The New Geology of Islington - Masterwork

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School of Architecture, Technology and Engineering Architectural and Urban Design MA

University of Brighton

MASTERWORK THESIS THE NEW GEOLOGY OF ISLINGTON

Ewan MallochAIM502022

2 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments 4 Introduction to Masterworks INTRODUCTION 'The ResearchResearchEvent'AimsQuestion CHAPTER 1 Mining the Anthropocene Evolution of Ideas Waste SettingHousetheScene CHAPTER 2 Tools for DigitalRotorMadasterAchievementDeconstructionTwins-Another Event Layer? Ben and Loretta Bosence - Local works Studio Conclusion CHAPTER 3 Site TestWhyConsiderationsIslington?Bed1LeRoy House Test Bed 2 Regent's Wharf Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 CONCLUSION Images/BibliographyFigures MASTERWORK Fig. Under1 Construction presents a fictional neighborhood constructed from discarded building materials scavenged from demolition si tes: fractions of concrete, shards of glass, fragments of window frames. Accompanying flash fiction describes life in a city co nstantly under construction. NORELL/RODHE 59585652443830262524232018161514121111108869

School of

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would finally like to thank my parents and partner for their continued love and support. of Brighton Architecture, - Fig. 2 15 Clerkenwell Close Amin Taha Architects. The new stone age? Amin Taha utilised raw limestone blocks as the structural core. The use of stone as superstructure reduces the embodied carbon of the overall super structure by 90 per cent compared with steel or concrete and is around 25 per cent of their cost. They also make it incredibly easy to dismantle.

Technology and Engineering Architectural and Urban Design MA Ewan Malloch AIM50 Masterworks2022 Above

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I would like to extend my thanks to Sarah Stevens and Rob West for their incredibly valuable and excellent advice, support and guidance throughout the duration of this project. I would also like to thank my fellow Master of Architectural and Urban Design students, Amy Yu and Yixin Tan for their continued advice and insight during this masterwork.

University

EWAN MALLOCH AIM50 Masterwork

Photo: Figure 3

6 7 THE

Cat Fletcher, co-founder of Freegle UK 1

1 Baker-Brown, Duncan, and Cat Fletcher. “Part 1, Chapter 2, What a Waste.” Essay. In The Re-Use Atlas: A Designer's Guide towards the Circular Economy, 16–17. London: RIBA Publishing, 2017. NEW GEOLOGY OF ISLINGTON Ewan Malloch INTRODUCTION TO THE MASTERWORK

"Just a decade and a bit into the 21st century, while we can or might redesign all systems, products and processes, and rethink our relationship with stuff, enough to properly address the unsustainable situation we find ourselves in, we need to acknowledge that we are in the midst of a messy transitionary state. We need to turn the ship around. Some of the crew know that, but are yet to convince the captain that we will never arrive or survive the journey unless we re-navigate the route."

INTRODUCTION

This masterwork aims to brings together the knowledge, understanding and interests developed throughout each module of this academic year. Pulling from design one and two, research practices, critical readings and my elective module, sustainable design. This project highlights the accumulation of ideas and research accrued during the undertaking of this postgraduate degree. This research aims to highlight the wasteful nature of the construction industry despite the advancement of new technologies capable of drastically stemming waste in the sector. Furthermore, it aims to explore the potential of alternative methods of handling building materials and Eachwaste.of the projects completed within these modules have evolved a thematic trajectory, which has ultimately resulted in this masterwork research.

Under Construction imagines a city that is constantly being rebuilt using the same stock of materials. Exhibited at the Oslo Architecture Triennale 2019, themed The Architecture of Degrowth, the project takes the form of a large model, constructed from materials found in demolition sites in Stockholm.

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INTRODUCTION 'THE EVENT'

INTRODUCTION

Can viewing the city through event have a positive impact on the sustainability of material flows?

Viewing built developments as material banks that make use of and store materials until the development reaches the end of its lifespan. At which point the material can be retained for the next series of events. This outlook on the built environment changes the geology of a place. Utilising and incorporating newly imported, non-native material, as a reusable, mineable resource.

This project aims to view the city as a series of temporary events.

The investigation will begin by examining the Le Roy House redevelopment by Piercy and Company in East Islington. This initial investigation will analyse their proposed design and critique it in terms of material retention and waste. The proposal includes the addition of a roof unit, the reorganisation of the interior space, and a street front extension where the existing car parking is. The analysis of this site will provide a platform to begin thinking through the event and develop an understanding of the type of requirements necessary to make event based design possible.

Throughout the design modules I have had a distinct interest in ‘the event’ and of viewing aspects of design and the environment around us as a series of events. This theme began in design one where I had a strong focus on geological and historic events and the influence they had as formative urban forces. The following design module, design 2, was also ‘event’ focused however this time focused on temporary societal events that take place through the valley gardens in Brighton. Whilst both of these design projects had an event based design focus they observed event through distinctly different standpoints. Where they were connected however, was an interest in the residue of these events taking place. Each project highlighted a trace of these events taking place. Using the information and the resultant questions that evolved out of my Anthropic Architecture research during the sustainable design module and my developed understanding of the ‘event’ I have formed the basis and starting point to this masterwork project. Some of the most influential research undertook during this postgraduate degree came from my sustainable design module. I used this course as an opportunity to gather a deeper understanding of, the often ambiguous topic of sustainability, specifically focusing on the construction industry. The research undertaken for this module self titled as, Anthropic Architecture, began by investigating our spiraling consumption. Encountering designed obsolescence, an obsession with growth, continuous production and linear economic models quickly made it clear why so many of the problems associated with sustainability are considered to be wicked. However, wicked problems aren’t new, contrary to what some may have you believe. The buzz word term describes problems with so many arms to them that they become increasingly more complex the more that you delve into their inner workings. It’s inherently clear that these problems cannot be solved with a singular solution, perhaps with the exception of full scale revolution. There are however, a series of opportunities that arose from exploring these problems in more detail. These included counter methods such as, designing for deconstruction, circular economy models, material passports and retrofitting.

The next test bed site is located at Regents Wharf near Kings Cross where Islington borough meets Camden.

The project, 10-18 All Saints Street bu Hawkins and Brown, is a live project that involves the retention and redevelopment of 2 locally listed buildings and the demolition and rebuilding of two adjoining properties. This development will provide a site for a series of design scenarios that will explore the potential of thinking about design in terms of event and will determine whether this aids sustainable outcomes.

This project will explore this question by examining two proposed developments in Islington and critiquing their proposals in these terms. It will then explore different test bed scenarios employing this approach to investigate whether designing as event can offer sustainable benefits.

Portland stone mine Photo above: Figure 4

Whilst most of these concepts are being implemented practically to varying degrees, they are not widely applied or legislatively enforced despite their seemingly high potential in reducing waste in the construction industry. This masterwork ties these practically rooted ideas to more conceptual event based design outlook developed during my design modules.

Viewing the city through event.

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CHAPTER 1

2 Steiner, Richard. “From Anthropocene to Ecocene by 2050?” HuffPost. HuffPost, October 23, 2017. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/from-anthropocene-to3ecocene-by-2050_b_59e7b66ce4b0e60c4aa3678c.

‘Mining the Anthropocene’, is a term coined by Professor Duncan Baker Brown and is exemplified by his Waste House project in Brighton. The term refers to the reuse of man made stuff that surrounds us. Stuff being anything created within this period of humanity - industrial and otherwise. Whilst this phrase is applicable to a wide range of frequently discarded products, this ethos is equally applicable to the material within the construction industry and the existing built environment. The construction industry currently accounts for 40% of all global waste. Evidently the material flow systems used in the construction of our built environment are wholly unsustainable. The material flow systems begin with the destruction of buildings at the end of their lifespan. The most valuable materials are retained and the rest is sent to landfill as rubble. Meanwhile, the mining and extraction of raw material is underway elsewhere, followed by the manufacture of new components, the transportation (often transcontinental) and finally the assembly of a new building. Processes are underway to make these material flows more circular. However, the implementation of technologies and strategies capable of making substantial improvements is lacking. Building sustainability is often attributed to the use of sustainable materials. This is true however, many of the materials used in modern developments have a much longer functional lifespan than the life cycle of the buildings they make up. Although the event of that building has ended, the associated materials should avoid being wasted. Can we move our attention away from the extraction and production of raw and engineered materials, and instead look inwards at the existing materials available in our built environments? By viewing the city as a mineable entity it brings a new locality to construction materials. The geology of a place is no longer just the rock beneath our feet, it should now incorporates the material that exists as a result of being transported here and used in the construction of these buildings. Granite from Scotland, marble from Italy, steel from China all become part of a new localised city geology. What does designing using this ethos look like? Understanding any development as an event in time. If we were able to accurately map and catalog these existing materials can this information be used to predict the availability of materials as buildings reach their end of use period? With this in mind should we be designing for deconstruction? Designing buildings and our cities in such a way that they can be dismantled again when their uses change? Identifying buildings as temporary material stores could negate a lot of the associated environmental costs attached to building demolition and rebuilding. Framing developments as temporary events allows for the construction industry to function in a more sustainable way. Of course, new buildings can begin to be designed and cataloged in this way from the outset, but for the vast majority of existing buildings, producing this information would be extremely arduous and require much larger amounts of time and money to complete.

The Waste House ExteriorThe Waste House Interior fabrication Photo Top Right: Figure 6Photo top left: Figure 5

A period in time where the world resets and fights back against human initiated geological unrest. Whether we are there to see it or not is up to us2. Reducing the time of man to a mere blip in the context of deep ecological time. These too are a series of events, each epoch represents a renewal and reworking of the finite materials and their assembly on this planet.

Start on site: May 2013 Completion: April 2014 Gross internal floor area: 80m² Procurement: JCT Minor Works Construction cost: £140,000 Construction cost per m²: £1,750 Architect: BBM Sustainable Design Client: University of Brighton Structural engineer: BBP Consulting Engineers : M&e consultant Robinson Associates Other consultants: Cat Fletcher of Freegle UK Main contractor: Mears Annual predicted CO2 emissions: 9.89 kg/m²

WASTE HOUSE Exploded axonometric of waste house, Duncan Baker

DiagramBrown. Right: Figure 7

" Because human activities have also grown to become significant geological forces, for instance through land use changes, deforestation and fossil fuel burning, it is justified to assign the term “anthropocene” to the current geological epoch. This epoch may be defined to have started about two centuries ago, coinciding with James Watt’s design of the steam engine in 1784." J. Crutzen

Paul

Ehlers, Eckart, Thomas Krafft, and Paul J Crutzen. “The ‘Anthropocene.’” Essay. In Earth System Science in the built-on-planned-obsolescence. 1

The Anthropocene is an unofficial and heavily debated descriptor of geological time. It is generally understood to be the most recent period of the world’s history, where the human impact on the geological and ecological landscape has reached a level which constitutes the need for a new epoch descriptor. Industrial human activity has escalated to the point of becoming a geologically defining force. For the past two centuries our spiraling consumption and consistent growth as a species has left its mark on our finite world. The result is a world now devoid of places untouched by mankind. A new geology exists. A geology of our own making. Political ecologists and design theorists continue to debate which new epoch follows the Anthropocene. One of the most interesting and widespread hypothesis is the Ecocene.

3 'MINING THE ANTHROPOCENE' 11

4 “How Can Material Passports Support Material Re-Use of Existing Buildings?” Orms, January 31, 2022. https://orms.co.uk/insights/ materialpassports/ 5 Hartman, Hattie. “AJ Climate Champions Podcast.” Episode. Rachel Hoolahan on Material Passportsno. 19, December 2021. architectsjournal.co.uk/news/aj-climate-champions-podcast-rachel-https://www. 6hoolahan-on-material-passports.12 13

Ibid

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CHAPTER 1

Designing with materials locally sourced from the existing built environment presents opportunities to local trades and craftencouraging the reimagining of materials not usually considered to be local materials. If we consider mined local materials and the mining of surrounding anthropocene to be the same then the new layer of geology provides a new source of vernacular material.

Visual Above: Figure 8

Material passports are one way to tag or label new and existing materials in the built environment. These documents allows you to access important information, similar to how a normal passport works. They show physical information about an object such as age, dimensions, and compound make-up4. Furthermore they denote where the material or component has come from, its condition, and past and current value. These materials could then be traded on a secondhand digital market place such as 'Freegle' or 'Insert'5. This information, along with the required digital and physical infrastructure required to facilitate the smooth cataloging and distribution of material, allows for the assessment, retention and reuse of the material available within decommissioned buildings. The outsourcing of additional material needed for your new development from a secondhand market place and the retention and reuse of suitable existing materials and components on sight would make construction a more sustainable and circular venture. Any surplus material could then be advertised on the secondhand market place for other developments to utilise.

THOMAS RAU

7 Rau, Thomas, and Sabine Oberhuber. “The Material Passport: A Model for Responsible Construction.” Garland Magazine, May 10, 2021. https:// garlandmag.com/article/the-material-passport/.

Visual Above: Figure 9

Digital twins have the potential to carry this information and is one way in which this information could be assembled. Digital twins essentially act as a digital representation of something physical. They're often used to observe services of a building in real time and to identify faults or issues with the building. This technology has wide and far reaching potential beyond the architectural sphere. However, in this context digital twins could be especially useful in providing real time up dates of building components. The client can be provided with the finished building digital twin including the database of materials so that as future developments take place they can have access to the existing data and can add to it as more information becomes available. This databases can be interlinked with computer modelling, excel and other industry software to streamline and make the process as efficient as possible.

Craft community skillset and pre industrial revolution construction methods can be adopted to take advantage of these ‘new’ materials. Through the event lens, materials previously considered to be unsustainable become part of the vernacular. This material becomes equally as sustainable as true local materials especially if handled by local trades and crafts people, whilst also enhancing the sense of local community.

Triodos Bank by RAU To take apart a concrete structure, we pulverize it. To deconstruct a welded steel frame, we cut or torch it. To disassemble a wood-framed house, we saw it apart.

Triodos Bank Project by RAU Architects Every resource and material used for its construction was registered in a material pas sport, and its design allows for every component to be “harvested” at all times—without losing any of its value. The financial value of all material is known to the bank and a team of accountants is working to make these materials “bankable”. 7

Retrofitting is another way to sustain the life span of building elements. This involves keeping the existing skeleton of a building or as much of a building as possible and renovating, normally to facilitate a change of use. For example, large concrete frames from the turn of the century hold a great deal of material value and have the lifespan potential for a retrofit strategy. However, this strategy runs into issues when confronted with buildings that utilised poor construction methods and have poor heat retention. Whilst avoiding demolition of buildings is an inherently good thing, the associated cost and scale of retrofitting these out dated residential buildings is a key sustainable design challenge. It may be tempting to demolish and rebuild these problematic buildings but there is plenty precedent to suggest that retrofitting can add great value without uprooting and destroying residential communities and incurring the substantial environmental cost. However, it is inevitable that some buildings will eventually be demolished, for a variety of reasons. In this case, are there ways to approach these issues in a more circular event based fashion?

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used to manage large amounts of data throughout the design and construction process. Material passport information could be integrated and added into these models. This in turn could help to influence the design process. Encouraging architects and urban designers to make use of the existing material where possible6. The easier it is to access the information the more likely it is that it will actually be utilised.

‘The conservation of our natural resources and their proper use constitute the fundamental problem which underlies almost every other problem of our national life’

One barrier is the sharing of information. Many developers and investors are likely to be hesitant making the material value of their assets widely available. However, if there was a way to make this information available on a wider scale it would present a number of opportunities. Including the introduction of a market place for available, excess materials where developers could identify the available material within their own projects, list materials they don’t need for sale to other near by developments and acquire materials they need. Widely available material information could also highlight areas where material might become available. For instance if there was an office block or a large urban area reaching the end of its lifespan that had ’x’ amount of a certain material within its material bank. Developers and designers for redevelopment of the existing site or nearby sites, that coincide, could be encouraged to make use of ‘x’ this material11

Material passports could be integrated, and be a key part of building information modelling (BIM). Digital twins created through BIM are digital representation of something in real space. Sensors allow for information flow to be almost instantaneous. Whilst this concept is already being harnessed globally in areas of urban planning, the integration of material passports into this existing infrastructure is still not currently an industry standard. However, together with Madaster, a material cataloging platform, The Amsterdam Metropolitan Area (AMA) started a material passports pilot in a bid to boost the circular economy in the area. This enterprise aimed to instill permanent value into materials used for construction, in an industry characterised by spiralling waste. Each municipality and province within the AMA were offered a material passport for one their buildings. Providing an opportunity to assess their value and potential9 Madaster is a public digital platform that catalogs materials and products used in the construction of buildings. By cataloging the materials present in urban developments it not only makes the materials easier to reuse and retain but allows the linking of circular and financial information flows. Their platform provides a simple user face for this information to be cataloged and stored on. The Madaster passport can then be passed on with the building and added to as changes are made to the building and/or the site. They also provide in depth guides on how to use their platform in an attempt to make the process as seamless as possible. Whilst, there is no doubt that this is a long and potentially costly process the investment in their passports could prove to be invaluable as the sector moves towards circularity. This is one of the key arguments that Madaster make when promoting their platform. Whilst these documents are not widely used at the present. If we were to begin cataloging our built environment now, then in 30 of 50 years time its makes the reuse of building materials infinitely easier and more economically lucrative10

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14 15 Tools

. Theodore Roosevelt8 CHAPTER 2

Image Above and Below: Figure 11 and 12 Madaster 3D visual of a cataloged material component Image Above: Figure 10 Madaster an example of the material overview of a project.

Material passports provide a way of cataloging building elements along with key accompanying data such as their characteristics, size, weight, cost, origin and full audit history providing information on all the people/ companies that have interacted with the given material. Instead of viewing buildings as completed permanent structures what happens if we treat them as temporary material stores or material banks. This information would be invaluable to a whole host of invested stakeholders as a result of this increase in transparency. For developers it would provide an economic incentive as buildings due for demolition once considered worthless would have an economic value equal to the usable components within the building. For architects and designers material passports would provide information that could help to inform design decisions.

Achievement CHAPTER 2

Having a material catalog prior to the demolition of an existing building would allow for designers to make adjustments to their designs in order to incorporate as much of the material on site as possible. This would substantially reduce the environmental impacts of the demolishing and rebuild process but could also allow for a cheaper development as new materials may not be needed. Most importantly it would help to close the wasteful loop present in large parts of our current construction industry.

8 Theofore Roosevelt, Seventh annual message to Congress on 3 December 1907 9 “Amsterdam Metropolitan Area Uses Material Passports to Boost the Circular Economy in the Region.” Amsterdam Metropolitan Area uses material passports to boost the circular economy in the region :: Mehr erfahren. Accessed August 22, 2022. https://www.madaster.ch/de/ newsroom-2/press-releases/amsterdam-materialpassport-circular-economy. Ibid 11 Hartman, Hattie. “AJ Climate Champions Podcast" For

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ROTOR DECONSTRUCTION

Rotor Deconstruction - organisational Photowarehouse.right: Figure 16 Structural build up of Erasmus Medical Centre. Illustrating its reusability. Photo bottom left: Figure 17 Rotor Deconstruction- Material retention. Photo middle left: Figure 15

Rotor Deconstruction provide a useful insight into what is required to make the reuse of building components possible. They have split their services into three sections. These sections have helped to identify the infrastructure needed to facilitate these processes. The first is what they describe as the ‘In Team’ that handle the sourcing and inventorying. The second team is the ‘Process Team’ dismantling and processing and the third is the ‘Out Team’ that handle the transportation, delivery and customer service.

In September 2018 Erasmus Medical Centre entered into a contract for its circular demolition. Using the material passport database of Madaster they created a material passport for the decommissioned hospital building that featured 2720 products12. Some of which were bought and reused by a local housing associated and used in one of they housing projects using the material market place ‘insert’. Large scale structural and facade elements were re purposed and redesigned to be reused in the new hospital development. Structural components were broken down into various functional volumes. Facade elements were re-imagined into new facades, base elements and interior partitions. Projects such as this one illustrate the practical application of material passports as design tools and as financial incentives. Rotor Deconstruction are based in Brussels and are pioneers in disassembly and deconstruction. They have managed to maintain the value in discarded artefacts on an industrial scale. They dismantle process and trade building components. “Rotor deconstruction facilitates reuse of building materials in large-scale projects. we help contractors and building owners to find markets for salvaged materials, we organise large-scale extraction operations, we advise design teams assessing the feasibility of on-site reuse strategies and help source locally available materials.”13 One of the inhibitors for deconstruction and material salvage is the need for detailed deconstruction plans and specialist expertise. Rotor Deconstruction have created a manual for this purpose. The ‘Vade Mecum For Off-Site Reuse’ provides a comprehensive guideline for public works projects. They have provided a framework to help simplify and aid the salvage of construction material. This allows for the retention of material previously considered waste to continue to have practical application.

ERASMUS MEDICAL CENTRE PRECEDENCE

Photo Above: Figure 13 Rotor Deconstruction - Collection of floor tiles. Photo top: Figure 14

Erasmus Medical Centre deconstruction.

12 Madaster. “Demolition First Erasmus MC Building.” Madaster, February 4, 2021. https://madaster.com/demolition-first-erasmus-mc-building/. 13 “Rotor Deconstruction Is a Cooperative That Organises the Reuse of Construction Materials.” Rotor Deconstruction. Accessed February 1, 2022. https://rotordc.com/?utm_medium=website&utm_source=archdaily.com.

Conference by Ezio Manzini. Lecture presented at the Conference by Ezio Manzini, December 13, 2021.

Digital twins can be used in a number of ways. A digital representation of the physical world can help to store, test and inform our urban realm. Adding another layer to the Anthropocene. Digital twins now exist at increasingly large scales, TFL are in the process of developing a digital twin of the London Underground railway network to help preempt faults and identify heat spots and noise pollution14. In the built environment they could also be used as instigators for change and facilitate the evolution of a place through time and through events. Events which are orchestrated by the digital landscape but set within the physical. The art work of Pierre Huyghe, a French sculpture artist, illustrates this potential through his theoretical exploration into artificial networks. His screen shows the ever-changing nature of the environment it represents but also allows for artificial mutations to grow on their own. “The two milieux, physical and digital, are Massachusettspermeable.”16Instituteof Technology’s (MIT) Sensible City Lab have created a number of digital twins and are using them to inform the reformation of our built environment. Using 3D Lidar laser scanning technology they have produced ‘Favelas 4D’ which analyses the morphology of Rochina, the largest favela in Rio de Janeiro. Spaces previously impervious to traditional mapping strategies, and as result devoid of real urban considerations, were mapped and represented with great detail. Allowing for spatial analysis to take place. This technology illustrates the potential of large scale digital scans that can add additional layers of information that can begin to inform the physical world.

15 Hakimian, Rob. “TFl to Create Digital Twin of London Underground to Monitor Track and Tunnels.” New Civil Engineer, January 10, 2022.

DIGITAL TWINS - ANOTHER EVENT LAYER?

Image Above: Figure 18 MIT - Favelas 4D - Lidar scan of Rochina

16 Huyghe, Pierre. “Pierre Huyghe: Variants - Announcements - e-Flux.” e. Accessed August 22, 2022. https://www.e-flux.com/announcements/473018/pierre-huyghevariants/.

“A relational and operational condition that allows us to mend the social fabric, reduce the environmental footprint and re-weave the interconnected web of life on our Planet” 14 Ezio manzini

2022/?tkn=1.latest/tfl-to-create-digital-twin-of-london-underground-to-monitor-track-and-tunnels-11-01-https://www.newcivilengineer.com/

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Image Above: Figure 19 Pierre Huyghe Varriants 14 Manzini, Ezio. “The Scenario of Proximity. A Design-Orienting Framework for City Making.”

* Design components at a scale that makes best use of available small dimension waste materials & that can be easily dismantled for future reuse.

Local Works Studio Chalk Plaster Tiles Figure 20: Winning the Clay, research into Erith's brickearth materials. Local Works Studio Figure 22

* Eliminate unnecessary materials, layers & processes.

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* Prioritise careful deconstruction, sorting & storage, over quick demolition and waste.

* Observe waste hierarchy – maintain, repair, retain, reuse, repurpose before recycling

20 21 PRECEDENCE BEN AND LORETTA BOSENCE/

* Specify materials & features for simple maintenance & repair, done with on-site skills & tools where possible.

* Celebrate materials & make components visible and legible. Local Works Studio Design Principles Local Works Studio Lime render sample.

* Keep all materials on site & in use and in original state for as long as possible.

Figure 21: 17 Bocence, Ben. Local Works Studio, March 8, 2021. https://localworksstudio.com/practice/.

Event based design could offer new opportunities to local craft and sustainable building methods. Ben and Loretta Bosence’s Local Work Studios take a landscape-led approach to design, using site based resources and processes to plan, make and repair. Their process involves a thorough material mapping of each site they work on in order to assess the available on site material. Using this material they manufacture their own bespoke construction components. This negates the high carbon cost of transporting industrially manufactured materials from great distances away. They also promote the local trade and the revival of traditional, sustainable skills. This helps to enable community growth and provides education on how to maximise the potential of locally sourced sustainable materials. If the local geology involved the mineable anthropic layer this could open practices such as the Local Works Studio up to a new resource. Whilst, the local studio already utilise a-typical material composition, embracing existing building components as a locally mined sustainable material source could further the reach of traditional local craftsmanship.

* Design for ease of disassembly & cyclical rebuilding.

"I like to think of architects as spatial therapists who are just reconfiguring things. We’re just moving stuff around according to the needs of the clients, the communities, the environment, the context that we’re serving. It’s not about us coming up with some genius idea and then finding the resources to realize it. It’s about negotiating and configuring the existing resources in order to therapeutically benefit the entire context that we’re working with." Maria Smith

* Make services easily accessible & repairable.

* Avoid permanently mixing different materials.

* Design for adaptability & flexible use.

LOCAL WORKS STUDIO

* Use modular construction & components that can be readily repaired or replaced without deconstructing the whole.

"Through better understanding of a site and it’s surroundings, hidden assets and opportunities can be uncovered. We carefully map and observe every place we work, in order to understand the resources available and to quantify existing and potential impacts."

PRECEDENCE

Figure

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Building community from the ground up Local Works Studio Diagram Right: Figure 23 These precedence have provided a deeper insight into some of the sustainable practices that could be facilitators for an event based design approach. The Madaster material cataloging platform provides evidence of the practical application of material passports. Their work with the AMA shows that with the help of government enforced legislation increased circularity in the construction industry can be achieved without limiting new development. Rotor Deconstruction further this argument. By illustrating the economic benefits of material retention along side the obvious environmental advantages. Their work, alongside Madaster have also made this technology more readily accessible and as a result have increased its likely hood of being adopted on an even larger scale. Digital Twins can provide an additional layer to our built environment. This layer can hold additional information and could help to inform the organisation of our communities. MIT’s lidar scans of Rochina in Rio de Janeiro illustrate the accuracy that can be achieved through these scans and show the breath of information that can be held within them. Large scale digital twins could help to facilitate an event based approach to urban design that could as a result help to aid sustainable outcomes. year in the UK 23,220,000 tonnes of excavated soil (including clays) are sent to land fill from construction sites, and the shortfall of new bricks in the UK is 1.4 billion a year."

Local Works Studio Waste Bricks. Made from the by-product of construction waste. Largely rubble and clay based.

PRECEDENCE CONCLUSION "Every

“...HIDDEN WEALTH AND SOCIAL RICHES OF A PLACE” 18 18 Ibid 19 Ibid

22 23

Building community from the ground up Local Works Studio Diagram Right: Figure 24 25,26,27

Alongside the railway lines, there are a number of key artery roads that connect the borough as well as the Regent’s Canal. Starting in 1812 and completed in 1820 the Regents Canal, designed by architect John Nash, was built to form a connection between the existing Grand Junction Canal’s Paddington Arm to Limehouse where it meets the Thames. Despite the rise of rail travel around this time the regents canal aided the transportation of enormous amounts of timber, coal, building materials and food in and out of London. Following its nationalisation in 1948 the commercial and industrial activity on the canal subsided.

As the city grew and developed it evolved to fit the needs of the users of the time. A further example of this is the underground high voltage cables that were laid in a trough beneath the towpath in 1979. Pumped canal water is used to cool the cables, which are now part of the national grid.

A system that could facilitate the circular reuse of building materials would need to operate at different scales. From buildings, to community blocks, to boroughs, and out to the city. All would need to be interconnected with each other and function between these varying scales. Focusing in through these urban scales is a way of illustrating their potential without constructing a city wide platform for these Eachchanges.borough

CHAPTER 3

The New Geology of Islington London beginnings stem from trade and distribution of goods, since is conception it has acted as a hub for international import and export. A constant flow of events. SITE CONSIDERATIONS

The canal exemplifies the potential of evolutionary design. Whilst the uses of the canal have changed, it has persistently evolved and adapted to the needs of society throughout its lifespan. Adapting to the events happening around it and changing its use accordingly.

The London Borough of Islington Map above: Figure 28

WHY ISLINGTON?

However, in a globalised world is the constant import and disposal of construction materials sustainable? Is there a way to redesign the city, with a focus on a more circular lifecycle of materials used within London? If we view the city as event it becomes a mineable landscape. Instead of importing, consuming and discarding materials, imported materials could be retained, refurbished, redistributed and refused. Thus, reducing the need for the widespread import of new materials. This outlook could create a new locality to construction materials and reduce the environmental cost of the transport and manufacture. As a result London could be much more capable of feeding itself given the vast amounts of developments that take place. London is famous for its widespread use of Portland stone. The use this material has had an effect on the geological build up of the city. Adding to the existing geology and forming a new layer of history and urban built up. This is also true as new materials are imported into the city. Marble from Italy, granite from Scotland, Steel from China all these materials imported and brought to London and assembled into buildings and building components form a new geology. An event orientated geology. Instead of rejecting the use of imported materials, why not embrace these new materials that now make up the city and reuse them as they become available at the end of a buildings life and a new series of events begin. When the city is viewed as event the city develops a new geological layer. A changeable layer that shifts and evolved as these events take place.

The London Borough of Islington is the second smallest borough in London. It stretches north from central London including places like, Farringdon and Clerkenwell, North to Finsbury Park and towards Harringay. At its most Easter point The Borough of Islington reaches out towards Dalston where it borders Hackney. To the East, the borough extends to almost include Kings Cross station. Whilst technically inside Camden the station is an important transport hub for Islington, Camden and the whole of London.

within London controls their own sustainability polices. Many of the boroughs in London are bolstering their sustainability pledges and making positive changes however, Islington is a borough that I am particularly familiar with and one that has a particularly strong stance on sustainability as a transition town.

Today, the canals towpaths provides an escape from the busy surrounding city. Used heavily by commuters, walkers and cyclists. The canal is surprisingly versatile.

24 25 1km Islington ISLINGTON

Site Plan Le Roy House Above:

Figure 29 LE ROY HOUSE

TEST BED 1 LE ROY HOUSE 26 27 Through a process of reviewing proposals and application documents for new developments in islington I encountered the plans for Leroy house. The building initially constructed in the 1930s as a manufacturing facility and headquarters for LeRoy and Sons ltd, a watch manufacturer. Extended in the 1940s as a laboratory for a French cosmetic company. The building stood out as a potential candidate for this study due to the additive nature of the proposed development and the relatively simple structural configuration. Making it potentially suitable for a retrofit approach. The proposals included the addition of another floor on the roof, the reconfiguration of the existing interior layout and the construction of a new west facing building front extension. The site is situated at 436 Essex Road where Essex Road intersects Balls Pond Road. Opposite the site on the Western side is St Paul’s Church which is a grade II listed building. 178190 Balls Pond Road, to the north of the site is also grade II listed. The area features a high density of religious teaching. St Paul’s Church houses St Paul’s Steiner School and also on the junction of Essex Road and Balls Pond Road is the Turkish Educational Group. The gutting of the existing layout, the resultant waste and the imported materials for the additions being made would appear to make their current plans unsustainable. There appeared to be an opportunity to implement some of the methods developed in the initial research. Using this site as an exploration of the requirements necessary for event based design thinking. Further research led to the discovery of another larger scale project taking place North of the site near Newington Green. In the context of event based design, as these events overlapped in timing there appeared to be an opportunity to share materials on a local level between the two sites. This would potentially negate some of the associated environmental transport costs. Digital Twins and material passports of each of the sites could be used to identify any overlap of available materials and building components.The second project was situated at Hathersage Court at Newington Green. The development involved the demolition of 154sqm of existing housing, the demolition and relocation of a sub-station and the construction of 45 new dwelling units. Both projects had elements of demolishment and retention. However, upon further researching this site the and the surrounding developments taking place, some inhibitors to event orientated design strategies began to arise. Both Essex Road and Balls Pond road are main artery roads with substantial through traffic at all times. This made the site challenging as any organisation and cataloging of materials would require space to sort and distribute and whilst the sites were within a close proximity the transport of heavy building elements would still be required.

Whilst the site held premise and opportunity to improve sustainable outcomes through event based thinking. The distribution of materials between two unrelated yet localised developments would likely result in substandard design as developers tried to shoe horn materials into their plans. The outcome of the architectural style could also be affected. In some scenarios this could be advantageous as the building would act as a form of discursive design, such as Duncan Baker Brown’s Waste House, where the building becomes a symbol for the potential of a building strategy. However, this is not the focus of this project and the potential of material reuse through the implementation and integration of material passports and digital twins has more practical implications than being a provocative design statement. Exploring the viability of Leroy House brought a new clarity to this project as the barriers of designing in this way began to become more visible. It’s evident that sustainable transportation, organisation and retention of existing building materials is not currently viable on every new development site. Furthermore, an organised and sustainable transport network would provide access to an increased diversity of developments. Allowing for a more realistic approach to the exchange and distribution of reusable materials. Thinking through this site in terms of event and beginning to attach event based material retention strategies has helped to define the parameters of these ideas within our current infrastructure.

North Elevation Balls Pond Road 2928 LE ROY HOUSE

Drawingsuperstructure.AboveFigure 33 East Elevation Essex Road Drawing

Isometric section showing the structural build Diagramup. Above: Figure 30 Diagram Right: Figure 32 East to West section showing the concrete and steel Above: Figure 31

TEST BED 2 REGENT'S WHARF 30 31 Following the design exploration into Leroy House’s viability, a more thorough transport analysis of Islington was needed in order to identify a more appropriate site to apply this research. It was important to identify a site with a rich layer of history and that had sustainable modes of transport in its vicinity. This would allow for a deeper understanding of these ideas and would allow material flow on the scale necessary for event based design thinking. This analysis was carried out by isolating Islington transport networks (with a focus on non-automotive transport) and identifying areas of convergence. These points indicated areas were material distribution might be achieved sustainably. One of the largest convergences identified was near the borough boundary at Kings Cross Station. Kings Cross is one of the major terminus's for connections to North. Its sister station St Pancras provides international connections and passageway to the South and West of England. In addition to the proximity of extensive rail networks the site surrounding kings cross also features part of the Regent’s Canal. The London Plan highlights the potential of London’s ‘Blue Ribbon Network’, stating that ‘Using water based transport for freight is fully in line with the National Planning Policy Framework’ and that ‘Water transport is recognised as one of the most sustainable modes, particularly for low value, non time-critical bulk movements.’ 2 1 1 2Test Bed 1 Le Roy House Test Bed 2 Regent's Wharf 2 Diagram Figure 34 Environmental transport plan REGENT'S WHARF

REGENT'S WHARF

32 33 Within this area in Islington the site ’10-18 All Saints’ was identified due to the on going redevelopment by Hawkins and Brown. The site partially lies with the Regent’s Canal West Conversation Area and includes the locally listed buildings, 10 and 12 All Saints Street. As part of the industrial archeology of the historic canal side infrastructure they hold significant importance to the appearance and history of the site. As a result, any replacement designs for 18 All Saints Street should tie in to the existing North facing industrial facade and the rest of the Regent’s Canal West Conservation Area. 14,16, and 18 All Saints Street are late 1980s office buildings that front onto the central courtyard, car park and All Saints Street. Despite the Canal access and valuable courtyard space the existing frontage on All Saints Street is very inactive. New Wharf Road is located to the South West of the site and comprises of mostly commercial workspaces, some residential dwellings and the London Canal Museum. To the North of the site there is the Regent’s Canal tow path and beyond that there is some more residential properties along Tiber Gardens and Treaty Street. Copenhagen Street Primary School is also North of the Canal from the site. The site has the highest public transport access level rating of a 6b, largely due to its proximity to Kings Cross Central Station. This may allow for the removal of the current parking area in the central courtyard. A provision of bike parking in conjunction with the high public transport level rating could help to make the site car free.

Analysis Clean Air Quality Routes Polluted Air Quality Routes Listed Buildings Green Public Spaces Electric Vehicle Charging points Major Cycle Routes Community Project Plans Brownfield Sites Conservation Areas Borough Core Strategy areas

Layered Islington features to determine overlap and areas of convergence. Maps Above - Figure 37 Islignton analysis

Maps Above, Figure 36 Islignton

Image Below Figure 35 10 All Saints Street from the North

34 35 Above Figure 39 Site Plan South West Above Figure 40 Site Plan North Above Figure 38 Location Plan Above Figure 41 Site boundary REGENT'S WHARF

36 37 HISTORIC BUILDING USES 1210C10B10A * Date - Built 1891 * Original function: 'J.Thorley Cattle Food and Cake Mills' - Warehouse * Status: Non-designated heritage asset (local list) * Designation: Regent's Canal West Conservation Area * Previously detached until 1980s * Date - Built 1891 * Original function: 'J.Thorley Cattle Food and Cake Mills' - Mill * Status: Non-designated heritage asset (local list) * Designation: Regent's Canal West Conservation Area * The east elevation labeled was originally the buildings frontage. * Date - Built 1891 * Original function: 'J.Thorley Cattle Food and Cake Mills' - Warehouse * Status: Non-designated heritage asset (local list) * Designation: Regent's Canal West Conservation Area * Windows added in 1980s conversion. * Date - between 1894 and 1914 * Original function: Warehouse * Status: Non-designated heritage asset (local list) * Designation: Regent's Canal West Conservation Area * Remodelled and extended in the 1980s conversion Above - Figure 42 Historic uses diagram REGENT'S WHARF 10A 10B 10C 12 Former Warehouse - c1900 Former Cattle Feed Mill - 1891 Modern Development

38 39 TEST BED SCENARIO21

Diagram Right: Figure 46 DemolitionDiagramplansRight: Figure 47 Demolition plans Diagram Above: Figure 43 Original North facing canal frontage Diagram Above: Figure 44 Development underway.

As an attempt to limit the environmental cost of the development the developers conducted a water based freight feasibility study in order to determine the potential of using the canal for the removal or demolition material and the delivery of scaffolding and construction materials. The study identified a series of transport routes to a number of material sorting facilities that could be accessed via the canal and calculated the amount of trips required to handle the delivery and removal of on site construction components and waste by lorry load and canal boat. They estimated that from demolition waste a lone it would take 334 lorries. In contrast it would only require 95 barge trips to move the same amount of waste material, at a fraction of the associated carbon emission cost. They concluded however, that whilst it was possible to and encouraged by the London Plan water freight transportation for this development would prove to be too expensive. The report suggested that it would cost up to £250,000 more to use water based transportation.

Diagram

REGENT'S WHARF Redevelopment by Hawkins and Brown for the redevelopment of 10-18 All Saints Street, Regents Wharf. Whilst dissecting this site further and searching for opportunities on a more local scale within the larger context of Kings Cross and the Regent’s Canal the new proposed developments at Regent’s Wharf presented itself. Following a series of objections from Islington planning authority and subsequent design aments, Hawkins and Brown have had their proposal for the redevelopment of Regents Wharf accepted. The initial work has since commenced on site. Their designs for the this site will act as the first scenario in this test bed exploration. Their plans include the demolition of 14,16 and 18 All Saints Street, to be replaced by a new part five (ground plus four) and part six (ground plus five) storey non residential building. 10 and 12 All Saints Street are non designated heritage assets, identified on the Local List by the London Borough of Islington and will be retained and refurbished. Their proposal will provide business and office space with ancillary retail, restaurant and non residential provisions. The site falls within an Employment Growth Areas part of Islington's core strategy areas, explaining the absence of residential provisions and the promotion of workspaces. The redevelopment connects the five buildings within the site and creates an interconnected work environment with a well considered outdoor space. The new developments are in a contemporary style and do improve visually on the modern office blocks they are replacing. The interior organisation of the replacement buildings do seem to be more versatile and spacious than their outdated Throughoutpredecessors.theplanning documentation, there is very little was mention, explanation or validation for the demolition of two functioning office buildings that are only 40 years old. In the Heritage and Townscape Statement they argue that 'The design and materiality of Nos 14, 16 and 18, which are adjacent to the conservation area are not contributory to its significance and setting, and have altered the streetscape of All Saints Street and the canal frontage.’ Whilst this may be true does in quantify the environmental cost of demolishing and rebuilding on virtually the same footprint and to the same height? Especially as the demolition phase is anticipated to produce around 5,734t of hard waste material, including a 600t contingency, with the redevelopment element works accounting for an anticipated 15,734t of construction waste. Furthermore they state that ‘Demolition is limited to the modern elements that have been identified as being little or no architectural or historic merit and that are detrimental to the significance of the heritage assets.’ Although their designs improve on the design standard of the existing buildings it does not immediately substantiate demolition especially when the difference between the existing and proposed is not that drastic.

Above: Figure 45 All Saints Street frontage. SCENARIO 1

40 41 Diagram Right: Figure 49 Visulisation of new public courtyard. Image above: Figure 48 Proposed replacement for 18 Regent's Wharf. Diagram Right: Figure Proposed50 ground floor ingProposedFigureDiagramplan.Right:51landscapplan HAWKINS AND BROWN PROPOSAL SCENARIO 1

This proposal brings into question whether we should make do with sub optimal design. The reasoning for the demolition of two fairly contemporary office buildings is weak. However, the built environment is a continually evolving thing. Comprising of a continuous flow of events. Whilst, this proposal maybe preempt the buildings true lifespan, understanding projects such as this one as an event driven change presents a strategy that can be applied on a large scale. It’s not practical to retrofit every building and equally not sustainable to demolish and start over.

Drawing, Figure 52 Proposed North elevation with existing facade layered

42 43 SCENARIO 1

Regent's Wharf

Drawing, Figure 53 Regent's Canal map 44 45 TEST BED SCENARIO22

It appears that whilst it's widely accepted that there is a strong opportunity to make use of London’s blue ribbon network developers continue to follow the cheapest options. This is despite Sadiq Khan promoting and encouraging its use in the London Plan. On the site there would be spatial provisions for the processing and refurbishment of on site material. This could also contribute to the development of a material passport for the site during the retrofit process. In addition they would require a wharf in order for barges to dock and collect site material. The canal is easily wide enough to facilitate this. There is an opportunity to retain this wharf permanently as a means to facilitate future event changes on the site. The increased canal side space following the retrofit would also provide a nice public space looking onto the canal as this currently an undervalued part of the site.

SCENARIO 2

REGENT'S WHARF The second scenario explores the result and benefits of retaining and refurbishing the existing buildings on site. This process would require a series of spaces to allow for these processes to take place. This strategy is in direct contradiction of Hawkins and Brown’s proposal. Retaining and refurbishing the existing buildings would drastically reduce the amount of waste produced by this project at a much lower cost. Using the canal as a transport route for the much smaller amount of material arriving and leaving the site as a result of a retrofit could be a more manageable and less costly strategy. The waterborne transport would contribute to reducing levels of road emissions and would significantly reduce the on street disruption and noise caused by over 1000 lorry delivers over the course go the whole project. As part of the water based freight feasibility study they identified a number of waste processing facilities accessible via the canal. The canal network is a hugely undervalued transport opportunity. Especially given the environmental benefits of barge transport. This scenario would use the canal to its full effect to transport the much smaller volumes of material to and from the site. The Hawkins and Brown proposal despite the undertaking of a positive water freight feasibility study makes no use of this sustainable transport method. The Commercial Boat Operators Association noted that the study was not bound in any way to make canal transport appear more workable or acceptable, despite its obvious environmental advantages. The people that receive the brunt of the effect of over 1000 lorries would be the local residents, while the developer saves a little money in disposal costs, but this is small when compared to the profit due with the whole construction project.

Figure 55 Water haulage routes to identified waste handlers. SCENARIO 2 WATER BASED HAULAGE OPTIONS TO WASTE FACILITIES

46 47 WharfsTemporary Diagram Right: Figure Isometric54 Retention Diagramplan Right: Figure Temporary54 wharf plan

Diagram Right:

Diagram Left: Figure 56 Regent's Wharf isometric diagram showing the transportation of material to and from the site.

SCENARIO 2 48 49

Diagram above: Figure 57 Close up isometric

MATERIAL CATEGORISING

SCENARIO 2 50 51

Image: Figure 58 Scenario 2 Site Plan

This site plan illustrates the required provisions to facilitate the successful retrofit of Regent's Wharf. These include a number of crane to aid the retrofit process and to help transport material to and from arriving barges. Similar to the new wharf the canal side crane could be retained in order to facilitate future redevelopment of the site and surrounding sites. A material categorising area allows for the processing of the waste material in order to assign a value and assess re-usability to changing components. This area could also allow for the refurbishment of existing on site materials to aid the reconfiguration of the internal make up of the buildings being retrofitted.

New wharf to facilitate the sustainable distribution of material to and from the site. WHARF New Crane to collect and deposit construction material from barges. CRANE Larger internal crane to aid the retrofitting and change of use of existing buildings on site. CRANE Assigned on site area for the processing of the material on site. Including refurbishment.

REGENT'S WHARF - A NEW GEOLOGY

Event based design allows for the redevelopment, deconstruction and rebuilding of the site in a sustainable way

Material transport of The New Geology of Islington Diagram above: Figure 60 Sustainable deconstruction of the Anthropocene Diagram above: Figure 61

SCENARIO 3 52 53 TEST BED SCENARIO23

Both scenarios two and three may require policy intervention. This policy comes into play as an event and causes other events to happen such as the increase of water based freight and increase in canal activity. It could also lead to an increase in sustainable transport methods such as cycling else where as road traffic decreases as a result of water based haulage. Furthermore, these sequence of events could lead to clearer air as a result of the reduction in air pollution cased by large volumes of road based haulage. The sequence of events caused by these changes, whilst they may initially be costly, could begin to result in a series of sustainable outcomes. That ultimately offset the environmental cost of construction processes.

Approaching redevelopment in this manner could mean that demolition isn’t alway sustainable. It would allow for these events to occur and for development to be sustainable. Some alterations would have to be made to Hawkins and Browns proposal as they would need to incorporate retained event material from other developments or retain and reuse on site materials. However, it could provide a more concrete mandate for the demolition and upgrade of two functional buildings into a more desirable, functional and historically sensitive and modern alternative.

Diagram above: Figure 59

The final scenario presents a way of embracing the benefits of each of the previous scenarios. Facilitating the change of use and the deconstruction of the existing sub optimal buildings in scenario one whilst embracing the sustainable transport methods and material retention of scenario two. This is an event based strategy that relies on a hypothetical material passport infrastructure that catalogs the ‘new geology of Islington’. Using the canal and rail networks as transport links to connect the redevelopment events through the borough material can be retained and reused. Instead of distributing waste to management sites the material could be retained an re-imagined on a local level. Using local craft and building techniques to maximise the reusability of the materials collected from the deconstruction. In this scenario the site would be provided with the provisions to facilitate the event a posed to facilitating a singular redevelopment. A permanent wharf with permanent crane allows for future events to take place at a fraction of the initial cost. This investment in this site and the transport connections could help to make surrounding developments using the same strategy increasingly more economically viable in the future. This scenario would make full use of material passports, digital twins and their integration into BIM. The processing area on site would provide a space for this cataloging to take place. Following the completion of the project this are could change use and provide a residue of the changing of event. When future development arises the processing area can return easily.

Permanent wharf and crane facilitate the event of the site. Including future events.

SCENARIO 3 54 55

CRANE Digital Twin of the site allows for the collection and maintenance of detailed site specific information. This could help to inform event decisions.

Temporary large crane to facilitate the deconstruction.sustainable

DIGITAL TWIN

MATERIAL PROCESSING

By viewing the city as event and incorporating and mining the new geology of Islington demolition can become sustainable and less environmentally impactful.

SUSTAINABLE DEMOLITION AND REBUILD

On site material processing allows for the formation of a comprehensive material passport. It also provides a space for the refurbishement of on site materials

CRANE AND WHARF

MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION

Using the information gathered from the digital twin of the borough and the assessment of online material marketplaces local anthropic mined material can be distributed.

and Engineering Architectural and Urban Design MA THE NEW GEOLOGY OF ISLINGTON Ewan Malloch Ewan Malloch AIM50 Masterwork2022 56 57

The test bed studies and scenarios highlight a series of options. The first scenario provides an overview of the typical types of redevelopments we see currently. Baseless development disguised and justified as sustainable improvements to our built environment. Whilst presented with sustainable options and exploring them at great length still opting for the economically most viable scenario. Scenario two challenges this proposal by highlighting the value of our existing built environment and of retrofitting to meet changing needs. This results in a reduced environmental impact, however there is a compromise on the successfulness of the design of the building. The third and final scenario harnesses the value of event based design thinking. Following a series of environmentally beneficial events that begin to compound and offset the cost of demolition. Retaining the material for the demolition process is a big part of this and with the help of digital twins and material passport the new geology of islington could begin to be a mineable and interchangeable source of material. of Brighton Technology

University

Opportunities For Further Inquiry CONCLUSION

School of Architecture,

Urban development in our cities is a constant cycle. Buildings are constructed whilst others are demolished. This can be due to a number of factors. Be it buildings or areas of the built environment reaching the end of their lifespan, redevelopment and regeneration as a result of a change in ownership or use or often most commonly, as a result of economic forces. From a sustainability standpoint this is unlikely to be something we will be able to change, we cannot expect buildings to last forever. However, what can be changed is the way we view the material invested within our built environment. Having an increased respect for the value of existing materials within our buildings and our urban landscape is essential to making the construction cycle more Thiscircular.research highlights the wasteful nature of the construction industry despite the advancement of new technologies capable of drastically stemming waste in the sector. Furthermore, it explores the potential of alternative, sustainable methods of handling building materials and waste. In conclusion, can viewing the city through event have a positive impact on the sustainability of material flows? Understanding material use as a temporary use event could allow practices previously viewed as unsustainable, with a negative impact on the environment such as demolition to become far more environmentally viable. However, the implementation of the infrastructure required to facilitate this strategy will take time and will require policy intervention. By initiating the cataloging of the material in our built environment now the beneficial series of events that come as a result, begin to compound.

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Figure 19: Pierre Huyghe - Varriants - https://www.e-flux.com/announcements/473018/pierre-huyghevariants/

Figure 4: Portland Stone Mine - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-dorset-45394651

Figure 30: Le Roy House - Structural section - Heyne Stillett Steel Figure 31: Le Roy House - North Elevation - Piercy and Company

Figure 46: Regent's Wharf - Demolition plan - Adapted from Hawkins and Brown

Figure 22: Local works studio - Winning the clay - https://localworksstudio.com/practice/.

Figure 32: Le Roy House - East, West section - Heyne Sillett Steel Figure 33: Le Roy House - East Elevation - Piercy and Company

Figure 53: Regent's Canal map - Adapted from Google Maps

Figure 15: Rotor Deconstruction - Organisational warehouse - https://rotordc.com

Figure 13: Erasmus Medical Centre deconstruction - Madaster - https://madaster.com

IMAGES/ FIGURES By Number

Figure 23: Local Works Studio - Building community from the ground up - https://localworksstudio.com/practice/ Figure 24: Local Works Studio - Building community from the ground up - https://localworksstudio.com/practice/ Figure 25: Local Works Studio - Waste bricks - https://localworksstudio.com/practice/ Figure 26: Local Works Studio - Waste bricks - https://localworksstudio.com/practice/ Figure 27: Local Works Studio - Waste bricks - https://localworksstudio.com/practice/ Figure 28: The London Borough of Islington - Author Figure 29: Le Roy House - Site Plan - Adapted from Piercy and Company

Figure 34: Regent's Wharf - Environmental transport plan - Author Figure 35: Regent's Wharf - 10 All Saints Street from the North - Author Figure 36: Islington map analysis - data from islington council - Author Figure 37: Islingotn analysis map - Author

Figure 14: Rotor Deconstruction - Collection of floor tiles - https://rotordc.com

Figure 21: Local Works Studio - Lime render sample - https://localworksstudio.com/projects/closed-loop-construction/

Figure 54: Temporary wharf plan - Author Figure 55: Water haulage routes to identified waste handlers - Author Figure 56: Regent's Wharf - Isometric - Author Figure 57: Regent's Wharf - Close up Isometric - Author Figure 58: Regent's Wharf - Scenario 2 Site plan - Author Figure 59: Material Transport of The New Geology of Islington - Author Figure 60: Regent's Wharf - Scenario 3 - Sustainable deconstruction of the Anthropocene - https://www.corporateleadersgroup.com/reportsevidence-and-insights/news-items/blog-materials-passports

Figure 1: Under Construction - NORELL/RODHE - https://norellrodhe.se/under-construction

Figure 2: 15 Clerkenwell Close - Amin Taha - https://www.dezeen.com/2019/08/15/15-clerkenwell-close-saved-demolition-amin-taha/

Figure 38: Regent's Wharf - Location Plan - Author Figure 39: Regent's Wharf - Site Plan South West - Author Figure 40: Regent's Wharf - Site Plan North - Author Figure 41: Regent's Wharf - Site boundary - Author Figure 42: Regent's Wharf - Historic building use - Author Figure 43: Regent's Wharf - North facing canal frontage - Google Images

Figure 44: Regent's Wharf - Development underway - Author Figure 45: Regent's Wharf - All Saints Street frontage - Google Images

Figure 20: Local Works Studio - Lime render sample - https://localworksstudio.com/projects/closed-loop-construction/

Figure 11: Madaster - 3d visulisation of cataloged material component - Provided by Madaster - https://madaster.com

Figure 48: Regent's Wharf - Proposed replacement for 18 Regent's Wharf - Hawkins and Brown Figure 49: Regent's Wharf - Visulisation of new public courtyardFigure 50: Regent's Wharf - Proposed ground floor plan - Hawkins and Brown

Figure 12: Madaster - 3d visulisation of cataloged material component - Provided by Madaster - https://madaster.com

Figure 16: Madaster - Structural build up of Erasmus Medical Centre - https://madaster.com

Figure 51: Regent's Wharf - Proposed landscaping plan - Hawkins and Brown Figure 52: Regent's Wharf - Proposed North Elevation with existing elevation layered - Adapted from Hawkins and Brown

Figure 10: Madaster - An Example of the material overview of a project - Provided by Madaster - https://madaster.com

Figure 17: Rotor Deconstruction - Material retention - https://rotordc.com

Figure 18: MIT - Favelas 4D - Lidar scan on Rochina - https://senseable.mit.edu/favelas/

Figure 9: Triodos Bank Project by RAU Architects - https://garlandmag.com/article/the-material-passport/

Figure 47: Regent's Wharf - Demolition plan - Adapted from Hawkins and Brown

Figure 61: Event based design allowing sustainable redevelopment - Author Figure 62: Regent's Wharf - Scenario 3 - isometric - Author

Figure 5: The Waste House - Interior Fabrication - https://www. dezeen.com/2014/06/19/waste-house-by-bbm-architects-is-uks-first FigureFigurepermanent-building-made-from-rubbish/6:TheWasteHouse-Exterior-"7:TheWasteHouse-Explodedaxonometric drawing " Figure 8: Triodos Bank by RAU Architects - https://www.dezeen.com/2021/02/21/triodos-bank-remountable-office-rau-architects-ex-interiors/

Figure 3: Under Construction - NORELL/RODHE - https://norellrodhe.se/under-construction

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