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Oulu 2013 Regional Session of EYP Finland Preparation Kit for Delegates


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

Welcome words Dear delegates, With this greeting I would like to welcome you to the world of EYP and specifically to the regional session of EYP Finland in Oulu 2013. EYP is a challenge, it is something you fall in love with, it is a place where many finally find the opportunity to speak out and express our opinions. EYP is full of opportunities and experiences, and I am thrilled that you have decided to give it a try! In this topic preparation booklet, you will find a topic overview written by the chairperson of your committee. The overview is a brief outline of the issues and main questions you will be discussing with your committees. The more you prepare, the better you will succeed and the more fun you will have, so I encourage you to take some time to get to know your topic and the links that have been provided to you. I really look forward to meeting all of you! Welcome to Oulu 2013 and good luck! Sini Hyytiäinen President Oulu 2013 ---

European Youth Parliament (EYP) The European Youth Parliament represents a non-partisan and independent educational project which is tailored specifically to the needs of the young European citizen. European Youth Parliament Finland, established in 2011, is the National Committee of the EYP in Finland. The EYP encourages independent thinking and initiative in young people and facilitates the learning of crucial social and professional skills. Since its inauguration, many tens of thousands of young people have taken part in Regional, National and International Sessions, formed friendships and made international contacts across and beyond borders. The EYP has thus made a vital contribution towards uniting Europe. Today the EYP is one of the largest European platforms for political debate, intercultural encounters, political educational work and the exchange of ideas among young people in Europe. The EYP consists of a network of 36 European associations in which thousands of young people are active in a voluntary capacity. The EYP is a programme of the Schwarzkopf Foundation.


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

European Union (EU) The European Union is an economic and political union of 28 Member States. The EU was established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993 upon the foundations of the European Communities. With over 500 million inhabitants, the EU generated an estimated 21% of the PPP gross world product in 2009. The EU has developed a single market through a standardised system of laws which apply in all Member States, and ensures the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital, including the abolition of passport controls within the Schengen area. It enacts legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. Seventeen Member States have adopted a common currency, the euro. With a view to its relations with the wider world, the EU has developed a limited role in foreign and defence policy through the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Permanent diplomatic missions have been established around the world and the EU is represented at the United Nations, the WTO, the G8 and the G-20. The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranationalism and intergovernmentalism. In certain areas, decisions are taken by independent institutions, while in others, they are made through negotiation between Member States. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community formed by six countries in the 1950s. Since then, it has grown in size through enlargement, and in power through the addition of policy areas to its remit. The last amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU came into force in 2009 and was the Lisbon Treaty. The institutions of the European Union The European Council is responsible for defining the general political direction and priorities of the EU. It comprises the heads of state or government of EU Member States, along with its President (currently Herman Van Rompuy from Belgium) and the President of the Commission. The Council of the European Union (commonly referred to as the Council of Ministers) is the institution in the legislature of the EU representing the governments of member states, the other legislative body being the European Parliament. The exact membership depends upon the topic: for example, when discussing agricultural policy the Council is formed by the 28 national ministers whose portfolio includes this policy area. The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the EU. Together with the Council, it forms the bicameral legislative branch of the EU. The Parliament is composed of 766 MEPs. The current president is Martin Schulz from Germany. The European Commission is the executive body of the EU. It is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union’s treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union. The Commission operates as a cabinet government, with 28 Commissioners. The current President is José Manuel Durão Barroso from Portugal. Other important institutions of the EU include the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Central Bank. The EU also has several agencies and other institutions.


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

Committee topics 1. Committee on Foreign Affairs – AFET Chairpersons: Lucie Mérelle (FI), Ella Palkoaho (FI) With over 100 000 dead and millions of refugees the Syrian civil war has become one of the worst humanitarian crises of the decade. As talk of the possibility of military intervention increases, what stance should the EU take in international efforts to cease the violence in Syria? 2. Committee on Culture and Education – CULT Chairpersons: Elsa Lund (SE), Lea Schiewer (DE) Cross-cultural encounters: as major construction projects bring large numbers of foreign workers to peripheral areas with traditionally homogenous populations, the ensuing cultural encounters can potentially be difficult. How should EU Member States facilitate the integration of foreign workers in peripheries so that the benefits of labour mobility can be maximised in these areas as well? 3. Committee on Development – DEVE Chairpersons: Säde Kanervisto (FI), Hammu Varjonen (FI) Dead aid? Combined, the European Commission and the EU Member States constitute the single largest donor of development aid, but the effectiveness of development aid is frequently questioned. How should the EU make sure that European efforts secure a better economic and political future for the developing world? 4. Committee on Industry, Research and Energy – ITRE Chairpersons: Ana Viitanen (FI), Henok Ghebrenigus (NL) The post-Fukushima Europe: with the challenge of balancing environmental sustainability, security and the need for cheap energy, what role should nuclear energy play in the EU Member States’ energy strategies? 5. Committee on Regional Development – REGI Chairpersons: Hans Näsman (FI), Jenni Röynä (FI) Reviewing the Catalan, Scottish and Flemish experience: with breakaway regions sending the EU into legally and politically unmapped territory, what should be the EU’s stance towards secession movements within its borders and the potential of newly emerging states within EU territory?


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

6. Committee on Security and Defence Chairpersons: Maris Rutkis (LV), Sini Hyytiäinen (FI) In the aftermath of the NSA spying scandal it has become clear that large-scale electronic surveillance is a global phenomenon. How should the EU and its Member States respond to the threat foreign surveillance poses to information security of European organisations and citizens?


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

1. Committee on Foreign Affairs – AFET Chairpersons: Lucie Mérelle (FI), Ella Palkoaho (FI) With over 100 000 dead and millions of refugees the Syrian civil war has become one of the worst humanitarian crises of the decade. As talk of the possibility of military intervention increases, what stance should the EU take in international efforts to cease the violence in Syria? Link to the Video Presentation Overview In March 2011, a Civil war erupted in the middle-eastern country of Syria. It is an on-going conflict between the longserving Syrian government and those seeking to bring it down, also known as the rebel forces. With so many different rebel groups and governmental bodies involved, this Civil war is said to be the worst humanitarian crisis of the decade, resulting in thousands of refugees displaced and numerous people massacred. The international community has failed several times in trying to forge an enduring ceasefire between the two sides. Now recent proof of Syrian military using chemical weapons of mass-destruction against civilians in Damascus has evoked calls for a military intervention of the international community. However, governments all over the world demand alternatives on how to better handle the situation. Still Syria with its use of chemical warfare and thus violation of international law has gone too far to refrain from a military response. Therefore it has come into light that there are no other substitutes. The media has recently exposed reports that the U.S. will be “going to war” with Syria and subsequent comments have informed that the U.S. was “ready to go” should President Barack Obama order military action. By “ready to go,” the government means providing air support to the Syrian rebels, as it did for the Libyan rebellion to oust Muammar Gaddafi from office two years ago. In doing so President Bashar al-Assad’s next maneuver shall be intermitted. Al-Assad is seen as a genocidal leader, who is intent on retaining power through any means necessary. In order to achieve his aims he has committed a crime against humanity by murdering more than 1,000 people including more than 400 children with chemical weapons. Hence it seems that the U.S are determined to support the Syrian rebels obliging al-Assad to step down Furthermore they appear to be willing to take the responsibilities of the chaos and destruction caused by al-Assad. President Obama’s proclaimed red line on chemical weapons has trapped his government. On the one hand it does not want to militarily intervene, but on the other hand it cannot stand idly after having been so explicit about what would trigger military action. The U.S. government faces the challenge to convince a war-weary public that a possible intervention will not become a protracted mission, while simultaneously gaining time to establish a broad coalition of support consisting of the United Nations, the NATO and the Arab League. At the same time Russia and China continue to veto all resolutions condemning President Al-Assad’s government in the United Nations Security Council. Hence, taking decisive action to cease the civil war becomes more and more difficult. Keywords Syrian civil war, worst humanitarian crises, military intervention increases, cease the violence


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

Links for further research 1. Introductory material A summary of the situation in Syria A short video on how things escalated and who is involved 2. Official sources The progression of the Syrian civil war Information on Syrian refugees and their displacement The EU’s goals in Syria 3. Newspaper articles and other materials A blog post from the European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) concerning the outburst and the affects on the business community A news article stating that the Syrian Civil war is the worst humanitarian crisis since the Cold war An interview with Bashar al-Assad concerning the concern of a US military attack


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

2. Committee on Culture and Education – CULT Chairpersons: Elsa Lund (SE), Lea Schiewer (DE) Cross-cultural encounters: as major construction projects bring large numbers of foreign workers to peripheral areas with traditionally homogenous populations, the ensuing cultural encounters can potentially be difficult. How should EU Member States facilitate the integration of foreign workers in peripheries so that the benefits of labour mobility can be maximised in these areas as well? Link to the Video Presentation Overview In the 21st century migrants from third countries represent about four per cent of the total EU population. This percentage increases annually and thereby changes the composition of national societies, who face the need to integrate the foreign workers in a way that is mutually beneficial. Especially in peripheric areas, which are characterized by their social homogeneity, tailor-made solutions for a successful integration are necessary. Thus, the EU encourages Member states to exchange their knowledge and best practices about projects aiming at facilitating the daily of migrants in within the network of National Contact Points on Integration. These projects obtain funding by the European Fund for the Integration of non-EU immigrants (EIF), which seeks to promote cooperation between Member States in order to grant comparable rights, responsibilities and opportunities for all. The fund disposes of a budget of 825 million for the period 2007-13 and works both at Member States’ level and at EU level allowing so-called “Community actions”. The Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the European Union, agreed in 2004, serve as the basis for the EIF and the entire policy-making in the area of integration. They put into writing i.a. how crucial migration of foreign workers is for the EU’s long-term competitiveness and how both migrants and receiving societies are urged to commit themselves to the process of integration. One has to bear in mind it is not the EU’s responsibility to determine integration strategies and implement measures, however it can provide the coordinative and financial support for its Member States and monitor their efforts. In 2005 the European Commission agreed upon the Common Agenda for Integration, which suggested several mechanisms and instruments to promote integration and facilitate exchange between integration actors. Further the Europe 2020 Strategy with its headline target to raise the employment rate of 20 to 64-year olds in the EU to 75 % and the Stockholm Programme, which defines priorities for the area of justice, freedom and security, set objectives for the immigration policy. Both recognize the potential of migration for building a competitive and sustainable economy. Whilst taking into account the legal framework, Member States have to particularly focus on the local and regional level, where e.g. poorly developed infrastructure impedes the realization of integration projects. Keywords National Contact Points on Integration, European Fund for the Integration of third-Country Nationals (EIF), integration projects, community actions


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

Links for further research 1. Introductory material European Commission about Immigration European Commision about Integration Legislative framework for migration 2. Official sources List of integration projects throughout the European Union Information about the European Fund for the Integration of non-EU immigrants (EIF) Information about the Europe 2020 Strategy Information about the Stockholm Programme European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals 3. Newspaper articles and other materials Viewpoints: What should be done about integration? The ins and the outs. Immigration and growing inequality are making the Nordics less homogeneous. Angela Merkel declares death of German multiculturalism


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

3. Committee on Development – DEVE Chairpersons: Säde Kanervisto (FI), Hammu Varjonen (FI) Dead aid? Combined, the European Commission and the EU Member States constitute the single largest donor of development aid, but the effectiveness of development aid is frequently questioned. How should the EU make sure that European efforts secure a better economic and political future for the developing world? Link to the Video Presentation Overview Development aid is a long-term action for eradicating poverty and raising the standard of living in developing countries. The European Union (EU) along with its Member States spent 53.1 billion euros1 in official development aid (ODA)2 in 2011. However, it has been argued that this funding has not reached its goal – in some cases it might even have been an obstacle to development. A heated discussion has erected about whether development aid is actually beneficial or rather a burden to developing countries. Case in point, Zambian economist Dambisa Moyo, has suggested that international development aid is the primary reason for African countries not being able to eradicate the poverty of their continent. This is alarming as Africa currently receives a lion’s share of European ODA. Moyo argues, that development aid should be abandoned completely to make way for a more market-based solution. Development aid is often the main revenue in the developing countries’ budgets. The aid should aim at sustainable economic growth, but if development aid is rather used to provide basic necessities instead of long-term investments, the main purpose is not fulfilled. Developing countries have become dependent on aid, which makes it even more difficult to gain economic growth. Furthermore, the danger of corruption increases as the flow of money provides tempting opportunities for embezzlement. Even though action has been taken in order to make the development aid more effective, enormous defects still occur. Inefficiency is not only caused by corruption, bad governance and aid dependency. There are severe issues originating from the donors’ side too; Analysts estimate that a great amount of aid is “phantom aid” which includes tied aid and vast transaction costs. Extreme criticisms aside, the general discussion on development aid circles around whether direct budget support or project-based funding should be favoured. Whereas budget support is considered to support the structures of governance, it is harder to monitor. On the other hand project-funding is easier to monitor but it may have less impact in longterm. The European Union remains committed to giving development aid, and it is constantly working to raise its ODA level in accordance with the United Nations’ (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)3. The EU’s common development goals are set in the 2005 European Consensus on Development4. The main aims are to promote democracy, human rights, good governance and security as well as economic growth. Acting under the control of the European Commission, EuropeAid5 is in charge of the EU’s development policy. In 2011 1 http://development.donoratlas.eu/infographics/Global%20Trends%20-%20Infographic%20-%202012.pdf 2 http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/officialdevelopmentassistancedefinitionandcoverage.html

3 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/

4 http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/what/development-policies/european-consensus/ 5 http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/index_en.htm


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

the Commission issued the Agenda for Change6, which sets a more strategic approach to eradicating poverty, including a more targeted allocation of funding. Many questions remain to be discussed during committee work. Should development aid concentrate more on direct budget support or project-based funding? What are the most effective ways to organise funding and should adjustments be made to current development aid systems? Or should traditional development aid be abolished altogether in favour of a more efficient system? Keywords Dead aid, aid effectiveness, aid dependency, Agenda for Change, budget support, project aid, phantom aid Links for further research 1. Introductory material The Wikipedia article on aid effectiveness Video by Oxfam International: Does aid work? Video: ABC documentary criticising development aid 2. Official sources Agenda for Change promotion video Facts and figures of EU development aid OECD website on aid effectiveness Oxfam International: 21st century aid 3. Newspaper articles and other materials The Wall Street Journal: Why Foreign Aid Is Hurting Africa The Guardian on Pool development aid Development aid news by The Guardian

6 http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/news/agenda_for_change_en.htm


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

4. Committee on Industry, Research and Energy – ITRE Chairpersons: Ana Viitanen (FI), Henok Ghebrenigus (NL) The post-Fukushima Europe: with the challenge of balancing environmental sustainability, security and the need for cheap energy, what role should nuclear energy play in the EU Member States’ energy strategies? Overview The issue of nuclear energy brings about a larger question: that of an integrated European energy market. On November 15, 2012 the European Commission published a report on the current state of the Internal Energy Market, which is to be completed by 2014. At the moment, Member States are largely responsible for supplying their own energy demands, a strategy which is less competitive and productive than the proposed EU-wide energy market. By creating a common EU stance on energy production, we will be able to face key issues such as dependency on foreign oil and gas, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. However, if we are determined to create a market that supplies sustainable and cheap energy for the EU, what role must nuclear energy play? The kind of nuclear reaction that is currently used for electricity generation is known as nuclear fission. Nuclear energy currently accounts for 6% of global energy production, a figure rising to 28.5% in the European Union. However, the role of nuclear energy varies largely between Member States, with figures as high as 76% of total electricity generation in France. On the other extreme, electricity generation in Malta and Cyprus is based almost entirely on oil. Furthermore, nuclear energy is an extremely controversial topic. Nuclear catastrophes receive extensive media coverage, most recently in the case of Fukushima. Considering that Japan is a developed country with the sufficient means to maintain safety checks on its nuclear facilities, nuclear catastrophes seem extremely hard to avoid. Also, governments are wary of the potential for terrorist attacks on nuclear plants, which could prove extremely severe. However, the danger of nuclear energy is not limited to discrete catastrophic moments, seeing as nuclear power plants produce high-level nuclear waste, the radioactivity of which poses a threat to life. Currently, there is no method for re-cycling or re-using nuclear waste, which means that it must be stored indefinitely in secure facilities, which can often prove costly. Furthermore, radioactive waste can pose a serious problem to future generations, who will in turn be responsible for its storage. When considering the adverse effects of nuclear fission, it would seem obvious that it needs to be phased out, as a method of energy production in the EU, however is there currently a better alternative? Diminishing the role of nuclear energy would mean increasing Europe’s dependency on foreign energy resources, especially oil, which can have serious consequences on the economy and population. Though the EU is a global leader in the use and development of renewable energy such as solar, wind and hydroelectric power, currently these resources only contribute 18% of the EU’s energy production. Another alternative to nuclear fission is known as nuclear fusion, a process, which could potentially be much more effective than nuclear fission without producing any form on radioactive waste. Research into this field is currently spearheaded by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a project largely funded by the EU’s Fusion for Energy (F4E) programme and which plans to build a fusion reactor in the south of France. Though nuclear fusion seems promising, it is not currently viable for energy production. Thus, taking into account the current challenges which the EU is faced with, what is the best road towards a future in which energy will be available, affordable, and sustainable?


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

Keywords Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, EU Internal Energy Market, European Environmental Agency (EEA), ITER, Fusion for Energy (F4E) Links for further research 1. Introductory material Wikipedia article on nuclear fission power Fusion for Energy’s brochure on Nuclear Fusion 2. Official sources European Commission’s Internal Energy Market communication European Energy 2020 Strategy 3. Newspaper articles and other materials The Guardian on Fukushima New Scientist’s special report: The Fallout from Fukushima


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

5. Committee on Regional Development – REGI Chairpersons: Hans Näsman (FI), Jenni Röynä (FI) Reviewing the Catalan, Scottish and Flemish experience: with breakaway regions sending the EU into legally and politically unmapped territory, what should be the EU’s stance towards secession movements within its borders and the potential of newly emerging states within EU territory? Overview For many 9/11 is a date to be remembered as the day of sorrow in American history. In Europe, the date might have just recently gained a new stigma. On September 11th, a 400-km chain of people formed throughout the region of Catalonia in Northwestern Spain. The protesters stood in favour of arranging a referendum to decide on the issue of Catalonia’s independence. The people of Catalonia aren’t alone with these aspirations of independence. Separatist movements thrive in other EU member states as well, for example Scotland has arranged to hold a referendum in September 2014 on secession from the United Kingdom. Regions breaking apart and creating nations of their own is not new as a phenomenon. Only ten years ago the EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia were a united nation, Czechoslovakia. Regions breaking away from current EU countries create extensive and complex problems. The ideologies, demands and amount of support for these separatist movements varies drastically. Scots have long had a troubled relationship with the government in the south. These issues have resurfaced recently and now calls for separation are coming from the Scots. In Catalonia, Spain’s most prosperous region economically, the locals feel burdened and cheated by their rich contributions to federal government’s revenues and lack of repayment. In Flanders Belgium, where cultural and linguistic differences combined with economic issues rase the New Flemish alliance, calling for the separation of the wealthier Flanders from the French-speaking Wallonia, and securing EU membership. The reason separating from an EU country hasn’t been executed yet is mainly the the lack of clear legislation surrounding the issue, both on national and EU level. In Catalonia, the government in Madrid has deemed referendum as unconstitutional. It also remains unclear whether a separated region could directly continue as an EU member state or whether it should go through the process of joining in and ensuring it meets the Copenhagen criteria. Nations are usually built around a group of people share in common identifying with same language, culture, history etc. building ‘national identity’. A strong majority of Catalans consider their national identity being something else than Spanish. The same goes for Scotland. Bearing this in mind, the legislation becomes even more complex - what defines the different national identities? Could the separation of e.g. Catalonia evoke a chain reaction causing several other breakaways, especially now when the Eurozone crisis has tightened the relations of the areas with significant economic disparity? Should the ideology of the separation movements affect the way the matter is handled by the EU? Can Catalonia seceding with a referendum be handled the same way as Scotland’s mutually agreed upon referendum? What should be the EU’s stance towards newly seceded nations as potential member states? Keywords Separatism, Secessionism, Self-determination, Independence, Autonomy, EU-Membership


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

Links for further research 1. Introductory material Regional independence: Opening Pandora’s box Is South Tyrol in northern Italy the next emerging separatist movement? The Catalan claim to independence may impact on the Scottish endeavour 2. Official sources Conditions of EU membership Joining the European Union explained 3. Newspaper articles and other materials Arguments on independent Scotland http://rt.com/op-edge/scotland-independence-economic-advantage-186/ http://rt.com/news/spain-catalonia-independence-talks-886/ http://satwcomic.com/part-of-the-gang


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

6. Committee on Security and Defence –SEDE Chairpersons: Maris Rutkis (LV), Sini Hyytiäinen (FI) In the aftermath of the NSA spying scandal it has become clear that large-scale electronic surveillance is a global phenomenon. How should the EU and its Member States respond to the threat foreign surveillance poses to information security of European organisations and citizens? Overview Ever since June of 2013 when Edward Snowden started releasing what became perhaps the most significant leaks of government information in the history of the United States, the world has been left in shock and awe by the ever-growing amount of revelations about the NSA and other agencies intruding the privacies of organisations, businesses and civilians worldwide. The most recent wave in the scandal involves allegations of outlandish breaches of privacy within Europe – the tapping of Angel Merkel’s phone, the tracking of millions of phone calls in numerous countries and the revelations that EU’s very own intelligence services in Britain, Germany, France, Spain, Sweden and others all work closely with the NSA. The leaks have raised some legitimate concerns for Europeans regarding the strength of the information security of European institutions. The documents Snowden revealed also contained information of agencies within the EU engaging in the same kind of spying endeavours as the NSA, meaning that the issue at hand is much wider than merely the condemnable actions of the NSA. These disclosures have also reignited the age-old debate of how much privacy should citizens give up in exchange for security. Many do not believe the NSA’s assurance that their work is authorised, necessary and carried out in accordance with a strict legal framework. At the same time, others say that it is a necessary evil and the best practice of security is early prevention. The agency itself claims it has thwarted 54 terrorist plots, including 25 in Europe, but it has yet to provide any evidence. All of this comes in the midst of the EU and the United States holding negotiations regarding the proposals of the largest bilateral free trade deal in history. Without a shadow of a doubt the leaked documents have strained the relations between the two powers and some think it has put the deal itself in jeopardy. So as the United States Congress is weighing new legislative proposals that could limit some of the NSA’s programs, what steps can the EU take to ensure the provision of both individual right to privacy of European citizens and guaranteeing their safety? How much intrusion should be tolerated in pursuit of counter-terrorism and the prevention of crime? Furthermore, what stance should the EU take against the United States – does the disparaged trust rationalise an independent solely European solution or should Europe collaborate with the United States to reach common solutions? Keywords NSA, PRISM, information security, cyber-terrorism, bilateral trade agreement Links for further research


European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org – eyp@eypfinland.org

1. Introductory material Wikipedia article on SMEs The NSA’s defence and a recap of the scandal The reaction of European leaders and media As many of the news surrounding the issue are ongoing, the latest occurrences can be followed here 2. Official sources The EU-US Trade Agreement EU’s Cyber Security Strategy The NSA 3. Newspaper articles and other materials TED talk by Mikko Hypponen on the issue US Secretary of state urges Europe to not give up on trade talks The colonizing of the Internet and the extension of realpolitik


Oulu 2013 – Regional Session of EYP Finland is supported by

European Youth Parliament Finland has received funding from the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in 2013.

European Youth Parliament Finland – EYP-Finland ry Uudenmaankatu 15 A 5, 00120 Helsinki http://www.eypfinland.org eyp@eypfinland.org

Oulu 2013 – Preparation Kit for Delegates  

Preparation Kit for Delegates for Oulu 2013 – Regional Session of EYP Finland. The academic preparation kit includes topic overviews with ke...

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