EVERYMAN THEATRE G REAT STO RI ES, WELL TOLD.
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A NOTE FROM THE ARTISTIC DIRECTOR By Vincent M. Lancisi, Artistic Director
ugene O’Neill’s characters are drawn incredibly well—intensely complicated in their motivations and desires. The characters in Long Day’s Journey Into Night harbor inner demons that are dark and overwhelming at times—their familial bond is key to why we care so much about them as humans, but it’s also what makes each of them so tragic. Their love of one another runs deep amidst the forces of troubled family dynamics and drug addiction threatening to obliterate their dreams, their bonds, and their entire lives—in spite of which they still hold on. This compelling and uplifting undercurrent of love is what makes me happy to revisit this play over and over again—these people love each other so much that they are in the fight of their lives to hold on to it. Actors are, of course, at the center of Everyman Theatre, and O’Neill wrote dream roles for actors—ones demanding great transformation and rigor. A major reason why I decided to produce Long Day’s Journey Into Night now is because this year marks Deborah Hazlett’s 20th anniversary as a member of our esteemed Resident Acting Company. Audiences have seen Deborah play iconic roles throughout her tenure at Everyman—Hedda Gabler, Amanda Wingfield, Linda Loman and Mrs. Alving, to name a few. For the last decade I’ve been looking forward to the right EVERYMAN THEATRE | 2
moment to cast Deborah as the matriarch at the center of Long Day’s Journey Into Night, Mary Tyrone, and that moment is now—a dream role come true. Mary Tyrone’s sons, played by Resident Company members Danny Gavigan and Tim Getman, are the type of challenging, nuanced roles that fine actors search for and sometimes never find throughout their entire careers. Danny and Tim are not only superb actors, they also know each other very well and their on-stage relationship thrives because of it. Tim last appeared at Everyman in Outside Mullingar, and though he’s familiar to our stage it is a pleasure to welcome him in his first official role as a member of our Resident Company. Completing the family portrait, the amazing Kurt Rhoads takes on the role of James Tyrone—a character whom many refer to as “the American King Lear.” It’s an epic role that requires a formidable actor, and Kurt is perfect for the part. We are also thrilled that Katherine Ariyan is back on the Everyman Theatre stage playing the role of Cathleen, following her wonderful performance in M. Butterfly. O’Neill wrote this play at great emotional cost, as he was writing about real people in his own life. He told family secrets in a way so devastating to him that he didn’t want the play to be performed while he or his family were still alive—but the shame they endured in the face of addiction was so painful and so devastating, O’Neill felt he had to write about it. Now, it’s our turn to tell his story with actors committed to authenticity, poetry and truth. Welcome and enjoy the show.
Vincent M. Lancisi, Founding Artistic Director Jonathan K. Waller, Managing Director
Executive Producer: Susan W. Flanigan
LONG DAY’S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT Playwright EUGENE O’NEILL Director DONALD HICKEN
Mary Tyrone................................................................................... DEBORAH HAZLETT* James Tyrone........................................................................................... KURT RHOADS* James Tyrone Jr. (Jamie)........................................................................... TIM GETMAN* Edmund Tyrone.................................................................................DANNY GAVIGAN* Cathleen......................................................................................... KATHARINE ARIYAN Set Design
AMANDA M. HALL*
Time and Place: The living room of the Tyrones’ summer home in August, 1912
This production will be performed in three acts with two intermissions.
PLEASE TURN OFF ALL CELL PHONES. NO TEXTING. NO EATING IN THE THEATRE. Long Day’s Journey Into Night is presented by special arrangement with Samuel French, Inc. The videotaping or making of electronic or other audio and/or visual recordings of this production or distributing recordings on any medium, including the internet, is strictly prohibited, a violation of the author’s rights and actionable under United States copyright law. For more information please visit: samuelfrench.com/whitepaper *Member of Actors’ Equity Association, the Union of Professional Actors and Stage Managers in the United States
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Author and playwright Eugene O’Neill in the library of his New York Home. Photo by NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images
THE PLAYWRIGHT Eugene O’Neill
ugene Gladstone O’Neill was born on October 26, 1888, in a hotel room off Broadway in New York City. His father, James O’Neill, was a celebrated touring stage actor in the latter part of the 19th century, best known for his role in an adaptation of Alexandre Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo. Eugene and his older brother, James Jr., traveled with their father and mother, Mary Ellen, for the early parts of their lives. The turbulence of this (and other life events) led Mary Ellen into an unshakable morphine addiction. Much like the Tyrones, the O’Neills had a summer home in New London, Connecticut. Edmund Tyrone is drawn directly from O’Neill’s early life—O’Neill was educated at boarding schools and attended one year at Princeton University before setting off to sail for six years. These excursions cost O’Neill his health, plunged him into alcoholism, and drove him to attempt suicide. At 24 years old, O’Neill worked briefly as a reporter for a New London newspaper, but left to recover from tuberculosis at a sanatorium where he began to write plays. O’Neill went on to become one of the most celebrated American playwrights in history. He was the only EVERYMAN THEATRE | 4
American to win the Nobel Prize for Literature (1936) and was awarded Pulitzer Prizes for Beyond the Horizon (1920), Anna Christie (1922), Strange Interlude (1928) and Long Day’s Journey Into Night (1957).
Eugene O’Neill with his second wife, Agnes, and children, Oona (left) and Shane. Photograph: Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Ultimately, O’Neill’s later life was no easier than his youth. He married three times, lost a son to suicide, and excommunicated his daughter, Oona, for marrying the elderly Charlie Chaplin. O’Neill died in a hotel room in Boston, on November 27, 1953, unable to write and seeing no one but his nurse and his wife. O’Neill’s prolific and profound works helped to transform theatre into a legitimate art form from the trite melodrama of his day. His poeticism and insights into human nature maintain his place among the great playwrights of the English language.
IN HIS WORDS EUGENE O’NEILL ON... ...Being Irish: “The one thing that explains more than anything about me is the fact that I’m Irish, and, strangely enough, it is something that all the writers who have attempted to explain me and my work have overlooked.” ...Life and Death: “I’m no pessimist,on the contrary, in spite of my scars, I’m tickled to death with life.” ‘’Tragedy always brings exultation. For life in itself is nothing. It is only the dream that keeps men fighting, willing, living.’’ ...The impetus to write Long Day’s: “I give you the original [script] of this play of old sorrow, written in tears and blood. A sadly inappropriate gift, it would seem for a day celebrating happiness, but you will understand. I mean it as a tribute to your love and tenderness which gave me the faith in love that enabled me to face my dead at last and write this play—write it with deep pity and understanding and forgiveness for all the four haunted Tyrones.” ...the Audience: “What I’m after is to get the audience to leave the theater with an exultant feeling.”
IRISH IMMIGRATION Ireland’s 1845 Potato Blight is often credited with launching the second wave of Irish immigration to America after colonial times. The fungus which decimated potato crops in Ireland created a devastating famine. Starvation plagued the country and, within five years, a million Irish were dead while half a million had emigrated to America to start a new life. Living conditions in Ireland were deplorable long before the Potato Blight of 1845, however, and a large number of Irish left their homeland as early as the 1820s. It is estimated that as many as 4.5 million Irish arrived in America between 1820 and 1930. Between 1820 and 1860, the Irish constituted over one-third of all immigrants in the United States. By the 1840s, they comprised nearly half. Notably, pre-famine immigrants from Ireland were predominately male, while in the famine years and their aftermath, entire families left the country. In later years, the majority of Irish immigrants were women.
Eugene O’Neill and his third wife, Carlotta. Photo by Carl Van Vechten.
...Writing for Theater: “Most modern plays are concerned with the relationship between men and men. But that does not concern me at all. I’m concerned with the relationship between men and God.” ‘’As Al Capone said of the rackets, once you’re in it, you’re in. No out.’’ ‘’A work of art is always happy. All else is unhappy.’’
Oona O’Neill and Charlie Chaplin.
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THE PLAY SETTING
This play takes place over the course of one day. The action occurs at the Tyrone family’s summer home, located in Connecticut, in August 1912.
A postcard showing Upper State Street in New London, Connecticut.
Monte Cristo Cottage, Eugene O’Neill’s family summer home.
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This play showcases the familiar challenges of a family coming to grips with their haunting past. From the oldest to the youngest, each member of this family has his or her own vice, such as drug/alcohol abuse and/or illness. The day entails a series of reckonings.
THE CHARACTERS Mary Cavan Tyrone (played by Deborah Hazlett) is the mother of Jamie and Edmund and wife of James Tyrone. She struggled with addiction for over two decades, with recovery always leading to relapse. She loves her husband, but also resents him for sacrificing her dream of becoming a concert pianist for his acting career.
Edmund Tyrone (played by Danny Gavigan) is the youngest of two sons, and often the family peacekeeper. He has a mysterious illness that haunts him and Mary alike. His character is based on O’Neill himself.
James Tyrone, Jr. (Jamie) (played by Tim Getman) is the eldest of two sons and the father’s namesake. Jamie (as he is referred to by his brother) is the “troubled” son. His love for women and whiskey has gotten in the way of his dreams and O’Neill characterizes him as cynical, bitter, arrogant and mean.
James Tyrone (played by Kurt Rhoads) is the 65 year-old father and patriarch of the Tyrone Family. He takes great pride in himself due to his former career as an actor. He is still handsome, however substance abuse has taken its toll on him.
Cathleen (played by Katharine Ariyan) The Irish maid who serves the Tyrone family. Referred to as “second girl.”
CHARACTERS MENTIONED BUT NOT SEEN: Eugene: Tyrone son who died of measles at the age of two. Eugene was infected by Jamie, who was seven at the time, and disobeyed orders by entering his brother’s room. Mary believes that Jamie had the intention of hurting Eugene. Shaughnessy: Tenant farming land owned by the Tyrones. Bridget: The family cook. Doc Hardy: The family physician who does not hold a high standing from most family members except for James.
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AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL PLAYS ON STAGE THROUGH HISTORY
The Tempest, by William Shakespeare, is a play about shipwreck and the supernatural, speculated to reflect Shakespeare himself. Many believe that the sorcerer in this play, Prospero, is loosely based on the well-known playwright, in their shared mastery of their crafts.
The Glass Menagerie, by Tennessee Williams, is a memory play, recounting the story of a young man named Tom (a character based on Tennessee himself). The story unveils the mental instability of Tom’s mother and physical fragility of his sister, both inspired by Williams’ personal experiences growing up.
Long Day’s Journey Into Night, by Eugene O’Neill, is first performed on Broadway, sharing with audiences the heartbreaking tale of a family ridden with addiction and unrealized potential. O’Neill’s sequel, Moon for the Misbegotten, is less based in reality, but examines life for the character Jamie Tyrone several years after the play’s predecessor takes place. It was first performed in 1957.
The Floating Light Bulb, by Woody Allen, is set in 1945 Brooklyn. It provides a behind-the-scenes account of Allen’s upbringing by a philandering father and a mother who once aspired to become a professional dancer. Their son, “Paul,” distracts himself from his parents’ conflicts and financial struggle by practicing magic tricks, capturing the attention of a small-time talent agent.
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Neil Simon’s Brighton Beach Memoirs, the first play in a trilogy that also includes Biloxi Blues and Broadway Bound, documents aspects of the playwright’s life. A coming-of-age play, it follows a Polish-American teenager as he navigates life with a house full of immediate and extended family members— characterizations of Simon’s own family.
The Normal Heart, by Larry Kramer, chronicles the HIV-AIDS crisis from 1981-84 through the perspective of Ned Weeks, the founder of an IDS advocacy group. Ned navigates a relationship with closeted Felix Turner, highlighting contrasting approaches to important issues of the day.
The Dead Wait, by Paul Herzberg, follows similar events in Herzberg’s life featuring a South African athlete who returns home to take responsibility for a crime he committed while serving as a soldier in the Angolan Civil War.
An Evening With Lucian Freud is a 65-minute one-act play with video cameos that recreates a real evening that playwright Laura-Jane Foley spent with the 82 year-old artist.
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Linda Thorson in August: Osage County. Photo by Stan Barouh
BIG MYSTERY: WHAT CAUSES ADDICTION? By Michael Segell, MSNBC
runks beget drunkards, Plutarch noticed, summarizing what has been observed anecdotally for at least a couple of millennia. But why are some of us prone to addiction—be it alcohol, drugs or food— and others aren’t?
Though the exact mechanisms haven’t been identified, experts in alcoholism widely agree that some people are genetically vulnerable to developing the disorder. Sons of alcoholic fathers, for instance, are at three to four times the risk of abusing the drug. Generally, a predisposition to abuse one drug applies to almost all other drugs. Alcoholism, for instance, may be present in as many as three-fourths of cocaine addicts. Still, no gene has ever been identified, and, even among men who carry a hereditary load, predisposing physical factors don’t doom them to a sodden or chemically dependent lifestyle. There’s no such thing as a pre-addictive personality, experts say. So why do some people become addicted? Addictionologists have theorized that some people, particular those addicted to opiates, may have deficiencies in their brain reward systems—fewer natural opiates circulating, for instance, or fewer receptor sites. In addicts, the question eventually
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becomes moot, for years of abuse desensitizes their receptors, and they end up with altered pleasure thresholds. Other drug users gravitate toward their “drug of choice” to “self-medicate.” Heroin, for instance, is remarkably effective at “normalizing” people who suffer from delusions and hallucinations (mostly schizophrenics). Cocaine can quickly lift a depression, or enable a person with attention-deficit disorder to become better organized and focused. For these people, addiction is a troubling side effect to their adaptive attempts to relieve their own suffering. According to psychiatrists who have studied psychodynamic causes of drug addiction, the motivation to use psychoactive substances can often be traced to critical passages early in life. Says Edward J. Khantzian, a Harvard psychiatrist and author of the “self-medicating” hypothesis of drug addiction, many substance-dependent people who make it into therapy show a profound inability to calm and soothe themselves when stressed. The ability to self-regulate mood—to maintain psychic homeostasis—is a task learned between the ages of 1 and 3, when a toddler normally internalizes such a function from caring parents. Mothers, and no doubt many fathers, of frequent drug users have been described as “relatively cold, unresponsive and underprotective.” Regarding their children’s
accomplishments, they send a very mixed message: They’re pressuring and overly interested in their children’s performance, yet rarely offer them encouragement. Eating disorders, which are considered addictions and primarily affect women, offer a clear illustration of the self-regulation mechanism gone haywire. If the inability to soothe oneself is due to a distant or rejecting parent, compulsive eating is an attempt to make up for the loss, to construct a substitute attachment to a nurturing parent, with a primitive form of self-medication—food—one of the few things (in addition to love) that can calm a distressed child. According to Robert B. Millman, a renowned addiction expert at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical School, locus of control is another influential factor in addiction vulnerability. “Addicts tend to believe that they are not the masters of their own fate, that control lies outside of them,” he says. Narcissists are also well represented within drugaddicted populations: their self-absorption is so profound they don’t understand that the world outside them, which includes drugs, is real—and dangerous. Risk-takers are also vulnerable. “But there’s no way to tell which adrenaline junkie will get hooked on bungee jumping, venture capitalization or heroin,” says Millman. While positive reinforcement—pleasure, getting high—entices a person to use a drug again after experimenting with it, continued use is often a function of so-called negative reinforcement. Tobacco smokers and opiate users experience this the most: Their motivation to use the drug is not to experience pleasure, but to relieve uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms. Drug use is also often thought of as an escape—but becomes so in ways the abuser hadn’t planned on. Just as a compulsive gambler’s hyper-involvement in the betting process blocks out his personal problems, an addict’s pursuit of his drug becomes so monomaniacal that everything else, including the psychological pain that drove him to the drug, is forgotten. Dr. George Koob of the Scripps Research Institute has a surprising new finding, cocaine does not just make users feel euphoric, but it simultaneously
releases brain chemicals related to fear and stress— bad feelings that linger after the euphoria fades. “The only way to treat the bad feelings,” explains Koob, “Is to take the drug that makes you feel good again. But this becomes a vicious cycle.” Even worse, changes in their brain make addicts crave drugs long after they have stopped using them. Dr. Anna Rose Childress, of the University of Pennsylvania, says the craving response can be triggered easily—even by watching films. “And the person is then again vulnerable,” says Childress, “And that kind of vulnerability is probably as long as the person’s memory.” Researchers are still trying to figure out why some people undergo these brain changes and become addicted while others do not. The ultimate goal: to develop medicine to control the craving. While there are still many unknowns, scientists believe they’re making progress. “The biological knowledge is going to give us an edge that we simply couldn’t have had before now,” says Childress, “And that is very exciting.”
ADDICTION RESOURCES aa.org Alcoholics Anonymous, a support network for people dealing with addiction addictionresource.com Offers addiction and treatment guides asam.org American Society of Addiction Medicine drugabuse.gov National Institute on Drug Abuse offers research and statistics na.org Narcotics Anonymous, a support network for people dealing with addiction shatterproof.org A national non-profit dedicated to ending devastation that addition causes in families
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EUGENE O’NEILL’S USE OF SYMBOLISM F. Jay. Butler, Dissertation Loyola University Chicago (an excerpt)
his house James O’Neill had bought for his family as a place to escape the summer heat of New York. It was the only home that the family knew during the years in which James was professionally acting, and the family spent many times there together. To each member of the O’Neill family this house had especial meaning. To James it was a symbol of his success and achievement, to Jamie it was a retreat from his binges in New York, and to Eugene it had multiple significances: It was a reminder of his father’s miserliness, his mother’s shame, the sea that he loved, and a reminder throughout his life of an unhappy home (the reason he was always so interested in houses as homes). To Eugene O’Neill, then, it was a house of memories to which he could return in the symbolic journey for identity and expiation. In the play the house functions symbolically In relationship to the EVERYMAN THEATRE | 12
actions of the characters as well as to his method of revealing them. It is a large house with a porch surrounding a large part of it. Its gently sloping lawn fronts the sea, which always to O’Neill symbolized poetic aspirations and fulfilled desires as in the character of Edmund he explains In the lyrical passages in the fourth act. As the play opens on an August morning about 8:30 in 1912, Mary and James Tyrone (symbolic of his real parents Mary Ella and James O’Neill) are just coming from breakfast into the living room which will be the background of all the action in the play. To the right is a formal parlor that is never occupied. It Is stiff and formal, and as it fronts the house it is a symbol of the mask that the house wears just as it is the symbol of the mask that the Tyrones try to present to the outside world. It in the final scene of the play will be a symbol of Mary Tyrone’s regression into the memory of the past when she Is heard playing the piano in a girlish, awkward manner after having reverted to adolescence through the journey of dope. To the left is a dark, windowless back parlor that is never used except as a passage to the dining room. This room is to be equated with the symbol of fog into which Mary passes just as she passes through the dark parlor to escape from the accusing eyes and accusations of her family. On one wall stands a bookshelf with a picture of Shakespeare
above it, containing works by Balzac, Zola, Stendhal, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Engels, Kropotkin, Ibsen, Strindberg, Swinburne, Rossetti, Wilde, and Ernest Dowson. On the other wall are sets of Dumas, Hugo, Charles Lever, Gibbon, histories of Ireland, and three sets of Shakespeare. These books are always in view throughout the play and they symbolize the eternal battle between Edmund Tyrone (Eugene O’Neill) and his father James Tyrone (James O’Neill). To James Tyrone these books represent anarchism, the road down which he thinks Edmund Is traveling, and in both the first and fourth acts this theme is the predominant cause of the quarrels between him and his father.
An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference Allusions to notable figures in Long Day’s Journey Into Night: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
William Shakespeare Rudyard Kipling Oscar Wilde Walt Whitman Edgar Allen Poe Charles Baudelaire Voltaire Victor Hugo August Strindberg Friedrich Nietzsche Stendhal George Bernard Shaw Dante Gabriel Rossetti Edwin Booth The Duke of Wellington
EXAMPLES OF ALLUSION FROM THE PLAY:
The interior of Monte Cristo Cottage, the O’Neil’s summer home. Image from the Geffen Playhouse.
At the same time these books represent a difference in values, they also represent the theme gradually developed of one’s being always trapped by the past no matter what he tries to be in the present as Mary poignantly cries out at her husband when he accuses her of dope addiction, Both the upper rooms of the house and the outside never appear on stage, but they too have their symbolic functions. When Mary leaves her room and goes into the spare bedroom as she has done before when taking dope, Jamie immediately suspects her of resuming the habit. He is right, because it is to that room that she escapes into the darkness of drugs at the same time that the fog is gradually blowing in from the sea. As the fog moves in from the sea gradually enshrouding the house, Mary can be heard wandering around in the darkness upstairs as she
In a moment between Jamie and Edmund, Jamie sneeringly quotes Ruyard Kipling’s Mother O’ Mine: If I were hanged on the highest hill, Mother o’ mine, O mother o’ mine! I know whose love would follow me still (165) The narrator declares that whatever misery befalls him, he knows that his mother will love him the most. In another moment, Edmund starts reciting Baudelaire’s Epilogue while talking about Jamie: I love thee, infamous city! Harlots and Hunted have pleasures of their own to give, The vulgar herd can never understand. (136) This poem gives us a morbid and disturbing perspective into Jamie’s mind.
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THE THEATRE CIRCUIT AND TOURING ACTORS In the latter half of the 19th century, Americans had more leisure time and better standards of living, and they looked to the theater to provide entertainment—laughter, glitter, and sentimentality. The expanding transportation system in the United States allowed actors and actresses to tour the country, bringing professional theater to many towns and cities that had never before experienced it. Along with plays and actors, America inherited the “star system” from Great Britain. Stock theater companies were established in large cities on the East Coast and in New Orleans. The cast was then supplemented by visiting theatrical stars, who toured the country for just such purpose. In the last half of the 19th century, the star system gradually gave way to the “combination system.” Managers found that, rather than hiring a continuous stream of high-priced stars, it was more economical to take the entire theater company on the road to tour. Companies would spend the summer in their home city, usually New York, Boston, or Philadelphia, and then would be on tour again beginning in October. A “season” usually consisted of 39 weeks. The life of actors and actresses on the road was very hard, requiring great physical stamina. In addition to a grueling performance schedule, actors must withstand stagecoach and early riverboat travel in addition to makeshift lodgings. Actors would often rehearse as many as three plays during a day and then would have to prepare for the night’s performance.
slowly moves into the fog of the past. Fog and the foghorn are an Important part of the setting of the play, and from the first to the last play it has always been to O’Neill a symbol of man’s inability to know himself, or other men, or his destiny. Fog and the foghorn are referred to some nineteen times in the play, and aways at some critical moment in the of the characters. Even the division of the play into four acts supports this most symbolic function of the fog as both theme and setting. Act I occurs early on a bright sunny morning, and Mary and James look cheerful as they come in. Mary looks out of the window toward the sea and says that she is glad that the fog has gone. All of the family appear fairly amicable toward one another. Toward the end of the act, they begin to prick the skin with mild accusations and reminders of the past. When James prepares to go out to cut the hedge he tells Mary that it appears as if the day is going to be clear and sunny, but she replies that they must take advantage of the sunshine because the fog always comes back.
Eugene O’Neill, his brother Jamie and his father James on the porch of Monte Cristo Cottage circa 1900. From blog.geffenplayhouse.org
As the second act opens it is about a quarter of one, and no light is coming into the room. The day has grown sultry and there is a faint haziness in the air. Mary comes downstairs after a restless morning, looks out of the window and sees the fog beginning to come in. She begs them not to leave her because she will be left all alone. By half past six in the evening, the time of the third
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act, the fog has rolled in from the Sound and hangs like a white curtain outside the windows. Waiting the return of James and the boys from town, Mary in her aloneness has bribed Cathleen the Irish maid with a drink to stay in the sitting room to talk with her. A fog horn moans in the distance. Mary says that it is the foghorn that she hates because it “won’t let you alone. It keeps reminding you, and warning you, and calling you back” The fog she now loves because it hides a person from the world and the world from a person. “How thick the fog is. I can’t even see the road. All the people in the world could pass by and I would never know. I wish It was always that way. It’s getting dark already. It will soon be night, thank goodness.” The fog now is symbolically inseparable from her drug escape from reality. Once more the foghorn sounds from the bay and is followed by a chorus of bells, muffled by the fog from the craft anchored in the harbor. Mary does not hear; only her hands flutter at the sound. The symbolic leit-motif of the horn followed by the warning chorus of the ships’ bells emerges indicative of the family fate, sounding whenever that fate asserts itself: Mary’s fate and its effect on the members of the family are inevitable. Edmund returns with the dreadful news from Dr. Hardy that he has tuberculosis to find his mother beyond approach. In a mixture of rage, hate, and love he condemns her bitterly: “It’s pretty hard to take at times, having a dope fiend for a mother.” The pin pricks of the first act have now become sabres gouging and twisting in the flesh. Mary goes to the window where the foghorn is moaning and the bells are crying. As the curtain rises on the final act the foghorn is heard, and the fog hangs denser than ever about the house. James staggers in drunk to find that Edmund has turned on all the lights. In horror, he declares that everything is too bright (he lives in the fog too), and that they will drive him to the poorhouse yet. Whereupon he goes about turning off all the lights. In the most poetic passages in the play (and there are many) Edmund attempts to explain something of what he really is and feels inside to his father and thus ultimately suggests the complete symbol of the fog. “The fog was where I wanted to be. Halfway down the path you can’t see this house. You’d never know it was here. Or any of the other places down the avenue. I couldn’t see
but a few feet ahead. I didn’t meet a soul. Everything looked and sounded unreal. Nothing was what it is. That’s what I wanted—to be alone with myself in another world where truth is untrue and life can hide from itself. Cut beyond the harbor, where the road runs along the beach, I even lost the feeling of being on land. The fog and the sea seemed part of each other. It was like walking on the bottom of the sea. As if I had drowned long ago. As if I was a ghost belonging to the fog, and the fog was the ghost of the sea. It felt damned peaceful to be nothing more than a ghost within a ghost.”
TUBERCULOSIS By the dawn of the 19th century, tuberculosis— or consumption—had killed one in seven of all people who had ever lived. Victims suffered from hacking, bloody coughs, debilitating pain in their lungs, and fatigue. Throughout much of the 1800s, consumptive patients sought "the cure" in sanatoriums, where it was believed that rest and a healthful climate could change the course of the disease. In 1882, German physician Robert Koch's discovery of the tubercule baccilum revealed that TB was not genetic, but rather highly contagious; it was also somewhat preventable through good hygiene. Inspired by Koch's discovery of the tuberculosis bacterium, Dr. Edward L. Trudeau did his own research in his small laboratory at Saranac Lake, NY. Trudeau was the first American to validate Koch's findings, though the larger medical community did not accept TB as contagious for several more years.
As they sit hearing the fog drip from the eaves, Mary Is upstairs pacing the floor in the darkest of all fogs brought on by her attempt to hide from a world in which she could not function and from things with which she could not cope. In the midst of all this darkness it looks as though Jamie (symbolic of O’Neill’s brother Jamie) must be right when he says that there “ought to be a lighthouse out there”— somewhere.
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John Gallagher, Jr. and Jessica Lange in Long Day’s Journey Into Night. Photo by Joan Marcus
NATURALISM AND EXPRESSIONISM IN AMERICAN DRAMA By Julia A. Walker, excerpts The Oxford Handbook of American Drama
couldn’t touch what I tried to tell you just now. I just stammered. That’s the best I’ll ever do… Well it will be faithful realism, at least. Stammering is the native eloquence of us fog-people.” - Edmund Tyrone
Both [naturalism and expression] were reactions to realism… and both are legatees of the social problem play insofar as as they expose social problems to view. That neither proposes a “solution” to those problems is why they were often regarded as pessimistic. Both also emphasize visual detail over language, using the stage milieu to represent the invisible but palpable forces that define the conditions of human life. While in naturalism, those forces are primarily sociological, pressing from the outside in, in expressionism, they are spiritual, emotional, or psychological, projected back outward onto the environment, fossilizing the imprint of an organic form misshapen by modernity. Naturalism Characterized by the excruciating detail with which its stage sets aspired toward verisimilitude, dramatic naturalism has often been treated as either a synonym for or an outgrowth of the late nineteenth-century movement of realism. Like realism, it assumes a scientific attitude toward the world it represents, subjecting the social problems of that world to an
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unapologetically dispassionate gaze. Accordingly, naturalism rejects the idealized vision of character, motivation, and society that the nineteenth-century melodramas, with their roots in romanticism, typically staged… Naturalism is a modernist rejection of realism—even if realism can also be read as a modernist break with the past. Where realism tends to focus on middle-class characters, whose struggles to understand and bring order to their world constitute the dramatic conflict, naturalism enlarges its lens to include characters from the lower strata of society, who are often portrayed as struggling against their circumstances or environment. Naturalism, given its post-Enlightenment concern with unknowable forces, structures its conflict between those forces and the often-uncomprehending individuals upon whom they act. But, because those forces are invisible—palpable, yet without material dimension—they are unrepresentable in the conventional terms of stage realism. ...in naturalism, the stage milieu has a doubly representational function. For, while it represents the real material world that its sides of beef, kitchen sinks, and smoking stoves exemplify, it also instantiates the abstract forces and concepts that propel the play’s action and that structure our understanding of the world. In naturalism, audiences are invited to feel compassion for its characters, but are understood to inhabit
their own different and very privileged perspective— perspective that is constituted by the structure of the space between the auditorium and the theatrical mis-en-scène. In the intimate space of such theatres, audiences are situated as scientific observers, whose conscious subjectivities are located between their ears and behind their eyes, capable of making rational analyses about the conditions they witness onstage, while understanding that such conditions, their causes, and possibilities for remediation all have correlates within their own society.
the outside in, expressionism represents both outside forces pressing in and internal forces pressing back out onto the environment. Accordingly, the individual becomes the site of dramatic conflict, situating expressionism firmly within the developmental trajectory of modern drama. Consider the aesthetic formation of expressionism that arose in the United States in relation to its own cultural and historical context. Previously, scholars have tended to conclude that the US movement was a mere offshoot of German expressionism, despite American playwrights’ claims that they were not influenced by the German movement. O’Neill, for example, insisted that The Emperor Jones (1920) and The Hairy Ape (1922) were written “long before I had ever heard of Expressionism” American expressionist playwrights did not dispense with individual psychology, even as they used an expressionistic aesthetic to represent the projection of their characters’ psychological states onto the world. American expressionist plays give voice to cultural fears surrounding the new communication technologies that were appearing at the turn of the twentieth century. That gesture, voice, and meaning could be reproduced without a body and its authorizing intent raised fears about these new technologies and their power over the communicative body as well as that body’s vulnerability to modernity more generally.
Paul Robeson in a still from the 1933 film adaptation of The Emperor Jones directed by Dudley Murphy.
Expressionism Like naturalism, expressionism places a heavy emphasis on the scenic milieu, using a detailed miseen-scène to establish significance in the world of the play. But where naturalism aims for verisimilitude, using the environment as a physical locus to represent abstract social forces, expressionism aspires toward stylization, underscoring the fact of representation by rendering abstract—often spiritual—forces through the use of explicit symbols. With its emphasis on milieu, expressionism typically represents the internal spiritual, emotional, or psychological state of its central character as a projection onto his or her environment.
Like naturalism, expressionism invites its audience to consider the larger social forces pressing in on the modern subject. But, by pressing the spiritual, emotional, or psychological state of that modern subject back onto the mis-en-scene, it complicates the analytical perspective of the scientist regarding a “slice of life” under a slide glass by inviting the audience to vicariously experience the character’s proprioception of his or her world.
Where naturalism represents the impact of social forces on the lives of individuals as a movement from
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CURTAINS UP ON CAREERS:
LIGHTING DESIGNER Interview with Jay Herzog, Lighting Designer
Where are you from originally and when did you first develop an interest in theatre? I was born in Brooklyn, NY and lived there until I went to graduate school back in the 1980s. My introduction [to theatre] was at summer camp in the Catskill mountains: I began at the age of seven with a three-week stay, and only missed one year all the way through my college days. In the end, I was working there. My father loved only two types of music: classical and show tunes. I knew the music and lyrics to all of the great [musicals] from the 1940-1960s and the first movie I remember seeing was the musical Oliver. When and why did you decide to pursue theatre professionally? How has your background shaped your career path? I always loved the theatre but I never considered it as a profession [initially]. Growing up just a few blocks from the ocean, I went to college with the idea of being a marine biologist. My associates degree is in science, but I did theatre in high school and college—mostly as a performer. It was not until my junior year [of college] that I really took notice of lighting design, due to my friend, Andrea. She was a student at Brooklyn College where I did my last two college years as a theatre major in Stage Management and Lighting design. I sat and watched Andrea design Othello, (featuring fellow student Jimmy Smits). It amazed me how the lighting became a character in the play, and I instantly fell in love. I did a bit more acting, but [at that point] I knew what I really wanted to do. EVERYMAN THEATRE | 18
Define the role and responsibilities the Lighting Designer has in relation to bringing a story to life on stage. Lighting is a character in a play. That is not a “line” but the truth of the art. Sound and light get to move with the action of the play. Unlike the costumes and setting that define the place and the character, lighting defines the soul. When a character presents a mood, the lighting can morph with that emotional alteration. In inhales and exhales with the tension of the play. It informs the audience about the time of the day, but it also can tell them how the character sees that light internally. Long Day’s Journey into Night is a great example of that: the timeline of the play is a day, but the journey is a lifetime. How do you find work as a Lighting Designer? What other types of work outside of theatre do you do? I teach at Towson University. I have all types of students: actors, set builders, dramaturgs and others. My goal is to give everyone an opportunity to understand my craft. They all grow from understanding the design aspects of the plays. When I first moved to Baltimore, 24 years ago, I went to a kick-off meeting for The Baltimore Theatre Alliance. The meeting was at the old Everyman Theatre, on Charles Street. I was intrigued with the theatre and saw [Artistic Director] Vincent Lancisi speak to the audience. I had already met Vivienne Shub, at Towson University, and she told me she was an active member with the Everyman Resident Company. After asking her how she liked working here, I picked up the phone and asked for an appointment with Vincent. The following
week, we sat and talked. He invited me to come do my first show, The Importance of Being Earnest. A year later, he asked me to become the first Resident Designer for the company. All of my other work in this region has spawned from this relationship. I have designed 54 plays with Everyman, and I am a very proud member of the Company. I have loved watching the growth. I have known [members of the Everyman team] for almost a quarter of a century. When I fell ill a few years ago and required a liver transplant, Everyman was a place I needed—as cliché as it sounds, it was one of the reasons I needed to heal and get back to work.
Director’s approval. The Scenic Designer will also come and discuss the look of lighting on the scenery. Every good Scenic Designer has a vision of the lighting. I like hearing from them and it all works [together] to create the best production.
What skills are necessary to being a Lighting Designer? I believe it must be within you from birth, like any art. You can hone your skills, but you have to have the seeds planted for it to grow: observation, musicality, empathy, communication, and passion. Lighting Designers have to know a lot about technology. Some of our lights are robots that emit light, and there are many to choose from. We have to know how it all fits together. We have to work with budgets and limitations. We have to understand that, no matter how good our work might be, the audience will never know who [we] are. How do you connect to Long Days Journey Into Night? How does light play a unique role in this story? It is in the title of the play: Night! And not any night, but one that takes a long time. This is not because it is a four-act play—it is because it is the life of the people on the stage. O’Neill talks about lighting in his script, and it is also written into the dialogue of the play. You might not see the fog the characters talk about, but it speaks to the oppressive feeling of the play. It is not a play with many exciting cues, but one that takes a gentle hand. What is the Lighting Designer’s relationship to the Director? What other relationships are critical to your work? Lighting—and often sound—are reactionary to the play. The sets and costumes are already built [when lighting enters the picture]. Sometimes costumes may be changed during the preview, and some props might be altered as well, but lighting is not set until the actors are on stage. The look of the show’s lighting is created with the play’s Director in the room. [The Director] watches every step. It is the Director’s vision and we as Lighting Designers work towards that goal. I also find that the sound design influences many of my decisions. If I hear a sound that sets a mood, I am inspired. I spend a lot of time in conversations with the sound design. [Lighting and sound] must work in total harmony and with the
Megan Anderson, Mitchell Hébert, and Alice M. Gatling in Under the Skin. Photo by ClintonBPhotography.
What show are you most proud of? What is a play you would love to design lights for in the future? We did a show that was very personal to me, Under the Skin, by Michael Hollinger. It was about an organ transplantation and I served the production not only as a lighting designer but as a celebration of my first-year anniversary [as a transplant recipient]. I had a gathering at the theatre [during this play] and Everyman gifted me with seats for my guests. It was pretty amazing. I even had a mocktail named after me [at Vinny’s bar]. I have also done The Glass Menagerie twice at Everyman. The first time, directed by Long Day’s Journey Director Donald Hicken, won a Helen Hayes Award. The Glass Menagerie is my favorite play (although I have now done it five times and that might be my threshold). I love designing any play where lighting is a strong character in the play. I also really enjoy a strong musical, as they are always great fun for a lighting designer. I am really keeping an eye on a new musical called Hadestown. Once the rights become available (which will be a number of years from now) I want to do it. The music vibrates my soul. What advice might you give someone interested in pursuing lighting design as a career? See as much theatre as you can. Take hundreds of photographs of anything you see [in the world] that has exciting lighting. Go to school. Be a person whom others enjoy working with. LONG DAY’S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT PLAY GUIDE | 19
GLOSSARY automaton: a mechanical device, operated electronically, that functions automatically—without continuous input from an operator. banshee: in Irish legend, a female spirit whose wailing warns of an impending death in a house: “The little girl dropped her ice cream and began to howl like a banshee.” boodle: money, especially that gained or spent illegally or improperly. bunk: humbug; nonsense. chauffeur: a person employed to drive a private or rented automobile. confab: an informal private conversation or discussion.
over-the-hills-to-the-poorhouse: a movie in the 1920’s about a woman who can not enjoy life due to her many children. In the context of the play it is used to emphasize how stingy Tyrone is by saying he will tell tragic stories of his financial situation to save money. Packard: Packard was an American luxury automobile marque built by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan, United States. The first Packard automobiles were produced in 1899, and the last true Packard in 1956, when they built the Packard Predictor, their last concept car. peculiar: a parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the diocese in which it lies, through being subject to the jurisdiction of the monarch or an archbishop.
consumption: the old name for tuberculosis, an infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules (tubercles) in the tissues, especially the lungs.
pious: devoutly religious.
coquette: a flirtatious woman.
quack: a fraud pretending to be a medical physician.
crosspatch:a bad-tempered person.
queer: strange; odd.
cynicism: a distrust for the motives of others.
redeye: cheap whiskey.
dissipation: complete disintegration.
rheumatism: a medical problem that affects the joints and/or connective tissue; any one of the painful disorders involving muscles, joints, or connective tissue.
divil the bit: “divil the bit” (and less commonly “divil a bit”) is an Irish English idiom meaning “none at all.” dope sheet: a publication which provides background information and/or predictions used by people wagering on any sort of competition.
plutocrat: A person whose power derives from their wealth.
rogue: a dishonest, knavish person; scoundrel. runt: an animal that is smaller than average, especially the smallest in a litter.
flurriedly: sudden commotion, excitement, or confusion; nervous hurry.
sanatorium: a hospital for the treatment of chronic diseases and mental disorders.
gay: light-hearted and carefree.
scathingly: harshly critical.
goad: something that encourages, urges, or drives; a stimulus.
scoundrel: a dishonest or unscrupulous person; a rogue.
grippe: old-fashioned term for influenza.
shanty mick: Poor or disreputable person of Irish descent.
loafer: A person who idles time away. Mauldin: William Henry (“Bill”) 1921–2003, U.S. political cartoonist. miser: a person who lives in wretched circumstances in order to save and hoard money. old sod: a person’s home country. ossified: drunk
soused: drunk; intoxicated. teetotaler: a person who never drinks alcohol. tightwad: a close-fisted or stingy person. trauneen: a blade of grass. vehemently: an extremely strong, powerful, or intense emotion or force. wallop: to strike with a vigorous blow; belt; sock.
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POST-SHOW DISCUSSION Use these questions as a launchpad for conversation... Production •
O’Neill includes several detailed stage directions in this play, intended for the benefit of the reader. How could an actor or director use them to inform the production? How could these be helpful or distracting?
Pulitzer Prizes are awarded to distinguished American plays, preferably concerning American life. O’Neill won four Pulitzers, including one for Long Day’s Journey. What about this story makes it distinctly American?
Several literary allusions are made in this text. Compare and contrast how James, Edmund and Jamie use literature. How do their relationships with books illuminate their characters? What would O’Neill’s position be on the role of literature in society today?
This play is heavily autobiographical and was not published until after O’Neill’s death. In your opinion, why do think O’Neill night not have wanted it to be published during his lifetime? How would you feel about publishing the story of your own childhood?
Edmund is a character who was written to depict Eugene O’Neill himself. What are Edmund’s character traits? What are his weaknesses? What does he value?
Theme & Content •
Are there aspects of the play that only work in an American setting? What changes might be necessary if it were set in another country?
Substance abuse is a prevalent theme running throughout the play. How does substance abuse affect the various members of the Tyrone family?
Memory is powerful. How and what do the Tyrones remember?
Time plays an essential role in this story. Examine how time passes and why this story holds the title it does.
YOUR THOUGHTS... Use this space to jot down any thoughts that arise before, during, and/or after the performance.
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EXTENSION PROJECT Be the Director... (and embrace the patron)
A Director lives with and honors the playwright’s words. Complete the diagram below analyzing the story: PAST: In the characters’ own words, what memories do they recall?
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PRESENT: Describe the characters’ current states. Where do we meet each of these people and how do they progress over the course of the day?
FUTURE: When the play ends, what happens tomorrow? Fast forward, five years from now. Where do you think these characters are going? This is the work of the PATRON to imagine.
THEATRE ETIQUETTE When you come and see a play, remember to...
Respectfully enjoy the show. While we encourage you to laugh when something is funny, gasp if something shocks you, and listen intently to the action occurring, please remember to be respectful of the performers and fellow audience members. Please turn off or silence all electronic devices before the performance begins. There is no texting or checking your cell phone during the show. The glow of a cell phone can and will be seen from stage. Photography inside the theatre is strictly prohibited. Food and drinks are not allowed in the theatre. Food and drinks should be consumed in the Everyman lobby before or after the show, or during intermission. Be Present. Talking, moving around, checking your phone, or engaging in other activities is distracting to everyone and greatly disrupts the performanceâ€™s energy. Stay Safe. Please remain seated and quiet during the performance. Should you need to leave for any reason, reentrance to the theatre is at the discretion of the house manager. In case of an emergency, please follow the instructions shared by Everyman staff members. Continue the conversation. After your performance, find Everyman Theatre on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram and use #bmoreeveryman to tell us what you thought!
CURRICULAR TIE-INS From the stage to the classroom...
COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.2 Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.11-12.3 Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed). CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.11-12.1.C Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives. NATIONAL CORE ARTS STANDARDS Anchor Standard #6. Convey meaning through the presentation of artistic work. Anchor Standard #7. Perceive and analyze artistic work. Anchor Standard #8. Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work. Anchor Standard #11. Relate artistic ideas and works with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding.
LONG DAYâ€™S JOURNEY INTO NIGHT PLAY GUIDE | 23
Take a closer examination of the world of Long Day’s Journey Into Night by visiting these resources: Beyond the Biography http://www.nytimes.com/2000/03/19/theater/a-second-look-and-a-second-chance-to-forgive.html https://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/books/a-new-biography-of-eugene-oneill-looks-beyond-theplaywrights-demons/2014/12/01/2e217a88-7016-11e4-8808-afaa1e3a33ef_story.html?utm_term=.309da59d5d05 Other Interpretations of the play: Jack Lemmon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-uVwAPVfDnI Jessica Lange: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vQfqKKAiwyo Katherine Hepburn on Performing Long Day’s Journey: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LquJH2iZ5dY
Sources used to curate this Play Guide include... https://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2014/apr/15/prospero-the-tempest-shakespeare-reading-group http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/menagerie/context.html http://www.nytimes.com/2000/03/19/theater/a-second-look-and-a-second-chance-to-forgive.html http://www.nytimes.com/1981/04/28/theater/stage-light-bulb-by-woody-allen.html https://www.britannica.com/biography/Eugene-ONeill http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/eugene-oneill-about-eugene-oneill/676/ https://content.lib.washington.edu/19thcenturyactorsweb/essay.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/plague-gallery/ https://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/irish2.html http://www.nytimes.com/1988/10/18/theater/o-neill-lauded-in-his-own-words.html http://www.nbcnews.com/id/3076712/t/big-mystery-what-causes-addiction/#.Wl-_5COZOT8 http://ecommons.luc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2395&context=luc_diss https://books.google.com/books?id=vVHSAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA264&lpg=PA264&dq=Naturalism+and+Expressionism+in+American+Drama+Julia+A.+Walker&source=bl&ots=2Gn4qD3vsV&sig=tsm99xkrf_ggsn2_70Xx9OceThc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjO2rrruuLYAhVvkuAKHUGLD7kQ6AEINDAC#v=onepage&q=Naturalism%20and%20 Expressionism%20in%20American%20Drama%20Julia%20A.%20Walker&f=false
THIS PLAY GUIDE CREATED BY Brianna McCoy, Director of Education Lisa Langston, Education Program Manager Brenna Horner, Lead Teaching Artist Abigail Cady, Education Apprentice Katherine Marmion, Graphic Designer
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EVERYMAN THEATRE IS LOCATED AT 315 W. Fayette St. Baltimore, MD 21201 Box Office 410.752.2208 Administration 443.615.7055 Email email@example.com
EDUCATION DEPARTMENT If you have questions about the Play Guide, contact our Education Department at firstname.lastname@example.org or 443.615.7055 x7142
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DESIGN YOUR OWN PRODUCTION IMAGERY For each production at Everyman, our Marketing Department works with artist Jeff Rogers to create imagery that conveys a visual story. What story does the Long Day’s Journey Into Night artwork on the cover convey? Now it’s your turn! Think about the play Long Day’s Journey Into Night and design a new image/artwork to brand the show. Keep in mind, this image could be used on posters, advertisements, billboards, television, internet, etc. Share it with us on social media using #bmoreeveryman.
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