Erasmus+ "European Schools Go Green" Green Magazine 2020

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ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020

Third Year of collaboration 2019-2020

Erasmus+ “Green” Magazine 2020 Galileo Galilei Technical High S chool of Genova, Italy 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020

Third and last Year of collaboration 2019-2020

Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece Goethe Gymnasium Kassel Germany

ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020

Green Magazine 2020 Contents

1. Article by Mrs Franca Monzeglio – Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy 2. Article by Mrs Andreou Aikaterini – 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 3. “ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN GENOA AND LIGURIA” - Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy 4. “The solar tracker” - Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy 5. “Polcevera Park project” - Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy 6. “Clean and Run Marathon” – Genova - Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy 7. DR ROBERTO CAVALLO INTERVIEW - Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy 8. MRS BARBARA BOSIO INTERVIEW - Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy 9. DR WALTER RIVA INTERVIEW - Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy 10. “Climate change - show your stripes!” - 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 11. “ Europe’s renewable energy policies “ - 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 12. “ RES in America “ - 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 13. “GREECE ‘S ENERGY POLICY” - 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 14. “TILOS PROJECT case study” - 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 15. Interview of Political Scientist Proffessor Emmanuella Doussis- 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 16. Panagiotis Psychogios Interview , Wind Turbines and Farms Construction and Policies - 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 17. Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki Interview , Smart Materials , Bioengineering - 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 18. Interview of Mrs Haroula Kromyadou - Environmental Education –“ Arcturos” NGO- 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece 19. Experts/Scientists/ Organizations/ Institutions/ Firms etc having taken part in our project 20172020 we would like to thank a lot for their contribution : Italy – Greece


GOODBYE ERASMUS FRIENDS! It’s time to say goodbye. Our project has come to an end. After three years of working, planning, thinking, designing, imagining and sharing, we need to sum up and enjoy the excellent results of our work together. Notwithstanding the difficulties encountered because of the spreading of the Corona virus, our students did a great job. They worked even harder, by meeting online, working at home, cooperating with their schoolmates, sharing their ideas. The wish to keep on with the project overcame all the difficulties of a lockdown, making them stronger than ever. The third phase of the Erasmus + project was based on social and political issues. The students of Galileo Galilei Technical High School, supported by their English teacher and project reference person, Ms. Franca Monzeglio, have analysed the environmental policies adopted in Genoa and Liguria, pointing out the flaws but also the positives, by proposing new solutions for a greener attitude. They also participated actively in a marathon, called “Keep Clean and Run”, together with their physical education and sports teacher, Mr. Gianluca Litterio, and some students from other schools who gathered in the historical centre of Genoa. Led by Mr. Roberto Cavallo, green activist and writer, the young people walked through the streets and picked up all the waste they found on their way, dividing it according to the kind of material collected (plastics, glass, paper, and so on). The students’ concern for the environment was also evident in designing the area around the Morandi Bridge that collapsed on the 14 August 2018. Thanks to their great inspirational guide, Mrs. Giovanna Rosso, technical drawing and CAD teacher, the students of Galileo Galilei Technical High School have designed a project of the Polcevera Valley, where the bridge was built, following sustainability principles and environmentally friendly criteria. A very touching element that has been included in the design is the gushing fountain, placed in a memorial square, with 43 red nozzles representing the number of the victims of the collapsing of the Morandi Bridge. This dramatic event struck the hearts of the Genoese people very profoundly. This work is our students’ contribution for the artistic part of the project, but it represents our deep concern for the tragedy too. Our school is a technical one, so our students could not forget to dedicate a part of the project to the realization of a second prototype of a solar tracker. Together with their teachers, Mr. Andrea Boccalero and Mr. Pietro Belmonte, they have designed a more efficient device, implemented with photo-resistors, and more powerful too, thanks to a bigger solar panel.

IISS Einaudi Casaregis Galilei Genova - Piazza Sopranis 5, 16126 - Genova - Tel. 010261672 Email: – PEC: - CF 95062570106 - c/c postale 16263188 - C.U.UFEZR2 Sezione Einaudi – Via Cristofoli, 4 - 16151 - Genova - Tel. 010 460646


Finally, the students of Galileo Galilei Technical High School have interviewed some personalities belonging to the scientific and environmental fields: Mrs. Barbara Bosio, Professor at the Chemical Engineering Faculty of the University of Genoa, Mr. Walter Riva, Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Genoa Righi, Mr. Roberto Cavallo, green activist and writer. Unfortunately the third transnational mobility to Kassel could not take place because of the Covid 19 spreading all over the world, striking Italy first, and our students were not able to present their work, but their efforts have been fully acknowledged by their teachers and partners, in particular by the Greek people who welcomed the Italian delegation in Amaliada in October 2019 for the project meeting, just in time before the connections among European Countries were interrupted. We are thankful for the great opportunities that the Erasmus + project has given our students and teachers. We are sorry we could not join our German partners in Kassel, but we are sure that our friendship will stay strong in the future. Thank you all, dear Erasmus friends! See you again soon!

Franca Monzeglio IISS EINAUDI CASAREGIS GALILEI Galileo Galilei Technical High School Genoa, Italy

IISS Einaudi Casaregis Galilei Genova - Piazza Sopranis 5, 16126 - Genova - Tel. 010261672 Email: – PEC: - CF 95062570106 - c/c postale 16263188 - C.U.UFEZR2 Sezione Einaudi – Via Cristofoli, 4 - 16151 - Genova - Tel. 010 460646

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green� 2017 - 2020


With intensive preparations, activities, work, hospitality and endless creativity we are concluding the third and final year of the European Erasmus + Programme / KA2 Key Action / "Collaboration for Innovation and Exchange of Good Practices" 2017-2020 entitled "European Schools Go Green" 2017-2020 at the 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, during very difficult , dark and strange times!

After three exceptionally creative years, we reached the end of the final year of this European collaboration, having already exchanged visits and hosted students and teachers from both schools abroad with success and excellent results. Our students and teachers have already also travelled and have been warmly hosted in Genoa, Italy, and in Kassel, Germany, returning with life experiences and spiritual and mental resources. A collaboration with great dissemination of our work and a particularly warm response from the local community, the school and family environment of the students, the numerous collaborators and local authorities and many institutions and experts we have been working with, with publications and extensive articles in print and digital Greek, Italian and German Press, a tribute from local television, posted articles at the website of the Directorate of Education of Western Greece about our collaboration and our digital products on their "best practices" website and more.

The pedagogical team of the 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada:

From left are Teachers: Mr Haris Spiropoulos, Mrs Efi Karvouniaris, Mr Grigoris Vassilopoulos, Principal Mr Antonis Gounaris, Mrs Maria Tzavara, Mrs Eleni Charda, Mrs Antonia Rambavila, Mrs Stavroula Salvanou, Mrs Katerina Andreou. Even before the schools opened in 2019 we started with excitement. Since August 2019, the teachers' pedagogical team had been preparing our partners hosting for October’s third and last transnational organizational teachers meeting. Also, our 2019 digital journal was published with the presentation of work and products from all three schools of the second year "Science Year" 2018-2019.

the cover of our last year’s digital magazine In September before our students came to school for the new school year the first harvest was made by the “Photokyklosis” company of small appliances and lamps that we collect in our school's special bins. After our first year in this important recycling network, it was a great pleasure to see the full bins emptied and sent where everything the pupils, educators and sensitized citizens collected would be recycled safely.

Mrs Salvanou, the IT teacher and member of our school's Erasmus + pedagogical team with Photokyklosi expert.

At the beginning of October we completed the last Erasmus+ “European Schools Go Green” Art Project , a great mural which will now adorn the multipurpose room “Erasmus” that has been designed and equipped by our Erasmus+ program, and will inspire next students and remind us of our experience over the years and how much Erasmus has changed us and connects Europe's students , schools and local communities.

Above left are students: Iliopoulou Evi, Karaflos Giorgos, Kaoukis Matina, below: Aivaliotis Nikos, Apostolopoulou Danai, Papachristodoulou Giorgos, Teacher Andreou Aikaterini) Top right: Doussas Giannis, Vassilopoulou Georgia, Georgakopoulou Eftihia.

In front of the mural are also now displayed the models of our school created last year by our students under the guidance of their teacher Mr. Spyropoulos Professor of Technology, with modifications to the energy profile of the building and the addition of renewable energy sources, together with the energy study they did with their professor Mr. Vassilopoulos Professor of Physics for a more "green European school" as is the goal and title of all our cooperation with schools abroad.

Erasmus team working after school

our school building and one of our school models from the same angle!

During the week of October 21st - 25th 2019, our school enthusiastically welcomed the Italian delegation of teachers of our partner school Galileo Galilei Technical High School (5 Italian teachers, also having the great honour of having here Mrs Monteforte Headmaster of Galileo Galilei Technical Genoa High School) for a week of conferences, work and cultural visits and activities. The rest of the Italian delegation: the project manager Franca Monzeglio, and the teachers Pietro Belmonte, Gianluca Litterio and Mrs Giovanna Rosso.

Our school had prepared a wealth of conference equipment material for our hosted colleagues which along with cultural and informational material has been provided to each guest with stationery, digital and printed worksheets, local delicacies, a ÂŤgreen schoolÂť backpack, and more.

The Teachers of Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova with the Greek newspapers who first published articles about our activities on the same day!

The work meeting place, our school's Erasmus room That week we had a series of meetings in our school's specially designed Erasmus multipurpose room, we evaluated the second year of collaboration and organized this year's work and final products. Also brunch, coffee, snacks and sweets were where shared during our working hours and the school’s teachers prepared several greek cuisine meals and lunches we all enjoyed together.

Headmaster Mr. Gounaris and Headmaster Mrs. Monteforte exchanging gifts at school before the first day’s conference and work. With our guests we visited the City Hall of Ilida where gifts and souvenirs were exchanged. The Italian teachers expressed their joy for the cooperation and their thanks and greetings by presenting gifts to the Mayor of Ilida Mr. Yiannis Lymberis, while receiving warm welcome from Mr. Kapsis, Counselor of Culture of the Municipality of Ilida, Mr. Ioanna Stavropoulou, Chairman of the School Committee for Secondary Education of the Municipality of Ilida, Mr. Christos Nikolopoulos Chairman of the School Committee for Primary Education Chairman of the Public Council "Elios", Mr. Eugenios Asteris, in a ceremony relayed by local television and has been published in print and online media. The Municipality of Ilida also culminated hospitality by offering a working dinner in the town of Amaliada.

The Greek and Italian delegations together with the representatives of the Municipality of Ilida

Our visit to the City Hall of the Municipality of Ilida in Amaliada was also covered by the TV channel ORT However, we visited, except Amaliada, the city of Pyrgos as well, where on Wednesday, October 23, 2019 we were guided to the Archaeological Museum of Pyrgos, the Merkouri estate, and finally the historical Katakolo Lighthouse having a special permit from the Hellenic (Greek) Navy Military Office.

At the Archaeological Museum of Pyrgos

It was a great pleasure and honour for us to have lunch with Head of Directorate of Secondary Education of Ilia, Mr.Vasileios Dimitrellos, who warmly congratulated the participants on the successful course and results of the cooperation. He exchanged gifts and souvenirs with the visitors and discussed many educational issues of our schools in both countries with our Headmasters and olus schools’ teachers.

Headmaster of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Mr. Gounaris, Headmaster of Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Mrs. Monteforte and Mr. Dimitrellos , Head of Directorate of Secondary Education of Ilia Prefecture. We were also honoured to be accompanied by Mrs Tita Terzi, who as a School Activities and Culture Officer in previous years has supported our partnership, as well as all the activities of our school morally and practically, Mrs Harbali Iulia, a representative of the European Programmes Group of the Directorate of Secondary Education of Ilia, who was also close to us from the start of the programme, our eTwinning's Ambassador awarded with 1st European eTwinning and other educational prizes Mrs Sofia Kouzouli, who warmly welcomed our guests and donated to our guests important works of Greek literature in English translation.

eTwinning Ambassador Mrs Kouzouli and Headmaster of the Italian School Mrs. Monteforte

The Greek and Italian delegations at Mercouri estate - At Katakolo Lighthouse

In Ancient Ilida, (Ancient Ilida is the town which organized the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece), on the morning of Thursday, October 24, 2019 we all enjoyed the magnificent archaeological site and Museum with a guided tour by the archaeologist in charge Mrs Panagodimou.

Ancient Ilida Museum

All the above important representatives of the Educational Community and the State, despite their overwhelming workload, were extremely welcoming hosts and gladly participated in the organizational meeting work with the Italian colleagues and as a result our guests returned excited about their welcoming by the representatives of Greek authorities.

Working at school during our conferences, in the Erasmus multi-purpose room of our school At the end of the week’s work, the conclusions and timetables were finalized and details were discussed about the upcoming trip of the Greek and Italian students to Kassel, Germany, hosted this time by the German Goethe Gymnasium. (Who have had suspected then the Covid19 pandemic was coming? Nobody would ever have guessed‌) Finally, the certificates of attendance during the last day were awarded and commemorative gifts were offered to Italian colleagues and their school. In the Erasmus Room of our school, the guests as well as the students and teachers of the Erasmus team left their message and signature in our mural so that the wall of the room would be filled with the positive emotions that brought us close. And that was the final touch on our Erasmus+ art project of 2019-2020, our great Erasmus mural!

Headmaster of Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Mrs Monteforte, writing her message on our European Schools Go Green mural in Erasmus+ multipurpose room of our school

On the left there is Mrs Franca Montgelio, Programme contact person and responsible for the Italian School. Next there is Headmaster Mrs. Monteforte, and our school students along with the rest of the Italian delegation.

In November and December2019 informative and presentational meetings with the parents of our students took place, as well as a special briefing for the parents of the students who would be travelling to Kassel, Germany in April 2020. It was a great pleasure meeting the parents as always.

Informing parents of Erasmus students

In January, February and March 2020 we prepared students mobility details and documents, students team prepared their interviews , searched for experts and scientists, and we worked on a research on Environmental policies around the world , Tilos Project, Wind Farms experts, Political Sciences, Environmental Law, Greek state and European policies about climate change and our mini-projects. We also studied the climate change history and the Smart Materials research in IIT we had met last year in

our trip in Genova. We also edited last year’s interviews and asked for new data to include. We also prepared our youtube Erasmus channel and we updated blogs and project details and work progress etwinning platform, as well as our work online calendar and agenda. But… then April came. Our student mobility to Kassel was cancelled because of the Covid19 pandemic. Schools closed… The days we would be in Germany having a blast with all our Erasmus+ partners… we were at home trying to connect through new educational platforms and sites. We really wished our travelling was just postponed. But times are strange and difficult , we all stayed home as our mobility was cancelled. Everything was cancelled… Unfortunately our students missed this wonderful mobility and exciting last educational, cultural and scientific experience of this last year of our three years Erasmus project… But our students and everybody’s safety and health comes first. We tried to work on digital platforms and conclude this year’s work from distance. But the most important part, the experience for our students who most of them have never travelled abroad before, and the opportunity to stay with German families and enjoy the hospitality of Goethe Gymnasium is lost. We hoped that the German school would be able to host some teleconferences so that we all feel closer during these strange times… But unfortunately that did not happen. So we just shared videos with our srudents from Kassel and we enjoyed virtual and drone tours of the city and area. We will meet …Hercules of Kassel again, another time! It is very beautiful to have technology to connect at least. Our last mobility and our last chance in this project to get together with the students and teachers of our partner schools was lost, but in Amaliada we tried to find ways to learn about our partner school in Kassel and travel there in our imagination! Even we all are very sad for this years problems, we knew that at least our Italian partners in Genova were safe and healthy and all the students and their families were fine. Very difficult times especially for Italy. We were thinking of our Italian partners a lot. We sent and still send everybody our positive thoughts and wish we all pass this period as safe as we can, and stay together even virtually. Our schools prepared new digital education platforms under very big connection and technical problems, and we tried hard to keep up with our Erasmus project despite all the problems, staying strong and in contact with everybody.

During this period students wrote their thoughts and shared them digitally, created art pieces as this wonderful artwork by our student Georgia Vassilopoulou , member of the

Erasmus team of our school who would be travelling to Germany, dedicated to a journey which takes place only in our imagination now. Art is a way to travel, always. Georgia met Kassel and Germany through her drawing, and we travel with her as well in the mesmerising pages of her sketchbook.

John Ntousas Student of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece : “Dear Italian coworkers, We can not imagine the amount of stress and difficulties you are going through right now. This year has been a devastating one. We are really sorry for what’s going on at this moment. Lots of love and support! Stay strong, the light is coming! “

Some students thoughts about our Erasmus+ project:

“Erasmus+ has been an amazing project to be a part of. Not only could we learn more about the environmental concerns that threaten our plantet and effective ways to tackle them, we also had the opportunity to form a team within our school community and work cooperatively as a whole. With our projects we could inform ourselves about the current situation and the approach of governments to such topics but also our meetings helped to grow that sense of a team, instead of doing the whole work online and apart. The fact that our trip abroad was cancelled is surely a bad moment in our timeline, but it is not disastrous. We could still come in contact and exchange thoughts with our collaborators through the Internet. Nevertheless the trip was not the sole goal of the project.”

During the last difficult months of our project we edited our material, concluded with our interviews and prepared our digital products , this magazine, as well as uploaded our videos on our Youtube channel etc

We proudly present in our digital magazine, our blogs etc interviews by : Professor Emanouella Doussi. We had the honour and great joy to get in contact with Proffessor Emannouella Doussis , an expert on Environmental International Law and International Organisation, United Nations System, Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes and International Environmental Law. She was very ethousiastic and supportive to our project and she also sent signed copies of her book “Climate Change: Facts and Dilemmas” for our “Erasmus Green mini library” in our School’s Erasmus multipurpose classroom. Mr Panagiotis Psychogios, Renewable energy study – Wind Turbine and Wind Farms expert. Panos Psychogios is a Civil Engineer and the director at PPsEngineering* . Experienced Director with a demonstrated history of working in the civil engineering industry. Skilled in AutoCAD, Geotechnics, Cost Management, Earthworks, and Steel Structures. Strong professional with a MS focused in Civil Engineering from National Technical University of Athens. The interview video, one hour long is uploaded on our Youtube channel. In this magazine you can read the full transcript in English of the wonderful interview. Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki, a 27 years old scientist and PhD student at the University of Genoa, carrying out her research activity in the Italian Institute of Technology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia or simply IIT) : Bioengineering and Robotics – Curriculum Bionanotechnology of the University of Genoa, always in collaboration with the IIT. We are very happy and honored to take Mrs Kossyvaki ‘s interview as part of our project’s work. After we met the scientist during our amazing tour and visit at the Italian Institute of Technology in Genova, Italy, as part of our Erasmus+ students mobility in 2019, srudents were very inspired by her work and also very enthousiastic about meeting a Greek young scientist in the Italian Institute of Technology, so they wanted to include her interview in our last magazine. Students admire her research and work so much ! Mrs Haroula Kromyadou Haroula Kromyadou as the responsible for the Arcturos center Educational projects offered to hel us with the activists – specialists interviews and answered our qusteions in difficult times during the Covid19 Pandemic. We are really grateful for all her work and help, and we admire her strength and positive energy as all her colleagues as well. Arcturos has helped a lot with our project all this years, and kindly and generously offered to our school all kinds of printed and digital material including books and leaflets and dvds with multimedia products for our research and study . We thank them all a lot and we are really inspired and moved by their work and amazing activities and efforts.

Left to right Professor Emanouella Doussi, Mr Panagiotis Psychogios, Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki, Mrs Haroula Kromyadou

- In our magazine ofcourse you can read the too the very interesting and inspiring Interviews taken by the Italian students, of the following experts , activists and scientists : Mrs BARBARA BOSIO ( Associate Professor of Principles of Chemical Engineering University of Genoa), Dr Roberto Cavallo (Environmental Activist and Founder of the social cooperative ERICA), Dr Walter Riva ( Director of the Astronomical Observatory in Righi, Genoa).-

“Victims� of the pandemic apart from the last art project and scientific research on air quality, were also all the programmed and organized dissemination events and presentations in Amaliada Municipality Conference and Cultural Center, as well as the events we prepared for Spring 2020 in our school and area. But at least now we can present our work through our digital products, sites, press releases and platforms. But we will organize more online presentation events also during Autumn 2020 , even if our project will be over. The last year of cooperation is already at its end! For three years, during which we have had the great pleasure of meeting and collaboration of the students of the three schools, the satisfaction and pride of our best ambassadors, who linked Amaliada with Genoa,

Italy, and Kassel, Germany, we are glad we are building a strong and productive bridge of communication between our educational communities, families, cities and countries. But it is also important the fact that we have been able to reflect, inform, inspire first mentality changes and promote ideas and present the work of the students who have communicated with perseverance and enthusiasm, creating products by studying renewable energy, sustainable development, climate change and cultivating the social consciousness of the modern citizen. Students are leading and continuing to zealously promote the change of our mentality and daily life, enriching it with the use of new technologies with low energy footprint and a more established ecological consciousness. We have come to this third and final year to complete our programme, which seems to be also successful.

Amaliada, August 2020,

Andreou Aikaterini Fine Arts educator / Teacher PE08/Erasmus+ cotact person - 2nd High School of Amaliada Greece

Ourblog: " EuropeanSchoolsGoGreen " Our project on Twinspace: Highlights Website with selected products and activities: Our digital magazines: Our Youtube channel: Our programme in various articles in Greek and foreign press:

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN GENOA AND LIGURIA In Italy the most important institution for the protection of the environment is the Ministry of the Environment and the Protection of the Territory and the Sea, which all other public offices refer to. The main institution managed by the Ministry of the Environment is ISPRA (Higher Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) which deals with research; it coordinates the ARPA (Regional Agency for the Environmental Protection). The ARPA deals with:  

the control and monitoring of sources and causes of air, water, soil, acoustic and electromagnetic pollution; the technical and logistic support to the Regions.

POLLUTION IN LIGURIA AND GENOA In our city, Genoa, and region, Liguria, the pollution levels are quite high but not so much as in relatively nearby cities and regions, such as Turin in Piedmont and Milan in Lombardy, for example. This is mainly due to the conformation of the territory. Genoa and Ligurian cities in general are “squeezed” between the sea and the mountains, unlike the places - mentioned above that are located in the Po Valley. This causes the humidity coming from the sea to collide with the reliefs generated by the rainfalls and the winds, and makes the wooded surface, being the reliefs not very high, the highest in Italy at a regional level (more than 80%), ranking Genoa at the second place among the cities of Italy by forest areas (54%) compared to a national average of 35%. Unfortunately, however, this conformation also has negative sides: first of all, the abundance of precipitations makes the territory fragile due to landslides and floods. As for pollution, there are no wide roads and this creates a lot of traffic in such a big city (just a little under 600,000 inhabitants), with very few preferential lanes for buses and a reduced use of bicycles, because of many city climbs and a lack of space that does not allow the creation of cycle paths. Its port is also a great source of pollution. Despite its conformation, Genoa is a polluted city, albeit at a limited extent in comparison with other cities (thanks to its morphological characteristics).


AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN TYPES OF POLLUTION IN OUR CITY AND REGION  AIR POLLUTION Since the mid-nineteenth century Genoa has had, and still has, a very strong industrial vocation, which brought about a very harmful environmental impact on the city, though. The most important industries left Genoa: ERG (oil refineries), ILVA (steel processing, in 2005 the blast furnace closed, but today the cold processing is still in use), STOPPANI in Cogoleto, in the province of Genoa (highly polluting chemical industry, closed in 2003, that produced dichromates by extremely carcinogenic hexavalent chromium). The shuts down of these factories have significantly improved the quality of the air, the sea, the soil in the city, but some industrial activities, especially those related to the Port of Genoa, still generate pollution, in addition to vehicular traffic and air conditioning. Furthermore, the collapsing of the Morandi bridge has worsened the situation. The Port is one of the largest in Italy by extension with 700 hectares of land and 500 hectares of water, stretching for over 22 kilometers; it is also the first for shipping and container handling lines. For all these reasons, it is one of the ports with the highest pollution. In fact, Genoa is among the cities exceeding the levels of nitrogen oxides NOx (which are produced during the combustion: wood-burning fireplace, vehicular, naval and air traffic, thermoelectric power plants) and the first city in exceeding the levels of ozone (harmful gas). In addition, the Port of Genoa is the fourth in Italy for SOx pollution (i.e. sulfur oxide which is very similar to nitrogen oxide) emitted by cruise ships. The Citizens' Air Committee has relaunched the data provided by the report of Transport & Environment, the European Federation that gathers Non-Governmental Organizations dealing with transport and pollution issues. 62 thousand tons of sulfur oxides, 155 thousand tons of nitrogen oxides, 10 thousand tons of fine dust and more than 10 tons of CO2 (equal to the emissions by Latvia, Luxembourg and Cyprus together): these are just the approximate data referring to European cruise ships. The 203 cruise ships, that travelled in Europe in 2017, generated sulfur oxide emissions twenty times higher than the fleet circulating in Europe, that is 260 million vehicles. To help understand the proportions better, the report compares the emissions of 172 ships to those of 23 million cars as an example. As regard to Italy, Genoa followed Venice (first), Civitavecchia and Naples with over 12,000 tons of SOx in 2017. At European level Genoa rates at the thirteenth place, with 31 ships, 3,376 hours of permanence in port, 12,398 kg of SOx emitted. According to Eco-Istituto, an association that deals with environmental protection, around 40,000 people in Genoa are exposed to exhaust fumes emitted by ships. The Ligurian provinces of La Spezia (9330 Kg of SOx) and Savona (9018 Kg of Sox) also have very high emissions, ranking respectively at the 5th and 6th places in Italy, and 18th and 20th places in Europe.


POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS Now let's move on to the possible solutions that the State, the Municipality, the Region and not only are trying to find. The State has created incentives for those who want to switch from non-renewable sources to renewable sources, such as the installation of solar panels and pellet stoves: a 50% minimum cost reduction and up to 65% (if you improve the efficiency of the building). The deductions include both the cost of the plant itself and its installation. For what sustainable mobility is concerned, the State has created a bonus / malus system: on the one hand we have a bonus for those who buy a new ecological, electric or hybrid car with low CO2 emissions, and on the other a tax for those who buy a polluting vehicle. The bonus is 6,000 euros for people who scrap cars Euro 1,2,3,4 and buy a car with emissions between 0 g/km and 20 g/km, if the emissions are between 21 g/km and 70 g/km the bonus reaches a maximum of 2,500 euros. The tax for those who buy a polluting car with high CO2 emissions ranges from a minimum of 1,100 euros to a maximum of 2,500 euros.

The Municipality of Genoa and the Region of Liguria have also adopted an incentive system for motorcycles and scooters. Those who buy a new electric or petrol vehicle (starting from Euro 4) or pedal-assisted bicycle and scrap an old vehicle (Euro 0 and Euro1) have the right to get a maximum deduction of 400 euros for the purchase of the new vehicle. This measure was also taken to help citizens who need to scrap their vehicle, given the municipal ordinance of November the 4th that prohibits the circulation of the most polluting vehicles from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. every day in the city centre, like gasoline cars (Euro 0, Euro 1), diesel cars (of an emissive category less than or equal to Euro 2), motorcycles and scooters of a lower emissive category (such as the four-stroke engines) or categories less than or equal to Euro 1 (such as the two-stroke engines). Genoa is a city where many motorcycles and scooters are registered twice the national average, due to the lack of wide roads and the consequent traffic, in fact these incentives are fundamental for the city traffic.

For what public transport is concerned, the AMT Company (which handles transport in the municipality of Genoa) has taken measures to combat urban pollution. Last June 2019 AMT acquired 20 new vehicles: 6 MERCEDES CITARO, Euro 6, 10.5 meters long buses, previously used on lines where Euro 0 vehicles circulated, now scrapped. In July the company acquired other 43 buses, 18 meters long. These purchases have been possible thanks to the funding of the Ligurian Region of 4,738,000 euros. In November 2019, the company built a recharging hub that can serve up to sixty vehicles. A small bus absorbs about 50 kilowatts, while a home counter about 3 kilowatts. Recharging a vehicle is like recharging more or less 16 apartments (an entire building), thus we understand the difficulty in building these infrastructures, despite AMT is going to build other hubs to host 60 electric buses more (in total there will be 120 buses that might be electrically recharged). Some short-distance bus lines, especially used in tortuous hilly paths, are already electrified, and also the bus service inside the largest and most important Genoese hospital is using electric lines. In the next months, electrification will also take place for line n. 44, a mediumdistance line with medium-sized buses (10 meters long). There are currently 34 electric buses supplied by AMT. Eleven new low-emission hybrid buses produced by the Italian company IVECO Bus, in use since the 10th December 2019 were purchased thanks to another funding of more than 4,500,000 euros by the Ligurian Region. These new hybrid vehicles guarantee the 30% reductions per kilometer of CO2 emissions and a reduction in consumption of up to 40% in conditions of intense city traffic. LED lighting contributes to further reducing consumption compared to traditional lighting.


As for the transport in the province of Genoa, it is managed by the ATP company, which has also taken measures for the protection of the environment. On the 5th February 2019, 24 new buses have been bought (IVECO Crossway Euro 6) and at the moment there are 39 of them. The ATP is the first suburban transport company in Italy to have purchased a full electric vehicle: the IVECO eway with emissions 0. Put on the road on the 29th November 2019, it guarantees a minimum range of 240 km and even 350 km, if in optimal conditions (once tested, it could reach 527 km). Another full-electric vehicle, the IVECO Daily, is being tested. With these new purchases, ATP has significantly reduced the average life of its vehicles, also reducing management costs and incentivizing people to use public transport more.


As for the emissions in the harbour, the Port of Genoa has been using the cold ironing system in a 2 yard of the port, with an area of 425,000 m and 2.7 km of quays. This system consists in the supply of electricity from the ground, for lights, emergency equipment, air conditioning, etc., in order to shut down the ship's engines and get 0 emissions in the port by the end of 2020. This system will be extended to the areas dedicated to the commercial port. The problem with it is that it is very expensive and, above all, the ship must be prepared to receive this type of supply. The most recent ships of many Italian shipping companies can already get electricity, as the cruise ships by Costa Crociere (Genoese), cruise ships by MSC (born in Genoa), container ships by Linea Messina (Genoese), ferries by Caremar (Neapolitan), but there are still many who have an old fleet and therefore are not fit for this system. In addition, to be able to take advantage of the cold ironing system, Costa Crociere has built the first LNG (liquified natural gas) ship in the world. The order of construction of the new ship by Carnival Corporation & plc (group of which Costa Crociere is a part of) was given in September 2015 (together with the order of three other sister ships). The launch took place on the 15th March 2019, the maiden voyage on the 21st December and the baptism with the presence of the actress Penelope Cruz took place in Savona on the 22nd February 2020. The new ship takes the name of Costa Smeralda (Italian tourist resort in Sardinia), one of the three sister ships is Costa Toscana (for Italy), obviously in LNG. Costa Smeralda allows to totally eliminate sulfur oxide emissions (zero emissions) and almost eliminate particulate emissions (95100% reduction), and significantly reduce nitrogen oxide emissions (reduction of 85%) and CO2 (reduction of up to 20%). On Costa Smeralda also disposable plastic will be eliminated, which on Costa ships has already been eliminated for years, for most uses in the context of catering and replaced with alternative materials. Once extended to the entire fleet, this process will reduce plastic consumption by over 50 tons per year, anticipating the objectives of the European Directive. 100% separate collection will be carried out on board and therefore the recycling of materials such as plastic, paper, glass and aluminum. On the new flagship (as on many other Costa ships) great attention will be paid to the theme of food, with the 4 GOOD FOOD program, dedicated to the reduction of food waste and the recovery of surpluses for social purposes. The ship is autonomous from the water point of view too, thanks to a water desalination and purification system. MSC is also building LNG-powered ships. These new ships, also suitable for cold ironing, will make ports much cleaner, so that sustainable tourism will be possible.


The question about renewable energy is very important, according to LEGAMBIENTE (Italian Association for the Environment). In recent years in Liguria the growth of renewable energy has been significant both as regarding installed power and for the production of energy, even if their percentage is below the national average. Today 8.9% of the overall energy consumption is covered by renewable sources, thanks to the 7,811 plants spread in 100% of the municipalities. A significant figure is that of the growth in the production of photovoltaic solar panels (+ 856%), which went from about 10.8 GWh / year in 2010 to 103.2 GWh / year in 2016, which confirms the most widespread technology in numerical terms with the 98.3% of the plants, followed by hydroelectric power with 1%, wind power and biomass. In terms of production, however, hydroelectric power supplies the largest contribution of electricity with 39.8% of the total production from renewable sources, followed by wind with 23.6% and solar photovoltaic with 18.7% .

 SOIL AND WATER POLLUTION A topic that we, people from Liguria, worries us a lot is the protection of the sea, since many Italians live by the sea. In 2019 in the Ligurian Sea, only 4 marine spots on 23 analyzed (among the probably most polluted ones) were affected by pollution, though with a clear improvement compared to the previous year (14 polluted points reported). Liguria is happily the region with the highest number of Blue Flags in Italy. The Blue Flag is an award given by the FEE (Foundation for Environmental Education) to the European coastal resorts that meet quality criteria relating to bathing water parameters and the service offered, taking into account, for example, the cleanliness of the beaches. Unfortunately, however, the Ligurian Sea is not exempt from micro-plastics, but the regional administration has already taken strong measures about them.

RESEARCH The University of Genoa is the partner of a research project together with the University of Toulon which traces the micro-plastic pollution map, called SPlasH! (acronym for Stop to Plastics in H2O). Micro-plastics are small pieces of plastic that are small enough to be mistaken for food by mullet that live in port water. Often, however, they are large enough to be recognizable, even with the naked eye. They are the small pieces of manmade yarns and fragmented plastic that end up in the stomach of the fish. And the mullets are the sentinels against micro-plastic pollution for a project, called SPlasH !, which has been underway for more than a year in the Italian ports of Genoa and Olbia and in the French port of Toulon. Thanks to the analysis and samplings on blood and mullet tissues, the program will allow you to trace the map of pollution from micro-plastics, not only on the surface but also in the water column and on the seabed (water analysis is carried out in all its layers, from the surface to the bottom), of course there will also be laboratory investigations. The project, with a total budget of more than 810,000 euros, financed by the ERDF (European Fund for Regional Development) for 85%, started at the beginning of 2018 and reports the University of Genoa, the University of Toulon and the European Research Institute as its partner. “Ports were chosen because they are the marine areas with the highest incidence of human activity” explains engineer Alessandro Stocchino, project manager for the University of Genoa. “At the end of the monitoring, not only we will all the data obtained on the pollution from micro-plastics of ports, including that of Genoa which is among the most important in Italy; but it will also be possible, with mathematical models, to trace the incidence of this pollution on the whole surrounding marine environment. This will be done by integrating the data deriving from the monitoring with those on climate and currents”. The takeover project ended on the 29th February. By the end of 2020, there will be a new and more detailed understanding of the dynamics of micro-plastics; understand where they come from and where they go; and trace their distribution in depth. And to provide national and international politics with elements to decide the strategy to combat the growing plastic pollution in the sea. The first surveys showed that about 1/3 of the micro-plastics is derived from filaments, coming from synthetic clothing, and that some micro-plastics with the "spherical pellets" are already released into the sea in microscopic form. They are present in many products that we daily use: cosmetic detergents (especially toothpastes), pharmaceuticals, but also the detergents used in port to wash ships. Some of these microspheres have been banned, for example they can no longer be used in toothpastes, but unfortunately those placed in the sea still remain.

CLEANING But how can we remove the micro-plastics present? A solution, which does not solve all the problems, but certainly helps out, has already been put in place by many Italian cities and regions: it is the SEABIN project. The SEABIN is a litter box for rubbish that floats on the surface, capable of capturing about 1.5 kg of rubbish per day, over 500 kg of waste per year (depending on the weather and the volume of rubbish), including micro-plastics from 5 to 2 mm in diameter and 0.3 mm microfibers. The SEABIN will also be able to catch many common wastes that end up in the seas, such as cigarette butts, that unfortunately are present in our waters.One might think that it also catches fish, but the vibrations and noise produced keep them away. The SEABIN is immersed in water and fixed to a pier with the upper part of the device at the surface level. Thanks to the spontaneous action of the wind, the currents and the strategic position of the SEABIN, the rubbish is conveyed directly inside the device. The water pump, connected to the base of the unit, is capable of filtering 25,000 liters of sea water per hour. This solution was devised by Pete Ceglinski and Andrew Turton, two Australian surf enthusiasts. Liguria is the region that has installed multiple devices, today they are eight and in continuous growth: the first was installed in Varazze (Savona) in September 2018, Genoa now has four, two at Porto Antico (in the Port of Genoa, now a tourist port and residential center), one in the Genoese Marina, the other in the actual port; the other three are in famous places: Portofino, Portovenere, Santa Margherita Ligure. There are some other solutions that address the problems of pollution of the oceans and seas, but they aren’t effective and efficient. These solutions are the "trash boats", or boats that sail around the ports collecting the floating garbage through nets. An expensive system to manage and maintain and which is not really effective. The other system is manual collection, i.e. through workers in the port and marinas that collect the garbage that accumulates in the corners of the port through nets. This system is not very effective because it acts only on visible waste and not on micro-plastics, it also implies a great commitment of time by the port staff.


RECYCLING How to keep plastic from ending up in the sea? It is essential to separate waste collection and then recycle. In Liguria, separate collection in the last four years has increased significantly, reaching the threshold of 50% (49.67%-2019) and increasing by 11 percentage points. In 2017 the percentage was 48.52%, in 2016 43.19% and in 2015 38.63% It remains far from the threshold set by Europe of 65% to be reached by 2035. However, the number of municipalities that have reached and exceeded the 65% recycling rate has risen to 110, compared to 100 in 2017, 63 in 2016, 32 in 2015 and 16 in 2014. Among the provinces, La Spezia is the first in the Region with a percentage of separate collection of 69.5%, followed by the province of Savona with 59.98% of separate collection, followed by Imperia with 46.24% and Genoa with 41.55%. The last place derives from the fact that every day the Genoese people produce between 700 and 800 tonnes of waste, but Genoa does not have a real landfill. The waste is loaded onto lorries as it is and transported to storage facilities only. From here they leave for one of those ten treatment plants with which the Liguria Region has made agreements, inside and outside the region. This is because the Genoa landfill was closed in 2014, in 2018 only a small part was opened (to understand the lorries going to the landfill before 2014 there were more than 300, today at most 10-15), where the waste that had already been treated into the plants with which agreements had been made, arrives. For a little over five years, taking waste out of the region has cost roughly 100,000 euros a day, for a total of 28 million euros a year. The municipality has allocated ₏1.3 million to increase separate waste collection. In order to encourage citizens to recycle in Genoa a special waste-eating appliance has been installed. Its name is PAANDAA and it gives a point for every bottle thrown away: by April 2020 they will be at least one per district. Each bottle is equivalent to an eco-point: approximately every 30 bottles thrown away you will get a bus ticket. And again, with 40 bottles you can take a ride on the Ferris wheel of the Porto Antico and recycling 300 of them you could enjoy a completely free visit to the Aquarium (in fact, each bottle has a prize value of about 5 cents, and a bus ticket in Genoa costs 1.50 euros, that is 0.05x30=1.50). An ecogatherer has already been installed at the Porto Antico, and others are being installed since February 15th. It is possible to recycle all PET bottles and HDPE bottles that have a capacity from half a litre up to two and a half litres, while plastic bottles that have contained oil, as well as food and film trays, cannot be recycled. The Municipality expects that about 4,000 bottles per day will be collected for each machine. The fact of issuing bus tickets is also an incentive to use public transport more. The Municipality has also joined the campaign "No cigarette butts on the ground" launched by a famous Italian television program with which the city is committed to apply the legislation, which provides fines from 60 to 300 euros for those who throw cigarette butts on the ground and also undertakes to install more baskets for the collection of cigarettes. An important issue for the pollution of the soil, therefore of groundwater and therefore the sea, is that of agriculture. In Liguria, as well as in Italy, the consumption of organic farming products has increased exponentially in recent years: 6.5 million Italian families consume organic every week (26%) and 21.5 million Italians buy it occasionally. Unfortunately, however, in our region they do not grow (as it happens in other parts of Italy). In Liguria organic farms correspond to just 2% of the total number of Ligurian farms, national is 4.5%, but as far as the surface area is concerned, organic farming in Liguria occupies almost 11% of the territory (in Italy it is 15.4%). This derives from the fact that organic farming, compared to traditional agriculture, needs more space, space that our region hasn’t, as already mentioned. We hope that techniques will improve and that they can occupy as little land as possible so that Liguria can cultivate in a greener way.



NOISE POLLUTION According to the National Institute of Statistics, Genoa is among the eight Italian cities that have exceeded noise pollution levels, mainly due to traffic and the port. Genoa is the 129th city in the world for traffic and the fourth in Italy, these data were processed by the company TomTom by analyzing the data of satellite navigators of Genoese people. By this link with we can notice the percentage of extra time that Genoese people have spent in traffic, the best day, the worst day, rush hour, and many other things. The remedies for noise pollution are the same as for air pollution; for example, cold ironing systems that practically eliminate noise from ships, LNG engines that reduce noise considerably, and so on.

ELECTROMAGNETIC POLLUTION Electromagnetic pollution is pollution derived from magnetic fields that propagate in the form of waves, for which the frequency, which is measured in Hertz, is the reference parameter. On this basis, the Ministry of the Environment has divided electromagnetic pollution (or electro-smog) on the basis of frequency: 

Electromagnetic pollution generated by low-frequency fields (from 0 Hz to 10 kHz), which includes power lines emitting electromagnetic fields up to 50 Hz;


Electromagnetic pollution generated by high frequency (or radio frequency) fields (from 10 kHz to 300 GHz), which includes radio, TV and mobile phone installations.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radio frequency electromagnetic fields (CRF) as group 2B carcinogens, i.e. as possibly carcinogenic to humans: agents for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and insufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in laboratory animals. Italy is one of the countries with the most restrictive regulations regarding electromagnetic pollution. In 2016 the Municipality signed an agreement with mobile phone companies to limit electromagnetic pollution. The agreement establishes a path that regulates the installation, monitoring and control of mobile phone systems. Up to now this type of pollution has not given any problem to the city. Anyway, in 2016, some people had expressed concern because there were only three monitoring stations in Genoa, but ARPA had reassured saying that the control units are not fixed and are periodically moved to various points of the city, and that the previous year in the province of Genoa out of 253 controls, only one was out of limits.

One thing we Genoese will never forget is the collapse of the “Morandi Bridge�, a motorway viaduct, jokingly called the Brooklyn Bridge because of its shape. On August 14th 2018 at 11:36 a.m. 250 meters of bridge (the bridge was 1,182 m long) collapsed causing the death of 43 people and 566 displaced persons. The bridge was very important for Genoa, it was the only motorway link between the east and the west of the city, so its collapse had enormous repercussions on the Port, traffic, tourism. The new bridge designed by the Genoese architect Renzo Piano is currently under construction, almost completed. The bridge will be equipped with intelligent and sustainable technologies. Thanks to robotic automation and sensor systems, it will be possible to constantly monitor the structure and signal the need for maintenance. From the energetic point of view, the supply will be guaranteed by solar photovoltaic panels necessary for the operation of its systems (lighting, sensors systems) both at night and during the day. Finally, a special dehumidification system will prevent the formation of salt condensation, so as to limit the damage caused by corrosion. Once completed, the new bridge will revive our great city.




SOURCES o_e_del_mare _da_microplastiche_in_mare-227033611/ inq sti-cresce-la-raccoltadifferenziata-in-liguria-raggiunta-quota-50-1.35021514 enova_per_controllare_le_radiazioni_delle_antenne-150175635/



The Solar Tracker MAY 2020, ITIS GALILEO GALILEI


Solar panel It's the main component, it exploits the sunlight in order to produce electricity


Solar panel replacement

The first solar panel was very small. We have replaced it with a bigger one. Now the panel measures 10.8 square decimetres instead of 1.5 square decimetres. This means that it is able to produce a larger amount of energy because the sunlight strikes a bigger photovoltaic area.


Frame replacement

The frame is the structure which holds the panel and makes it spin




We replaced the frame for two reasons. First of all, since the panel is bigger, it surely needs a bigger frame. Secondly, the previous frame was not efficient enough because it had an offcentered shaft that made the panel spin. This meant that it was unbalanced, so we had to provide some power more in order to let the panel turn around. Now the shatf is perfectly centered and we need less energy to move it.


Sensors The sensors' task is to read the light value on the panel corners


From phototransistors to photoresistors

In the beginning we used phototransistors as light sensors, but we realized that they were not fit for the purpose. So we replaced them with photoresistors that are more flexible and easier to use.


A better motor

The electric pitch motor is the device which spins the panel around the horizontal axis



Pitch Motor

The first motor that was used was a servo motor. This device was really accurate but not really strong, furthermore it made the coding more difficult. We chose to replace it with a stepper motor that is efficient and accurate at the same time, coding is easier even if it needs an electric driver.


Brushes Like in an eletric motor, they are conducting materials which, sliding one on the other, make the current flow


Brushes instead of wires

Brushes are better than wires because they do not tangle around the panel while sliding. We have used two brushes: one for the current supply and one for the communication signal. In order to link the negative pole to the battery, we have exploited the tower metal frame.


Light Filters



We have designed these devices in order to improve the light value read by sensors. The light filter reads the light rays perpendicular to the panel and decreases the light rays values which are not perpendicular to the panel. Its goal is to avoid light interferences.

How do our light filters work?

They consist of two main parts: a cone and a parabola. The cone has a small hole on the top that lets the light come in. The parabola has a central hole where the photoresistor is positioned. If the light is perpendicular to the panel, the light rays enter the cone hole and strike the photosensor. Else, if they are not perpendicular, they enter the cone hole but the parabola reflects them out.


Energy Efficiency We have measured the power produced by the panel in two ways. The first way consisted of a solar tracking, so the panel has tracked the sun path all the time. The second way was like a traditional panel, we positioned the panel south and we tilted it 35 degrees.

Power[W] 15










Time Traditional static panel Our solar tracker










Authors: Whang Zhang, Giacomo Mazzoni.

Teachers: Mrs. Franca Monzeglio, Mr. Andrea Boccalero, Mr. Pietro Belmonte.



Polcevera Valley: panorama

In the Polcevera Valley the first settlements date back to the Iron Age and in pre-Roman times it represented a very important link between the Ligurian coast and Piedmont. In subsequent periods its history and economy were closely linked to that of the Republic of Genoa. It became a holiday resort for many Genoese patrician families, but later it was also the scene of hard clashes that, fortunately, did not directly involve the people of the place. Panorama with the view of the Morandi Bridge and mouth of the Polcevera creek Over the centuries, the valley has always shown a propensity to resist all invaders. In 1805 it was annexed to the French Empire and, after the defeat of Napoleon, to the Savoy Kingdom. In this period, the first industrial activities arose (as a result of the construction of the Polcevera - Turin railway line) and they increased over time, leading to immigration

Industrial sheds

into the valley of people looking for a job. In the 1900s the oldest companies, which arose in the previous century, suffered from a big crisis at the expense of new industrial and oil settlements, accompanied by an

Morandi Bridge uncontrolled and deleterious urban development for the Valley. Finally in the 1980s there was a change thanks to the introduction of small and medium-sized companies (non-polluting industries)

Bridge and motorway junction

and commercial and service activities. These interventions involved both the dismantling of oil plants and an adequate rearrangement of the urban aspect through a change in the intended use, for residential purposes, of old abandoned industrial buildings. At a certain moment the story of the Valley crossed that of the Morandi Bridge, which was built between 1963 and 1967 according to the innovative project (cable-stayed bridge) of Engineer Morandi. This work represented an important connection road crossing between northern Italy and France, but also an irreplaceable road link between the Genoese industrial areas, the airport, the Pra’ container port and the eastern centre of Genoa. The collapse of the bridge in August 14, 2018 resulted in the death of 43 people (whose memory has been recalled in our project) and 566 displaced people. It also led to many problems in transport.

Demolition of the rests of the bridge in July 2019

Since 2019 the reconstruction of the new bridge, designed by Renzo Piano, is underway and now nearing completion.

Reconstruction of the Polcevera Bridge

Our project of the Polcevera Park is designed according to a perspective of urbansocial improvement, which has been taking place but only partially, and wants to represent a concrete "rebirth" of the Valley that had an important and glorious past.

Mouth of the Polcevera creek

The “Polcevera Park” must not be a local experience, closed in on itself, but, as the river flows to the sea, it must be linked to the coast, it doesn’t matter if just by a cycle path or a small train that, like a shuttle, travels through an old tunnel. The Polcevera Park belongs to everybody!

THE POLCEVERA PARK ÂŤThe Polcevera creek generates a valley, that may be considered a huge one, given the narrowness of Liguria; but because of the number of its inhabitants, the commerce, the fertility of the soil and the several palaces and beautiful cottages, not to mention the healthy air, it has no equal.Âť (Goffredo Casalis, Dizionario geografico, storico, statistico e commerciale degli stati di S.M. il Re di Sardegna, vol. VII, 1840)

Figura 1- Aerial view of the Polcevera Valley

The project derives from the need to retrain an area that has had a troubled life story, culminated with the collapsing of the Morandi bridge on the 14th August 2018. It is just the necessity to recover a territory where very different realities coexist (residential, industrial, commercial areas and infrastructures) and that hardly ever find a common meeting point. Designing a park like painting on a canvas with colours and shapes seemed the right thing to do just from the beginning.

The students followed the stages of a real design process: - historical contextualization - study of the current state - analysis of critical issues and needs - collection of ideas - project drafts - final project with alternative hypotheses. The first step was to get the plans of the area, then proceed, on paper, identifying with different colours the intended use of the spaces both in the investigation phase and in the project phase. Secondly, the final three-dimensional arrangement of the area was graphically restored through the AutoCAD software. The students were able to organize themselves very well and they were passionate, in fact the shy approach, which characterized the first phase, then gave way to enthusiasm!

Analysis of the current state

Design sketches

Some pictures of the new Polcevera bridge


• Thanks to our project the new area of Polcevera comes to life: the park must not be considered as a local experience, closed in on itself, but it must be conceived like a river that flows to the sea. We have created the new park linking it to the coast by some innovative paths that allow us to be at the forefront in terms of eco-friendly and sustainable design. First of all, after analyzing the area, we have tried to take advantage of the space to its greater extent. We have made some sketches both in 2D and 3D, first on paper and then on the computer. By our project we have envisaged a huge green area that merges nature with the daily activities of the people and the visitors of the park. We will show you our ideas step by step. • We have designed a lot of multi-functional buildings all around the area (especially concentrated in the area I – see the first picture). They can offer many leisure activities, with not only a meeting point for teenagers, but also a centre for the elderly. Every facility may

produce energy thanks to solar panels connected to a solar tracker: a device that allows the movement of the panels following the direction of the sun, so that the biggest amount of energy possible is granted. In this way every building is autonomous and, moreover, by the renewable energy we produce we will be able to recharge our bicycles, electrical bicycles of course! Every building is linked to the others by a series of footbridges spreading all over the area.

• Besides being very important for the connections in the park, the footbridges are equipped with active floors that transform the simple steps of a person into energy, to be used to light the footbridges up (every step may produce as much energy as to let a LED bulb on for 20 seconds), or stored according to the needs of the other pavilions of the new Polcevera Park.

• Just under the new bridge of Genoa (pavilion G) in the space obtained by the demolition of some small buildings, we have designed a memorial square to remember all the victims who lost their lives because of the collapsing of the Morandi bridge. The square is connected by a footbridge.

This picture shows a gushing fountain, placed in the memorial square, with 43 red nozzles representing the number of the victims of the collapsing of the Morandi bridge.

Another example of memorial square: in the centre there is a fountain surrounded by some trees.

• We have decided to enlarge the new area, by eliminating some railway roads not in use anymore, keeping only the ones that are essential for the train passage. In this way we can take advantage of the extra space we got by converting it into a big sports centre for many athletes. We have included a 200 metres long athletic track (section C), and we have built a multi-functional part in its centre, that is different from the others because it has got shapes

and sizes of its own, though respecting the same principles of uses. Inside the sports centre there is also a small skate park. In section D we have imagined a multi-functional field, set for fivea-side football, volleyball and basket. Walking towards the new bridge of Genoa (pavilion E) we can find a green area dedicated to a children playground with a small building next to it. If we proceed over the bridge, we get to an energy storage (pavilion F) that provides electricity for some areas of the Polcevera Park. In section B we can find a Tibetan park for the most adventurous ones, surrounded by greenery. In section A we have envisaged a small railway station for a little train to be used as a shuttle connecting the park to the coast and the port, by travelling through an old tunnel.

• In section N, on the other side of the river, there is an energy storage and another building with the same functions, plus a store for public vegetable gardens for farmers to be set in section M. These small plots of land can be shared and distributed to all the citizens that want to cultivate them. An alternative idea is to build some schools near the vegetable gardens to be given to students who may grow plants there with the help of their teachers. Moreover, we have conceived a sensory journey for the elderly.

• Finally we have designed some cycle paths that follow the course of the Polcevera creek. One of them leads to Villa Bombrini (a project to retrain it is already in progress) and gets to a huge parking area to recharge bicycles. We have also taken into account the possibility to connect the cycle paths of our project to those of Aurelia highway.

• In an unused space of area H we have created a park completely surrounded by the greenery for all the citizens and the inhabitants of this zone. Here one can relax admiring the new Polcevera Park or having a rest in the picnic area, with some tables and benches in wood that we have designed.


GENOA - 13th November 2019 The young journalists of Primocanale Underground, a local news site, shifted their attention from the Cotton Warehouses, which are considered the beating heart of the Orientation Showroom at Porto Antico in Genoa, to Piazza delle Feste from where the marathon "Keep Clean and Run” (organized to sensitize about the important issue on the protection of the environment) started. Our little reporters asked the students participating how we can save our planet. The journalists found many young people with a great desire to get involved and to do something for our planet that is so dear to us. Among them, the students of … Class 2 AMM of Galileo Galilei Technical High School!

Promoter of the event: Roberto Cavallo

Born in 1970, he is an Italian agronomist and essayist. He has written many books, mostly about nature and waste management. He is the creator of the marathon “Keep Clean and Run” in collaboration with the social cooperative ERICA.

Supervised by the teachers Mr Gianluca Litterio, Mr Francesco Santoro and Ms Franca Monzeglio, our students, divided into several teams, according to the different collection of material (paper, plastic, glass and aluminium), worked together to collect the waste they found around. The marathon started from Piazza delle Feste, and offered a tour in the historical centre of Genoa. Some info-points were located in the most important sites of the city, such as Piazza De Ferrari, Via Garibaldi and Piazza Don Andrea Gallo. The initiative, promoted by AMIU, the company of the Genoese municipality in charge of managing the wastes in town, was intended to raise awareness in as many young people as possible. The students of Galileo Galilei Technical High School together with young people from other schools have worked today and will work tomorrow to respect the planet through recycling.

PLOGGING Born in Sweden two years ago from an idea by Erik Ahlstrรถm, today it has become a global phenomenon. It consists in running and collecting the waste that is on the way.

Sweden is the godmother of plogging, indeed: the biological mother. In Stockholm a group of running friends has started to give their running a biological and ecological footprint, collecting the waste found on the ground. After some photos about the event posted on Instagram, the Social Network, the trend has taken hold. One of the few cases in which taking the longest step of the leg is good: in a short time plogging has taken its first steps everywhere, from Japan to the United States.

What does the word plogging mean?

The name plogging derives from the Swedish verb “plocka upp” which means “to clean up”, echoing the already very ecological cousin, jogging. The discipline of running en plain air was already in itself a perfect harmonious balance between personal and environmental well-being. The addition of the green touch makes plogging a real Crusade against pollution.

The equipment of the perfect plogger The uniform of the plogger is quite ordinary: official jogger uniform (running shoes, shorts, leggings or long sweatpants) and a bag to be filled with cans, bottles, papers, butts and whoever has more. It is appropriate to say whoever has the most, because an integral part of a plogging session is the final one in which the collected loot is proudly displayed. Before throwing it diligently into the various differentiated bins, of course. The best equipped one also has a waste collection rod so as not to strain his back too much by continuing to lower down, but it is not essential for the success of plogging. To choose the most suitable equipment, the first specialized online stores are emerging.


INTERVIEW TO DR ROBERTO CAVALLO Environmental Activist and Founder of the social cooperative ERICA


Thank you for the question. In 2014 the European Commissioner for the Environment Janez Potočnik asked me how to launch the European Clean-Up Day which is held on the 10th of May. Meanwhile I met a friend, Oliviero Alotto, who was used to run on the mountains, and that had just finished a trail between Aosta and Ventimiglia. I thought that our seas were increasingly full of waste, that the 75% of the waste (that ends up in the sea) is land-based. And, once finished into the sea, the waste degrades and it enters the food chain. I thought that I could do a similar race, like a waste: collecting the waste I would have found on the path and telling how bad that abandoned waste is for us.

What are the keys to success?

I think that the keys to success are two: first of all, the story telling and, secondly, the direct participation. In fact, since the first edition of “Keep Clean and Run” thousands of students have welcomed me, running from Aosta to Ventimiglia, for a meeting in front of their schools. And why were they waiting for me? They had cleaned their courtyards and the public space close to their schools from waste. When I finally met them, I told them about the waste and the items I found during the trail, which were often products they even didn’t know because much older than them. And these items were useful for me to explain the damage that people’s waste can do to the humans and how long they stay in the environment.

Why is it so important?

Because now we eat waste, we breathe it. According to the WWF research of the University of Newcastle in Australia, we ingest five grams of plastic per week. The link between mortality caused by the recent Corona Virus and pollution must warn us. I am afraid that the next pandemic will be caused by a virus of the intestinal system.

What are the main environmental problems today, in addition to waste and plastics in the oceans?

The various environmental crisis are connected between. Everything in nature is connected. One crisis makes another one happen. Climate change is an emergency because it causes the loss of biodiversity, it increases desertification, and makes the world population abandon their lands. In the coming years one billion people will be forced to migrate.

What do you think it is important to do for the new generations in order to reverse the trend? I’ll answer with just one word: to collaborate. In my opinion, this will be the verve for a future collaboration economy, and a culture of collaboration and cooperation. A cooperation between human beings but also between man and nature, that is what I wish to new and further generations.


In 1994 he got a university degree at the Faculty of Agricultural Science at the University of Turin. From 1994 to 1997 he was nominated Professor of Oenological Microbiology for the course of Viticulture and Oenology at the University of Turin. From 1997 to 1999 he was elected Councilor for the environment, agriculture and civil protection at the Municipality of Alba. He is the founder and CEO of the social cooperative ERICA leading company in technical consultancy and environmental communication with over 2,000 public administrations served in Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, Central and South America and Africa. From 2002 to 2017 he was the President of AICA (International Association for Environmental Communication). Since June 2003 he has been a member of the board of directors of the ACR + (Association Cities and Regions for Recycling and Sustainable Management of Resources in Brussels) of which he was Vice-President from 2011 to 2015. He is the author of over 70 publications and books on environmental and naturalistic issues, in particular on integrated waste management and environmental communication, including some essays selected and awarded in more than 15 national and international literary competitions (including ”Minus 100 kilos - diet recipes of our bin”, Edizioni Ambiente, the Bible of Ecology, Elledici). He has lectured at over 300 national and international conferences. He was the protagonist of the films "Minus 100 kilos - recipes for the diet of our bin" by Emanuele Caruso and "Immondezza - beauty will save the world" by Mimmo Calopresti. He is the consultant, author and presenter of some national radio and television broadcasts on environmental issues, on RAI Geo & Geo, Ambiente Italia, Chetempochefa, Unomattina, ScalaMercalli, Petrolio, Nemo. He is also the author and presenter of the #envinews daily live on personal social profiles and of the radio broadcast "La Goccia del Colibrì - instructions for a sustainable future" broadcast on Radio Beckwith Evangelica and on the main social channels.

Publications 1. AA.VV., 1994 - Le Langhe in "reteiter. Il Piemonte come ambiente, 1", pp. 209-233 Scholè Futuro - Torino. 2. AA.VV., 1994 - Gli stagni Mogliasso. Sequenze per un'oasi. Amici del Museo "Federico Eusebio" - Alba. 3. AA.VV., 1995 - Bra e Roero, Monregalese e Alpi Liguri in "reteiter. Il Piemonte come ambiente, 2", pp. 745 - 786 Scholè Futuro - Torino. 4. AA.VV., 1996 - Novembre 1994 l'alluvione. Le radici di una catastrofe; pp. 192. Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" e Gruppo Fotografico Albese - Alba. 5. AA.VV., 1997 - Internet & Environmental Education in Europe. An Open and Distance Learning Action: Eurosymbioses, pp. 34 Réseau Idée - Brussels. 6. AA.VV., 1999 - Rivermed, programma europeo per imparare a convivere con i corsi d'acqua e prevenire le alluvioni. Atti del convegno, 6 novembre 1999 - Alba. 7. Abele L., Cavallo R., Ghilardi S., 1997 - Gruppo di lavoro e di coordinamento dei poli della Rete Regionale di Servizi per l'Educazione Ambientale. Regione Piemonte Laboratorio di Pracatinat Torino 8. Cavallo O., Cavallo R., 1990 - I Coleotteri Buprestidi del Museo Civico "F.Eusebio". Alba Pompeia, n.s. XI/I: 27 - 38. 9. Cavallo O., Cavallo R., 1992 - I Coleotteri Cerambicidi del Museo Civico "F.Eusebio". Alba Pompeia, n.s. XIII/I: 5 - 25. 10. Cavallo O., Cavallo R., Dellapiana G., 1993 - Guida alle Orchidee spontanee delle Langhe, pp. 264. Amici del Museo "Federico Eusebio" - Alba. 11. Cavallo O., Cavallo R., Enrico D., 1999 - Le Langhe. Escursioni, pp. 176. Itinerari fuori porta, Cierre Edizioni - Verona. 12. Cavallo R. Gandini A., Gerbi V., 1995 - Influenza dell'utilizzo di tre ceppi diversi di lieviti selezionati sulla degradazione dell'acido malico nei vini. Tesi di Laurea. Università degli Studi Facoltà di Agraria. Torino 13. Cavallo R., 1995 - Il controllo della sterilità nelle linee di imbottigliamento, Imbottigliamento, 18: 1, 114 - 118. 14. Cavallo R., 1996 - Riconoscimento di un ceppo di lievito in seno ad una popolazione eterogenea, atti del convegno "Biotecnologie per l'enologia i microrganismi selezionati" Alba 30 aprile 1996, 17 - 18. 15. Nyr L., Gandini A., Cavallo R., 1997 - Confronto tra ceppi di Saccharomyces cerevisiae da impiegare per la spumantizzazione in bottiglia. Facoltà di Agraria Diploma Universitario in Viticoltura ed Enologia - Torino 16. Cavallo R., Marengo A., 1992 - Itinerari didattici: 1. Il Tanaro: Amici del Museo "Federico Eusebio" - Alba. 17. Cavallo R., Rosso C., 1995 - Come farsi un vino spumante o frizzante, Vita in campagna, 4, 69 - 73. 18. Picasso M., Dansero E., Cavallo R., 2000 – La raccolta dei rifiuti nell’astigiano. Tesi di Laurea. Università degli Studi Facoltà di Scienze Politiche. Torino 19. Tortia C., Gandini a., Gerbi v., Minati J.L., Zeppa G., Cavallo R., Grando M.S., 1995 - Prove di vinificazione con Saccharomyces cerevisiae in forma secca attiva dotati di diverso potere maloalcolico, annali di Microbiologia ed Enzimologia, 45, 129 - 150. 20. Cavallo R., Rosio E. – Indagine socio-ambientale per definire un piano di comunicazione e potenziare la raccolta differenziata dei rifiuti nel Comune di Villarbasse. Provincia di Torino, 2001. 21. Cavallo R. - La gestione dei rifiuti tra costi e benefici: le scelte della pubblica amministrazione. Convegno RiForma - Centro Incontri Provincia di Cuneo, febbraio 2002. 22. Cavallo R. Rosio E. - La progettazione integrata dei sistemi di raccolta rifiuti: l’importanza della comunicazione. Presentazione di 3 casi esemplari in Piemonte. Atti convegno Regione Piemonte, Torino Incontra, 27 febbraio 2002.

23. Cavallo R., Rosio E., Terzolo D. - La progettazione integrata tecnicocomunicativa e i capitolati di appalto nel servizio di raccolta rifiuti. Atti convegno Oltre il Ronchi. Ridurre o differenziare?, Asti, Hotel Salera, 11 ottobre 2002. 24. Cavallo R., Rosio E., Gianolio F. - La progettazione integrata dei sistemi di raccolta rifiuti, l’importanza della comunicazione: il caso Marene (CN) Italia. Atti convegno Comune di MareneProteo, Provincia di Cuneo Sala Falco, 13 giugno 2003. 25. Tibaldi G.L., Mondini G., Cavallo R., 2002 – Applicazione dell’analisi di gerarchia per la valutazione di un sistema di gestione integrato di RSU: il caso del bacino astigiano. Tesi di Laurea. Politecnico di Torino Facoltà di Ingegneria Corso di Laurea in Ingegneria Ambiente e Territorio. 26. Cavallo R., Rosio E., 2003 – Waste minimisation in Italy. Warmer bulletin,, 2/2003. 27. Cavallo R., 2003 – Verso una scienza della comunicazione ambientale. 1/2003 pagg. 3-7. 28. Cavallo R., Rosio E., Roubertou D., 2004 – Progetto Re.Re.: comunicare la riduzione dei rifiuti. Regioni & Ambiente, 2/2004, pagg. 54-56 29. Cavallo R., ERICA Comunicazione, 2004 – Prodotti di nicchia di Langhe e Roero. L’Artistica editrice. 168 pagg. 30. Cavallo R., Tibaldi G., 2004 - Applicazione dell’analisi di gerarchia per la valutazione di un sistema di gestione integrato di rsu: il caso del bacino astigiano. L’Ambiente 5/04 pagg. 7-8. 31. Tornavacca A., Valle M., Stevanato P., Cavallo R., 2004 - L’evoluzione delle raccolte porta a porta in relazione alla qualità e comodità del servizio: cosa ne pensano gli utenti ? Rifiutioggi, ottobre 2004. 32. Della Croce C., Badino G., Cavallo R., 2004 - La raccolta differenziata nella città di Alba dal 1999 al 2004. Tesi di Laurea Università degli Studi di Torino, Facolta di S.M.F.N. corso di laurea in Scienze Biologiche. 33. Cavallo R., 2005 – Waste reduction in Italy: four Piedmont case-studies. Warmer Bulletin, 100, june 2005, pp. 16-19. 34. Cavallo R., Rosio E., Pavan D., Toniolo N., 2006 – La riduzione dei rifiuti una sfida possibile. L’ambiente, 2/06, pp 42-45. 35. Cavallo R., Bertoluzzo M., 2006 – il ruolo della comunicazione nella gestione dei conflitti. ARPA Emilia Romagna informa. 36. Cavallo R., Bertoluzzo M., Scatolero D. – 2006 I microconflitti ambientali e la comunicazione, L’Ambiente n. 4/2006, pp. 22-25. Ranieri Editore. Milano 37. Cavallo R., Gianolio U., 2006 - Un decreto in revisione, una nuova direttiva comunitaria: quale futuro per i rifiuti? L'Ambiente n. 5/2006, pp. 30-34. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 38. Cipriano V., Cavallo R., 2006 – Economical Instruments on waste management in Compedium ACR+ 2006 Annual anthology of diverse papers on key contemporary issues in European policies on wastes, products & resources. Pagg 141 – 153. ACR+ Bruxelles. 39. Cavallo R., Del Buono C., Gianolio U., Reviglio P., Stupino F., Visentin C., 2007 - La gestione dei Rifiuti Urbani Biodegradabili. L’Ambiente n.2/2007, pp 25-29. Ranieri Editore. Milano 40. Cavallo R., Rosio E., Raia S., Rasero F., Stupino F., 2007 - Il sistema COVAR14 (TO): oltre il 60% di raccolta differenziata in area urbana e rurale. L’ambiente n. 3/2007, in corso di pubblicazione. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 41. Cavallo R., Raia S., Stupino F. Visentin C., 2007 – Prevenzione dei rifiuti e gestione integrata. L’ambiente n. 4/2007, pp 26-31. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 42. Cavallo R., Favoino E., Mercalli L., 2007 – Rifiuti e cambiamento climatico: dallo smaltimento corretto alla prevenzione. L’ambiente n. 6/2007, pp 8-14. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 43. Cavallo R., 2008 - Implementazione ed ottimizzazione di sistemi innovativi di RD: prevenzione, start-up e comunicazione in La Gestione Integrata dei Rifiuti, IV, 1-29. Politecnico di Milano. 63° Corso di Aggiornamento in Ingegneria Sanitaria-Ambientale.

44. Cavallo R., Filonzi L., 2008 – Il Consorzio CIR33: un’esperienza di successo. L’ambiente n.2/2008, pp 26-31. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 45. Cavallo R., Rasero F., 2008 – La gestione integrata dei rifiuti nelle isole minori: buone pratiche, progetti e proposte. L’ambiente n.5/2008, pp 54-59. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 46. Cavallo R., 2008 – Politica Europea dei rifiuti: verso una società del riciclo. L’Ambiente n.6/2008, pp 24-28. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 47. Cavallo R., Stupino F., 2009 - L’ecocentro (centro di raccolta): aspetti normativi e gestionali. L’ambiente n.2/2009, pp 8-15. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 48. Cavallo R., Gianolio U., 2009 - Tariffa per la gestione dei rifiuti urbani: si potrà ripartire dal 2010. L’ambiente n.4/2009, pp 1-7. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 49. Musso S., Padovan D., Cavallo R., 2009 - Quanto costa la comunicazione ambientale? Tesi di master. Master Universitario in Sviluppo Sostenibile e Promozione del Territorio. Università degli Studi di Torino – COREP. Ottobre 2009 50. Montoneri E., Boffa V., Cavallo R., - Progetto Biochemenergy - Poster session della XI Conferenza Nazionale sul Compostaggio: Produzione di compost e biogas da biomasse – Ecomondo, Rimini ottobre 2009. 51. Cavallo R., 2009 – Strategie europee per la riduzione dei rifiuti. Dalle esperienze di successo alla settimana europea della prevenzione dei rifiuti. In “Produrre meno rifiuti” a cura di Emanuele Burgin e Pinuccia Montanari. Edizione Ambiente. Milano pp. 11-18. 52. Cavallo R., 2010 - La prevenzione, il riuso e il recupero di materia: le prime tre priorità della gerarchia europea per la gestione integrata dei rifiuti. Pagg. 145-146. In Studi di Museologia Agraria. N. 49. Speciale Atti seminari “Cascine e Territorio”. ISSN 1724-0298. 53. Cavallo R., Musso S., Rosio E., 2010 – Quanto costa la comunicazione ambientale? L’ambiente n.2/2010, pp 1-4. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 54. Cavallo R., Rosio E., Rasero F., Musso S., 2011 - Comunicare i rifiuti. In ”Secondo rapporto sulla comunicazione sociale in Italia” a cura di Enzo Cucco, Rosaria Pagani, Maura Pasquali, Antonio Soggia. Carocci Editore, Roma. Pp 345 – 369. 55. Cavallo R., Gianolio U., Bosio L., Pavan A., 2012 - I costi della gestione dei rifiuti urbani e spending review L’ambiente n.5/2012, pp 15-19. Ranieri Editore. Milano. 56. Cavallo R., Biestro E., 2012 - Meno 100 chili. Ricette per la dieta della nostra pattumiera in “Green 3.0” 261-273. Mondadori Editore. Milano 57. Cavallo R., - L’Europa che Riduce. RifiutiOggi anno 22, numero 2-2012, pp 6-10 58. Cavallo R., 2012 - Il Compostaggio locale in Europa e nel mondo, Atti convegno ENEA in Ecomondo Rimini, novembre 2012. 59. Cavallo R. - una pattumiera più leggera per la salute del pianeta. ecoscienza Numero 1 • Anno 2013, pp 26-27 60. Cavallo R., 2013 – La prevenzione Europea. Quale Energia. pp. 77-79. Aprile 2013. 61. Cavallo R., 2013 – il futuro dello sviluppo passa per l’economia ambientale. Quale Impresa, Maggio-Giugno 2013, pp 18-21 62. Cavallo R., 2013 - Il recupero dei resti. Un’arte con la “A” maiuscola. Contro lo spreco. Barilla Center for Food&Nutrition. Parma. pp. 52-54. Giugno 2013. 63. Cavallo. R., 2013 – Elogio della prevenzione. La Nuova Ecologia. pp. 52-54. Giugno 2013. 64. Cavallo R., 2015 - Le città che si bio-degradano pp. 253 – 264. in Made in ItalyGreen Food&Sharing Economy. Mondadori Università a cura di Maurizio Guandalini e Victor Uckmar. 513 pagg. 65. Cavallo R., 2015 - Il pensiero circolare nell’economia del riciclo, pp. 20-21, ECOSCIENZA Rivista di Arpa - Agenzia regionale prevenzione e ambiente dell’Emilia-Romagna N° 5 Novembre 2015, Anno VI 66. M. Bonelli, L. Bosio, R. Cavallo, U. Gianolio and P. Marengo, 2016 - Waste prevention impacts on small municipalities: Three experiences from northern Italy, pp. 1.014-1.025 Waste Management & Research August 17, 2016

67. Cavallo R., 2017 - La mia corsa contro i rifiuti, pp 68-71- inNatura Anno III, n. 2 giugnoagosto 2017, Roma 68. Cavallo R., 2017 – PAYT (Pay as You Throw) schemes – a key step for a circular economy and citizens involvement, 4th World Congress and Expo on Recycling, Rome 27-29 July, International Journal of Waste Resources ISSN: 2252-5211 July 2017 – Volume 7 – Issue 3 69. Cavallo R., 2017 – Ecolotor, il Tor-des-Geants si tinge di verde, in TOR numero unico agosto 2017, Aosta. 70. Cavallo R., Rosio E., Bosio L., Bina S., Viglietta A., Montanari G., 2017 - La progettazione partecipata nei sistemi di raccolta rifiuti. L’esempio delle utenze non domestiche di Roma. pp. 1822 – L’Ambiente Anno XXIV n. 3 maggio-giugno 2017, Ranieri Editore Milano. 71. Roberto Cavallo, Emanuela Rosio, Luigi Bosio, Paolo Marengo, Lorenzo Ardito, Francesco Rasero, La tecnologia RFID per prevenire l’abbandono dei rifiuti. La prima esperienza al mondo in Valle d’Aosta, pp. 17-22 Anno XXIV, n. 5 settembre-ottobre, Ranieri Editore, Milano. 72. Roberto Cavallo, Correre in montagna, avvicinare la natura, pp. 54-57, inNatura, Anno III, n. 3 settembre-dicembre 2017, Roma. 73. Cavallo R., Rasero F., Rosio E., 2018 – Vetro ed Enologia, un rapporto duraturo. Economia circolare, pp. 45-47, Anno XXXVI, 02/2018 Barolo&Co. 74. M. Monti, M. T. Scrivani, R. Cavallo, G. Fenocchio, Il riciclo della plastica: quale futuro? Proplast ha organizzato, nell’ambito delle attività del Polo Regionale Piemontese di Innovazione CGREEN, un tavolo tecnico sul tema del riciclo della plastica, pp. 18-21 – L’Ambiente Anno XXV, n. 3 maggio-giugno 2018, Ranieri Editore, Milano. 75. Cavallo R., 2019 - La Sostenibilità nei programmi amministrativi, in Ripartire dalle comunità per una crescita sostenibile, Confartigianato Veneto, pp. 48-53.

INTERVIEW TO MRS BARBARA BOSIO Associate Professor of Principles of Chemical Engineering University of Genoa


Can you explain the chemical process of a fuel cell? Yes, gladly. The process that is at the basis of the operation of a fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly in electrical energy. What does it mean? You know that in a traditional thermochemical process, like for example a common internal combustion engine, the fuel is exploited through a combustion, which provides heat, that is thermal energy. Nevertheless, this thermal energy has to be converted into mechanical energy and finally has to be converted into electrical energy. Well, in a fuel cell the conversion is direct, from fuel to electricity, through an electrochemical reaction. And if you take into consideration that each conversion means an efficiency loss, you can understand that this aspect is very important because it entails that the fuel cells have high efficiency and high

efficiency means it is possible to reduce the use of fuel and so the impact on the environment. The process at the basis of this advantageous conversion happens thanks to two electrodes, an anode and a cathode, where a gaseous fuel (usually hydrogen) and an oxidant (usually air) are fed respectively. These gases react by means of an electrochemical reaction thanks to ions’ migration through an electrolyte, producing steam, heat and, as said, electricity. Actually, the process is very similar to the one occurring in the common batteries, but in the batteries the reactants are stored inside and, after a certain time, are consumed, so that the batteries are exhausted. Instead, in a fuel cell the reactants are fed from the outside, so for example in a stationary plant you can continuously feed the reactants and they never exhaust. This is the case of power generation plants based on fuel cells which provide the energy necessary to an industrial plant, a school, a hospital, a village, a hotel, and so on. So the problem in this case is not the duration of the fuel, like for batteries, but the lifetime of the fuel cell itself, which for the moment does not always meet the desired targets.

Why is the life of fuel cells short? It depends on many factors, mainly the operating temperature and the quality of the fuel. If the operating temperature is high this can damage the fuel cell materials with ageing. If the fuel is not pure, the contaminants can damage the electrodes and inhibit the reactions. Nowadays, researches are focusing their work on fuel cell degradation problems, the target is to guarantee 40 000 hours of behaviour for stationary applications. The scenario is different for mobile applications, where a shorter lifetime can be sufficient, for example for a PC, a cellular, a car, a bus or other. Anyway in these cases it is not possible to

continuously feed the fuel, as previously said for stationary applications, because in these cases the fuel needs to be stored inside the device which has to be independent on any feeding lines and has to be transportable. This, for example, is a power bank which I use for my cellular phone: it works using a fuel cell fed with the oxygen present in the atmosphere and hydrogen, which in this case needs to be stored. This is a little cylinder containing pressurized H2, when it is exhausted I need to re-charge it from an electrolyser which produces H2 again, for example from water using solar energy.

How long does hydrogen last in fuel cell cars? In a car the principle is similar to the previous one: we need to store hydrogen on board to feed the fuel cells and we need to refuel when the hydrogen is exhausted. At the current state of the art, the hydrogen can last as much as a normal full of gasoline, that is more or less how much it is necessary to travel 500 km. Cars of this type are already available on the market, even if they are still few and the network of the hydrogen refuelling needs to be developed on the territory.

To what extent do fossil fuels pollute? Their main negative effect on the environment is related to the fact that their use involves the production of CO2, that is a greenhouse gas, responsible of the dangerous climate changes that we can already observe around us. The use of fuel cells can overcome this problem because they do not produce CO2, but only steam. Obviously the hydrogen used as fuel does not have to be produced by fossil fuels, but by renewable sources, for example

from the gasification of biomass or from the photovoltaic electrolysis of water, thanks to the energy of the sun.

Do you think that fuel cells will be fully exploited in the future? Yes, I think so, this technology is very promising. Nowadays many countries worldwide are investing on them. I’m confident that your generation, the generation of my sons, will use this technology in a new energy system which will be able to replace fossil fuels. Obviously,

every social and economic revolution needs time, but the technology is ready to enter the market and we must answer as urgently as possible to the needs of our planet to preserve its, and so our health.

BARBARA BOSIO - BIOGRAPHY Education and training 2000 PhD in Chemical Engineering Development of Fuel Cell Technologies Politecnico di Torino - consortium with UNIGE and POLIMI - Torino - IT

1996 Master degree in Chemical Engineering Modelling and Numerical Evaluation of the Equilibrium and Precipitation Conditions of Mercury in Aqueous Solutions in the Presence of Complex Reactions and Adsorption Phenomena - 110/110 e lode Università di Genova - Genova - IT 1990 High school diploma (classical studies) 60/60 Liceo Classico C. Colombo - Genova - IT Academic experience 2011 - ONGOING Associate Professor of Principles of Chemical Engineering Univeristà di Genova - Genova - IT 2008 - 2012

Contracted Professor Università di Trento - Trento - IT 1996 - 2011 Contracted Researcher Università di Genova - Genova Teaching activity Main teachings from 2011: - Principles of Chemical Engineering 1, Mod. 1: Transport Phenomena at the Macroscopic Level

- Principles of Chemical Engineering 2, Mod. 2: Transport Phenomena at the Local Level New teachings from 2018: - Environmental Chemistry and Processes, Mod. 1: Fundamentals of Environmental Processes - Industrial Processes and Products, Mod. 1: Renewable Energy Production Previous teachings: - Multiscale analysis and computer simulation of chemical processes (Genova, 2017-2018) - Applications of Process Engineering (Genova, 2012-2013) - Innovative Chemical Processes (Genova, 2011-2012) - Principles of Chemical and Food Engineering (Trento, 2011-2012) - Simulation of Fuel Cell Systems (Genova, 2009-2010) - Principles of Environmental Engineering (Trento, 2008-2009) - Heterogeneous Chemical Kinetics (Genova, 2006-2007). Responsible of the first Double Degree in Chemical and Process Engineering at the University of Genoa, partner the University of Liège. Tutor of around 10 master or bachelor theses per academic year. Responsible of Erasmus Programs for studies with University of Edinburgh and Université de Liège. Responsible of Erasmus Programs for traineeship with Technische Universität München, University College Cork, Arup Deutschland GmbH. Postgraduate research and teaching activity Supervision of PhD students, residents and post-doctoral fellows Supervisor of the following Ph.D. students at UNIGE: - Emilio Audasso, Simulation of high temperature fuel cells, XXXIII ciclo; - Bruno Conti, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: numerical and experimental approaches, XXXI; - Cristina Moliner, Valorisation of agricultural residues, XXVIII ciclo, double degree with Polytechnic University of Valencia (supervisor with Elisabetta Arato e Amparo Ribes); - Nicola Di Giulio, Theoretical and experimental analysis of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell performance in innovative applications, XXVI ciclo; - Danilo Marra, Fluid-dynamic characterisation of molten carbonate fuel cells in plant optimisation, XX ciclo (supervisor with Elisabetta Arato); Co-supervisor of the following Ph.D. students at Facoltà di Scienze e Tecnologie della Libera Università di Bolzano (co-supervisor with Marco Baratieri, supervisor Elisabetta Arato): - Filippo Marchelli, Processes for Biomass Valorisation, XXXII ciclo; - Dario Bove, Investigation on the biomass gasification in a spouted bed reactor pilot plant, XXIX ciclo. Responsible of the following contracted researchers at UNIGE: - Dario Bove, Detailed simulation of molten carbonate fuel cells, 2018; - Massimo Curti, Valorisation of food and textile waste for the bio-char production, 2018; - Max Romero Rivas, Sustainable and innovative processes for energy production from biomasses, 2012. PhD committees membership - Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, 2013- today. - Fluid-dynamics and Processes of Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, 2013-2016. Research interests My main research activity is focused on the development of fuel cell technology for the clean production of energy. At the same time, I am involved in associated research topics concerning carbon capture and

transport, water and gas treatment, thermochemical processes like gasification and pyrolysis, re-use of agricultural, municipal and industrial waste for the productions of renewable goods and energy. Key qualifications: The detailed simulation of chemical and electrochemical monolithic reactors The solution of problems related to equipment scale-up The theoretical and experimental analysis of transport phenomena in porous catalysts The steady-state and dynamic simulation of process plants The definition and execution of procedures for testing in laboratories or pilot-plants Experimental data analyses and estimation of kinetic and thermodynamic non-linear parameters Computer programming Grants 2018 - ONGOING BioChar FILIDEA srl AGRINDUSTRIA TECCO srl ETG Risorse e Tecnologie srl - IT - IT Principal investigator Simulation of an innovative reactor for the production of biochar and syngas from agricultural and textile waste 2017 - ONGOING Investigation of the phenomena occurring in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFCs) Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering - US - US Principal investigator The projects deals with the study of the phenomena which characterize the behaviour of molten carbonate fuel cells; the planning of experimental campaigns devoted to a better understanding of the reaction mechanisms; the detailed simulation of performance and the proposal of optimized solutions 2017 - ONGOING Peter on Board

Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti - IT - IT Participant Waste treatment on board of cruise ships to reduce environmental impact 2017 - ONGOING LIBERNITRATE European Commission Participant Responsible reduction of nitrates in the comprehensive water cycle

INTERVIEW TO DR WALTER RIVA Director of the Astronomical Observatory in Righi, Genoa


How big is the solar system?

It is a very good question because there is no definite limit in our solar system, but the most of the mass is concentrated in the sun. 99% of the mass is in the sun and only a small part in the rest (planets, satellites, small bodies). The modern vision of the solar system is: the sun, more or less in the centre of the system, and eight planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune). Most of these planets have many satellites and then we have small bodies (asteroids, comets). We have two belts of small bodies: the main belt is the Asteroid (between Mars and Jupiter), and the Kuiper belt (very far from Jupiter).

What are the stars formed by?

The stars are formed by gases, hydrogen and helium. But in the centre of the sun the temperature is so high that hydrogen is transformed into helium by the nuclear fusion of the atom. So, in times lasting millions, billions of years, the sun created the elements: inside the star helium, carbon, oxygen are created by this nuclear reaction. In bigger stars there can even create many other ions. So, we can say that stars are big alchemical mediums because they create elements. The same elements that form your body (carbon, oxygen) once were created inside the stars.

What can we expect from the sun in the future?

The future of our sun is determined by the mass of the star. I mean that a star like our sun will become a red giant star in three or four billions of years, so no fear about the sun in the next few days! The sun will become very big, a red giant star that will finish its life like a dwarf, a white dwarf. It is a very slow process. For bigger stars this is different: they will explode like a supernova. It is an incredible phenomenon in astronomy and the supernova will improve the material of the universe with the elements that the stars created in their centre.


Walter Riva has been dealing with science publications, especially astronomy, for ages. He has been invited to lecture at many conferences and guided observations of the sky, both with the naked eye and the telescope. He got a University Degree at the Faculty of Economics and Business with a final thesis on Geography (1997), he got a Master in New Media and Communication at the University of Rome Tor Vergata (2000) and a Master in Communication of Science of SISSA in Trieste (2004), getting the highest score, with a final thesis on Planetaria entitled “The communication of science in the world of Planetaria”. He has collaborated with the Observatory of Saint Barthélemy for the construction of a 10 meters Planetarium in Valle d’Aosta. He is the Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Righi and the President of the Planetarium of Righi (Genoa) by managing the organization of all the public activities and the implementation of the permanent didactic exhibition “The Garden of the Sun”. He is a freelance journalist and one of the partners of UGIS (Unione Giornalisti Italiani Scientifici) and has collaborated with some scientific magazines like “La Macchina del Tempo” (“The Time Machine”) and “Astronomia” (“Astronomy”), and also with the De Agostini publishing house for the encyclopedic work “Star Observer”. He writes articles and news on astronomy for the Genoese newspaper “Il Secolo XIX”. He is the author of the book “Breve storia dell’Universo” (“A short outline of the Universe”) published by CUEN in Naples, of the children book “Dentro lo Spazio” (“Inside Space”) edited by La Biblioteca, and the book "Storia di un raggio di luce” (The story of a sun beam”) issued by the Gruppo B publishing house. He coordinated and trained the scientific animators of the Festival of Science in Genoa in 2003, he was in charge of organizing the inauguration of the Festival in 2004, and managed the activities about astronomy of the Festival editions of 2003, 2004 and 2005; in 2006 he organized the cycle of conferences “Dai confini del Sistema Solare all’Antartide” (“From the borders of the Solar System to Antarctica”) held at the Aquarium of Genoa and the scientific exhibition “Mondi di ghiaccio” (“Worlds of Ice”) at the National Museum of Antarctica; for the Festival edition of 2008 he set a cycle of meetings “C’era una volta l’Universo” (“Once upon a time the Universe”) held at the Aquarium of Genoa, and the cycle “Orizzonti dello spazio-tempo” (“Horizons of spacetime”) in collaboration with the Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Natural Sciences in 2010. He coordinated the participation of the University of Genoa in the 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 editions of the Festival of Science. In collaboration with the Aquarium of Genoa he organizes cycles of public conferences about scientific topics on astronomy and related subjects every year. Since March 2008 he has been the editorial coordinator of the science publication “Le Stelle” (The Stars”), a monthly magazine dealing with astronomic culture, issued by the Gruppo B publishing house, being its editorial director from February 2018 to October 2019. Since November 2019 he has been the director of the magazine “Cosmo” (“Cosmos”), born from the fusion of “Le Stelle” (“The Stars”) and “Nuovo Orione” (“New Orion”). He is the manager of the events and communication department of the University of Genoa, for which he also organizes scientific conferences and public engagement events.

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 - 2020

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Collaboration Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany Renewable Energy Sources – Sustainable Development – Climate change

SHOW YOUR STRIPES!!! Global Warming study Are you one of those who think that Climate Change is a Myth?

During our climate change study we came upon “Show yourt stripes” site by Professor Ed Hawkins (University of Reading) !

So useful and graphic that we could not resist depicting our country’s and our partner countries’ graphs of temperature change this past century. Check your country or region by visiting the site

Check this graphic image that depict the global temperature change from 1850 to 2019!!!

The graphics have a CC-BY 4.0 license, so can be used for any purpose as long as credit is given to Professor Ed Hawkins (University of Reading) and a link is provided to this website.

Europe’s warming stripes since 1901

Greece’s warming stripes since 1901

Italy’s warming stripes since 1901

Germany’s warming stripes since 1901

“These ‘warming stripe’ graphics are visual representations of the change in temperature as measured in each country over the past 100+ years. “ “Each stripe represents the temperature in that country averaged over a year. For most countries, the stripes start in the year 1901 and finish in 2019. For the ocean

basins and for several countries with longer datasets available the stripes start in the 19th century instead. For two cities (Stockholm and Vienna), the data starts in the 18th century. For virtually every country or region, the stripes turn from mainly blue to mainly red in more recent years, illustrating the rise in average temperatures in that country. These graphics are specifically designed to be as simple as possible, and to start conversations about our warming world and the risks of climate change. There are numerous sources of information which provide more specific details about how temperatures have changed, so these graphics fill a gap and enable communication with minimal scientific knowledge required to understand their meaning. For most countries, the data comes from the Berkeley Earth temperature dataset, updated to the end of 2019. For some countries (USA, UK, Switzerland, Germany , France & Sweden) the data comes from the relevant national meteorological agency. For each country, the average temperature in 1971-2000 is set as the boundary between blue and red colours, and the colour scale varies from +/- 2.6 standard deviations of the annual average temperatures between 1901-2000. For the global average only, the UK Met Office HadCRUT4.6 dataset is used and the colour scale goes from -0.7°C to +0.7°C. The stripes are usually shown for the period 1901-2019 but this can be longer or slightly shorter depending on the location and whether the data is available & considered robust. We are using present day country boundaries for the whole time period shown.” Professor Ed Hawkins (University of Reading)

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Colla boration Galileo Galilei Technica l High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amalia da Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany

Renewable Energy Sources – Susta inable Development – Clima te change

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece


“European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020

Information on the European Union's renewable energy policies- 17 sustainable goals EU countries profiles examples and comparisons George Papachristodoulou

Share of energy from renewable sources, 2018 (% of gross final energy consumption) Source: Eurostat (nrg_ind_ren)

The EU is actively promoting Europe's transition to a low-carbon society and is updating its rules to facilitate the private and public investment required for the transition to clean energy. This should be beneficial not only for the planet, but also for the economy and consumers. The transition to low carbon levels aims to create a sustainable energy sector that fosters growth, innovation and employment while improving quality of life, expanding options, enhancing consumer rights, and ultimately lowering bills. of the households. Thanks to a streamlined and coordinated approach at EU level, combating climate change has implications for the whole of the European continent. Measures to promote renewable energies and improve energy efficiency are crucial to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and meeting the commitments of the Paris Agreement.

Thanks to the European Energy Union, the EU ensures greater coherence in all policy areas to achieve the overall objectives of creating a credible, affordable and sustainable energy system.

Modernisation of the economy – Role of the Energy Union and Climate Action

Share of renewable energies in gross final energy consumption in selected European countries. n.a. <5% 5–10% 10–20% 20–30% 30–40% 40–50% 50– 60% >60%

By Murraybuckley,Jklamo,Elekhh - based on File:European-union-renewables-fr.svgData source for EUmember states and NorwayEurostat – Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption (2004 – 2013, as of April 2015)Data source for other countries:Iceland (2010, source needed)Turkey (2010, source needed)Switzerland (2013, 21.1%), SFOE, renewable energy st atistics 2013, page 5, Public Domain,

The EU also provides various financing options and lending systems that help businesses and regions successfully implement energy projects.

There is a large diversity regarding support schemes in the EU- 28. Some countries such as France, Ger man or Spain have different types of support schemes operating in parallel in combination (for example for different types of renew able technology). Source: Klessmann C. 2014: Experience with renewa ble electricity (RES-E) support schemes in Europe. Current status and recent trends

At the international level, the EU plays an important role, working with third countries, regions and international organizations to tackle energy problems and ensure a credible and competitive energy market in Europe.


The Climate Policy Info Hub has been created within the POLIMP project which has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demons tration under Grant Agreement Number 603847.

Sustainable Developm ent report 2019

Sustainable Development Report 2019Transformations to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Report 2019 presents the SDG Index and Dashboards for all UN member states and frames the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in terms of six broad transformations. It was prepared by teams of independent experts at the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) and the Bertelsmann Stiftung.

The 17 Sustainable Goals :

Sustainable Development Report 2020 The Sustainable Development Goals and Covid-19 We are pleased to launch the Sustainable Development Report 2020 including the SDG Index and Dashboards, an annual review of countries' performance on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. All data presented on this website are based on the publication Sachs et al. (2020): The Sustainable Development Goals and Covid-19. Sustainable Development Report 2020. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.The Report covers all 193 UN member states. Next to analyses of current issues in sustainable development, it contains data on changes over time in SDG indicators, the future of the SDGs amidst Covid-19, as well as calculations for trajectories until 2030. Country Profiles Track progress and trends on achieving the Sustainable Development Goals for all 193 UN Member States: Ratings provide a visual representation of a country’s performance on the SDG:

Greece’s profile does not look so good… It Has a lot of room for improvement. Most goals have red and orange color, which means “major and significant challenges remain” : See charts screenshots next page!

RES LEGAL Europe, the website on regulations on renewable energy generation : Information on the important legislation on the support schemes, grid issues and policies for energy from renewable sources covering all three energy sectors: electricity, heating & cooling and transport. The scope of this database covers all the EU 28 Member States, the EFTA Countries and the Members of the Energy Community. RES LEGAL Europe will help you gather, analyse and compare information on renewable energy policies. The website offers links to all relevant original legislation, is free of charge and is updated on a regular basis. Greece: Overall summary From 2017 electricity from renewable sources in Greece is promoted through a feed-in premium granted by participation in tenders. In December 2016, a pilot tender for PV only took place. In 2018, two tenders for PV and wind energy took place. In addition, a new tax regulation mechanism and subsidies are available under the 2016 Development Law along

with a net metering scheme. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes profit from a new tax regulation mechanism and subsidies foreseen in the Development Law, as well as an income tax relief. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport is a quota system. In addition, there are a new tax regulation mechanism and subsidies available under the Development Law. Access of electricity from renewable energy sources to the grid shall be granted according to the principle of non-discrimination. With regard to the use of the grid renewable energy shall be given priority. Grid development in Greece follows a central planning procedure through the issue of Development Study of the Greek Transmission Grid 2017-2026 (DAP). There is number of policies aiming at promoting the development, installation and use of RES installations. Source

Examples of comparisons : Greece and Italy by Results for comparison of:

   

C ountries - Greece,Italy Subject - Policy C ategory - Training C ontent - Description Country


“Ai Stratis - the first green island” is a project aiming at covering the total electricity consumption of Ai Stratis, a non-interconnected small island in the Aegean Sea, using RES technologies. At first, 85% of the electricity consumption will be covered by RES; GR

RD&D Policy

later, the the target is for the island to become completely self-sufficient. Further plans include the installation of wind farms (500 kW), a PV farm (100 kW) and geothermal heat pumps as well as the introduction of hydrogen-fuelled cars. The project was initiated in 2011 but was not fully implemented.

In 2017, the project is expected to re-initiate as it will secure funds from the National Reference Strategic Framework (NRSF) 2014-2020.

Art. 15 of DL 28/11, in connection with DM 37/08, indicates that training programmes for obtaining the professional qualification of installer will have to be set up by regional authorities. Specific indications on the courses, such as mandatory examination and training period, are given in Annex 4 DL 28/11. Taking courses is one of the possible ways of obtaining a professional qualification, the other are as follows: Training IT


a university diploma,

a senior technician diploma provided according to

for Installers

the guidelines set out in the Presidential Decree of the C ouncil of Ministers of 25 January 2008,

a technical institute diploma with two years of experience afterwards,

a period of four years’ experience in a related company with a title validating the acquired skills,

a period of three years as specialized installer working for a qualified company (Art. 4, c. 1, ll. a d DM 37/08 as amended by art. 1, c. 50 L 107/2015)

Results for comparison of:

   

C ountries - Greece,Italy Subject - Policy C ategory - C ertification C ontent - Description Country


Up to now, no organisation has been assigned the task to certify installers. Although there is no established certification scheme, the C RES keeps an updated database of PV facility installers who have agreed to implement the


C ertification

good practice guidelines specified in the

programmes for

“Guidebook for Installing PV Systems on Roofs”.

RES installations

The Guidebook was developed by CRES in cooperation with the Public Power C orporation and the National Technical University of Athens. In addition, C RES maintains an updated database of all professionals in the RES sector (including RES installers).

C ertification Programmes for IT

RES installations (C ertification of RES installations)

Installers must provide the owner of the building a declaration certifying compliance with the legislation in force related to the realisation and the installation of a specific plant and with the standards of the Italian National Unification Body (UNI) and of the Italian

Results for comparison of:

   

C ountries - Greece,Italy Subject - Policy C ategory - Exemplary role C ontent - Description Country


From 2019 onwards, all public buildings should be almost zero-energy buildings (art.9 Law No. 4122/2013). In addition, three percent of the total surface area of public buildings should be renovated yearly in order to meet at least the energy efficiency minimum requirements (art. 7 Law No.4342/2015 in conjunction with art.9 Law No. 4122/2013). Apart from that, administrative regions and municipalities should compose an energy efficiency plan that contains specific objectives and actions concerning energy Exemplary role of public authorities GR

in accordance with art. 13 par. 5 RES Directive

efficiency. This plan should be updated every two years (art. 7 Law No.4322/2015). Furthermore, public administration bodies should purchase products, services and buildings with high energy performance that is consistent with the economic efficiency, economic feasibility, sustainability, technical suitability, and sufficient competition (art.8 Law No. 4322/2015). Finally, a “Green Public Procurement” C ommittee is established (art.24 Law No. 4342/2015). The C ommittee is in charge of designing a National Action for “Green Public Procurement” within eighteen (18) months after its establishment (art.24 Law No. 4342/2015). In September 2018, MEE published its “National Plan for the increase of Near Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB)” that was open for

public consultation. The Plan includes the definition of NZEB along with the description of the current situation of buildings in Greece. Furthermore, policies and measures concerning the increase of NZEB’s percentage are also included.

In general, all new buildings and buildings undergoing major refurbishment must take the use of integrated RES into consideration (Art. 11, c. 1 DL 28/11). The values below apply to all buildings, for public buildings, such obligations are increased by 10% (Art. 6, Annex 3, DL 28/11). RES-H plants must guarantee:

50% coverage of the foreseen consumption of warm sanitary water; and

C overage of the following percentages of the

Exemplary role of

cumulative foreseen consumption of warm

public authorities IT

sanitary water, heating and cooling.

in accordance with Art. 13 Abs, 5 RES



20 % if the request of the relevant building permit occurs between 31/05/2012 and 31/12/2013;


35 % if the request of the relevant building permit occurs between 01/01/2014 and 31/12/2017;


50 % if the request of the relevant building permit occurs from 01/01/2018 (Art. 1, Annex 3, DL 28/11)

RES-E plants must be integrated and installed with a capacity (P) calculated with the following formula: P = (1/k)*S

P being the plant’s capacity;

S being the surface, in terms of terrain covered, of the concerned building; and

k being a coefficient (m2/kW) with the following values:


80 if the request of the relevant building permit occurs between 31/05/2012 and 31/12/2013;


65 if the request of the relevant building permit occurs between 01/01/2014 and 31/12/2016;


50 if the request of the relevant building permit occurs after 01/01/2017 (Art. 3, Annex 3, DL 28/11)

These obligations do not apply:

To certain buildings with historical value (Art. 11, c. 2 DL 28/11);

To buildings connected to district heating networks that cover their entire need for heating and warm sanitary water (Art. 5, Annex 3, DL 28/11)

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green� 2017 - 2020

Renewable energy in the world Students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada study renewable energies globally and present their results:

Georgia Vassilopoulou

The first RES in America were wind farms Wind power became the largest renewable source of electricity in the US last year, according to a report by the American Association of AWEA. The link notes that in 2016 wind energy rose at the second fastest pace in its history in the last three months. It surpassed hydroelectricity as the largest source of renewable energy in the US, and is the fourth largest source of energy overall.

At the end of 2015, according to official government data, wind power accounted for 4.7% of electricity production in the United States, behind coal with 33%, gas also with 33%, nuclear power with 20%. % and hydropower by 6%. "American wind energy is today the first renewable energy source, thanks to more than 100,000 workers in 50 states," said AWEA CEO Tom Kearnan. "The development of this clean energy source helps rural communities finance new roads, bridges and schools, and create new jobs," he added. According to AWEA, wind power is expected to represent 10% of US electricity generation by 2020. A wind farm tax credit, which is a key incentive and growth factor for industry, will expire in 2019, though the US Congress has renewed it many times in the past.

The wealth hidden by Latin American renewables Latin America has always been at the forefront of the energy industry. In the 20th century it was the British oil companies that opened the hydrocarbon faucet in Venezuela and Mexico, creating new prospects for the region. Now in the 21st century are the riches that renewable energy (RES) promises to international investors who renew interest in the continent. In September, Canning House hosted a conference on Renewable Energy, where Gonzalo de Castro, director of the Latin American Development Bank (CAF), talked about the prospects for clean energy.

Gonzalo de Castro has noted that the positive is that the economic situation in the world and in Latin America is looking to improve. Global economic growth has stabilized at 3.9%, while Latin America is at 2.8% for 2019, while in 2016 it was just 0.6%. The economic background plays an important role as the Latin American revolution for clean energy comes through a mix of local governments, corporations and international investors. Financing always comes in landscapes where there is no uncertainty and the profit margin is assured. At the same time, Latin America's economic growth is also increasing its energy requirements, with CAF calculating demand will jump 79% between 2017 and 2030. Likewise, Venezuela's curbing of inflation within the country's borders has not made Latin America's upward trajectory at risk, and more investors are willing to invest money. Another encouraging element for Latin America's promise of renewable energy is that success has already been made in this area. Hydroelectric power accounts for 54% of the region's electricity supply. Percentage far exceeding the 16% that is worldwide, while RES performance in Latin America exceeds the global limits. Typically, the share of wind, solar and geothermal energy accounts for 8% in Latin America while in the rest of the world it stands at 6%. Latin America uses much less carbon than other parts of the planet, as it is not abundant material in the region, as only 1.2% of world stocks are there. This in turn is a particularly positive element for the region and the growth it may have in relation to other emerging markets, as it is not dependent on coal being considered the cheapest and most reliable source of electricity, but it is also one of the most aggravating for our planet. At the same time, the big rival is in oil, with 20% of world stocks being in Latin America and using it more extensively than the Middle East. This is also a great opportunity for lucrative renewable energy sources that can replace oil-fired power plants. In the 1920s and 1930s, British oil companies in Mexico and Venezuela played their own role in launching the explosion of oil that led to the discovery of rich fields. Now, the same opportunity is presented in the region with the oil's "enemy enemy", renewable energy sources with profit margins large for those who intend to invest in them. Latin America's solar power potential reaches 54.050 TW per year, which is 36 times the energy required for the entire region.

Georgia Vassilopoulou Student of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 - 2020

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Collaboration Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany Renewable Energy Sources – Sustainable Development – Climate change

Greek Energy and Environmental Policies - Department of Energy and Environment’s Policy regarding the Environmental Protection - Greece Electricity statistics Electricity production by source Comparisons between Greece , Italy and Germany - Climate Change policy of Greece -

John Ntoussas - Evi ILiopoulou – Nick Aivaliotis Students of Erasmus Team od 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT’S POLICY REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Natural environment Greece has a wide diversity of ecosystems, which is mainly to the great range of geomorphologic and climatic conditions. In order to conserve and protect this natural heritage (Greece’s flora can be compared to the one in South African) has applied a handful of laws, international circumstances and Special protection areas (SPA), 202 in total. In detail, many areas in the Greek territory have been zoned as endarged or natural heritage, while there have been signed a considerable amount of contracts with its neighbouring countries, concerning the conservation of the protected natural habitats. In addition, attempting to incite the danger caused by Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO),especially towards humans, flora and fauna, the Greek government has applied many laws, especially regarding the import of products from other countries.

Garbage management and recycling

The need for a reinvented system of garbage accumulation and treatment is becoming even more important since the recent years. The main reason behind this is, the expansion of large cities, the continuous growth of tourist flow, the rise in living conditions as well as the subsequent change of consumption patterns, which have lead to a significant increase on the amount of municipal waste and to the limitation of appropriate disposal areas. Moreover, the composition of waste has evolved in recent years (increase of hazardous and toxic waste, development of complex packaging material, etc.). Modern concepts and practices for the management of municipal solid waste require longer planning as well as the implementation of integrated systems, with key objectives being sustainability and effective management. Large amounts

of useful materials such as paper, glass, aluminium, plastic, metal, wood can either be reused or recycled, saving huge amounts of raw materials and energy.

In fact, landfills should be designated for the disposal of residues occurring after the treatment/recycling of waste. The alternative management of waste tires, end-of life vehicles, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), waste batteries and accumulators and waste oils have been established by a new law, following the polluterpays principle, requiring the participation of producers of such waste in Alternative Management Systems, so as to organize their collection, after separating them at source, transport, transshipment, temporary storage and recovery.

Noise pollution In order to reduce noise pollution, the Greek government has a created specific strategic noise mapping for some of the largest cities of the country (Athens, Thessaloniki, Piraeus, Patras, Heraklion, Larissa, Volos, Hania, Ioannina, Serres, Corfu, Agrinio and Kavala).

International and bilateral cooperation Greece has been a participant in many of the large organizations aiming to the solution of major environmental concerns, such as climate change, pollution and global warming, in european, international and bilateral level. Especially, in cooperation with its neighboring countries, there have been made many cooperations, mainly regarding the shared waters.

ENERGY The new advanced energy technologies and the timeless environmental requirements, the international and European cooperation frameworks as well as other intergovernmental agreements and protocols, require

the adaptation and harmonization of the Greek energy market and its institutional framework with the current international trends.

STRAGETY The strategy for the satisfaction of energy needs and the solution of the energy issue in Greece, is achieved by the formation of the necessary regulatory and legal status, which is currently focused on the following general directions:          

possibility of using various energy resources construction of oil and gas pipelines under international networks increased exploitation of endogenous energy sources and reserves detoxification from individual imported high-risk energy forms developing renewable energy facilities and providing incentives use and dissemination of clean and efficient technologies that respect the environment market liberalization, expanding competitiveness, abolishing monopolies in electricity and gas markets creating a positive investment climate for individuals and companies in the fields of electricity generation and supply energy saving in industry, transportation, buildings and homes establishing national objectives to increase the penetration of energy produced by RES, reduce greenhouse gases and save energy

International relations The energy market is dynamic, determined by the law of supply and demand and significantly affected by endogenous factors and trends as

would be natural, but it also depends on international developments and conditions. International relations are of paramount importance in resolving the energy issue, especially in countries with a lack of energy autonomy, such as Greece. Ensuring access to imported energy resources on favorable and competitive terms is the primary goal for the international relations of energy-dependent countries. The success of national policy is inevitably linked to international relations. Greece, as a member of the EU, is involved in decision-making and the formulation of a single European policy in the energy sector as well as in all other areas. European policy and European Directives are products of the international relations and consultations of the participating countries at European

ELECTRICITY  One of the concerns of this law was the "Liberation of the electricity market" and the "Regulation of energy policy issues".  The exercise of Electricity Activity is under the supervision of the State in the context of the long-term planning of the Country.  Long-term energy planning aims to ensure energy security, environmental protection, balanced regional development, productivity and competitiveness of the national economy, and achieving healthy competition in order to reduce energy costs for all users and consumers.  A license is required for the exercise of Electricity Activity. Electricity companies are required, among other things, to adhere

to the principles of equal treatment and to operate and provide their services in order to achieve a competitive electricity market, subject to compliance with the obligations of public utility services. It is recommended that an independent administrative authority called the Energy Regulatory Authority (RAE) with the main responsibility, among many others, to monitor and control the operation of the energy market in all its areas and to suggest to the competent bodies the receipt of measures necessary to comply with competition rules and protect consumers. An anonymous company is recommended under the name of Manager of Hellenic Electricity Transmission System SA. (D.E.S.M.I.E.) with the main responsibility, among many others, the provision of access to the System by the holders of production license or supply of UN, the planning and distribution of the loads of UN in the available production facilities, the arrangement production-demand deviations and ensuring the security, efficiency and reliability of the System. A System Management Code and an Electricity Transaction Code are established, which determine the technical and financial rules governing commercial agreements between a system administrator and license holders and regulate procedures and how to calculate the System Limit Price The Electricity System belongs exclusively to PPC. which is obliged to develop, maintain and maintain its operational and technical integrity, in accordance with the planning and instructions of the System Administrator. PPC is becoming a public limited company and is called the Lady and Manager of the Network. The network is the UN distribution network of PPC located in the Greek territory, which consists of medium and low voltage lines and UN distribution facilities, as well as high voltage lines and installations that have been integrated in this network. The system is the high voltage lines, the interconnected installations in the Greek territory and all the installations, equipment and control facilities required for the smooth, safe and

uninterrupted distribution of electricity from one production station to one substation, from one substation to another or to or from any interface. ďƒ˜ An interface is the lines, installations and meters used to transport electricity through the System to or from Greek territory. ďƒ˜ It is defined as a Boundary System Price, to be the highest offered value of production of the active power that is included in the System in a given period of time.

Natural gas Natural gas is a mixture of gaseous and gaseous gases that are sought after in subsoil dilemmas, availability of fossil fuels. Availability, divisions are separated, with the method of dominant material. Before being used for supplementation every year by separation and cataclysmic appearance of unwanted materials and applications from its mass.

The final problem the result collect and move with pipelines from the site mining to the final dimension, it is free of hydration, heavier than methane hydrocarbons, and application and applications.

Four-dimensional natural gas reserves. The countries of Russia complement them in one third of the material of the eternal years. Other activities available in Iran, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Gas of the seat the difference difference with the place of its approach. Prayer of his approach and even odorless, for other elements detection in supply configurations in terms of adds to the choice of speech.

Natural Gas is available to search for sought-after fuel due to its thermal configuration, diffused structure of technical refueling and efficient combustion. I find solutions for cleanliness, making them additionally renewable, using its combustion vector and its low exhaust gas dimension in information. Problems making the results primarily fuel for cities that want to respect space and many users. It is widely used at home for display and heating and space, in the main game building for

heating, transport and available pages, in handicrafts, in the country and in the application. Particularly in the application are created the chronic time-consuming additional penetration of Natural Gas. Outraged, it also introduced additional seats that we had to do, we use the solutions, we quote the required or required older multi-application applications with PV.

Saving  Saved Energy is energy that is not wasted, not consumed and therefore does not need to be produced.  Energy saving is synonymous with the concept of rational and efficient use of energy.  Saving Energy does not stop and does not suspend energy needs.  Energy saving improves and does not reduce the standard of living.  Saving Energy is energy that is not wasted, not consumed and therefore does not need to be produced

Renewable energy sources Renewable Energy Sources (RES) are non-mineral renewable energy sources, ie wind, solar and geothermal energy, wave energy, tidal energy, hydraulic energy, gases released from landfills, from biological treatment plants and biogas, as defined by INSTRUCTION 2001/77 / EC.

Production of Electricity by RES (according to Law 2773/1999) is the Electricity derived from:

1. The exploitation of Wind or Solar Energy or biomass or Biogas. 2. The exploitation of Geothermal Energy, provided that the right to exploit the relevant Geothermal Power has been granted to the interested party, in accordance with the provisions in force from time to time. 3. The exploitation of Energy by the Sea. 4. The exploitation of Water potential with Small Hydroelectric Stations up to 10 MW. 5. Combination of the above. 6. Co-Production, using the Energy Sources, (1) and (2) and combining them.

Petroleum Refining is the processing of crude oil or semi-finished products carried out in special facilities for the production of petroleum products. Petroleum products are defined as all types of crude oil refining products, including semi-finished products. Petroleum products fall into the following categories:

     

1. Category I - Light fractions Car Gasoline, Airplane fuels (airplane gasoline, gasoline-type gasoline fuels). 2. Category II - Medium fractions Diesel oil (gas-oil, diesel oil), used in internal combustion engines, Heating oil (gas-oil, diesel oil), which is not allowed to be used as internal combustion engine fuel, Lighting fuel, Gas-fired kerosene fuel 3. Category III - Heavy fractions

 Fuel-oils,  Vacuum gas-oil 4. Category IV - Asphalt 5. Category V- Humidity:  Butane  Propane,  Mixture of butane-propane 6. Category VI  Naftha  Cock

Article 19A of Law 4062/2012 (Government Gazette A΄70 / 2012) established an obligation to submit an annual report, until April 30 of each year, starting in 2019 for the data of the reference year 2018, by fuel suppliers, with data for the fuel available for the movement of road vehicles and non-road vehicles, agricultural and forest tractors, yachts when not at sea and for the electricity used in road vehicles as well as the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from supplied fuels per unit of energy by at least 6% in 2020. The following suppliers have the above obligations for the quantities of fuel that they clear themselves and channel to the domestic market: Holders of Class A trading license of par. 4 of article 6 of law 3054/2002, the holders of a trade license of category C of par. 4 of article 6 of law 3054/2002, the holders of a biofuel disposal license of article 5A of law 3054/2002, the major final consumers of par. 13 of article 3 of law 3054/2002, holders of retail licenses of the cases. a` and b΄ of par. 3 of article 7 of law 3054/2002,the procurement cooperatives and joint ventures of par. 10 of article 7 of law 3054/2002. the holders of a natural gas supply license of article 81 of law 4001/2011,as well as any other supplier that has fuel in uses of par. 1 of article 19A of law 4062/2012.

The above provisions, which incorporate Directive (EU) 2015/652 and provisions of Directive 98/70 / EC, also include:

a) the method of calculating the greenhouse gas emissions from the supplied fuels and energy, b) the requirements for the submission of a report by the fuel suppliers and a national report by the competent authority to the European Commission, c) the basic fuel standard so that suppliers can compare the reductions they have achieved in terms of greenhouse gas emissions from the fuel or energy supplied d) the determination of the Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES) as the body for the support of the competent authority for the application of article 19A.

Authorization of article 19A of law 4062/2012 was issued the ministerial decision of RIS / DAPEEK / 94820/786 “Categorization of violations of article 19A of law 4062/2012 and limits of fines” (Government Gazette Β΄5881 / 31.12.2018).

With the HA number ΥΠΕΝ / ΔΑΠΕΕΚ / 83780/346 "Determination of actions implemented by the Center for Renewable Sources and Energy Saving for the application of article 19A of law 4062/2012" the actions implemented by the Center for Renewable Sources (Renewable Sources and Energy) were determined CRES) for the support of the Directorate of Renewable Energy Sources and Alternative Fuel of the Ministry of Environment and Energy for the implementation of article 19A of law 4062/2012. (Government Gazette B '5438 / 5.12.2018). As part of the actions implemented by KAPE, the information website has been created.

With the HA no. RIS DAPEEK / 32226/1052 "Biofuel sustainability system according to article 21 of law 4062/2012", for the purposes of article 19A of law 4062/2012, the procedure and the certification requirements of the financial are determined. bodies regarding the observance of the sustainability criteria for the biofuels of article 20 of law 4062/2012, the procedure and the type of information that is circulated between the economic operators and every specific issue related to the application of article 21 of the same law is regulated. (Government Gazette B '1472 / 3.5.2019)

Greece Electricity statistics Electricity production by source Comparisons between Greece , Italy and Germany

Sources :

Value & Rank

The Electricity production from coal sources of Greece is 55.8 (% of total) with a global rank of 15.

Greece compared to other Countries

The Electricity production from coal sources of Greece is similar to that of Hong Kong SAR, China, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Israel, Australia, India, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Czech Republic, Morocco, Germany with a respective Electricity production from coal sources of 71.2, 70.7, 69.9, 69.7, 67.9, 55.0, 54.7, 53.8, 47.0, 46.9 (% of total) and a global rank of 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. 10 years decline

Greece's Electricity production from coal sources had a negative growth (decline) of 12.9 (%) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012). Last 10 years average

Greece had an average Electricity production from coal sources of 56.8 (% of total) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012). Greece during the Great Recession

Greece's Electricity production from coal sources had a positive growth of 4.38% during the Great Recession Greece since the end of the Great Recession

Greece's Electricity production from coal sources had a negative growth (decline) of 0.35% since the end of the Great Recession

Value & Rank

The Electricity production from hydroelectric sources of Greece is 7.46 (% of total) with a global rank of 81. Greece compared to other Countries

The Electricity production from hydroelectric sources of Greece is similar to that of Egypt, Syrian Arab Republic, Iraq, Japan, Morocco, Spain, Indonesia, United States, Moldova, Malaysia with a respective Electricity production from hydroelectric sources of 8.26, 7.99, 7.63, 7.58, 7.53, 6.98, 6.81, 6.54, 6.08, 5.86 (% of total) and a global rank of 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86. 10 years growth

Greece's Electricity production from hydroelectric sources had a positive growth of 44.2 (%) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012). Last 10 years average

Greece had an average Electricity production from hydroelectric sources of 7.72 (% of total) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012). Greece during the Great Recession

Greece's Electricity production from hydroelectric sources had a negative growth (decline) of 9.74% during the Great Recession Greece since the end of the Great Recession

Greece's Electricity production from hydroelectric sources had a negative growth (decline) of 15.2% since the end of the Great Recession

Value & Rank

The Electricity production from natural gas sources of Greece is 20.8 (% of total) with a global rank of 62. Greece compared to other Countries

The Electricity production from natural gas sources of Greece is similar to that of Korea, Portugal, Georgia, Myanmar, Israel, New Zealand, Indonesia, Australia, Chile, Venezuela with a respective Electricity production from natural gas sources of 22.9, 22.9, 22.5, 21.7, 20.9, 20.3, 20.3, 19.4, 18.3, 17.2 (% of total) and a global rank of 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67. 10 years growth

Greece's Electricity production from natural gas sources had a positive growth of 58.8 (%) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012). Last 10 years average

Greece had an average Electricity production from natural gas sources of 17.9 (% of total) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012). Greece during the Great Recession

Greece's Electricity production from natural gas sources had a positive growth of 2.34% during the Great Recession Greece since the end of the Great Recession

Greece's Electricity production from natural gas sources had a positive growth of 15.3% since the end of the Great Recession

Value & Rank

The Electricity production from oil sources of Greece is 7.64 (% of total) with a global rank of 48. Greece compared to other Countries

The Electricity production from oil sources of Greece is similar to that of Japan, Chile, Costa Rica, Israel, Malaysia, Croatia, Italy, Peru, Algeria, Spain with a respective Electricity production from oil sources of 11.45, 9.12, 8.78, 8.62, 7.67, 7.03, 6.35, 5.79, 5.50, 5.34 (% of total) and a global rank of 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53. 10 years decline

Greece's Electricity production from oil sources had a negative growth (decline) of 52.5 (%) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012). Last 10 years average

Greece had an average Electricity production from oil sources of 13.5 (% of total) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012).

Greece during the Great Recession

Greece's Electricity production from oil sources had a negative growth (decline) of 21.2% during the Great Recession Greece since the end of the Great Recession

Greece's Electricity production from oil sources had a negative growth (decline) of 39.2% since the end of the Great Recession

Value & Rank

The Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroel of Greece is 8.15 (% of total) with a global rank of 26. Greece compared to other Countries

The Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroel of Greece is similar to that of Sweden, United Kingdom, Chile, Uruguay, Poland, Luxembourg, Hungary, Czech Republic, Brazil, Jamaica with a respective Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroel of 10.83, 9.97, 9.34, 9.26, 9.13, 7.15, 7.15, 6.80, 6.57, 6.22 (% of total) and a global rank of 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31.

10 years growth

Greece's Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroel had a positive growth of 479 (%) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012). Last 10 years average

Greece had an average Electricity production from renewable sources, excluding hydroel of 3.89 (% of total) in the last 10 years from (2002 to 2012).

click on the following link to view a complete list of countries by Electricity production by source Datasource: Workbank - World Development Indicators

Electricity production by source Comparison BETWEEN GREECE AND ITALY: y-production-by-source/ View the complete data related to Greece and Italy. Click on the following link to view a complete list of countries by Electricity production by source Datasource: Workbank - World Development Indicators

Electricity production by source Comparison between Germany and Greece: /electricity-production-by-source/

View the complete data related to Germany and Greece. Click on the following link to view a complete list of countries by Electricity production by source Datasource: Workbank - World Development Indicators

Electricity production by source – Comparison between Germany and Italy : y+italy/electricity-production-by-source/ View the complete data related to Germany and Italy. Click on the following link to view a complete list of countries by Electricity production by source Datasource: Workbank - World Development Indicators

Climate Change policy of Greece Climate change already has obvious effects, ranging from rising temperatures to rising sea levels as a result of polar frost melts, and more frequent thunderstorms and floods. These changes will in turn have serious implications for the integrity of ecosystems, water resources, public health, food supply, industry, agriculture, transport and infrastructure. The severity of the expected impacts of climate change varies by region.

REPORTS AND EXISTING SITUATION Annual greenhouse gas and other gas emissions inventories are an indispensable tool in a country's environmental policy-making. They provide information on the evolution of national emissions in relation to a default base year and contribute to the process of monitoring measures related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Greece's greenhouse gas emission inventories provide information on greenhouse gas and other greenhouse gas emissions from energy production and transport, industrial processes, use of solvents and other products, agriculture, waste and changes in uses. land and

forestry. The inventories describe the methods for calculating emissions, present the activity data and the emission factors used and calculate the uncertainty in estimating emissions.

CLIMATE AND ENERGY POLICIES FOR 2030 The European Union (EU) has made good progress towards achieving its climate and energy goals for 2020. However, taking into account the long-term prospects set by Europe. Commission [in the Roadmap for the Transition to a Competitive Low-Carbon Economy for 2050 (2050 Roadmap), the Energy Roadmap for 2050 and the White Paper], the long-term objective is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80 -95% below 1990 levels by 2050. Unfortunately, Europe's dependence on foreign fossil fuels continues to grow and increases each year, with no positive effects on the climate, nor on the EU's economy and competitiveness.

NATIONAL ACTION PLAN This program coordinates private and public sector activities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and includes possible emission reduction interventions, with measures in the following areas: household and tertiary sector, transport, industry, power generation, waste management, agriculture, industrial processes . The implementation of the National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Program for the period 2000-2010, which was approved by the Council of Ministers by its Act of 5 / 27.2.2003 (Government Gazette 58A / 5.3.03), depends on the individual actions of the parties involved. Ministries and their cooperation. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible under the ratifying law of the Kyoto Protocol for its implementation and monitoring of the implementation of the National Program. It is also responsible for drawing up annual emissions inventories and National Progress Reports submitted to the EU. and the UN, through which it monitors emissions and those included in the National Program of Measures.


more efficient use of scarce water resources adapting existing building standards to withstand future climate conditions and extreme weather conditions, the construction of flood walls and the raising of embankments to protect against rising sea levels, the development of drought-resistant crops, the choice of forest species and forestry practices less susceptible to storms and fires, the preparation of spatial plans and


the creation of corridors to facilitate species migration.

Adaptation measures require the assessment of the impacts of climate change on various sectors of economic and social activity at national, regional and local levels, as well as the determination of the economic magnitude of these impacts.

EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEM The ETS is the cornerstone of EU policy on combating climate change and its key tool for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective way. At Community level emissions trading began in 2005 on the basis of the Community ETS of greenhouse gases. It is the first carbon market in the world and remains the largest to date. It operates in all 28 EU countries as well as in Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. (ETS) sets a ceiling on the amount of CO2 that can be emitted by industry and power plants. The total volume of allowable emissions is distributed to companies in the form of free allocation of CO2 allowances, which can also be traded.

EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEM FOR STABLE INSTALLATIONS For the period 2013-2020, the National List of Allocation of Fixed Facility Permits was finalized in accordance with Decision 2011/278 / EU, following the application of the weighting (Decision 2013/448 / EU) and after taking into account company data with a significant reduction in capacity and a partial cessation until 31.12.2012, in accordance with Articles 21 and 23 of Decision 2011/278 / EU. The EU Transaction Log website of the European Union shows the changes in the allocation of free allowances for each station operator. All stationary operators falling within the categories of activities described in Annex I to Article 32 of JM 181478/965/2017 (Government Gazette 3763 / B / 28.10.2017) are required to hold a Greenhouse Gas Emission Permit (EAC).

The ETS Rules of Procedure provide for the following obligations, for each year of the period 2013-2020 (ETS Phase 3):

No later than the end of February, the exact amount of free allowances, depending on the changes of each operator, shall be allocated by the Market Mechanisms and Emissions Register (CAM) of the Directorate for Climate Change and Atmospheric Quality (CAPA). No later than the end of March, operators of fixed installations shall submit to the MAME the Annual Emissions Reports for the previous year together with the verified report of the

accredited, accredited by the USSR, as defined in Article 21 of JAS 181478/965/2017 (Government Gazette 3763 / B / 28.10.2017). By the end of April, fixed-line operators must return, in their Registry accounts, rights corresponding to the verified CO2 tonnes emitted last year, as set out in Article 12 (3d) of JMD 181478/965/2017 (Government Gazette 3763 /B΄/28.10.2017). The obligation of the operator to inform the competent authority of any change as defined in Article 12 (3e) of JMD 181478/965/2017 (Government Gazette 3763 / B / 28.10.2017). Submission of an "Improvement Report" in accordance with Rule 69 of Regulation (EU) 2018/2066 (Amendment EU 2012/601).

EMISSIONS TRADING SYSTEM FOR AIR TRANSPORT Since the beginning of 2012, emissions from all flights to and from the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the 28 EU Member States, have been reduced. and in addition to Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and from the beginning of 2014 and Croatia, are included in the European ETS. Directive 2008/101 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 amending Directive 2003/87 / EC to integrate aviation activities into the scheme of greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community) as well as non-European airlines. In order to allow time for negotiations on agreeing measures aimed at aviation emissions, European ETS requirements were suspended for 2012 flights to and from non-European countries. For the period 2013-2016, the legislation (Regulation (EU) No 421/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 amending Directive 2003/87 / EC establishing a scheme for the trading of emission allowances) has been amended within the Community, with a view to the implementation by 2020 of an international agreement establishing a single global market-based measure for emissions from international air transport "), so that only emissions from flights within the EEA may ETS. Exceptions apply to operators with low emissions. Each year a new Regulation (for 2018 Regulation 2018/336 / EU) amending Regulation 748/2009 / EC specifying the designated Member State for each aircraft operator operating in Annex I to Directive 2003 / 87 / EC on or after 1 January 2006


Emissions Trading As provided for in Article 17, States which have made commitments under the Protocol (Annex B ') may participate in an emission trading system in order to fulfill their objective, but only in addition to their national actions.

Joint Implementation Mechanism Article 6 enables the implementation of joint programs and activities between the countries listed in Annex I to the Convention. The country financing these activities benefits from the reduction in emissions resulting from the implementation of the program in the other Contracting State. It is essential that these activities bring about further reductions in emissions in the country of application.

“The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that humanmade CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012) to the Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to reduce the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system" (Article 2). “

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Colla boration Galileo Galilei Technica l High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amalia da Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 - 2020

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Collaboration Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany

Renewable Energy Sources – Sustainable Development – Climate change

The TILOS PROJECT Case study : Summary description and questions over TILOS PROJECT : the advantage of the renewable energy sources and the use of battery storage in the energy production sector. Questions to be answered. John Ntoussas – George Papachristodoulou - Matina Kaouki Students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada Erasmus team

The TILOS project is testing the integration of an innovative local-scale, molten-salt battery (NaNiCl2) energy-storage system in the real grid environment on the island of Tilos (Greece). It is planned to test smart grid control system and provision of multiple services, ranging from microgrid energy management, maximisation of RES penetration and grid stability, to export of guaranteed energy amounts and provision of ancillary

services to the main grid. The battery system is used to support both stand-alone and grid-connected operations, while ensuring its interoperability with the rest of microgrid components and demand side management. New case studies examining different battery technologies and microgrid configurations (stand-alone, grid connected and power market-dependent) are being prepared using advanced microgrid simulating tool (the Extended Microgrid Simulator). Social issues are also well considered through public engagement, and by developing novel business models and policy instruments. The prototype molten-salt, battery-storage system will improve micro-grid energy management and grid stability, increase renewable energy use and provide services to the main grid. If successful, this energy storage technology could be widely replicated on islands to complement and encourage the use of variable renewable energy sources.

More information :

TILOS PROJECT is a European energy project with the cooperation of 7 european countries (Greece, Germany, United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Italy, Spain ) aiming to highlight the advantage of the renewable energy sources and the use of battery storage in the energy production sector. 

 

Briefly, the benefits of such an energy grid are the energy conservation, as only the needed energy is being produced . Moreover, the energy autonomy of the island is being ensured, as it’s not connected to the rest of the grid.

   In addition, the energy provided is more reliable. Lastly, we ought to mention the obvious advantages of the use of renewable sources.

DESCRIPTION Shortly, TILOS PROJECT aims to the 100% energy autonomy of the island of Tilos. In order to achieve its goal, there has been installed a hybrid energy park(solar and wind power)using exclusively renewable sources. What is more, there has been used a battery park for the reliability of the energy provision. 

 

   The grid is also equipped with an automatic control center, which besides the energy consumption, does also checks the use of heated water .

QUESTIONS to be answered in the future How can Tilos Project be applied to a greater scale, such as large cities?

What is the cost of such a project so it can be used to make autonomous even more areas? Is it worth it the costruction of such projects where the consumption is already high? Afterwards the construction what are the maintenance obligations or , for example, do the batteries gradually lose their efficiency over time? Which is the space needed for such parks, especially when the energy needs are high, like in big urban areas?

Tilos Project

Questions :

 If the project fails, what will you do?

 If the salt of the planet is not enough tho make batteries for the whole world,

what will happen?

 Could the project become a regular job?


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2nd Junior High School of Amaliada ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 - 2020

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Collaboration Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany

Renewable Energy Sources – Sustainable Development – Climate change


1. Dr Doussis we are very happy and honored to take your interview. After our research we are really inspired by your difficult work and admirable personality and your achievements! Why did you choose this difficult particular field of studies as a student and subjects as a professional? Please introduce us to your work, curriculum and yourself!!!

It is my great pleasure to participate in your project and I would like to congratulate you for your impressive work! I would also like to express my deep thanks for the opportunity to address to high school students. Young people deserve a say in environmental politics, and this starts by raising awareness among high school students about the key issues at hand, including climate change, and how to get involved in developing and implementing sustainable solutions. My interest in environmental issues goes back, years ago, when I was a student in Paris, in the early nineties. I had just finished my master’s on public international law and international organizations, and I had heard of a new master’s on environmental law, offered by my University, the University of Paris I, better known as the Sorbonne. I immediately applied, as it was a new and interesting field to explore. It was one of the first master’s degrees specialized in environmental law in Europe and it proved to be a unique experience. This was because our professors were not only academics, but mainly practitioners, such as Ludwig Kramer (then, head of the legal unit of the European Commission’s Directorate General for the environment) and Christian Huglo, an famous environmental lawyer involved in many difficult cases. So, apart from the theoretical framework, I had the opportunity to hear about the practical issues raised by the implementation (and the nonimplementation) of environmental laws and principles , as well as the difficulties in the drafting of environmental directives in the EU. This was indeed a unique experience! Then, I had the extremely good fortune of being able to spend two years at the UNESCO, first as an intern in the biosphere reserves’ unit and, later on, as a research assistant in an NGO hosted by UNESCO focusing on the environment of the islands around the world. There I learned that working for environmental issues means that you get to work close with other disciplines. For me, this is one of the best things about working in the environmental field. You get to work with wonderful scientists and technology experts, and you are almost obliged to have strong interdisciplinary (and multidisciplinary I would say) relations. You have to work closely with them to understand the actual environmental problems and the interactions between them. Actually, it is a two-way process as scientists also need international lawyers and political scientists in order to translate their proposed solutions in regulations and political decisions. This does not mean that the scientists, their opinion and the proposed solutions are always incorporated in regulations and political decisions or that their opinion leads to good decisions, but this is another story. One of the main weaknesses in environmental politics is the lack of meaningful communication between scientists, policymakers and citizens.

2. How important is the field of Environmental Politics and Law in Universities of Greece today? Environmental Politics and Law has started to gain more recognition lately as a separate field of study and research lately. For many decades, the protection of the environment was not included in the priorities of our country, but this has changed. There is now more recognition that there is no planet B and that we need to act now to develop sustainable solutions and engage in a sustainable future. Greece is committed to implement the Sustainable Development Goals adopted unanimously by all the countries of the world in 2015. These goals provide an ambitious framework for a new, fair and sustainable development path, which ensures a balance between economic growth, social cohesion and justice as well as protection of the environment and of the country’s unique ecological wealth. Greece is also strongly committed to apply the European Green Deal, adopted by the European Union in December 2019, which aims to transform Europe from a high- to a low-carbon economy, without reducing prosperity and while improving people’s quality of life. Key national priorities include the

shift towards a low carbon circular economy and improvement in waste reduction, reuse and recycle, creating new green jobs and increasing resource efficiency.

3. How would you describe according to your studies the situation in Greece in comparison with the rest of Europe and the world, concerning renewable energies policy, sustainable energy, political ecology, sustainable transport, climate change policies? Are we really between the eighteen most vulnerable countries to climate change? What can you tell us about your great book on climate change? So many questions! I could speak for hours! I will try to be as brief as possible. As I previously mentioned, the protection of the environment is a recent priority in Greek politics. Our environmental legislation has been improved because of the EU environmental policy, which is one of the most developed environmental policies in the world. Actually, almost 90% of our environmental legislation comes from the EU legislation, including legislation on renewable energy, sustainable energy and climate change. As far as climate change is concerned, although Greece has contributed very little to the problem, it is very vulnerable to its impacts. Indeed, the country is between the most vulnerable countries in Europe and we should develop policies concerning not only mitigation policies (reduce greenhouse gas emissions) but also policies concerning adaptation to climate change (adapt to the consequences of climate change). We should also learn to adapt to the detrimental consequences of climate change. At the time of the global health and impending economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, Greece’s commitment to the transition to a sustainable path must be reaffirmed. What we need now are transformational shifts in infrastructure, behaviour, participation and livelihoods that will impact on, but also empower, citizens in multiple ways. I have recently written two books focusing on climate change. The first one, entitled Climate Change, Facts and Dilemmas, (Κλιματική Αλλαγή, εκδόσεις Παπαδόπουλος, 2017), is a brief introduction on the politics of climate change. The main research question relates to the ability of the global cooperation to mitigate the adverse outcomes of pollution effectively. It also includes a chapter focusing in Greece. The second book, entitled International Law and Climate Change Diplomacy. The role of International Law and Diplomacy in effectively managing Climate Change (Διεθνές Δίκαιο και Διπλωματία της Κλιματικής Αλλαγής, Νομική Βιβλιοθήκη, 2020) offers an overview and analysis of the climate change international framework and its interactions with other areas of international law. It explores the role of international law in managing this global threat and highlights how international rules are currently evolving through diplomacy. The main argument is that the lack of substantive progress in effectively addressi ng climate change is not the absence of international rules but the fact that climate change has been framed just like any other environmental problem; this approach further delays the necessary action for the implementation of international rules combatting climate change.

4. What do you think we should completely change in the future regarding renewable energy policies, carbon management and gas What are your proposals on our country’s energy policies?




According to the European Green Deal, launched in December 2019, the European Union will be the first climate neutral continent in 2050. In other words, we should gradually stop the production and consumption of fossil fuel and turn to renewable sources for energy production. Fortunately, Greece is a rich country in renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind energy. We should develop a comprehensive road map to guide this transition to become carbon neutral by 2050. The Greek government has already announced the phase out of lignite production to be completed by 2028 and a long-term plan is being prepared. However, the transition to a

sustainable and climate-neutral economy will require substantive investments in order to help the communities that are strongly reliant on extractive industries and carbon intensive industries to restructure and diversify their economy and retrain the affective workers and youth to prepare them for future jobs. To assist this process and address the specific challenges, the EU has launched a Just Transition Fund that provides targeted support to these communities.

5. How is international and Greek environmental laws and policies prepared, suggested, decided and voted and by whom? Are there legal consequences for those who do not comply restrictions and instructions who are established? Greek environmental laws are prepared and suggested by the Ministry of the Environment, then discussed in a specialized parliamentary committee and voted by the parliament. Stakeholders and citizens are involved in this process through a consultation process. It has to be mentioned though, that although there is a specialized parliamentary committee on environmental issues, it has only consultative authority. Of course, there are legal consequences for those who do not comply with restrictions and instructions. These consequences are in their majority laid down by the laws.

6. What about sustainable transportation in Greece? Do you think we will ever be ready to have “green” mobility in Greece as for example some great efforts like in Larissa city? Is there a Greek government or European plan on sustainable transportation? Transport currently accounts for a quarter of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions and this figure continues to rise as demand grows. The European Green Deal seeks a 90% reduction in emissions by transportation by 2050. Moving to more sustainable transport means putting users first and providing them with more affordable, accessible, healthier and cleaner alternatives. A key objective is to boost the uptake of clean vehicles and alternative fuels. It also requires a shift to more sustainable transport modes such as rail. For this to happen, the capacity of this mode needs to be extended and better managed.

7. What about gas emissions in Greece and climate change awareness? Do you think people have understood the importance of climate change? Are there fake news and numerous irrelevant and mispresenting public opinions circulating in media even often expressed by important politicians that misguide people? Maybe sometimes for economical and political benefits of big industries? According to the Eurobarometer, 90% of the Greeks that participated in the poll, consider climate change as a very important problem. So, people are aware, but things change when we pass to the action. Addressing climate change involve not only governments and the big polluting companies, but also the general public, communities, cities, schools. Solving climate change requires us all to work together. We can’t do that without finding common ground with those who may not share our perspective. So, we may start by discussing the problem and have a conversation about climate change that helps cultivate understanding as well as find common ground and decreases divisiveness. Overcoming polarization is key to moving forward on climate solutions.

8. Is Greece state prepared for climate change? We heard you mentioning in one of your interviews that the governments do not study as they should the scientific researches before

introducing new laws. How this can be solved? Things have changed since I have given this interview. In December 2019, the newly created European Commission announced the European Green Deal which is the EU’s road map to transform its economy and society to put it on a more sustainable path and to achieve climate neutrality by 2050. Greece was one of the first countries to be committed to implement the European Green Deal and has started to elaborate its strategy. This process is still on-going. Of course, such strategies should overcome the 4-year electoral cycle and have a long-term goal.

9. How can you explain how Greece is late in changing laws and sustainability approaches, and especially Ileia prefecture wher we live? Here recycling, sustainable development, biodiversity protection etc are not the first concern of the citizens and the authorities. What are the main reasons for that , is it economical depression, crisis and maybe denial and lack of education? What is the role of media? Every region has its own particularities and needs. Therefore, sustainable solutions should be developed locally and not been imposed by the central government. The central government should guide this process and offer the requested support. For example, each region, including Ileia, should develop its own Green Deal, taking into consideration the natural capital, its specific needs and capabilities. All stakeholders should be involved in this process, including young people. Why don’t you start by drafting your own Green Deal for Ileia? You could start by collecting all relevant information about the challenges that your region currently faces, including erosion of the coasts (which will be aggravated in the near future), floods, fires (the 2007 catastrophe is not so far away), protection of the biodiversity, water supply, etc. Interview the main stakeholders and jot down their views in developing sustainable solutions. Interview your parents and relatives and ask them what they think. Develop a culture of discussion and collaboration between high school students, as well as awareness of the challenges that your region is currently facing and try to propose sustainable solutions to overcome them. Be innovative!

10. Do you think European projects and funds have helped Environmental issues in Greece the past years? Absolutely. European environmental policy has shaped domestic policies to protect the environment. The majority of the projects related to environmental protection issues have been supported by European funds.

11. Do you think students and their families are informed on the above issues on Greece? Do you think there should be other ways to engage them? Are European projects like Erasmus a way of introducing and cultivating environmental awareness? Do you have any suggestions for a better climate crisis education for example? Students are very much aware of environmental protection issues and should lead the way to develop sustainable solutions. The potential of young people is immense, but we should give them opportunities to develop their creativity. Climate change should be part of the education process but in an innovative way that will inspire students to discover their potential. The most important is to get them involved in this process.

12. What is your opinion on wind-turbines and the objections and strong protests about them in Greece? The story of the wind-turbines and their development in Greece is a very long one to be answered only in a few words. Wind energy has a great potential in Greece. However, there should be a comprehensive strategy, respecting the natural environment and regional communities should be involved in these projects from their inception. There is a lot of misinformation concerning the development of eolian parks.

13. In this three years Erasmus project we learned to communicate and work together better, as European students and citizens and as people of our world and our planet. Is it a problem of Greek society and Greek authorities, as well as European countries, the lack of communication and better cooperation? What are your suggestions for the future to be able to really work together on our common problems and better future? This is an amazing project and I am sure that you have gained a great experience in participating and developing a culture of communication with high school students from other parts of Europe. You should be grateful to your professors who took the initiative to participate in this project and lead you to this wonderful path. You should continue this way and try to build bridges among different school communities even in your region with the aim of creating sustainable solutions. The future is yours and you should be involved in this process of working for a better and more sustainable world.

Thank you so much Dr Doussi for your time and support!!!

The students of 2nd Junior High School of Greece

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Colla boration Galileo Galilei Technica l High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amalia da Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany

Renewable Energy Sources – Susta inable Development – Clima te change

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 - 2020

Mr Panagiotis Psychogios teleconference Interview video Renewable energy – Wind Turbines – Wind Farms

Panagiotis Psychogios videoconference-Interview transcript in English

As part of this last year of our three year Erasmus+ project work, students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece, present interviews by scientists, experts, politicians, activists and political scientists in 2019- 2020. Our students interviewed last year (2019) Mr Panagiotis Psychogios about manifacture, installation , use, maintenance and

transportation etc of renewable energy wind turbines. Panagiotis Psychogios as a very skilled and experienced civil engineer is very often responsible for the biggest arrays of large turbines, known as wind farms, who are becoming an increasingly important source of intermittent renewable energy and are used by many countries as part of a strategy to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels.

Panos Psychogios is a Civil Engineer and the director at PPsEngineering* . Experienced Director with a demonstrated history of working in the civil engineering industry. Sk illed in AutoCAD, Geotechnics, Cost Management, Earthworks, and Steel Structures. Strong professional with a MS focused in Civil Engineering from National Technical University of Athens. *PPs is a leading Structural Consulting Engineering firm known for its innovative and quality work. They have an established and extensive presence both in Greece, and abroad, having undertaken numerous large and complex projects in the greater Balkan and European area.

The interview - teleconference with Mr Panagiotis P sychogios. Mr Psychogios is live from hi s office almost 300klm away, and we are in our Erasmus multi -purpose specially equipted classroom of our school , students and teachers of the Erasmus team

Mr Panagiotis Psychogios was very happy to give this interview after we contacted him, and we had a wonderful and inspiring one hour teleconference connecting our Erasmus+ multi-purpose room in our school with the office of Civil Engineer and Expert on Wind Farms constructions Mr Panagiotis Psychogios 300 klm far from Amaliada. It is always wonderful to have such great personalities and specialists in our school! Even through a screen! Students and teachers of our school’s Erasmus team enjoyed it a lot! Our Interview full video on our youtube channel (in Greek):

It was so interesting that students kept him for more than an hour online through a teleconference platform to ask him all that they wanted and had prepared. He was so enthousiastic on answering in as many details as he could even in a not so good quality connection, that he gave us so many amazing information we think everybody will be very interested in this interview. We learned so many things we would never have guessed ! He was very warm and also congratulated our students for their interest and their work in the project and was very glad to see and talk to them even through a web cam. We all felt very happy and honoured to have him in our school even only through in a big screen! (That is why the students during the video look up to the right – left for the viewer- as they were watching Mr Psychogios talk in the big screen in our multi-purpose room! The full video, which is in Greek, is published on our “European Schools Go Green” youtube channel. Here follows a transcript , freely translated in English, with all of the questions of students and Mr Psychogios answers.

Thank you so much Mr Panagiotis Psychogios!!!! The following photos of wind turbines and farms , which are also included in our video, are kindly provided by mr Panagiotis Psychogios

Wind Turbines photos copyright ŠPanagiotis Psychogios PPS Engineering Video/ interview transcript and screenshots copyright Š2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece , Erasmus+ programme

Start of video: Mr Panagiotis Psychogios is presenting himself and his work on wind turbines and wind farms study and construction. He also explains, giving some general information on wind turbines production, that they are getting bigger as time passes, and that wind turbines’ wings (blades) size is relevant to the amount of energy they can produce. So they make them taller to be able to make the blades bigger as well. But as all wind turbines get bigger, the bigger the problems get concerning installation, wind farms licences, , maintenance, mechanical and functional problems etc. Last wind farm Mr Panagiotis Panos had constructed (during this interview in 2019) was 130 m tall, high as a small skyscraper, so the foundation needed a very large area.

Student Pavlina Dalamara asked what is the economical cost of a wind turbine construction, installation and operation in comparison with the expected profit later from the energy production. Mr Panagiotis Psychogios says that the cost is relevant to the amount of energy it produces in Mega Watts. It is more or less something about 1 euro per Watt. For example one wind turbine that produces 3,5 Mega Watts costs approximately 3.500.000 euros. But it is interesting that smaller wind turbines cost actually more, as the smaller they get the more expensive their parts are because they are more difficult to be constructed, and as we get less energy production the cost ends up higher. The profit of wind farms needs very complicated calculations, and it varies as it depends foe example on the price the electric energy is sold to the network, on the changes in energy demand, the local network grid and systems, the different time of day and night needs etc. One advantage is that you can turn off remotely the wind turbine if the energy demand is low to prevent it from working for no reason. Mr Psychogios also suggests to students to study Energy Engineering as it is a most promising profession. Companies that istall wind farms are always calculating in detail their investment before they proceed to wind farms

construction. The wind farms life is unfortunately now only 8 to 14 years as the wind turbine after 20 years of use is becoming very expensive to maintain.

Student Katerina Dimitrakopoulou is asking where the wind turbines are being constructed and what materials are used exactly. Mr Panagiotis Psychogios says that for the construction of wind turbines many different materials are used for the numerous parts. The foundation made of reinforced concrete, the tower made of steel, the engine nacelle made of steel containing the generator and gear box are made of steel and copper and other materials, the blades are made of carbon fibers and plastic and many many more special materials are used for all the electronic systems and wires inside, and for all kinds of the other different parts. In Greece there is Wind Turbines production firm that constructs turbines , and all others are imported by countries like Spain, USA, Italy, Denmark and many firms around the world. Dionyssia Makarouni asked if now there is wind turbines manufacturing industry in Greece and if their production is similar to other foreign industries. Mr Panagiotis Psychogios says that there is one at least (2019) Greek firm , one which was the first and had its main large wind turbines production unit based in the city of Tripolis. It designs and manufactures wind farms, and they were the first to do it in Greece. ( Today there are some others with smaller wind turbines production too) Mr Psychogios added that it is a mistake that in Greece we do not produce and install small wind turbines, to use in areas where houses are away from energy networks and grids. We prefere to buy small

wind turbines from China. It is very easy to construct a small wind turbine, he insists. And as in the past many farm houses around the Greek country used small home-made wind turbines to pump water, for wind mylls etc, Mr Psychogios says that it is a pity not to make more now, as of course we need only a rotor which is moved by the wind and a stator to support it. The magnetic field that they produce is something that can be proven easily in a simple school experiment, and very usefull knowledge.

Evi Iliopoulou asked how exactly the large wind turbines are being transported. Mr Psychogios says that the transportation is a very big and complicated issue as they are very large. They use special vehicles and platforms for the blades and other parts transportation. The mountains in Greece are very high and have such complex geomorphology, roads are full of turns etc that specialists on the wind turbine parts transportation are first investigating, calculating and studying the areas. It is so difficult that even new roads must be constructed, make exhisting roads larger and turns wider, prepare special areas for the vehicles to make difficult manoevres, cut trees etc The vehicles are enormous, because the parts like towers and engines nacelles (which are like‌ little houses) weight around 45 tones. The country and even national roads in Greece are not big enough for them! National roads bridges are too low ( 5 meters top) for the parts to pass beneath. So it is better to use open large roads leading to ports, so that the parts are transported on ships and on specially prepared roads up to the high mountains.

Kaouki Matina asked what is inside a wind turbine.

Mr Psychogios says the towers are empty, they contain only steel ladders , a very hard and long way up especially in the highest wind turbines. If you have to climb that up it will certainly leave you breathless and needs a lot of patience. It also sometimes contains a small assisting lift , only for heavy tools and equipment parts, as 130 meters is a long climb with tools to do the maintenance. Those lifts are not made to be used by humans. The tower starts at the bottom from a room with 4,5 meters diameter and ends up high in a 2,5 meters diameter space.

Student Georgia Vassilopoulou asked about the dimensions of the wind turbines and the amount of the energy production.

Mr Psychogios explains again that the amount of energy produced depends on the total diameter of the circle the wings make. The wider it is, the bigger the amount of energy production. The biggest electricity company of Greece had first installed wind turbines with 15 meters diameter only in the past. Today their diameter is around 100 meters! The tower dimensions depend on the length of the wings. It is of course dangerous to be close to the ground, as wind changes closer to earth and loses energy, so other kind of wind power moves the upper parts of blades and parts that are lower turn with different wind power too. That is dangerous for the blades to fail. It is better to construct very high towers in order to use the wind equally during the wings rotation. The higher away from the ground the blades are, the better. The concrete foundations have 20 m diameter and are 3,5 m high. Usually the soil and ground of the mountains is good for the stability of foundations. But the dynamics change all the time so it needs very good foundations and careful safety issues management. That is why for example when the wind is too hard the wind blades stop working automatically as it is dangerous. It is possible that the blades touch the tower so the whole turbine is destroyed within seconds ,as you can see in many fail videos in the internet. The tower tube starts at the bottom from a diameter from 2 to 4,5 meters and ends up high to 2,5 meters. The tower tube walls are made of steel 2,5 cm thick. That makes the tower very heavy. The diameter and the thickness of the tube is getting a little smaller as we go up, as the air pressure is lighter than closer to the ground. It is very complicated for the specialists to calculate everything and combine all the engineering and mechanic functions properly. But it is simpler for the rest of us to understand how it basically works comparing it to a ‌simple straw. Also the wind bends not only the tower but the blades as well, and not in the same

way, so the engineer has to calculate everything in detail to prevent the blades from hitting the tower.

Eytychia Georgakopoulou asks where the wind farms are constructed and how the areas where the wind farms are installed are selected. Mr Psychogios explains that there are many laws and restrictions concerning wind energy development. The areas selected are defined on a special official map according to all wind farms laws and national and international policies. There is a national plan with many restrictions. The wind turbines are not affordable if installed one by one, so the 40-50 Mega Watts wind farms are usually the best solution. If a wind turbine produces around 1,5 Mega Watt , we need 20 wind turbines for a wind farm. If it produces 4 to 5 Mega Watts we need 10 etc. We need constant medium stable wind flow, so we prefere high mountains, large valleys and close to the sea areas where the wind finds no obstacles. The blades start to turn when wind has a speed of 3 meters per second ( 12 km per hour), as the most they can support is a a speed of 20 m per second. If the wind is faster the turbines stop turning automatically as it becomes dangerous. So not all areas are suitable for wind farms anyway. Before installing wind farms, a little very high wind turbine is testing the wind flow of the area examining and measuring the wind conditions for one or two years! Wind farms are very expensive projects to take risks. Many laws and restrictions are limiting the possible areas too: Distance from houses, environmental issues etc

Danai Apostolopoulou asked how long it takes to construct a wind turbine.

Mr Panagiotis Psychogios says that you get a turbine one year after you order it. But to get the licences to construct a wind farm it takes much more, 3 to 10 years, and even up to 100.000 pages of applications forms , licences and certificates. The bureaucracy is enormous and the application procedures are very long. Usually it takes 7 years. First it needs an application for the selected area, as many of the areas are public property and part of the country’s natural forests etc An application procedure to get permission to use 10 square km for each wind turbine, complied environmental laws, archaeological sites distance restrictions, public and local authorities, prefectures and municipalities agreement etc‌ For example Mr Psychogios has spent for all this procedure even up to 12 years for one project. Further more the construction can not take place during winter time as mountains weather does not allow it. The total wind farm installation and roads preparations and construction takes approximately 2 years. One very difficult part is also the connecting the wind farm with the right high voltage electricity network which usually is not close to the mountain tops etc But Mr Psychogios says that if you want to install a small wind turbine in your house is much easier !!!

Nikos Aivaliotis asked how many wind farms are there in our country and what are the plans for the future.

Mr Psychogios says that now (2019) our energy production by wind farms nationally is soon going to be around one Giga Watt. He points that we have very good sea winds so we can continue on sea wind farms . Sea farms are the future and they are installed on special sea platforms ,150 m high above sea level, and it is easier to obtain permissions for that. They are like ships with anchors , difficult and complicacted to construct and operate but it seems it is the future. Bureaucracy is always a problem though. We now produce 700 Mega Watts (2019) and 230 Mega watts are programmed to be produced the next two years (20202021). 700 Mega Watts is close to the energy produced by large Power Plants like the one in Megalopolis, Greece, which produces electricity from coal and lignite for all of southern Greece and the islands. But one significant difference is that wind farms are not always producing stable energy ,so their power is not always accepted by the network. The wind farms are working approximately 2.000 hours per year. Wind Farms are also tested for 5 to 6 months by the electricity network companies before allowing connecting to it. Mr Psychogios says that he is now (2019)constructing an 11 wind turbines wind farm on Acarnanian Mountains, Greece, with 45 Mega Watts capacity . In 2018 it was stopped by an early winter snow, and work continued in summer 2019. Also as Greece’s possible wind farms installations areas are not so many, the future of Greece’s wind power is in the sea.

The goal of renewable Energy production in Europe is 20 per cent by 2021 but now we are at 18 % (2019). Mr Psychogios says that until 2021 we will be able to produce 20% of the country’s energy needs by renewable energy sources only.

Efi Tarama asks why the parts of wind turbines are not carried up to the mountains by helicopters, so that we do not have to deal with all the transportation and road constructions problems.

Mr Psychogios replies that the parts of the wind turbines are very large and heavy. If wind flow change suddently while a helicopter carries a part it is very dangerous. Helicopters can carry great weights, and some times have carried small parts, but not the wind turbines large parts. The parts of the wind turbines are so large because we need to minimize and limit the assembly time and procedures. Smaller parts would make it more complicated and much more expensive because of the isolated areas they have to be taken. In some places though smaller wind turbines parts are carried by helicopters and installed when there is no other transportation option.

Theodosis Bobis asks what is Greece ‘s use of renewable energy compared to other countries.

Mr Psychogios repeats that the goal of renewable Energy production in Europe is 20 per cent by 2021 but now we are at 18 % (2019). Mr Psychogios says that until 2021 we will be able to produce 20% of the country’s energy needs by renewable energy . Many countries though are already there. Germany’s goal for example is to close down all Nuclear Power Plants and replace their production with renewable energy sources. Enormous solar power plants are being developed there and very large wind farms require less bureaucracy than here. Here it is most common that the habitants object to wind farms installations. In Germany they install wind farms in the valleys and cultivate the fields beneath at the same time. All countries who havesigned Kyoto Protocol are trying to reduce gas emissions and turn to renewable energy sources. England is another different example as it is a low land and they may have many rains but no high mountains, so water power plants are not applicable. So they use mostly the sun (but how much sun can we find in north countries usually?) and the wind. So each country has to find special unique combinations and solutions. It is very difficult. Italy , France and Spain are not so ready for their renewable energy capacity goals. Denmark is one of the first who have succeeded, mostly based on wind farms as the north countries do not have a lot of sunlight. North countries lack sunlight, center of Europe lacks wind power too. Usually we have more wind power near sea. So the economical criteria are very carefully examined according to each country’s geomorphical and weather profile.

Student John Ntousas asked what impact do wind farms have on plants and animals of the areas they are installed

Mr Psychogios says that plants are not so affected as they can grow again after the foundation construction. Animals and birds are easily used to the wind turbins sounds too.. The turbines sound like an air condition unit when working, 60 decibel in a 100 meters distance and a repeated “tak“ sound. Birds though are in danger, that is why wind turbines are not allowed to be installed in wild birds migration flyways. The birds can not calculate the blades turning speed and blades may hit them. Unfortunately some birds are killed by wind turbines. Some maintenance workers have calculated 20 small birds hit by turbine blades in a big farm per month. Birds can not avoid the blades as they can not avoid some times cars etc.

Mr Grigoris Vassilopoulos asked if we can install a small wind turbine in our school, based on the energy study we conducted and the school model we constructed with our school’s “green” energy modifications proposal, as part of our Erasmus+ project work. We had calculated that we needed 5 KW wind turbine capacity and that in the area we have winds of 3m per second. Mr Vassilopoulos also asked if Mr Psychogios has installed wind turbines in schools and if wind energy is used more than solar energy in Greece. He also asked if we can store energy from wind farms.

Mr Psychogios says that the horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are better than vertical axis ones to use in urban areas. For example in Singapore they have installed wind turbines high up between skyscrapers. He answered that he has not installed any wind turbines in schools in Greece and that the only ecological project in schools he has participated in is an eco-roofs project, terrace gardens which act as a natural filter and source of clean air. He also said that 3 m per second wind speed in our school’ s area is very good for a small wind turbine, as small turbine function start from 1,8 m per second speed. But the energy production will be smaller, as for the capacity of 5KW we need constant wind speed of 12 m per second maximum, 40 klm per hour. He says too that wind power is used more than solar power, as wind power produces 700 MW and solar power around 500 MW). But solar power plants were easily installed and they produce consistent energy. Wind farms are also very far away from electricity network so it is much more expensive to connect it to the electrical grid. Mr Psychogios answered regarding the possibility of energy storage that now it is almost impossible. We are however working on projects on energy storage, like “Amari hybrid Energy Project” system that combines wind energy and hydro pumped storage technology in Crete and “Tilos Project” hybrid power system project in Tilos island with electricity generation and energy batteries storage from renewable sources. (The Tilos project is something we worked on during our Erasmus+ project in our school too)

Katerina Andreou thanked Mr Psychogios for this interview and asked what is the reason we do not use renewable energy as much as we should, if it is really economical and if we are going to use it more in the future. She also asked if the wind turbine on our “green” school energy model would be better to be a horizontal one. Mr Psychogios says that renewable energy use is very complicated but not totally ecological of course as it needs many fuels uses and gases emissions and material waste etc just to make the parts of a wind turbine for example or any renewable energy plant. The most ecological energy is Nuclear Fusion, the attempt to replicate the processes of the Sun on Earth. Fusion is the process that drives our Sun. Hydrogen atoms crash together and break their atomic bonds and fuse to helium. As hydrogen is everywhere it is very cheap and the energy production is cheap and limitless. (Fusion differs significantly from nuclear fission, which has been the only way of getting electricity from atoms) But getting to producing energy by fusion is yet extremely difficult. Nevertheless it will solve all the world’s energy problem. He also answered about the horizontal wind turbine on our school roof as a much better option than a vertical one. As even a small vertical wind turbine with 5 MW capacity needs a tower at least 25 meters high, the horizontal one needs no more than a roof to be installed. But the horizontal will need a higher cappacity around 7,5 to 8 MW in order to achieve the same result. Mr Psychogios concluding congratulated us for our work and our very interesting Erasmus+ project “European Schools Go Green”, and said that he may have given much more information than the students can absorb and retain and evaluate during the one hour teleconference, but all these issues are so much more complicated than people think that it is impossible to give simple answers and characterize something as right or wrong or suggest the perfect solution, as it needs difficult studies and research. He also suggested that it would be great to work on zero energy buildings so that he can help us on that too!!!

We thanked him again a lot for his help and his warm collaboration, for all the details and information on Wind Farms construction that we never even had guessed.

Some more information for Mr Panagiotis Psychogios work:

Panagiotis Psychogios/ PPS engineering Honors & Awards ( a small selection): 

Architectural Praise for the Cultural municipal cultural center of Heraklio Crete

Architectural Praise for the Configuration of the Landscape at the Municipal park of Trikala

2ndational Architectural award for the “Square configuration and construction of a 400 places sub parking lot at Psila Alonia municipality of Patras”

2nd’ National Architectural award for the Municipal Cultural Center of Kalamata

2nd’ National Architectural award for the Municipal building of NEA Smirni

1st’ National Architectural award for the Municipal building of Corinth

1st’ National Architectural award for the Public Library of Pyrgos Elias

1st’ National Architectural award for the “Construction of 12 ministerial offices in Athens”

1st’ National Architectural award for the “Telogleio institution Art Gallery and Museum Thessaloniki”

3d’ National Architectural award for the Office Building of the “Panagia of Tinos Convent”

Organizations: 

Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO) of Greece

European Centre on Prevention and Forecasting of Earthquakes

Municipality of Levadia Water and Waste Co

Municipality of Levadia Boeotia

Public Hospital Building co

Some more very important information collected during our Wind Farms study:

Exclusion Zones for Wind Energy: • Strict Nature Reserves & Nature Reserves • National Park core zones, Aesthetic Forests • Priority habitats of Natura 2000 (Dir 92/43/EEC) (Expansion of Natura 2000 Network version 30, December 2017) >27% of the land area of the country belongs to Natura 2000 network . • Ramsar Wetlands • Sacred monuments of the world cultural heritage & other monuments of major importance

• Inside town plans and settlements’ boundaries before 1923 or under 2000 residents • Organized touristic areas and other production sectors etc, theme parks, tourist ports • Quarries and surface mining and extractive zones • Bathing water of Ministry for Environment relevant program RES Spatial Planning article 6 & L.3937/2011 for biodiversity conservation

Environmental classification of Wind Farms according to impacts: Category Α «potential for significant impacts» Category Β «local, non-significant impacts» 0,02 MW < P < 5 MW* Category Α1 P ≥ 60 MW or P>30 MW @ N2000 or HV line ≥ 20 km Category Α2 5 MW < P < 60 MW and HV line < 20 km * Exception include projects with P<0,02MW (e.g. within Natura 2000, near the seaside, next to other RES projects)

Natura Network 2000: Studies for Natura 2000 sites:

Important Bird Areas: Information on a set of Protected Areas (Natura 2000, Ramsar Wetlands, small island wetlands, wildlife shelters, etc.): (WWF) EU Guidance document: Wind energy developments & Natura 2000

Demonstration of good practices to minimize impacts of wind farms on biodiversity in Greece , LIFE12 BIO/GR/000554:


Here you can see the geoinformation maps with all necessary data:

The Wind Farms environmental and public acceptance issues of these years , puzzled students of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada a lot too. A big discussion has started, and what we surely understood during this project is that we always have to consult with the experts to form an opinion, or just publish all the important information that scientists and experts shared with us to make this discussion even more important. We are also very intrigued to keep searching for answers as this discussion was very inspiring. And one conclusion which is difficult to manage but students and teachers really changed after embrassing it: There are no easy answers and black-and-white truths. When dealing with scientific matters, protection of our life and planet , as well as studying technological evolution and industrial future, there are so many complicated factors to study that we really need to improve our communication and collaboration skills to have positive results in all areas.

Wind Potential and geographical distribution of applications for wind farms ©Nikos D. Hatziargyriou

Check here more useful and interesting data and charts:

Video and transcript edit by Mrs Andreou Aikaterini , Fine Arts Educator / Erasmus+ “European Schools Go Green” contact person 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece 2020

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 - 2020

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Collaboration Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany Renewable Energy Sources – Sustainable Development – Climate change


Mrs Kossyvaki we are very happy and honored to take your interview. After we met you during our amazing tour and visit at the Italian Institute of Technology in Genova, Italy, as part of our Erasmus+ students mobility in 2019, we wanted to take your interview as we admire your research and work so much ! Why did you choose this difficult particular field of studies as a PHD student? Please introduce us to your work, curriculum and yourself!!!

Mrs Kossyvaki is presenting to our students their amazing research results in IIT laboratories in Genova, Italy, during our students Erasmus+ mobility in 2019. This visit inspired the interview idea . Students and teachers were very impressed with all the waste and exciting alternative material uses the scientists are working on.

My name is Despoina Kossyvaki, I am 27 years old and I am currently a PhD student at the University of Genoa, carrying out my research activity in the Italian Institute of Technology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia or simply IIT). I concluded my master studies in the School of Environmental Engineering at the Technical University of Crete (Πολυτεχνείο Κρήτης/Politechnio Kritis). Environmental engineering is a very interesting and upcoming field of studies, since it is multidisciplinary department that gives its students the opportunities to obtain knowledge and skills of different scientific sectors, such as hydraulics, physics, mathematics, chemistry, civil engineering, microbiology, renewable sources, wastewater and waste management and treatment, etc. In fact, this was the main reason that I chose to study there. During my studies, I had the opportunity to follow very interesting lectures and – most importantly – attend and take active part in laboratory experiments and design a wastewater treatment plant. I also had the chance to visit the landfill of Chania and Athens, the center of recycle of Athens and the wastewater treatment plant of Psitalia. During my studies, I participated in the Erasmus mobility program. Specifically, I was accepted from the University of Life Sciences of Prague (Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze) for an academic semester to attend the lectures and do laboratory activities in the faculties of Environmental Sciences and Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources. This exquisite experience broadened my horizons not only for my studies but also in a personal level . After writing my experimental thesis in Microbiology («Assessment of microbiological quality of seawater and sand samples in bathing areas in Chania, Greece», available online in, I was accepted by the IIT – Center of Convergent Technologies to do an Erasmus+ traineeship mobility, so I made my luggage for Genoa! As soon as I got there, I was impressed by the research group of Smart Materials in which I worked for 3 months, and I asked for an extension of the Erasmus + mobility, which fortunately was accepted! So, the 3 months became 6, and after one more year of work as a Fellow, always in the group of Smart Materials, I applied for the PhD program of

Bioengineering and Robotics – Curriculum Bionanotechnology of the University of Genoa, always in collaboration with the IIT! During the Erasmus+ traineeship, I worked in the research line of prevention and healing. During this experience, my colleagues and I fabricated electrospun nanofibers from keratin that we extracted from wool, a synthetic polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone and cinnamon essential oil, to create a scaffold for the delivery of active compounds of cinnamon essential oil for the healing of skin burns. We followed the release kinetics of these compounds from the fibers, while the material was found antioxidant, antibacterial, biocompatible and anti inflammatory. This work was entitled as “Keratin-cinnamon essential oil biocomposite fibrous patches for skin burn care” was recently published in the journal of Materials Advances and you can find it online here!divAbstract.

What exactly is you are working on at the ΙΙΤ? What is the aim of yout studies and research there? Can you describe and present a part of your very interesting research as the results you have showed us in IIT? As I already mentioned before, I am a PhD student of the University of Genoa, working in IIT in the research group of Smart Materials. The aim of my studies is the development of “Smart indicators of alterations in the metabolic activity of microorganisms”. But what is the importance of these indicators? With the worldwide population continuously growing, the increased environmental pollution and the lack of resources, the identification of good quality for food, water and health factors has become extremely important. Among the categories of quality evaluation, the immedia te acquisition of information concerning the microbial growth within a specific macro and micro environment, indication of the food spoilage, of non-drinkable water, but also of various skin infections is of emerging importance. Therefore, the need for microbial growth monitoring is essential for modern societies. Since the metabolic activity of microorganisms can alter the pH of the environment in which they live, pH indicators are the number one priority of scientists to cope with this situation. In fact, when the pH indicators are introduced in the environment in which the microorganisms live and multiply, they can provide qualitative or semi quantitative information through visual colorimetric changes or through comparison with standard references.

Picture 1: The colorimetric behavior of (a) anthocyanin extract from red cabbage and of (b) the material - indicator that contains the anthocyanin extract (J. Zia et al., 2020).

And how can we obtain these colorimetric changes? In my case, I use two molecules: anthocyanins and curcumin. These molecules have the ability to change their color according to the pH (Pictures 1 and 2). Anthocyanins are found in many fruit, vegetables, seeds and flowers, while curcumin is found in the spice called turmeric. By extracting the anthocyanins with the use of water or other solvents containing alcohol and incorporating them or

curcumin in polymeric materials, I aim to obtain materials – indicators that will give information about the state of a food or a wound. For example, when a fish is close to spoilage, the increase of microbial growth leads to the increased release some amines (such as ammonia) that increase the pH value inside the packaging. If we put the indicator inside a packaging containing the fish, it will trace this pH change and will obtain a different color. With the appropriate labeling that will correlate the color of the indicator to the state of the food, the consumer will be able to know in advance that the fish is close to expire and he will give priority to its cooking.

Picture 2: The colorimetric behavior of curcumin in alkaline pH ( Hui-zhi Chen et al., 2020).

In order to better understand this mechanism, you can have a look at the recent publication of my colleague Jasim Zia, who was working with one of my tutors, Despina Fragouli, on this topic. You can find their article with the title “Porous pH natural indicators for acidic and basic vapor sensing” here: .

What are the differences you have spotted between Greece and Italy regarding the scientific research and recycling ? Are there European or other countries with exceptional succesful system of waste treatment and alternative solutions to replace plastic? Until last year, Greece was in the 18th position of the (28) countries of the European Union regarding the budget for research and development activities. I am sure that the critical economic situation of our country plays an important and determinant role in this, and due to this, many young scientists are forced to leave Greece in order to pick a career in research without having the opportunity to return to their country and have a satisfying job and income after their experience abroad. Of course, this has an impact also in the development of technologies and until a certain point the way that Greek society is set, from the age of its habitats to the everyday habits, such as the one of recycling. In fact, there is definitely a difference between Greece and Italy regarding the recycling process. To start with, the first and most obvious difference is in the way of the selection and deposition of the recycling objects. To be more specific, in Greece we have the blue bins for recycling of packaging, where all the recycled materials end up together, while in Italy there is a separation of: (a) paper and carton, (b) glass, (c) plastic and metal. At this point, I would also like to highlight the presence of the brown bins that accept organic waste, something that is very rare to find in Greece. In addition to this, during my travels in various places of Italy, I have noticed differences in the waste treatment. While in Sicily some municipalities do not participate in recycling programs yet, some cities of the north of Italy like Trento have a very strict protocol and better organization, with waste and recycling bins in every block of flats and a specific number of bags that every house can use per year to put their waste! This means that people are somehow “forced” to create less waste. Based on this, I personally believe that everyone – no matter the organization of the country where we live – should always take into consideration and act according to the 4R (Rethink – Reduce –

Reuse – Recycle), which suggests that we should re-define the way of our everyday life in order to create a minimum waste, reducing our waste fingerprint in this planet. However, the countries of central and north Europe have a very good system of waste treatment. A very interesting example is the one of Norway, where they use their waste to produce thermal energy for their heating systems!

What is your opinion about the way that we should use waste and natural materials and resources in the future in Greece? What do you think we should change? And how would you suggest we improve our energy profile?

I strongly believe that many things should change in the way that we use/treat waste and natural materials and resources, especially in Greece. To start with, and always highlighting the 4R, we should start from rethinking our needs. A very critical aspect is to investigate what we really need to use. Modern people lead a lifestyle full of products and materials that sometimes they do not really need. If we rethink also in this case, we can certainly reduce what we use and put less burden in our wastelands and consequently to our planet. Another very important aspect is to reduce or even quit single-use items, replacing them with items made of more environmentally friendly materials such as bamboo, cotton and bioplastics. The main advantage of these items is that are reusable and can serve our everyday needs without having a deteriorating environmental impact. For instance, we could replace plastic toothbrushes with ones made from bamboo, single use plastic cups of coffee with refillable ones, we can carry our own cutlery made of bamboo instead of using plastic ones, take always our refillable bottle of water from home etc. These are only a few everyday examples and if we all take some time to think how much plastic (and not only) single use items we use every day just because of habit, we can realize how big is our waste fingerprint. This thought could be used as a starting point to change our habits and as a result our impact on the planet. Of course, it is not always easy to use reusable items. A good example of this are the packaged goods that we buy from the super markets. In this case, if we have made our research and we realize that we cannot avoid certain products, we can always recycle them, always following the indications of the recycling system of the place that we live. The latter is of high importance, since sometimes we do not recycle properly, and what we throw in the recycling bins can end up to the landfills. Especially for Greece, you can find all the information about recycling here:

In Greece and especially in Ileia prefecture we have a big problem with waste management and unfortunately we do not recycle as we should. How do you suggest we could make recycling the rule and not the exception in our everyday lives ? Until recently, the recycling process was something that Greek people were ignoring. During the last years, the Greek state provided citizens with the blue bins, where they can recycle packaging made of paper and carton, plastic and aluminum. Unfortunately, though, there is a remarkable score of people, mainly older ones, who have not introduced recycling in their lives. I believe that in order to make recycling the rule and not the exception in our everyday lives, people should start learning about it from a very young age. The first step should be for the parents to be the good example, by not only recycling at home, but also talking to their children about the importance of it and motivating them to do so. After that, schools should be succors of this effort by introducing courses about environmental consciousness and behavior, including recycling as one of the most important everyday habits that students should develop and maintain. Another important thing that should be introduced in the education system should be excursions to landfills and recycling centers, since in this way all youngsters could see how waste is treated and realize how big are the amounts of trash that we dispose every day! At the same time, the state should organize better the recycling procedure, by making easier the access to the blue bins for all of the citizens, no matter how remote is the area that they live. The next step for the municipalities should be to include separate recycling bins for the various materials (paper, carton, glass, aluminum and plastic), in order to make the recycling procedure easier even before the step of waste collection and of course, to encourage the awareness of what we consume. In this way, people would realize what materials they dispose the most and be stimulated to rethink their waste and why not change their consuming habits. Last but not least, more strict controls should be carried out by the authorities, in order to monitor and ensure the proper disposal of waste and recyclable materials and verify the effectiveness of the recycling procedure.

How can you picture for us the effects and contribution of your research to sustainability and biodiversity protection? Is it possible that industry can agree with the wide use of ecological alternative materials? The research of the group of Smart Materials deals with the development of new materials combining various polymers and changing their properties by introducing nanofillers or organic molecules in the matrices. We work on both the control of the chemistry and of the structure of the materials we develop, in order to achieve precise properties adjusted to the needs of various application fields. Since polymers are the main building blocks of the materials we fabricate, we have intensified our efforts in using natural polymers principally of plant origin (silk, keratin, zein, starch, alginate, chitosan etc.) or biodegradable polymers, in order to develop new advanced composite materials with accurately modulated properties but at the same time with minimal environmental impact. The pillars of our group are mainly the ones of sustainable biocomposites, food protection, biomedical devices, water protection and green flexible electronics *. Sustainability is one of the main priorities of our group, since we aim to develop materials that can substitute some of the already commercialized products – mainly based on plastic – that pollute the environment. We already collaborate with various companies and some of the developed materials are already patented and/or commercialized. Imagine that some of the materials that we produce come from the waste of the companies themselves, with a great example the one of fruit and vegetable packaging that is fabricated from fruit and vegetable waste*! This is something that gives me hope and optimism about the future, since with these alternative materials we can minimize our fingerprint on Earth and protect its biodiversity. I believe that if industries include to their politics the research and development of such products, the conventional ones that we currently use can be substituted and there can

be massive use of ecological alternative materials that do not have a bad impact to the planet.

*For more information about the group’s action, visit the following links:

Which way do you propose the state should work to limit human yperactivity and hyperconsumption , which consist threats to the young people’s future and destroys our environment? In my opinion, hyperactivity and overconsumption is mostly a matter of personal education. Specifically for overconsumption, it derives mainly from the self-centrism and the feeling of having unsatisfied needs. For this reason, the families and the educational system should focus on creating not only environmental consciousness but first and foremost a more minimalistic approach to life, bringing children closer to nature and teach them how to be creative and feel good with themselves without having the need of cellphones, tablets and other distractions of this type. By making life simpler, people will have less needs and buy less products, and as a result their impact to the environment will be less destructive.

Do you think that Greek students and their families are informed for the above issues? What could be more included in Greek education to improve climate crisis education or other ways to engage them better? Do European projects as Erasmus+ contribute to environmental awareness, and if so could we improve their role?

As I already mentioned, the awareness of the Greek people regarding these topics is unfortunately inadequate. Nevertheless, I have noticed that during the last few years more and more young people have started rethinking their values, introducing habits such as recycling and leading a more minimalistic way of life. As for the educational system, I finished school in 2011 and until this time, we did not have any course dedicated to the Environment. I hope that in the future schools will be more organized under this aspect. Environmental courses and excursions should be introduced to the students’ schedule, promoting behavior and habits that respect the environment and are not destructive to our planet Earth; remember: this planet is not ours; we borrowed it from our children.

The Erasmus+ is one of the most important European programs, since it gives students the opportunity to travel and see for themselves how other states function under certain topics. In this way, young people can broaden their horizons, “put in their luggage” new information, and another point of view that will probably change the way that they see and evaluate their actions and hopefully they will adopt a more environmentally friendly way of life. One nice suggestion for the reinforcement and improvement of the Erasmus+ program would be to include more visits in industries and research centers, since these places are the “heart” of technological advances and evolution. In this way, students will have the opportunity to see all of the new advancements and get in touch with how science and production works. This can also help them for their future development, since they can be motivated to choose a studying and work path.

Thank you so much Mrs Kossyvaki for your time and support!!! Your work is a great inspiration!!!

The students of 2nd Junior High School of Greece

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Colla boration Galileo Galilei Technica l High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amalia da Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany

Renewable Energy Sources – Susta inable Development – Clima te change

2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 - 2020

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Collaboration Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany Renewable Energy Sources – Sustainable Development – Climate change

Scientists, Specialists and activists Interviews 2020

Interview of Mrs Haroula Kromyadou Responsible for Environmental Education Projects of Arcturos NGO

Mrs Haroula Kromiadou is a philologist-pedagogist with post-graduate studies in School Pedagogy and Environmental Education. She works at the NGO ARCTUROS, where her responsibilities include planning and implementing Environmental Education projects for children and adults.

Arcturos has helped a lot with our project all this years, and kindly and generously offered to our school all kinds of printed and digital material including books and leaflets and dvds with multimedia products for our research and study . We thank them a lot and we are really inspired and moved by their work and amazing activities and efforts.

Haroula Kromyadou as the responsible for the Arcturos center Educational projects offered to help us with the activists – specialists interviews and answered our questions in difficult times during the Covid19 Pandemic.

We are really grateful for all her work and help, and we admire her strength and positive energy as all her colleagues as well. We are going to work with Arcturos next year after our project’s end too, and we will also contribute to their work in as many ways as we can.

Foundation of ARCTUROS

Bear Cubs Rescue, Care and Wild Release by Arcturos Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ Video :

ARCTUROS is a non profit, non governmental, environmental organization (NGO) founded in 1992, focusing on the protection of wildlife fauna and natural habitat, in Greece and abroad. The foundation of ARCTUROS was driven by constant need to solve the problem of bear and wolf imprisonment; a common occurence at the time. It was that need, which led to the creation of a complete action framework, under the umbrella of ARCTUROS.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ

Functioning of the Environmental Center of ARCTUROS Among other activities of ARCTUROS, priority has been given to scientific research as well as to providing environmental education and raising

public awareness on matters such as biodiversity and viability, while practicing political pressure based on complete programs and solutions.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ

Read the full very intertesting interview of Mrs Kromyadou

10 questions asked by Erasmus Students Team of 2nd Junior High School of , Greece , and 10 answers by Mrs Haroula Kromyadou 1.

Mrs Haroula Kromiadou thank you for so much for giving this interview! We admire a lot your difficult and demanding work and projects in Arktouros, and your colleagues and activists efforts there too. Can you please describe yourself? How did you decide to work on these subjects and how did you decide to work with Arktouros and offer so much to the wild nature and life of our country?

My name is Haroula Kromiadou and I’ m a philologist-pedagogist with post-graduate studies in School Pedagogy and Environmental Education. I work at the NGO ARCTUROS, where my responsibilities include planning and implementing Environmental Education projects for children and adults. I met ARCTUROS when I was a student as a

volunteer and a short time later I was offered a job to work there. I accepted the job because I always loved animals and children.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ


How does the Greece ‘s policies on wild life protection compare with the other European countries?

Greece follows all the European laws and International Conventions for the Protection of Environment and Wildlife. There are a lot of Public and non-Governmental Organizations working to protect wildlife. Due to the Mediterranean climate and its location Greece hosts many rare and endemic wild species. Some of them are endangered and need to be protected. Thanks to ARCTUROS and other organizations Greece is doing remarkably well in the protection of some endangered species and a few years ago became the 1st European and the 2nd country in the world to ban the use of any animals in circuses.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ 3.

What have you observed that maybe connects to the climate change the pastr years? Is there a climate change effect on Greece’s wild life?

The last decade we have observed that sometimes the bears wake up from their hibernating sleep earlier due to the short winter. We also need to find out if and how climate change is affecting bears’ diet. There is a connection to the climate change, but we need more research data for valid conclusions. 4.

What has made wild animals approach cities and villages more often the last decades? How is this phenomenon managed in Greece and other countries?

In several areas of Northern Greece, bears sometimes approach the villages. ARCTUROS cooperates with the State and other NGO’s and in a short time new guidelines for the management of bear population will be created that will provide the actions necessary for the confrontation of the conflicts. Similar practices are implemented abroad. More details here:

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ 5.

What do you think of schools educational visits in your center? Do you have any data about the feedback and dissemination of your work to students and their schools and families?

Every year 10,000 students visit the International Environmental Center of ARCTUROS and another 10,000-15,000 attend the educational programs of the organization. We have a very positive feedback. Some aspects of this feedback are:  Some schools make a donation or organize supporting events to ARCTUROS’ actions.  Other schools send us creative dissemination and information works on the actions of ARCTUROS.  A lot of students visit ARCTUROS again with their family and when they grow up they become volunteers.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ 6.

What international networks are you participating in? How are you collaborating? What are the differences between Greece’s educational environmental projects and other countries similar activities and projects for students?

ARCTUROS participates in a lot of International networks as:  The ΙΒΑ (International Bear Association),  The Society for Conservation Biology,  The EARS (European Alliance of Rescue Centers and Sanctuaries),  The LCIE (Large Carnivore Initiative for Europe),  The ENDCAP (End Captivity),  The ΙΕΝΕ (Infra Eco Network Europe), Here in Greece we have a high level of Environmental Education. Maybe, we need more connection to nature. 7.

How can you explain how Greece is left behind in sustainable development and recycling? What are the main problems that become obstacles ? How about financial crisis of Greece and this present Covid19 pandemic? Did they affect your work?

The recycling and the sustainable development are important and we have made significant progress. More cooperation and communication between the state and the citizens is needed. The financial crisis and the current pandemic of Covid-19 made the task of ARCTUROS difficult, but a lot of citizens helped us to continue our

actions. Despite the difficulties, we are optimistic and continue to protect the environment and wildlife.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ/Karamanidis 8.

What is the role of the European programmes in your work? Do they help in protecting wild nature and ecological balance, biodiversity and sustainable develpoment? Do we need to adopt different policies and take more advantage of European Programmes?

The European programs are crucial in protecting biodiversity and creating sustainable development. ARCTUROS has implemented more than 22 European programs and it keeps going. As a member of European Union we take advantage of the European programs, but we need to adopt a more stable policy of maintaining the results of the programs.


Do you think that Greek students and their families have an idea of all the above issues? What would you think the schools may do better? Are the projects like our Erasmus+ project helping spread the information and change the attitude of Greek students and their families , ispire and activate citizens ?

The Erasmus+ are significant programs because they increase European co-operation. It would be even more effective if many more schools could participate in such a program. Every year a lot of programs of Environmental Education take place in Greek schools. A consistent environmental policy (recycling, awareness, voluntarism, etc.) must be established in all schools.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ

During this 3 year project we learned to communicate , share more, and cooperate with totally different schools , cultures and countries. Do you think cooperation between Greek and International authorities is satisfactory? What can we change?


The answer is more communication and more cooperation between the citizens and the State. We are at a good level of cooperation, but there must be a stable environmental policy. When something is to change, the key must be: “development through environmental protection”.

Photo credits : ©ΑΡΚΤΟΥΡΟΣ

Thank you so much for this interview Mrs Kromyadou !!! We admire your inspiring work and contribution to a better greener world!

The students and teachers of 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 If you want to help the amazing work of Arcturos too, you can see how you can do that here by becoming a member, volunteering to work in the Arcturos foundation, “adopting” a wild animal in the shelter, or donate to the Foundation etc

Erasmus+ programme “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020 3d Year of Colla boration Galileo Galilei Technica l High School of Genova, Italy 2nd Junior High School of Amalia da Goethe Gymnasium Kassel, Germany

Renewable Energy Sources – Susta inable Development – Clima te change

Galileo Galilei Technical High School of Genova Italy – 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada, Greece

ERASMUS+ PROGRAMME KA 2 STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP “European Schools Go Green” 2017 – 2020

We would like to thank the following for the contribution to the good results of the project:



COMUNE DI GENOVA (Municipality of Genoa) Mr. Stefano Balleari, Vice Mayor of Genoa Mrs. Barbara Grosso, Assessor of Cultural, Educational and Youth Policies Mrs. Graziella Sperindio, Mr. Stefano Piroli, Mrs. Francesca Arba, Department of Youth Policies of the Municipality of Genoa

MUSEI DI GENOVA (Museums of Genoa) Mrs. Simonetta Maione, Chief of the Educational and Didactic Department IIT ISTITUTO ITALIANO DI TECNOLOGIA (Italian Institute of Technology) Mrs. Irene Rivara PARCO PESEA LIGURIA in Coronata, Genoa Mr. Sandro Ottonello MUSEO DELLA CARTA (Paper Museum) in Mele, Genoa Mr. Giuseppe Traverso AQUARIUM OF GENOA INTERVIEWS IT ALY Mrs. Barbara Bosio, Professor at the Chemical Engineering Faculty, University of Genoa Mr. Walter Riva, Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Righi, Genoa Mr. Roberto Cavallo, environmental activist and writer

SCHOOL STAFF IT ALY Mrs. Rosella Monteforte, Headmaster of IISS EINAUDI CASAREGIS GALILEI Mr. Corrado Campi, Vice Headmaster of IISS EINAUDI CASAREGIS GALILEI Teachers Mrs. Giovanna Rosso, technical drawing and CAD Mr. Gerolamo Biosa, technical drawing and CAD Mrs. Roberta Repetto, mathematics and statistics

Mr. Andrea Boccalero, automation systems and robotics Mr. Pietro Belmonte, automation systems and robotics Mr. Giuseppe Canepa, electronics and electro technique Mr. Gianluca Litterio, physical education and sports Mr. Giancarlo Muià, Administrative Chief of IISS EINAUDI CASAREGIS GALILEI Mrs. Giuseppina Ambesi, Administrative Office Mrs. Viviana Ventura, Administrative Office

Greece – experts/scientists/ organizations/ institutions/ firms etc having taken part in our project 2017-2020 We would like to thank a lot for their contribution: Greek Municipalities 2017-2019 - Mayor of Ilida Municipality Mr Christodoulopoulos Vice Mayor mr Mavrikos Mr Manolopoulos Chairman of the Public Council “Elios”, Mr Athanassopoulos Chairman of the School Committee for Secondary Education of the Municipality of Ilida, Mrs Tsopela Vice President of the School Committee for Education - Mayor of Andravida – Kyllini Municipality 2017-2019 Mr Nabil for their hospitality and scientific introduction to the “Green Port project” project of Kyllini Port when our partner schools and our students visited the Kyllini Port

Ilida Municipality 2019-2020 GREECE Mayor of Ilida Mr. Yiannis Lymberis, Mr. Kapsis, Counselor of Culture of the Municipality of Ilida,

Mrs. Ioanna Stavropoulou, Chairman of the School Committee for Secondary Education of the Municipality of Ilida, Mr. Christos Nikolopoulos Chairman of the School Committee for Education Mr. Eugenios Asteris, Chairman of the Public Council “Elios”, All the above representatives of Municipalities are responsible for the warm hospitality by supporting our educational and cultural events, giving information for the renewable energy projects of the local area and the sustainable development goals of the Municipalities. They also sent official presents and letters to the Mayors of Kassel - Germany and Genova - Italy, wellcomed and guided our students and our collaborators and visitors in our area, offered numerous presents and souvenirs for all our guests from the partner schools, offered working dinners in the town of Amaliada for our partner schools delegations when they visited Greece but also prepared presents and educational material for our visits to Genova and Kassel .

We also would like to thank a lot: -

Head of Directorate of Secondary Education of Ilia, GREECE until August 2020, Mr.Vasileios Dimitrellos, who warmly supported our project from the beginning , personally welcomed and congratulated on October 2019 the participants of the third transnational teachers mobility on the successful course and results of the cooperation. He also offered gifts and souvenirs to our visitors and educational material as well.


Ecumenical Patriarchate – Church and the Protection of the Environment . His All Holiness, Bartholomew, Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch saluted our project and sent us educational and environmental material as well as the joint message for the Environment signed by Archbishop Bartholomew and Pope Francis is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State


The Metropolis of Ilia - western Peloponnese - Fragavilla Monastery GREECE Metropolitan Germanos of Ilia and Father Asimakis hosted the older students of our partner school Galileo Galilei Technical High School in Fragavilla Monastery and supported our project during the first students mobility and their visit to our city.

We collaborated also with and want to thank very much the following who offered free visits and guided tours, students workshops by scientists, archaeologists and specialists, offered digital and printed educational material as well: -

Patras Science Center GREECE -scientists Mrs Dimopoulou and Mrs Stergiopoulou The Open-Air Water Power Museum of Dimitsana GREECE


Museum of Ancient Greek Technology Kotsanas GREECE Archaeological Museum/archaeological site of Ancient Olympia GREECE Archaeological Museum/archaeological site of Ancient Ilida GREECE Archaeological Museum of Pyrgos, GREECE Merkouri estate GREECE

- Hellenic (Greek) Navy Military Office (Offered us a guided visit to Katakolo Lighthouse having a special permit from Greek Navy with the help of Mr Theodoropoulos - Ilia Ephorate of Antiquities GREECE and archaeologists Mrs Mourtzini, Mr Antonopoulos and Mrs Panagodimou - Chlemoutsi Castle Kastro Greece - Medieval Archaeological site and Museum and archaeologist and director Mrs Ralli

We were also honoured to be accompanied by Mrs Tita Terzi, who as a School Activities and Culture Officer of Ileia Prefecture, Greece, during the first two years of our project has supported our partnership, as well as all the activities of our school morally and practically and offered books and educational material, Mrs Harbali Iulia, a representative of the European Programmes Group of the Directorate of Secondary Education of Ilia, Greece, who was also close to us from the start of the programme Our eTwinning’s Ambassador of Ileia Prefecture Greece , awarded with 1st European eTwinning and other educational prizes Mrs Sofia Kouzouli, who warmly supported our project all the past years and also welcomed our guests and donated to our guests important works of Greek literature in English translation in October 2019. We also have to thank the Greek companies “Confectis” and managing director Mr Panagiotis Mouzakis, as well as “Juliette Armand”, «Ileiaki elaiourgia”, and “ Paraskevopoulos S.A.” among others, for offering their firms’ wonderful greek original products to our guests from our project partner schools.

All the following contributed with multiple printed and digital educational and information/data material for our project , for our school’s “Green” library and Erasmus research on Climate change, sustainable development goals and Renewable Energy, as well as printed material for our students and our partner schools. Special thanks to: -

Greek Ministry of Culture – Education department Ert National Greek Television– Education department Arktouros Greece WWF Greece


Greenpeace Greece Archipelagos Institut Greece Anima Greece Archelon Greece Stavros Niarchos Foundation Greece– Education department Tilos Project Greece

We have also joined and want to thank the "lets do it greece" Organisation , Greece, as with their inspiration and support our students cleaned beaches of our local area and volunteered for other “green” national projects. We also collaborated with and want to thank:

Fotokiklosi S.A. – Greece ,member of the WEEELABEX a nonprofit e-waste producer responsibility organization approved by the Greek Ministry of the Environment, Energy and Climate Change in 2009. Photokyklosi represents more than 200 Producers (Manufacturers and importers of electrical and electronic equipment) . As part of our project \“European Schools Go Green” our school goes green through the cooperation with Fotokiklosi S.A. actions (projects for schools approved of the Greek Ministry of Education, Research & Religions) at the 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada pupils and teachers collect old – damaged electrical appliances in special bins provided by the organization. The company cooperates with the Greek factory – recycler Eco Circle so that the appliances are not disposed of in an environmentally unfriendly manner, but undergo a special withdrawal process.

Eco Schools Eco-Schools is the largest global sustainable schools programme. Our school , 2nd Junior School of Amaliada Greece joined the network as part of our Erasmus Green school project. That way we are informed about all new projects and activities of the network and we are able to publish our work on the network as well as get important and useful material for our students and communicate with other “eco – schools” around the world. PPs Engineering – Athens, Greece is a leading Structural Consulting Engineering firm known for its innovative and quality work. They have an established and exte nsive presence both in Greece, and abroad, having undertaken numerous large and complex projects in the greater Balkan and European area. We consulted the firm and our students interviewed Mr Psychogios, Civil Engineer and Head of the Firm, and we had an inspirational and very interesting one hour interview through skype about renewable and sustainable energy constructions and especially Wind

Turbines. We also consulted them on our 2019 school model construction with green energy profile suggestions.

Also we want to thank the top scientists, experts and activists for the wonderful inspiring Interviews, their warm support and collaboration, their kind , inspiring and detailed answers to our students questions , especially during this year’s difficult times and under the pressure of their very demanding work and limited time:

Professor Doussi Emanouella Political Scientist and Proffessor Dept. of Political Science and Public Administration, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, Environmental Law expert. Mr Panagiotis Psychogios - Civil Engineer and director at PPsEngineering , Greece. Experienced Director and expert with a demonstrated history of working in the civil engineering industry , Wind Farms study, installation and maintenance in Greece and abroad. Mrs Despoina Kossyvaki, Greek scientist and PhD student at the University of Genoa, Italian Institute of Technology researcher (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia or simply IIT) : Bioengineering and Robotics – Curriculum Bionanotechnology of the University of Genoa , Smart Materials. Mrs Haroula Kromyadou, Responsible for Environmental Education Projects of Arcturos NGO, Greece, philologist, activist, Environmental Education expert. We especially want to thank Professor Andreou Georgios too, Political Scientist and Professor (political System of the European Union and the State and Public Institutions and Policies, Regional Inequalities and Cohesion in the European Union, Greek System of Governance School of Political Sciences - Faculty of Economic and Political Sciences - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece) for his help and consultation on European Policies and Political Sciences issues and resources. Also we would like to thank very much for all the support and help Mrs Elena Sarli Official EU Project Manager (2014-2020) of the Regional Directorate of Primary and Secondary Education of Western Greece.

Special thanks to the Greek School staff and Erasmus team teachers too: Principal Mr Antonis Gounaris ,

Mr Haris Spiropoulos, Mrs Efi Karvouniaris, Mr Grigoris Vassilopoulos, Mrs Maria Tzavara, Mrs Eleni Charda, Mrs Antonia Rambavila, Mrs Stavroula Salvanou.

Big thanks especially for her help and for being always there for us , as she was responsible for the 2nd Junior High School of Amaliada and our project in Greece, to Mrs Myrsini Magoula, our Erasmus+ agent in Greek Erasmus agency IKY. All these three years she was always available to help , to provide all the details , to solve all the problems and resolve all issues successfully , manage all changes and overcome any obstacle!!! We want to thank our Erasmus+ agencies in Italy and Greece for all their support and help! Thank you all for everything!!! And most of all thanks to all our students who are the real heroes! Without all the above this three years wonderful project would not be the same.

Genova Italy / Amaliada Greece , August 2020

Franca Monzeglio / Andreou Aikaterini

Erasmus+ “European Schools Go Green� Contact persons for Galileo Galilei Technical Highs School of Genova Italy/ 2 nd Junior High School of Amaliada Greece

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