular economy. The city of Amsterdam works according to the following seven principles of the circular economy: 1. All materials enter into an infinite technical or biological cycle. 2. All energy comes from renewable sources. 3. Resources are used to generate (financial or other) value. 4. Modular and flexible design of products and production chains increase adaptability of systems. 5. New business models for production, distribution and consumption enable the shift from possession of goods to (use of) services. 6. Logistics systems shift to a more regionoriented service with reverse-logistics capabilities.
7. Human activities positively contribute to ecosystems, ecosystem services and the reconstruction of “natural capital”. Circular economy as a pillar for Amsterdam The municipality of Amsterdam has committed to the circular economy as an important pillar of its sustainability policy, as apparent in its sustainability agenda (Amsterdam, 2014a), adopted on 11 March 2015. Within the existing policy, there is already space to accelerate the transition, through the development of circular free zones, for example. This is a good starting position, as confirmed in the national Green Deal, ‘The Netherlands as circular hotspot’. Lately, the region has experimented with pilot programmes in the transition to a circular economy; however, the municipality wants to commit to a real transition in the coming period, and the efficient recovery of natural resources and materials, within the construction sector is an important area of focus. As the municipality would also like to stimulate economic activity, research and innovation, it is important to get a picture of the entire system, which is why Circle Economy, TNO and Fabric were hired to do a Circle Scan for the city. The changing role of Governments Circular business models are increasingly seen as promising by businesses (Accenture, 2014). As a result, the transition to a circular economy is mainly driven by companies at the moment. These frontrunners still experience many barriers (regulation, for example), which slow down the speed of the transition. Governments play a crucial role in facilitating and guiding the transition to a circular economy (EMF, 2015a). Especially at the city and regional levels, the circular economy is taking shape and groups of citizens and businesses are starting all kinds of circular initiatives (RLI,
2015). These developments show that a great deal of interest and commitment currently exists to capitalise on the opportunities offered by the circular economy. To scale up these initiatives support from the government is essential. The government of the future does not direct, but brings parties together. To play that role, the government ought to remove barriers resulting from existing policy and actively encourage and challenge the market. One can think of, for example, the development of inspiring goals for a circular city, such as adjusting the private purchase and tender conditions, stimulating innovative research and start-ups that contribute to circular solutions, and implementing financial incentives. This last point, for example, can be fulfilled by differentiating tax rates and investing in good infrastructure to increase exchange of resources. A close cooperation between the government and the market offers a great opportunity to accelerate the transition to a circular economy. Amsterdam Circle Scan: from vision to action This document describes the results of the ‘Amsterdam Circle Scan’ and analyses the opportunities and challenges of creating a circular city. The results contribute to the further development of the municipal ambitions and agenda on the theme of a circular economy. The roadmap outlines steps towards stimulating the circular economy in the city. To create a circular economy, we must first understand what is not circular in our current economy. This document provides insight into the commodity flows in the city and metropolitan region. It shows where the processing of resources adds value to the local economy and how they can be reused in a smart way while highlighting where resources are being wasted. The report focuses on two value chains with a significant impact, their contribution to the regional economy and their potential to be
more circular - Construction and Organic Residual Streams. For both value chains, we explored what a circular future may look like. To make the vision more concrete, four strategies were developed and translated into a specific roadmap for the city and region with concrete action points. The report concludes with recommendations and next steps. A key recommendation and follow-up step involves making circularity more measurable in order to monitor progress. The ‘circular indicators framework’ applied in this study offers a good starting point. Jump start: build on momentum The ambition to be a circular hotspot is widely supported in Amsterdam. Not only is the municipality progressive, but citizens and businesses are equally enthusiastic and energetic about the transition to a circular economy. The city is buzzing with circular initiatives, and this was once again made clear during conversations held in the region to gather input for the future visions and action points in this document. With the action points presented in this report, we want to contribute to and build on the growing momentum for the circular economy in this region. In the action agenda, we connected and built on, as much as possible, the many initiatives already underway. Internationally, Amsterdam is a pioneer and is being followed by other cities in Europe and beyond.
MAPPING OF MATERIAL FLOWS AND ADDED VALUE To get a better picture of how circular Amsterdam currently is, the main material and energy flows as well as employment in the economic sectors in the region were analysed. The analysis employed data from (regional and national) statistics and sources, and was supplemented by interviews. It provides insights into material flows in and around the city. Simultaneously, activities and places in the region were assessed for their ecological impact. In addition, the analysis provides insights on where and how value can be created in the region and where there are opportunities for job growth and economic development.
THE CITY CIRCLE SCAN METHOD The City Circle Scan is a method that gives direction to cities through the development of a roadmap and action agenda for the practical implementation of the circular economy in their city and region. The method consists of four phases.
EVALUATION AND SELECTION OF CHAINS In phase 2, a comprehensive analysis was conducted of the value chains that connect multiple sectors within Amsterdam. The results of phase 1 were the starting point of this analysis. Based on macro-economic statistics, we established in which chains the greatest circular impact can be achieved. The result is a list of chains that have been prioritised on the basis of the following indicators: ecological impact, economic importance, value preservation and transition potential. These indicators were also used in the Dutch national government program, â€˜Nederland Circulair!â€™.
VISIONING Then, in phase 3, we developed a future vision, exploring how the two chains can function in an ideal circular future. This future vision gives a view on how the chains (and their interactions with other chains) can be set up differently. For each of the two chains, we formulated four strategies for a circular economy. The future vision was tested in feedback sessions and in interviews with various experts and stakeholders in Amsterdam. The feedback was used to further refine the vision for the future.
PROJECT SELECTION AND FORMULATION OF ACTION POINTS In phase 4, an action agenda with a planning and implementation strategy for starting relevant circular projects was drawn up. All are projects in which governments, research institutes, companies, entrepreneurs and citizens work together to make the two chains circular. Time paths for the actions and policy interventions were formulated, indicating which stakeholders are essential for a successful transition. The actions have also been assessed on four main effects: (1) value creation, (2) CO2-reduction, (3) material savingsstraatmeubilair and (4) job growth.
Mobiele 3Dprint faciliteit
2. VISION OF A CIRCULAR CONSTRUCTION CHAIN IN AMSTERDAM To get a picture of how the construction chain in Amsterdam can make better, higher-value and longer lasting use of material flows, we explored a potential future of the construction industry in Amsterdam. This vision of the future was partly based on interviews with experts and stakeholders. Their feedback was used to further refine the vision of the future. The starting point of this exploration was to retain the highest possible value in the construction chain by means of circular solutions. Therefore, this chapter describes four strategies that can be followed. These strategies are then placed in the context of the region (by linking with local initiatives and a selection of innovative market parties). Furthermore, a link is made with trading opportunities for the municipality, areas where the market is active and ways that the government can facilitate this. The roadmap describes concrete action points for the municipality, links this to timelines, and highlights which parties can play a role in the implementation. In addition, the impacts of implementing the strategies are calculated for: (1) value creation, (2) CO2-reduction, (3) material savings and (4) job growth.
VISION OF A CIRCULAR CONSTRUCTION CHAIN
In an ideal circular construction chain, the
Buildings can be constructed in a modular
buildings are designed in such a way that
way. The flexibility of multifunctional buildings
materials will have the longest possible lifespan
ensures that buildings have a longer life span
through reuse or repurposing. The introduction
despite the varying demands of residents and
of a material passport is a concrete measure
users. This underlines the role of architects and
that can be of great help in stimulating reuse by
property developers in the design of buildings
increasing transparency to develop a business
that are suitable for re-development. Modular
case and enabling reallocation of materials.
construction can contribute to rapid and cost
Furthermore, chain cooperation and supply
effective adaptation of different building functions,
chain financing is especially important since it
reducing vacancy and optimising unused building
contributes to a longer term maintenance and
use that does justice to the useful life of buildings. As a result, the economic, environmental and
In a circular Amsterdam, more focus will fall
social performance improves.
on smarter demolition. During the demolition of buildings, re-usable products and materials
Integrated planning is essential for the realisation
are separated, while maintaining their physical
of a circular future. Construction and demolition of
characteristics and economic value. During the
buildings in Amsterdam should be coordinated so
separation, there is a special location (unused
that the construction materials from demolished
land close to construction sites, for example) for
buildings may be used again in new construction
storing materials that will be used directly in the
projects and renovation projects. That way, the use
construction of new buildings and renovation of
of new materials in new construction projects will
existing buildings. To support this, a materials
be reduced to a minimum. Bio-based construction
database is required, which is linked to an online
materials can also play a role. Locally produced
marketplace, where buyers can easily exchange
biomass, such as the production of elephant grass
these materials on the basis of quality and
around Schiphol Airport or on wastelands of the
port, can serve as part of this market. In addition, it is important that, next to local sources, national
The described vision is illustrated in a visual (see
opposite and enlarged on the next page) that
methods for sustainable bio-based materials are
depicts the flows in the city. In the next section,
used. New production methods, including the use
this vision is translated into strategies and action
of 3D printers, can realise the local production
items that use market, technical, technological
of buildings. This can also increase the demand
and administrative instruments to realise these
for bio-based plastic and, thus, stimulate the
circular opportunities in the construction chain.
production of bio-composites.
VISION OF A CIRCULAR CONSTRUCTION CHAIN
STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING A CIRCULAR CHAIN
Here, the impact will be realised over a period MILLION of five to seven years. Four indicators were used in determining impact: in millions of euro, (2) net0 job growth in FTE, €12(1) net added value100 x KTONS MILLION (3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions. These are further described below.
Mobile 3Dprint facility
(4) Marketplace and resource bank The exchange of resources between market players to enable the reuse of materials in new buildings.
The following section lists the four strategies translated into a concrete roadmap and action agenda. The action agenda further explains where the municipality can be of influence, what other market parties can be involved and in what timeframe the transitions can take place. The roadmap and action agenda are formulated on the basis of the previously described research and analysis, as well as interviews with stakeholders and experts.
VALUE JOB VALUE CREATION GROWTH CREATION NET ADDED VALUE IN EURO JOB MATERIAL VALUE The circular strategies directly enable a number of sectors €23 GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION MILLION €25 in Amsterdam to realise added value: more200 sales x and
(3) High-value recycling The high-value recovery and reuse of materials and components.
These circular strategies are explained on the basis of relevant existing activities that currently take place in Amsterdam. In addition, four strategies are displayed in a spatial view, similar to the spatial vision map. Even though the strategies are formulated separately, they are partially intertwined. Successful implementation of high-value reuse, for example, is dependent on efficient dismantling and separation techniques.
(1) Smart design Smart design of buildings so that they are better equipped when their purpose changes and so that materials can be reused. (2) Dismantling and separation Efficient dismantling and separation of waste streams to enable high-value reuse.
JOB VALUE JOB MATERIAL GROWTH VALUE CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION Explanation of the indicators The effects of the circular strategies on the environment JOB of 70 thousand MATERIAL VALUE CO 2 and the economy are calculated for the construction homes €23 in Amsterdam. 200 GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION CREATION MILLION 0x €25 200 x
From the vision described for the construction chain, we developed strategies and action items which enable the municipality to close the material cycles in the construction chain.
MATERIAL SAVINGS JOB2 CO REDUCTION GROWTH
REDUCTION 200 0x €..
KTONS 200 x KTONS
NET JOBS GROWTH IN FTE JOB VALUE JOB of an increase inMATERIAL GROWTH VALUE One of the social CREATION aspects circularity is VALUE GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION CREATION represented, among other things, by the realisation of jobs (FTE, Full Time Equivalent). Job growth is estimated €23 200 MILLION 0x €25 on the basis of the increase €25 of added value, of KTONS salaries in 200 x MILLION MILLION that sector and of the demand for low, medium and highly skilled workforces. Net jobs growth refers to job growth that results in a direct reduction of unemployment.
VALUE MATERIAL CREATION SAVINGS JOB2 CO REDUCTION GROWTH €30 500 MILLION KTONS 100 .. x 200 KTONS
JOB CO 2 GROWTH REDUCTION MATERIAL SAVINGS
MATERIAL SAVINGS VALUE JOB MATERIAL VALUE CREATION Use of materialsGROWTH is expressed in Domestic Material SAVINGS JOB CREATION VALUE CREATION Consumption (DMC)*, which, in addition GROWTH to the use also looks at materials €30 that 500 €23 of materials in an area, MILLION x MILLION are imported and 200 exported. Apart from COKTONS -missions €25 2 200 x MILLION (which already is explicitly included), DMC makes all environmental impact factors related to the circular projects quantifiable.
JOB CO 2 GROWTH REDUCTION MATERIAL SAVINGS
CO2-REDUCTION VALUE JOB GROWTH CREATION The most well-known activities is JOBimpact of economicMATERIAL VALUE CO2-emissions. The impact of the strategies on emissions GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION is expressed in Global (GWP), a €30 Warming Potential400 x MILLION that expresses the 0avoided €25 globally adopted measure 200coming x KTONS MILLION CO -emissions in the years, by an increase in 2 circularity, over a period of 100 years. To make the impact comparable with the annual emissions in the region, the choice was made to convert the indicators to annual CO2emissions.
75x 400 0
more profit. “Net” means that any decreases in added 0 x that the indirect effects 100 KTONS of all value are calculated and other sectors are taken into account.
JOB MATERIAL GROWTH VALUE SAVINGS CREATION
materials & components
Repurposing existing building
starters & students new facade
.. KTONS KTONS
Construction industry new interior old facade & interior Upcycling plant
25 .. 25
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION
Materials storage Deconstruction
JOB MATERIAL VALUE CO 2 GROWTH REDUCTION CREATION *Domestic Material Consumption, abbreviated as DMC, is aSAVINGS commonly used statistic that measures the total amount
of materials that are used directly by an economy. It measures the annual amount of materials that are extracted in VALUE CREATION the€30 geographical area, including all physical imports and minus25 all physical exports. 100 MILLION
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION
Modular and flexible design One of the aspects of smart design is a modular and flexible approach, whereby buildings can be updated to new users and other applications without sacrificing the current safety guidelines (Schoenborn, 2012). These designs lead to real estate that is more functional and more durable, thus, offering a better revenue model during the utilisation period. Examples of integral modular designs are Solid in Amsterdam by housing association Het Oostent, TempoHousing student accommodation by Keetwonen in Amsterdam and Park 20 | 20 by Delta Development Group in Hoofddorp. Flexibly designed houses are often more attractive to users because they can adapt to changing lifestyles. For example, Hubbell in Amsterdam builds modular spaces for individuals. Companies also prefer flexible offices because they do not need to move as their business situation changes. Start-ups and other fast-growing companies in particular can benefit from such offices. Rent or purchase of flexible office space can even result in cost savings (Cushman & Wakefield, 2013). 3D-printing New technologies, such as 3D
printing, can play a pioneering role in reducing cost and material use (EMF, 2015b). Such technologies lead to less waste and offer the possibility of new (e.g. bio-based) materials. The Amsterdam firm of architects, SO Architects, has, in collaboration with Hager and Henkel, started the project “3D Print Canal House” to investigate the possibilities of 3D printing for the construction industry. The research project looks at different building materials, such as recycled construction materials and stone waste (SO, 2015). Bio-based materials New, sustainable building materials with a biological origin can contribute to designing smarter buildings. More than 3 million tonnes of biomass and organic residual streams are released from agricultural activities in the Amsterdam metropolitan area, from which significant amounts of bio-composite materials can be produced. This would, at least, be sufficient to supply the materials needed for the planned housing expansion of 70 thousand homes (CBS, 2014). An interesting example of sustainable building materials is the work of Waternet, who, together with stakeholders such as NPSP and Cityblob, develop composite components. The municipality of Almere has already commenced projects involving bio-waste, which is used to generate bio-composite for the building sector. The 60 thousand m2 of buildings planned for the 2022 Floriade can be built as circularly as possible through the use of biomaterials. Another interesting example is the trajectory of Waternet in which waste streams such as water plants are converted into (building) products. Experimental construction areas Laws and regulations can be adjusted to make it possible to develop bio-based, modular buildings with flexible applications (Acceleratio, 2015). By modifying the building codes, developers get more room to experiment and more freedom to
Mobile 3Dprint facility
MODULE A SMART DESIGN
Mobile 3Dprint facility
Smart design of buildings is important in the transition to a regional construction circular chain (EMF, 2015a). Inhabitants move more frequently, so work areas should be regularly adapted to meet changing work patterns such as mobile working and flexible working hours. In addition, it has been found that companies tend to move to another building rather than renovating the current one. These factors lead to an increasing demand for flexible and customisable areas that meet the changing demands of tenants and owners. To illustrate the concept, we will focus on four categories of smart design, namely, modular and flexible design, 3D printing, bio-based materials and experimental construction areas.
salvaged plastics 300
Mobile 3Dprint facility
Visual display of smart design: Recovered bio-plastics are used by a 3D printer to produce new products such as JOBenable on-site production. MATERIAL VALUE street furniture. In addition, mobile stations The effects of circular strategies on the CO 2 GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION environmentCREATION and the economy have been calculated for the construction of 70 thousand new homes in Amsterdam. It is expected to take five to seven years to achieve circular design within the construction industry. The impact will also manifest itself Four indicators have been 0 used in determining impact: €25after a similar time-frame. 100 (1) net added 200in x FTE, (3) material savings KTONScalculated by value retention value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in domestic MILLION KTONS material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions.
put their clever designs into practice. The success JOB of Park 20 | VALUE 20 is partly due to theGROWTH municipality CREATION of Haarlemmermeer, which created flexible rules €23 for the area inMILLION which innovative building 200 xdesigns could be tested. In IJburg, plans are already in place to create an experimental area for new
developments. These free zones offer a great MATERIAL CO 2 opportunity for start-ups that work on innovative SAVINGS REDUCTION concepts, contributing to the vision of Amsterdam 500 hub. 75 as a start-up KTONS KTONS
DISMANTLING & SEPARATION By dismantling existing buildings in more efficient
2013). Such contracts allow the components
ways and by separating their waste streams,
and materials in the building to be used again.
materials and components of old buildings can
These components and materials can then be
be better reused. An important but often ignored
sold to compensate for the demolition costs.
phase in the life cycle of a building is its end-of-life
In Amsterdam, there are companies already
(Acceleratio, 2015). These days, a maintenance
specialising in decommissioning- and demolition
clause is sometimes included in contracts for
methods. Examples of these companies are
real estate development; however, this almost
VSM demolition works, Demolition Company
Concurrant, Demolition Support Netherlands,
destruction currently seems the cheapest option
Orange BV and Bentvelzen Jacobs.
with a cost of only € 20 to € 30 per square metre (Circle Economy, 2015). By handling demolition of
Waste separation By separating construction and
buildings in a smarter way, high-quality materials
demolition waste, materials can be retrieved in a
can be separated to avoid them from being
high-value manner without cross-contamination.
contaminated by other resources. From a circular
approach it, is necessary to take decommissioning
combine individual and central sorting methods,
into account early on in the design of buildings.
can lead to better business cases. Companies
Efficient separation of the waste streams can
like Icova and Waltec BV offer processes and
facilitate high-value recycling and reuse of these
materials. This is especially the case in small-scale
demolition waste. New technologies, such as
construction projects such as renovations where
the Smart breaker of SmartCrusher BV, make it
little attention is spent on this due to financial un-
possible to separate concrete in sand, gravel and
viability. However, by dismantling smarter on a
cement. As a result, the value of the individual
regional scale, and by separating materials and
materials increases due to higher value recycling
components in a better way, more mono-streams
reuse worthwhile. Decommissioning In the circular construction sector, the entire lifespan of a building is taken
MODULE A SMART DESIGN
VALUE Reuse CREATION
€12 Storage MILLION
of materials are made available, which makes
into account through close cooperation. The costs
materials & components
and benefits of a longer life span are divided in
a fair way among the cooperating partners. The cost and time for each partner are monitored during all DBFMO-D (design, build, finance, maintain, operate and demolish) phases in which clauses for not only design, building, financing, maintenance and use of buildings are contained, but also demolition (Netherlands Court of audit,
Visual representation of dismantling and separation: Buildings are separated in a smart and efficient way so that high-value resources are recovered and saved. In addition, components can be reused. The effects of circular strategies on the environment and the economy have been calculated for the construction of 70 thousand new JOB MATERIAL VALUE CO 2 homes in Amsterdam. five to seven years to achieve circular dismantling within GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION the construction CREATIONIt is expected to take industry. Four indicators have been used to determine impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction 500 75 in CO -emission.€23 200 x KTONS 2
street furniture VALUE CREATION
salvaged plastics JOB GROWTH
HIGH-VALUE RECYCLING AND REUSE The construction chain is responsible for 40% of
thousand tonnes worth of building materials
the total waste stream of Amsterdam (CBS, 2014).
in which eight kilotons of CO2 are permanently
Although more than 90% is recycled, the vast
stored (AEB, 2015).
Repurposing existing building
majority of these materials are used as gravel for Retrieving materials from street furniture and
2014) leaving a chance for higher-value reuse
paving materials The city of Amsterdam aims to
options. Office spaces also offer opportunities
retrieve more materials from street furniture by
from a circular perspective. At the moment, about
introducing certain procurement criteria (such
one-fifth of the office spaces in Amsterdam are
as in the project ‘’The Street of the Future’’ in
vacant, which is inefficient when you look at the
Amsterdam). Struyk Verwo recycles old concrete
(financial) resources and raw materials used (DTZ,
pavements into new products that consist of 70%
2015). At the same time, the buildings present
recycled or reused concrete (Struyk Verwo, 2015).
considerable financial potential. The challenge is
Such technologies can bring companies together,
to take advantage of the opportunities for high-
enabling them to experiment and to extend their
value reuse of components and materials in
knowledge. Almere is working on the construction
buildings and the redevelopment of the buildings
of a plant meant to recycle building materials in a
themselves in Amsterdam.
Better reuse Building- and waste materials can
Repurposing existing buildings Excessive and
be reworked into new products. In Amsterdam,
vacant buildings in Amsterdam have a large share
a special installation can be built that enables
in the material and energy costs in the region. It is
high-value recycling of building materials. This
recommended that these buildings are optimised
installation allows different companies to process
and are given a new purpose. Major renovation
and recycle varying streams of construction waste.
A number of companies, such as Stonecycling,
that high-value renovation of existing housing
who work together with construction waste
can form a solid business case. Expansion and
companies to recycle stone and ceramic waste to
renovation projects lead to a significant energy
bricks, have already settled in Amsterdam.
consumption reduction during the remaining
example is AEB Amsterdam. They use the inert
MODULE A SMART DESIGN
are also attractive for the inhabitants due to an
Constructio industry new interior VALUE CREATION
old facade & interior
lifespan. Redevelopment projects in Amsterdam Demo
starters & students
roads, a low-value application (Circle Economy,
Upcycling plant VALUE CREATION
increase in housing possibilities.
group-ash that is left behind when burning residual waste to produce building materials. Next year, a demo-scale pilot will start in which clean building materials will be created through a process in which CO2 is permanently captured. Currently, this fraction is down cycled for use in road construction, but, in the future, that material can be recycled into building material. The pilot
Visual representation of high-value recycling: Repurposing existing buildings for new applications. In addition, components (such as interior) are retrieved so that they can be reused by an upcycling plant. The effects of circular strategies on theVALUE environment and the economy for the construction of 70.000 new homes in JOB have been calculated MATERIAL CO 2 GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION Amsterdam. ItCREATION is expected to take five to seven years to achieve high-value recycling within the construction industry. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) Net added value in millions of euros (2) Net job growth in FTE (3) Material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) Reduction in CO20 €25 25 emissions. MILLION
presents an opportunity to create a total of 300
street furniture 26
MARKETPLACE AND RESOURCE BANK Logistics for collection An online marketplace alone does not necessarily make the collection and transportation of construction- and demolition waste easier or cheaper as the material is very diverse and voluminous. Therefore, there is a need for an advanced collection system and for intelligent logistics, which would make the exchange of building materials easier. Because many developing locations are located near waterways, the port of Amsterdam can be a central point in that logistical system. Shipping companies could play an important role in transport. Many logistics companies such as DHL and PostNL have considered offering reverse logistics for a wide range of material flows. In reverse logistics, an
a supporting logistics system that facilitates the exchange of building materials between demolition, construction and recycling companies in Amsterdam. In addition, a physical location is required where these materials can be stored temporarily, a so called ‘resource bank’.
empty truck would be used for retrieving waste after it has delivered its products.
Online Marketplace Via an online marketplace, supply and demand of building materials for local construction projects can be aligned (by means of GIS data) (Zhu, 2014). Besides information on the building, an information management system, building passports, and information on the quality and quantity of materials used in a specific building can be documented and made accessible. This provides opportunities for trading and the exchange of building materials between parties, and encourages reuse and high-value recycling. Enviromate has developed an online marketplace where construction companies can exchange and trade waste materials of construction projects in the United Kingdom. Such a system can also be used in Amsterdam. For new buildings in Park 20|20, material passports are already being developed. These can also be applied for buildings in the rest of the region.
Commodity bank Currently, there are challenges in the temporary storage of construction waste at companies, mainly because this requires space and, thus, investment. A solution could be to arrange a centrally located physical storage for materials (commodity bank) - materials that are then traded in the online commodity market place. Vacant plots around Amsterdam, such as in the port and in Westpoort, Zaanstad and Almere, are ideal locations for the temporary storage of construction waste before it is traded through the online marketplace. Designers and architects are invited to view a catalogue with materials to see if they can come up with new applications for these materials. Several companies, such as Brink Industrial, Repurpose, Turntoo and Icova, are working on their own resources banks.
MODULE A SMART DESIGN
Each building can be seen as a material bank full of valuable materials. A building could be seen as a modern take on traditional mines (United Nations University, 2014). However, after the dismantling, separation and recycling of building materials, a gap between the demand and supply of these resources remains. Demolition and decommissioning projects provide opportunities for processing and direct reuse of recovered materials in nearby construction projects. However, it is often unclear which materials are present in existing or decommissioned buildings and of what quality they are. High-value reuse is, therefore, a major challenge. There is a need for a comprehensive online marketplace and
Open platform JOB GROWTH
Materials database MATERIAL SAVINGS
JOB MATERIAL VALUE CO 2 GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION CREATION Visual representation of market place and commodity bank: Raw materials are traded between disassembly of old buildings and new construction by means of a physical repository and online marketplace. The effects of circular 25 for the construction 100 €30 strategies on the environment and the economy have been calculated of 70 thousand new 400 x KTONS MILLION KTONS homes in Amsterdam. It is expected to take five to seven years to achieve a marketplace and resource bank within the construction industry. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions.
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION
street furniture 28
salvaged plastics VALUE CREATION
SPATIAL VISION The spatial vision map indicates how circular strategies for the building chain in Amsterdam can be applied and how they are interlinked in a spatial context. The following strategies are described: (1) smart design, (2) dismantling and separation, (3) high-value reuse and (4) market
place and commodity bank.
Material showroom 3D-printed street furniture
Showcase Resource bank
Multiple functions Dismantle
Sort waste streams
Reuse of material streams
gy te ra
rs ie rr Ba
Many of the ways to achieve a circular economy may already be profitable but often barriers present themselves when up-scaling a solution. Policy can play an important role in removing these barriers. We distinguish four types of barriers:
secondary resource flows. The lack of externality
Laws and regulations Existing policy often leads to unforeseen consequences of changing market conditions. An example of this is the Environmental Management Act (art. 1.1), which describes what is classified by law as waste and what is not (Government, 2015).
Technology Technological development has two important challenges: the up-scaling of a small pilot to commercial scale, and the interdependency and complexity of technologies that require simultaneous development.
Financing is difficult and it can be more expensive to implement new systems or sustainable materials. This approach requires a shift from cost-oriented thinking to a life-cycle approach (Buildings, 2009)
These barriers have important implications for the extent to which some of the strategies can be implemented successfully, especially in the
Green building materials are currently seen as a niche product. This is because of a lack of economies of scale: there is not yet enough demand for the technologies, which is necessary in order to be able to reduce the cost of production (Remodelling, 2008).
Culture The circular economy requires close cooperation between sectors and chains. A lack of inter-sector networks and a conservative culture can be obstacles to quickly forming successful cooperations. Vested interests in sectors can add to this barrier. Market The existence of â€˜split incentivesâ€™ is a barrier; the investments must be done by one stakeholder in the chain while the income is earned by another. Another market-related barrier is knowledge asymmetry, for example, knowledge with regards to the availability and quality of
pricing, including that of CO2, can also have a significant effect on the market. The last barrier that we want to mention in this category is the limited access to financing for circular initiatives.
short term. In some instances, governments can overcome these barriers or the market may break down barriers; but, in many cases, the solution requires cooperation, experimentation and iteration. Below, an impact assessment per barrier is made for each of the four circular strategies. The assessment of the severity of the barrier comes from insights obtained from the interviews and is further based on estimates of the research team. For the top 3 proposed actions, the roadmap will address options to overcome these barriers.
There are limited opportunities in making 3D-printed buildings or components comply with current building regulations. The Building Act contains no guidelines enforcing cooperation between developers and the city, its current residents and future residents in developing a flexible design plan (National Government, 2011). Modular homes are, in most cases, only acceptable for social housing. These are difficult to finance because the income of the tenant is modest compared to that of tenants of more expensive types of housing (Tempohousing, 2015).
The speed with which technological innovation in the construction sector takes place - especially the development and application of new materials - is high (Sinopoli, 2010). 3D printing is such a recent innovation: its use is still very limited in the construction sector. The challenge for upscaling is mainly to achieve economies of scale.
The building/construction industry is a conservative sector that has not embraced new methods and smart design for buildings have not yet (Barkkume, 2008). Costs for dismantling and collection can be 2.5 to 3 times higher than demolition costs. The costs for dismantling and collection form a barrier when the added value of the recovered building materials is not yet fully understood (Chini, 2002). Fast and economical cost effective techniques are essential to accept dismantling and collection as the default application (Big House, 2014). There is a lack of information, experience and resources to design for both decommissioning and collection. Many buildings are designed for a lifespan of several decades. There is too little account of what happens with the building after this time. High taxation on labour and low tax on resources discourages using recycled resources. Besides, labour-intensive processing methods are relatively expensive (national Government, 2011).
LAWS & REGULATION
The Building Act contains no reuse and high-value recycling of building materials over downcycling or burning (National Government, 2011). Recovery of valuable materials from buildings is often not economically viable because conventional building methods often mix materials making recovery difficult or impossible. (Buildings, 2009).
Building constructions often have unique dimensions and are build for specific purposes, making it difficult to use them for other purposes (Phys, 2015).
DISMANTLING & SEPARATION HIGH-VALUE REUSE
In some cases, reconstruction and reuse of a building is more expensive and the impact on nature is bigger than demolishing it and building anew (Tempohousing, 2015).
MARKETPLACE & RESOURCE BANK
There is no transparency and alignment in the market on the supply and demand of (regained) building materials, resulting in high transaction costs. It is essential that all information in the field of building production and the assembly process remains available (National Government, 2011). There is a lack of market for reclaimed building materials (Remodeling, 2008).
This table indicates how high the barrier to a circular economy is for each of the strategies. (Source: Insights from interviews, literature ((Acceleratio, 2015; EMF, 2015) and assessment of the research team.)
Overview of barriers in the construction sector, based on research, literature, interviews and insights from the research team.
ACTION POINTS To create a circular construction chain, the
lifespan of buildings, and make the end-of-life
4. Aim for high-value reuse in waste processing
following key interventions have been formulated
value as large as possible through material and
processing and the reverse logistics of waste
contracts Waste disposal contracts can specify
for the municipality of Amsterdam. The actions
component recovery. It should take into account
The municipality can encourage local companies
the method of processing in order to stimulate
stem from the vision and the underlying strategies
the lowest impact on the environment in the long
to be more self-steering with regards to waste
high-value processing and to create market
and are linked to the previously described barriers.
term. An example of a similar set of instruments
collection so that retailers can take the initiative to
is the CO2-performance ladder (SKAO, 2015).
use their waste streams. A materials map where
The municipality can start with the circular
local demand and supply for waste streams can
MARKET PLACE AND RESOURCE BANK
1: Assigning pilot projects in new areas New
procurement of new soils and road- and water
be found could stimulate this further. This way,
1: Initiating a ‘materials showroom’ for
districts are ideally suited for testing new concepts
the municipality is also partially relieved of its own
construction waste A large proportion of
processing of waste.
construction projects and initiatives for urban
such as smart design. The new developments
in Centrumeiland in IJburg offer a chance to
4. Challenge startups to develop solutions for
test alternative building codes. The municipality
smart design The city of Amsterdam can build
HIGH-VALUE RECYCLING AND REUSE
has already prepared an exploratory document
on the newly launched ‘Startup in residence’
entitled ‘Dromen over Centrumeiland’ (City of
programme where startups and companies seek
Amsterdam, 2014b). These include DIY plots
development are located near water, and the port Adjust
It is therefore conceivable that undeveloped areas
of the port can be used for (temporary) storage of
solutions to local problems (SIR, 2015). Here, a
could assign areas like the ArenaPoort and
construction waste. The municipality could work
(where residents have more control over the
possible solution could be to use local recycled or
Oosterdokseiland in Amsterdam with multiple
together with stakeholders to make temporary
construction of their house) for which the new
written off materials in the city through the use of
permissions. This provides flexibility for buildings
storage of construction waste possible. The
building codes are tested. In allocating land, the
smart design. Knowledge from AEB may be used
to be given a new destination at the end of their
municipality can also stimulate innovation in the
municipality may make requirements regarding
in the waste processing and design implications.
logistics and marketing of secondary materials by
of Amsterdam aims to become a hub for circularity.
the degree of circularity of the new building.
writing out innovation contests or projects such
A specific ceiling height could, for example, be
DISMANTLING AND SEPARATION
recorded as a criterion, making repurposing
possible redevelopment projects for existing
separation at demolition projects from the
buildings The municipality can ask market
2. Facilitate the exchange and use of high-
second half of 2015 to 2016, the Bijlmerbajes in
participants to redesign existing buildings (in
value building materials The municipality can
2. Land allocation can be scored to the degree
Amsterdam has been tendered by the national
creative ways) through innovation projects. This
facilitate the exchange of building materials
of circularity High-value recycled products, parts
government. The municipality can use this
could start with empty school buildings or other
between construction companies and waste
and materials hereby form an important selection
demolition project as a pilot for the separate
buildings that the city administers. To speed up
companies by taking the initiative for setting up
criterion. Rebates on land prices can be given to
collection, reuse and high-value recycling of
this process, the municipality can create guidelines
an online marketplace.
projects that have a maximum score on circularity.
construction waste. Selection criteria can be
that encourage companies to renovate or find a
This may include the use of bio-based insulation
drawn up to encourage local use of construction
new purpose for similar or new applications. For
3. Encourage companies to use a material
materials, 3D printers applied in construction,
and demolition waste. This way, dismantling
example, renovation is already being applied to
and modular and flexible design for foundations
is stimulated and more value is created from
convert buildings to energy neutral conditions
construction companies in future construction
and construction elements.
construction and demolition waste.
and development projects to register and
2. Innovation projects offer renovation and criteria
as “startup in residence”.
report material volumes and types. This could 3. Tender criteria for smart design principles
2. Initiate dialogue for better dismantling
3. Establishing guidelines and goals for high-
be incentivised by providing discounts on plots
in soil, road- and water construction Based on
and waste separation in demolition projects
value recycling of construction waste To
once the stakeholder decides to adopt a material
the results of pilot projects with smart design, in
The municipality can enter into dialogue with
ensure that construction waste is being reused in
passport. Then, at the end of the useful life of a
IJburg, for example, and based on feedback from
stakeholders on future demolition projects to
a high-value manner, the municipality can issue
project, the information in the passport can be
local stakeholders, the municipality can define
discuss, for example, the removal of buildings in
guidelines and targets with respect to the amount
made available before demolition. This provides
tender criteria, construction requirements and
stages to maximise the recovery of materials and
of recycled or reused building materials used in
waste management companies with relevant
rules for future developments in Amsterdam.
new construction projects.
information regarding which materials will be
The goal here is to request the longest possible
ACTION POINTS TOP 3 Three action points, as shown in the table, have been selected from the interviews and discussions with
locations for temporary storage of materials (action 1). The municipality can act as a launching customer
stakeholders. In selecting these three action points, four major effects have been taken into account: (1)
via its purchasing policy, for example, when developing or renovating the municipal building portfolio
value creation, (2) CO2-reduction, (3) material savings and (4) job growth. The barriers that have been
(action 2). Lastly, the municipality can contribute to the development of a building passport and apply it
identified for the construction chain and the role that the municipality can fulfil has also been taken into
to its own portfolio (action point 3).
account. The municipality can play an important role in directing the land allocation and the definition of
INVESTMENTS AND RESULTS
CONNECTION FOR PROJECTS
FACILITATING RESOURCE AND MATERIAL STORAGE
STIMULATING HIGH-VALUE REUSE BY BEING A LAUNCHING CUSTOMER AND CONTRIBUTING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCUREMENT GUIDELINES.
BOOSTING MATERIAL PASSPORTS AND CONTRIBUTING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES.
Matching demand to the supply of building materials and resources requires temporary storage, especially since the availability of large volumes of materials often does not synchronise with demand. A possible role for the government could be twofold. On the one hand, there is a need for physical storage facilities, for which the municipality can play a role in allocating locations. Given the expected volumes, locations near waterways are ideal for replacing road transport with water transport. On the other hand, the government can play a facilitating role in drawing up conditions that materials will need to meet in order to qualify for storage and reuse.
In the early stages of development, high-value reuse of building materials can be encouraged by the government in two ways. The government can contribute to the development of procurement guidelines and building codes in which specific requirements have been formulated aimed at high-value reuse. Also, the government can play a role as launching customer for the use of recycled materials. Every year, 1.5 billion is tendered by the municipality for roads, waterways and construction. In addition to contributing to physical locations for the storage of resources, an online platform for the trading of building materials to match supply and demand is under development.
A materials passport for buildings captures information on materials used, processes and possibilities for reuse. The Government can make sure a (minimal version of a) material passport is recommended or made mandatory for new construction projects. Also, the municipality could implement material passports for its own property portfolio. Besides this, the municipality can contribute to the development of guidelines for passports. An example of this could be exploring how the use of passports can be made mandatory in real estate development and the issue of plots of land.
Initiatives to establish physical resources banks have sprouted up throughout the country. Individual companies are now starting to set up their own resources banks in collaboration with up- and downstream companies. Amsterdam can facilitate innovation by creating a material repository that is backed by a wide range of stakeholders. This ambition’s logistical challenges align with the initiative to the give the Westas an important logistical role in the circular economy. (ALB, 2015)
The municipality’s material department plays an important role, and parties that innovate by reclaiming high-quality materials, such as Stonecycling, are also key players. Struyk, for example, uses end-of-life concrete pavement. The municipality can bring these like-minded parties together and encourage them to experiment in extending their technologies. Furthermore, this links to CO Green in Slotervaart, an ongoing project where 95% of high-quality material is reused locally after demolition. In addition, it is connected to Cirkel Stad Amsterdam where local projects in the field of circular construction, renovation and demolition are realised and, where possible, additional jobs are created (Cirkel Stad, 2015).
Some construction companies in The Netherlands are currently experimenting with material passports. In the vicinity of Amsterdam, Park 20/20, realised by Delta Development, Reggeborgh and VolkerWessels, is a great example. In addition, these principles are most likely implemented in the Buiksloterham area as well.
A follow-up analysis is needed to study changes in the construction material flows in the city, both for large demolition projects and new construction. Complemented by city planning expertise, this analysis forms the input required for assigning locations for the (temporary) storage of resources. The actual operation and organisation of these sites can be organised by both market participants and the municipality - or through public-private partnerships. Depending on the direction taken, the precise role of the municipality is to be determined.
Developing criteria for building regulations and ensuring compliance calls for an increase in commitment. The municipality could possibly co-invest in new processing technologies via the AKEF or a circular development fund. A possible condition for this contribution could be that the activities are based in the city of Amsterdam so that any employment gains are realised in the city.
Involvement from the municipality and city officials is required to determine how the materials passport for buildings can be embedded in policy. Services like those offered by the Kadaster are needed in registering passports. The introduction of the passport also requires investment into the expansion of registration systems.
The municipality, the Port of Amsterdam, the Cirkel Stad collaborative partnership, “start-up in residence”, Westas partners and AEB.
Construction and waste companies like BAM, Heijmans, AEB, Van Gansewinkel, Icova en Stonecycling, Cirkelstad and Dutch Green Building Councel.
Construction, waste and ICT companies like BAM, Heijmans, AEB, Van Gansewinkel, Icova en Stonecycling, IBM and Delta Development Group.
ROADMAP CONSTRUCTION SHORT TERM (1YEAR)
LONG TERM (20+YEARS)
1. FACILITATION RESOURCE AND MATERIALS STORAGE 2. STIMULATING HIGH-VALUE REUSE BY BEING A LAUNCHING CUSTOMER 3. STIMULATING MATERIAL PASSPORTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROCUREMENT GUIDELINES
ASSIGNING PILOT PROJECTS IN NEW AREAS
LAND ALLOCATION CAN BE SCORED TO THE DEGREE OF CIRCULARITY TENDER CRITERIA FOR SMART DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN SOIL, ROAD- AND WATER CONSTRUCTION CHALLENGE STARTUPS TO DEVELOP SOLUTIONS FOR SMART DESIGN
DISMANT LING AND SEPARATION
ESTABLISHING PROCUREMENT CRITERIA OF SEPARATION AT DEMOLITION PROJECTS INITIATE DIALOGUE FOR BETTER DISMANTLING AND WASTE SEPARATION IN DEMOLITION PROJECTS ENCOURAGE LOCAL COMPANIES IN THE PROCESSING AND THE REVERSE LOGISTICS OF WASTE
HIGH VALUE REUSE
ADJUST ZONING PLANS TO ALLOW MULTIFUNCTIONAL BUILDINGS INNOVATION PROJECTS OFFER RENOVATION AND POSSIBLE REDEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS ESTABLISHING GUIDELINES AND GOALS FOR HIGH-VALUE RECYCLING OF CONSTRUCTION WASTE AIM FOR HIGH-VALUE REUSE IN WASTE PROCESSING CONTRACTS
MARKET PLACE AND RESOURCE BANK
INITIATING A ‘MATERIALS SHOWROOM’ FOR CONSTRUCTION WASTE FACILITATE THE EXCHANGE AND THE USE OF HIGH-VALUE BUILDING MATERIALS ENCOURAGE COMPANIES TO USE A MATERIAL PASSPORT
The arrows indicate when a certain action can be applied and when impact is expected. This is dependent on many aspects such as speed of market implementation and market scalability.
ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF A CIRCULAR CONSTRUCTION CHAIN COMPARED TO A LINEAR SCENARIO IN AMSTERDAM JOB GROWTH
The total economic activity of the Amsterdam
in productivity growth, representing a value of 85
Improving VALUE the reuse of materials JOB leads to a
MATERIAL can be characterised as significant. expected COThe 2
metropolitan region amounts to 106 billion euro €25 200 x MILLION annually, of which 47 billion is accounted for by
million euro per year 0 for the city of Amsterdam. 25 KTONS KTONS Compared to the 2.8% decline over 2005-2012, this
saving of 500 thousand tonnes of materials
reduction in greenhouse gas emissions rounds
the city of Amsterdam (2013) (CBS, 2015)* and 1.7
is highly significant. This added value, however,
€150 required for the 70 thousand new houses to 1200 x MILLION be built in Amsterdam alone. Set against the
900a million tonnes of CO off to half , equivalent to 600 2 KTONS
billion euro by the construction industry per year.
cannot be realised overnight. Depending on the
current annual import of 1.5 million tonnes of
Amsterdam has plans to realise 70 thousand
diligence with which companies adopt circular
biomass for the entire metropolitan region, this
new homes by 2040 (Amsterdam, 2011). Part
methods and depending on the speed with which
2,5% of the annual CO2-emissions of the city of
JOB MATERIAL of this new construction stimulating policy is implemented, the economic VALUE is replacing existing CO 2 GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION CREATION
homes that have been demolished and another
decline could be redirected to a 3% growth per
part is accommodating the growth of the city. A €30 400 x MILLION macro-economic analysis has been carried out
year over a period This 25of five to seven years. 100 KTONS KTONS economic growth is realised for the most part by
based on the circular strategies that can reshape
greater value retention due to material reuse and
Amsterdam’s construction activities. The results
provide insight into the effects of implementing these
Productivity growth means increased employment MODULE B
employment, material savings and reduction in
SEPARATIONdemand AND COLLECTION opportunities; for example, increased
greenhouse gas emissions.
for targeted demolition activities requires more
This ‘circular scenario’ can be compared to linear growth paths in Amsterdam and takes both the direct and indirect effects of circular
manpower. On top of this, VALUEreturn logistics CREATION
will become more complex. From a logistical standpoint, it is not the disposal €1,7of just a container MILLION
of demolition waste but the transport of different
strategies into account. Efficiency gains from
waste fractions to various processing locations and
high-value reuse in cement production could,
then back to new construction after processing. A
for example, lead to cost savings that, in turn,
total of about 700 additional jobs can be realised
lead to an increase in spending on machines for
in the city - a structural expansion MATERIAL of the number
which cement is an input. The net effect of the
of jobs. For the most part, these are jobs for
efficiency improvement can, therefore, be lower
low- to medium skilled personnel. Set against
than the direct effect. In contrast to other sectors,
the current 75 thousand jobs in the Amsterdam
productivity in Amsterdam’s construction industry
building sector, the approximately 1% gain would
declined 2.8% over the 2005 to 2012 period.
be a significant contribution, resulting in a 10% drop in unemployment in the construction sector
A circular building chain can lead to a 3% increase
(averaging 8.1% in Amsterdam).
In this study, the value creation of circular initiatives is compared to the total added value at basic prices, NOT to the Gross Regional Product. In this chapter, a TNO-analysis is applied, and the assumptions used stem from the following sources: (2014) Macro-level indicators to monitor the environmental impact of innovation. EMInInn (Environmental Macro-indicators of Innovation) THEME [ENV. 2011.3.1.9-3], FP7 project for the EU; O. Ivanova, M. Chahim. (2015) CBS.
SMART €85 DESIGN MILLION
JOB GROWTH 714 x
DISMANTLING AND SEPARATION CO2
MARKETPLACE AND RESOURCE BANK TOTAL VALUE
100% = €85 million
The potential economic and environmental impact of a circular construction chain compared to a linear scenario is calculated for Amsterdam. The impact will be realised over a period of five to seven years. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions. The values for the four indicators are shown in the four circles. The bar chart shows the distribution of added value.
SCALABILITY MAP The scalability map shows locations where opportunities exist to apply the four circular construction strategies for the construction chain. The strategies are dismantling and separation, high-value reuse, smart design, and the creation of a marketplace and resource depots. The red areas indicate future real estate projects. Blue represents areas where circular strategies on existing buildings can be applied. The white circles represent locations currently not in use, which can be considered as possible locations for the storage of materials or for developing new circular building projects.
3. VISION OF HIGH-VALUE RECYCLING OF ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS IN AMSTERDAM In order to achieve high-value recycling of organic residual streams in Amsterdam, we established a circular vision. The vision and roadmap were supplemented and refined based on conversations with experts and stakeholders. The starting point for the analysis was the realisation that there are many initiatives in the city and in the region that are focused on higher value processing of organic streams. At the same time, there is an opportunity to develop a strong cluster that focuses on further value retention and optimised cascading of organic residual streams in Amsterdam and the surrounding region. This chapter describes four strategies that are tailored to the region and link with local initiatives and innovative market parties. Furthermore, the chapter considers trading opportunities for the municipality, areas where the market is active and the role of the government is that of a facilitator. The roadmap describes concrete action points for the municipality to link to time lines, and highlights which parties can play a role in the implementation. The impacts of implementing the strategies are calculated for (1) value creation, (2) CO2-reduction, (3) material savings and (4) job growth.
VISION OF ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS
In the ideal circular future of organic residual
smarter systems that provide information about
streams in Amsterdam, organic flows such
the quality and shelf-life trajectories of their food
as food and water of the highest quality are
supply, allowing them to optimise their sales
delivered to consumers. Organic residues are
before the expiry date of their food and before it
recovered in a high-value manner and reused in
needs to be discarded.
innovative applications. Core to this circular vision is integrated food production, food processing
Food that can still be used but needs to be
and biological processes, where nutrients and
discarded due to its shape for marketing or other
water flows are efficiently directed and residual
reasons can be offered on a virtual marketplace
flows are valorised. This leads to a more varied
where food producers, retailers and restaurants
chain for organic residual streams that requires
can buy and sell â€˜food wasteâ€™. This enables a
less energy, nutrients, water and resources and
growth of innovative companies that can take
achieves significant economic, environmental and
advantage of this food waste stream.
social benefits. In a circular future, Amsterdam becomes a bio-
In a circular future, consumers have easy access
refinery hub, processing organic residual streams
to local food sources. Local, cooperative farms
that can no longer be reused in a high-value
and breeders in the vicinity of cities will ensure
manner. Separation and processing of mixed
the direct supply of fresh seasonal produce to
and homogeneous waste streams by producers,
consumers. The food chain will, therefore, be
consumers and retailers offers opportunities to
shorter, with more interaction between local
recover important nutrients that can be used in
growers and citizens resulting in a greater sense
the agricultural sector. Processing these streams
of community. By using underutilised city, roof
also provides opportunities for new packaging
and community spaces in a smart way for urban
solutions, biochemicals, biofuels and biogas
agriculture and city gardens, consumers get much
products, which can either be exported or used
easier and closer access to fresh food.
Innovative technologies for the distribution and
The described vision is illustrated in a visual
storage of food also offer better opportunities
for documentation and management of food
on the next page) that depicts the chain and
products. Smart logistic solutions will continuously
stakeholders in the city. In the next section, the
monitor food quality and ensure that food
vision is translated into strategies and action
is transported within the correct time frame
items that use market, technical, technological
from producers to retailers and restaurants. At
and administrative instruments to realise circular
the same time, retailers and restaurants have
opportunities in the chain.
VISION OF ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS
STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS
MODULE A SMART DESIGN
CREATION Explanation of the indicators The effects of circular environment and the GROWTH JOB MATERIAL VALUEstrategies on the
GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION JOB MATERIAL VALUE €23 COx 2 200 MILLION GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION 0 be realised over a period of five to seven years. Four used in determining REDUCTION €25indicators have been 200 x
economy are calculated for the organic residual flow chain in Amsterdam. Here, the impact will
of organic residual streams, we developed
From the described vision for high-value recycling
impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, 0(3) material savings €12 100 x KTONS MILLION calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2emissions.
strategies and action items, such as land allocation Biohub refinery
organic residual streams chain. The strategies
(1) Central bio-refinery hub
food products Retail
(2) Waste separation and return logistics
(3) Cascading of organic flows (4) Recovering nutrients
These circular strategies are explained on the basis of relevant existing activities that currently
take place in the city and region. In addition, the
four strategies are displayed in a spatial view, groceries
similar to the spatial vision map. Even though the distinguish action points that can accelerate the each other and should, therefore, be considered
Smart street containers
Pick-up and delivery service
as a total package.
Urban food production
The following section lists the four strategies
near-due-date food ‘ugly’ vegetables
translated into a concrete roadmap and action
Oyster mushroom farming
agenda. The action agenda further explains where the municipality of Amsterdam can be of
separate sales reduced prices
influence, what other market parties can become involved and in what timeframe the transitions can take place. The roadmap and action agenda
are formulated on the basis of the previously
Decentral Nutrient hub
described research and analysis, as well as interviews with stakeholders and experts.
Net added value in euro The circular strategies MODULE A SMART DESIGN directly enable a number of sectors in Amsterdam VALUE JOB VALUE CREATION GROWTH CREATION to realise added value through more sales and more MATERIAL profit. “Net” means JOB that any decrease in added VALUE €23 GROWTH SAVINGS MILLION CREATION €25 200 x all MILLION value is calculated and that the indirect effects of other sectors are taken xinto account. 0 €12 MILLION
Net jobs growth in FTE One of the social aspects of an increase in circularity is represented, among other things, by the realisation of jobs (FTE, Full Time JOB of VALUE Equivalent). Job growth is estimated on theGROWTH basis CREATION VALUE JOB MATERIAL VALUE CREATION GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION the sectoral increase of added value, salaries and €23 the demand for low, medium and highly200 skilled MILLION €25 0x €25 200 x MILLION KTONS MILLION workforces. Net jobs growth refers to job growth that results in a direct reduction of unemployment.
JOB VALUE MATERIAL GROWTH CREATION SAVINGS
MATERIAL JOB SAVINGS CO 2 GROWTH REDUCTION
2 €.. 200 €25 REDUCTION 0x
KTONS 100 200 x
VALUE MATERIAL CREATION SAVINGS JOB2 CO GROWTH REDUCTION €30 MILLION 500 KTONS 100 .. x 200
JOB GROWTH CO 2 REDUCTION MATERIAL SAVINGS 400 75x KTONS 0
JOB GROWTH CO 2 MATERIAL REDUCTION SAVINGS
strategies are described separately in order to circular economy, they are partly intertwined with
and purchasing, to close material cycles in the
Public urinal or event sanitary urine Agriculture compost
Material savings Use of materials is expressed in Domestic Material Consumption (DMC)*, which, in addition to the use of materials in an area, also VALUE JOB MATERIAL VALUE CREATION looks at materials that are imported and exported. JOB VALUE GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION GROWTH CREATION Apart from CO2-emissions (which is already explicitly €30 500 MILLION €23 included), DMC makes 200 x all environmental impact KTONS MILLION €25 200 x MILLION factors related to the circular projects quantifiable. CO2-reduction The most well-known impact of economic activities is CO2-emissions. The impact of the strategies on emissions is expressed in Global Warming Potential VALUE (GWP), a globally adopted JOB GROWTH CREATION JOBthe avoided CO2-emissions MATERIAL measure that expresses VALUE GROWTH SAVINGS CREATION in the coming years, €30 by an increase of circularity, 400 x MILLION over a period of 100 years. To make the impact 0 €25 200 x KTONS MILLION comparable with the annual emissions in the region, the choice was made to convert the indicators to annual CO2-emissions.
.. KTONS KTONS
proteins waste water
SEPARATION AND COLLECTION
2 Domestic Material Consumption, abbreviated as DMC, is a commonly the total amount of GROWTH SAVINGS used statistic that measures REDUCTION CREATION materials that are used directly by an economy. It measures the annual amount of materials that are extracted in the VALUE geographical area, including all physical import and minus the physical export. CREATION MILLION
MODULE A SMART DESIGN
CENTRAL BIO-REFINERY HUB and 5000 tonnes of fertiliser. Chaincraft develops
can be extracted from organic residual streams
a technology on-site to distil components for the
food and chemical industry from organic residual
will be bundled into a central bio-refinery hub
streams (Port of Amsterdam, 2014).
and a logistics hub where bulk products can be
the impact of scarce building materials (Ecorys,
that can serve as an alternative to PET. At this
2014; EMF, 2015). Locally sourced biomass can
time, Port of Amsterdam, Orgaworld and AEB
(partly) be used for the production ofJOB bio-based VALUE CREATION
are working MATERIALtogether with TNO, CO2Attero and the
0petrochemical polymers replace KTONS 100 and coatings
Waternet has resulted in a joint industrial cluster
node in the global trade of agricultural and
in which AEB is burning 80 thousand tonnes of dry
In Amsterdam, there are several companies active
energy products because of its strategic location
sewage sludge per year. The 11 million cubic metres
in this area. For example, Avantium is a pioneer in
and logistic connections. Processed materials
of biogas that is produced from the fermentation
from all over the world are traded here, and a
of sewage sludge is burned in the CHP (combined
processing cluster will enable the local marketing
heat and power) plants of AEB. Some of the energy
of organic residual streams. To realise a hub for
and heat is delivered back to Waternet to use for
the processing of organic waste and the optimal
their own processes and 10% is used by OrangeGas
reuse of organic residual streams, a certain scale
to produce green biogas (City of Amsterdam,
is required, which is possible for Amsterdam to
2015b). Plans are in place to increase production to
achieve (Green Raw Materials, 2014). Such a hub
around 22 million cubic metres. AEB has plans to
will be able to produce a variety of bio-products,
extract fruit and vegetable fractions from waste - a
such as biomaterials, building blocks for the
first step towards further processing these waste
chemical industry, food, feed, biodiesel, biogas,
streams to make products such as proteins, bio-
lubricants, bio-based paint and oil, fertilisers, algae
oil and hydrogen. The production of sustainable
steams and CO2 by AEB will further improve the of
materials, reducing the impact of transport. MILLION
Biohub €23 MILLION refinery
streams To enable optimised cascading of organic
Similar activities are planned for Schiphol Airport,
residual streams, it is necessary to link and upscale
such as an anaerobic digester plant. This facility,
existing initiatives so that the resulting volume
which, in the future, will be responsible for 6% of
is greater. Existing pioneering activities in the
the energy supply of Schiphol (Croes, 2015), will
region include the Greenmills-cluster, an alliance
make use of grass clippings from surrounding
between six companies (Noba Vetveredeling BV,
areas and from organic residues from the region,
Rotie BV, Biodiesel Amsterdam, Tank Storage
such as the nearby flower auction and Greenport
Amsterdam BV, Chaincraft BV and Orgaworld
Aalsmeer. Another project is Bioport Holland,
BV) that is active in the further development of
bio-refinery concepts and the optimal reuse of
Government, KLM, Neste Oil, Schiphol Airport
organic residual streams. On-site organic residual
and the Port of Rotterdam that produces jet bio-
streams (including finished edible fat, animal fats
fuels. With its direct airplane fuel pipeline (60% of
and supermarket waste) are processed for the
the jet fuel consumption of Schiphol stems from
production of almost 300 million litres of biodiesel,
the port of Amsterdam), the port area has the
25 million cubic metres of biogas through
infrastructure, utilities and resources to produce
anaerobic digestion (City of Amsterdam, 2015b)
of renewable fuels and bio-based plastics (PEF)
flows can come together. The port is an important
materials is an important opportunity to reduce
Close cooperation between AEB Amsterdam and
using conversion technologies for the production
transported on a large scale, and where local small
Bio-based materials The use of bio-based building
Through cascading, the highest possible value
with bio-chemical components (for example, bio-
VALUE CREATION MILLION
Association of Waste Companies on a project to
biofuels gas stations
Visual display of bio-refinery: Organic residual streams are processed and used as raw MODULE material Bin, for instance, SEPARATION AND COLLECTION medication, food producers, feed and biofuel. The effects of circular strategies on the environment and the economy are calculated for the organic residual streams in Amsterdam. It is assumed that it will take five to seven years to achieve a circular arrangement of the processing of organic residual streams coming from all 430,000 Amsterdam households in the long term. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added VALUEby value retention in domestic JOB value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated CREATION CREATION material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions. €1,7
WASTE SEPARATION AND RETURN LOGISTICS Good waste separation and smart reverse
The underground containers can be equipped
logistics are important in the optimal valorisation
with smart sensors for the measurement of
of organic residual streams (Consonni, 2015). At
waste streams. This enables superior processing
this time, the waste separation rate in Amsterdam
of waste streams, increased information on
is far below the Dutch average (CBS, 2015c) and
the composition of the waste and improved
organic waste in particular is rarely separated
logistics to match supply and demand. Where
at the source. Finding solutions for the effective
no underground waste containers are available,
separation of domestic waste at the source
separate collection can be realised via alternate
in densely populated urban areas requires a
systems, such as the use of specific bags for
complex technological approach, particularly for
the separation of different waste materials. A
pilot for this is taking place in Reigersbos, where inhabitants receive coloured bags to separate
AEB is considering building a waste separation
and dispose of wastes in special containers (City
installation that can extract plastics, fruit and
of Amsterdam, 2015c).
collection system sewage
collected residual waste. The fruit and vegetable
Smart reverse logistics The market for meal
waste will initially be used for the production of
boxes such as the BeeBox is growing fast, and
green gas as a transportation fuel. At a later stage,
other large retailers like Albert Heijn have recently
this can serve as raw material for the production
entered this market. It is expected that the market
of biochemicals such as bio-aromas. It is expected
for meal boxes will grow significantly over the next
that this technology will mature in about five to
few years (Keuning, 2015). The meal box trend, in
ten years (AEB, 2015). The separation installation
combination with the growing interest in reverse
will serve as an interim solution until source
logistics among logistics service providers such as
separation by means of collection systems is MODULE A SMART DESIGN introduced and widely adopted.
PostNL, offers opportunities for the development
Smart street containers
Pick-up and delivery service
of solutions for the reverse logistics of organic waste. Once food boxes are delivered, the same
VALUE solution for Street smart containers A possible CREATION existing buildings is to place waste separators in
€12 existing underground waste collection systems to MILLION
JOB MATERIAL CO 2 carriers can be used to collect organic waste, and GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION
organic residual streams can then be transported 0
300 to the high-value processing. x bio-refinery hub for 100 KTONS KTONS
JOB GROWTH 200x
enable separation of organic and mixed waste.
Visual display of waste separation and return logistics: Organic residual streams are processed and used as raw material in, forVALUE instance, medication, foodJOB producers, feed and MATERIAL biofuel. The effects of circular strategies on the environment CREATION and the economy are calculated for the organic residual streams in Amsterdam.CO It is2assumed that it GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION will take five to seven years to achieve a circular arrangement of the processing of organic residual streams coming from all 430,000 Amsterdam households in the long term. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: 500 €30in millions of euro, (2)150 100value retention in (1) net added value netxjob growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated KTONS by KTONS MILLION domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2-emissions.
JOB GROWTH 450 x
CASCADING OF ORGANIC FLOWS Although there are a variety of options for the
algae growth projects (Loftus, 2013). GRO Holland
recovery and reuse of organic waste for other
uses discarded coffee grounds from cafes and
purposes, 97% of the household organic waste
restaurants in which to grow oyster mushrooms,
in Amsterdam is burned for energy recovery and
which are then immediately sold or used as
only 3% is reused or recycled for other purposes
ingredients for food.
(Circle Economy, 2014). Incineration currently Production
new technologies and business models can now
emergence of insects as a source for both animal
be applied to these waste streams to create more
feed and human consumption has led to the
value (Bio-based Economy, 2015).
growth of insect farming using organic residues,
as seen in companies like Amsterdam-based The recovery of foods In the Amsterdam
Protix Biosystems, which uses food waste to grow
metropolitan area, new restaurant and catering
insects. In addition, algae grown from organic
concepts aim to preserve edible food scraps from
wastes are rich in high-quality protein and can
warehouses and shops. Many of these companies,
be processed into a wide range of products such
such as InStock, are well set up with permanent
as animal feed, fertilisers, fuels, chemicals and
shops and a neat shop front. There are also
pharmaceuticals. Algae can be used to improve
MODULE A bottom-up community initiatives, such as Guerilla SMART DESIGN
plant production, reduce sensitivity to diseases
and act as a natural pesticide.
process edible but deformed VALUE or damaged foods, CREATION which are not suitable for retail, to make soups and other food products, giving €12them a second MILLION
life that is in line with their original purpose.
Biomass in public spaces Public areas and
unused spaces, such as port areas or the berms 0 300
of highways, can be used in a smart way for the
composting Supermarket near-due-date food ‘ugly’ vegetables
suitable for the production of fibre and protein
residual streams that cannot be directly reused can
and can be used locally as raw material for the
be cascaded to high-value applications (Wahab, VALUE
production of cardboard or as an alternative to JOB MATERIAL CO 2 GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION
2015). Companies like Exter can extract additives for the food processing industry; €25 an example of MILLION
this is the extraction of bio-aromatics and reactive
soy. Organisations such as Meerlanden have
experimented with alternative uses of public 0 100
green areas. Initiatives such as Fruityourworld
flavours from vegetable proteins as a replacement
show that it is possible to share public spaces with
for chemical flavourings. Waste water and organic
others and to grow fruit there for and by local
waste from a variety of municipal, industrial and
Oyster mushroom farming
separateVALUE sales CREATION reduced prices €50
coffee residu JOB GROWTH 200x
production of biomass. Different grass types are
Cascading of organic residual streams Organic
Urban food production
JOB GROWTH 150x
provides valuable energy and heat, but several
agricultural sources can be treated in large-scale VALUE CREATION
Visual display of cascading: Organic residual streams that cannot be directly reused can be cascaded to high-value JOB on the environment MATERIAL VALUE CO 2 for the organic applications.CREATION The effects of circular strategies and the economy are calculated GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION residual streams in Amsterdam. It is assumed that it will take five to seven years to achieve a circular arrangement of the processing of organic residual streams coming from all 430,000 Amsterdam households in the long term. Four indicators have €30 been used in determining450 impact: (1) net added value75 in millions of euro, (2) net300 job growth in FTE, (3) KTONS MILLION KTONSin CO -emissions. material savings calculated by value retentionx in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction 2
RECOVERING NUTRIENTS are being processed. Residues from these
– only 5% of the nutrients placed in the soil are
companies can be used in the production of
actually used to provide us with nutritional value
fertilisers through a process in which phosphates
(Circle Economy, 2014a). The remaining 95% of
can be recycled. An example of a company in the
the nutrients are lost somewhere in the cycle.
Amsterdam port area that recycles nutrients from
For example: crops absorb only 30 to 50% of the
waste streams of Cargill is ICL Fertilizers Europe,
applied fertiliser and use almost 25% of that for the
which uses residual flows with a high phosphate
growth of non-edible parts, which, in the current
content. ICL Fertilizers strives to replace 15% of
model, are disposed of as waste; in Amsterdam,
the phosphate ore in 2015 and 100% in 2025
large quantities of nutrients, such as minerals, MODULE A
(Langefeld, 2015). The first tests show promising
fertilisers, foodstuffs or animal food that, at some
results for the use of ‘secondary’ phosphates, but
point, end up in the environment, are imported;
additional research is needed to further extend
CREATION and the sewer drainage system is a valuable
resource for nutrient retrieval. Mankind produces, €12
MILLION on average, 500 litres of urine and faeces in a year.
JOB GROWTH this approach. 100 x
KTONS KTONS Decentralised processing The municipality could
GFT Decentral Nutrient hub Public urinal or event sanitary VALUE CREATION
MATERIAL SAVINGS KTONS
develop local pilots in order to recover nutrients
nutrients from the food we consume, this waste
from the food system through anaerobic digestion
is full of nutrients. An important opportunity to
plants and develop techniques to convert urine
improve the nutrient cycle in Amsterdam is in the
into valuable nutrients such as nitrogen and
recover these nutrients.
that they are often not financially profitable (AEB,
KTONS KTONS 2015). Decentralised management of waste water
JOB MATERIAL CO 2 GROWTH SAVINGS phosphate. A disadvantage of these techniquesREDUCTION is
can be beneficial in areas linked to excessive
of the food production system has led to
water through-flow, such as densely populated
the concentration of many large-scale food
urban areas. Further investment in the cascading
processors in the Amsterdam port area, such as
of waste water and process technologies could
soy processing companies likeVALUE Cargill, and Ahold,
lead in the recovery of energy, JOB to improvementsMATERIAL CO 2 GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION
Coffee Company, Starbucks, Olam International
and ADM Netherlands, where €23 coffee and cocoa MILLION
heat and nutrients.
JOB GROWTH 200 x
JOB GROWTH 150x
JOB GROWTH 450 x
Visual display of recovery of nutrients: Organic residual streams are processed through decentralised, local processes to recover nutrients. The effects of circular strategies on the environment and the economy are calculated for the organic residual streams in Amsterdam. It is assumed that it will take five to seven years to achieve a circular arrangement of the processing of organic residual streams coming from all 430,000 Amsterdam households in the long term. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in VALUE FTE, (3) material savings calculated material consumption and (4) reduction JOBby value retention in domestic MATERIAL 2 in CO2-emissions. GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION CREATION
compost Cattle farming
Household VALUE CREATION
Because the human body does not absorb all the
application of decentralised,CREATION local processes to
JOB GROWTH urine
Across the whole food chain – from field to fork
Smart street containers
Supply and delivery service
Waste reuse Protein hub
Insect farming Circular restaurant
Festival testing ground
SPATIAL VISION The spatial vision map indicates how circular strategies for the organic residual streams in Amsterdam can be applied and how they are interwoven in a spatial context. The following strategies are described: (1) central biorefinery hub, (2) waste separation and return logistics, (3) cascading of organic flows and (4)
r ie rr Ba gy te ra
BARRIERS Many of the ways to achieve a circular economy may already be profitable but, when up-scaling a solution, barriers often emerge. Policy can play an important role in removing these barriers. We distinguish four types of barriers: Laws and regulations Existing policy often leads to unforeseen consequences in changing market conditions. An example is the Environmental Management Act (art. 1.1), which describes what is legally classified as waste and what is not (Government, 2015). Culture The circular economy requires close cooperation between sectors and chains. A lack of inter-sector networks, a conservative culture and vested interests in sectors can be obstacles to the efficient formation of successful cooperation. Market The existence of â€˜split incentivesâ€™ is a barrier; the investments must be done by one stakeholder in the chain while the income is earned by another. Another market-related barrier is knowledge asymmetry, such as knowledge with regard to the availability of secondary resource flows and its quality. The lack of externality
pricing, including that of CO2, can also impact the market. The last barrier that we want to mention in this category is the limited access to financing for circular initiatives. Technology Technological development has two important challenges. Up-scaling a small pilot to a commercial scale is often challenging, and the interdependency and complexity of technologies that must be developed together can also be a barrier. These barriers have important implications for the extent to which some of the strategies can be implemented successfully - especially in the short term. In some cases, governments can overcome these barriers, and the market may break down barriers in others, but, in many cases, the solution requires cooperation, experimentation and iteration. For each of the four circular strategies, an impact assessment per barrier is made below. The assessment of the severity of the barrier comes from insights obtained from the interviews and is further based on estimates of the research team. For the top three actions, the roadmap will address options to overcome these barriers.
LAWS & REGULATIONS
The flow of organic residual streams is highly varied, both geographically and across time (impacted, among other things, by seasonal variations in green waste such as roadside grass), which forms an obstacle when trying to complete the business case. High-value bio-refinery technologies are in the early stages of development. For up-scaling and commercial viability, significant investment into additional research and development (R&D) is required. A lack of funding for this can make both the speed of and the chances for success uncertain. Market demand for end products of bio-refining is currently low due to factors such as ignorance of market players, a limited ability to realise significant supply and a lack of clear quality criteria. The production of high-quality protein by growing insects (larvae) on organic residual streams must comply with the current laws and regulations regarding slaughter of live animals, which raises practical and, thus, financial barriers. Policies that aim to increase the share of green gas into the natural gas network give too little consideration to the interests of importers and more to the interests of (traditional) network operators. Recovered nutrients, such as phosphates (by processing of struvite, for example) from waste water may, under current laws and regulations, not be applied as fertiliser on agricultural land and can, therefore, not be capitalised on, which makes the business case more difficult. A recently signed green deal provides an adjustment in the classification of waste under VANG and REACH (Sloover, 2014). According to current legislation, digestate from anaerobic digestion cannot be used as fertiliser on agricultural land (to replace artificial fertilisers), which complicates the profitability of digester plants. For waste substances, a waiver on the legislation is required per waste substance and per installation. This is an intensive and lengthy process that has been undertaken for struvite in Amsterdam. European regulations concerning the 'expiry date' and food hygiene create uncertainty for the high-value reuse of food. Various technological possibilities to enable greater source separation rates of organic residual streams are being examined. The technological complexity of these solutions (such as the link between technological installations in households and the necessary infrastructure) raises challenges that require both further technological development and the planning of underground installations and infrastructures. The above table is a summary of the most relevant and significant barriers that apply to this chain in achieving a transition towards a circular economy. This is based on research, literature, interviews and insights from the research team.)
CENTRAL BIO-REFINERY HUB WASTE SEPARATION AND RETURN LOGISTICS CASCADING ORGANIC FLOWS RECOVERING NUTRIENTS This table indicates how high the barrier to a circular economy is for each of the strategies. (Source: Insights from interviews, literature and assessment of the research team.)
ACTION POINTS CENTRAL BIO-REFINERY HUB 1. Expanding and designating new ‘free zones’ and ‘circular field labs’ In a number of industrial clusters, such as the harbour area, policies can be temporarily eased to support the development of bio-refining activities. Legislation that currently stands in the way of the development of biorefinery concepts includes the ban on the use of digestate, which is rich in nutrients (especially phosphate), on agricultural land. This is currently blocking an important and essential part of the business case for anaerobic digester plants because the current market value of digestate is low. This legislation also affects Waternet, which recovers phosphate from waste water (by the precipitation of struvite crystals through the addition of magnesium) but cannot currently sell the reclaimed nutrients nor apply them to agricultural land. A Green Deal, recently signed between the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment and the water boards, should, however, lead to changes in the classification of recovered substances under VANG and REACH (Sloover, 2014). 2. Further developing of a sustainability fund specified for the circular economy A circularity fund should be financed by public and private parties with the aim of financially supporting innovative projects before the market provides starting capital, private equity and bank financing. The circularity fund can build on the experiences of the ‘Amsterdam climate & energy fund’ (AKEF) Sustainability Fund, which provided financing and investments in the form of loans, guarantees and capital shares (AKEF, 2015). The fund should provide a solution to the financing of early stage (usually lab- or pilot scale) projects that want to upscale to a commercial level. 3. Establishing criteria for ‘new bio-based products’ Currently, the market is being hampered
by uncertainty around quality specifications for bio-based products. The lack of clear criteria is currently a problem for two projects involving the breeding of insects using organic waste with the aim to produce proteins that can be used as fodder in, for example, aquaculture. Growing insects now falls under the complex regulations of the Slaughter Act. The establishment of clear criteria can give clarity to this underdeveloped market.
2. Rebuilding waste hubs into centres for the circular economy Current waste hubs can be transformed into recycling activity hives similar to the municipal recycling platforms in Almere, where high-value recycling is applied locally (Municipality of Almere, 2015). This would increase the local level of circular activities. In addition, it would increase the knowledge of local residents by involving them in recycling and other circular activities.
4. Differentiating Amsterdam as an ‘(innovative) hub for bio-refinery’ A communication strategy is required to strongly distinguish Amsterdam from other port cities in the field of circular economy and bio-refining activities. The municipality can invite leading companies to establish and further develop their activities in Amsterdam. This can build on existing initiatives, such as Startup Amsterdam, with a focus on bio-refining, and be deployed as an innovation hub. The port of Amsterdam, together with the surrounding cities, can develop a stimulus package and match-making services to entice companies to locate in the region.
3. Equipping street containers and waste infrastructure with smart IT systems This optimises reverse logistics and the share of separated waste collection at source (Amsterdam Connecting Trade, 2014). This can lead to a decrease in the amount of transport needed. By connecting information about the composition of waste, the residual flows may be worth more. The system can be tested on ease of use and (financial) feasibility through small-scale pilots in cooperation with companies, suppliers and households.
WASTE SEPARATION AND RETURN LOGISTICS 1. Renovating underground waste containers The renovation of waste containers, in Amsterdam-West, for example, can lead to an improvement in the share of source separated waste. The suggestion is to equip existing and new containers with the ability to separate fruit and vegetable waste in addition to the current separation of paper and glass. A container replacement campaign is being rolled out in Amsterdam West over the next three years. This modernisation could act as an incentive for local SMEs and for metal- and installation companies in particular. New requirements for separate waste collection can also be included in procurement criteria for the municipal waste infrastructure.
4. Creating variable tax rates for different waste categories (in the so-called Diftar-system) In very densely populated residential areas of urban regions, it is more difficult to separate household waste. By taxing grey household waste more heavily through a differentiated tax system (Diftar) (Drift, 2014), source separation of domestic waste will be (financially) stimulated. CASCADING ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS 1. Creating ‘breeding grounds’ to promote urban agriculture This increases local food production and biomass production. In addition, empty buildings can be used to produce food. Examples of and initiatives in urban agriculture are expanding rapidly. An example in Almere is ‘Agromere’, which aims to put a process in motion that should eventually lead to a new residential
area in which agriculture is fully integrated (Jansma, 2015). 2. Stimulating locally produced products, biomass and nutrition through purchasing policy Local production of biomass and food reduces the need for transport, benefitting the environment (PBL, 2014). One of the sources for wood is green areas of the city (City of Amsterdam, 2014a). To increase the production of biomass at the municipal green facilities, a more holistic approach to the management of municipal green and waste is required. Public green spaces can be used for the growing of special species of plants (e.g. shrubs) (Urgenda, 2015) that are specially bred to grow quickly, produce more biomass, take in more CO2, save more rain water and absorb more particulates. RECOVERING NUTRIENTS 1. Realising an integrated phosphate strategy The municipality can help realise a closed phosphate cycle. The municipality ought to encourage industrial symbiosis and technological innovation in order to achieve this. Residual streams containing phosphate should be matched up with parties with a demand for phosphate. First steps in this direction have already been taken in projects that involve AEB, ICL and Waternet, among others. 2. Promoting decentralised waste-water management systems This enables the local recovery of heat, energy and resources. Research done in Buiksloterham has shown how the urban environment can be set up at a neighbourhood level to allow decentralised reception of waste and water (Amsterdam Smart City, 2015). It should include, for instance, the separation of waste water types (grey, yellow and black water) and the local valorisation these streams. The municipality can build on this research.
ACTION POINTS TOP 3 Three action points, as shown in the table, have been selected from the interviews and discussions with
By making (open) data available, the municipality can stimulate innovation in the city (action point 1), play
stakeholders. In selecting these, four major effects have been taken into account: (1) value creation, (2)
an important role in settling the high barriers around laws and regulations and for bio-refining technology
CO2-reduction, (3) material savings and (4) job growth. These measures have also taken into account the
(action point 2), and can increase the demand for circular products by altering its own purchasing policy
barriers that have been identified for the construction chain, and the role that the municipality can fulfil.
(action line 3).
INVESTMENTS AND RESULTS
CONNECTION FOR PROJECTS
VIRTUAL RESOURCE PLATFORM TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND MAKE PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE SPECIFIC GEO-DATA WITH REGARD TO DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS IN THE CITY AND REGION
CIRCULAR BIO-REFINERY FREE ZONE TO IDENTIFY SPECIFIC LOCATIONS INTENDED AS CIRCULAR FREE ZONES AND DRAW UP RULES FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
LAUNCHING CUSTOMER TO DEVELOP PURCHASE CRITERIA FOR THE USE OF LOCALLY PRODUCED GRASS, WOOD AND FOOD
The municipality can further develop and make publicly accessible a digital (commercial) platform for organic waste. Such a platform can offer a transparent overview of the supply, demand and use of organic residual streams in Amsterdam (and beyond). In addition, it can address the uncertainty in the market by improving the matching of supply and demand. This may be a response to the current uncertainty in market participants about supply and demand of flows. The lack of understanding has been mentioned as an obstacle to planning by many of the regional stakeholders, which, in turn, affects the financing due to supply risks. The platform would provide insight into fluctuations in supply and demand on the basis of, for example, seasonal variations in the availability of green waste. The municipality can also stimulate innovation concepts, linking small and large businesses.
The municipality can initiate circular free zones. This could take away certain (legislative) barriers that currently hinder innovation, such as the ban on the use of nutrient-rich digestate (especially phosphate) on agricultural land. This is currently blocking an important and essential part of the business case for anaerobic digester plants because the current market value of digestate is low.
The municipality can introduce criteria in its purchasing policy to stimulate locally produced grass, wood (as in street furniture) and food (catering). The large buying power of the municipality itself can create an important and constant demand that allows local parties to further develop and professionalise. With the local production of biomass and food, the need for transport and its associated environmental impact is reduced (PBL, 2013). The local production of wood can take place in the municipal green facilities of the city (Municipality of Amsterdam, 2014a). To increase the production of biomass in the municipal green facilities, a more holistic approach to the management of municipal green and waste materials is required. Public green spaces can be used for the planting of special species of plants (e.g. shrubs) (Urgenda, 2015) that are specially bred to grow rapidly, deliver more biomass, take in more CO2 and absorb particulates.
The AMS-run program ‘Urban Pulse’ has initiated planned activities around the mapping of resource streams such as organic residual streams into spatial maps. There are also activities within the municipality around providing insight into waste streams associated with geo-data. In addition to this, the municipality can engage with organisations that use big data and have great potential for the circular economy (Lacy, 2015), such as Wageningen UR and AMS, who conduct research into the use of big data (Top, 2015).
It is important that new projects build upon and are linked with pre-existing pioneering activities in the region. One such example is the Greenmills site, a consortium of six companies active in the further development of bio-refinery concepts and the optimal reuse of organic residual streams. Furthermore, Waternet and AEB are involved in and well informed about local initiatives including the processing of sewage sludge for biogas production.
There are several companies and initiatives in Amsterdam that produce local biomass such as food as well as fibres for products. In order to achieve higher volumes of these local products, the municipality needs to redirect its purchasing policy. The municipality is already a signatory of the ‘green deal circular purchases’ (Geet, 2013). The theme of circular purchases for the purpose of local production and consumption is also a major topic at Cirkel Stad (Cirkel Stad, 2013).
The investment required to set up a platform is largely for the development of the IT-infrastructure and for the conceptual development of the platform. Although there are many market participants, including large IT parties, that deal with the development of such platforms, the municipality can play the role of initiator. The ‘out-of-pocket’ development costs for a platform can be financed by private and public parties. The effects and impact on the actual volume of processing organic flows through the deployment of the platform will probably take several years before it is of significant size. This is because the development, buy-in and critical mass required by market parties will take time.
The designation of circular free zones could be an effective way to neutralise the barriers described in the local barrier overview. It is a measure that requires investment, especially in organisation, supervision and enforcement. The measures to be taken fall completely within the terms of the Municipality Act.
The effects of these measures may soon be visible since there is a direct market demand for local products.
AMS, Floow2, Oogstkaart, TNO, The municipality and Wageningen UR
Orgaworld, SkyNRG, Schiphol Group, KLM, Amsterdam port, Sita, Awakenings, Loveland and Air
Municipality, caterers and suppliers of facility management, local producers, Exter, Kromkommer, Provalor, GRO, Holland, Taste Before You Waste, Instock, Food banks, Meerlanden and Fruityourworld
ROADMAP ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS SHORT TERM (1YEAR)
LONG TERM (20+YEARS)
1. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND ENSURING PUBLIC ACCESS TO GEODATA FOR SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF ORGANIC WASTE IN THE CITY 2. TO IDENTIFY SPECIFIC LOCATIONS INTENDED AS CIRCULAR FREE ZONES AND DRAWING UP RULES FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT 3. TO DEVELOP PURCHASE CRITERIA FOR THE USE OF LOCALLY PRODUCED GRASS, WOOD AND FOOD
CENTRAL HUB FOR BIOREFINERY
EXPANDING AND DESIGNATING NEW ‘ FREE ZONES ‘ AND ‘ CIRCULAR FIELD LABS FURTHER DEVELOPING OF A SUSTAINABILITY FUND SPECIFIED FOR THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY ESTABLISHING CRITERIA FOR ‘NEW BIO-BASED PRODUCTS’ DIFFERENTIATING AMSTERDAM AS AN ‘(INNOVATIVE) HUB FOR BIO-REFINERY’
SEPERATION AND RETURN LOGISTICS
RENOVATING UNDERGROUND WASTE CONTAINERS REBUILDING WASTE HUBS INTO CENTRES FOR THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY EQUIPPING STREET CONTAINERS AND WASTE INFRASTRUCTURE WITH SMART IT SYSTEMS
CASCADING OF ORGANIC STREAMS
CREATING VARIABLE TAX RATES FOR DIFFERENT WASTE CATEGORIES
CREATING ‘BREEDING GROUNDS’ TO PROMOTE URBAN AGRICULTURE STIMULATING LOCALLY PRODUCED PRODUCTS, BIOMASS AND NUTRITION THROUGH PURCHASING POLICY
REALISING AN INTEGRATED PHOSPHATE STRATEGY RECOVERY OF NUTRIENTS
PROMOTING DECENTRALISED WASTE-WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
The arrows indicate when a certain action can be applied and when impact is expected. This is dependent on many aspects such as speed of market implementation and market scalability.
JOB GROWTH 200 x
which has various bio-refinery factories with €30 150x MILLION private operators, compared to a facility where all large-scale and unsorted waste is processed. In addition to the direct employment effects in the agricultural and food industries, there is the potential for the creation of additional jobs in the supply industry in activities such as engineering JOB VALUE GROWTH CREATION and logistics.
ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF A CIRCULAR ORGANIC RESIDUAL STREAMS COMPARED TO A LINEAR SCENARIO MILLION
CREATION The total economic activity of the Amsterdam metropolitan region amounts to 106 billion euro €23 MILLION annually, of which 47 billion is accounted for by the city of Amsterdam (2013) (CBS, 2015)*. The contribution of the agricultural sector to the city of Amsterdam amounts to 248 million euro and the contribution of the food sector amounts to 593 million euro. The current recycling of organic residual streams in Amsterdam provides a lot of VALUE room for optimisation. The city of Amsterdam CREATION has ambitions to increase the source separation €25 percentage to generate more MILLION value from the organic residual streams in household and industrial waste. Moreover, organic wastes from the food processing industry in the port area offer opportunities for higher quality processing and can, thus, contribute to additional value creation. VALUE A macro-economic analysis CREATION has been carried out based on the circular strategies that can €30 MILLION (cascading) contribute to an optimised processing of organic residual streams in Amsterdam. The results provide insight into the effects of the implementation of these circular strategies on economic growth, employment, the saving of material use and the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
The ‘circular scenario’ can contribute to autonomous (linear) growth in Amsterdam through both the direct and indirect effects of circular strategies. Reprocessing organic material flows to raw material for bio-plastic could, for example, result in cost savings that enable investment in additional improvements. In the
JOB MATERIAL CO 2 GROWTH SAVINGS REDUCTION period between 2005 and 2012, the agricultural
sector and food industry in the metropolitan 500 75 200 x showed a productivity KTONS growth of 5.7% and KTONS region 13.6% respectively.
JOB GROWTH 1200 x
RECOVERING €85 MILLION NUTRIENTS
as soy 500 for animal feed. The production of bio100 KTONS based building blocks for theKTONS chemical industry enables the production of bio-plastics to replace oil-based products. The material savings that can be achieved may add up to 900 thousand tonnes per year. This is significant when compared to the current annual import of 3.9 million tonnes of MATERIAL CO2 SAVINGS biomass for the entire metropolitan region. The expected gas emissions 75 reduction in greenhouse 300 KTONS KTONS is in the order of 600 thousand tonnes of CO2, equivalent to a small 3% of the annual CO2emissions of the city of Amsterdam. REDUCTION
MATERIAL SAVINGS 11%
WASTE SEPARATION AND RETURN LOGISTICS CASCADING OF ORGANIC FLOWS
GROWTH CREATION CENTRAL BIO-REFINERY HUB
MODULE In addition, this transition could create 1200 local B SEPARATION AND COLLECTION jobs in the long term, nearly 8% of the current 10 thousand jobs in the agriculture and food VALUE JOB CREATION CREATION industry. Jobs created would include employment for the adjustment of waste infrastructure such €1,7 8x as underground containers due toMILLION an increased need for pick up services for the separate waste streams, as well as for the more complex processing of these flows. There is a greater labour requirement for a facility such as Greenmills,
In this study, value creation of circular initiatives is compared to the total added value at basic prices, NOT to the Gross Regional Product. In this chapter, a TNO-analysis is applied, and the assumptions used are from the following sources: Chiewa, et al. (2014) ‘Environmental impact of recycling digested food waste as a fertilizer in agriculture—A case study’, Resources, Conservation and Recycling; Vandermeersch, et al. (2012) ‘Environmental sustainability assessment or food waste valorisation options’, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology; Leceta, et al. (2015) ‘Bio-based films prepared with by-products and wastes: environmental assessment’, Journal of Cleaner Production.
The material savings consists mainly of materials that can be replaced by higher-value processed flows. An example of this is the production of highvalue protein to replace imported protein such
In our calculations for a circular scenario for the processing of organic residual streams, we adopted source separation of the organic fraction over time in all 430 thousand households JOB MATERIAL CO2 in Amsterdam. In 2015, every inhabitant of GROWTH SAVINGS Amsterdam generated an average of 92 kilograms 0 25 200 x KTONS waste (Amsterdam, of vegetable-, fruit- and garden KTONS 2015d). This separate collection makes it possible to use the organic fraction for new uses such as the production of protein for animal feed, biogas and building blocks for the chemical industry. A fully circular organic residual stream chain can JOB MATERIAL CO2 GROWTH SAVINGS result in an increase in productivity of 14% for the agricultural sector and 7% for the food sector in 25 100 400city x of Amsterdam over KTONS KTONS the a period of five to seven years. This is on top of the linear growth scenario. The resulting added value to the economy could amount to 150 million euro per year.
24% JOB GROWTH 714 x
100% = €150 million
The potential economic and environmental impact of a circular construction chain in Amsterdam compared to a linear scenario is calculated for Amsterdam. Here, the impact will be realised over a period of five to seven years. Four indicators have been used in determining impact: (1) net added value in millions of euro, (2) net job growth in FTE, (3) material savings calculated by value retention in domestic material consumption and (4) reduction in CO2 emissions. The values for the four indicators are shown in the four circles. The distribution in added value is shown in the bar chart.
SCALABILITY MAP The scalability map shows the organic residual streams chain where opportunities lie for four circular strategies: (1) waste separation and return logistics, (2) cascading of organic flows, (3) recovery of nutrients and (4) bio-refinery hub. Green markings show places where household waste is released and, thus, where the potential lies for separation and return logistics. Green and yellow points indicate supermarkets and street markets and reflect the potential for cascading in retail and industry. In addition, large multinationals and food processors are displayed on the map to indicate opportunities for the industry.
4. CURRENT STATE To create a circular economy, we must first understand what is not circular in our current economy. This chapter provides insight into how resources move through the city, where they will be processed to add value to the local economy and where resources are wasted or cascade back into the system to be reused. To reach this understanding, the region was looked at in terms of material flows, energy consumption and employment. The various streams were then examined in order to identify which areas of circularity, quality of life and economic vitality can be improved in the city. For example, where is waste created? And where are the short and long term opportunities to convert these into opportunities for the city and the region? To get a more detailed picture of the â€˜non-circularâ€™ situation at present, we conducted an analysis based on regional and national statistics supplemented with specific organisational data.
One of the challenges in determining a strategy to create a circular economy is measuring circularity and gaining a good understanding of the status quo. For measuring the circularity of the city, region and sectors, the ‘circular indicators framework’ was developed by Circle Economy and TNO. The framework describes four main indicators that provide insight into the essential aspects of circularity. The first three indicators were evaluated using quantitative data provided by CBS and TNO. The indicator for transition potential was investigated by means of interviews and qualitative reviews of specific companies, organisations and other stakeholders within their respective chains. This framework was also used by Circle Economy and TNO for establishing the priority chains for a national project with the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. The four key indicators, with each specific subindicator, are represented on the right. In the figure opposite is an overview of the results of the framework applied to the thirty sectors that CBS differentiates in the macro-economic statistics of the region. Per sector, the figure indicates how big the ‘economic added value’ is to the regional economy (y-axis), what the ‘ecological impact’ is (x-axis) and how big the potential is for value retention (size of the bubble).
ECOLOGICAL IMPACT Metal exhaustion Fossil exhaustion Abiotic depletion Acidification Eutrophication Global warming Ozone layer depletion Human toxicity Fresh-water aquatic toxicity Maritime aquatic toxicity Terrestrial toxicity Photochemical Oxidation Land use
Ecological impact Ecological impact
Specialised business services
Electrical and electronic industry
Food and beverage industry ICT Others industries
ECONOMIC INTEREST Added value POTENTIAL FOR VALUE RETENTION
Retail industry Renting and business services Real estate trading
Paper and printing industry Metal products industry Chemical industry Mining industry
Metal industry Culture, sport and recreation
Health and social care
Resource efficiency Valuable waste generation Dispersion factor Recycling rate TRANSITION POTENTIAL
Transport industry Storage industry
Public administration and services
Transition readiness Organisation and culture Visibility and impact
Education Households goods and services Economic importance Economic Interest
The above figure shows how the 30 sectors in the Amsterdam metropolitan area score on ‘economy’, ‘ecology’ and ‘value retention’, the three main indicators in the ‘circular indicators framework’. (Source: based on CBS-data with analysis of TNO and Circle Economy team)
FLOWS THROUGH THE METROPOLITAN REGION
The material flows for Amsterdam are analysed and visualised in the following diagram. This figure provides insight into how resources move through the metropolitan region and city, where they will be processed to add value to the local economy and where resources are wasted, or, ideally, cascaded back into the system to be reused. From this review, three important aspects - which are largely linear but which have the potential to create a circular economy in the region - appear to determine the current status.
The current state of materials and energy per sector used in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam. Further, the waste flows are shown by sector in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam (Megatonnes stands for millions of tonnes) (Source: based on CBS data with analysis of TNO and Circle Economy team).
Raw material import and (local) extraction (kiloton)
2000 Import 1500 1000
Figure 4.1: Extraction and import of materials in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam in 2014 (source: based on CBS and port of Amsterdam data with analysis by TNO and Circle Economy)
15000 Import Export
Figure 4.2: Import and export of materials in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam (source: based on CBS and port of Amsterdam data with analysis by TNO and Circle Economy)
li rti Fe
tle at C
s al C
gy er En
Chemical 20000 waste Mineral 15000
Figure 4.3: Residual streams in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam (source: based on CBS and AEB data with analysis by TNO and Circle Economy)
O th er
Residual stream (megaton)
O th er
fin e Re
de C ru
The supply of materials is vulnerable to strong price fluctuations and distortions in the geopolitical context The high trading volume in the MRA offers economic opportunities but, at the same time, exposes the MRA to disruptions in supply. In addition, the import of biomass from abroad has significant negative consequences for the environment, due to non-sustainable land use and agriculture in South America and other regions.
Large flows of organic and mineral waste originate from industrial waste Of the waste that is produced in the MRA, only a small part is collected through the municipal system as household waste - see Figure 4.3 for further details. (CBS, 2015b). One-sixth of the 6 million tonnes per year is municipal solid waste, consisting mainly of minerals and organic waste (in Amsterdam 14% is household waste and 86% is industrial waste). Non-municipal waste amounts to about 5 million tonnes a year and consists mostly of organic waste. This offers opportunities for bio-refinery applications for high-value use of both municipal and non-municipal residual streams. Waste in Amsterdam is, to a large extent, processed in a relatively low grade One third of the total waste is incinerated to generate electricity and heat. This creates less value compared to recycling or reuse. For domestic waste, the rate for ‘useful reuse’ as defined by the CBS is 85%. This includes activities such as the use of granulated demolition and construction waste for road foundations, which, in a circular economy, can be regarded as a low-value application of recycling. Through high-value reuse, recycling and composting, more value can be extracted from these waste streams.
LOGISTICS HUB The metropolitan region is highly dependent on imports of resources In the metropolitan region, 10 million tonnes of material are consumed annually, of which 60% is imported from abroad, see Figure 4.1 and 4.2 for further details (CBS, 2015b). More than 50% of the import consists of fossil fuels, used mainly in the petroleum industry for the production of plastic.
Matrerial import and export (kiloton)
The food and construction sectors have a relatively low use of circular services Circular services are sectors that are focused on product design, rental, repair and recycling. The average use of circular services in the Amsterdam metropolitan area is 14%. The construction- and food chain is slightly below the average, making use of only 12% and 13% of circular services respectively.
Use of materials and processing of by-products Use of materials in the making and processing industry is dominated by biomass and minerals In the metropolitan area, more than 10 megatonnes of materials – of which 40% is biomass and 40% is fossil fuels – are consumed annually (CBS, 2015b). Biomass is used mainly by industry (70%) and the agricultural and food sector (20%). A large part of the biomass use is allocated to the extensive food and beverage industry. Minerals such as coal are mainly used in the utility sector (74%) and industry (17%) (CBS, 2015b). Metals are mainly used in industry (90%).
Import en export van materialen (kiloton)
ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE The import, processing and transport of materials and goods is an important economic activity in the metropolitan region The Amsterdam metropolitan area has the largest seaport and airport in Europe. Through these two ports combined, more than 100 million tonnes of goods are imported and 30 million tonnes are exported annually (Port of Amsterdam, 2013). The gross added value of the seaport amounted to 3.5 billion euro in 2012, which was derived mainly from business and industry, including the metal industry, and the transport and logistics sector. For Schiphol Airport, the gross added value in 2012 amounted to 5 billion euro (Ministry of I and M, 2015). The total direct employment of the Amsterdam seaport is 34 thousand jobs; for Schiphol it is 65 thousand (Port of Amsterdam, 2013).
SELECTION OF CHAINS
MINERALS STONE CONCRETE
Slimbreker VSM Sloopwerken
PRIORITISATION OF CONNECTING FACTORS IN A CIRCULAR ECONOMY
Loon op Zand
To understand the extent to which various chains contribute to the economic and ecological impact in Amsterdam, a chain analysis has been conducted. This chain analysis provides insight into the connections between sectors in an economy, such as the connection between the materials (physical flows) and economic value (monetary flows). An example of this can be seen in the production of oil, which is linked to the production of plastic from this oil, which is then linked to the use of plastic packaging material in the food chain, and later linked to the waste treatment of plastic packaging. Exploring which of the chains between sectors result in large impacts is a starting point for prioritising possible interventions. The four indicators used to measure impacts from the ‘circular indicators framework’ have been explained in the beginning of this chapter. For the economical and ecological impact and value retention, a comprehensive analysis was conducted, linking hundreds of value chains and sectors together. The ten chains with the highest impact or the greatest potential were selected. Stakeholder interviews were used to assess the
transition potential. The ten value chains are shown in the table below, with shades of blue indicating the potential impact. Of the ten chains, six are included in the final analysis. After consultation with the municipality and local stakeholders, the decision was made to focus on the construction chain and organic residual streams, as these have the highest economic and ecological impact, as well as the highest value retention and transition potential. The analysis of the value chains serves not only to achieve a transparent selection of important chains at which circular initiatives should be focused, but also provides an overview of economic sectors and actors that are associated with that particular chain. These actors can be a source of inspiration in the development of concrete projects in the Amsterdam metropolitan area. Opposite is a representation of a non-exhaustive and select group of actors for the construction chain and organic residual streams chain.
Struyk Verwo infra
Decostone-natuursteen Transs hi Petrol
and ag pmen ribulk t
STERD Redstone AM OF AM
Bellen ARCHITECTURE Tourism AND DESIGN
Paro Van Gansewinkel A.E.B
Cortlever Langhout Betonfabriek
waste water treatm ent
Miscanthusgroep REAL ESTATE
Stonecycling Anci Cebo
Delta Development Group
Rabo Real Estate Group
Overview of a select and non-exhaustive group of stakeholders in the construction chain. The size of the circle indicates the importance of the organisation. (Insights from interviews, literature and assessment by the research team)
3D Canal House Ballast Nedam
AEB ECONOMIC IMPACT
FOOD AND BEVERAGE PRODUCTION
CONCRETE AND MINERAL STREAMS
REAL ESTATE DEVELOPMENT AND REALLOCATION OF BUILDINGS
METAL TRANSPORTATION STREAMS
Agricult ure and flowers
Orgaworld Biodiesel Amsterdam
New York Pizza
Overview of a selective and non-exhaustive group of stakeholders in the organic residual streams chain. The size of the circle indicates the importance of the organisation. (Insights from interviews, literature and assessment by the research team)
ACULTURE MSTER DAM
waste water treatm ent
LOGISTICS IN THE FOOD SECTOR SCRAP METAL PROCESSING
TRANSPORT Tourism AND STORAGE
Transs hipm and ag ribulk ent
cluste r Looije POR Tomaten
Overview of ten chains in the MRA. Analysis developed by TNO and Circle Economy.
ARCHITECTURE, AND DESIGN SERVICES
FOOD PRODUCTION AND WASTE PROCESSING
Instock BinBang FoodSharing
Vork & Mes Qunis
Food Surplus Entrepreneurs Network BuurtBuik
INDICATORS CIRCULAR ECONOMY This page represents how the city of Amsterdam, the metropolitan region and The Netherlands score on three indicators: value retention, economic impact and ecological impact. Together, these three indicators give an initial idea of how, on a city-level, circularity could be measured. The three indicators were developed in the context of RACE (Realisation or Acceleration towards a Circular Economy), a program initiated by the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. A summary of the indicators is presented later. Previously, TNO
and Circle Economy calculated these indicators at the national level. The value retention is estimated according to resource efficiency: the amount of waste that is produced to generate an added value of 1000 euro. The economic impact is measured in added value per person and the percentage of circular services in the economy: the proportion of the added value in an economy that is generated by services focused on product design, rental, repair and recycling. The ecological impact is measured by environmental costs and CO2-emissions.
RAW MATERIAL EFFICIENCY Raw material efficiency indicates possible waste reduction in production of goods, measured in kilograms of waste per €1,000 output
GROSS VALUE ADDED
ENVIRONMENTAL Environmental costs are the costs of exhaustion, water pollution, CO2-emissions, toxicity and land use in € per kilogram
Gross Value Added per person is the economic value in € per person
USE OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES The use of renewable resources is the percentage of imports (net and domestic) consisting of biomass compared to total imports AMSTERDAM
CIRCULAR SERVICES Circular Services is the percentage of services - related to the circular economy - compared with the Gross Value Added
CO2-EMISSIONS CO2 emission is the amount of carbon dioxide which is released into the atmosphere in kilograms of CO2 per person
5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS
The roadmap and action agenda presented in this Quick Scan offer a starting point, giving concrete direction to the ambition, vision and agenda on the theme of a circular economy for two specific value chains – construction and organic residual streams. The municipality can focus on expanding the details of these plans as a next step. Stakeholders, both within the government and in the market, will need to be engaged to actually take action on the proposed directions. Listed below are some next steps advised for the municipality. Further development and selection of indicators that provide insight into the level of circularity in the city of Amsterdam can be undertaken. This basic set of indicators can be used, among other things, to measure progress. The applied ‘circular indicators framework’ in this study (Chapter 4) can give direction to the next steps. The indicators can be applied in an interactive circularity dashboard that displays the progress of the most important indicators. The dashboard can be used internally, but can also involve inhabitants of the city more actively on the subject of a circular economy. In addition, Amsterdam can (in the future) benchmark against other cities on their circular performance.
To come to a detailed feasibility of the proposed actions, more analysis is needed. This analysis can include, for example, a detailed (social) cost-benefit assessment for the various parties needed for implementation. Next steps in the investigation of opportunities for the city and region are part of the program ‘Urban Pulse’, which is led by Amsterdam Metropolitan Solutions (AMS) and Circulaire Stad. The need for greater transparency and a better understanding of the demand of (secondary) resource flows in the region and beyond is mentioned by many stakeholders as a condition for a circular economy, particularly for an optimal exchange and high-value processing of streams. Further development of (geographically explicit) digital material platforms would be crucial to connecting the supply and demand of residual streams and materials. Related to the previous point, there is also a need for active coordination to match supply and demand. The municipality could potentially explore the appointment of chain directors who would be responsible for active matchmaking.
Raymond Groot Lipman, Senior Account
Circle Economy is a cooperative whose mission is
FABRIC is a knowledge-intensive design studio
Klaske Kruk, Director of Programs
manager Grootbedrijf, Rabobank Almere
to globally accelerate the practical implementation
led by Eric Frijters and Olv Klijn. The involvement
Marc de Wit, Director of Strategic Alliances
Peter van Heerde, Account manager MKB,
of a circular economy. To accelerate the worldwide
of the two founders in architecture, urban
Shyaam Ramkumar, Lead Tool Development
transition towards a circular economy, we use
planning and research led to the creation of
Jurn de Winter, Lead Circle Cities
Angeline Kierkels, Director Public Sector,
two main levers:
FABRICations. Our motto is: “Think while you do.”
Merve Güvendik, Project Manager Circle Market
1) Practical action, aimed at developing practical
The motto expresses the thorough approach that
Kay van ’t Hof, Designer
Fokke Kroesen, Environmental Manager, KLM
characterises FABRIC. Our innovative solutions
Jeroen Lubbers, Deputy head Economic Affairs
2) Campaigns, communication and engagement,
are rooted in a huge technical, historical and
municipality of Almere
aimed at spreading our message. We focus on
cultural knowledge. With each project, we invest
Ton Bastein, Program Manager Resource
Kees van der Lugt, Strategic advisor &
projects and activities that are both practical and
in research to further increase the available
Efficiency and Circular Economy
innovation manager, Waternet
knowledge and to further improve the quality of
Jacco Verstraeten-Jochemsen, Project Manager,
Ward Massa, Co-owner, Stonecycling
Dominique van Ratingen, Program manager
TNO is a non-profit organisation that applies
provider and the most innovative solution creator.
Elmer Rietveld, Researcher
sustainability, Amsterdam Economic Board
thorough scientific principles to a wide range
That is why we often form partnerships with other
Mara Hauck, Scientist Specialist on life-cycle
Jan Willem Reuchlin, Consultant Strategy &
of disciplines. TNO is active within five key
similar knowledge-intensive companies.
assessment, Climate, Air and Sustainability.
Innovation, Port of Amsterdam
sustainability themes: industry, healthy living,
Rene van Schaijk, Senior Account manager
energy, the environment and defence and security.
Grootzakelijk, Rabobank Amstel en Vecht
TNO is one of the most internationally oriented
Eric Frijters, Co-founder
Wouter Schrier, Advisor on mobility and electric
research and technology organisations in Europe
Olv Klijn, Co-founder
and has an unparalleled knowledgebase full of
Bas Driessen, Co-founder
Jeroen Slot, Head of research, employee
information about innovation, sustainability and
research and statistics, municipality of
policy making. Maintaining and improving this
knowledgebase is a high priority as we continue to
We would like to express our gratitude to the
Marc Spiller, Waste water treatment, Advanced
develop within international knowledge networks.
following for sharing their expert knowledge
and specific data about the various streams in
Sven Stremke, Principal Investigator for Energy,
Amsterdam with us:
Advanced Metropolitan Solutions
our proposals. We want to be the best knowledge
Sabrine Strijbos, Sector Specialist Economic Sietse Agema, Strategic Advisor, Amsterdam
Sustainability and Fashion, municipality of
Olaf Blauw, Director, Delta Development
Andre Struker, Strategic Advisor, Waternet
Martijn Bovee, Manager Strategic Accounts,
Philippe Vorst, Founder & Director, New York
Bart Brink, Director Business Unit, RHDHV
Ad van Vught, Strategic Purchasing Manager,
Marc Brito, Senior Relationship Manager Public
Sector, Rabobank Amsterdam
Bart de Wit, Manager SME’s, Companies,
Jeremy Croes, Programme Coordinator Raw
Materials & Waste Streams, Schiphol Airport Pieter Goudwaard, CSR advisor, Sustainable business development, Jumbo
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Published on Mar 8, 2018
Published on Mar 8, 2018
msterdam was one of the first cities in the world to initiate the transition to a circular economy. FABRICations, Circle Economy and TNO wen...