Sounds in Europe #7

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European Music Council/ Conseil Européen de la Musique/ Europäischer Musikrat The European Music Council (EMC) is a platform for representatives of National Music Councils and organisations involved in various fields of music from many European countries. As a European umbrella organisation, it gathers the European members of the International Music Council. The European Music Council contributes to a better mutual understanding among peoples and their different cultures and to the right for all musical cultures to coexist. Therefore it provides exceptional value to its membership by building knowledge; creating networking opportunities as well as supporting and enhancing the visibility of initiatives that help sustain people’s participation in music and cultural life.

)-02).4 %$)4/2 European Music Council Haus der Kultur Weberstr. 59a D-53113 Bonn Tel.: +49-228-96699664 Fax: +49-228-96699665 #(!)2-!. Timo Klemettinen 6)#% #(!)2 Christian Höppner 42%!352%2 Stef Coninx

%$)4).' Simone Dudt, Julia Osada, Deborah Roth 02//& 2%!$).' Ruth Jakobi, Lorna McGavigan, Isabelle Métrope, Julia Osada #//2$).!4)/. Deborah Roth ,!9/54 kominform design, Hamburg ( 02).4).' Druckpartner Moser GmbH, Rheinbach Photo on front page and last page by Kaarel Mikkin provided by the “Estonian Tourist Board/Enterprise Estonia” Photographers as credited

"/!2$ -%-"%23 Erling Aksdal, Claire Goddard, Helena Maffli, Frank Stahmer, Kaie Tanner

The European Music Council is supported by:

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© 2011 European Music Council. All rights are reserved. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily of the publisher or editor. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any format without permission of the European Music Council

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European Forum on Music Transcending Boundaries – Building Bridges Deborah Roth

MEGY: Music Empowers Global Youth Ruth Jakobi

The Manifesto for Youth and Music Goes Global Karolien Dons

Contemporary Performance and Composition or the Long Way into International Master Programme for Contemporary Music Frederik Schwenk

Technology as a Great Leveller Interview with Kevin Kleinmann

The Sounds that you Think you´ve Heard. A Personal Summary Einar Solbu


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The Singing Revolution is not just a Buzzword Rein Lang, Estonian Minister of Culture

Music as Identity? Claire Goddard

Fair Culture – Pre-conditions for Music as a Tool for Social Change Simone Dudt

Good Intentions! What Outcomes? On the Evaluation of Music Projects Philip KĂźppers

Youssou N’Dour sur la Musique et le DÊveloppement

Youssou N’Dour on Music and Development

Poverty Reduction through Music? Diana Hopeson

Culture and Development Strategies at UNESCO Francesco Bandarin

Keeping Music Education Strong NAMM

Rehearsing for Change Jeremy Cox

Shaping Conceptions of Music. Formal and Informal Music Education Gary McPherson

From Providing to Guiding – Technologies in Music Education Matti Ruippo

IMC Musical Rights Awards & Special Commendations Beata Schanda, Tina Broad, Bo Wah Leung & Meritxell Montserrat


Act for Culture in 2012 or forever Hold your Peace (or at least for another seven years‌) Emma Ernsth

Uncertain Times at Unesco Silja Fischer

The Bonn Declaration: The Next Steps Julia Osada





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s it was the ďŹ rst time that the IMC World Forum on Music was held in Europe it was obvious that as the European regional group of the International Music Council (IMC) the EMC should become a partner in this exciting endeavour. The Forum consisted of three days full of music, lectures, workshops, project presentations and networking and exchange around the Forum’s main theme “music and social changeâ€?. In total the Forum included 25 sessions with 56 speakers followed by approx. 300 participants from 50 countries all over the world. With this magazine we would like to continue the discussions and reections started during the Forum. If you are interested in the full documentation on what happened in Tallinn, we invite you to visit the Forum website where you will ďŹ nd videos of the sessions, the speakers’ presentation materials and their biographies, as well as wonderful pictures that will give you an insight into the spirit of the Forum. The theme of “music and social changeâ€? oers room for interpretation in a wide range of disciplines, such as education (and learning and training), psychology, sociology, political science (development policies, cultural policies), economics (music export and music industries). In each of these ďŹ elds, the meaning of social change is dierent. It may imply

the personal development of the individual as e.g. achieved with early childhood music education, music therapy

the changes that professional musicians are facing which lead to the so called ‘portfolio career’

the changes within a society resulting in exclusion, which dierent groups try to overcome, such as those community music projects which work towards inclusiveness.

the change of a political system either through projects using music as a tool for conict resolution (e.g. between Israeli and Palestinian musicians) or through music creation (see the long tradition of political protest songs)

the change that the digital era imposes on music distribution and the music industries, and which has led to new ways of consumption & creation of music

the big potential that music can have in terms of poverty reduction for example, in Africa, as impressively demonstrated by Youssou N’Dour in his keynote speech (see page 16).

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The theme of “music and social changeâ€? prevails at a time of changes in international and European cultural policies. In the coming year(s), UNESCO will face massive disruptions as a result of political decisions which will have an impact on the UN organisation’s structure as well as on its activities in the ďŹ eld of culture and education. Whereas the EU is currently negotiating its new budget which will be in place as of 2014 and in which the EU Commission’s proposal foresees a “Creative Europeâ€? programme which includes ďŹ nancial support for the cultural sector. However, the danger remains that political debate on the budget may all too well end up with ‘horse trading’ between the dierent budget lines. But as in both cases, UNESCO and EU, it is essential to recognise that music, as described above and as made evident in this magazine, has the power to bring people together and to bring about positive social change (in all its meanings) – it is not in the least a question of shaping the world in which we want to live in. We hope you enjoy reading “Sounds in Europeâ€?.


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The image of ďŹ shermen standing on the Galata or AtatĂźrk bridges dipping their ďŹ shing rods into the Bosphorus, tourists taking pictures of this scene next to the woman, who uses it to get to her place of work may be a naĂŻve way of picturing Istanbul’s relationship to its well-known bridges, but somehow it describes the way bridges are being used across the globe: as meeting points, as networking- and communication platforms, as places of work, and ďŹ nally as traďŹƒc junctions in the sense of a necessity of the daily routine. Bridges may serve for crossing borders, maybe even transcend boundaries, and oer a point of interconnection between dierent geographical places and so do the bridges in Istanbul, allowing this cosmopolitan city to illustrate its cultural diversity. Of course Istanbul has more to oer than its architectural landmarks, but they show the history and culture that lies behind this city, and the path the city will take in the future. By choosing the conference title “Transcending boundaries – Building Bridgesâ€? the organisers of the second European Forum on Music, the European Music Council and the Borusan Foundation, invite participants to reect the path that the music sector will take in Europe and Turkey, discussing the questions of mobility and intercultural dialogue, e.g. visas for artists, public and private funding for the arts and culture, e.g. the EU’s proposal on funding for culture: “Creative Europeâ€? programme, music education in Turkey and Europe and freedom of musical expression in the digital era. The European Forum on Music will include excellent concerts organised by the local partners, Borusan. On the opening evening the participants will be treated to a performance by the Borusan Quartet, on the second evening a boat trip will bring all the participants to the Asian side of Istanbul followed by a concert of contemporary Turkish music and a traditional Anatolian dinner. The Forum will close with a concert focusing on “Songs Travelling through Istanbulâ€? which will present the sounds of Istanbul. Meet the European music sector in Istanbul, where you will experience an interesting mix between tradition, progress and innovation! DR

Galata ya da AtatĂźrk KĂśprĂźsĂź Ăźzerinde durup oltalarÄąnÄą BoÄ&#x;az’Ĺn sularÄąna daldÄąran balÄąkçĹlar, bu manzaranÄąn fotoÄ&#x;rafÄąnÄą çeken turistler ve aynÄą kĂśprĂźyĂź kullanarak iĹ&#x;ine gitmeye çalÄąĹ&#x;an kadÄąndan oluĹ&#x;an gĂśrĂźntĂź, Ä°stanbul’un bu ĂźnlĂź kĂśprĂźleriyle olan iliĹ&#x;kisinin naĂŻf bir yansÄąmasÄą olabilir, ancak aynÄą zamanda dĂźnyanÄąn birçok yerinde kĂśprĂźlerin nasÄąl kullanÄąldÄąÄ&#x;ÄąnÄą da betimler: buluĹ&#x;ma noktasÄą, iletiĹ&#x;im ve aÄ&#x; platformu, çalÄąĹ&#x;ma alanÄą ve gĂźnlĂźk rutinde gereksinim duyulan traďŹ k baÄ&#x;lantÄąsÄą. KĂśprĂźler sÄąnÄąrlarÄą geçmeye hatta onlarÄą kaldÄąrmaya da yarar, farklÄą coÄ&#x;raďŹ bĂślgeler arasÄąnda baÄ&#x;lantÄą noktalarÄą sunar. Bu kozmopolit Ĺ&#x;ehirdeki kĂźltĂźrel çeĹ&#x;itliliÄ&#x;i gĂśzler ĂśnĂźne seren Ä°stanbul’un kĂśprĂźleri gibi. Ä°stanbul’un sunabilecekleri, mimari anÄątlarÄąnÄąn çok Ăśtesindedir kuĹ&#x;kusuz. Yine de bu Ĺ&#x;ehrin ardÄąnda yatan tarih ve kĂźltĂźrĂź, Ĺ&#x;ehrin geleceÄ&#x;e dair yĂśnelimlerine ait ipuçlarÄąnÄą en iyi gĂśsteren de onlardÄąr. Konferans için “SÄąnÄąrlarÄą AĹ&#x;mak-KĂśprĂźler Kurmakâ€? baĹ&#x;lÄąÄ&#x;ÄąnÄą seçerek, Ä°kinci Avrupa MĂźzik Forumu’nu dĂźzenleyen Avrupa MĂźzik Konseyi ve Borusan VakfÄą, katÄąlÄąmcÄąlarÄą Avrupa ve TĂźrkiye’de mĂźzik sektĂśrĂźnĂźn gelecek yĂśnelimleri Ăźzerine dĂźĹ&#x;Ăźnmeye, coÄ&#x;raďŹ hareketlilik ve kĂźltĂźrler arasÄą diyalog (ĂśrneÄ&#x;in sanatçĹlarÄąn vize iĹ&#x;lemleri), kĂźltĂźr ve sanata yĂśnelik devlet ve Ăśzel sektĂśr fon olanaklarÄą (ĂśrneÄ&#x;in TĂźrkiye’de ve Avrupa’da mĂźzik eÄ&#x;itimi ve dijital çaÄ&#x;da mĂźzikal ifade ĂśzgĂźrlĂźÄ&#x;Ăź, AB’nin kĂźltĂźr fonu Ăśnerisi, “YaratÄącÄą Avrupaâ€? programÄą gibi konular) Ăźzerinde tartÄąĹ&#x;maya davet ediyor. Avrupa MĂźzik Forumu yerel proje ortaklarÄąndan Borusan’Ĺn iĹ&#x;birliÄ&#x;iyle dĂźzenlenen muhteĹ&#x;em konserler içeriyor. AçĹlÄąĹ&#x; akĹ&#x;amÄąnda katÄąlÄąmcÄąlar Borusan Kuartet’in bir performansÄąyla, ikinci akĹ&#x;am ise Ä°stanbul’un Aandolu yakasÄąna yapÄąlacak bir tekne yolculuÄ&#x;unun ardÄąndan ÇaÄ&#x;daĹ&#x; TĂźrk MĂźziÄ&#x;i konseri ve geleneksel Anadolu lezzetleri içeren bir akĹ&#x;am yemeÄ&#x;iyle aÄ&#x;Äąrlanacak. Forum, Ä°stanbul’un seslerini sunan ve “İstanbul’dan Geçen ĹžarkÄąlarâ€? temasÄąna odaklanan bir konserle kapanacak. Gelenek, geliĹ&#x;im ve yeniliÄ&#x;in ilginç bir karÄąĹ&#x;ÄąmÄąnÄą deneyimleyeceÄ&#x;iniz Ä°stanbul’daki Avrupa mĂźzik sektĂśrĂźyle tanÄąĹ&#x;Äąn! 4RANSLATION BY )PEK 9EGINSU VIA "ORUSAN &OUNDATION

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ack in 2009 a special call for delegates under 30 years of age was launched by the International Music Council (IMC). All IMC members were encouraged to include young representatives in their delegation to the 3 rd IMC World Forum on Music, which took place in October 2009 in Tunis, Tunisia. Many organisations responded to this invitation and a group of about 30 young delegates came to Tunis. After several special youth meetings, the group declared the wish to continue collaborating after the Forum and to enrich various IMC activities with a youth perspective. The initiative was welcomed by the IMC General Assembly. Since then, the group of people who gathered in Tunis has been extremely enthusiastic and productive. Several sessions during the 4th IMC World Forum on Music were led by youth, who have also contributed to this magazine; global reports on digitisation have been produced and the IMC has been making use of social media in its communication. To pursue more and more activities with increasing complexity, the need for a clear set of aims and a transparent structure for the group became apparent. This is why the IMC – inspired by several youth initiatives within its network – decided to provide a framework for the youth group and designed a project dedicated to youth participation: Music Empowers Global Youth (MEGY). The IMC applied for EU funding for this project – and was successful! The MEGY project was launched during the 4 th IMC World Forum on Music entitled “Music and Social Change� in September 2011 in Tallinn, Estonia. Some 50 participants under the age of 30 were present among over 300 cultural operators from all continents. The young people who met in Tunis and had expanded their network since, were actively involved in shaping the Forum programme and organised several interactive sessions:

Hip Hop as a tool for social change

Make some noise for the “Manifesto for Youth and Music in Europe�

Music on troubled grounds

Wade in the water – singing for social change The central aim of the MEGY project is to enhance active youth participation in all aspects of the music sector worldwide, and through this to empower young people to take on a more active role in shaping their future as citizens of Europe and the world. MEGY therefore took up the wish to oer space for the IMC youth group, which was loosely formed within the IMC, to deďŹ ne a clear structure and to set priorities. The initiative made an important step further with a capacity building workshop that took place in January 2012. Experts from other international networks and professionals in the ďŹ eld of communication shared their expertise. Moreover, the workshop provided time and space for internal discussions about structures and aims for the IMC youth group. The group decided on a structure in three levels: an open network for everybody interested in youth and music, a more limited group with well-deďŹ ned members, and a Board elected from and by the members. Aims and objectives were drafted, as well as a long list of activities; the group still needs to agree on a name. The newly elected Board consists of ten members (seven elected, three co-opted) from all ďŹ ve regions of the world, to meet one of the most important issues discussed: “how to ensure a true geographic balance in the group.â€?

In November 2011, MEGY organised a workshop introducing policy issues such as the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Participants were oered the opportunity to attend oďŹƒcial UNESCO meetings as observers and got the chance to personally meet with NGO and UNESCO representatives. These and more activities have been set up within the frame of the MEGY project by the International Music Council and 11 cooperation partners from all over the world. MEGY will strengthen sustainable partnerships and networks of young people worldwide. The project oers young people from across the globe the opportunity to gain experience, competence and empowerment to enhance their mobility and employability in the music sector and society as a whole. Youth has a lot to contribute to the music world. If you want to join the eorts of the International Music Council and its partners to overcome generational borders and to give youth a voice, feel free to read more about MEGY on the IMC website ( or to get in contact via


















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haring views on the Manifesto’s priorities and how to implement them was the primary aim of a session on the “Manifesto for Youth and Music in Europe� at the 4 th IMC World Forum on Music. However, the Working Group Youth also wanted to use this opportunity to investigate the relevance of the Manifesto outside of Europe and ask the question “Can we endorse the Manifesto globally?�. The “Manifesto for Youth and Music in Europe� is a document aiming to determine the future of musicians, managers, musicologists and pedagogues starting out on their career and trying to make positive changes throughout Europe and beyond in youth and music related issues. Often side-lined and lacking access to information and decision-making positions, young people play – or will do so soon – an important role in the future of the music sector. For several months now the Working Group Youth (WGY) of the European Music Council, initiator of

the Manifesto, has been campaigning for the endorsement of the document and its message. Despite the “Manifesto for Youth and Music in Europeâ€? being a result of a European and youth-led initiative, it aspires to foster changes on an international level and across other (older) generations too. The WGY believes the young generation worldwide shares a common stance and wishes, irrespective of their religion, geographical location or political view. In times of rapid societal changes, young people all around the world try to meet expectations by being adaptable, well-qualiďŹ ed and forward-looking. The interactive session at the 4th IMC World Forum on Music hosted diverse nationalities and ages: an excellent starting point for bringing the Manifesto’s issues to a global level. Each of the priorities of the Manifesto – Lifelong Learning, Professional Training, Mobility and Dialogue, Employment, Resources and Youth as a Resource – were highlighted by the session attendees throughout their personal environment in which they live and work. We got to know that many of the concerns and needs raised in the document do exist also in other music areas of the globe, and especially that the engagement for access to music and music education for young people in particular, is a current ongoing process on all continents in one way or another. But did the session foster the awareness for youth and music the Manifesto is lobbying for, now also on a worldwide scale? Time will tell. The “Manifesto for Youth and Music in Europeâ€? is a call for acknowledgement and engagement, and includes an incentive to make noise; to make noise for the Manifesto and in this manner to urge as many people as possible to listen to the points that (European) youth in the music sector want to get heard. In Tallinn we have seen that the geographical stretch for this cause is much larger than just Europe. Let us hope that the noise will be heard in all places, and particularly those where there is need and wish for change. The “Make some noiseâ€? session at the 4th IMC World Forum on Music is part of an on-going campaign for the “Manifesto for Youth and Music in Europeâ€? by the Working Group Youth of the European Music Council. +AROLIEN $ONS 6ICE #HAIR OF THE 7'9 0ROJECT -ANAGER OF THE 2ESEARCH 'ROUP Âą,EARNING AN )NSTRUMENT AT AN !DVANCED !GE² AT THE (ANZE 5NIVERSITY 'RONINGEN .ETHERLANDS


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t was an honour to welcome all of you in Tallinn. After Los Angeles (in 2005), Beijing (in 2007) and Tunis (in 2009), this was the ďŹ rst time that the IMC World Forum on Music was held in Europe. As Tallinn was the European Capital of Culture in 2011, it was logical to organise this Forum in the city. With its long tradition of music Estonia is also a good place to develop ideas which connect music with social changes. In 2011 we celebrated the 20th anniversary of the restoration of Estonian independence. Indeed, the Singing Revolution from 1988 to 1991, which Estonia is famous for, is not just a buzzword. This was a really miraculous change in the minds of our people, who gathered together to sing beloved patriotic songs, through which they experienced the essence of freedom, and became ready for political changes. As a matter of fact, we can go back even further in our history and talk about the tradition of Estonian song festivals dating back to 1869. This was deďŹ nitely a highly important event of the period of so-called national awakening, but also one of the main reasons behind the success story of Estonian culture, which we are proud of today. Song festivals strengthened the national identity and also set the base for further political processes until the declaration of the Republic of Estonia as an independent and sovereign state in 1918. That is why you ďŹ nd so many people in Estonia who are convinced that music is not just a beautiful art form, but also a very powerful tool with which to change the whole of society. We have many talented musicians who are capable of shaping the music life not only in Estonia, but also in many other and much larger countries. Our conductors have directed leading orchestras from Sweden to Columbia, and the music of our composers is spreading

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across the world. I am also proud of the folk, jazz and rock groups who have found grateful audiences even in the most distant places on Earth. Therefore, our state is prepared to ďŹ nance the running of two opera theatres with their soloists, choirs and orchestras, one professional chamber choir and one male choir, the national symphony orchestra and early music ensemble, but also the state concert agency with concert halls in four Estonian towns plus a fully renovated church as a brand new venue in neighbouring Saint Petersburg, Russia. Our taxpayers, which there are far fewer than one million, give their highly valued active contribution also in many theatres. We also have a university to take care of education of young musicians and actors, namely the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre, to whom I am very thankful for organising this event. All of these state or public institutions and many more private initiatives represent both the high quality and diversity of our music life, as well as the conviction of our people about the important role of music in Estonian society. I would also like to thank the International Music Council and European Music Council together with the Estonian Music Council, who gave their full eorts to prepare an interesting and useful event for the exchange of ideas which was a real success. You are warmly welcome here in the future to discover the talents of Estonian music, to discuss the problems and solutions of music life in the European and global context, or simply just to have a good time here in Estonia. 2EIN ,ANG -INISTER OF #ULTURE OF THE 2EPUBLIC OF %STONIA

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-53)# !3 )$%.4)49 )DENTITY IS A BIG WORD



The role that music can play in ďŹ nding and expressing identity was a common theme to many of the sessions at the 4 th IMC World Forum on Music, not least those coordinated by the Youth Advisory Group (YAG) of the IMC. (IP (OP HAS ALWAYS BEEN ABOUT MAKING SOMETHING OUT OF NOTHING AND IT´S ALWAYS BEEN ABOUT GIVING POWER TO THE OPPRESSED IT´S ALWAYS BEEN ABOUT HAVING A VOICE AND STANDING TALL AND BEING PROUD OF WHERE YOU HAVE COME FROM

This is a quote from James Alberts aka Jimblah, a young indigenous Australian producer/DJ/MC who led the session on “Hip Hop as a Tool for Social Changeâ€?. Jimblah is an alias, an identity. For him Hip Hop is “about having your place, your own identity, I think that’s why we have aliasesâ€?. In the session he even went as far as to say that “Hip Hop is identityâ€?. Hip Hop, or at least conscious Hip Hop (a subgenre focusing on social issues) is personal: it’s about asserting who you are and standing up for what you believe in. During the session Jimblah gave a taste of the community work that he does back home: the participants created their own alias or Hip Hop identity and used rap to tell their story. Of course, all kinds of music have the potential to empower. But the storytelling tradition upon which Hip Hop is based has nourished a particularly eective form of expression and of communication: it is a way to address social problems head-on and to bring them to the forefront. )F NO ONE INTRODUCED US BEFORE AND YOU DIDN´T KNOW WHERE WE CAME FROM YOU WOULDN´T KNOW YOU WOULD JUST THINK WE ARE THE BEST BAND IN THE WORLD

It may appear that making music together has enabled the participants of the “Music on Troubled Grounds� session to temporarily forget their identities as Palestinians, Israelis or Scandinavians, and that, in singing a song called ‘Salem’, or peace, together with the audience in Arabic, Hebrew and English, a cultural fusion has taken place and a

new common non-political identity has been created through music. This is, however, only part of the picture. The songs that the musicians performed together are part of their own culture and in sharing them with each other they were sharing a part of themselves. Music is a form of dialogue and communication: it’s not only Hip Hop which is about “having a voice and standing tall and being proud of where you have come fromâ€?. Spiritus Mundi’s “Music on Troubled Groundsâ€? project is not about normalisation or reconciliation. The aim is to enable those involved to understand the human beyond the conict, to get to know one another and themselves, and to promote dialogue. A new non-political common identity as “the best band in the worldâ€? may have been forged to some extent but this by no means replaces the speciďŹ c cultural identity of the individual participants. In fact, through making music together with young people from other backgrounds, the participants have become more conscious of their own existing identity and place in society. So, to make the link with Hip Hop, this new identity could be seen as an alias. However, an alias does not constitute a completely new person, rather a tool for dialogue, expression and self-discovery. It could be argued that the need to ďŹ nd and assert one’s own identity is particularly strong in young people who are establishing themselves as individuals and as part of society as a whole. But can anyone of any age say that they have reached the end of this journey? Young people may be in particular need of empowerment but they are surely not the only ones! The topics raised by the youth-led sessions at the WFM are universal. And seeing as these ‘youth’ issues are so relevant to us all, it is clear that we must all make sure we listen to what young people have to say! #LAIRE 'ODDARD 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL %-#9 7'9 #HAIRPERSON ÂŻ

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When the European Music Council was asked to co-ordinate a session on “music as a tool for social changeâ€? an immediate reaction was to include the concept of Fair Culture, and we therefore asked whether Fair Culture can be a precondition for music being a tool for social change. In the global context of the 4th IMC World Forum on Music, it was important for the session to have an international dimension, and in the year that saw the so-called Arab Spring peak, it was obvious to invite speakers from the countries aected, such as Tunisia and Egypt. As the Forum took place in Tallinn, Estonia, we could also not forget the Singing Revolution at the end of the 1980s, early 1990s, during

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which music was used as a tool for cultural self-determination by Estonians against the system of the Soviet oppressors. And there are many more places all over the world where music has been or still is a strong driver of social change, such as in Afghanistan, South Africa or the Dominican Republic. During the session Hannele Lehto co-author of the publication Fair Culture (published under her former name Hannele Koivunen) introduced the concept of Fair Culture. But what does this concept imply and how does it relate to the second part of the leading questions for the session “music as a tool for social change�. Is there a link and if so then how do the two relate to each other. This article will try


to examine this relationship, and therefore, it will start with a short introduction on the concept of Fair Culture and will then explore the term “music as a toolâ€?. Concluding, it will look at the point of departure and the relation between Fair Culture and “music as a toolâ€? from a dierent angle.

&!)2 #5,452% The concept of Fair Culture, as described in the publication “Fair Culture? Ethical dimension of cultural policy and cultural rightsâ€? (2007) by Hannele Koivunen and Lena Mariso deďŹ nes ethics as “a system of moral values [‌] that is, basing decision-making and choices in cultural policy on stated procedural codes and normative principles.â€? According to Koivunen/Marsio the introduction of the ethical dimension to cultural policy is the consequence of globalisation. In this global context, the ethical dimension has evolved from being a soft factor to being a hard factor in inuencing the decisions made in everyday life, e.g. in consumers’ choices when buying fair trade products, where one could say the ethical dimension has become a ‘unique selling point’. Consequently this should be reected in policy and therefore, Koivunen/Marsio developed the concept of Fair Culture which applies this ethical dimension to cultural policy, and which can be summarised in the following categories:

Access to humankind’s and one’s own cultural tradition

Physical, regional and cultural accessibility and availability

Diversity of cultural supply and its matching with demand

Participation in cultural supply, and

Opportunities for inclusion in, and capability for cultural self-expression and signiďŹ cation. But how does this relate to “music as a tool for social changeâ€?? One of the ethical questions that is asked by Fair Culture is “Do art and culture primarily have an intrinsic value or should they be seen through their instrumental value?â€?

-53)# !3 ! 4//, Music as a tool implies that it can be used for other means than the aesthetic expression alone. The cases presented in the session demonstrated how music can be used as a tool:

To overcome poverty;

To re-build a society that includes music and cultural expression;

To re-aďŹƒrm one’s own culture and as such oppose an oppressive political system;

To voice social problems and to create a public space for critical societal debate;

To create a sense of community;

For social and economic development;

For activism beyond policy making that supports spaces for public artistic intervention;

For creating conditions/spaces for freedom of expression. This list could continue on the next pages as the intended outcomes of projects that use music as a tool are manifold. Most of the cases presented have not only one but a variety of outcomes, and as such they are transferable and exchangeable. There are however other cases that show that music can be used in a negative sense as well, e.g. for political propaganda by totalitarian regimes. Coming back to the question of whether music has an intrinsic or instrumental value, it should be noted that music and musical practice are highly dependent on the context in which they are created,



performed and listened to – in the ďŹ eld of cultural studies, music as a tool combines the aesthetic with the socio-cultural, and as such the intrinsic and extrinsic values of music, especially when talking about music as a tool, cannot be separated. If we bring the concept of Fair Culture and the term “music as a toolâ€? together again and trace them back to the original question of the session “Can Fair Culture be a pre-condition for music as a tool for social change?â€? then what exactly is their relationship? Fair Culture is a concept that should take into account the ethical aspect of cultural policies, such as accessibility, participation and cultural self-expression. “Music as a toolâ€? looks at the intended outcomes and in the cases presented, the major objective is to bring about “social changeâ€?. On the one side we have a concept of cultural policy and on the other side artistic expression with an instrumental value – the artistic expression though will proceed regardless of the cultural policy in place, if any. So it is rather the absence of culture policy in the spirit of Fair Culture that has created conditions for using music as a tool for social change. If the social changes aimed at by such projects are successful, they might actually work towards installing new cultural policies that may then follow the concept of Fair Culture. We could therefore say that the title for the session should rather have been: “Music as a tool (for social change): a pre-condition for Fair Culture?â€? SD

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s a central element of culture, music has a direct impact on A completely dierent picture is demonstrated by the case of strengthened identities through music programmes in the context our social lives. Therefore, some use music and music-based of the safeguarding of cultural heritage. The intended outcome is initiatives to inuence the beliefs and behaviours of people primarily the continuation of musical traditions and preservation and to foster social change in a variety of ways. In times of increased pressure to prove the outcomes of of the cultural diversity of our world. However, these initiatives also strengthen the identities of their protagonists, have a positive programmes funded with public money, questions on how to evaluate such initiatives are becoming increasingly important. economic eect on the relatively poor regions, and many Therefore, the EMC consequentially included a session other positive results also. They only remain positive on evaluating music and social change on the agenda as long as the main goal – to preserve the cultural !ND IF ALL of the 4th IMC Forum in Tallinn, calling it “Good uniqueness of the musical style – is ensured. To evaluate its eectiveness, the main object of intentions! What outcomes?â€? PROGRAMMES WERE investigation is the music itself and its ritual Even if it raises scepticism amongst some, EQUALLY GOOD THE evaluation increases the understanding of context. The methodology needed would mainly MONEY AVAILABLE WOULD underlying processes of actions and therefore be musicological research, looking at playing raises the possibility of optimising the techniques, ways of building instruments, and NEED TO BE DISTRIBUTED programmes. But if we do not evaluate the the inuence of other musical styles as a result EQUALLY AS WELL of globalisation, and so on. Only secondarily, but eďŹƒciency, eects, and eectiveness of these programmes, and believe that the outcomes of still important, would we need to study questions initiatives involving music are per se positive, how of identity and economy to make assumptions on its would we be able to distinguish between dierent sustainability. programmes? We wouldn’t! And if all programmes were Concerning the UN example, using music to inuence equally good, the money available would need to be distributed values, norms, beliefs and with them actions, one needs to demonstrate equally as well. This would certainly not help the ďŹ eld nor would it the relation between the music used and the changes occurred. In improve the outcomes. order to do so, we have to scrutinise music as culture, and culture as a ‘whole way of life’, including values, norms and beliefs. This, therefore, requires methodologies from the ďŹ elds of music sociology, cultural .EVERTHELESS HOW CAN ONE EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF MUSIC studies, and social sciences in general. What is needed is constant As musicians and music-lovers, most of us ďŹ rst start by looking monitoring through qualitative techniques like discourse analysis, at the music itself. However music, or better the dierent roles that music entails, can vary so signiďŹ cantly that the attempt to evaluate the narrative interviews, review of fanzines and yers, participation in impact of music using a universally applicable approach doesn’t get programmes, looking at the role of leaderships, processes of adaptation or resilience, human well-being, power structures, etc. All this may us far. Music takes place in various contexts at the same time and has be relevant, making suďŹƒcient evaluation a challenge and an extensive many dierent eects on its performers as well as its listeners. When musical events are used to secure donations or to put exercise. pressure on politicians; when people’s self-conďŹ dence is raised by Looking at music in the context of music therapy is clearly the learning to play instruments or because their music is named as world most diďŹƒcult example since this would include studies from the ďŹ elds cultural heritage; when the UN makes musicians tour poorer regions of of neuroscience and psychology. What eect music can have is still the world to encourage people to vote; when a music therapist works a highly debated and intensively studied topic. Nevertheless a deep with autistic children; although all of these examples share the use of analysis of the intended outcomes can still help improve and focus music, their contexts and outcomes remain signiďŹ cantly dierent. And the questions for qualitative interviews as a part of the cognitive study so have to be the methodologies used to evaluate them. of human behaviour. When planning an initiative, one ďŹ rst makes an analysis of the Therefore to get a clearer picture of the actual function of music in situation, and then deďŹ nes possible courses of actions and the role a speciďŹ c context, we have to approach it from a speciďŹ c angle. One that music can play, ďŹ nally monitoring the actions, mainly through one’s own presence. When preparing the evaluation, certain questions needs to ďŹ rst be clear about the intended outcomes of an initiative of eectiveness are more relevant than others, and therefore certain to then be able to pose the questions concerning its eďŹƒciency, eect, methodologies. It is obvious that many questions asked in one example and eectiveness. This will then delineate and determine the dierent remain relevant for the other examples too. Given the variety and roles of music to be scrutinised in these processes and with it deďŹ ne plurality of music and meaning, the approach must always be an the methodologies needed. I will try to shortly demonstrate some dierences using the examples mentioned in order to show their interdisciplinary one. Nevertheless, putting the intended outcomes distinctive features. It goes without saying that in reality the approach ďŹ rst helps to achieve an overview of the dierent roles of music and always has to be an interdisciplinary one. However, outlining the the complexity of the underlying processes. It will help to strengthen dierences helps to get an overview of what needs to be taken into the programme proposals, increase communication with donors and account. provides everyone with a deeper understanding of the strength and weakness of their work – so that good intentions really lead to good If musical events are used to put pressure on politicians, representatives outcomes. of institutions are the focus of attention then the music only plays 0HILIP +~PPERS an interchangeable role. Here the ďŹ eld of political sciences and 0H$ STUDENT AND PROJECT COORDINATOR OF Âą%COLOGICAL SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS institutionalism in particular oer useful methodologies. Has the FOR ONLINE MEDIA IN COMPLEX NETWORKS² )NSTITUTE OF -USICOLOGY concert aected the decision makers? How? Has the event itself or the &RANZ ,ISZT 3CHOOL OF -USIC 7EIMAR IN 'ERMANY inuence of the media caused the change? Who has lobbied whom and how? Have the public budgets for the goals decreased or increased?

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9/533/5 .´$/52 352 ,! -53)15% %4 ,% $b6%,/00%-%.4 ,E DISCOURS DE 9OUSSOU .´$OUR TENU PENDANT LE InME &ORUM MONDIAL DE LA MUSIQUE f 4ALLIN %STONIE Musique et dĂŠveloppement, voilĂ un thème que j’aime bien et que je vais ĂŠvoquer avec plaisir, mais aussi avec un pincement au cĹ“ur. Pour la bonne et simple raison que je suis convaincu qu’on n’a pas encore compris, dans beaucoup de pays africains, que les domaines de la musique, de la danse, de la peinture, de l’artisanat et de la mode, sont les piliers de l’Êconomie crĂŠative. La musique, mon domaine, comme tous les autres secteurs, est un moteur de la croissance. C’est ĂĄ nous de concevoir des plans et des projets ambitieux et ďŹ ables pour que la musique puisse assurer la crĂŠation d’emplois et bien entendu l’intĂŠgration sociale. Notre temps aujourd’hui n’est plus celui de l’ère oĂš iI ĂŠtait question de faire de l’art pour l’art. Je souhaite utiliser une image : imaginez un train sur deux rails. L’un des rails est l’ÊlĂŠment crĂŠatif, l’autre est le système, le support. Le train ne peut fonctionner que si les deux rails sont prĂŠsents. Aujourd’hui, il y a l’entreprise culturelle, il y a le showbiz ; et aussi, malheureusement, une mĂŠconnaissance profonde des outils de dĂŠveloppement et aussi des mĂŠtiers et professions qui accompagnent les artistes. Ceux qui nous gouvernent devraient assister Ă des rencontres comme celle-ci – et nous devrions organiser davantage de ces rencontres aďŹ n que nos gouvernements comprennent leur rĂ´le. Quand je voyage en Europe, aux Etats-Unis ou en Asie, je constate que ces pays optimisent de plus en plus leur potentiel dans le domaine de l’Êconomie crĂŠative. IIs rĂŠalisent des chires d’aaires qui ĂŠgalent les budgets nationaux de nos pays, s’ils ne les doublent ou ne les triplent pas. Aux Etats-Unis, oĂš j’Êtais il y a quelques jours, des centaines de milliards de dollars sont gĂŠnĂŠrĂŠs par les industries crĂŠatives, et la musique occupe une grande part dans cette industrie culturelle. C’est compliquĂŠ car la musique n’a pas la prioritĂŠ. Nos gouvernements mettent la prioritĂŠ sur d’autres sujets importants tels que l’Êducation ou la santĂŠ des enfants. Mais devons-nous nous reposer et accepter ceci ? Non, nous devons nous dĂŠfendre et expliquer l’importance des arts. Mais il faut que nos gouvernements soient impliquĂŠs. Ils doivent comprendre qu’il est nĂŠcessaire de soutenir les producteurs nationaux. IIs doivent aussi stabiliser le secteur de l’art pour protĂŠger les musiciens, les artistes en gĂŠnĂŠral et la crĂŠation artistique. Les gouvernements doivent faire en sorte que leurs ressortissants aient la chance de prendre une part consĂŠquente au marchĂŠ mondial de la musique. Ainsi, après ce que nous avons entendu aujourd’hui, les gouvernements devraient soutenir la mobilitĂŠ des artistes ; et nous devrions nĂŠgocier avec les gouvernements avec pour objectif la libre circulation des artistes et des Ĺ“uvres d’art. Cela est d’autant plus important que le marchĂŠ mondial de l’Êconomie crĂŠative est en plein essor, iI enregistre un progrès de plus 8% par an depuis 2000. Son chire d’aaires est passĂŠ d’un total de 227,4 milliards de dollars amĂŠricains en 1996 Ă 424,4 milliards de dollars en 2005. Si nous regardons les parts dans ce chire d’aaires, nous voyons que la Chine et les Etats-Unis sont en tĂŞte du peloton des exportateurs de biens crĂŠatifs. L’ltalie, l’lnde, la ThaĂŻlande, le Mexique suivent. OĂš est l’Afrique?

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Je reste convaincu que les Africains peuvent ĂŞtre en bonne place dans ce classement, ce ne sont pas les talents qui manquent. Au contraire, l’Afrique a un potentiel inestimable. Ce qui lui manque, c’est la volontĂŠ politique d’accroĂŽtre et de sĂŠcuriser les capacitĂŠs crĂŠatives de ses artistes en gĂŠnĂŠral et de ses musiciens en particulier. Nous avons les contenus, les talents, la crĂŠativitĂŠ et l’histoire de l’Afrique – nous devons et pouvons avoir une bonne place. Mais il n’y a pas de reconnaissance. Nous sourons non seulement du piratage, mais aussi des contraintes intĂŠrieures et extĂŠrieures liĂŠes aux investissements et Ă la commercialisation. Ce n’est pas moi qui le dit, mais la ConfĂŠrence des Nations Unies sur le Commerce et le DĂŠveloppement (CNUCED): Les exportations des pays en dĂŠveloppement sont freinĂŠes par la rĂŠticence des institutions rĂŠgionales et multilatĂŠrales Ă prĂŞter aux industries crĂŠatives de ces pays. Les ďŹ lières de commercialisation et les rĂŠseaux de distribution sont concentrĂŠs entre un tout petit nombre de grands conglomĂŠrats de pays dĂŠveloppĂŠs. Cela donne comme paradoxe que les pays en dĂŠveloppement importent non seulement de la musique ĂŠtrangère, mais aussi des enregistrements de musique locale. J’en reviens Ă l’image du train : les autres continents, amĂŠricain, europĂŠen, asiatique, ont deux rails. En Afrique nous avons le premier rail, mais qu’en est-il du second? J’appelle cette assemblĂŠe, hautement crĂŠdible, et ĂŠcoutĂŠe, Ă devenir active. Cependant, je constate avec bonheur que le tĂŠlĂŠchargement croissant de musique Ă partir d’Internet et des tĂŠlĂŠphones mobiles est en train de transformer cette situation. Mais je regrette encore une fois qu’en dĂŠpit de nos formidables talents et de notre immense patrimoine artistique, notre continent n’ait contribuĂŠ qu’à moins de 1% des exportations crĂŠatives mondiales au cours de la pĂŠriode 2000-2005. Le champ est vaste, nous le savons. Il y a beaucoup Ă faire pour que musique rime avec dĂŠveloppement, et pour que celui-ci soit au service de la musique. Je reste cependant convaincu que c’est en construisant une mentalitĂŠ de L’Afrique nouvelle que musique et dĂŠveloppement iront de pair. Nous devons servir les crĂŠateurs, et non tuer la crĂŠation. C’est pourquoi je propose Ă cette assemblĂŠe la mise en place d’un fonds pour la promotion et la distribution de la musique Africaine, en vue de la faire contribuer Ă l’eort de dĂŠveloppement, car en ce moment la musique, comme je l’ai dit, n’est pas prioritaire pour l’obtention de fonds par nos gouvernements. Les nouvelles technologies, et particulièrement les opĂŠrateurs de tĂŠlĂŠphonie pourraient alimenter ce fonds. Nous savons tous que Ie tĂŠlĂŠphone mobile est aujourd’hui le plus important vecteur, surtout dans nos cultures de tradition orale. Une rÊexion peut ĂŞtre poussĂŠe dans la localisation dudit fonds et dans le cadre de son alimentation. Je vous remercie de votre aimable attention. 9OUSSOU .´$OUR #HANTEUR COMPOSITEUR ET HOMME D´AFFAIRES 3mNmGALAIS TEL QUE CANDIDAT AUX mLmCTIONS PRmSIDENTIELLES AU 3mNmGAL

9/533/5 .´$/52 /. -53)# !.$ $%6%,/0-%.4 9OUSSOU .´$OUR´S +EYNOTE 3PEECH AT THE TH )-# 7ORLD &ORUM ON -USIC IN 4ALLINN %STONIA Music and development, this is a subject I like and it gives me pleasure to talk about it, even though it also causes me a little pain. I am saying this for the simple but good reason that I am convinced that in many African countries they have not yet understood, that music, dance, visual arts, handicraft and fashion are pillars of the creative economy. Music – my domain – like the other sectors, is a motor of growth. It is up to us to design plans and ambitious and reliable projects so that music can ensure the creation of employment and of course also social inclusion. In today’s present we no longer live in an era where it was about ‘l’art pour l’art’ – art for art’s sake. I would like to use an image – imagine a train with two track rails – one rail is the creative element, the other is the system, the support – the train can only function with both rails. Today, there is cultural enterprise and show business. And unfortunately there is also a profound lack of knowledge about the tools of development and also the professions of the artists. Those who govern us should attend meetings such as this – and we should have more such meetings to make our governments understand their role. When I travel in Europe, in the United States or in Asia, I can see that these countries are increasingly optimising their potentials in the ďŹ eld of creative economy. They have sales ďŹ gures which correspond to complete national budgets in some of our countries, or might even be double or triple the amounts. In the United States, where I was recently, hundreds of billions of dollars are generated by the creative industries and music represents a big part of these cultural industries. It is complicated because music has no priority. Our governments put the priority on other important issues such as education or children’s health. But should we lean back and say this is ok? No, we have to defend and explain the importance of the arts. It is necessary to involve the governments. They must understand that it is paramount to support national producers. They also have to stabilise the art sector in order to protect musicians and artists in general, as well as artistic creation. The governments must make sure that their citizens get the chance to play a role in the world music market. Also, after what we heard today, governments should back the travels of artists and we should negotiate with governments for the support of the free circulation of artists and works of art. This is even more important since the world market of creative economy is in full boom, with a progress of more than 8% per year since the year 2000. The sales ďŹ gures went from a total of $ 227,4 billion in 1996 to $ 424,4 billion in 2005. If we look at the details of these sales ďŹ gures you will not be astonished to ďŹ nd that China and the USA top those exporting creative goods. They are followed by Italy, India, Thailand and Mexico – where is Africa? I remain convinced that Africans can ďŹ nd a good place in this ranking; it is not that the talent is missing. On the contrary, Africa has invaluable potential. What is lacking is the political will for growth, and the will to secure the creative capacities of its artists in general and its musicians in particular.

We have content, talent, creativity and the history of Africa – we should and could have a good position. But there is no recognition. We are suering, not only from piracy, but also from interior and exterior constraints connected to investments and commercialisation. It is not me saying this, but the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD): that export from the developing countries is slowed down by the reluctance of the regional and multilateral institutions to oer credits to the creative industries of these countries. The business paths and the distribution channels are concentrated on a very small number of big conglomerates in the developed countries. This leads to the paradox that important developing countries, not only import foreign music but also recordings of local music.



I come back to my picture of the train: the other continents, America, Europe, Asia, they have 2 rails. In Africa we already have the ďŹ rst rail, but what about the second? I plead to this assembly, which has a high credibility, and many people listening to you, to become active. However, I am happy to see that the increased downloading of music from the Internet and via mobile telephones is currently changing the situation. But I would like to repeat my regret about the fact that despite our wonderful talents and our enormous artistic heritage our continent has contributed less than 1% of the world export ďŹ gures of creative products during the 2002 – 2005 period. The ďŹ eld is vast, we know that. There is much to be done in order to make sure that music will go hand in hand with development and that development be at the service of music. I am still convinced that it is by building a “new Africaâ€? mentality that music and development will go together. We must serve the creators, not kill the creation. I therefore suggest to this assembly to put a fund in place for the promotion and dissemination and creation of African music in order to let it contribute to the eorts of development, because music, as I said, does not have priority for funding in our countries at the moment. The new technology and especially the telephone companies could contribute to this fund. We know that today the mobile phone is the most important vector, especially in our cultures of oral tradition. Further thoughts could go into the possible place of such a fund and the frame of possible contributions to it. I thank you for your kind attention. 9OUSSOU .´ $OUR 3ENEGALESE SINGER COMPOSER BUSINESSMAN AND CANDIDATE TO THE 0RESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN 3ENEGAL



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-53)# I was not allowed to play the Xylophone, my favourite musical instrument, because it was considered a male preserve in my community. But in the city, I could learn how to play and even how to dance for a fee. My family and entire community changed when I had a hit with my music. Indeed, musicians have the power to change their communities with the kind of music they produce, be it for better or worse. In Africa there is growing recognition of the cultural sector and the creative industries as new complementary avenues for promoting social and economic development. In response to this, countries such as Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal, and others have all integrated culture into their Poverty Reduction Strategy. In Ghana, where it is called Ghana’s Shared Growth Development Agenda (GSGDA) emphasis has been placed on the development of the music and ďŹ lm industries as potential sources of employment generation, wealth creation and skill development. The Ghanaian government set aside funding for the creative industries, including the music and ďŹ lm sectors, in its GSGDA-Agenda. The EU released â‚Ź2 million to create the Cultural Initiative Support programme (CISP) for artists which spanned over 5 years. More than 1600 applications were received following the ďŹ rst call for proposals! The French government increased its cultural budget for Ghana and added project support for regional projects on culture for Ghana, Togo and Benin. The Goethe Institute, the BUSAC (Business Sector Advocacy Challenge Fund) fund and corporation funds from Norway and Ghana help the organisation of cultural events and exchanges within the artistic community. The outcome of the DCCD (Danish Center for Culture and Development) and the DANIDA Ghana Cultural funding programmes were training sessions in music management for musicians and music professionals, as well as a new rehearsal hall and fully equipped studio with instruments for professional musicians at the Musicians’ Union of Ghana (MUSIGA). In addition to this, the Union’s auditorium has now been converted into a public performance hall with great acoustics and equipment. A music school was set up at MUSIGA for older generations of musicians to teach the younger generations. A music competition, New Music Ghana, was ˆ PROVIDED BY 'ARY -C0HERSON

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Indeed, music is a powerful tool for social change. Can you guess the names of these two great African stars whose musical profession has brought social change to their communities and the world?


was born to a modest Muslim family in Dakar. At the age of 13 I was identiďŹ ed as a natural-born performer. I secured my ďŹ rst singing contract at the age of 16. I have led two bands: Étoile de Dakar and the Super Étoile. Two years after appearing on British singer Peter Gabriel’s album I became an international star. I performed with Bruce Springsteen, Sting and Tracy Chapman on the “Human Rights Now!â€? tour that raised money for Amnesty International. I headlined three Live 8 African beneďŹ t concerts, the 2005 pan-African United Against Malaria concert, a 2008 show in Mali to raise funds for the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the 2010 Day of Peace concert in Paris. My works includes an African opera which premiered at the Paris Opera in 1993 and the oďŹƒcial anthem of the 2008 FIFA World Cup. My album “Egyptâ€? won the Grammy Award for best contemporary world music. I have made 27 albums, I own a recording studio, a widely circulated newspaper, a radio station and I run my own record label in my country. Currently, my interest is in politics. Who am I?*




am the Golden Voice of Africa. Born of royal heritage, I should never have become a singer, a profession that would make me a storyteller, praise singer, poet, a repository of oral tradition and a musician. A groit yet because I am Albino, my family rejected me and I was ostracised by my community because albinos are a sign of bad luck in my tribe. I left my community for the city to join a government band. Political unrests in my country forced me out of and I rose to the international level barely a decade afterwards. I now own a recording studio and my life is dedicated to the struggle of the world’s Albino community who have become victims of human sacriďŹ ce in Africa. I use my music to educate people to show love and compassion to Albinos. I am one of the African stars of world music in Europe. Who am I?* Salif Keita from Mali.

created for young musicians in the regions, with the winners going to the Music Crossroads festival in Zambia. Furthermore, the DANIDA Ghana Cultural Fund was set up to give grants to the creative industries for artistic projects and professional development. The NORCODE (Norwegian Copyright Development Association) built a Meta Data Digital Music Library as an archive of recorded music, creating an important tool for the future management of rights. Thanks to this funding, Ghanaian musicians have developed a better business approach to their profession. Having had no experience of business in the past, the opportunity to receive grants has taught many how to meet the administrative requirements of grant applications, including ďŹ lling in forms, preparing the supporting documents such as business registration certiďŹ cates, recommendation letters from Music Unions and bank account details. This is a positive evolution.




Youssou N’ Dour from Senegal






































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am very pleased to extend my warm greetings to the participants close collaboration with its UN partners are implementing 18 joint of the 4th IMC World Forum on Music. I thank you for your kind programmes in developing countries designed to illustrate the central invitation to attend this gathering in person, but as UNESCO’s role of culture in achieving the MDGs. Moreover, the landmark UN resolution on culture and development, adopted by the General Executive Board is currently in session, it was not possible to send Assembly last December, owes much to UNESCO’s unwavering a UNESCO representative to Tallinn to participate directly in your advocacy work. discussions. Please accept our sincere apologies. During the past year, UNESCO has consolidated the repositioning I would ďŹ rst like to express my gratitude to the International Music Council for its longstanding cooperation with UNESCO. of culture in development through partnerships and a range of Over the course of the past six decades, our two organisations have analytical, normative, technical, and operational initiatives and tools. Multiple donors support UNESCO’s operational projects that joined forces on numerous occasions to promote music as a tool for development, social cohesion, reconciliation and promote local development such as the Creative Cities networking among cities worldwide. Network which features a sub-network on music. I am delighted to note that this year you have And of course, we are looking forward to the 5.%3#/ IS CONVINCED chosen to explore a timely topic that is high 2012 UN conference on Sustainable Development THAT CULTURAL DIVERSITY (Rio +20) in Rio de Janeiro to demonstrate with on UNESCO’s agenda, namely “culture and developmentâ€?. hard facts and ďŹ gures the integration of the CONSTITUTES A RICH UNESCO is convinced that cultural cultural dimension in development. SOURCE OF EXCHANGE diversity constitutes a rich source of exchange, There can be no success without the INNOVATION AND innovation and creativity. We believe it can serve involvement of local communities. Strategies must CREATIVITY as a unique motor for sustainable development in capitalise on cultural values and local traditions to a world marked by daunting global transformations, mobilise community participation in all initiatives. economic and social instability and conict. More Besides empowering local communities, cultural speciďŹ cally, UNESCO recognises the tremendous potential industries encourage innovation, support skill development, of music as a transmitter of culture and identity, a vehicle for mutual and generate entrepreneurial capital at the grass-roots level. understanding, social cohesion as well as a source of economic Moreover, economic empowerment of women frequently results empowerment for local development. in a multiplier eect with community gains and economic growth. It is also essential to build partnerships between the public Enabling the fullest possible range of cultural expressions in a globalized marketplace has emerged as one of the most pressing issues sector, the private sector and civil society. Also crucial is the role of of the 21st century. New technologies are creating global audiences. But professionals as key actors of the civil society is fundamental. with new opportunities come new challenges. As you are all aware, the A ďŹ nal additional lesson: the cultural dimension in development entire landscape of the musical industry has been transformed: from reinforces national ownership of development initiatives by ensuring creation and production to distribution. Unfortunately, unequal access responsive and context-appropriate development policies aligned with to regional and international markets and resources negatively impacts national development priorities. the ability of creators from developing countries to disseminate their In closing, allow me to reaďŹƒrm UNESCO’s commitment to pursuing its longstanding collaboration with the International Music work. Council. For all of these reasons, the promotion of cultural diversity has been designated one of UNESCO’s top priorities. The UNESCO I thank you for your attention and wish you much success in Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, adopted unanimously your deliberations. by the international community ten years ago, qualiďŹ es the defence &RANSCESCO "ANDARIN of cultural diversity as “an ethical imperative, inseparable from the 5.%3#/ !SSISTANT $IRECTOR ÂŻ 'ENERAL FOR #ULTURE respect for human dignityâ€?. $IRECTOR OF 5.%3#/´S 7ORLD (ERITAGE #ENTRE SINCE I am pleased to report that UNESCO now stands on the forefront of global eorts to integrate culture into development strategies and programmes. Through the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDG-F) ďŹ nanced by Spain, UNESCO in

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Music touches all of us – it is the motivator of our lives. Joe Lamond


AMM’s agenda places importance on empowerment through music education in schools and public places, as demonstrated by ongoing advocacy for music education in the core curriculum and through the creation of its lifelong learning and recreational learning programmes, where young and old learn to include music making in their daily lives. The idea is not only to encourage and support children, teenagers and young adults in making music, but also to raise awareness amongst the older generations that music making can be a recreational form of expressing oneself as part of an active senior life as well as in healthcare settings. Numerous studies sustained that music making has a positive eect on elderly persons decreasing the risk of Alzheimer’s and dementia. This leads to the next important and challenging project which NAMM is currently working on which relates healthcare to music, two topics that have not been connected much so far; the aim is to reduce healthcare costs by establishing music as a tool for healthy living, a concept supported by research on the beneďŹ ciary eects of music making reducing solitude, lowering stress levels and the eects of Alzheimer’s and dementia. With the results of this study and its strong advocacy work, NAMM seeks to position music making as a critical element in lowering health care costs in the US: “We can contribute to reducing the costs for health care when music is part of the solutionâ€?, as Joe Lamond said in Tallinn. The motivation for those plans and projects can be found in NAMM’s revised vision of (2011) that states: “We envision a world in which the joy of making music is a precious element of daily living for everyone; a world in which every child has a deep desire to learn music and a recognised right to be taught; and in which every adult is a passionate champion and defender of that right.â€? Lamond emphasised the creative energy and passion that is integral to the music products industry and the people who are often in the background making instruments and creating new technologies. The music industry has been built on the visionary leadership of individuals who created pivotal changes in access to music or the means for personal expression through music. These include Mr. Ikutaro Kakehashi of Roland Japan who ignited the electronic music revolution with the creation of ‘midi’ and oered it royalty-free as an open source technology available for any product. Another is Remo Belli, founder of the Remo drums, and the inventor of the synthetic drum head that was integral to the rock and roll revolution. As Remo has been known to say, “there were not enough cow hides in the world to accommodate the need for drum heads required by the rock and roll generation that emerged after the Beatles arrived in the USA February 1963.â€?


The energy exempliďŹ ed by these and so many others in the music products industry are indicative of the varied paths that are taken in music – many branches of the same tree. Organisations represented by individuals at the Forum are also united by a belief in music and that ultimately, in our hearts, we want to change the world, to make it better. NAMM’s success in producing trade shows for its members produces resources that allow it to invest in music research, in music education advocacy, government relations eorts that represent the industry and its interests, and public service eorts such as, a coalition eort to advance access to music learning for all children. NAMM participates in and supports important global gatherings such as this. We seek to continually raise awareness and promote the value of music for all. NAMM members make and sell the instruments that give voice to artists; they both lead and follow societal trends. “And with the global music community working together like this,â€? Lamond concluded, “I’d put our chances on future success at around 100%!â€? and “Being human means to make music – we always have and always willâ€?. .!- .!-- IS THE INTERNATIONAL MUSIC PRODUCTS ASSOCIATION BASED IN .EW 9ORK #ALIFORNIA AND 2USSIA &OUNDED IN .!-- IS THE GLOBAL NON PROFIT ORGANISATION THAT SERVES COMPANY MEMBERS REPRESENTING HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF INDIVIDUALS *OE ,AMOND IS 0RESIDENT AND #%/ OF .!--

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2%(%!23).' &/2 #(!.'% Social and cultural changes globally are transforming how are parts of the world where audiences’ appetite for this music is music is made, performed, distributed and consumed. burgeoning, and where competence in its practice carries high status. This, in turn aects the kinds of music and musicians Meanwhile, in Europe, classical music competes in a crowded that society calls for, and therefore the educational needs and richly varied musical environment with other of music students. The Association EuropĂŠenne genres that are now viewed equally seriously as des Conservatoires, AcadĂŠmies de Musique et musical art forms. 7HATEVER THE Musikhochschulen (AEC) had already adopted Whatever the regional variations around the REGIONAL VARIATIONS AROUND the theme “The Musician in Societyâ€? for its world, students currently in higher music 2011 Annual Congress when it was also education will undoubtedly work in an THE WORLD STUDENTS asked to organise a session at the IMC environment as dierent from the one CURRENTLY IN HIGHER MUSIC World Forum based around the Forum’s they and their teachers see today as the EDUCATION WILL UNDOUBTEDLY present-day profession is from that of theme of “Music and Social Changeâ€?. WORK IN AN ENVIRONMENT less than a generation ago. Conservatoires globally need to ensure that, along with the There is great diversity in the ways that AS DIFFERENT FROM THE ONE THEY perennial technical, artistic and knowledgeconservatoires around the world assess the AND THEIR TEACHERS SEE TODAY based elements, their curricula encourage in future prospects for professional musicians their students the capacity to manage and and how higher music education worldwide embrace change and unpredictability. They also is addressing the challenge of preparing young need to consider the increasingly important role musicians for these. What may seem progressive in that musicians of tomorrow may play in safeguarding one region of the world does not necessarily correspond musical heritages whose importance is no longer necessarily taken to the most innovative thinking in another. This has important for granted. implications for the role and status of Western classical music. There

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The World Forum session, entitled “Rehearsing for Change: how Conservatoires Globally Seek to Prepare Musicians for their Visions of Tomorrowâ€? oered two contrasting case studies and then attempted to identify common factors amidst the diversity. Professor Wang Yaohua of the Music Institute, Fujian Normal University, China, spoke about how College music education in contemporary China is engaging with the inheritance of traditional Chinese music; one of the AEC’s two Vice-Presidents, Gretchen Amussen from the Paris Conservatoire, gave a presentation entitled “Conservatoires to ‘Innovatoires’â€? in Europe, and Tomorrow’s Musician’; and Hisham Sharaf, Manager of the Arab Academy of Music, then oered his reections on what had been said. From a European perspective, a key attribute required of the musician of tomorrow is versatility and the ability to master a diverse and constantly evolving ‘portfolio’ career. Gretchen Amussen characterised tomorrow’s musician as needing to be simultaneously:

A performer-creator-pedagogue-researcher, at ease crossing cultural and artistic borders and collaborating in dierent styles and arts forms;

A ‘citizen-musician’, adept at reaching new, disenfranchised audiences, including those with little access to culture;

A skilled networker and communicator, conversant with multimedia, able to communicate both in virtual and live settings, be it with fellow artists and the profession, students, or the public at large;

An entrepreneur, capable of translating ideas into projects, and projects into realities. Among the responses to this in curriculum developments at the Paris Conservatoire, she cited:

Orientation days which focus on knowledge of artistic, scientiďŹ c and professional resources, sensitising musicians to the need for physical and mental preparation, and speciďŹ c auditory risks they face;

“Days of the Profession�, plenary sessions and practical workshops designed to provide an understanding of the national and international cultural landscape, its tendencies and principal actors;

The “Innovatoireâ€? Competition, asking students to re-think the concert form by crossing musical and artistic borders. Prizewinners are provided with ďŹ nancial support and full in-house expertise (audiovisual, communication, production, etc.);

Performance and mediation projects crossing artistic borders (in museums, with dancers and actors, etc.) and including experience with non-specialist often disenfranchised populations. For Professor Wang, “musical aesthetics and values are the most important parts of the cultural transmission. The characteristic musical cultures of each ethnic group are shaped by aesthetics and values developed over time. Our task is to have the students discover the aesthetics and understand the values of traditional Chinese music; teach them to appreciate and recognise traditional Chinese music from within; and make traditional Chinese music a passionate pursuit and lifestyle among young studentsâ€?. Professor Wang argued for what he described as “a ‘bi-cultural’ or ‘tri-cultural’ mannerâ€? of teaching, suggesting that “the traditional Chinese music is understood better when the diversity of musical culture is comprehended and respected. Through comparing traditional Chinese, Western classical, and modern Western music, the features and rules of traditional Chinese music will be exploredâ€?. Although his vocabulary may have been dierent, many of the practices he was advocating have parallels in Gretchen Amussen’s prescription for conservatoires in the future when she suggests that they need to:

Forge an institutional mission that is relevant, coherent and adapted to professional realities;



as artistic models and a resource for artists and the society at large;

Foster multiple forms of learning and practice, including lifelong learning skills;

Encourage cross-cultural and cross-arts collaboration; develop innovative, project-based learning approaches and multimedia knowledge and skills;

Provide opportunities for encounters with a variety of audiences and with professionals who are inventing the profession;

Engage partners in continuous dialogue with alumni and with the profession. The session beneďŹ ted from a lively and responsive audience whose questions in its ďŹ nal phase were keen and well informed. A highlight of the panel’s replies was Professor Wang’s vivid sung demonstration of how Western ideas of bel canto can distort the performance of traditional Chinese vocal repertoire. This was one of those precious moments when music showed its enduring power, even in today’s shifting sands of social and cultural change, to communicate with immediacy and humour across any supposed language barriers! *EREMY #OX



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he IMC World Forum on Music session entitled “Formal and informal music learning contexts in schools and communities internationallyâ€?, chaired by Gary McPherson (Australia) with panel representation from Josephine Mokwunyei (Nigeria), Liane Hentschke (Brazil), Lee Higgins (USA/UK), and David Elliott (USA), discussed key points associated with understanding and reecting on informal and formal music learning contexts in schools and communities internationally. Josephine Mokwunyei showed how formal and informal music education coexist in contemporary African societies where formal music is learnt in schools and informal music is performed and transmitted orally from generation to generation among homogeneous groups in rural and urban communities. Formal music education in Nigeria still essentially involves teaching and learning of western classical music and is largely restricted to a few privileged people who are musically aware and therefore in a position to understand and appreciate it. For Josephine, key issues include how to blend this still new foreign type of music with the generally accepted more popular African music forms that the continent is richly endowed with and which represent its cultural identity. Her presentation provided recommendations for music education at all levels, within a context where suitable educational principles are still emerging that reect adequate local content and the diverse range of artistic practices evident in African society. Liane Hentschke spoke of her recent research showing the dierence in level of motivation between children and youth within the Brazilian context. Her research shows that students who have music education classes as part of their formal education are those who attributed the lowest levels of interest, importance, and usefulness to the subject. This contrasts with music making outside the school context where the young display a much higher level of valuing of music. These results point to the critical need to rethink music education in schools and to engage students in what they believe are meaningful music learning activities that are related to their own personal ways of learning and how they currently use technology to make and consume music.

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Lee Higgins focused on community musicians and how they move in and between many diverse settings. As an active intervention between music leaders and participants, community musicians facilitate group music making experiences in a variety of environments such as health, prisons, youth associations, and centres for those who have physical and mental impairment, as well as schools and colleges. Community musicians emphasise people, participation, context, equality of opportunity, and diversity. Lee showed how musicians and music educators throughout the world work in these ways and how they will actively identify themselves as ‘community musicians’ if they are connected to local, national, and international organisations that support, advocate, and name ‘community music’. David Elliott focused on ways of improving music education in and for the 21st century. He described the default settings of traditional school music practices and/or integrating formal and informal strategies in school and community music programmes. For David, this means going much deeper to interrogate, alter, and expand conceptions of the core values of music education and community music. He also stressed the need to educate future music educators who conceive and practice music education as a form of praxis – music education conceived as the integration of musical actions, reections, and ethical attitudes aimed at the transformation of people to create a socially just world. In other words, David believes that “music education as praxisâ€? pivots on “putting music making to workâ€? for the betterment of students and societies everywhere. This view suggests that music and the other arts should not be separated from everyday life and that music should not be placed on an ‘aesthetic pedestal’, isolated for contemplation in concert halls and consumed via CDs and the Internet. These activities are acceptable as far as they go but the deepest values of music, according to David, lie in the dynamic, social-experiential activities through-and-in which music is made, experienced, and “put to workâ€? for democratic, social, political, cultural, ethical, and other transformative values.




A healthy discussion of the presentations concluded the session, with key questions focusing on how to deďŹ ne formal and informal music education. Included were reections on the role of formal music education with descriptions of how music is being marginalised within schools as young people become increasingly immersed in communities of learning via the Internet and other forms of technology. Panel members considered what this means for formal education at all levels within a world in which new and emerging technologies have and will continue to dramatically shape conceptions of music plus how communities will practice music in the future. There was general consensus that formal music education will need to evolve within a rapidly changing context where only a small proportion of our youth are willing to devote the enormous amount of time required to master traditional instruments, despite their appreciation and participation in the informal music sector. In this regard David Elliott argued that the role of formal music education should be to (a) provide democratic access for all school-aged children who desire the opportunity to beneďŹ t from the myriad values of music education (personal, cognitive, aective, social, cultural, and ethical) and (b) to empower students to put their formal musical instruction to work for social justice for the positive transformation of themselves and their societies. At present, formal music education in many nations is being marginalised, if not devastated, by at least two major forces. The ďŹ rst force is worldwide economic collapse. The global ďŹ nancial problems have caused governments to make deep cuts in all areas of life, including education. These cuts have been especially devastating for school music programmes, the values of which are poorly understood by bureaucrats, advocates, the general public, and music teachers themselves. The second force is ‘musical-intellectual’ inertia. By this we mean that when and where music teacher education programmes exist,

they are usually dominated by and operating under the unexamined assumption that ‘music’ equals Western European classical music. This assumption has two related consequences for formal music instruction, which end up compromising (if not negating) its huge potential for personal and social satisfaction and transformation. The ďŹ rst consequence is the idea that ‘real music’ equals autonomous works of ďŹ ne art (i.e. European masterpieces) that can only be taught in large and highly selective school ensembles (e.g. bands, orchestras) via pedagogies that are teacher-directed and undemocratic. The second, related consequence is that all popular, world, and/or mass entertainment musics are viewed as simplistic, deviant, ‘bad’, or ‘not real music’, and, therefore, unaligned with the traditional values and standards of academic subjects. Where the latter view prevails, popular and world music activities and media, which the majority of children and young adults prefer and engage in outside schools e.g., self-directed pop performing, improvising, and composing; guitars, music software, iPad apps; rock and hip hop ensembles; iPad orchestras do not exist in schools. Thus, the majority of students fail to engage with or participate in formal music instruction and programmes die. The upshot is that, unless formal music education evolves to provide balanced music curricula for the majority of students, and unless teachers rethink narrow notions of ‘music’, formal music education will remain its own worst enemy. It will remain blind to what most people see clearly: that the dominant forms of music and musical activity today do not centre on Western ďŹ ne art music, but on popular musics, instruments, and ensembles, and continuously evolving classical-popular-world music hybrids. 'ARY-C0HERSON /RMOND #HAIR IN -USIC AND $IRECTOR OF THE -ELBOURNE #ONSERVATORIUM OF -USIC !USTRALIA

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Technology is ubiquitous throughout the world. It now serves as a fundamental engine driving the worldwide music industry and is readily assimilated by young learners wherever it is available. Students with access to contemporary technology gravitate towards it intuitively. For example, mobile devices (tablets) may act as a personal communication and production tool, data library and sharing device, new user interface for interaction and creation and a portable learning centre. In many cases teachers should learn more from the students. In brief, today ‘learning’ not only belongs to students, but also to teachers. We can say that this change is not only one of technical means, but also of educational perspectives and paradigms. This is gradually revolutionising how we conduct our business. The role of music teachers should be transformed from a provider to a guider. Music teachers guide students to incorporate music into their daily lives. The greatest potential in the use of music technology is that it allows sharing information and expertise worldwide. The interactive technology of media and the Internet promoted the formation of a global music education network. A music educator in London need no longer be teaching in isolation or without desired resources and expertise when a percussion teacher could involve videoconferencing from New York, Paris or even another part of town. Manhattan School of Music, which has organised distance learning courses since 1996, uses and develops cutting-edge, synchronous e-learning technologies to import or export educational resources. Their applications consist of master classes, one-to-one lessons, clinics, coaching, workshops, composer colloquia, etc.

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Online applications for studying may be beneďŹ cial even when traditional studies are possible. According to professor Fred Rees from Indiana University, live interactive video music instruction with multiple sites may cause unexpected outcomes: online students tend to perform better than students taught face-to-face. The cohort eect among online students supports studies. Furthermore, many times there will be a second dialogue between students during a live online class in the chat room while the instructor is lecturing or students are presenting. He also found that students’ presentations at a distance were often more inventive than students who had taken part in traditional classroom education. In this media age, music teachers should not only work hard on learning media technology, but also on collecting database resources. This means that the awareness of teaching resources should be heavily emphasised – how the content of music education achieves the fundamental change from a ‘teaching’ focus to a ‘learning’ focus through the construction of resource pools and networks.




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Following many years of prosperous cooperation which has been cultivated between the institutions, the Eesti Muusika ja Teatriakadeemia in Tallinn, Kungliga MusikhĂśgskolan in Stockholm, the Conservatoire National SupĂŠrieur Musique et Danse in Lyon, and the Hochschule fĂźr Musik und Theater in Hamburg ďŹ nally came together for the ďŹ rst time in February 2010 to develop a joint study programme which would allow the special ďŹ elds of composition, interpretation and research to work together more closely. On the basis of the EU Lifelong Learning Programme which, in the course of the Bologna Process, seeks to initiate stronger networks between European universities and to support innovative exchange programmes, representatives of these four universities, Marje Lohoaru, Isabelle Replumaz, John Falk and Frederik Schwenk agreed on an ambitious Erasmus exchange programme oering interested students the chance to follow a multilateral project-orientated curriculum at all participating institutions. This is presently the only such opportunity in Europe. The programme is directed primarily at advanced master’s students in the specialised ďŹ elds of composition, music theory, multimedia, instrumental and vocal music, and music education, as well as those majoring in musicology, music theatre directing, and cultural and media management. In the future, such a programme will therefore enable a music theatre project directed by the eight-man international project team, conceived by a composer from Stockholm, supported by a multimedia team from Lyon, produced by directing students from Hamburg, accompanied by a musicology seminar and performed by singers and instrumentalists of all four partner universities to be realised and funded by a connected network of partners at various venues. Furthermore, thanks to the planned one semester stays at each of the four universities, the students will beneďŹ t from the various majors and divergent aesthetic positions and training programmes oered by all partner institutions. During the three year development phase, professors and academic sta from the four academies meet regularly, working in accordance to a tightly organised plan arranged in ‘work packages’, to set the requirements which will ensure a smooth running of the complex study course. The responsibilities are shared between all partner institutions, with Tallinn bearing responsibility for the overall project management, coordination and ďŹ nances. Lyon is accountable for the development of the common curriculum and study conditions, while Hamburg provides an international quality management system based on national instructions or regulations. Stockholm is in charge of dissemination and is developing its own website. Despite the tight

education budgets, with which more or less all the partner universities have to work with, the national teams are working together to ďŹ ght against national conďŹ nes and bureaucratic guidelines from Brussels, to create the ďŹ rst of its kind Master’s programme, which should open up new and broader career opportunities to all graduates in the ďŹ eld of contemporary music. Financial support for contemporary music is being reduced dramatically, and against the background of dwindling job prospects, music academies are cutting university places on compositon courses and in the last few years many professors of compostion have not seen their contracts renewed. In example, the cuts faced by the German music academies lead to a reduced number of graduates and therefore to even smaller numbers of composers coming from music academies in the job market. At some institutions instrumentalists and singers no longer receive a suďŹƒcient introduction to contemporary music, neither technically nor analysis based. There has also been a decrease in the number of commissions from the public sector. In order to establish new perspectives, a close interaction between composer and performer, cultural managers and scientists will have to play a leading role in the future. This innovative study programme model will bring a new dimension of networking into fruition, allowing a new generation’s professionally trained elite to continue setting up ensembles, associations, performances, and the emerging network partners to broaden the narrow horizon of the current contemporary music scene permanently. There is a lot of work ahead with the new course set to be inaugurated in the winter semester of 2013/14. &REDERIK 3CHWENK 0ROFESSOR FOR #OMPOSITION AND (EAD OF THE #OMPOSITION -USIC 4HEORY AND -ULTIMEDIA $EPARTMENT AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF -USIC AND 4HEATRE IN (AMBURG 'ERMANY






EMC: You have a positive approach to new technologies in the music sector – what makes you so conďŹ dent? Kleinmann: I see that the glass is half full. Things are always repeating themselves, patterns are always repeating themselves, history is always repeating itself. When you are faced with a problem, like we have today in the music industry, you have to look back in history to see how problems were solved back then, and most of the time you will ďŹ nd a parallel – in terms of cultural things, how we consume certain things, how we appreciate certain things and above all how we monetise certain things.

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EMC: In Tallinn you asked your panelists if recorded music is a product or software and we would like to return the question to you: Is recorded music a product or software? Kleinmann: The dierence I make between a product and software is that a product can be quantiďŹ ed and measured and a price can be attached directly to that individual unit. You wouldn’t however talk in that way about software, because it would be seen as a deal, in which for example Microsoft or a future equivalent company buys a catalogue and incorporates it into software which you then make yourself; it is indeed monetised, but not monetised in the sense of units. Today music is no longer seen as something you can monetise directly; this presents a dierent concept in which recorded music is maybe no longer a product, but software.


EMC: You also said that the buying of units was over. So now as a consumer we are in a confused place. What will be the next model? Kleinmann: We are breaking away from the past model without even having a model for the future. History has always seen evolution; you cannot stop evolution. Perception changes and so does the perception of recorded music, whether we want to accept it or not. Unfortunately for the business, the perception of young people under 30 is that it is free. EMC: So how will recorded music evolve? Kleinmann: If the perception of the generation that is the leaders of opinion is that recorded music is free software or a free product, then this perception is the reality. Even if we establish laws and state that something is illegal and that there will be punishment and prison for those who break these laws, the end result will be futile, because you cannot change perception. If we think back to the generation of the 50s, for them cinema was something you paid for. Today we can watch ďŹ lm classics for free on television. The question is: Who is paying for it? Advertisers are paying for it, they are paying to give us the possibility to watch those old movies as well as the newer ďŹ lms once they have gone out of cinema and DVD circulation. Bearing in mind that home entertainment of the future will be convergent, meaning your television, your stereo, your PC will converge into one, then we must accept that music will be consumed in this way. EMC: There will always be someone who will pay for music. Who is this someone? Kleinmann: Who is paying to watch the classics: the advertisers. When making an advertisement, companies such as BASF or Lufthansa will use music as part of their oer. These advertisers need to ďŹ nd new ways of attracting potential customers and bring those costumers to them. One such possibility could be music as it has a powerful role in people’s lives and it is something so necessary that you will not ďŹ nd a culture in this world where music is not prevalent in the society. It is therefore a great tool for advertisers. EMC: So you say advertisement is the next operating unit or the next model? Kleinmann: Yes, a model where the music companies of today should become the intermediary between the advertising companies and the artist, as they have the expertise to match artists with companies. Certainly the artist suitable for a brand like Mercedes-Benz is not going to be suitable for a company such as Nike. These companies can sponsor through advertising, without getting involved in the actual creation. What these companies are saying to the consumer is: we give you this music for free, you come to our website and watch 30 seconds about our product, we can then ďŹ nd out who you are and collect data on you, in a way that is better than through the traditional newspaper advertisement, after which you can listen to as much music as you want from the artist with whom we have signed a two year agreement and whom we are giving creative freedom to do whatever they want. EMC: But with this a new problem arises, that of data privacy, of neutrality, of freedom. How can the neutrality of the musician be ensured with this model and how can the privacy of the consumer be preserved? Kleinmann: That is a good question. You talked about the neutrality of the artist, but I don’t think that an artist has ever been neutral – this ideal of neutrality is an ideal of the utopian freedom. When an artist was signed by a label, he already had to make compromises. The ideal of compromise coupled with neutrality has never really existed and in the past the majority of composers

struggled and suered – it’s not much dierent today. Now, instead of pleasing Nikolaus EsterhĂĄzy, the Prince who sponsored both Haydn and Beethoven, you have to please the Chairman of Mercedes-Benz, as he is the equal to what the EsterhĂĄzy’s were back then. EMC: But how can the privacy of the consumer be protected and preserved? Kleinmann: The answer to this question cannot be seen outside of the general laws and directives concerning data protection and general Internet commerce. The problem is that there are still wide regional discrepancies within this domain. The European Union has quite clear guidelines in this area, with both the European Union Data Protection Directive and, more recently, at the end of January 2012, a new draft European Data Protection Regulation that will replace it. This is to reinforce consumer data privacy within the EU. The OECD too has issued directives, but these are non-binding. The United States have endorsed these directives, but has not implemented them, preferring what they call, a ‘sectoral’ approach based more on individual self regulation, justiďŹ ed by laissez-faire economic policy. China is another story altogether. So, sadly, there is not, in the short term, one global solution or way to protect consumer data. EMC: How can fair remuneration then be secured for the artist? Kleinmann: Instead of selling units directly to the consumer, they will make deals with companies, who pay the record company who then in turn pay the artist. Whereas before the artist was paid based on how many units were sold; they will now be paid based on the deals that they have made using their music in dierent applications. The record industry can evolve into something very interesting, because it will remain at the forefront in identifying, producing and recording talent. Imagine a company signs an agreement with one house artist for two or three years, who must make two album records per year. By staying with the company for this period of time he will receive better personalised care as an artist than if he were put together with ďŹ fty other artists in a big record company. In my prediction the recording companies we know today will still be giants in the future, but they will metamorphose, transforming into so-called managers of portfolios, like a stockbroker. If you have shares in Lufthansa, Deutsche Bank, Deutsche Telekom the bank manages these portfolios but is in no way managing the company. They manage your consumer’s choices of e.g. twenty dierent stocks. Likewise the record company will manage the portfolio of maybe 120 dierent artists, but these artists will remain individual entities being presented by one individual company. EMC: You are making a clear connection between the arts world and the business world here. Are these two worlds coming closer together? Kleinmann: They have never been disconnected. There is a tendency especially in the music world to be idealistic and believe that art and music can exist in a vacuum disconnected from commerce or any sense of money. In a utopia that would be a dream, the fact of the matter is, people always look back with nostalgia to the way things used to be, but in this case, the past was not better, things used to be even worse. +EVIN +LEINMANN #ONSULTANT FOR 5NIVERSAL -USIC AND ,ECTURER AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF 3ORBONNE 0ARIS )NTERVIEW CONDUCTED BY DR

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§4(% 3/5.$3 4(!4 9/5 4().+ 9/5´6% (%!2$ÂŚ ! 0%23/.!, 35--!29 In his introduction to the programme of the 4 th IMC World Forum on Music, IMC President Frans de Ruiter discussed the complexity of the Forum’s main theme, “Music and Social Changeâ€?. The fact that this theme “has many layersâ€?, as de Ruiter puts it, was clearly demonstrated by the multitude and diversity of the sessions we were invited to participate in over ďŹ ve days in Tallinn, Estonia in late September 2011. Through presentations and discussions important issues for the future of music and for the development of society were discussed: Can music be a tool for social change? How do we best prepare musicians for the future? Can music contribute to social,

economic and cultural development? How important is arts education in forming tomorrow’s society? And many more. At the end of the Forum, I was asked to give a summary based on what in my view were the most important impulses to take home from the 4th IMC World Forum on Music. It was far from easy to make a limited selection from a programme ďŹ lled from morning to evening with important, thought-provoking messages from highly knowledgeable, experienced and indeed devoted presenters and discussion partners. I was given ďŹ ve minutes in which I oered the following summary: My main message is: this has been a great conference! It has shown the magnitude of our vision and visions for music in society, and it has encouraged us to – personally and in our local settings – celebrate our small victories in making the ďŹ ve musical rights prevail. Somebody deďŹ ned or described music as “the sounds that you think you’ve heardâ€?. In the course of the last few days, I think I’ve heard – in addition to a lot of very nice musical sounds – twelve verbal sounds – a chromatic scale as it were. I will share them with you, and add an important post scriptum.



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and social change is in fact about individual people. I’ve heard many touching stories about individuals for whom music is not only important but vital; and about groups of individuals for whom music is vital – for each individual as well as for the room between the individuals that we call community or society. Such rooms created by music are unique rooms. We know that, and our main task is to invite others into these rooms to experience them.

Human rights are high on the international agenda, whereas cultural rights, musical rights, which are a fundamental part of human rights, are ‘under-developed’. We should all y the musical rights ag as high as we can!

In order for people to express themselves and communicate through an art form, certain conditions need to be in place; for instance eight tanks to protect a music festival (as we heard from Egypt). At the same time artistic activities create conditions for a humane, just society. Our awareness of this is very important!

Tanks can protect music (Egypt). But tanks can also be overcome by music (Estonia)!

Music/art as a tool is a very complex concept, a concept that can even be dubious. Tools are often used to manipulate – one way or the other. True art is not manipulative! True art is searching for truth and truths!

How can the impact of music be assessed and measured? I have heard of numerous objectives for music making and consequently






similarly many criteria for making assessments. At the end of the day the most reliable criterion is perhaps simply to see when the listener or participant starts smiling or even dancing! That indeed is a sign of genuine response to the complex and wonderful world that music is.

Social inclusion pre-supposes many things, one of which is knowledge. For music to function as a vehicle of social inclusion, one must learn musical languages. More on music and arts education later. But ďŹ rst:

A hard core issue: Festung Europa! Festung Schengen! The visa issue must be solved! Present practices, as experienced every day by travelling artists, contribute clearly to social exclusion!

Now more on music education: One of the most important aims for music education is to provide people with voices – musical voices – with the help of which they can express themselves and communicate with others. Music education must set the stage for everybody’s voice to be developed and heard.

It seems tempting to construct a divide between formal and informal music education. That is hardly productive. We should focus on nurturing critical reection around all types of music education – music education in which the individual learner/participant must be in the centre, in other words, music education characterised by human care!

A viable music education curriculum should include adequate local content – to ensure relevance and validity. Even more important: a viable music education curriculum must be made important, important relative to our own time and the cultural and social contexts in which we live (which obviously is dierent from one place to another). 4HE TH )-# 7ORLD &ORUM ON -USIC WAS ORGANISED BY


UNESCO Road Map on Arts Education and the Seoul Agenda are very important documents that should be used actively in all parts of the world. But, however important and helpful they are, as long as the ideas and principles of these (and other similar) documents live their own lives outside of the big arenas where principles and policies and philosophies for education of children and people in general in the future are being developed, designed and shaped, music and arts education will always be frosting on the cake, and its potential in larger educational contexts will never be exploited. A speaker told us the other day that you can use any animal skin as a drum top as long as you remove the animal ďŹ rst! In the case of music education, the important issue seems to be to put the hide back on the animal in order to obtain a vital, comprehensive and holistic education in which music and art play an irreplaceable part.

Post scriptum: One of the most encouraging aspects of this Forum is the active participation of young people. This is new in the IMC’s history! A great thanks to the IMC’s Youth Advisory Group and the EMC’s Working Group Youth for being so visible and audible these last few days, and for all the work they have put into planning and running several of the Forum sessions!





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IMC MUSICAL RIGHTS AWARDS MUSIC: PLAY FOR LIFE -!+% 9/52 #(/)#% Have you ever heard of Mother Teresa? Of course! Eveybodys knows her. There was so much media coverage of her work, the Nobel Prize, her legacy‌ But why did she get all that attention? Because she cared for poor, neglected and marginalised people. But isn’t such care the responsibility of all of us? Isn’t is it found deep within our hearts? Yes, it is. She did something obvious – but she did it on a heroic level, and with such an enormous commitment, that she managed to convince many to follow in her footsteps‌ I toy with the idea of a somewhat similar conversation (in some years to come!) on one or another award winning programme, or one or another outstanding worker connected to a programme now selected. I would go something like this: Have you ever heard of ‌ (insert the name of your favourite award winning programme here)? Of course! Eveybody knows that programme. It is constantly in the media – not even only in the music media – and it’s great! But why did it get all that attention? It has a strong impact and serves all people in that they can express themselves in music, have access to music education, can participate in various ways in music making and listening, and all musical artists may develop their art, can communicate, and are fairly remunerated. But aren’t these rights just normal and obvious? Yes, they should be. At least they do seem to be normal and obvious for us – Sounds Readers. So the awardee is just doing something obvious, but on an outstanding level, with so much creativity, with such a commitment and excellence, that many follow in their good example. The IMC Musical Right Award intends to shed light on outstanding small or large programmes and actions, call for media coverage, show the world convincing models, trigger interest and attract followers. Make your choice! "EATA 3CHANDA 2EPRESENTATIVE OF THE (UNGARIAN -USIC #OUNCIL

7HAT IS -USIC 0LAY FOR ,IFE Music: Play for Life is Australia’s national campaign to get more Australians making music, promoting the beneďŹ ts of school and community music making. Run by the Music Council of Australia, its partners include many music and philanthropic organisations and all levels of government, on research, creative collaborations and highimpact outreach activities. 7HY IS -USIC 0LAY FOR ,IFE NEEDED Research shows that 1) most Australians are NOT active musicmakers, 2) most government schools are unable to provide students with an eective music education and 3) most Australian primary school teachers (who carry the main responsibility to deliver music education in the early years of schooling) lack the skills to teach music. This is because they receive, on average, a mere two day’s music training in their four year undergraduate courses. Music: Play for Life helps by providing free online resources, faceto-face assistance and major programmes in advocacy and classroom delivery, including -USIC #OUNT 5S )N This is now Australia’s biggest national programme for schools, run with funding support from the Federal Government. Under the programme, secondary students come together with professional mentors to write a song. Professional arrangers and resource writers use the programme song to create ensemble parts, teaching/resource kits, and trainers deliver professional development to Australian primary teachers. Everything is provided to schools at no cost, so that even the smallest, most remote school can be part of the action. The programme unites 500 000+ school-aged students from every state of Australia to learn the song and then perform it at the same time on the same day in September, to help promote the value of music education. Celebrity musicians get involved. Media coverage is extensive. &LAME !WARDS Each year these Awards recognise exemplary school music programmes. Winning schools are promoted to the media and also featured as case studies and models on the campaign’s innovative online resource, the More Music Toolkit, where teachers and parents can look for answers to common questions about implementing more music-making in their own schools. -AKING -USIC "EING 7ELL From massed singing events to ukulele workshops, music jams, open rehearsals, playground drum circles – the beneďŹ ts of musicmaking are heard and celebrated around the country each May, to promote the link between music and health. Free advocacy materials and other resources such as brochures and posters are provided to all registered participants. Tens of thousands of people take part. 4INA "ROAD .ATIONAL $IRECTOR OF -USIC 0LAY FOR ,IFE

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TEACHING CANTONESE OPERA IN HONG KONG SCHOOLS The Department of Cultural and Creative Arts of the Hong Kong Institute of Education received a sponsorship of HK$2.66 million (approximately $341 100) from the Quality Education Fund of the Hong Kong Government to implement the project from 2009 to 2012. Since the launch of the project in 2009, a total of 48 primary and secondary schools have participated in the project, as well as a total of 99 music teachers, 13 Cantonese opera artists, and 4646 students. In 2009, the Cantonese opera was included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List. The project mainly aims to: a) nurture Hong Kong music teachers to teach Cantonese opera in their music classes conďŹ dently and competently; b) train a group of Cantonese opera artists to assist music teachers in designing a curriculum and demonstrating in class; c) establish a series of educational research to understand the teaching process, collaborative model between teachers and artists, and to examine to what extent the motivation of teachers and students has been elevated in teaching and learning the genre; and d) share the experience with all Hong Kong music teachers by producing CD-ROMs of teaching packages, and facilitating inter-school exchange activities. Participating teachers are required to take part in six workshops of 18 hours in total on basic knowledge and skills about the genre led by an experienced artist. Afterwards dierent artists are allocated to dierent schools to engage in collaborative teaching for eight weeks. The teacher and the artist teach together in the same class though each has a dierent role to play. The project collects good practices of teaching plans and video clips from all participating schools which are compiled onto two CD-ROMs. All the participating schools are invited to share their experiences and the learning outcomes of their students in joint school exchange activities. Music teachers are encouraged to show their teaching video clips, share their reections, as well as invite their students to perform on stage. The activity is open to the public and other school music teachers are invited to attend the event. The impact of the project has included mainly the professional development of both teachers and artists: while teachers have developed their conďŹ dence and competence in teaching the genre, artists have learnt about classroom pedagogy allowing them to participate in teaching in schools. Last but not least, the participating students have developed their interest and knowledge base of the genre with increased motivation for learning. "O 7AH ,EUNG !SSOCIATE 0ROFESSOR OF THE $EPARTMENT OF #ULTURAL AND #REATIVE !RTS AT THE (ONG +ONG )NSTITUTE OF %DUCATION

CORS AMB COR – CHOIRS WITH HEART The Catalan Hearts in Harmony project which took place in Barcelona during 2009 and 2010 was organised by Secretariat de Corals Infantils de Catalunya (SCIC) – the Catalan children’s choir federation – in cooperation with Europa Cantat’s Mediterranean OďŹƒce for Choral Singing (MOCS). One of the project’s aims was to increase participation in culture through music and songs and, above all, participation in the ďŹ eld of children’s choral singing to tackle exclusion. We believe in inclusiveness, and not integration, and with this project we wanted to change the idea of disability into the idea of people having dierent abilities. As J. Garcia wrote “The permanent presence and visibility in society of people with disabilities increases our co-responsibility and participation. Building a strong collective image of disability will make our community values richer and will allow us to proceed towards complete normalisation in an inclusive societyâ€? which perfectly sums up SCIC’s “Cors amb Corâ€? project. What we were seeking was to establish a platform through which a singer can help another singer and via which, thanks to everyone’s eorts, the choir becomes enriched. We worked hard to inform all organisations working with disabled people about the project as it was important to ďŹ nd out their needs and perspectives in order to be able to cooperate with them. Training courses provided for our conductors gave them the opportunity to learn from specialists who shared their broad experiences from the ďŹ eld of education in university, schools and their work with children’s choirs. Conductors from Koor Lane in Norway gave an insight into their work in a school with both deaf children and those requiring hearing aids, whereas Julio Hurtado, conductor of Allegro (ONCE’s Choir from Valencia) shared his experience of work with his choir in which about 50% of the children have a visual impairment and the rest have normal vision. He spoke with passion about his work and the importance of the choir for its singers. SCIC also organised a symbolic event, a big concert on 15th May 2010 at the Auditorium of Barcelona with more than 300 children from SCIC’s choirs from across Catalonia who shared the stage with two guest choirs: Koor Lane and Cor Allegro from ONCE Valencia. The brilliant blind jazz pianist Igansi Terraza and his trio were invited to accompany the children during the concert. Furthermore, some of the songs were choreographed by dancers from the Psico Art Foundation, a dance group made up of boys and girls with learning diďŹƒculties. This was not simply a one year project, as our eorts will only make sense if the project continues and becomes stronger. Our experience gained through the project, we see development that will secure “Cors amb Cor‘sâ€? sustainability. Our warmest thanks to all who have helped us and believed in what we are doing. -ERITXELL -ONTSERRAT I -ESTRES 6ICE 0RESIDENT OF THE #ORALS )NFANTILS DE #ATALUNYA

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In addition to the three Award winners, the following three projects received a Special Commendation:

4HE 0OLIFONIA .ETWORK FOR -USIC The Polifonia Network for Music was recognised for the invaluable impact it has had and continues to have on the enhancement of conservatoire education in Europe and beyond. Jointly coordinated by the European Association of Conservatoires (AEC), the MalmĂś Academy of Music and the Royal College of Music in Stockholm from 2004-2011, Polifonia was the largest project on higher music education to date. The project involved more than 70 organisations in higher music education and the music profession in 30 European countries. An international extension of the project took places during 2005-2007 adding an additional group of 8 partners from the Far East, Australia, Latin America, the US and Canada to the existing European partnership. Polifonia addressed issues related to the preparation and access of young people to professional music training programmes, explored international trends and changes in the music profession and their implications for professional music training in higher education. Focusing on issues connected to the Bologna Declaration reform process in European higher education and its implications on professional music training information was collected on the role of research in higher music education institutions and its contribution to the advancement and development of new knowledge in the ďŹ eld of music. The training of instrumental/vocal music teachers is addressed to respond to the rapidly changing work contexts and professional roles in this profession and the widely diering educational approaches within Europe.

%SPACE !KTO Espace Akto is a cultural centre in the Kimbangu neighbourhood of Kinshasa. Run by the African Academy of Choral Music, the centre’s focus lies on the development of choral music and since its launch in March 2010 it has been a source of happiness for the artists in the municipality. It oers the opportunity for artists to express themselves through concerts and performances, allowing for music to be practiced without ďŹ nancial and political boundaries. Furthermore, capacity building occurs through conferences as well as training sessions given to the artists.

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Espace Akto also oers many programmes for children and young people such as francophone festivals in the setting of the International UNESCO days, school festivals, community choirs as well as meetings between children and professional artists which helps to keep music making interesting and exciting for young people. There are many practice rooms and a music as well as a hybrid library which strengthen the local music infrastructure by oering a wide amount of information for free. Espace Akto was awarded for the excellent opportunities it oers to a large population to make choral music allowing them to continuously develop their artistic qualities and enhance their choral ambitions.

.ATIONAL 9OUTH /RCHESTRA OF )RAQ .9/) The National Youth Orchestra of Iraq (NYOI) was honoured for the inventive and forward-looking ways in which it makes it possible for young people who live under highly unfortunate circumstances to participate in collective music making in a format they have aďŹƒnity for: the Internet. Born online, the NYOI was founded by overriding all the normal pathways to setting up an orchestra, with the initiators led by 17 year old Zuhal Sultan, going straight to an independent TV company in London through which PR was generated. As auditions were held via youtube, even the most isolated individuals were able to ďŹ nd out about the orchestra and upload videos of them playing to be evaluated, allowing for a fair and meritocratic solution to membership. Regular text conferences through Skype and through coordination with the British Council a programme was organised and the players were brought together. Due to the drain of talented teachers after 2003, many of the musicians were self-taught. In 2009 they received their ďŹ rst advanced lessons ever from seven tutors in the UK and US, and in 2010 from 12 which included tutors from Germany. A third of the 2009 intake had never played with an ensemble before. In 2010 the orchestra grew to 42 members and through their ďŹ rst contact with the Goethe Institute they began live videoskype online teaching, which then developed into teacher training by visiting pedagogues. One of the highlights was the Orchestra’s 2011 concert tour which also included a concert at the Beethovenfest in Germany. JO

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Since the EU budget is decided upon seven years at a time, the opportunity for civil society to inuence the Union’s budget only comes rarely. One way of making your voice heard is to join the movement behind the Europe-wide campaign “we are more – act for culture in Europeâ€? launched by Culture Action Europe in strategic partnership with the European Cultural Foundation. The campaign promotes culture, heritage and the arts, together with education, social cohesion and environmental sustainability, as key areas in which the EU has to make more bold investments if it wants to reach its growth objectives and Europe to remain a thriving democracy in the future. 2012 is a key decision-making year during which the EU budget 2014 – 2020 will be voted upon by Members of the European Parliament and ministers from the Member States. EU support to culture over the next seven years is at stake and the negotiations over the ďŹ rst four months of the year will be crucial. The campaign “we are more – act for culture in Europeâ€? calls for vital support for culture in the next EU budget and wants to collect 100 000 signatures and present them to the Culture Ministers of all EU Member States when they gather in Brussels for the EU Council of Culture Ministers on 10th May 2012. The manifesto is however only one of the activities within the campaign during this important year. Culture Action Europe is also developing campaign statements and positions on the two speciďŹ c campaign objectives: a bold and daring Culture Programme that will fund cutting edge artistic and cultural experimentation and an increased and more explicit support to culture, heritage and the arts in the EU Regional Development Fund. The campaign statement on the next EU Culture Programme proposal called “Creative Europeâ€? has been published in mid-February.

Run in an open source way, the campaign encourages arts and cultural organisations across Europe to get involved and stand up for increased support to arts and culture in the policies and programmes of the European Union. Individuals and organisations who want to support the campaign will ďŹ nd a wide range of communication tools and political statements on the campaign website. The campaign is run on a modest budget that basically covers the salary of a full-time Campaign Co-ordinator based in the Culture Action Europe oďŹƒce as well as some communication and printing costs. For the campaign to have a greater impact, the campaign team is therefore relying on the commitment of its supporters within the Culture Action Europe membership and beyond. One way of trying to multiply the number of supporters is to encourage the setting up of national co-ordination groups. The work of these groups has already started in several countries including France, Germany and Poland, and Culture Action Europe’s Swedish member Intercult was recently awarded a grant to co-ordinate the work on the campaign together with all the Nordic members of the network. Campaign Co-ordinator Emma Ernsth believes that many people are still unaware that although the EC is proposing to cut the majority of the EU programmes in the next budget round, it proposes to increase the budget for the Culture and Education programmes by up to 37%! Direct support for arts and culture currently represents 0.05% of the total EU budget. The EC believes that increasing the investment in culture, heritage and the arts will help get Europe back on its feet, but many Member States of the European Union oppose this increase. We want to gather 100 000 signatures to change their minds!


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he issues transcended the educational, scientiďŹ c or cultural concerns that are normally at stake in UNESCO’s meeting rooms; they reached into the high-level international playground of national political interests. The admission of Palestine as a full Member of UNESCO (until now it only had observer status) on 31st October 2011 was one of these major events. While this admission was welcomed worldwide by a number of governmental and non-governmental players, one could hear from political observers that it had only been possible because, unlike within the UN, at UNESCO no state has a veto, and a twothirds majority of its voting members suďŹƒces. In the same line, others would say that the ‘fragile UNESCO’ had been used for political purposes. The move was also seen as a step towards Palestine’s eventual recognition as a UN member state. Following the admission of Palestine by UNESCO, the United States announced that it would withhold any further payment of its dues to UNESCO. Indeed, US legislation dating back to the 1990s does not allow the US administration to fund a UN agency in which Palestine has a seat. The prospect that dues might be withheld had already become clear in early October when the UNESCO Executive Board decided to recommend Palestine’s admission to the General Conference. Since then, the Director General of UNESCO Irina Bokova has multiplied her appeals to the US administration, Congress and the American people aiming to demonstrate “that UNESCO’s vital work to promote global stability and democratic values [was] in America’s core interestsâ€?.

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The US decision caused an immediate funding shortfall of $65 million (â‚Ź47 million) for UNESCO due to the tendency of the US (and other member states) to only pay their contribution at the end of the year for reasons inuenced by their own budget calendar. In light of this situation, on 10th November 2011, the UNESCO Director General announced the suspension of the implementation of the organisation’s programme of activities until further notice. This announcement was made in the midst of the celebrations for the 10th anniversary of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. It soon became apparent that the 2011 deďŹ cit would amount to a total of $72 million. To absorb this deďŹ cit, drastic measures were taken between mid-November and the end of 2011, including a massive cut in expenditure and the freeing of resources. For example, some $4 million were saved by cutting travel costs; temporary assistance was slashed: only 160 of the 482 temporary contracts were renewed. Several activities were cancelled or deferred. And ďŹ nally, the Working Capital Fund was drawn completely to ďŹ ll the remaining gaps in the budget. At the same time, the Multi-Donor Emergency Fund launched at the end of the UNESCO General Conference received more than $25 million by 26th January. UNESCO also received some $30 000 in individual donations. This situation led the President of the Board of the Interarts Foundation, Eduard Miralles, to a rather laconic note in his editorial to the December issue of Cyberkaris: “in case of bad conscience and just as if one were dealing with the nth NGO, UNESCO admits private donations and contributions throughâ€?.

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However, the diďŹƒculties continue as the US and Israel have also suspended their contributions to the biennium which started on 1st January 2012. Taking into consideration that the dues paid by the US alone account for 22% of the UNESCO budget, one can easily assess the impact‌ For the next two years UNESCO is thus left with a signiďŹ cantly reduced budget of $465 million (compared to the planned budget of $653 million). As Ms Bokova said to representatives of the Member States in a meeting on 26th January 2012, achieving the Organisation’s goals during 2012-2013 with a ďŹ nancial cut of this magnitude would require a profound change in the way UNESCO works. She prepared a “road map to the futureâ€? that was presented at the meeting of the Executive Board beginning 27th February 2012. At the same time, Ms Bokova approved work plans for the ďŹ rst three months only, keeping them under continuous review and adapting them as the situation evolves. It is extremely diďŹƒcult at this stage to assess the impact of this road map on UNESCO’s programme delivery in the ďŹ eld of culture. But impact there will be. At the end of 2011, the Culture sector cut

5.%3#/ PROCLAIMS )NTERNATIONAL *AZZ $AY There could not have been a stronger voice of support for an International Jazz Day proclaimed by UNESCO than that of Herbie Hancock who had become a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador in July 2011. During his appearance at the kick-o ceremony of the 40th anniversary of the World Heritage Convention, on 30th January 2012 at UNESCO Headquarters, Mr. Hancock lived up to everybody’s expectations and reached out to everybody’s heart, both through his impressive speech and his musical performance together with Corinne Bailey Rae, Esperanza Spalding, Manu KatchĂŠ and Stephen Brown. At the General Conference, UNESCO declared 30th April as International Jazz Day – as well as 13th February as World Radio Day. The oďŹƒcial events will kick-o on 27th April in Paris at UNESCO Headquarters followed on 30th April by an event at the UN in New York. The UNESCO celebration, organised in cooperation with Herbie Hancock, will also set the stage for a series of events taking place around the globe in the days that follow. The day will bring together performers, educators, governments, experts, and fans alike, as they explore together the history, meaning, impact, and legacy of jazz music throughout the world. The programme at UNESCO HQ includes open master classes by renowned international jazz musicians, scat improvisational classes for young students, musical performances, conferences, debates and a big evening concert. The IMC has been invited to be a partner in the 27th April celebrations at UNESCO and is currently preparing its contribution together with its expert organisations in the ďŹ eld of jazz. In addition, IMC members are being mobilised to join in the celebrations worldwide with dedicated activities at local and national level.

42 contracts for temporary posts, supernumerary sta and consultants. UNESCO Partner NGOs such as the International Music Council will continue to follow the process closely and remain willing and ready for cooperation. As UNESCO Director General Irina Bokova said at the closing of the General Conference: “Our mandate is ambitious, so must be our action. Expectations are high. I am determined we must meet them‌ Uncertain times call for more UNESCO. They call for a better UNESCO.â€? Yes, a lot of things have happened at UNESCO in these past months. I strongly believe that more than ever it is in the very interests of UNESCO to intensify its partnership with civil society. The International Music Council together with its regional groups and its member network comprising over 1 000 organisations throughout the world remain ready for cooperation. 3ILJA &ISCHER 3ECRETARY 'ENERAL )-#

5.%3#/ TO CELEBRATE )NTERNATIONAL !RTS %DUCATION 7EEK The UNESCO General Conference welcomed the positive results of the First and Second World Conference on Arts Education (Lisbon, May 2006 and Seoul, May 2010) which highlighted the importance of high-quality arts education for all, and of strengthening cooperation among various stakeholders (national authorities, local governments, teachers, artists, researchers, associations and NGOs) of the development of best practices and the reinforcement of the position of arts education in schools and in societies. A Resolution adopted by the General Conference invites UNESCO Member States to ensure the follow-up to the Seoul Conference, employing the strategies proposed in the Seoul Agenda and by implementing in a concerted manner the action items set out in it for the renewal of education systems. In the same Resolution, the UNESCO General Conference proclaimed the fourth week of May as International Arts Education Week, while encouraging all Member States, civil society, professional organisations and communities to organise relevant activities on that occasion at national, regional and international levels. In light of UNESCO’s ďŹ nancial situation, it can be expected that the celebration of the International Arts Education Week in 2012 at UNESCO will depend on sponsorship.

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t the EMC’s music education Social and cultural challenges faced seminar in May 2011 participants by the music education sector are explored the implementation 7HAT CAN ) DO addressed in the third goal of the of the UNESCO Seoul Agenda for the Bonn Declaration. It is agreed that Development of Arts Education and )MPLEMENT THE DOCUMENT INTO THE WORK OF there is more to music than its artistic sought ways of adapting the document value, and music education has proved YOUR ORGANISATION for the music sector in Europe. The itself as an instrument for overcoming outcome of these discussions, the Bonn inequalities in society. This must be Declaration, embraces the three closely %NCOURAGE OTHER ORGANISATIONS TO DO SO TOO recognised by those active in the ďŹ eld of related goals of the Seoul Agenda music education; however, those seeking to use music education for such means, and oers tangible direction in the "RING THE DOCUMENT TO THE ATTENTION OF YOUR should be adequately informed and development of music education in LOCAL AND NATIONAL EDUCATION AUTHORITY AND have received the relevant training. Europe. Access to music education constitutes POLITICIANS The Bonn Declaration, which the ďŹ rst goal of the Bonn Declaration, which concludes with a set of recommendations raises questions such as, who is oering music 3HOW YOUR SUPPORT FOR THE "ONN $ECLARATION to decision makers (see below), is an activities? Are these activities available to all BY ADDING THE NAME OF YOUR ORGANISATION TO important political document which will not only help the European music those wishing to take part in them, and if THE OFFICIAL LIST OF ENDORSERS not, then why? The document emphasises education sector to achieve the objectives the right of all citizens to a music education laid down in the Seoul Agenda, but and therefore states that any obstacles !DAPT THE "ONN $ECLARATION TO YOUR OWN hopefully pave the way for recognition encountered by those wanting to participate EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT of the value of music education in the 21st century for Europe. In order for must be addressed. The second goal explores the prerequisites this to occur though, the sector must 6ISIT THE %-# WEBSITE TO VIEW THE "ONN of high quality music education, and discusses unite, and respecting the principle of $ECLARATION IN FULL EMC IMC ORG whether those providing music education subsidiarity, bring the document to have received the necessary training for the the attention of politicians at local and national levels. Only through raised awareness at these levels will jobs they are performing. Any shortfalls should be overcome through collaborations between formal, non-formal and informal music changes to legislation at the European level be possible. education providers, with responsibility for the adequate training JO lying with both the educational institutions preparing the practitioners as well as their later employers.

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&EBRUARY The Creators Conference 2nd – 3rd February 2012, Brussels, Belgium Music starts with the creators. We therefore strive to make a leap forward in the ongoing search for a fair balance between the needs of the creator and those of the user. Expect a lively debate on how to foster inspiration and preserve creativity in a rapidly changing world. Contact: European Composer and Songwriter Alliance, European House for Culture, 27 rue du BelvĂŠdère, 1050 Brussels, Belgium, T: +32 491 360 932,,

-ARCH III Inclusion and Choral Singing Conference: Ages of the Voice – Choral Intergenerationality 17th – 18th March 2012, Barcelona, Spain An intense weekend with conferences, workshops, round tables and concerts during which a plenary session will take place on choral singing and elderly people. Contact: Moviment Coral CatalĂ , Mediterranean OďŹƒce for Choral Singing, Plaça VĂ­ctor Balaguer 5, 6°, 08003 Barcelona, Spain, T: +34 93 319 67 28,, Singing Nations Network – 2nd Annual Meeting 26th – 27th March 2012, Utrecht, Netherlands 2nd annual meeting of the Singing Nations Network, where national initiatives meet and share best practice about advocacy for music education through singing and singing in schools. Contact: Kunstfactor, Mr Hans Bijloo, Postbus 452, 3500 AL Utrecht, Netherlands, T: +31 30 711 5100,, International Music Lab 28th – 31th March 2012, Edinburgh, UK An opportunity for delegates from four European countries who have recently set up or wish to start Live Music Now to come together to share good practice and learn more about Yehudi Menuhin’s scheme for young professional musicians and making live music accessible to all. Contact: Live Music Now, 14 Lennox Street, Edinburgh EH4 1QA, UK, T: +44 131 332 6356,,

EuroRadio Youth Concert 2012 30th March (concert) and 2nd April (broadcast) Top prize winners from EMCY member competitions perform with the Romanian Radio Orchestra in a concert which is broadcast across Europe by the European Broadcasting Union. Contact: EMCY – European Union of Competitions for Youth, Trimburgstr. 2/V, 81249 Munich, Germany,, EMCY General Assembly 30th March – 2nd April, Ohrid, Macedonia Biennial General Assembly held in conjunction with the National Youth Music Competition of the United Music and Dance Teachers of Macedonia. Contact: EMCY – European Union of Competitions for Youth, Trimburgstr. 2/V, 81249 Munich, Germany,,

!PRIL 20th EAS Conference 2012: Craftsmanship and Artistry 19th – 22th April 2012, The Hague, Netherlands The annual conference focuses on general music education – on artistry, musicianship, craftsmanship, skills and knowledge and the question of how to achieve high quality of music education in classrooms and communities. Contact: European Association of Music in Schools (EAS), Royal Conservatoire. Juliana van Stolberglaan 1, 2595 CA The Hague, Netherlands,, 9th European Orchestra Festival 2012 27th – 30th April in Tallinn, Estonia Organised by the Estonian Music Council and the European Orchestra Federation. Contact: Jßri-Ruut Kangur, President of Estonian Symphony Orchestras Association, +372 566 980 05, jurinuut.kangur@ eofed.rog and Daniel A. Kellerhals, President of EOFed, T: +41 81 783 10 27,

-AY La barca di suoni 6th May – 10th July 2012, Izegem, Belgium A multidisciplinary educational project, focusing on the development of auditory consciousness, combined with a seminar on sound, music and silence. Contact: Flemish Music Council, Lauwsestraat 27-28, 8511 Aalbeke, Belgium, T: +32 478 26 25 35,,

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IC Music Project at the Great Escape 10th – 12th May 2012, Brighton, UK Superact will be showcasing bands from their Interreg 2 Seas Project IC Music at the Great Escape, Europe’s leading festival for new music. Young, newly signed bands from the UK, Belgium and France will be performing at the festival and developing new community music performance skills with the Superact team. Contact: Superact, Somerset College, Wellington Road, Taunton, Somerset, UK TA1 5AX, T: +44 1823 66 66 41,, EMU General Assembly and Conference Goals for Development of Music Education / The Seoul Agenda and Bonn Declaration 15th – 18th May 2012, Riccione, Italy Contact: European Music School Union, Lucasbolwerk 11, 3512 EH Utrecht, Netherlands, T: +31 30 230 3740, oďŹƒ, XI European Youth Music Festival Allegromosso 17th – 20th May 2012, Ravenna/Rimini, Italy In Spring 2012 the region of Emilia-Romagna in Italy will be the next ‘Musical Mecca’ of Europe and the home of EMU’s XI European Youth Music Festival. The festival will create a meeting place full of concerts for 6000 young musicians from 24 European countries. Contact: Emilia-Romagna – Department of Tourism, Art Direction: AIdSM and ‘Assonanza Emilia Romagna’, 2012 International Rostrum of Composers (59th edition) 22th – 25th May 2012, Stockholm, Sweden The International Rostrum of Composers is an international forum for representatives of broadcasting organisations from all over the world who come together for the purpose of exchanging and broadcasting contemporary Western art music. Contact: International Music Council, 1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris cedex 15, France, T: +33 145 6848 50,, EFA 60 Years On: Festivals and the World 23rd – 24th May, Bergen, Norway The European Festivals Association celebrates its Diamond Jubilee in 2012. It will bring together EFA members, festivals worldwide, partner networks, friends and colleagues from the wider cultural and professional community. EFA will join forces with festivals around the world to celebrate, commemorate and in particular reect on the present and future of arts festivals in the world. Contact: European Festival Association, Kleine Gentstraat 46, 9051 Gent, Belgium, T: + 32 9 241 8080,, Classical:Next 30th May – 2nd June 2012, Munich, Germany The new, international professional’s forum for classical and art music. Contact: piranha womex, Bergmannstr. 102, 10961 Berlin, Germany, T: +49 30 318 614 13,,

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*UNE EMMEN Diploma 2012 4th – 7th June 2012, Dworp, Belgium With its EPMQ (Emmen Professional Music QualiďŹ cation) EMMEN provides musicians with a unique means of validating their individual paths and of measuring their adaption to the current socio-professional environment. Contact: EMMEN, Devrierestraat 17/19, 2000 Belgium, T: +32 3248 2468,, Day of Music 15th – 18th June 2012, all over Germany Every third Sunday in June, the Day of Music brings together various people and ensembles to show that music enriches our life and makes it more colourful. The German Music Council calls on everyone – musicians, non-proďŹ t organisations, music managers, theatres etc. – to run their musical events with the Slogan ‘Day of Music’, e.g. a concert that is already planned or has already taken place and can be performed again; even political discussions are welcome. Contact: German Music Council, Schuhmannstr. 17, 10117 Berlin, Germany, T: +49 30 3088 1010,, Hearts in Harmony: 2nd International Inclusive Choral Workshop 15th – 19th June 2012, Novi Sad Vojvodina, Serbia Inclusive choral workshop for handicapped and non-handicapped people. Contact: Cantat Novi Sad. c/o Jeneusses Musicales, Veljka Petrovica 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia, oďŹƒ, Choirs Transforming Our World: A Symposium 19th – 23th June 2012, Yale University, Hew Haven Connecticut, USA A Symposium organised in collaboration with the Conductors Without Borders (CWB) network of the International Federation for Choral Music (IFCM), the American Choral Directors Association (ACDA) and the International Festival of Arts and Ideas. The symposium will explore – through workshops and presentations – real world examples of CWB’s mission in action, as well as potential directions for the future. Contact: Je, IAMIC Annual Meeting and General Assembly 21st – 26th June 2012, Athens, Greek This annual conference of the International Association of Music Information Centres will refer to the role of music information centers in the society, dissemination and exploitation of music resources, the circulation of music and the relation between musicians and information. Contact: International Association of Music Information Centres, Steenstraat 25, 1000 Brussels, Belgium, T: +32 2 504 90 99,,


IASJ Jazz Meeting 2012 23th – 29th June 2012, Graz, Austria Annual meeting of students, teachers and representatives of jazz schools from around the world. Performances, master classes, lectures, networking. Contact: University of Performing Arts, Moserhofgasse 39-41, 8010 Graz, Austria, T: +43 316 389 3440,,

*ULY International Choral Music Festival Barcelona 2012 1st – 8th July 2012, Barcelona, Spain Singing week with three dierent workshops for all participants, individual concerts of the participating choirs and ďŹ nal concert. Contact: FederaciĂł Catalana d’Entitats Corals, Via Laitana, 54, 2n. Despatx 213, Barcelona, Spain, T: +34 932 680 668,, 11th China International Choral Festival and IFCM World Choral Summit 15th – 22th July 2012 The theme of this global initiative is ‘Voices in Harmony’. Five world-class choirs, one from each continent, will be invited to the summit and will perform as the cornerstone of the festival. In addition, choral leaders from 30 national and international organisations will be invited to exchange cultures and make new colleagues. Contact: International Federation for Choral Music, Dpt of Theatre and Music, College of Architecture and the Arts, 1040 West Harrison St., Rm. L018, MC255, Chicago, IL 60607-7130, USA, T: +86 10 840 38225,, 67th JMI AGA 24th – 28th July 2012, Weikersheim, Germany The 67th JMI AGA will take place in the Musikakademie Schloss Weikenstein, one of JMI’s two World Meeting Centres. The Annual General Assembly will bring together JMI’s national and associate member organisations from over 60 countries worldwide to engage in meetings, discussions, workshops and trainings to strengthen and steer the global network. Contact: Jeunesses Musicales Deutschland, Marktplatz 12, 97990 Weikersheim,, Festival EUROPA CANTAT XVIII 27th July – 5th August 2012, Turin, Italy The EUROPA CANTAT XVIII festival oers a wide ranging of programme for conductors, choirs, singers and composers. The big event to meet colleagues from all over the world. Contact: Festival OďŹƒce: T:+39 0343 8743 60 /+39 011 521 5808,, musicoďŹƒ,

The 32nd Annual Christian artists seminar 29thJuly – 3rd August 2012, Bad Honnef, Germany Five days full of performance and during the day each hour 20 parallel workshops and masterclasses, many instruments, voices, lyric writing, composing, stage arts, media, visual arts, etc. And each day a plenum about the eects of the crisis in the cultural sector. Contact: Netherlands Music Council/CNV Kunstenbond/KSI, Postbox 81065, 3009 GB, Rotterdam, Netherlands, T: +31 1045 6868 8,,

!UGUST Imagine Festival 2012 2nd – 4th August 2012, Sibiu, Romania In August 2012 the city of Sibiu (Romania) will transform into an international launchpad for the freshest unsigned talent from 7 countries. Imagine Festival 2012, the all-style music competition for young artists will bring together these national ďŹ nalists to battle it out for the international title and will host a number of guest performances from earlier winners and established local acts. Contact: JM Romania, 134, Constantin Noica St., 060055 Bucharest, Romania, T: +10 21 312 8500, World Youth Choir 3rd August – 1st September 2012, Cyprus The World Youth Choir is a unique choir, bringing together talented young singers aged 17 – 26 from all over the world for sessions. In summer 2012 the choir will meet in Cyprus thanks to the cooperation with the Cyprus Symphony Orchestra and the support of the Cyprus Presidency of the European Union. Contact: World Youth Choir, Churchillplein 10, 2517 JE Den Haag, Netherlands,,

3EPTEMBER European Workshop for Contemporary Music 26th September 2012, Warsaw, Poland Following 6 days of rehearsals in the Polish capital, young musicians taking part in the European Workshop on Contemporary Music will perform pieces by contemporary composers aligned into the topic of ‘musical theatre’ at the festival Warsaw Autumn. Contact: Warsaw Autumn, Festival OďŹƒce, Rynek Starego Miasta 27, 00-272 Warsaw, Poland, T: +48 22 831 0607, PEETA Project Conference 27th – 29th September 2012, Rotterdam, Netherlands Superact will be disseminating the ďŹ nal results of their European project, Personal Eectiveness and Employability through the Arts. This two year project has been investigating the use of arts employability award throughout prisons in 5 dierent European countries. Contacts: Superact, Somerset College, Wellington Road, Taunton, Somerset, UK TA1 5AX, T: +44 1823 66 66 41,,

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EJN General Assembly 27th – 30th September 2012, Bari Puglia, Italy Contact: Europe Jazz Network, rue Gabrielle Josserand, 93500 Pantin, France,, www. V Meeting of Choral Specialists from the Mediterranean Area 28th – 30th September 2012 This meeting oers conductors, organisations, managers and choral experts from the Mediterranean countries and further aďŹ eld a chance to meet, talk, discuss and develop new projects and ideas. Contact: Moviment Coral CatalĂ , Mediterranean OďŹƒce for Choral Singing, Plaça VĂ­ctor Balaguer 5, 6°, 08003 Barcelona, T: +34 93 319 67 28,,

/CTOBER Waves Vienna Music Conference 4th – 7th October 2012, Vienna, Austria The conference constitutes part of the Waves Vienna Music festival and oers the possibility to attend lectures and panels and participate in workshops. The subject-speciďŹ c programme deals with the topic ‘East meets West’, which will serve the basis and inspiration for many years of pan-European cooperation. Contact: mica – music information center austria, Stiftgasse 29, 1070 Vienna, Austria, T: +43 1521 040, oďŹƒ, From Seoul via Bonn to Budapest: Implementation of the Seoul Agenda in European Music Schools 18th – 20th October 2012, Budapest, Hungary Capacity building seminar for EMU members (European Music Schools Union). Contact: European Music School Union, Lucasbolwerk 11, 3512 EH Utrecht, Netherlands, T: +31 30 2303, oďŹƒ,

.OVEMBER AEC Annual Congress 2011 and General Assembly 10th – 12th November 2012, St. Petersburg, Russia The AEC Annual Congress is used as a platform to inform AEC members about the work done in the AEC projects and about the latest developments in higher education at European level. Contact: Association of European Conservatoires, PO Box 805, 3500 AV Utrecht, Netherlands, T: +31 30 236 1242,,

$ECEMBER World Choral Day 2012 9th December 2012, everywhere One day dedicated to the celebration choral singing, just sing and register your event on the website. Every year more than 300 concerts all over the world. Contact: T: +39 033 159 4504,,

#/-).' .%84 %-0/7%2 -53)# ÂŻ -53)# %-0/7%23 #!0!#)49 "5),$).' 7/2+3(/0 &/2 -53)# /2'!.)3!4)/.3 ). 4(% -%$)4%22!.%!. The Mediterranean is a highly diversiďŹ ed political, cultural, social and religious environment where music has always played a very important role for the people and the societies. In October 2012 the European Music Council will host a capacity building workshop for music organisations in the Mediterranean with the aim of strengthening the infrastructure of the music life of the region by building knowledge, creating networking opportunities as well as supporting and enhancing the visibility of initiatives that help sustain people’s participation in the musical life of the Mediterranean. The workshop will focus on:

Communication and self-promotion for musicians and musical operators

Advocacy for the role of music and musicians The workshop, co-organised by EMC and IMC, will take place in the frame of the Euro-Med Youth Music Expo which will take place from 28th September – 1st October 2012 in Limassol, and will be organised by Epilogi, JMI, Arab Academy of Music, National Music Conservatory Amman – King Hussein Foundation and JMI Turkey. More information will be available soon on the EMC Website (

3!6% 4(% $!4% ECA General Assembly and Conference: Colours of (Young) European Voices 16th – 18th November 2012, Toulouse, France The general assembly has two parts: assembly with election of the new board followed by the conference. Contact: European Choral Association – Europa Cantat, c/o Haus der Kultur, Weberstr. 59a, 53113 Bonn, Germany, +49 228 9125663,


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