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THE PEOPLE’S PALACE

AÁFIN AWON ENIYAN DESIGN STRATEGY - DECEMBER SUBMISSION

Oluwafolasadeorimi Okunribido

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Contents

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00 Abstract 01 The project 02 Tradition + Expectation 6

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03 Alté 04 The Aura 05 Representation 94

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Bibliography

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Abstract | The project is a ‘p will assimilate the concept o and the emerging, emancipa the Alté community to create that is a centre for exchange and a shelter for celebration will trace the evolution of how in Nigeria and re-democratis establishing a new boundary secure and enabled to live a will be inhabited by a range Alté community. The project of the home, to redefine ho perceived, developed and inh 6

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palace’ in Lagos, Nigeria. It of traditional Yorùbá palaces atory and vibrant culture of a place that reveres freedom, e, a harbour for commoning n and ceremony. The project w people have lived together se the notion of the palace by y within which people can be as they see fit. These spaces of groups which include the t will challenge the typology ow communal spaces can be habited in Lagos, Nigeria. DESIGN STRATEGY

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The project | An Áfin (refer to page 15 for definition) Key points: 1) 2) 3)

Reclaim the organisational typology of the Áfin, in relation to how to was used for celebration, exchange, and commoning, for use of a new community in Lagos, Nigeria. Challenge the typology of the home in the context of Lagos and introduce a new typology of rooms for collective living space. The use of intense colour, derived from the vibrancy of the Alté community (see Alté chapter for more information) to create phenomena.

What is the context? The project is based in Lagos, Nigeria. The project exists between the well-established hierarchical and patriotic system in Nigeria, that is deeply juxtaposed by an emerging desire of many Nigerians to emancipate themselves from this conservative culture. The emerging desire seems to manifest itself in many ways, some of which are through music and fashion. Who are the spaces for? The building will be for a group of women. It will provide a shelter within which they can be enabled to live as they see fit. Establishing a boundary around these women will enable the project to reassure their modes of living. What is the building? The building is a low lying, deep and heavy mass which is elevated by a single story and punctured by carved out courtyards. Collective living spaces above stretch by 100x100m, reaching five levels which over shadow the perimeter of the site. It sits in the centre of Lagos, providing an inward-looking shelter for its inhabitants, using light, colour and mass to create spaces of exchange, commoning and celebration. (Refer to page 176 - 179 for early tests). Typological counters The project will challenge the existing archetypes and power structures in Nigeria, through an understanding of the kinship and family relationship models and explore the counter cultures/ negation presented by the Alté community in order to develope a new typology of space.

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Instagram post from Wavy the Creater, artist from the AltĂŠ community. DESIGN STRATEGY

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Traditions + Expectations | B

AltĂŠ community, we must un they are countering. Nigerian and tailors, their clothing is fu also have a passion for some in life of dance, music and fi was a key aspect of one stan expressed through the spaces the complex Ă fin (palace) to the clothes that were worn e purposes. There are three m religion, Christianity and Isl were expected to give the ut and for those who could affo university was a way to bring


Before we can understand the nderstand the culture which ns are expert dyers, weavers ull of pattern and texture. They e of the ubiquitous pleasures film. Traditionally, hierarchy nding in community, this was s people would inhabit, from o the humble farm house, to every day and for celebratory main religions; the traditional lam. The younger generation tmost respect to their elders ord it, success at school and g honour to your family. DESIGN STRATEGY

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Palace 1.a large house that is the official home of a king, queen, or other person of high social rank: a royal/presidential palace Buckingham Palace is open to the public. 2. old-fashioned used in the names of large buildings, such as cinemas or places where people go dancing1 /ˈpalɪs/ noun

a large and impressive building forming the official residence of a ruler, pope, archbishop, etc. INFORMAL a large, splendid house or place of entertainment.2

1 ‘PALACE | Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary’ <https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/ english/palace> [accessed 10 December 2019]. 2 ‘Palace Definition - Google Search’ <https://www.google.com/ search?ei=CqbvXZ3gF62P1fAPvuOT2AE&q=palace+definition&oq=palace+definition&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0i70i249j0 j0i22i30l8.6447.10701..10949...2.4..0.90.1274.19......0....1..gws-wiz.......0i71j0i131i273j0i67j0i131j0i273j0i131i67j 0i10.fB19hwcLd4U&ved=0ahUKEwidjdD6n6vmAhWtRxUIHb7xBBsQ4dUDCAs&uact=5> [accessed 10 December 2019].

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Áfin “The royal residence of a Yoruba Oba is known as the Àfin, a term which is broadly equivalent to the English word palace. The term Àfin refers exclusively to the official residence of an Oba: hence it does not mean exactly the same thing as the word palace, which embraces not only the official residencies of sovereigns and primates such as archbishops and bishops but also, when used figuratively, other large buildings. To avoid repetition, the word palace is used occasionally here after. It is so used, however, on the assumption that the Yoruba meaning is implied.”1

“All roads lead to the Àfin, for it contained, among many things, the town’s assembly hall, court of justice, theatre and sports ground”2 “Until recently the word Àfin was not used for the residence of the bales. In the past, the official residence of the bales was simply known as Ile Oloja (the House of the Lord of the Market)” The Àfin was a glorious building, a place of privacy, celebration, sanctity and worship, a home for the King, his many wives, children, servants and slaves, a place of debate, exchange and punishment, but also a solace for the afflicted.3

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Ojo, G.J.Afolabi, Yoruba Palaces (London: University of London Press LTD, 1966). p.13 Ojo, G.J.Afolabi. p.13 Ojo, G.J.Afolabi. p.72

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A reception at the afin (palace). See the people prostrating in the middle, doing the “dọ̀bálẹ̀” greeting, also turning on their sides for the Oba (King).

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Ilé Ifẹ, Nigeria, as depicted in ‘Missions Builder’ from 1875.

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OWO CITY | ONDO STATE | NIGERIA

King

Chief

Townspeople

Basic hierarchy diagram

The project begins with an enquiry into the Yoruba tribe, which is one of many that was distingusihed by it’s territory, language and customs before Nigeria became a colony in 1914. Owo is a city in South-western Nigeria that dates back to between 1400 and 1600AD. It was the capital of a Yoruba city-state. The city traces its origins back to the ancient city of Ile-Ife, the cradle of Yoruba culture. The city is designed in a circular formation, with a defensive wall around the perimeter and the palace (afin) and market place at the core, this would be the home to the king. Many of the chief’s houses are dispersed around the city, with the townspeople living around various chiefs.

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Town Wall

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ÀFIN OLOWO IN 1964 | OWO CITY

1 Ugha Gbebu - Courtyard for the wives 2 Ugha Yeyeowa - Courtyard where some of the wives are installed chiefs. Also where the wives make sacrifices and celebrate during the new maze and new yam festivals. 3 Ugha Tere - Courtyard for the wives 4 Ugha Okelade - Courtyard assigned to the Oluwa, head of the Oloris (wives of the Olowo). Food and presents for the Oloris are served here, the Oloris are also punished here. 5 Ugha Odoile - Courtyard where the Olowo takes his meals 6 Ugha Oluwabunmile - Courtyard for the wives 7 Ugha Moron - Courtyard where the Olowo worships his head sculpture 8 Ugha Eyinode 9 Ugha Ugankun - Courtyard for the Olowo to retire, to rest 10 Ugha Agwe - Courtyard where the Olowo makes medicines 11 Ugha Akomaduse - Courtyard for senior chiefs to pay homage to King 12 Ugha Dunmo - Courtyard used by chiefs for ajo festival every nine days 13 Ugha Okeagbala - Courtyard for princes and princesses to play 14 Ugha Obga - Courtyard where food presented to the Olowo during festivals is stored 15 Ugha Odoile Each courtyard is named after a previous King.

A Former ugha okunrin (modern playing field) B Chapel C Garage D Olowo’s modern storey building E District Council dispensary F Town Library G Market Shed for Olowo’s wives H Apartment for Olowo’s paid employees I Grade ‘B’ Court

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ÀFIN EWI IN 1923 | ADO - EKITI | NIGERIA

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Igabamote - Courtyard where two hundred can spread out Owa Oio - Courtyard used by the princes and princesses/ space for egungun (Masqueraders)/ sheltered area for taking oaths. Owa Uwa - Meeting place for the King and his Chiefs from the town and neighbouring village Owa Osunnura - Courtyard space for castrated male servants/ Iwemo ceremonies (Christening royal children) Owa Adele - Courtyard strictly for Ewa’s wives Ule sare - Courtyard surrounded by kitchens (strictly no males allowed) Ode Afin - Courtyard use by the mother of the child, christened during the Iwemo Ceremony, for three days.

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Chief servant quarters Arowo’s Compound Compound of Ewi’s relatives

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STRUCTURE OF MAIN BUILDING OF ÀFIN AKURE | NIGERIA

Yoruba Kings were regarded as divine so the center of the city, their home, would be a focal point for religious, economic and political activity. It was the King’s job to host festivals for the community and deal with the disputes of the city. The plan for the building reflects the density of activity that went on in the building which hosted many courtyards (akodi - place of unity and harmony where love and peace dwell) for various activities. Each courtyard had a particular purpose: some were used to offer sacrifices to various deities, there was one where dead kings would be buried, some were dedicated for use by only the king, some only for the queen and women (and the king), some for meetings between the king and the ward chiefs ,some for hearing the problems of the townspeople. It was forbidden for the King to live with a woman so his room would be separate.

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CHIEF’S RESIDENCE | ILE IFE | NIGERIA

Bedroom Kitchen/Parlour

The residence of a chief is usually more highly decorated for the purpose if demonstrating their status. The house will be graced with a gabled porch (kobi), as a sign of authority and tend to have three or four courtyards. The front room was used as a market or meeting place, a place of exchange.

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FAMILY HOUSES | FAMILY COMPOUNDS | NIGERIA

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Three-legged house from a sample survey of Yoruba rural buildings. The Oyo Yoruba designed these dwellings in a long rectangular structure divided into rooms along the back wall, leaving the remaining front section to act as a veranda or lobby. The house thus has three major walls, hence the name.

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Family elder residence in Ile Ife, Nigeria. Such a house could be home to one man and his several wives or multiple nuclear families from the same blood line. There is a clear separation here between the street and the main internal space which belongs to the family. The building follows the same formation of the two-room house with the extension of extra rooms for storage and an internal family courtyard. 3

Family compound in Ebunabon, Nigeria. The family residence is very plain, with little decoration. They consisting of one very large courtyard which is used for living by the whole family. ‘In the courtyard of the house, elders may discuss family concerns while children dart in between them and chickens scurry under their benches. Not too far away some women may be pounding yam with their pestles in a steady thumping cadence. Other youngsters may argue loudly and start to fight on top of the graves of some ancestors whose remains are buried under the floor’1 It is clear that the design of the compound fosters the Yoruba’s desire for an architecture of intimacy. The design actively encourages the gathering, living and dwelling of the extended family. 1 32

John Michael Vlach, ‘Affecting Architecture of the Yoruba’, African Arts, 10.1 (1976), 48–99 <https://doi.org/10.2307/3335257>. DESIGN STRATEGY


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TWO ROOM YORUBA HOUSES | RURAL NIGERIA

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Basic two room house in Aroko, Nigeria. This is the core unit for Yoruba architecture. The building is typically 3x3m and simply made from mud walls and a thatched roof which can last hundreds of years with vigilant care and maintenance. Two room houses are usually built for individuals on farm sites outside of the city and would be a home away from home when a farmer is working on the land. The first room doubles as the kitchen and parlour whilst the inner room is reserved for sleeping and storing private items. Bush houses are designed for individual intimacy. 2

Triple - module housing unit in Atiba, Nigeria. The series is a collection of three two room houses which are often built to provide a separation between individuals and families. Each unit has its own kitchen/parlour and sleeping room. 3

Double - module rural compound in Aroko, Nigeria. Buildings use the same 3x3m module to create a rows and clusters of houses. Compound farms use multiple buildings inhabited by multiple families to create an exterior communal focus. It is clear that the Yoruba express in their architecture a desire to be part of social, family and personal affairs. This is the most basic compound house agbo ile which means ‘a flock of houses’.

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Women cooking a traditional meal for the King 36

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Servant/ slave disturbs the King as he sacrifices a pigeon for a deity. DESIGN STRATEGY

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Left a young man bringing the Orisha stolen from his mother to the church. 38

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Father punishes daughter for refusing to worship one of the deities. DESIGN STRATEGY

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Shango was a Yoruba deity, viewed as the most powerful and feared. He could cast ‘thundersone’, to earth which would create thunder and lightning to anyone who offends him. DESIGN STRATEGY 45


Tribal marks were part of Yoruba culture and were inscribed on the body by burning or cutting the skin at a young age. Its primary function was to provide a distinction between various tribes, families and patrilineal heritage. 46

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Oba (King) Oyewusi, II, Olokuku of Okuku surrounded by his children during the Oluku festival, 1971

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King Olateru Olagbegi II(1910- 1998) the Olowo of Owo in Ondo state during a photo shoot at his Palace in 1959. Olagbegi was the epitome of a modern Traditional ruler, quite erudite and also an avid Tennis player who championed the development of the game in Nigeria. He was rumoured to have fathered over 140 children of which over 120 are graduate, making some label him as the ‘father of many nations’...

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Traditional Dress for festival

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Ife Art in Ancient Nigeria: The Wunmonije heads at the British Museum in 1948. Published in Drewal (H.J.) & Schildkrout (E.), Dynasty and Divinity. It was believed that the Orí, head, contained our souls so monuments of King’s heads were created (source Yoruba Palaces) 56

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Gates into tradition family residencies

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King wearing traditional attire for ceremony.

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Chief’s house, Benin Kingdom, Nigeria, 1994. Photo by Kathy Curnow. DESIGN STRATEGY

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Chief Aiyevbekpen Ero, the Ero of Benin, one of the seven Uzama, wearing coral regalia, Ero’s palace, Urubi, Benin City, Nigeria, October 1981. Photo by Barbara W. Blackmun.

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Three chiefs wearing traditional attire.

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Man greets his elder.

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Young boys at school.

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Student gradating from Medical school and later taking part in National Youth Service Corps, Nigeria, a compulsory service that must be attended by all univeristy graduates.

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Women pounding yam. 72

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Wedding Preparations, early 1970s, Lafia Road, Kaduna.

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A Nigerian market in the 1940s. Iddo Island

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This is Mapo Hall, Mapo Hill, Ibadan, 1975 Above is a photo showing the famous Mapo Hall proudly sitting on Mapo Hill, Ibadan in 1975. Mapo Hall was built during the colonial days of Ibadan by Engineer Robert Taffy Jones. The historical Mapo Hall which was built in 1925 now serve as a conference hall and a mini museum displaying historical artefacts and relics of colonialism. Mapo Hall played an important role in the colonial history of Ibadan. 78

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Painted entry wall of communal shrine.

Wall painters in front of their work.

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A market in Kano, 1960s

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Igbo soldier during the Nigerian Civil War, November, 1968

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Fela Kuti

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Igbo women dancing on the street.

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Fela was a musician, multi instrumentalist, composer, pioneer to Afro-beat music and human rights activist. He was born into an upper middle class family in Ogun State, Nigeria. His mother was a chief, feminist activist in the anti colonial movement, whilst his father was an Anglican minister, school principal and the first precedent to the Nigerian Union of teachers. Two of his brothers became doctors and his cousin Wole Soyinka was the first African to win a Nobel Prize for Literature. Fela’s band the Afrika ‘70, had lyrical themes of love and social issues. He formed the Kalatuta Republic, a commune, with a recording studio and a home for many of the people connected to the band, which he later declared as independent from the Nigerian state.

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Obey began his professional career in the mid-1950s after moving to Lagos. After tutelage under Fatai Rolling-Dollar’s band, he formed a band called The International Brothers in 1964, playing highlife–jùjúfusion. The band later metamorphosed into InterReformers in the early-1970s, with a long list of Juju album hits on the West African Decca musical label. Obey began experimenting with Yoruba percussion style and expanding on the band by adding more drum kits, guitars and talking drums. Obey’s musical strengths lie in weaving intricate Yoruba axioms into dance-floor compositions. As is characteristic of Nigerian Yoruba social-circle music, the Inter-Reformers band excel in praise-singing for rich Nigerian socialites and business tycoons. Obey, however, is also renowned for Christian spiritual themes in his music and has since the early-1990s retired into Nigerian gospel music ministry.

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AltĂŠ | The AltĂŠ communi affluent Nigerian artists them are successfully cr music videos, fashion, styl through social media. M members are wealthy, they grew up together and had each other. As a result th which is key the groups su start creating from thei family home as space to through Sound Cloud and 92

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ity are a group of young, living in Lagos. Many of reating their own music, list and modelling careers Many of the pioneering y went to the same schools, d parents who also know hey will often collaborate, uccess. Individuals usually ir bedrooms, using their gain an online following d Instagram. DESIGN STRATEGY

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Alté |

Pioneers

Followers

Basic hierarchy diagram

Urban Dictionary definition: Means ‘alternative’, often misunderstood for a habit, it is a lifestyle; a group of Nigerian youth with a unique sense of fashion and music. Alté fashion embraces a retro and vintage style, but is some how tagged as “new school”. Alté music on the other hand is not mainstream, it is a melodic, whimsy, almost-spiritual groove. The melody and harmony somehow layer over each other, making it a seamless experience in the ear.1

1 ‘Urban Dictionary: Alté’, Urban Dictionary <https://www. urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Alt%C3%A9> [accessed 10 December 2019].

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Music artists from the scene are known for blending a variety of sounds from R&B, soul and rap to Afro-beats and indie guitar music. Musicians such as Odunsi, Santi and Lady Donli are pioneering the ‘emancipated pop scene’2, encouraging others to follow their own path away from the conservative culture in Nigeria. In most cases this is visible through fashion. The group rebel against the mainstream in an effort to freely express themselves. Their sense of style is not widely accepted to the average Nigerian and this is exactly the type of prejudice they wish to free themselves from. What can be learnt from the Alté community? How are they trying to emancipate themselves and how could these findings be used to benefit other members of the Nigerian community? It is clear that the line between work and entertainment is blurred within the Alté community, this is visible through music videos directed during house parties, concerts regular posts on Instagram. The group are carving out their own spaces within the city, whether it be through central courtyards in apartment complexes, quite beaches that can only be reached by sea, or small burger joints offering food and games from 8am to 4am.

Each of these spaces seem to provide a solace or get away from the main city, with each offering different scales for group interaction. The music is what gives the Alté community a platform to speak of and display their thoughts on the importance for the freedom of expression. In addition to the music, fashion designers, directors and bloggers and appearing to compliment the music scene. A space for listening to music and entertainment will accompany the communal living spaces within the project. The same logic could to be applied globally, giving other artists the opportunity to have their music and thoughts heard. One does not ‘express themselves’, one learns the tools which they can use to express themselves, the ability to express one’s self freely can be learn through being involved in such music events. The project aims to counter the conservative hierarchical structure of Nigerian culture, which is emulated through the organisation of the traditional cities and attire, by providing a space for Nigerians to gather together in the sound of music, in the presence of colour and the diversity of light.

2 Yemisi Adegoke, ‘Alté, Nigeria’s Emancipated Pop Scene: “People Aren’t Used to Being Free”’, The Guardian, 23 September 2019, section Music <https://www.theguardian.com/music/2019/sep/23/alte-nigeria-popsanti-odunsi-lady-donli> [accessed 21 October 2019].

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“It’s not just about the mu

“People don’t think it’s p Nigerian and have freedo Santi

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usic, it’s about freedom,”

possible for you to be a om to express yourself.”

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“If you want to express yourself so much, and no one is giving you what you want, you just do it yourself,” “The first set of people that were receptive to it were Nigerians outside Nigeria,” “They directly saw the value in us. You speak to a lot of young people and they’d be like, ‘I’ve not been listening to Nigerian music for a while and I just started listening again.’” “If anything is classist music, it’s Nigerian pop,” “They talk about things the average Nigerian is never going to attain. The aim [of alté] is not to isolate anything, it’s to let more people be expressive. People aren’t used to being free, they aren’t used to seeing expression, so they don’t know how to react to it.”

Odunsi

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“Every genre of music with an alternative twist” “They’re all just trying to be free,” “They will stop at nothing to keep creating.”

Santi

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“If you’re about expressing yourself and not conforming to the norm, no one [in the scene] is going to be like, ‘You’re not alté enough’,” she says. Instead, she says, the lack of inclusion is a result of the focus on Lagos as the country’s entertainment hub. “You have people making music in Port Harcourt, but the greater Nigerian scene doesn’t know them because they’re not in Lagos,” she says. “If only one state is representing what the music industry is, that in itself is exclusionary.”

Lady Donali

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Dami Oniru adds that she wants to “break out of the cycle where the normal perception is that as a woman in the Nigerian music industry, you have to have sex appeal or be a sex symbol.” Dami Oniru “Nigerian culture instils some sort of fear in you,” she says. “And you’re told to become a doctor, lawyer or an engineer. If you’re not, you’ve basically failed in life.” Dami Oniru

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Bayo, Founder of Orange Culture


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DESIGN STRATEGY 123 Alani Adenle, Creative


Ashley Okoli, Stylist and Model

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Jess Jess Finesse, Podcast Host and Creative

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Solis, Singer and Song-writer

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Steven Tayo, Photographer

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Alte website DESIGN STRATEGY 135


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Instagram model also seen in various music videos

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Primewaterview Gardens Primewaterview gardens is where many of the members live. Events are organised around this area and one will often find groups of them hanging out on the grounds. The apartments are described as luxury property developments with two other block in Ikoyo and Victoria Island.

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Primewaterview Gardens

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Burg.co BURG.CO is a popular hang out spot for the AltĂŠ and other creatives alike. The joint host three main spaces. At the front is a gated entrance with parking spaces shared with the next door shop, inside one will find an indoor dining space, counter/ bar and kitchen. Towards the back is a secret garden which is hidden deep in the plan of the building with games such as foosball, table tennis, chess and checkers. It is popular to instagrammers and bloggers who the restaurant to eat, drink and spend time together,

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Tarkwa Bay Beach Tarkwa Bay Beach is an enclosed beach near the Lagos Harbour. It is an Island and can therefore only be reached by boat. It is far away from the noise and chaos of the city.

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Aura |

The Alté community present an aesthetic of intense colour and vibrancy. The group use this as a way to freely express themselves within a hierarchical power structure that would usually supress this kind of self-expression. This use of colour and vibrancy will be reflected in the building project as a way to provide a community of women, who are also often supressed by the culture, with a space within which they too could also counter the existing culture in Lagos, Nigeria. The project will explore how one could use colour to create different environments. How could one use colour to create a sense of depth or shallowness and how could these spaces characterise a range of uses that are directly informed by the spatial phenomena created? Early tests focussed on how one could create a range of spaces using colour as a reflective planar surface. This was coupled with a series of open courtyards which would harness the colour and reflect an intense blue light on the ground below. Further tests will focus on; what the relationship is between the chosen colours and the Alté community, how one could use colour as more than just a planar surface, and how one could create their own colours with the knowledge of the Alté community. The project will also focus on what can be learnt from the existing family relationships as well as traditional dwellings and how their spatial organisation encouraged collective life in the form of celebration, exchanged and commoming. The project will develop a new typology that both reflects the aura of the traditional dwellings of the past, whilst challenging the power structures that once defined them in the past.

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Model tests used to test various courtyard conditions

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The time was two And light from the sun was reflecting an intense Blue colour that shimmered across the main courtyard space. It was our first time here For an intimate concert to see Odunsi And the rest of the AltÊ crew. We couldn’t wait, but were glad to have found a good spot 178 DESIGN STRATEGY Before the crowds appear. Fictional poem


Conceptual model used to test how one could create a range of spatial conditions using colour reflected from DESIGN STRATEGY 179 surfaces and light.


Aura | Precedent

Lina Bo Bardi | MASP | Brazil | 1947 The MASP was designed to ensure that the new museum would not block the sites panoramic vistas. The building is therefore both raised and sunk by two levels, leaving the ground floor plan open to the street to be used as an informal gathering space. The bridge structure above the ground level is supported by two large, pre-stressed concrete portal frames which are supported by four feet below the ground. A glass lift transports the public to the upper floors of the museum providing subtle glimpses into the open plan gallery spaces. The gallery spaces on both upper floors host an open plan arrangement, encouraging visitors to meander amongst the artwork. In the top floor gallery space art pieces are mounted on glass panels grounded by concrete blocks, creating the appearance of floating and weightlessness, whilst still allowing views out to the city. These elements were also designed by Bo Bardi and clearly emulate the floating bridge structure seen from the street level.

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Luis Barragรกn | Casa Gilardi | Mexico | 1976 Barragan uses intense bold hues, based on Mexican paintings, in his buildings. Vertical gaps in the external surfaces allow light to penetrate into the building casting shadows that change and animate the spaces throughout the day. Some walls are left blank and unadorned allowing reflections and diffuse coloured light to paint them.

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Sanaa | Eda Apartments | Japan | 2002 Eda is an unbuilt project in Tokyo, Japan. It has a large mass, lifted on dainty circular columns, encompassing a plethora of unique living spaces. The mass is punctured by irregularly shaped courtyards which bring light into a vast, single storey, shared and open ground floor level space.

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Josef Albers | Homage to the Square | 1959 Albers’s Homage to the Square was a study on how colours, when organised into a series of cut out squares, could create a sense of depth or shallowness.

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How can one use colour to create a sense of depth? For this test I will take a examples from ‘Homage to the square’ series, cut them out and space them at an equal distance to one another. How does our perception of a space change with each test? Do planes that appear to recede have a different aura to those that appear to deepen the space? Does it look like a tunnel or like objects are stacking onto one another? Which combinations create depth, which are shallow? ¾ squares S= Shallow | D= Depth | F= Flat O= Coming out of the page or stacking | I= Going into the page Variations with 4 colours as opposed to 3 generally create more depth.

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Antoni Malinowski | Its so green outside its difficult to leave the window | 2014 Malinowski works with pigment, light and movement and time. In this painting Malinowski uses a mica-based background on paintings to make light refract from paintings, causing images to look unstable. What happens if you apply this to glass or other materials?

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Olafur Eliasson | Your Blind Passenger | London | 2010 Eliasson used fog and light, which creates intense colour and restricts the viewers perception of the space. This is achieved through the use of florescent lamps and mono frequency yellow lamps which make other surfaces appear black and white.

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Representation | METHODS OF REPRESENTATION The project will be accompanied by a research document which will incorporate a photo essay, texts, precedents, and videos depicting both traditional Nigerian culture and the new modes of living displayed by the AltĂŠ community. Traditional Afins, Yoruba towns and the existing gathering spaces of the AltĂŠ community will be drawn using coloured lines to depict the contrast in the modes if living. All drawings will be catalogued in order to allow comparison. The final project will also be illustrated through line draws, large scale models, model videos, renders and technical details.

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