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sesam012_rhodes Tutor Pack


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Index HOW TO USE THIS TUTORPACK ..................................................................4 Introduction . .....................................................................................................5 SESAM:about....................................................................................................5 EASA: about......................................................................................................7 EASA: history....................................................................................................9 RHODES.........................................................................................................10 Colossus..........................................................................................................16 Architectural References.................................................................................19 Folklore............................................................................................................21 SESAM012_RHODES....................................................................................22 WORKSHOPS . ..............................................................................................24 SELECTION CRITERIA .................................................................................31 TIMETABLE.....................................................................................................32 How to conduct a SUCCESSFUL workshop ..................................................33 INFO ...............................................................................................................35 DATES AND DEADLINES ..............................................................................35 Contact............................................................................................................36 CREDITS: . .....................................................................................................36

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HOW TO USE THIS TUTORPACK This document is issued by SESAM 2012 Rhodes as a resource for prospective tutors at sesam012 to be held in Rhodes in May of 2012. It provides information the organizers feel is important to consider and understand when submitting a workshop proposal. There are sections on Rhodes that cover its history, culture and architectural context, which, although not essential when developing a workshop proposal, we feel will inform a well rounded approach. They provide a basic introduction to the host cities and country, but are by no means a definitive guide. We have attempted to suggest further sources to provide additional information. The later sections deal directly with workshops and should be considered essential reading for any prospective tutor. The last section has all the specific dates and information needed to submit proposals.

The Colossus of Rhodes


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Introduction We are proud to release the TutorPack for sesam012_Rhodes “Colossus VS LandmARCH�. The Small European Students of Architecture Meeting sesam012 will be held in Rhodes (Greece) from May 12th to May 20th, 2012. This document provides the required information for students and professionals alike to propose workshops to be realized during the assembly. We want to use it as a tool to inform potential tutors about the event, the theme and the location of sesam012. sesam012 is a city based event. During the one week 100 architecture students from all over Europe will explore the city characteristics and intervene with its context. We hope that successful workshops allow students gain vital experience and exchange ideas and that their work will conclude with challenging and creative outcomes that connect strongly with the location. The theme is supposed to be a general link between the different workshops and activities during the assembly. Each workshop should embrace the theme in some way, dealing on a critical level with different approaches to the subject. It is also meant to be an inspiration for creative thought and reflection, and spark debate throughout the assembly. The organizing team hopes that you will find this document useful and informative, and provide you with the basis to propose some of the most imaginative, thoughtprovoking workshops EASA has seen. Additional information will be released when we feel necessary, and links will be provided for further research.

SESAM:about SESAM [Small European Students of Architecture Meeting] is a European conference for architecture students, which takes place during the year in different countries with different theme. Workshops, lectures and exhibitions are organized, according to the theme, with 100 students from 40 countries being involved. The theme is related to concerns raised by the very same region where the conference takes place and the actions- interventions range in both theoretical and practical levels.

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final presentation of construction workshop


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EASA: about SESAM is part of EASA[European Architecture Students Assembly]. EASA is the only organization of its kind in Europe and is fundamentally different to all other student architecture organizations around the world. Fundamentally EASA is a network of students, by students, for students, there is no central organization or board, no standing affiliation with any external establishment exists. There are over 40 countries that cover the whole of the continent’s student population, each of these have two National Contacts (NCs), whose role is to promote the network within their country’s student population and be the link between individual students and the other countries in the network. In theory every student of architecture can be part of EASA and is connected through their National Contact (NC). These NCs come together once a year at the INCM (Intermediate National Contacts Meeting), in autumn, to discuss any issues that are facing the network and to choose the venue for the following INCM and EASA summer event. The most striking feature of these meetings is that there is never a vote on major decisions; rather all decisions must be reached by way of the consensus of those present. EASA is founded on the basis of all decisions being agreed on by consensus; consensus means that issues are discussed until everyone involved in the debate is satisfied and agrees on one course of action. Due to the expansion of Europe there are now more nations involved in EASA meaning debates can include up to 100 people and therefore can run for hours. Because of this consensus is now mostly reserved for more significant decisions such as changes to the guide and future locations of EASA events. Another defining characteristic of EASA is its non-political stand point. This allows for greater cooperation in possibly unexpected ways, for example 2008’s applicants from Northern Ireland applied for participation through the Irish quota. Another unlikely link up occurred with the organisation of the 2008 INCM when students from either side of the divided island of Cyprus collaborated to host the meetings, partly in the no-man’sland that physically divides the Island.

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EASA: history EASA was founded in 1981, when students of architecture from Liverpool proposed a meeting with their fellow students from all over Europe, in order to discuss and solve problems of their city. About 300 young architects gathered, starting the collective institution of EASA, with theme “Starting up the EASA experience”. Since then, the meeting takes place every year in different country, with different theme.

1981 Liverpool England Starting the EASA Experience 1982 Delft Holland Uncertainfuture 1983 Lisboa Portugal Social Spaces 1984 Aarhus Denmark Turning Point 1985 Athens Greece Interpretation and Action 1986 Torino Italy Architecturi Latenti 1987 Helsinki Finland Architecture and Nature 1988 Berlin Germany Dimension Between 1989 Marseille France Heritage et Creative 1990 Karlskrona Sweden Exploration 1991 Kolomna USSR Regeneration 1992 UÅNrgüp Turkey Vision 2000 1993 Sandwick Scotland The Isle 1994 Liège Belgium Consommer l’Inconsommable 1995 Zamosc Poland Beyond the Borders 1996 Clermont France Dream Builders! L’Hérault 1997 The Train Scandinavia Advancing Architecture 1998 Valetta Malta Living on the edge 1999 Kavala Greece Osmosis 2000 Antwerp/ Belgium/ Dissimilarities Rotterdam Holland 2001 Gökçeada Turkey No Theme 2002 Vis Croatia Senses 2003 Friland Denmark Sustainable Living 2004 Roubaix France Metropolitain - Micropolitain 2005 Bergün Switzerland TranTrans Transition 2006 Budapest Hungary Common Places 2007 Eleusina Greece City Index 2008 Letterfrack Ireland Adaptation 2009 Darfo Italy Supermarchet 2010 Manchester UK Identity 2011 Cadiz Spain deCOASTruction 2012 Helsinki Finland Wastelands The first SESAM took place in 1992 in the city Villafames in Spain and since then it has been hosted in many European cities, such as Rome, Istanbul, Manchester, etc.

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RHODES Introduction

The island of Rhodes is located at the crossroads of two major sea routes of the Mediterranean between the Aegean Sea and the coast of the Middle East, as well as Cyprus and Egypt. The meeting point of three continents, it has known many civilizations. Throughout its long history the different people who settled on Rhodes left their mark in all aspects of the island's culture: art, language, architecture. Its strategic position brought to the island great wealth and made the city of Rhodes one of the leading cities of the ancient Greek world. Rhodes is the largest island in the Dodecanese. Its capital city, located at its northern tip, is the capital of the Prefecture with the Medieval Town in its center. In 1988 the Medieval Town was designated as a World Heritage City. The Medieval Town of Rhodes is the result of different architectures belonging to various historic eras, predominantly those of the Knights of St. John.

Urban Timeline Classical Period The island was inhabited as early as the late Neolithic period (4000 B.C.). In 408 B.C. the three major cities of the island - Ialyssos, Kamiros and Lindos - founded the city of Rhodes. The three centuries that followed were the golden age of Rhodes. Sea trade, skilled shipbuilders, and the careful and open-minded political and diplomatic manoeuvres of the city kept it strong and prosperous until Roman times.


11 In the same period, Rhodes produced excellent artistic work. The most celebrated of all was the Colossus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, made between 304 and 293 B.C. by the Lindian sculptor Hares. The construction of the Colossus took 12 years and was finished in 282 BC. For years, the statue, representing the sun god Helios, stood at the harbour entrance, until a strong earthquake hit Rhodes about 226 BC. The city was badly damaged, and the Colossus was demolished. The urban plan of ancient Rhodes reflects directly the urban and philosophical ideas of the famous ancient Greek planner, Hippodamus. The street plan of the ancient city is known due to decades of archaeological excavations. The building blocks (insulae) measure 47.70X26.50 m and all have the same dimensions. They included 3 houses each and were surrounded by streets 5-6 meters wide. Greater units constituted areas surrounded by wider streets (8-11 meters). Every area included 36 insulae or 108 houses. The ancient city had an extended and well-constructed sewage system as well as a water supply network. Roman Period The independence of the city came to an end in 164 B.C. when Rhodes became a Province of the Roman Empire. But even as late as the 1st century A.D., Rhodes preserved much of its splendour and developed into one of the greatest centers of learning, science and the arts. Apart from the surviving written sources, the archaeological research which continues to this day gives us a clear idea of the level of civilization during this period.

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Byzantine Period During the early Christian period (330-650 A.D.), Rhodes belonged to the eastern part of the Christianized Roman Empire, which is known in history as the Byzantine Empire. Though less significant and prosperous than before, the city was the See of a Bishop and had a great number of churches, among them some basilicas of impressive dimensions. It was also an important military base. The Arabs, who appeared or the first time in the Mediterranean in the 7th century, attacked Rhodes and occupied it for sÎżme decades. The city shrank during the following centuries and was fortified with new walls. At the same time it was divided into two zones, one reserved for the political and military leadership and the other where the laymen lived, a division that reflects the social reality of medieval times. Due to lack of written sources we have little information concerning this period. The restoration work of the Italians neglected or even harmed surviving buildings in favour of the Knights' period.

Knights' Period In 1309 the island was sold to the Order of the Knights Hospitaliers of Saint John of Jerusalem. The Order was established in the 12th century in Jerusalem for the purpose of nursing pilgrims and crusaders, but soon enough it was transformed into a combat unit and acquired vast tracts of land. Having retreated from Jerusalem and then Cyprus, the Order established its Headquarters on Rhodes, taking a leading role in the Eastern Mediterranean at this time. During the Knights' era the fortifications were extended, modernized and continuously reinforced. Α hospital, a palace and several churches were among the many public buildings constructed at that time, offering interesting examples of Gothic and Renaissance architecture. In spite of the hostilities with the Ottoman Empire, sea trade was a source of wealth and the markets of the city were thriving. Under the Knights, the island had a period of prosperity and the relations between them and the local population was characterized by tolerance and often by close collaboration. Most of the streets of the Medieval Town coincided with those of the ancient city. The division of the town into two parts was retained. In Rhodes the Order kept a well-organized


archive that included documents issued by its leadership, correspondence, notary acts, etc. The archive has survived and is found today in the National Library of Malta. It constitutes a valuable source of information for the period. The city was divided into its two parts by an inner wall. The Northern part, known as Chastel, Chateau, Castrum, Castellum or Conventus, was the site of the Grand Master’s Palace, the church of the Knights, the Latin Cathedral, the Catholic Bishop’s residence, the various “tongues” quarters, the Knights houses, a hospital etc. The South part, known as ville, burgus or burgum was the area where the laymen lived and included the market, synagogues, churches and public and commercial buildings. Ottoman Period In 1522 the Ottoman Turks conquered the city after a second long siege. New buildings were constructed: mosques, public baths and mansions for the new patrons. The Greeks were forced to abandon the fortified city and move to new suburbs outside its walls. In the Ottoman era Rhodes lost its international character. The city maintained its main economic function as a market for the agricultural products of the interior of the island and the surrounding small islands. After the establishment of their sovereignty οn the island, the Ottoman Turks repaired the damaged fortifications, converted most of the churches into mosques and transformed the major houses into private mansions or public buildings. This transformation was a long-term process that aimed to adapt the buildings to the Ottoman way of living. The Knights’ period facades with their sculptured decorations, the arched gates and hewn stone walls were enriched with the random character of the Ottoman architecture adapted to the local climate and culture. Ιn this process most οf the architectural features of the existing buildings were preserved. The most characteristic additions

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were the baths (usually in the back of the buildings) and the enclosed wooden balconies οn the facades over the narrow streets. In this this way most of the buildings of the Hospitaliers' period in the Medieval Town were well preserved. The result was a mixture of oriental architecture with imposing western architectural remains and more recent buildings, which were characteristic of the local architecture of the time. Ιn the l9th century the decline of the Ottoman Empire resulted in the general neglect of the town and its buildings, which further deteriorated due to the strong earthquakes that often plague the area. Italian Period Italian troops took over the island and the rest of the Dodecanese in 1912 and in 1923 Italy established a colony Isole Italiane Del Egeo. The Italians demolished the houses that had been built on and beside the walls during the Ottoman era and turned the Jewish and Ottoman cemeteries into a "green zone" surrounding the Medieval Town. They preserved the remains of the Knights' period and removed all the Ottoman additions and also reconstructed the Grand Master's Palace. In addition, they established an Institute for the study of the History and Culture of the region. The Italians undertook extensive infrastructure works (roads, electricity, port, etc.) and radically transformed the town of Rhodes, which was supplied with a new urban plan, building regulations and many new public and private buildings.


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Modern Period The English bombs that fell on the medieval city of Rhodes in 1944 claimed human lives and destroyed a great number of buildings, leaving large gaps in the urban tissue. One of the first Decrees of the Greek administration designated those areas as reserved for future excavations and a number of edifices as safeguarded buildings. In 1957, a new city plan was approved by a Decree and in 1960 the entire medieval town was designated as a protected monument by the Ministry of Culture. In 1961 and 1963 new Decrees were issued concerning the new city plan. They provided for the widening of existing streets and the opening of new ones. These were not implemented in the old city due to the resistance of the Archaeological Service. In 1988, the old town of Rhodes was designated as a World Heritage City by UNESCO.

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Colossus Siege of Rhodes

Alexander the Great died at the early age of 32 in 323 BC without having had time to put into place any plans for his succession. Fighting broke out among his generals, the Diadochi, with four of them eventually dividing up much of his empire in the Mediterranean area. During the fighting, Rhodes had sided with Ptolemy, and when Ptolemy eventually took control of Egypt, Rhodes and Ptolemaic Egypt formed an alliance which controlled much of the trade in the eastern Mediterranean. Antigonus I Monophthalmus was upset by this turn of events. In 305 BC he had his son Demetrius Poliorcetes, also a general, invade Rhodes with an army of 40,000; however, the city was well defended, and Demetrius—whose name "Poliorcetes" signifies the "besieger of cities"—had to start construction of a number of massive siege towers in order to gain access to the walls. The first was mounted on six ships, but these capsized in a storm before they could be used. He tried again with a larger, land-based tower named Helepolis, but the Rhodian defenders stopped this by flooding the land in front of the walls so that the rolling tower could not move. In 304 BC a relief force of ships sent by Ptolemy arrived, and Demetrius's army abandoned the siege, leaving most of their siege equipment. To celebrate their victory, the Rhodians sold the equipment left behind for 300 talents and decided to use the money to build a colossal statue of their patron god, Helios. Construction was left to the direction of Chares, a native of Lindos in Rhodes, who had been involved with largescale statues before. His teacher, the sculptor Lysippos, had constructed a 22 meter (70 ft.) high bronze statue of Zeus at Tarentum.

Construction

Ancient accounts, which differ to some degree, describe the structure as being built with iron tie bars to which brass plates were fixed to form the skin. The interior of the structure, which stood on a 15-meter- (50-foot-) high white marble pedestal near the Mandraki harbor entrance, was then filled with stone blocks as construction progressed. Other sources place the Colossus on a breakwater in the harbor. The statue itself was over 30 meters (107 ft) tall. Much of the iron and bronze was reforged from the various weapons Demetrius's army left behind, and the abandoned second siege tower was used for scaffolding around the lower levels during construction. Upper portions were built with the use of a large earthen ramp. During the building, workers would pile mounds of dirt on the sides of the colossus. Upon completion all of the dirt was removed and the colossus was left to stand alone. After twelve years, in 280 BC, the statue was completed. Preserved in Greek anthologies of poetry is what is believed to be the genuine dedication text for the Colossus. “To you, o Sun, the people of Dorian Rhodes set up this bronze statue reaching to Olympus, when they had pacified the waves of war and crowned their city with the spoils taken from the enemy. Not only over the seas but also on land did they kindle the lovely torch of freedom and independence. For to the descendants of Herakles belongs dominion over sea and land.”


17 Possible construction method

Modern engineers have put forward a plausible hypothesis for the statue construction, based on the technology of those days (which was not based on the modern principles of earthquake engineering), and the accounts of Philo and Pliny who both saw and described the remains. The base pedestal was at least 60 feet (18 m) in diameter and either circular or octagonal. The feet were carved in stone and covered with thin bronze plates riveted together. Eight forged iron bars set in a radiating horizontal position formed the ankles and turned up to follow the lines of the legs while becoming progressively smaller. Individually cast curved bronze plates 60 inches (1,500  mm) square with turned in edges were joined together by rivets through holes formed during casting to form a series of rings. The lower plates were 1-inch (25  mm) in thickness to the knee and 3/4 inch thick from knee to abdomen, while the upper plates were 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick except where additional strength was required at joints such as the shoulder, neck, etc. The legs would need to be filled at least to the knees with stones for stability. Accounts described earthen mounds used to aid construction; however, to reach the top of the statue would have required a mound 300 feet (91 m) in diameter, which exceeded the available land area, so modern engineers have proposed that the abandoned siege towers stripped down would have made efficient scaffolding. A computer simulation of this construction indicated that an earthquake would have caused a cascading failure of the rivets, causing the statue to break up at the joints while still standing instead of breaking after falling to the ground, as described in second hand accounts. The arms would have been first to separate, followed by the legs. The knees were less likely to break and the ankles' survival would have depended on the quality of the workmanship.

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Destruction

The statue stood for 56 years until Rhodes was hit by the 226 BC Rhodes earthquake, when significant damage was also done to large portions of the city, including the harbor and commercial buildings, which were destroyed. The statue snapped at the knees and fell over on to the land. Ptolemy III offered to pay for the reconstruction of the statue, but the oracle of Delphi made the Rhodians afraid that they had offended Helios, and they declined to rebuild it. The remains lay on the ground as described by Strabo (xiv.2.5) for over 800 years, and even broken, they were so impressive that many traveled to see them. Pliny the Elder remarked that few people could wrap their arms around the fallen thumb and that each of its fingers was larger than most statues. In 654, an Arab force under Muslim caliph Muawiyah I captured Rhodes, and according to the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, the remains were sold to a "Jewish merchant of Edessa". The buyer had the statue broken down, and transported the bronze scrap on the backs of 900 camels to his home. Theophanes is the sole source of this story to which all other sources can be traced. The stereotypical Arab destruction and the purported sale to a Jew possibly originated as a powerful metaphor for Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the destruction of a great and awesome statue, and would have been understood by any 7th century monk as evidence for the coming apocalypse. The same story is recorded by Barhebraeus, writing in Syriac in the 13th century: (After the Arab pillage of Rhodes) "And a great number of men hauled on strong ropes which were tied round the brass Colossus which was in the city and pulled it down. And they weighed from it three thousand loads of Corinthian brass, and they sold it to a certain Jew from Emesa" (the Syrian city of Homs).

Rebuilding

We should mention here that there has been much debate as to whether to rebuild Colossus. Those for it say it would boost tourism in Rhodes greatly, but those against reconstruction say it would cost too large an amount. This idea has been proposed many times since 1970 but, due to lack of financial resources, work has not yet started. There have already been announced thoughts of achieving the reconstruction through an international contest, or by giving the project to well-known architects and artists, such as Gert Hof, Calatrava or Frank Gehry.


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Architectural References The Medieval Town

Cultures and time periods alternate with fascinating diversity as you enter the Old Town of Rhodes through the gate of Freedom. Medieval fortress- like buildings, narrow alleys, minarets, old houses with their balconies, decorative, drinking or ablution fountains, tranquil or busy squares with shady trees, all contribute to creating an atmosphere of the past. A walk along the city walls is an excellent way to appreciate this tremendous achievement in fortification and enjoy a superb overview of the old town. The walk passes along the “Curtains” or bastions, the walls and the gates. From the walls one can admire the Medieval moat which has been magnificently restored as a walking area and is the site of “Melina Merkouri” theater that hosts the Rhodes Summer Festival with concerts and performances. The cobblestone Street of the Knights, one of the best- preserved medieval streets in existence, is flanked by medieval Inns of the various “tongues” of the countries represented in the Order of the Knights of St John. At the foot of the Street, in Museum square, stands the Hospital of the Knights, which houses the Archaeological Museum. Across the squares is the Church of Our Lady of the Castle. It was the Orthodox Cathedral of Rhodes in Byzantine times dating back to at least the 11th Century becoming the Catholic Cathedral when the Knights occupied the City. The Street of the Knights is the main route from the port to the 14th century Palace of the Grand Master. The Palace, originally a Byzantine fortress built at the end of the 7th century A.D., was converted in the early 14th century by the Knights of the order of Saint John into the residence of the Grand Master. The Palace was destroyed in 1856, by an explosion of dynamite stored under the Knights’ church of Saint John, located opposite the Palace. It was rebuilt during the Italian occupation, in the late 1930s to serve as the residence of the Italian Governor. The rooms of the ground floor house two large permanent exhibitions, with the theme “The city of Rhodes”, the first from its founding in 408 B.C. until the Roman Empire and the second from the 4th century A.D. until the Ottoman occupation (1522).

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The Mosque of Suleiman

The Mosque of Suleiman the Magnificent is located in Socratous street. The present mosque was erected in 1808 on the site of a previous one built by Suleiman the Magnificent in the early 16th century.

The city outside the walls

The Post Office building was constructed during the first years of the Italian occupation by the Italian architect Florestano di Fausto. During the Italian occupation of the island, it was used as the Post Office (Palazzo delle Poste) and its function today remains the same. The Prefecture of the Dodecanese building, formerly the Italian Governor’s Palace, was built in 1927. It is a combination of different architectural styles and is reminiscent of the Doge’s Palace in Venice. The Evangelismos Church (Church of the Annunciation), the Town Hall and the National Theater are a few more buildings that keep the memories of the island’s Italian period alive. The multicultural character of Rhodes is also evident at the center of the new city. Next to the Prefecture building stands the Murat Reis Mosque with its elegant minaret. In the square around the mosque, the ruins of the ancient walls were discovered together with stone catapult balls marked with their weight. Rodini Park is a paradise of meandering streams and paths amidst oleander bushes, cypress, maple and pine trees. Rodini is reputed to be the site of the famed School of Rhetoric where prominent Greeks and Romans, including Julius Caesar, Cato the Younger, Cicero, Pompey, Brutus, Cassius and Mark Antony studied. Also in the park is a 3rd- century B.C. necropolis (cemetery) with tombs carved into the rock in the Doricstyle as well as the Tomb of Ptolemy. Saint Stephens Hill known as Monte Smith, after the English Admiral Smith who monitored the movements of French ships in the strait in Napoleonic Times, marks the site of the Acropolis of the Ancient Rhodes. This monumental area formed one of the most important centers of worship, education and recreation for the citizens of ancient Rhodes. At the top of the hill are the remains of Hellenistic Temples, the most visible of which are the majestic columns of the temple of Apollo. Below the temple is the Hellenistic stadium, built in the 3rd century B.C., where the athletic events of the Aleia Games took place. Those were part of the major festival of the Rhodians, held in honor of the sun god, Helios. Next to this stadium once stood one of the two known Gymnasia of ancient Rhodes, where philosophy, grammar, rhetoric and music were taught.

The Archaeological Museum of Rhodes

The Archaeological Museum of Rhodes is housed in the medieval building which served as the Hospital of the Knights of St. John. The structure was begun in 1440 by Grand Master de Lastic with money bequeathed by his predecessor, Fluvian, and was completed in 1489 by Grand Master d’ Aubusson. The museum is a two- storey building with a central courtyard, al four sides of which are lined with porticoes. Interesting finds dating from all periods of the island’s history, discovered during archaeological excavations, are exhibited in the Garden and in the twenty rooms of the upper floor. In the garden, the visitor can see sculptures and funerary steles of the Hellenistic period and the mosaic floors f the Hellenistic period from Rhodes town.


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Folklore The Rhodian Gastronomy

One can savor local delicacies in the many taverns and restaurants of the City. At this crossroad of civilizations, the local cuisine has acquired elements from the tree continents that surround the island. It has borrowed from Asia, Africa and Europe, but is above all Mediterranean. These various elements were selected, filtered and finally re- invented district local character. Traditionally, the Rhodian table was rich in variety. This tradition continues until today. Local specialties brilliantly combine traditional and modern tastes: unforgettable delicate flavors, fresh fish and seafood, original fresh salads, magnificent meat dishes as well as the wide range of sweets and desserts made mainly by cereals, olive oil, nuts, fruits, honey and herbs.

The Rhodian wines

The sunshine, the mild climate and the advanced techniques of the local wine makers, all contribute to the excellent quality of Rhodian wine.

Going out

Apart from getting to know the culture, the beaches and crystal waters as well as the Greek gastronomy, visitors should acquaint themselves with today’s vibrant Rhodian lifestyle. Rhodes offers something for people of all ages and preferences, including music cafes, music halls, cinemas, bars, night clubs, dancing clubs, restaurants, fashionable meeting points and the casino.

Shopping

A visit to Rhodes can easily be combined with shopping. Local products are of particular interest: the inhabitants of Rhodes have a long tradition in making jewellery, ceramics, carpets, embroidery, wines, ouzo, olive oil and honey. In the shops located in the Medieval Town the visitor will find Rhodian pottery decorated with traditional designs.

REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_of_ Rhodes http://www.rhodes.gr/en/

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SESAM012_RHODES The theme of SESAM012 in Rhodes is Colossus VS LandmARCH.

Landmarks

Landmarks are key components of the way we organize our knowledge of global, regional, and local environments. Our knowledge of the world is usually described as our "cognitive map." This does not mean that a cognitive map is like a cartographic map - although there is no clear evidence that such a relationship does or does not exist. The term "cognitive map" is either used metaphorically to describe our internal spatial/ geographic knowledge, or is used as a hypothetical construct to provide a functional concept related to the mental storage of spatial/geographic information. Although we may not know how information is encoded and stored in the brain, we do believe that the mind can create images (such as maps) in working memory to help recognize objects/features/places, as a way to help recognize such things or as a way to assist problem-solving (e.g. finding the nearest store).This brings us back to landmarks. Landmarks are used in a variety of ways including: use as organizing features to "anchor" segments of space, use as location identifiers, as to help decide what part of a city or region one is in and use as choice points, or places where changes in direction are needed when following a route. In general, landmark status is defined by some combination of features including: dominance of visible, natural, or built form such as the Eiffel Tower or Niagara Falls; outstanding color, shape, extent, such as the Kremlin; functional significance as with the Golden Gate Bridge; symbolic significance as with the Blarney Stone in Ireland; or historical significance such as the place where the Battle of Gettysburg was fought. Sometimes natural features (e.g. mountains, volcanoes, deep canyons, waterfalls, or reefs) attract enough attention to label phenomena as a landmark. Sometimes it is a part of the built environment that catches attention - such as the Kremlin, Notre Dame Cathedral, or the Sydney Opera House. And sometimes it is a feature of the cognitive environment that produces landmark status, as with an image of the beaches of South Africa or the perceived ruggedness or grandeur of the Himalayas. Note that we do not necessarily have to have visited a location or place to acknowledge its landmark status. We may have seen representations of it on TV, in videos or movies, in newspapers or magazines, in photos or slides, or heard about it on radio, or read about it in books, or simply heard many people mention it in conversation. Whatever the source, we acknowledge special status to phenomena.


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Colossus vs. LandmARCH

Nowadays, the importance of the image is becoming more essential than anything else, the meaning of a landmark, the crucial point of reference for a site, has changed dramatically. We would like, for this reason, to focus on contemporary landmarks and try to identify and assess the reflections of architectural choices in different aspects of life. The aim of sesam012 is to explore the concept of landmark and identify the principles and the qualities to which a landmark should refer. The example of the Colossus will be used comparatively and as a source of inspiration as apart from being a global landmark, had a strong theoretical background and ideological symbolism. More specifically it was a symbol of freedom and unity of people. We are interested in the presentation of a personal vision beyond the descriptive interpretation of the tutors and the participants. That which is able to represent the qualities of a contemporary landmark, capture small conceptual details and recognize changes that could be made in the design process. Our aim, among others, is to show both to the local community and the international architecture field, that young students of architecture can produce very innovative and fresh ideas, and for that reason their voice should be heard and influence the process of rebuilding or not the Colossus. Of course, the purpose of this SESAM is not the reconstruction of the Colossus, but the latter is considered as a good example to be used as the inspiration point, in an attempt to reach more general conclusions.

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WORKSHOPS INTRO

Workshops are the central framework of the SESAM assembly, structuring the event and producing the majority of what will remain once the assembly is over. However, the aim is not necessarily to achieve the best end result in the short time available. There is rather an emphasis on process. A workshop’s success should be measured by how the proposal was realized and what the participants and tutors have gained from it. It should be about how well the participants and tutors have worked together and how satisfied every single one is with their involvement. In this spirit it is not a case of a professional imparting his knowledge to the participants. It is rather about exchange of ideas and dialogue. Workshops should allow students to evolve and have important experiences, meet new people, get together and solve problems as a team. The SESAM workshop ethic is in deliberate contrast to the usual introverted and competitive approach in university education, to the output orientated professional context, and expertise and elite approach of many other summer schools. It is the EASA spirit that joins all in a network without hierarchy. This is not supposed to and does not limit the variety of approaches tutors can have to their proposals. Instead it widens the possibilities. We aim for workshops at SESAM012 to differ as much as possible in scale, theory, material and media, because we believe that it is important to offer participants a broad range of different subjects and working methods to choose from. We invite everyone to submit unique ideas of any kind as proposals for a workshop at SESAM012. These could include for example: Large built structure - permanent, ephemeral; Smaller experimental structures with strong theoretical background; Theoretical workshops with a physical output, or purely experimental and theoretical workshops. Workshops also differ in the way that participants are engaged. Proposals should consider whether: - there is a preconceived output delivered by the tutor; - if the whole group work on the same project: - or if are all participants develop their own ideas, producing many variations under a common framework provided by the tutor. All these approaches have been realized as successful workshops in previous assemblies. It is up to the tutor to decide which one suits best the idea.


25 RELATION TO THE THEME

However different the various workshops are, they will have one common link. The theme is supposed to be a general framework between the different workshops and activities during the assembly and meant to be a source for creative thought and inspiration. Each workshop should embrace the theme in some way, dealing on a creative level with diverse approaches to the subject and conclude with critical reflection. The workshops will be constructive, theoretical or compound; and they will be selected by the organizers and other professionals from all the submitted proposals. The SESAM012 organizing team will decide which workshops will be held in the Assembly, based on a certain criteria that takes into consideration aspects such as the interest of the project, the relationship with the theme, the number of participants needed and the feasibility to be completed in the two week period of the Assembly. We hope that the assembly will conclude with challenging and creative outcomes that connect strongly with the location and the theme through a series of authentic, exploitative and innovative workshops.

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PLACES

We are proposing different places in the city where workshops could be developed. These sites should be regarded as illustrative places for prospective tutors and not every workshop needs to be located in one of these locations. Every proposal in one of these spaces will be carefully studied in terms of dimensions, specific location, subject of the workshop and its appropriateness. All these locations have been studied with the city government, which will have to give the final confirmation studying every specific case. Tutors applying can decide the location of the workshop, being it not strictly necessary to choose one out of the proposed ones. All those who cannot find an appropriate place to develop their ideas, should just specify the conditions of the place they want to have and we will do our best to find the optimum location. If tutors do not have special needs for their workshops sites, they will be allocated in the workshops space inside the different SESAM sites, outdoors or indoors. If organizers consider that a certain location does not suit the workshop needs, this workshop could be relocated into the SESAM sites, outdoors or indoors, or in any other location.

Main Locations in the City of Rhodes. Black: Main Sesam Area. Green: Workshop designated spots. (please check our custom Google map)


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Town Hall Square

Rodini Park

Medieval Castle Ditch

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28 Living and Work Areas

OUTODOOR SPACES - CONSTRUCTIVE / COMPOUND WORKSHOPS CONSIDERATIONS The SESAM event is never the same and there is no rule of how an assembly has to be. Equally there is no manual on running a successful workshop. There have been many workshops in previous assemblies, each and every one with their own and unique approach to how to run a workshop, how to engage participants, how to relate to the theme. We won’t dictate how to go about any of these topics, but instead provide a couple of things to consider. Keep these in mind when looking at the case studies below and working out your own ideas. There are no restrictions to who can apply for either tutoring a workshop or competitions and no professional background is essential. However a skill in organizing a one week project, working in a group and explaining and communicating effectively are required.


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When proposing a workshop you should have an idea of: • • • • • • • • • • • •

How to actually realize it during the one week of the assembly. This can include a timetable or plan of action. If that seems too limiting there still has to be some notion of a realistic target. How to work in a group. What is the group structure? Are there roles? How are tasks divided or responsibilities allocated? Consider how many participants can work on the project at the same time. How to communicate the idea of the workshop and what you want to achieve. This could be for example in form of presentation material that will also prove useful when first introducing the workshop at the assembly. How to engage the participants in your idea. What will keep the participants interested in working on the project and stop them from spending their time elsewhere. This is important since it’s entirely up to the participants if they wish to attend. How to document the process and final outcome. This will be essential for tutors and participants. It will also feed into the final report produced by the organizers after the assembly. It is important to keep in mind that the students are usually unskilled in using tools, not accustomed to the city and most of them do not speak perfect English. Further, as a tutor, you are required to foresee potential danger of your project and if necessary make your participants aware of health and safety issues and give an introduction to tools if applicable.

YOUR PARTICIPANTS

As SESAM participants don’t choose workshops before the assembly starts, it’s up to the tutors to promote their workshop to their potential participants. This is to be done in the first two days of the assembly. On the first day of the assembly, there will be the workshop presentations. This involves a short 3 minute presentation to give a taste to participants of what the workshop will entail. The next day, after the participants have had some time to think and discuss, there will be a workshop fair. Here tutors will be able to answer questions and talk to potential participants on a personal level.

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MATERIALS & TOOLS

The organizers of SESAM012 have put together a shopping list of basic materials which we hope should cover a vast majority of workshop’s material needs. Construction Materials • Plywood • Fibre board - e.g. MDF / OSB / Hard Board • Timber Lengths - Varying lengths and dimensions • Dowel - Varying lengths and dimensions • Metal Angles • Plastic Sheeting • String / Rope / Metal Rope / Wire • Sand • Insulation Board / Roll • Mechanical Fixings - e.g. screws / nails / nuts & bolts / Rivets • Chemical Fixings - e.g. glues / mastics • Paint / Spray Paint / Paint Brushes / Paint Rollers • Fabric - varying types and colours • Electrics - e.g. lights / cable / switches Stationary • Pens / Pencils / Paint / Ink / Glue / Sticky Tape • Paper / Card • Clay / Plaster • Craft Knives / Scissors / Rulers / Erasers / Staple Guns & Staples If tutors want to use more specific materials they must ask for it in their application, or better yet, find themselves a sponsor who can provide the material for them.


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Tools and Equipment

A variety of both hand tools and power tools will be provided to tutors who should allow them to achieve the workshop to the best of their abilities, and on time. Non building equipment, (for example projectors, audio/ visual equipment) will be available to be loaned out to workshops.

SELECTION CRITERIA The selection of the workshops will be performed by a panel composed by members of the sesam012 organization team and may be assisted by professionals that will have a say but not a vote. During the evaluation, some key points of the proposals will be studied and each prospective workshop will be awarded with a mark. The top rated workshops will be selected to be part of sesam012. The key criteria are: · Originality of the idea · Experience and motivation of the tutors · Relevance to the theme · Outcome and documentation · Feasibility · Collaboration on sponsoring

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TIMETABLE The sesam012 timetable includes a number of activities around the theme Colossus vs. LandmARCH aiming to give participants a wide understanding on it. Lectures, talks and visits are of vital importance for that. In this context, workshops are considered the backbone of the assembly and they run over the one week assembly. On the following page, prospective tutors will find the timetable containing the main activities of the event. Among the activities relevant to tutors we find: ·Workshop presentation: During this first presentation, tutors will have the opportunity to explain to all the participants the concept and aims of their workshops. Every tutor will be awarded with 3-5 minutes of time · Workshop fair: This activity is aimed to personally talk with participants and further explain the workshop to them. Each workshop will be provided with a stand in a common hall. Participants will be able to register to one workshop to be involved in it over the whole length of the assembly · Exhibition day: May the 19th will be a major day for sesam012. A feast in which all the work produced by 100 students of architecture from all over Europe will be exposed right in the city centre of Rhodes. · Final presentations: The final presentation will be the climax of sesam012. The moment in which all the tutors will present the work to the assembly and to all interested parts in Rhodes.

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How to conduct a SUCCESSFUL workshop HOW TO

It goes without saying that it can be a limiting activity to propose an outline structure to a workshop. SESAM workshops come in a variety of media, are composed of different numbers of participants, have different goals and revolve around leadership, dedication, a distinct skill-set and coherent organization on the ground. With this in mind, we feel that it is beneficial to outline some striking aspects that we felt would be helpful to those seeking to undertake a tutorship this year. Obviously, these aren’t strict guidelines, but rather hints on how to bring a good idea to a successful conclusion.

REALISTIC AIMS

From inception, tutors should make clear what they foresee as the ultimate realization. This will help the organizers to provide for, and the participants to commit to the workshop. Motivating participants is key, the tutors can take certain lengths to help this happen.

ENGAGING PARTICIPANTS

If applicable, the backing of a sponsor can lend a workshop a little extra financial clout. It may allow tutors to provide starter packs for the participants. This is a great way to gain commitment and interest from your participants early. A workshop starter pack may include a participants guide/ sponsorship info/workshop t-shirt or hat/whatever raw material may be relevant to that workshop.

INFORMING PARTICIPANTS

It’s impossible to assume that the average participant will have the same depth of under- standing of the workshop topic as the tutor of that workshop. Therefore it can be very helpful to inform the participants with a synopsis of research done, as well as any other important information and considerations. As with any architectural undertaking it is helpful to see previous examples and precedents for the type of work the tutors are proposing. Far from steering participants, this allows them to be inspired by people who have had a lot more time to consider their interventions. Observing case studies is one thing, being able to achieve the desired finish is another. For a built workshop this may mean having a strong understanding of the assembly details. Workshops should aim to provide both the theoretical platform, as well as the means with which to implement it. Disregard for either ingredient may well make for a weak end-product.

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MAINTAINING PARTICIPATION

EASA workshops are about involving all the participants, basically it’s important for a tutor not to make his/her participants feel like lackeys. This may require a certain amount of ‘holding-back’ from tutors. Creating a healthy and non prohibitive atmosphere is an essential part of the EASA spirit. However, if you’ve been selected to participate at a SESAM, we think you have an onus to your tutors and your hosts to muck in. Discipline will come more naturally from some than others. The rule of thumb is; the more you put in to a workshop, the more you are likely to get out. Continuous discussions and exercises are very helpful for both developing ideas, and helping participants to get to know one and other. To get the best out of the short time available, we think it would be helpful if exercises and discussion topics were considered in advance by the tutors and given a deliberate slot in the workshop schedule. A schedule is essential. It’s very easy to put things off until the ‘next day’. If everyone knows the progress expected throughout the workshop period, then it relieves the tutors from having to convince people to work - i.e. It becomes clear that if you loose time one day, then you’ll have to make it up the next if the workshop is to be completed. This probably sounds strict, which it generally isn’t - adjustments are inevitable and always negotiable.

SAFETY

What may seem obvious always needs to be reiterated as regards safety. During the course of a workshop participants will be using any number of different tools, as well as materials of all descriptions and sizes. Although EASA and SESAM have sported a clean bill of health in recent memory, tutors must not grow complacent. Attending the power-tool demonstrations lecture early in the workshop period is a great idea, not only for tutors but for anyone intending to use these tools. Including a small house-keeping and hazards advisory relevant to the proposed workshop in the ‘participants guide’ is clever.

SPONSORSHIP AND LECTURES

Sponsorships and some bare-faced brand pushing allow workshops to spend more money. Obviously this isn’t a necessity for all workshops, but it can be achieved with a little foresight and organization.

DOCUMENTATION

Collating written reports and photographs during the course of a workshop will aid in the production of a final report, whether that be a printed publication, an exhibition or a DVD. A well produced body of work is a great testament to the effort put in by the organizers, tutors, participants and also the sponsors. It can also provide a lasting memory for works that may have been more temporary or intangible in nature.


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INFO FEE PAYMENT

EASA is a network of students of architecture run by students for students. Because of that sesam012 constitutes a great opportunity for emergent and enthusiast architects willing to run a workshop inside a highly successful event shared by 100 students of architecture coming from more than 40 European countries. sesam012 is highly dependent on partnership and sponsorship in order to maintain low fees for all attendees. The fees for participants and tutors will be: GROUP 1: 100% = 150 euro (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lichtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Malta) GROUP 2: 80% = 120 euro (Poland, Portugal, Cyprus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moscow(*), Slovenia, Slovakia and nonEuropean participants (such as ELEA, CLEA etc)) GROUP 3: 60% = 90 euro (Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Turkey, Armenia, Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Russia(**), Ukraine) (*) (**) Due to economic differences, Moscow and the rest of Russia are separated in different payment groups. Submitting a workshop proposal is free and only selected tutors coming to sesam012 will have to pay the fee in accordance to the country of residence.

SPONSOR YOUR WORKSHOP As a means for encouraging tutors to presenting ambitious proposals for a workshop, we are including a new practice. Tutors sponsoring their own workshops will be feededucted in accordance with the sponsored amount, taking into consideration workshop typology, workshop estimated budget and the fund raised amount. In order to give time to tutors for finding sponsorship for their workshops, the sponsorship could be obtained until the start of the assembly, being on that moment when the fee reduction will be applied.

DATES AND DEADLINES Tutorpack release: 1st February 2012. Call for workshops: From 1st February 2012 until 29th February 2012. Selected workshops announcement: 15th March 2012. The decision will be announced to all NCs, selected tutors and will appear on the sesam012 blog. SUBMISSION The workshop submissions will only be accepted on .pdf format using our application form editable pdf. Please, make sure you fill in all the fields and send it to sesamrhodes2012@gmail. com. You will receive a confirmation message when the email is received. MORE INFORMATION Enquiries on the theme and other questions: eva_magn@hotmail.com

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CREDITS: Photography: Bojana Boranieva Leyla Ibrahimova Roland Dániel Németh Francisco J. Rodríguez Perez Design: Theoklitos Triantafullidis Texts: Stavroula Oikonomou Eva Magnisali Special thanks to: Francisco J. Rodríguez Perez and the organizers of EASA011

Contact Magnisali Eva +30 6984532535 eva_magn@hotmail.com Oikonomou Stavroula +30 6940595108 stavroula_oikonomou@hotmail.com Kalogeraki Maria +30 6948825154 kal_maria.maroulita@hotmail.com Triantafyllidis Theoklitos +30 6937470951 theotrian@gmail.com Anastasiou Orestis-Nikolaos +30 6947974040 onanastasiou@gmail.com Konstantaros Anastasios +491632611492 akonstantaros@googlemail.com http://sesam2012rhodes.blogspot.com


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information for workshop proposals sesam012_rhodes colossus vs landmarch