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8th November 2011 – PU Europe

Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray Polyurethane Foam


Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray PU Foam

Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray Polyurethane Foam

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Table of contents Glossary of Terms......................................................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 1 Scope of Workbook...................................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2 Overview of Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF)................................................................................. 7 Chapter 3 Potential for Exposure during SPF Application................................................................................ 8 3.1 Formulated Polyol (A-side)..................................................................................................10 3.1.1 Polyols.....................................................................................................................10 3.1.2 Catalysts..................................................................................................................11 3.1.3 Blowing agents.........................................................................................................11 3.1.4 Flame retardants.......................................................................................................12 3.1.5 Surfactants...............................................................................................................12 3.2 PMDI (B-side)....................................................................................................................12 3.3 Coatings, Primers and Organic Solvents...............................................................................13 3.4 Dust.................................................................................................................................14 3.5 Reoccupancy.....................................................................................................................14

Chapter 4

Hazard Communication...............................................................................................................15 4.1 Labels an other Forms of Warnings.....................................................................................15 4.2 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).....................................................................................16 4.3 Employee Training and Information.....................................................................................17

Chapter 5

Good Practices...........................................................................................................................18 5.1 Work Practices..................................................................................................................19 5.1.1 Site Preparation........................................................................................................19 5.1.2 Occupant Outreach...................................................................................................21 5.1.3 Chemical Storage and Handling..................................................................................21 5.1.4 SPF Application.........................................................................................................23 5.1.5 Trimming and Cutting................................................................................................23 5.1.6 Coating and Priming..................................................................................................24 5.1.7 Cleanup and Equipment Maintenance.........................................................................24 5.1.8 Spill Response..........................................................................................................24


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5.1.9 Disposal of SPF Chemicals.........................................................................................26 5.2 Health and Safety Protection..............................................................................................26 5.2.1 PPE Evaluation..........................................................................................................27 5.2.1.1 Protective Clothing......................................................................................28 5.2.1.2 Gloves.......................................................................................................28 5.2.1.3 Eye and Face Protection..............................................................................28 5.2.1.4 Respiratory Protection.................................................................................29 5.2.1.4.1 Air-Purifying Respirators (APR)...................................................29 5.2.1.4.2 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators...............................................30 5.2.1.4.3 Supplied Air Respirators (SAR) or Self Contained Breathing Apparatuses (SCBA)....................................................................................31 5.2.2 PPE Care and Maintenance........................................................................................32

Chapter 6

Other Considerations for SPF Application......................................................................................33 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Chapter 7

Electrical Hazards..............................................................................................................33 Confined spaces................................................................................................................34 Pressurized Equipment.......................................................................................................34 Walking and Working Surfaces............................................................................................35 Occupational Noise............................................................................................................35 Temperature Stress............................................................................................................35

Fire Prevention during Construction..............................................................................................37 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Policy Statement of PU Europe............................................................................................37 Good practices..................................................................................................................37 Contractors Performing “Hot Work”.....................................................................................38 Spraying Thick Layers........................................................................................................39

ANNEX A Occupational Exposure Limits......................................................................................................40 ANNEX B Discussing Spray Foam Application with building Owners and Occupants........................................47 ANNEX C-1 Hazard Communication – Quick Safety Indications........................................................................49 ANNEX C-2 Good Practices – Work Practices and Site Preparation...................................................................50 ANNEX C-3 Storage and Handling – Chemical Storage and Handling................................................................51 ANNEX C-4 PPE – Personal Protective Equipment...........................................................................................52 ANNEX C-5 SPF & Fire Safety – Fire Prevention during Construction................................................................53 Acknowledgement and Disclaimer of the American Chemistry Council / Disclaimer.............54


Glossary of Terms

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Formulated Polyol

Also known as A-side, is a polyol resin system, which typically contains a blend of several classes of chemicals

PMDI

Also known as B-side, is short for polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate

Polyols

Primary component in the polyol resin system (A-side)

Catalyst

Usually contained in the formulated polyol, it promotes the reaction between it and the PMDI component

Blowing Agent

Usually contained in the formulated polyol, it causes the foam to expand upon the reaction between the formulated polyol and the PMDI

Flame Retardants

Usually contained in the formulated polyol, they modify the fire behaviour of the final foam

Surfactants

Usually contained in the formulated polyol, they regulate the cell structure of the foam

MSDS

Material Safety Data Sheet – Contains important information on chemical products, such as potential risks and safety precautions

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment – It is intended to protect the worker from exposure the chemical product

SAR

Supplied Air Respirator – a breathing apparatus that supplies fresh air directly to the work from an outside source


Chapter 1

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Scope of Workbook This Workbook provides guidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products (including but not limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF Chemicals,� we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will also address some of the more commonly used materials. This Workbook addresses health and safety aspects of the typical spray foam application job including initial site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF chemicals, and re-occupancy.


Chapter 2

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Overview of Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Spray polyurethane foam (SPF) is formed via an exothermic (heat-releasing) chemical reaction between approximately equal amounts of a polyol blend (formulated polyol or A-side) and polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI or B-side). Within seconds of application, the foam achieves a tack-free state when the foam surface is no longer sticky. The formulated polyol (A-side) is a mixture of polyols and other chemicals that have specific roles in the reaction process or impart important characteristics to the finished foam insulation. These chemicals may include catalysts, blowing agents, fire retardants, or surfactants. The isocyanate component (B-side) used is PMDI (4,4’ methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) and is generally considered to present the greatest potential hazard due to its potential to produce respiratory and dermal sensitization. More information on the chemicals can be found on the specific technical data sheet and material safety data sheets provided by the foam supplier. This information should be available to spray applicators at all times.


Chapter 3

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Potential for Exposure during SPF Application Respirators or full “positive air fed” masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) are needed to minimize exposure to vapours, aerosols, and particulates of PMDI and other chemicals during the spray application and subsequent operations. Depending on the characteristics of the foam including the composition of polyol, the heat dissipated during the exothermic reaction, and ambient conditions including temperature and humidity, it can take up to 23 to 72 hours before the foam is fully cured (i.e. optimum physical properties of the foam are achieved). Because of this variation it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding the amount of time between applying layers or passes. The potential risk from exposure to a chemical is dependent on several factors, including the route of entry, the dose, the frequency and duration of exposure, and the individual’s susceptibilities, such as whether the individual has already become sensitized to the chemical. The route of entry is how a substance enters the body. For SPF chemicals, the exposure would typically occur through breathing (inhalation), direct skin contact, or eye contact. Skin or eye contact may occur through direct contact with the chemical or through contact with contaminated supplies, equipment, or personal protective equipment (PPE). However, if an individual eats, drinks, or smokes after working with chemicals without washing hands, the chemical may be inadvertently ingested. The dose is the amount of a chemical which enters the body. The chemical must enter the body through one of the routes of exposure for an effect to occur. The frequency and duration of exposure are other important considerations. How long did the exposure last? How often did the exposure occur? Individual susceptibilities affect the likelihood of an individual to experience a response, such as whether the individual has become sensitized to the chemical. Sensitization is an allergic reaction, in which certain individuals may be more responsive to a chemical exposure at progressively lower concentrations.


Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray PU Foam

Note: this Workbook does not discuss chronic health hazards that may be presented by SPF chemicals or other chemicals, coatings, or solvents at a worksite. Generally, the terms “acute” and “chronic” are used to delineate between effects on the basis of severity or duration. “Acute” effects usually occur rapidly as a result of short-term exposures, and are of short duration. “Chronic” effects generally occur as a result of long-term exposure, and are of long duration. Consult the manufacturer’s MSDS for more information with respect to potential chronic health hazards.

Chapter 3 Potential for Exposure during SPF Application

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It is critical to avoid inhalation of, and skin and eye contact with, SPF chemicals. For inhalation exposure, occupational exposure limits to various chemicals have been set by the competent national authority or other relevant national institutions of each member state of the EU. The limits may vary from country to country and guidance is provided from the European Commission by the Advisory Committee for Safety, Hygiene, and Health Protection at Work (ACSHH) and the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL). These limits are the air concentrations that these expert organizations believe represent exposures that are acceptable for healthy workers and include time-weighted averages (TWA) for the duration of an entire work shift and short-term exposure limits (STEL). Additional information regarding occupational exposure limits is included in Annex A of this workbook. As a general matter, if employee exposure exceeds the occupational exposure limit, employers must take steps to control and reduce exposure. Examples of these controls may include engineering controls such as ventilation systems; work practices; air monitoring; the selection, provision, and maintenance of appropriate PPE to help prevent exposure; training; and medical surveillance. Personnel may be exposed to airborne concentrations of SPF chemicals during: >>

handling of SPF chemicals prior to beginning work,

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application of SPF,

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trimming, cutting, and shaping SPF after application,

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cleanup and equipment maintenance, and

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spill response.

Access to the work area during these tasks should be appropriately restricted to personnel whose job responsibilities require them to be in the work area, who are trained in the hazards of exposure to SPF


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chemicals, and who are using the appropriate PPE properly. Contact your supplier for information regarding when applicators, helpers, other trade workers, and occupants may re-enter the work area.

Scope of Workbook The following sections detail chemical substances that may be encountered during application of SPF.

3.1 Formulated Polyol (A-side) This Workbook provides guidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products The formulated polyol (A-side) is a polyol resin typically contains a blend of several different (including but not limited to 1-component foamssystem (OCF)which and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used classes of chemicals. These include the polyols – the principal ingredients – and smaller amounts of amine at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF and/ or metal catalysts, blowing agents, components surfactants, and retardants. can be grade, a largehigh variation in the Chemicals,” we mean the chemical that flame are used to makeThere professional pressure SPF. chemicals included in the formulated polyol Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may(A-side). be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will also address some of the more commonly used materials. Inhalation overexposure of the formulated polyol (A-side) can cause irritation of the respiratory tract, causing a cough, sore throat, and runny nose.and Exposure some of catalyst vapours canfoam temporarily cause to become This Workbook addresses all health safety to aspects the typical spray application jobvision including initial foggy or blurry, and halos may appear around bright objects such as lights. site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF Skin or eye contact may occur throughout the work when there is a potential to come into contact with SPF chemicals, and re-occupancy. chemicals or any items contaminated with SPF chemicals including supplies, tools, equipment, and PPE. For most formulated polyol (A-side) chemicals, skin or eye contact with A-side (polyol) chemicals may cause irritation and may lead to skin sensitization.

3.1.1 Polyols

Chapter 3 Potential for Exposure during SPF Application

Polyols are the primary components in the formulated polyol (A-side). Polyols are polyfunctional alcohols with low vapour pressure and offer low toxicity through all routes of entry into the body. However, they may be irritating to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract at high exposure levels, especially during spray applications. Polyols react with PMDI (B-side) chemicals to form polyurethane.


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3.1.2 Catalysts Catalysts promote the reaction between the formulated polyol (A-side) and the PMDI (B-side), helping polyurethane foam cells develop sufficient strength to maintain their structure to resist collapsing or becoming deformed, and help with the completion of the reaction or “cure” in the finished foam. Most catalysts used in SPF are amine based, while some formulations may use metal catalysts. Overexposure to airborne concentrations of amine catalysts may result in irritation to the respiratory system, skin, and eyes. Inhalation exposure may cause a reversible effect known as “blue haze” in the eyes. Once removed from the exposure, vision is gradually restored. If vision is not restored within a few hours seek medical attention. Amines are derived from ammonia and often have a characteristic ammonia/fishy odour. If present, metal catalysts can be absorbed through the skin resulting in a headache and/or nausea. These compounds can also irritate the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Prolonged skin contact can cause dermatitis. Many metal catalysts used in the formulated polyol (A-side) do not have occupational exposure limits.

3.1.3 Blowing Agents The formulated polyol (A-side) may use chemical (reactive) blowing agents, physical blowing agents, or a combination of both types of blowing agents. A chemical blowing agent reacts with another raw material to generate a gas. Water is often used as a chemical blowing agent in a formulation. It reacts with PMDI to generate carbon dioxide.

Chapter 3 Potential for Exposure during SPF Application

Physical blowing agents are vaporized by the heat of the polyurethane reaction. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are common physical blowing agents. Skin and eye contact with HFC can result in contact irritation. Overexposure to airborne concentrations of HFC can be irritating to the respiratory tract, cause central nervous system effects, and in some cases can cause irregular heartbeat.


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If large amounts of blowing agents are released in an enclosed area, oxygen can be displaced, resulting in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere which is a hazardous atmosphere. However, because blowing agents comprise a small percentage of SPF, an oxygen-deficient atmosphere is not likely to develop.

3.1.4 Flame Retardants Flame retardants modify the characteristics of the foam to increase fire resistance characteristics of the finished foam. Chemical overexposure to flame retardants may be irritating to the respiratory tract and direct contact with flame retardants may be irritating to the eyes and skin. There are different classes of flame retardants and different toxicological profiles for these compounds, so the material safety data sheet (MSDS) must always be consulted.

3.1.5 Surfactants Surfactants include silicone polymers which typically have low toxicity by all routes of entry into the body. Some surfactants can cause slight irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. Occupational exposure limits have not been established for surfactants.

3.2 PMDI (B-side) PMDI (B-side) is very reactive and reactions can result from improper mixing with water, acids, inorganic bases (such as sodium hydroxide), ammonia, metal salts, oxidizing agents (such as bleach or chlorine) or polyols. Inhalation overexposure can cause:

Chapter 3 Potential for Exposure during SPF Application

>>

irritation of the nose, throat, and lungs, causing runny nose, sore throat, coughing, tightness in the chest, and shortness of breath, and

>>

respiratory tract sensitization with symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath, coughing, and/or wheezing.


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Sensitization to PMDI (B-side) is an allergic reaction in which certain individuals may be more responsive to a chemical exposure at progressively lower concentrations, even below concentrations considered safe for most people. Please note that early recognition of sensitization and prompt and strict elimination of exposures is essential to reduce the risk of long-term or permanent respiratory problems for workers who have become sensitized. Individuals sensitized to SPF chemicals should not be assigned work tasks where there is potential for exposure to SPF chemicals. PMDI (B-side) chemicals have a musty odour, but because of the relatively high odour threshold, most people cannot smell PMDI (B-side) chemicals when present in concentrations equal to applicable occupational exposure limits. As a practical matter, this means that if you smell PMDI (musty odour), you have probably exceeded the exposure limits. If a musty odour is recognized over the course of work, exit the work area and re-evaluate engineering controls and PPE to prevent overexposure. More information on where to obtain detailed occupational exposure limits for PMDI is presented in Annex A. Skin or eye contact may occur throughout the application when there is a potential to have contact with PMDI (B-side) chemicals or any items contaminated with PMDI (B-side) chemicals, such as supplies, tools, equipment, and PPE. Skin contact can cause 1) irritation, and 2) sensitization (allergy). Symptoms include reddening, itching, swelling, and rash. Skin contact alone may lead to respiratory sensitization (asthma). Eye contact can cause reddening, tearing, stinging, and/or swelling of the eyes.

3.3 Coatings, Primers and Organic Solvents

Chapter 3 Potential for Exposure during SPF Application

A variety of coatings may be used in foam applications to protect the polyurethane foam from physical damage and exposure to ultra-violet (UV) light. These include acrylic, butyl, silicone, polyurea and polyurethane materials. Many of these roof coatings contain organic solvents such as toluene, petroleum distillates, xylene, methylethylketone, varnish makers and painters (VM&P) naphtha and n-butyl acetate. In addition, solvents may be used to prepare the surface prior to application or for cleanup after application is completed.


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Skin contact with organic solvents may result in defatting, drying, and cracking of the skin. Many organic solvents are readily absorbed through the skin, and can be inhaled. Effects due to overexposure to organic solvents may include headache, nausea, and vomiting followed by unconsciousness at higher levels of exposure. Refer to the material safety data sheet (MSDS) for specific information related to the coatings, primers, and solvents you are working with.

3.4 Dust Dust may be generated during all phases of construction. Use good housekeeping throughout the project to prevent build-up of dust. In addition to the inhalation hazards associated with exposure to airborne dust, high levels of dust are also associated with reduced visibility and slip hazards. Carefully evaluate the need to wear PPE appropriate for SPF chemicals if there is a potential for exposure to dust after the spray application has concluded but before the cure time has been reached. This includes respiratory protection to prevent inhalation exposure, protective clothing and gloves to reduce the risk of skin contact, and eye and face protection to reduce the risk of eye contact. Although SPF typically reaches 90% of its cure and will have obtained at least 90% of its optimal physical properties within one hour of application, it can take an additional 23 to 72 hours for a complete cure, depending on the ambient temperatures. Refer to the MSDS for specific information related to the SPF chemicals you are working with.

3.5 Reoccupancy Reoccupancy is the time required for individuals can re-enter a recently sprayed area without the need for PPE. The time for reoccupancy is dependent on various factors such as system formulation, the degree of ventilation, the size of the enclosed space, and the amount of foam applied.

Chapter 3 Potential for Exposure during SPF Application

Exterior applications are accessible minutes after spraying, while interior applications are highly ventilation dependent. In general, a 24 hour reoccupancy time is common for interior spraying. Confined places, or small areas without ventilation may require additional time. Contact your supplier for guidance on reoccupancy times.


Chapter 4

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Hazard Communication European hazard communication standards are designed to provide employees with information on the identities and hazards of all chemicals used in the workplace and recommended protective measures. The European Directive 89/391/EEC was created to ensure general principles concerning the prevention of occupational risks, the protection of health and safety, transparent information and the elimination of risk and accident factors at the workplace. Additional product stewardship guidance related to Hazard Communication is included in Annex C-1 of the Workbook.

4.1 Labels and other Forms of Warnings According to European directives, chemical containers must be labelled and the information contained on the label must be legible and prominently displayed. Chemical labels identify the contents of a container used at a worksite. In addition, labels also convey information related to the toxicological, chemical and physical properties associated with the chemical. It is good practice to maintain the original manufacturer’s label. When chemicals are transferred into unmarked containers, European directives require that these containers be labelled with the required information as well, except when transferred for immediate use by the employee who performed the transfer. Currently, two different European directives related to labelling co-exist. Directive 67/548/EEC or 1999/45/EC defines pictograms, risk and safety phrases (R-Phrases and S-Phrases). These are the classic European directives which will be phased out by June, 1, 2015. Parallel to this directive, the new CLP regulation (Classification,


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Labelling and Packaging of substances and mixtures), (EC) No 1272/2008, has been created in an effort to create a Globally Harmonized System (GHS), promoted by the UN. The CLP defines new hazard pictograms, signal words, and hazard and precautionary statements (H-Statements and P-Statements).

Substances:

Figure 1: PMDI (B-Side) is considered a substance and must be labelled according to this regulation

Labels for substances must be designed according to the CLP (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008) from December 1st 2010. An example is shown in Figure 1.

Mixtures: In the current transition phase, mixtures can be labelled either according to the classic European directives 67/548/EEC or 1999/45/EC, or the new CLP Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008. The transition phase will end June 1st, 2015, from which date onward, only the CLP labelling will be accepted. An example of the classic European directive is shown in Figure 2.

4.2 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Figure 2: Formulated polyol (A-Side) is considered a mixture and can therefore be labelled according to the classic directives or the new regulation

Chapter 4 Hazard Communication

Each chemical manufacturer or importer is required to obtain or develop a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each hazardous chemical they produce or import. Employers are required to have an MSDS in the workplace for each hazardous chemical they use. If you do not have an MSDS for a chemical used at your workplace, contact the manufacturer. An MSDS is prepared according to the guidelines set forth in annex II of the European Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006. The information contained in each MSDS is clearly defined within this regulation. Risk and safety phrases or hazard and precautionary phrases are also included. The MSDS for mixtures is handled in the same way as the MSDS for substances. That means that from December 1st 2010 and until June 1st 2015 the MSDS


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will include the information determined by Directive 67/548/EEC or 1999/45/EC and the Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP). From June 1st 2015, the MSDS will only include the information determined by CLP. Before using any SPF product, you should read and understand the entire MSDS for the product. The MSDS contains very important information about the product, including the chemical’s constituents and the approximate concentrations; the PPE appropriate for the job; information on how to handle accidental releases; and information on storage, handling, transportation and disposal. Because these documents are so important, make them as readily accessible at a job site as possible. Keeping one clean copy of each MSDS in a clearly marked binder is good practice that helps to keep the information readily accessible. Many contractors like to keep several spare copies of MSDSs on hand; in the event of an emergency or incident, this allows multiple copies to be available for emergency response workers. Another good practice is to review the location of the MSDS binder with all workers on the SPF jobsite before the job begins. Additional product stewardship guidance on Hazard Communication is included in Annex C-1 of this Workbook.

4.3 Employee Training and Information The European Workplace Health and Safety Directive (89/391/EEC) was created to outline the general principles for the protection of workers’ occupational safety and health. Within this framework, employers are obliged to take the appropriate measures so that employees receive the necessary information concerning the safety and health risks, and protective and preventive measures and activities. National law and practices stipulate how training is to be done and information to be conveyed. Please see national law and regulations for further information.

Chapter 4 Hazard Communication


Chapter 5

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Good Practices The following part of the document considers good work practices and appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) that together are intended to avoid inhalation of, and skin and eye contact with, SPF chemicals, for applicators, helpers, occupants, and adjacent workers. The protection of the health and safety of workers is covered by several European Directives. Under those Directives, all employers evaluate all the risks and hazards to which their workers are or may be exposed and provide preventive and protective measures in order to avoid those risks. Operations that take place in temporary and mobile construction sites, such as those that are typical of SPF installations, are specifically covered by Directive 92/57/CEE “Implementation of minimum safety and health requirements at temporary or mobile construction sites�. In this document, full compliance of the construction site with the requirements of the Directive is assumed. Advice and suggestions on the protection of the health and safety of SPF workers are given here below, with the intention of helping employers and workers to achieve the maximum level of protection and prevention. It is the full responsibility of employers to enforce all the legally binding requirements that are set forth in European and National legislation.


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5.1 Work Practices Employee work practices are an important factor in the overall safety performance at any worksite. The following work practices should be reviewed with employees involved in the spray foam application process, including applicators, helpers, and other trade workers who may work adjacent to the application area. As a general rule of risk prevention, it is normally prohibited to store, prepare and consume food at any worksites and this rule should also be applied where SPF chemicals are handled and/or used. Smoking is also prohibited where chemicals are used, handled and/or stored.

5.1.1 Site Preparation The following factors should be considered when planning an SPF installation:

Chapter 5 Good Practices

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Will the work take place in an occupied building or a building under construction?

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Will the building be vacated?

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Will other trades workers be present at the time of application?

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Will the application take place indoors or outdoors?

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What is the size of the work area – a large open area or an attic or crawlspace with limited ventilation?

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems should always be shut off during application of primers, spray polyurethane foam, and coatings, to avoid the drawing of dusts, aerosols and/or vapours into interior spaces. Once the HVAC system is shut off, seal the air intakes with plastic sheeting and tape, which will prevent dust and spray from entering the intakes. Keep the plastic sheeting in place at least several hours after the spray application is completed, typically 24 hours or more; a longer period may be appropriate for coatings, depending on when the coatings have hardened or set and are no longer emitting vapours. The HVAC system should not be


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restarted until appropriate time has elapsed and the plastic sheeting and tape is removed. When preparing a site for SPF application, consider the following good practice indications:

Chapter 5 Good Practices

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If the entire building is not vacated, consider the potential for SPF chemicals to migrate to other floors. Discuss with property management or other contractors which floors will be occupied.

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If the building is under construction, discuss with the construction site manager and safety coordinator the risk induced by concurrent activity of other trades; establish a safety zone around the work area to protect adjacent workers. The safe distance between the work area and adjacent workers depends on several factors, including but not limited to the volume of SPF applied, the area covered, and air movement.

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Signage should be used to communicate access restrictions.

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Before beginning work, designate an area for putting on and removing PPE.

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Determine in advance the potential for overspray damages. Have a plan in place to address overspray damages to adjacent property. Train all employees in overspray prevention.

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Identify and protect surfaces that could be damaged (e.g., windows, doors, equipment, or building exterior) in advance of application.

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For work outdoors, take wind direction into account for all spraying operations. Note that for a job that takes place over several days, the wind direction may change and the work area should be adjusted as needed. In slightly windy conditions, use windscreens.

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Do not spray foam or coatings in excessively windy conditions. Sustained wind speeds or gusts of about 30 km/h make controlled application more difficult.

Summarized product stewardship guidance on Good Practices related to the application of SPF chemicals and interior and exterior applications is available in Annex C-2 of this Workbook.


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5.1.2 Occupant Outreach SPF applicators and their helpers receive professional training regarding the hazards associated with spray foam application. Building occupants are not necessarily aware of the potential health hazards associated with SPF application or with the safety precautions to minimize the risk. SPF application involves the potential for exposure to a variety of chemicals, including SPF chemicals, coatings, and solvents. Consider potential exposures to all of the chemicals used on a job when developing an occupant outreach strategy. Applicators and contractors can educate building occupants about the health hazards associated with SPF and the ways they can protect themselves from these hazards. A sample checklist of information you may wish to consider discussing with owners, designees, or occupants is included as Annex B. Although there is a lower degree of risk of inhalation exposure to SPF chemicals in exterior applications than interior applications due to natural ventilation, contractors may wish to consider use of the checklist as a tool to guide discussions with occupants. In commercial and public buildings, contractors may choose to provide outreach to building owners or their designee as well as to individual tenants. On occasion, owners or their designee may wish to enter the work area before the building is cleared for occupancy in order to review the work. PPE may be needed for entry into the work area even for persons who are not involved in the application of SPF chemicals. You may wish to discuss alternatives for viewing the application or the work status with the owner or designee that avoid exposure issues, such as using photographs or real-time video to allow the owner or designee the opportunity to view the work.

5.1.3 Chemical Storage and Handling

Chapter 5 Good Practices

It is important that SPF chemicals be stored properly before and during use on the job site. Improper storage conditions can make the components unusable, and also can create a potential for fire and/or explosion. It is also important to store materials that are incompatible with each other separately.


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Storing drums in a secured cool area away from direct sunlight, excessive heat, and general storage areas helps to protect them. Consult the manufacturer’s instructions for the temperature at which to store drums; typically, temperatures between 10 and 25 ºC are suggested. Ventilate the storage space well, and locate the storage space away from possible sources of ignition. PMDI (B-side) drums should be stored far from water, acids, caustics, alcohols, and strong oxidizing and reducing agents. Most strong reducing agents are also corrosive. Check the MSDS and product labels. Contact of PMDI (B-side) with any of these kinds of materials must be avoided at all times. In addition to storing containers away from incompatible materials, it is important to maintain a tight seal on PMDI (B-side) containers to help protect against moisture or direct contact with water. Contamination with water could result in the drum rupturing or exploding because water can slowly react with PMDI (B-side) to produce carbon dioxide gas. Formulated polyol (A-side) drums, likewise, should be stored at an appropriate distance from acids, caustics, and strong oxidizing and reducing agents in order to avoid contact. When opening the formulated polyol (A-side) drums, the slow opening of the bung on top of the drum helps release built-up pressures so the drum can be opened safely. If heating drums with a blanket heater (or other methods), loosening the bung on the top of the drum will allow for off-gassing. A temperature probe can be inserted into the material to monitor the material temperature to help prevent overheating. Gentle agitation of materials with a drum mixer helps to heat the contents evenly. Care has to be taken when inserting and taking out the drum mixture not to cause spillage. Refer to the manufacturer’s Technical Data Sheet for the maximum storage temperature indication. Coating or primer material drums or containers that contain solvents may have a “Flammable” or “Combustible” label. Please refer to Material Safety Data Sheets of those chemicals for appropriate storage instructions.

Chapter 5 Good Practices

Appropriate PPE should be worn by personnel handling containers with formulated polyol (A-side) or PMDI (B-side) chemicals to minimize the potential risk of exposure to SPF chemicals via inhalation or skin or eye contact. Depending on the task, this may include chemical-resistant gloves, chemical-resistant clothing, and eye protection. Respiratory protection may be needed if there is the potential for inhalation exposure to SPF chemicals.


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Additional product stewardship guidance related to Chemical Storage and Handling is included in Annex C-3 of this Workbook.

5.1.4 SPF Application When applying SPF, applicators and helpers can be instrumental in helping to reduce the potential risk of exposure to SPF chemicals for occupants and other trade workers at the worksite. The work area should be appropriately restricted to personnel who are required to be in the work area due to their job responsibilities, who have completed the required training, and who are properly using the required PPE. Appropriate PPE for high pressure applications generally includes at a minimum chemical-resistant gloves, protective clothing, eye and face protection, and respiratory protection. The specific types of PPE may vary depending on the conditions at the jobsite, such as whether the application takes place indoors or outdoors, the amount of ventilation, the specific components of the formulated polyol (A-side) chemicals, and the quantity of SPF chemicals applied.

5.1.5 Trimming and Cutting SPF typically reaches 90% of its cure and of its optimal physical properties within one hour of application. As the exothermic reaction of the foam subsides, the rate of cure slows down considerably, and it can take an additional 23 to 72 hours for a complete cure, depending on the ambient temperature and humidity. In addition, the study data that is currently available indicates that the surface reaction for SPF is complete within 15 minutes (Lesage et. al., 2007). Trimming and cutting activities that will move beyond the surface into the interior of the applied SPF where cure may still be occurring may present the potential for exposure to SPF chemicals, and appropriate PPE should be worn for this activity. PPE that may be needed during trimming and cutting could include chemical-resistant gloves, coveralls to protect skin and clothing, eye protection, and respiratory protection to prevent the inhalation of dust and SPF chemicals.

Chapter 5 Good Practices


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5.1.6 Coating and Priming Chemicals used for coating and priming during SPF projects may also present a risk of potential chemical exposure. In general, coatings and primers may contain organic solvents, although other chemicals may also be present. Some coatings and primers may be harmful if inhaled or upon skin contact. Consult your MSDS for specific information related to the contents and precautions during coating and priming.

5.1.7 Cleanup and Equipment Maintenance After the application is completed, decontaminate the equipment and clean up the work area. Appropriate PPE should be worn while cleaning equipment contaminated with formulated polyol (A-side) or PMDI (B-side) chemicals and while handling any containers with A-side or B-side chemicals (e.g., drums, buckets, spray guns). Use of a vacuum cleaner equipped with a High Efficiency Particulate Air filter can help reduce the amount of dust generated during cleanup. Upon exiting the work area, remove PPE in a designated clean zone away from the areas where there is a potential risk of exposure to SPF chemicals. Remove and dispose of PPE according to applicable local or national regulations. Inspect and clean reusable PPE for continued effectiveness. Remove damaged PPE from service until repaired, or dispose of the damaged PPE and replace it. It is good practice to keep work clothing at work. Note that leather items including shoes, belts, and watch bands or clothing, that have been contaminated by exposure to SPF chemicals cannot be decontaminated, and are, therefore, to be appropriately disposed of.

5.1.8 Spill Response Chapter 5 Good Practices

A spill or release is the accidental discharge of a material to the ground, water, or air. It is advisable to have an emergency spill containment kit available that contains absorbent materials such as clay, pads, or socks to


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contain or minimize the affected area. A clean work site helps reduce trips, slips, and falls. Because formulated polyol (A-side) chemicals can be extremely slippery, mark and clean up spills as soon as possible, particularly from smooth walkways or floors. Although infrequent, sizable spills and releases of formulated polyol (A-side) and PMDI (B-side) chemicals can occur. If this happens, it is important to take immediate action to minimize environmental contamination. Depending on local or national regulations, you may be required to report spills and releases of spray foam and coating ingredients to local, and/or national authorities. For this reason, keep all containers of chemicals tightly sealed except when they are actually in use. In the event of a large PMDI (B-side) spill or release (i.e., more than a few kilograms or litres), consider the following: >>

Direct all personnel away from the immediate area to avoid unnecessary exposure.

>>

Provide appropriate PPE for individuals involved in the cleanup. PPE for cleanup crews may include appropriate respiratory protective devices, impervious clothing, footwear, eye/face protection, and gloves in accordance with safety regulations.

>>

Absorb the PMDI (B-side) chemical with sand, wet earth or absorbent clays (e.g., vermiculite or cat litter). Place the absorbed material in drums and neutralize. Do not seal these drums for an appropriate period (typically, at least 48 hours, or longer if environment temperature is below 10 째C).

Characterize waste (i.e., hazardous or nonhazardous waste) and dispose of waste in accordance with all applicable regulations. You may be required to report sizable PMDI or solvent spills or releases to a local or national emergency response

Chapter 5 Good Practices

centre. The penalties associated with not reporting are quite substantial, so it is better to be on the safe side.


Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray PU Foam

It is critical to avoid inhalation of, and skin and eye contact with, SPF chemicals.

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Cured polyurethane foam does not meet the criteria of a hazardous waste according to the European Waste Framework Directive (nr. 2008/98/EC) and should be acceptable for landfill disposal. Some landfill facilities may ask for an MSDS on cured polyurethane foam before allowing disposal. Landfill is the acceptable option at the time of writing of this document. Regulation may change or differ from country to country, so it is advisable to consult the national and/or local waste disposal regulatory authority prior to disposal of any type of waste.

5.1.9 Disposal of SPF Chemicals Both the chemicals of SPF systems are classified as hazardous waste materials and can only be disposed of following the procedure set out in the European Waste Framework Directive. Small quantities of formulated polyol (A-side) and PMDI (B-side) can easily be transformed into cured polyurethane foam, which is a non hazardous waste. If large quantities of SPF chemicals are to be disposed of, the system’s manufacturer should be contacted in order to receive the right directions. Drums containing SPF chemicals need to be properly prepared, decontaminated, and disposed of in accordance with regulatory requirements. It is never acceptable to abandon or discard a drum without following proper disposal procedures in accordance with legal requirements. Consult the MSDS for more information. Always wear appropriate PPE at all times when handling SPF chemicals and the drums containing these materials.

5.2 Health and Safety Protection

Chapter 5 Good Practices

Personnel who work with SPF chemicals need to wear appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The first source of information on Health and Safety is the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) of the SPF chemicals. A copy of the latest revision of which must be present at all times at any SPF installation site. It is the responsibility of the chemicals manufacturer and/or supplier to provide the MSDS and keep it up to date. A PPE evaluation prior to beginning work is a useful tool to determine the appropriate PPE for the job.


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5.2.1 PPE Evaluation PPE evaluations are conducted to determine the appropriate type of PPE needed for a job task, depending on the conditions at the worksite. Consider the following when selecting PPE for an SPF installation job: >>

Location of the job tasks, such as outdoors vs. indoors, whether the work will take place in an enclosed space, the type of ventilation available, and the ambient temperature and relative humidity and wind speed and direction, if applicable.

>>

Potential for inhalation exposure or eye or skin contact with SPF chemicals based on the job tasks.

>>

The quantity of SPF chemicals applied and the delivery method.

>>

The type of work being conducted and the potential for wear and tear on the PPE.

>>

Characteristics of the PPE that may affect the wearer’s ability to complete a task, such as gloves that permit dexterity and respiratory protection that allows adequate peripheral vision.

>>

Wearer acceptance. PPE that does not fit the user may not provide sufficient protection. In addition, if an individual does not like the PPE he or she may be less likely to use it when needed.

Suitable PPEs include:

Chapter 5 Good Practices

>>

Protective clothing,

>>

Gloves,

>>

Eye and face protection,

>>

Respiratory protection.


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The effectiveness of PPE depends on proper selection, proper use and maintenance. It is important for employers and workers to understand why PPEs are needed, how they are used and taken off, and how to maintain and/or dispose of them. Additional product stewardship guidance related to Personal Protection is included in Annex C-4 of this Workbook.

Š 3M Company 2011. All rights reserved

5.2.1.1 Protective Clothing

Figure 3: Disposable coverall

Chapter 5 Good Practices

The use of appropriate protective clothing is necessary whenever there is possibility of direct contact with SPF chemicals. The appropriate protective clothing varies depending upon the potential for exposure. Applicators and helpers typically wear disposable coveralls (Figure 3) to keep spray and mist from contacting skin and clothing. To protect skin, wear PPE in such a manner as to protect all skin: there should be no exposed skin showing. When not wearing a hood respirator, select a coverall with an attached hood or spray head cover. For tasks where there is a potential for splash, consider a suit coated with an impermeable coating such as PVC.

5.2.1.2 Gloves Gloves made of nitrile, neoprene, butyl or PVC can generally provide adequate protection against PMDI (B-side) materials. PMDI protection is generally considered adequate to provide formulated polyol (A-side) protection as well; however, consult the manufacturer’s MSDS for specific information about formulated polyol protection. A range of sizes should be available. A glove that is too large or small for the user may not provide proper protection. A fabric glove fully coated with nitrile, neoprene, butyl, or PVC can provide good protection for SPF applicators.

5.2.1.3 Eye and Face Protection Appropriate eye protection helps prevent eye contact from splashes of liquid SPF chemicals, accidental sprays of reacting foam, aerosols and vapours that are likely to be present during spraying, and airborne particulate associated


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with sanding and grinding operations. The type of eye protection needed depends on the nature of the activity. Persons handling liquid SPF chemicals in open containers can protect their eyes by wearing safety goggles or safety goggles in combination with face shields. The use of contact lenses is discouraged. Contact lenses increase the risk of eye irritation from slashes, airborne particles or vapours and may complicate the washing your eye.

5.2.1.4 Respiratory Protection

Figure 4: Chemical-resistant gloves

When working with SPF chemicals, respiratory protection is needed due to the relatively low occupational exposure limit for PMDI (B-side) chemicals as well as the potential for exposure to formulated polyol (A-side) chemicals. Additional considerations are given when there is the potential to be exposed to multiple chemicals simultaneously. It is possible that exposures to one chemical may be below occupational exposure limits, while exposures to another may exceed occupational exposure limits. Administrative controls, such as work schedules and work practices, are used concurrently to minimize exposure. Respirators are needed when air concentrations continue to exceed occupational exposure limits when engineering and administrative controls are implemented. These limits have been set for a number of SPF chemicals including some of the chemicals that are contained in most SPF systems. Use air-purifying respirators when spraying polyurethane foam in exterior applications. Use supplied air respirators (SAR) in enclosed spaces in interior applications. 5.2.1.4.1 Air-Purifying Respirators (APR) Full-face APRs may be used in the exterior application of SPF when air concentrations of MDI are less than 0.25 parts per million (equal to 50 times the 8-hour occupational exposure limit).

Chapter 5 Good Practices

APRs remove contaminants from the air by mechanical filtration and/or chemical adsorption. Protection provided


Š 3M Company 2011. All rights reserved

Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray PU Foam

Figure 5: Full-face APR with Organic Vapour (OV) Cartridge and Particulate (P100) Filter

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by APR is dependent on the cartridge selected, the condition of the cartridge, and the respirator fit. For protection from SPF chemicals, an APR is equipped with filtering cartridges for protection against particulates and organic vapours (e.g. type A2B2P3 or equivalent). Masks and filters must carry the CE mark that certifies that the mask or filter complies with the relevant harmonized EN regulation. When respirator filters become clogged it becomes difficult for the user to breathe through the cartridge. Chemical breakthrough may occur when chemical vapours can pass through a cartridge because the adsorbent material in the cartridge has been used up. Respirator cartridges must be changed according to a change-out schedule to prevent clogging of the filter or chemical breakthrough. Employers must prevent clogging and chemical breakthrough by replacing cartridges according to a change-out schedule based on the respirator manufacturer’s end-of-service life indicator (ESLI) or based on objective information or data to ensure the cartridges are changed out before the end of their service life. A clogged respirator, or detection of a chemical substance while wearing a respirator through smell or other signs, are indicative that the respirator may not be functioning properly. Exit the work area immediately to attend to the respirator, and replace it or the cartridges if necessary. Exposure to a chemical agent while wearing a respirator may be due to either an incomplete face-to-facepiece seal or chemical breakthrough. If the filter has become clogged or breakthrough has occurred, replace the filter. 5.2.1.4.2 Powered Air-Purifying Respirators

Chapter 5 Good Practices

Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs) are APRs equipped with a battery-operated blower unit which supplies filtered breathing air to the user’s face piece. The face piece used with a PAPR may be a tight-fitting face piece or a loose-fitting hood. When the blower unit is operating, the tight-fitting respirator face piece is under positive pressure. When the blower unit is turned off, the mask is under negative pressure. For persons wearing a tightfitting PAPR, annual fit testing and user seal checks prior to each use must be completed when the mask is under negative pressure (i.e. when the blower unit is turned off). For the loose-fitting hood, the respirator is under positive pressure. For both the tight-fitting respirator and hood, the respirator cartridges also must be changed out according


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© 3M Company 2011. All rights reserved

to the change-out schedule as discussed in 5.2.1.4.1. Fit testing is only required for users of tight-fitting PAPR.

Figure 6: Supplied Air Respirator (SAR)

Chapter 5 Good Practices

PAPRs are often used in exterior or other applications and may be selected for use in applications where APRs are typically used for several reasons. When outdoor temperatures are hot, the PAPR can provide an air-conditioning-like effect, making the wearer cooler and more comfortable. Also, fit testing is not required for loose-fitting hood PAPR. Additionally, for medical or other reasons, some individuals may be unable to use negative-pressure APR, but can use PAPR. An examining healthcare professional may also determine during medical surveillance that the employee is permitted to wear a PAPR but not a negative-pressure APR, because of the physiological burden involved. 5.2.1.4.3 Supplied Air Respirators (SAR) or Self Contained Breathing Apparatuses (SCBA) Supplied Air Respirators (SARs) are typically used in enclosed spaces in interior applications. SARs provide a supply of breathing air from an outside source such as a compressor, a bottle of compressed air, or a low pressure pump attached to an air-line hose. SARs also are called “Type C” systems or “air-line” respirators. SARs, when used properly, can provide the greatest protection for the wearer. An SAR consists of a tight-fitting full-face piece, or a loose fitting hood or helmet to which air is supplied through a small-diameter hose connected to an air source. There are three types of SAR: >>

Continuous flow, which supplies a constant airflow to the face piece or hood/helmet no matter what the worker’s breathing rate is.

>>

Pressure-demand, which supplies a constant flow of air to create a slight positive pressure in the facemask and also responds to the worker’s breathing rate.

>>

Demand airflow, which is less protective than continuous flow and pressure-demand modes, and provides breathing air to the facemask at a rate that depends on the worker’s breathing rate. Demand airflow SARs have significant drawbacks that limit their utility for SPF application; therefore, many contractors opt not to use demand-type SARs.

Supplied Air Respirators or SCBAs must be CE marked and be compliant to EN 402, 270, 1835, 12941 and 12942.


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5.2.2 PPE Care and Maintenance Dispose of single-use (disposable) PPE in accordance with local or national environmental regulations, depending on the chemical(s) they may be contaminated with. Decontaminate reusable PPE after exiting the work area. Regular cleaning and disinfection is generally needed as well to keep the PPE in good condition. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions regarding respirator cleaning and disinfection. Inspecting PPE periodically helps identify equipment or components that need to be replaced, repaired, or refilled. It is important to verify that the PPE available includes the range of sizes needed. PPE should be inspected for tears, cracks, or other signs of wear that might compromise its effectiveness. It may be preferable to have trained employees inspect their own PPE before and after each use. Remove defective materials from service and discard or repair them as appropriate. Store PPE in areas where the PPE is not exposed to conditions that could compromise the effectiveness of the PPE, such as sunlight, chemical contamination, extreme temperatures, moisture, and animals or insects. You might want to consider designating a cool dry area away from sunlight for PPE storage.

Chapter 5 Good Practices


Chapter 6

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Scope of Workbook Other Considerations for SPF Application This Workbook provides guidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products In addition to the possibility of chemical exposure when applying SPF chemicals, other aspects of the job can present (including but not limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used hazards. Identify these in advance of the job to address them most effectively. Consider potential electrical hazards, at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF confined spaces, pressurized equipment, walking and working surfaces, occupational noise, and temperature stress. Chemicals,” we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will also address some of the more commonly used materials.

6.1 Electrical Hazards

This Workbook health safety aspects of other the typical spray foam including application job and including initial Power lines nearaddresses a work siteallcan be a and source of ignition and extreme hazards, shock electrocution. site assessment, occupant preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, If you notice downed power outreach, lines in thesite area, secure all ignitable materials and evacuate personnel until the lines are trimming Never and cutting, coatingtouch and priming the to foam surface, site cleanup, spill sources response, disposal of SPF repaired. let equipment or come of close overhead electric lines or other of electricity. chemicals, and re-occupancy. For work near energized equipment, contractors should follow national regulations to properly lock out or tag out machines and equipment during repair or servicing activities. Electrical equipment that is used in SPF applications should be equipped with Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCI) or trip switches to prevent electrical shock or electrocution. This is especially important when working near water, or on wet floors or roofs.

Chapter 1

Job equipment and containers of flammable materials should be grounded. Plastic containers used to transport solvents cannot be grounded. Use non-sparking tools (such as those made of brass or aluminum) where flammability may be a concern. Do not plug in or unplug any power supply cords in the spray/dispersing area when there is a chance of igniting vapours still in the air. Check your national electrical regulation for detailed grounding instructions for your area and type of equipment, and consult manufacturer’s instructions for specific instructions for the equipment.


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6.2 Confined Spaces

Scope of Workbook Attics and crawlspaces may be considered confined spaces. Work in a confined space that may produce a hazardous atmosphere should meet the requirements specified in the national regulations. These regulations could require monitoring for oxygen, flammables, and toxic gases before and during entry; disabling all sources that This Workbook provides guidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray may suddenly release stored energy into the space (e.g., electrical equipment); using the right personal protective polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products equipment; and arranging for standby personnel equipped and trained in emergency and rescue problems. (including but not limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF Chemicals,� we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will also address some of applications the more commonly used Handle high-pressure equipment withmaterials. care, because pressurized fluid can be very dangerous. If the

6.3 Pressurized Equipment

hose develops a leak, split or rupture due to any kind of wear, damage, or misuse, the high-pressure spray emitted This addresses all health andorsafety the typical spray foamdamage. application initial from Workbook it can cause a fluid injection injury otheraspects serious of bodily injury or property All job fluidincluding hoses have site assessment, siteprotect preparation, SPFfrom chemical handling, application, spring guards on occupant both ends,outreach, which helps the hose kinks storage or bendsand at or close to SPF the coupling, which trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF can result in hose rupture. Tighten all fluid connections securely before each use. High-pressure fluid can dislodge chemicals, and re-occupancy. a loose coupling or allow high-pressure spray to be emitted from the coupling. Never use a damaged hose. Before each use, check the entire hose for cuts, leaks, abrasions, bulges, or damage or movement of the hose couplings. If any of these conditions exist, replace the hose immediately. Do not try to re-couple high-pressure hose or mend it with tape or any other device. A repaired hose cannot contain the high-pressure fluid. Handle and route hoses carefully. Do not pull on hoses to move equipment.

Chapter 6 Other Considerations for SPF Application

If you receive a cut or abrasion in handling pressurized fluid seek emergency care immediately, because chemical fluid may have entered the wound. Do not treat as a simple cut. Tell the doctor exactly what fluid was injected, and provide a copy of all relevant MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) documents to the doctor.


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6.4 Walking and Working Surfaces Scope of Workbook Elevated working surfaces are a common hazard in SPF application operations. Poor construction and improper use of elevated provides work platforms aretotwo of the leading causeswho of injury the construction All ladders This Workbook guidance applicators and helpers applyinprofessional gradeindustry. high pressure spray and scaffolding must be constructed and used in accordance with current national regulations, and all elevated polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products work mustbut comply with national regulationfoams on fall(OCF) protection. (including not limited to 1-component and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF Chemicals,� we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will also address some of the more commonly used materials. During SPF application, workers may be exposed to high levels of occupational noise from sources like operation of construction equipment. When feasible engineering and administrative controls are not sufficient to reduce This Workbook addresses all health and safety aspects of the typical spray foam application job including initial employee exposure below the PEL, hearing protection is required. site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF As a general guide, if you have to raise your voice to speak with someone at a distance of approximately one chemicals, and re-occupancy. meter, the noise exposure likely exceeds 90dBA.

6.5 Occupational Noise

6.6 Temperature Stress Application of SPF may take place outdoors or in work areas where the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning) system is turned off or not available. As a result, workers may be applying SPF in very hot or cold conditions. The following conditions may contribute to cold or heat stress:

Chapter 6 Other Considerations for SPF Application Chapter 1

>>

Increased metabolism due to physical nature of the work. Also, an increased metabolism due to use of personal protective equipment ensembles.

>>

Increased radiant heat when working outdoors.


Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray PU Foam

>>

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Variations in the temperature and humidity of possibly unconditioned circulation via local exhaust ventilation. This may result in an increase in cold or heat stress depending on the ambient temperature.

>> Increased sweat rate which can increase cold or heat stress depending on ambient conditions. Scope of Workbook Due to these conditions, consider the potential for workers to experience cold or heat stress over the course of their work. It is provides helpful for all workers, including and applicators to be familiarized with pressure the signsspray and This Workbook guidance to applicators helpers and whohelpers, apply professional grade high symptoms of cold heat and know to seek medical applications. attention. While other SPF products polyurethane foamand (SPF) in stress both interior andwhen exterior construction (including but not limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used Heat stroke can be a life-threatening condition characterized by hot, dry, skin (no sweating) and high body at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF temperature. If you suspect someone may be experiencing heat stroke, move the individual to a cool shaded Chemicals,� we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. area and call the emergency services (112 in most European countries) for medical attention immediately. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will also address some of the more commonly used materials. This Workbook addresses all health and safety aspects of the typical spray foam application job including initial site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF chemicals, and re-occupancy.

Chapter 6 Other Considerations for SPF Application


Chapter 7

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Scope of Workbook Fire Prevention during Construction This Workbook provides guidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products (including but not limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF It is the policy and recommendation of PU Europe that all interior applied spray polyurethane foams are covered Chemicals,” we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. by a suitable protective layer such as 12 mm plasterboard as soon as possible after the application for safety Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will reasons and in order to be compliant with the fire requirements, except when the foam by itself is approved by also address some of the more commonly used materials. the building code official based on fire tests specific to the application.

7.1 Policy Statement of PU Europe

This Workbook addresses all health and safety aspects of the typical spray foam application job including initial site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF chemicals, and re-occupancy. Fire is a serious concern during construction, repair and retrofit operations in general because of potential of

7.2 Good Practices

exposure to open flame from welding and cutting torches and with spray foam in particular because there may be exposed foam. While fires involving polyurethane foam during construction are rare, they do happen and they are preventable. Good practice suggests the following safety precautions at the construction site:

Chapter 1

>>

Conduct job safety meetings with other contractors before, during and after the spray foam application.

>>

Provide warning signs and labels on the job site where other contractors that are performing hot work are most likely to see them.

>>

Keep other contractors from working in the application area until the spray foam has been properly covered.

>>

Assess potential fire hazards during the spray foam application to determine if “fire watch” during application is required.


Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray PU Foam

>>

Do not apply spray foam on possible electrical hot spots, e.g. light bulbs, wires.

>>

Make sure the area is sufficiently ventilated during and after the spray operation.

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Scope of Workbook

7.3 Contractors Performing “Hot Work” This Workbook provides guidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray When contractors performing “hot work”, they should: polyurethane foamare (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products (including but not limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used >> Comply with EN or national safety regulations on welding, cutting and brazing. at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF >> Comply with the buildingcomponents or industry guidelines. Chemicals,” we mean the chemical that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be sprayfoam foamby application site, andtothis Workbook will >> Ensure the protection of combustiblesused suchatasaspray moving the work a location that is also address some of the more commonly used materials. free of combustible material. > If theaddresses work cannot be moved, ensureaspects the spray foam is shielded during the hot works with a suitable This>Workbook all health and safety of the typical spray foam application job including initial welding or fire blanket. site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF Provide a fire watch when: chemicals, and re-occupancy.

Chapter 7 Fire Prevention during Construction

>>

the combustible material is closer than 10 m from the hot works;

>>

wall or floor openings within a 10 m radius expose combustible materials in adjacent areas, including concealed spaces in walls or floors;

>>

combustible materials adjacent to the opposite side of partitions, walls, ceilings or roofs are likely to be ignited.

All contractors should: >>

Regard safety at work as important.


Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray PU Foam

>>

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Make sure spray operators have received safety training.

Scope ofthere Workbook >> Ensure is an adequate supply of appropriate fire extinguishers in convenient locations (Note: personnel must be trained in order to use fire extinguishing equipment). > Waste material such as to foam trim, paper, packaging should be disposed of daily in a spray This>Workbook provides guidance applicators and solvent, helpers who apply professional grade high pressure designated location with due regard for their combustibility characteristics. polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products (including but 1-component foams (OCF)extinguished, and 2-component low the pressure kits) may also >> If a not fire limited occurs to that cannot be immediately evacuate area at once and callbe used at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF emergency services (the fire department). Chemicals,” we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will also address some of the more commonly used materials.

7.4 Spraying Thick Layers

Spraying closedaddresses cell rigid polyurethane in aspects thick layers over 4 cm spray requires careful control.job The heat produced This Workbook all health andfoam safety of the typical foam application including initial by the exothermic reaction of the reacting materials could cause a significant build-up of heat within the site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, insulation. On cutting, cold surfaces this problem even besurface, aggravated. trimming and coating and primingcould of the foam site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF chemicals, and re-occupancy. Generally, insulating material should be applied in not more than 4 cm in a single pass, depending on the spray foam system, and a minimum of 20 minutes should be set as a “cooling” time between subsequent passes. The cooling time will depend on ambient conditions such as temperature and ventilation. In applications requiring multiple passes, the time required between the passes should be extended beyond 20 minutes. In the event that the heat is not allowed to escape, the temperature within the foam may increase, resulting in reduced physical properties and scorching. In extreme cases, the application of the polyurethane foam in thick passes and/or insufficient time between passes could lead to the possible ignition of the foam. The manufacture’s technical data sheet should be consulted for recommendations on the ideal layer thicknesses and time recommended between passes.

Chapter 7 Fire Prevention during Construction Chapter 1

Additional product stewardship guidance related to Fire Prevention during Construction is included in Annex C-5 of this Workbook.


Chapter Annex A 1 NOTE: Due to the changing nature of the information and the complexity of the legislation we advise consultation of the OSHA web page to update values: http://osha.europa.eu/en/ topics/ds/oel/members.stm

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Scope Occupational of Workbook Exposure Limits This The following Workbookisprovides a brief summary guidanceof tothe applicators occupational and helpers exposure who limit apply systems professional in European grademember high pressure states and spray polyurethane some other countries. foam (SPF) More in both information interioron and the exterior member construction states can applications. be found from While the links othergiven SPF products below, or (including through the but member not limited statetopages 1-component of the European foams (OCF) Agency’s and site. 2-component It is strongly low recommended pressure kits) may to check also be theused at relevant construction national sites, legislation. they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF Chemicals,” we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will also address some of the more commonly used materials.

European Union Member States

Austria This Workbook addresses all health and safety aspects of the typical spray foam application job including initial The Austrian OEL list is based on international and national sources such as the American Conference of site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH - see under USA for more details) and the German MAK-Commission. trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit, (BMWA) – http://www.bmwa.gv.at/ chemicals, and re-occupancy. Austrian Pages of the European Agency Network – http://at.osha.europa.eu/ Belgium In Belgium, OELs are known as “Valeurs Limites d’Exposition Professionnelle” (VLEP) / or “Grenswaarden voor Beroepsmatige Blootstelling (GWBB). Some of the Belgian OELs were changes to adapt to the European Union Guidelines, but the source of many OELs in Belgium is still the ACGIH (USA) TLV list. The Belgian Ministry of Employment and Labour – http://www.meta.fgov.be/ VLEP/GWBB List – http://www.emis.vito.be/ Belgian Pages of the European Agency Network – http://osha.europa.eu


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Denmark In the Danish OSH system, the Grænseværdier for stoffer og materialer (limit values for substances and materials) are administrative instructions that are enforced under the Working Environment Act. In Denmark, most of the OEL values are TWA – 8h. The Labour Inspectorate (Arbejdstilsynet) – http://www.arbejdstilsynet.dk/ Danish Pages of the European Agency Network – http://dk.osha.europa.eu/ Finland The Finnish OEL system can be divided into legally enforcing binding limit values (sitovat raja-arvot) and more orientating concentrations known to be harmful (haitalliseksi tunnetut pitoisuudet, HTP -arvot). Both of these are connected to the Labour Protection Act, which oblige the employer to provide the employee with healthy and safe working conditions. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health – http://www.vn.fi/stm/ Finnish Pages of the European Agency Network – http://fi.osha.europa.eu/ France In France, the Occupational (Air) Exposure Limits (OELs) are called “Valeurs limites d’exposition professionnelle aux agents chimiques en France” (VL). These VL are defined as the concentration of an agent in the air of the working area that a person can inhale for a defined duration without a risk of changes to his or her health. The VLs are fixed by the Ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité (Ministry of Employment and Solidarity). Some values are also recommended by the National Illness Insurance Fund (CNAM). Two types of OEL values exist in France: >>

Short-term exposure limit values (valeurs limites d’exposition à court terme) are ceiling values measured for a maximum 15 minute period;

Annex A Occupational Exposure Limits

>>

and average exposure limit values (valeurs limites de moyenne d’exposition) are measured or


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estimated over the duration of 8 hours. The Ministry of Employment and Solidarity (Ministère de l’Emploi et de la Solidarité) – http://www. travail.gouv.fr/index.asp INRS publishes parts of the VL on the Internet at the following addresses: http://www.inrs.fr/default/ dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/ED/TI-ED-98/ed98.pdf – http://www.inrs.fr/default/dms/inrs/CataloguePapier/ED/TIThis Workbook provides guidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray ED-984/ed984.pdf polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products French Pages of the European Agency Network – http://fr.osha.europa.eu/ (including but not limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used Germany at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF In Germany,we there arethe twochemical kinds of components OELs for air that in theare workplace: Chemicals,” mean used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will >> TRKs (Technische Richtkonzentrationen), which are technical guidance concentrations, and also address some of the more commonly used materials. >> MAKs (Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen), which give the maximum concentration of a chemical substance in the This Workbook addresses allworkplace. health and safety aspects of the typical spray foam application job including initial

Scope of Workbook

site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, The MAK-values are daily 8-hour time-weighted average values and apply to healthy adults. Substance-specific trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF acceptable peak concentrations, including the highest possible duration of such peaks, are defined. If the chemicals, and re-occupancy. substance can be taken up through the skin, this is indicated. The TRK is the concentration of a chemical substance in the air within a working area, which may be reached in accordance with the best available technology (state of the art). Technical Rules can be obtained from BAuA – http://www.baua.de/prax/index.htm Air limit values in Germany can be found from BAuA at the above link or from DGUV at http://www. dguv.de/content/index.jsp (http://publikationen.dguv.de/dguv/pdf/10002/grenzwerte2011.pdf). German Pages of the European Agency Network – http://de.osha.europa.eu/

Annex A Occupational Exposure Limits


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Greece The general law on ‘health and safety for workers’ and several ensuing presidential decrees have achieved harmonisation to European Union legislation. Among the topics addressed in this legislation (e.g. occupational factors, working conditions) are provisions on enforceable occupational exposure limits for nearly 600 chemicals. Most of the OELs reported are equivalent to the threshold limit values (TLV-TWA) published by the ACGIH (USA). Greek Pages of the European Agency Network – http://gr.osha.europa.eu/ Ireland In Ireland, the Occupational (Air) Exposure Limits (OELs) are defined as the maximum permissible concentration of a chemical agent in the air at the workplace to which workers may be exposed in relation to an 8-hour or a 15-minute reference period. Health and Safety Authority – http://www.hsa.ie/ Statutory Instrument 1994 No.445 can be obtained from the Health and Safety Authority site at http://www.hsa.ie/eng/Your_Industry/Chemicals/ Irish Pages of the European Agency Network – http://ie.osha.europa.eu/good_practice/ Italy The Italian exposure limits are identical with the TLVs established by the ACGIH (USA). The list exists as a paper version. An updated list of the Italian laws concerning dangerous substances is available on the Internet at the URL of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL). ISPESL – http://www.ispesl.it The ISPESL legislation search engine is reached at http://www.ispesl.it/norme/accessibile/main. aspx?lingua=ita Italian Pages of the European Agency Network – http://it.osha.europa.eu/

Annex A Occupational Exposure Limits


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Luxembourg The exposure limits in Luxembourg are adopted from various international health and safety agencies. The exposure limits in Luxembourg are based on the regulation of 19th July 1991. OELs used in Luxembourg are the same as used in Germany, unless specific OELs are provided.

Scope of Workbook

Inspection du Travail et des Mines – http://www.itm.lu/ This Workbook providesetguidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray Ministère du Travail de l’Emploi – http://www.mt.etat.lu/ polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. While other SPF products Luxembourg Pages of the European Agency Network – http://lu.osha.europa.eu/good_practice/ (including but not limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used The Netherlands at construction sites, they are not the primary focus of this Workbook. When this Workbook refers to “SPF In the Netherlands, are two types of OELs that withare differing bases and status: grade, high pressure SPF. Chemicals,” we meanthere the chemical components used to make professional Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will >> Legally binding OELs, and also address some of the more commonly used materials. >> administrative OELs. This Workbook addresses all health and safety aspects of the typical spray foam application job including initial Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) are called MAC-values (Maximaal Aanvaarde Concentraties). The MAC is site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, defined as the maximum allowed concentration of a gas, vapour, mist or dusty agent in the air of the working trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF area. In the Netherlands, the OEL values are set for 8-hours time-weighted maximum allowed concentration (8chemicals, and re-occupancy. hour TWA) and for 15-minutes average concentration (15-minutes TWA). MAC-values can be found on the Internet at http://www.dohsbase.nl and http://www.ser.nl/nl/taken/ adviserende/grenswaarden.aspx The Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (DECOS) of the Health Council – http:// www.gr.nl Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment – http://www.minszw.nl/ Socio-Economic Council – http://www.sev.nl Dutch Pages of the European Agency Network – http://osha.europa.eu/fop/netherlands/nl

Annex A Occupational Exposure Limits


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Poland In Poland, the requirements concerning the Occupational (Air) Exposure Limits (OELs) are determined by law, in particular the Labour Code. The regulation issued under the Labour Code shall be the maximum concentration and intensity of harmful factors in the work environment. Legislation can be found at http://isap.sejm.gov.pl Requirements can be found at http://www.ciop.pl Polish Pages of the European Agency Network – http://www.pl.osha.europa.eu/ Portugal In Portugal, the occupational exposure limits for dangerous substances are published in the Portuguese Standard 1796 of 1988. The publisher is the Portuguese Institute of Quality. The Standard 1796 is currently being reviewed. The VLEs (OELs) reported in this Standard as well as in the new Standard are equivalent to the limit values published by ACGIH (USA). Portuguese Institute of Quality – http://www.ipq.pt Direcção de Serviços de Prevenção de Riscos Profissionais, Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho, Lisboa – www.act.gov.pt Portuguese Pages of the European Agency Network – http://pt.osha.europa.eu/good_practice/ Spain The legal framework for limit values for hazardous substances (in Spanish: VLA = Valores Límite Ambientales) is published in 2011.

Annex A Occupational Exposure Limits

Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo (INSHT) – http://www.insht.es Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemicals in Spain 2011 – http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/ Documentacion/TextosOnline/Valores_Limite/limites2011/Limites2011web.pdf Spanish Pages of the European Agency Network – http://es.osha.europa.eu


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Sweden The “Hygienic limit values and measures for air pollutants” (Hygieniska gränsvärden och åtgärder mot luftföronreningar, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsens författningssamling; AFS 2000: 3) is an instruction given by the Swedish Work Environment Authority (Arbetsmiljöverket) with the empowerment of the Work Environment Ordinance (Arbetsmiljöförordningen; SFS 1977: 1166). These regulations are based on the Work Environment Act 1977: 1160) and the and limit helpers values are starting point of the chemical risk This(Arbetsmiljölagen; Workbook providesSFS guidance to applicators whoa apply professional grade high pressure spray management.foam According employer is obliged to keep exposure level as far polyurethane (SPF)to in the bothnational interiorregulations, and exteriorthe construction applications. Whilethe other SPF products below the but limitnot value as possible. (including limited to 1-component foams (OCF) and 2-component low pressure kits) may also be used

Scope of Workbook

at construction sites, are not the of primary focus of thisinWorkbook. Most of the OELs are they maximal values air concentrations workplaceWhen air. this Workbook refers to “SPF Chemicals,” we mean the chemical components that are used to make professional grade, high pressure SPF. http://se.osha.europa.eu/good_practice/ Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents may be used at a spray foam application site, and this Workbook will Arbetsmiljöverket – http://www.av.se also address some of the more commonly used materials. United Kingdom This Workbook addresses all health and safety aspects of the typical spray foam application job including initial Occupational exposure limits in the UK function under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, (COSHH) and its mirror legislation in Northern Ireland. The COSHH regulations require the employer to ensure trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF that the employee’s exposure to substances hazardous to health is either prevented or if not practically possible, chemicals, and re-occupancy. adequately controlled. OELs in the UK can be divided into Maximum Exposure Limits (MELs) and Occupational Exposure Standards (OESs). Exposure should be reduced as far below an MEL as possible, while reduction to the substance specific level OES is considered adequate. The list of exposure limits is known as EH40 and is available from HSE Direct. HSE’s services – http://www.hse.gov.uk/legislation/services.htm UK Pages of the European Agency Network – http://uk.osha.europa.eu/good_practice/ The Health and Safety Executive – http://www.hse.gov.uk

Annex A Occupational Exposure Limits


Annex B

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Discussing Spray Foam Application with building Owners and Occupants This checklist is intended to assist contractors in their discussions with building owners and occupants about some of the health and safety considerations of the spray foam application. While it contains suggested discussion topics for consideration, it is not exhaustive. Consider additional health and safety topics depending on the specific circumstances of the job site. >>

General discussion about the duration, schedule, and size/scope of job, with a focus on electric and water access, breaker boxes, emergency ingress and egress by workers on site and owners/occupants.

>>

Information about chemicals used in the SPF application. • •

• >>

How spray foam is made; reacting A and B-sides. Potential health hazards of A-side and B-side chemicals. Explain that MSDSs for all chemicals to be used are readily available on the job site, and review these documents with the owner/ occupant if requested. Point out locations of first aid kits and eyewash stations.

Explanation of controls designed to protect applicators, helpers, adjacent workers, and occupants. • •

Ventilation and/or containment plans. Review HVAC system location and operation, and discuss shutdown during application and until re-occupancy.


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• •

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PPE to be used, and why. Review plans to restrict access to the work area, including plans for postings around the perimeter of the work zone.

Scope of Workbook >>

Discussion with owner/occupant about plans to vacate building during and after application.

• provides Identify whether is occupied by individuals whoprofessional may have special (e.g., This Workbook guidancebuilding to applicators and helpers who apply grade sensitivities high pressure spray persons respiratory or sensitivities) andapplications. address accordingly. polyurethane foam (SPF)with in both interior illness and exterior construction While other SPF products • not Forlimited large commercial buildings, residences (e.g., condominiums, (including but to 1-component foamsmulti-family (OCF) and 2-component lowduplexes, pressure kits) may also beorused apartment buildings), or full vacation is planned; at construction sites, they are not the discuss primary whether focus of partial this Workbook. When of thispremises Workbook refers to discuss “SPF HVAC the andchemical ventilation issues; discuss external Chemicals,” we mean components that are used venting to makeissues. professional grade, high pressure SPF. • Provide specific guidancemay on re-occupancy times,foam following appropriate consultation with the Other chemicals, coatings, and solvents be used at a spray application site, and this Workbook will product also address some of themanufacturer. more commonly used materials. > If owner/occupant will notand vacate building during application, discuss to address exposure issues. This>Workbook addresses all health safety aspects of the typical spray foamplans application job including initial site assessment, occupant outreach, site preparation, SPF chemical storage and handling, SPF application, • PPE requirements for owner/occupant to enter work area and view application (discuss trimming and cutting, coating and priming of the foam surface, site cleanup, spill response, disposal of SPF alternative approaches to inspect or view work that minimize potential exposure, such as chemicals, and re-occupancy. photographs or real-time video). • Venting and ventilation issues. • Procedures for air monitoring, if used.

Annex B Discussing Spray Foam Application with building Owners and Occupants

>>

Discuss with the owner what to do to prevent damage to property due to overspray.

>>

Inform occupants that a fishy or ammonia smell may be indicative of amine catalysts contained in the SPF, and provide guidance and contact information in the event of strong smells or smells that do not dissipate.

>>

Review procedures for post-job cleanup and handling of dust and trimmings.


Quick Safety Indications

Hazard Communication

Annex C-1

Page 49

Identification of Chemicals & Hazards

Disposal Considerations

POLYOLS may contain harmful substances as catalysts, flame retardants, blowing agents.

Always drain drums and Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) in order to minimize residuals.

Methylenediphenyldiisocyanate (MDI) is a harmful chemical.

Empty drums must be collected and disposed of following local regulations.

When handling POLYOL and MDI always wear gloves, full face shield, filtered mask.

Foam waste can be disposed of as other plastic materials.

> READ Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) SECTION 1 to 3

Personal Protection

> READ Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) SECTION 13

Accidental Releases Storage & Handling In case of accidental release: fix the cause of spillage, adsorb the liquids with dry sand or sawdust. Do not use water. Avoid that spilled liquids enter drainage system.

Are you using the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for the job? > Air-purifying respirator for outdoor spraying > Supplied-air Respirator for indoor spraying > In all cases: Full face protection, Gloves, Coveralls, Boots > Maintain your PPEs after every working day, change filters, discard any damaged equipment

Store POLYOL and MDI in a cool place, away from direct sunlight. Keep drums and IBCs sealed. When opening a POLYOL drum or IBC release the internal pressure slowly and carefully. Keep drums and IBCs between 10 and 30 °C. Condition the POLYOL drum at 20 to 25 °C before opening.

> READ Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) SECTION 8

Fire Fighting

> READ Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) SECTION 6

First Aid

If a fire involves POLYOL or MDI immediately call the Fire Department Keep the closed drums or IBCs cool with plenty of water, to avoid risk of explosion. If hot works are to be performed on or in the vicinity of sprayed foam, protect it with fire blankets and place specific signs to alert other workers. > READ Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) SECTION 5

Other Information Other information is provided on LABELS and MSDS:

> Physical and chemical properties > Stability and reactivity > Toxicology

In case of contact with skin: wash immediately with running water and soap. Remove contaminated garments. In case of contact with eyes: wash immediately with fresh water opening the eye under water, for at least 15 minutes. Immediately bring the person to a first aid hospital. In case of ingestion: seek medical advice. > READ Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) SECTION 4

> Transportation > Regulatory information > READ MSDS SECTIONS 9 to 16 AND LABELS ON DRUMS or IBCs


Good Practices

Work Practices and Site Preparation

Annex C-2

Page 50

This information helps applicators, helpers, and workers who work adjacent to the application area, to achieve the maximum level of protection and prevention.

Shut off Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems, and seal their air intakes with plastic sheeting and tape (at least 24 h)

No food allowed, no smoking allowed, where chemicals are used, handled and/or stored

Establish a safety zone around the work area and restrict the access

Avoid vapour migration to other floors

Put and remove the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) inside the designated areas

Prevent overspray identifying and protecting any surface that could be damage

Take wind direction into account for outside works and avoid windy conditions (wind speed more than 30 km/h)


Chemical Storage and Handling

Storage and Handling

Annex C-3 It is important that Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) Chemicals be stored and handled properly before and during use on the job site. Improper storage and usage can make the components unusable or create a potential risk.

Storage

> store incompatible materials separately > store drums away from direct sunlight and away from excessive heat (typical temperature are between 10 and 25 ºC)

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MSDS

> be sure to have a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) in the workplace for each hazardous chemicals used > be sure to have the latest MSDS always available > the MSDS contains important information on how to handle accidental releases, the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and information on storage, handling, transport and disposal

Handling

> wear appropriate PPE whenever handling chemicals > open drums slowly to release any potential pressure build-up inside

> always maintain drums tightly sealed to avoid contact with moisture or other substances

> be careful not to cause spillage when inserting or removing transfer pumps into or from the drums

> store drums away from acids, caustics, alcohols and strong oxidizing or reducing agents

> when heating drums, always do so slowly, with the bung hole loosened for off-gassing and with gentle stirring (take care not to overheat)

> all containers must be labelled correctly

Spill Response

> always carry an emergency spill kit with absorbent materials > decontaminate and dispose of spills according to the MSDS > when decontaminating or containing spills, always wear PPE > direct personnel away from contaminated area to avoid exposure > report major spills to local or national authorities

General Advise > organise hoses and cords and maintain a clean work site to reduce trips, slips and falls > proper drum bracing will reduce spill potential in the truck > carry a First Aid kit for minor injuries > carry a fire extinguisher on the truck


Annex C-4 Spraying

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Headcover*

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

Eye protection with side shields (clean and maintain)

Full Personal Protective Equipment during spraying

Handling Protection during chemical changeover of pumping equipment

Maintaining

Nitrile gloves worn during gun repair

Approved respiratory protection (clean and maintain) – use supplied air respirators in enclosed spaces and air purifying respirators in exterior applications Nitrile rubber gloves* Chemical resistant suit*

Eye splash protection

Nitrile gloves Liquid splash protection

Wear chemical splash protection for the eyes if cleaning solvents are being used in the maintenance procedure

Protects from potential chemical contact to exposed skin area

* These items are made to be disposed of at the end of their protection. Follow Material Data Sheet (MSDS) instructions for disposition of any liquid materials that may be present before disposal.


Fire Safety

Fire Prevention during Construction

Annex C-5

Page 53

Conduct job safety meetings with other contractors

Provide warning signs and labels on the job site

Move the hot work to a location that is free of combustible material

Or shield the spray foam with a suitable welding or fire blanket, if the hot work cannot be moved

Provide a fire watch when the hot work is: > closer than 10 m from Spray Polyurethane Foam (SPF) > closer than 10 m from openings exposing SPF > adjacent to the opposite side of SPF

Cover all interior applied spray polyurethane foams by a suitable protective layer such as 12 mm plasterboard as soon as possible after the application.


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Acknowledgement and Disclaimer of the American Chemistry Council: This document is based in part on the “Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for High-Pressure Application of Spray Polyurethane Foam” by the American Chemistry Council (ACC), which was published on March 15, 2010. PU Europe would like to thank the ACC for its support. The ACC cannot be held responsible for the content of this PU Europe publication, which was drafted solely by PU Europe. It is intended to provide guidance to applicators and helpers who apply professional grade high pressure spray polyurethane foam (SPF) in both interior and exterior construction applications. It is not intended to serve as a substitute for in-depth training or other requirements, nor is it designed or intended to define or create legal rights or obligations. It is not intended to be a “how-to” manual, nor is it a prescriptive guide. All persons involved in applying professional grade high pressure SPF in both interior and exterior construction applications have an independent obligation to ascertain that their actions are in compliance with their national, federal, state and local laws and regulations and should consult with legal counsel concerning such matters. The document is necessarily general in nature and applicators, helpers, and individual companies may vary their approach with respect to particular practices based on specific factual circumstances, the practicality and effectiveness of particular actions and economic and technological feasibility. Neither the ACC, nor the individual member companies of the Center for the Polyurethanes Industry of the ACC, nor any of their respective directors, officers, employees, subcontractors, consultants, or other assigns, makes any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in this manual; nor do the ACC or any member companies assume any liability or responsibility for any use or misuse, or the results of such use or misuse, of any information, procedure, conclusion, opinion, product, or process disclosed in these Guidelines. No warranties are given; all implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose are expressly excluded.

Disclaimer: While all the information and recommendations in this publication are to the best of our knowledge, information and belief accurate at the date of publication, nothing herein is to be construed as a warranty, express or otherwise. This document complements but does not replace local guidelines and regulations.


Responsible Editor PU Europe Address Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 6 B-1160 Brussels (Belgium) Š 2011, PU Europe


Health and Safety Product Stewardship Workbook for Spray PU Foam

PU Europe Av. E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 6 B-1160 Brussels (Belgium) Phone: +32 2 676 72 71 Fax: +32 2 676 74 79 secretariat@pu-europe.eu www.pu-europe.eu

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