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Published by The European Music Council (EMC) is a platform for representatives of National Music Councils and international organisations involved in various fields of music amongst many European countries. As a European umbrella organisation, it gathers the European members of the International Music Council. The European Music Council contributes to a better mutual understanding among people and their different cultures and to the right for all musical cultures to coexist. Therefore, it provides exceptional value to its membership by building knowledge; creating networking opportunities as well as supporting and enhancing the visibility of initiatives that help sustain people’s participation in music and cultural life. IMPRINT: EDITOR:

SECRETARIAT:

European Music Council Haus der Kultur Weberstr. 59a D-53113 Bonn Tel.: +49 228 96699664 www.emc-imc.org facebook.com/EuropeanMusicCouncil twitter.com/emc_imc info@emc-imc.org

Secretaries General: Ruth Jakobi, Simone Dudt

PRESIDENT: Ian Smith VICE-CHAIR: Victoria Liedbergius

Team Administrator: Tanja Huthwelker Communication Officer: Isabel Jordan Policy Advisor: Katharina Weinert Project Officer: Carolyn Auclair Communication Trainee: Maria Nolla Colomer

TREASURER: Willem van Moort

Introductions written by: Maria Nolla Colomer

BOARD MEMBERS: Eirik Birkeland, Joanna Grotkowska, Audrey Guerre, Michalis Karakatsanis, David Zsoldos

EDITING: Maria Nolla Colomer, Carolyn Auclair and Ruth Jakobi

The European Music Council is supported by:

The EMC coordinates SHIFT, co-funded by Erasmus+:

The European Commission’s support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. © 2020 European Music Council. All rights are reserved. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily of the publisher or editor. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any format without permission of the European Music Council and the respective authors of the articles presented. 3


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE ……………………….......………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………. 7 BACKGROUND …………………………………..………….………………………...………………………………………..….. 7 CONFERENCE DESCRIPTION ………...….……..……..……….………………………..……..…………………………… 7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………..………………………………………..……………………………….……..… 9 INTRODUCTION …………...……….………………………………………………….……………………………………………………. 11 GENERAL OVERVIEW ………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………..……….. 14 CULTURE AS A DRIVER OF TRANSITION, PULSE: CULTURAL NETWORK FOR TRANSITION, JUNE 2016…..17 RAISING THE TEMPERATURE: THE ARTS ON A WARMING PLANET, DIEGO GALAFASSI, SACHA KAGAN, MANJANA MILKOREIT, MARÍA HERAS, CHANTAL BILODEAU, SADHBH JUAREZ BOURKE, ANDREW

D’ART REPORT 34B: THE ARTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: AN INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW, IFACCA/JULIE’S BICYCLE, NOVEMBER 2014……..…………………………………………………………………………..33

ARTISTIC PROJECTS ………………..………………………………………………………..…………………………………………….. 47 AN INTERVIEW WITH LAURIE GOLDMAN, AMY BRADY, ARTISTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE, MARCH 2020..50 MELTING ICE, PAMELA BURNARD, APRIL 2018 .........……………….….………………..……………………………. 54 ART FOR THE PLANET’S SAKE, HANNAH VAN DEN BERGH, IETM & COAL, NOVEMBER 2015………….…. 62

SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES ………………….....……………………………………………………………………..………………… 75 GEREN TOURING GUIDE: A GUIDE FOR MUSICIANS, AGENTS, TOUR MANAGERS, PROMOTERS, VENUES, AND BOOKING AGENCIES, JAN CHRISTIAN POLANIA GIESE and JULIAN BUTZ, GREEN TOURING NETWORK, 2016 ..............……………………………………………………………………………………….….…........…………………. 78 TIPS ON HOW TO ORGANISE ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE EVENTS, EUROPEAN MUSIC COUNCIL IN THE FRAMEWORK OF STAMP PROJECT, AUGUST/SEPTEMBER 2018……...................................…. 104

MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT ……………………………………………………………….…………......................………… 109

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PREFACE Background: Ten years ago, the European Music Council recognised the need to create a space for its members and all people interested in exchanging, building knowledge, meeting other professionals and amateurs related to the music and cultural field. A place where people could share their knowhows, learn from their encounters and build strong international, European and local relationships. Since 2010, the EMC has had the pleasure to organise each year a Forum in a different European city, hosted and co-organised by partners based in the country. Various themes have been at the center of many interesting panels and discussions, “Music and Cultural Diplomacy: Linking Continents - Bridging Cultures” in 2017 in Pafos, Cyprus, “Looking back – Looking Forward. The Future of Europe’s Musical Roots” in 2018 in Oslo, Norway, or “Give Me 5! The Five Music Rights in Action” at the IMC World Forum on Music in cooperation with the International Music Council in 2019, Paris, France. Becoming a yearly rendezvous for various stakeholders in the music field, the European Forum on Music aims to create more awareness on actual needs and/or challenges of the sector and to be a European platform for exchanges.

Conference description: This 2020 edition of the European Forum on Music (EFM) Climate Action: Music as a Driver for Change was expected to take place from Thursday, 4 June until Sunday, 7 June 2020 in Bonn, Germany. The EFM, annual conference of the European Music Council (EMC), was supposed to be held in Bonn, in the framework of the Beethoven Anniversary. The aim of the year was to highlight the connection between music and climate change as an inspiration of Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony, which is dedicated to the nature. Due to the Coronavirus pandemic, the conference changed its format and was entirely held online, consisting of a series of online events and resources. The first part was a panel discussion: Act Now: Music & Climate Change. It took place in the frame of the Beethoven Pastoral Project, on 5 June 2020 – World Environment Day and the Pastoral Day –, bringing together musical artists with an ecological mindset and political decision makers from the EU. The panel discussion was organised in cooperation with BTHVN2020. Two weeks later, the Online Workshop: Music and Sustainability was organised on 18 June 2020 in cooperation with GO Group and the Green Music Initiative. In parallel, we selected some projects from our members on music and climate action, that can be found at the end of this reader or on our website. Furthermore, the EMC is already working on integrating environmental sustainability in its strategy and in its own way of working. As coordinator of the SHIFT project, which among other topics, deals with embedding environmental sustainability in the cultural sector, this reader will contribute to the SHIFT archive put together by ELIA. And finally this present reader is also part of the EFM online series. 7


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank the International Association for Music Products NAMM and BTHVN 2020 for their support of the EFM online series and our financers the European Commission with its Creative Europe programme, the German Federal Government for Culture and Media and the city of Bonn for their generous financial support. We thank all the speakers, panellists and participants for their input in our events and resources and for enabling the success of this unusual 9th European Forum on Music. We also thank all partners, in particular ELIA for their contributions to the SHIFT project, co-funded by Erasmus+. We would like to sincerely thank all the authors, who agreed to share their publications with the European Music Council for this conference reader. Authors and organisations are listed in the order of appearance: PULSE Cultural Network for Transition International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (IFACCA) Julie’s Bicycle Diego Galafassi Amy Brady Artists and Climate Change Pamela Burnard Hannah Van Den Bergh International Network for Contemporary Performance Arts (IETM) Coalition for Art and Sustainable Development (COAL) Jan Christian Polania Giese Julian Butz Green Touring Network Popakademie Baden-Wßrttemberg (University of Popular Music and Music Business) 9


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INTRODUCTION The European Music Council is proud to present this conference reader for the 9th European Forum on Music on Climate Action: Music as a Driver for Change in its digital format. A selection of eight articles, extracts from publications and reports, were put together to give complementary information to our online series through the different layers of the theme at the heart of this year’s Forum. Divided in three main strands which represent key aspects of the music sector in regards of environment, the conference reader aims to provide additional views to what was proposed in the different events held. Although it is not a new topic on the table, the last United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP25), warned about the possible effects that climate change would have in the coming years. The data provided and the fact that there was no longer talk of a long term but rather of events that are happening right now and that will worsen in the coming years to the point where they cannot be reversed, alarmed everyone in the world and raised many questions about how we could individually collaborate to stop climate change. Actually it was not by no means a new fact: the world began to become aware of the issue especially after the COP21 in Paris in 2015, which resulted in the Paris Agreement in which governments, cities, regions, businesses and investors from all over the world decided to take action against global warming. Additionally, and after decades of work, also the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted in 2015, keeping an important spot for Climate Action (Goal 13). Consisting of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to different topics, this agenda is a plan of action to address the global challenges we face, in order to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. Changes often start with the individual willing of a huge group of people. In other words, nothing can change if no one plays its role. But how can people get involved in fighting a battle, like climate change? Is it possible to find comfortable zones fostering constructive dialogues leading to action? Can the cultural sector take part on this mobilisation creating safe sp aces fo r environmental conversations? W hich role can m usic have i n contributing to pr otect an d ensure a sustainable environment? Are there any measures we can implement in the music sector to protect nature from loosing its diversity? This year’s conference reader is made out of three sections, which gives food for thought to the readers on the relationship between music and climate change. The first part offers an overview on how culture in general can play a significant role in creating spaces for dialogue and involve people in taking collective actions. This chapter is a more philosophical one, which brings the question of how can culture be a tool to educate on environmental issues. Following this chapter, we would like 11


to present some artistic projects highlighting the impacts of climate change through music and art. The final section, is dedicated to a more practical side of how music events can reduce their footprint and become more environmentally friendly. Overall, the aim of our conference reader is to create more awareness in the music and cultural sector on the topic and connect it with practical guidelines and tools. Further readings on the topic can be found at the end of the conference reader, as well as some examples of projects and activities related to the various themes presented. T his reader will contribute to the archive ELIA has put together in the framework of the SHIFT project with the partners and some articles, seen relevant for the music sector, have also been extracted from the archive (to be online soon here www.shift-culture.eu). We hope that the articles we collected give the reader a better understanding on how can music – and the arts in general – have an important role to play to succeed as a driver for change. Note that this non-exhaustive list and articles have been especially selected in English. We are aware that not all of the text are the most recent, but we believe they were necessary to have a better picture on the theme and consider them still very relevant. The European Music Council wishes you a good reading and remains available in case of any enquiries regarding this publication.

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GENERAL OVERVIEW 14


This first part of the conference reader offers – as its title says – a general overview on how culture in general can play a significant role in creating spaces for dialogue and involve people in taking collective actions. This chapter is a more philosophical one, which touches upon the question of how culture can be a tool to educate on environmental issues. We will start with the article “Culture a s a d river o f transition from Pulse” from Cultural Network for Transition (June, 2016), which reflects on the role of the cultural sector in the tasks of involving people in thinking about how we want to live together, how we want to relate to our surroundings and how we can translate this thinking into actual action. Culture can transform the individual change needed to a collective one and help to involve people in the process. The power that the sector possesses lies in its ability to create a range of places within society where people, groups and action can be linked together. As a second part, we will read “Raising the temperature: the arts on a warming planet” from Diego Galafassi, Sacha Kagan, Manjana Milkoreit, María Heras, Chantal Bilodeau, Sadhbh Juarez Bourke, Andrew Merrie, Leonie Guerrero, Gudrún Pétursdóttir and Joan David Tàbara (April, 2018), which summarises a reviewed range of resources in order to highlight the role of the arts in fostering transformation and its potential to open up creative engagement, needed to promote and bring about transformative changes in the cultural dimensions of climate change. As a conclusion, we have selected some parts of the report “D’Art Report 24b: The Arts and Environmental Sustainability: An International Overview” from the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (IFACCA) and Julie’s Bicycle. The report offers a general view on the developments in policies, practices and programmes related to culture and environmental sustainability, and how these impact on national arts and cultural organisations. T he a im o f t he report was to understand the relationship between the environmental sustainability and the arts community and investigate on the development of potential further work. 15


Culture as a driver of transition, Pulse - Cultural Network for Transition, June 2016 Link: https://www.pulsenetwerk.be/english

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Culture as a driver of transition, Pulse - Cultural Network for Transition, June 2016

Culture as a driver of transition Pulse – Cultural Network for Transition – June 2016

In 1972, the Club of Rome calculated that if we do not change our way of living we are heading for ecological and economic disaster by 2050. Following years of denial and business as usual, the risk now is that the ecological crisis has become too serious to cope with. At the same time, the awareness that the earth’s resources are finite is greater than ever. Now, if our purpose is to establish a sustainable way of ‘buen vivir’ (living well) we have no choice but to respect ecological limits. It is no longer possible today to imagine a world without global inter-dependence between societies. This means that the ecological crisis is not only a worldwide environmental crisis, but that it also creates more global social injustice than there has ever been. In order to give 10 billion people a worthwhile existence by 2050 and also respect our ecological limits, we shall have to change our social, moral and cultural frameworks. In other words, developing a viable and just society involves more than working on a balanced ecosystem; it also includes social justice. There must be an intensive process of transition in which everyone helps build up a new, sustainable local-global model of society, and the development of ‘ecological citizenship’ is an essential component of this. The cultural sector has huge potential when it comes to making a contribution to this transition and developing ecological citizenship, which gives everyone the opportunity to commit on both a local and global level. The imagination, shared vision and common set of values found in culture give meaning to our individual actions and the systematic underpinning of our society. Culture helps citizens to deal with the increasing complexity and uncertainty in our society and makes people think about the future, in dialogue with their fellow citizens. The cultural sector has an essential role to play in the task of involving people in thinking about how we want to live together and about how we want to relate to our surroundings, and in translating this thinking into actual action.

The role of culture: creating a space Fundamental changes – a transition – in a society, in a way of thinking and living, require more than a rational, management-driven approach: they also have to be embodied and embedded, and must literally be given room. A process of change can only succeed if as many people as possible are involved in the process. The cultural sector considers the transition towards a sustainable society to be the main challenge for 2020. To make this transition possible, we are aiming not only for a change in individual lifestyles, but also to encourage new practices in research, education, economics and political decisionmaking. Our goal is a societal and cultural ‘mindshift’. The sector will use its powers to involve both civil society and policy-makers in devising and shaping this sustainable and just future. The power that the sector possesses lies in its ability to create a range of places within society where people, groups and the players in civil society can meet and inspire each other, and where processes of reflection and action can be linked together. In this vision statement we highlight three particular areas that are intrinsically bound up with the cultural sector: space for the imagination, space for experiments in and practices of transition, and space for

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Culture as a driver of transition, Pulse - Cultural Network for Transition, June 2016

reflection and public dialogue. It is with these spaces, created through cultural activities, that culture can fulfil its role as a driver of transition.

Creative space for the imagination Imagination, inspiration and creativity are important keys to the achievement of change. The cultural sector is, more than most, a creative space in which social change can be imagined. What visions of the world, man and life do we want to take as the basis for the development of a resilient society? Art and culture are realms for reflection on such major issues in relation to sustainability. Space for the imagination creates a shared outlook. It gives meaning to human activity. It enables new ideas to be envisioned and new lifestyles and prospects for action to be explored. It embeds sustainability in everyday life. But for artists, imagination also means claiming freedom and experimenting, making room for critique and provocation, embracing heterogeneity and wanting the impossible. Space to question existing conventions and to repeatedly revise them in complete openness. This freedom to think creatively about the ordering of society is a laboratory of the imagination, and autonomous art plays a pioneering role in this. Art makes it possible to experiment with the meanings, images and stories on which a society lives and to explore its possibilities and limits, all this with relative independence from prevailing values and norms. In the arts, fundamental reflection is developed on a number of themes that we associate with ecology and sustainability (refuse, economics, social inequality, the landscape, transport, wastage etc.). Artistic creation is driven by the complexity of our society and surroundings and by critical reflection, not by notions of efficiency founded on economics. In the discussion of a transition to a sustainable society, the space for the imagination would appear to run counter to the extreme urgency of and drive for efficiency. A creative process can however give rise to surprising alternatives precisely by detaching itself from goal-oriented thinking. Imagination would appear to be linked a priori to the arts sector, but in fact it applies to all areas of culture. So the space for imagination is an important part of the whole cultural sector. The creative process that takes place there fuels the thoughts and actions of this cultural sector.

Space for learning, experimenting and experience A transition to a sustainable society requires that citizens have as much and as relevant knowledge as possible. It is a positive trend that a huge amount of information on sustainable alternatives for organising society is currently in circulation. At the same time, for many citizens it is too great a challenge to distinguish from this rampant growth of complex information those parts that they can make use of. In the near future it will be essential to gain a more profound knowledge of the fundamental causes (where is our system failing?), possible alternatives (being able – and daring – to conceive of another world) and successful experiments and practices. This sort of knowledge engages citizens and inspires them to take action. Alternative and inspiring learning and experimentation spaces are essential in order to achieve this ‘deeper’ and complex form of knowledge. The cultural sector can create this sort of laboratory space in civil society in order to set up, repeat and scale-up experiments. Our tradition of individual

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Culture as a driver of transition, Pulse - Cultural Network for Transition, June 2016

learning and acquiring knowledge has to be supplemented with processes of social and collective learning: gaining experience together, experimenting with alternatives and sharing knowledge. The cultural sector, with all its experience of learning processes (techniques drawn from socio-cultural education, community development, socio-artistic practices) can undoubtedly make a fundamental contribution to creating these collective learning and experiential spaces and to the development of prospects of concrete action, which would make a more sustainable lifestyle attractive. Special attention is hereby paid to the involvement of all the stakeholders, and especially to increasing the resilience of special target groups. Only then can we call it a just transition into sustainability. These learning spaces can be created, stimulated and supported in both a local and a supra-local setting. Local community-forming initiatives close to people’s daily lives make change concrete, attractive and feasible. Supra-local initiatives create a greater global consciousness and the prospect of justice.

Political space for public reflection and dialogue In order to make a transition to a just sustainable society realistic, intense and ongoing public dialogue will be essential. The cultural sector has the role and the possibility of creating spaces for public reflection and dialogue where new connections are created between one citizen and another and between citizens and policy-makers. Issues are turned into a public matter and in other words are also politicised: they lead to public and political debate, where opposing arguments take shape – thus ‘political’ in its most original sense. The essence of a living democracy is after all precisely that there are lasting conflicts and tensions between players who give shape to society on the basis of differing views and interests. In this political space, the starting point is no longer consensus as an ideal to be pursued, but an openness to complexity and difference. ‘Transition’ and ‘sustainable development’ are after all not concepts set in stone over which there is any consensus. There are nuances that are repeatedly shifting, advocates and opponents of particular emphases. Furthermore, the concept of sustainable development itself is a principle to be aimed for and which has to be constantly repositioned depending on its context. But the differences between the players in this political space are also considered worthwhile. One of the concerns that is high up the agenda of the cultural sector is that all population groups can have their ways of life, needs and interests represented in the public space, and also that nature and ‘things’ are given a voice in the debate. It is only in this way that a basis is created that will enable the change in the social structures and systems to take place. As a productive sector, culture also acts as an example in this public space. The sector will itself pursue a sustainable policy in various fields. The sector is making pioneering choices in terms of programming, organisation, staffing, HR policy, infrastructure, production and transport. SociallyResponsible Entrepreneurship is a clear choice in the cultural sector too. Working towards sustainability implies consistent choices. In short, the cultural sector as a whole reaches a lot of people, draws its vigour from these people’s involvement and itself has the capacity to mobilise large groups of people. A sector that has

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Culture as a driver of transition, Pulse - Cultural Network for Transition, June 2016

‘encounters’ at its heart is perfectly suited to intensifying public dialogue, fuelling debate and urging people to let their voice be heard and so bring about change.

The sector-wide network behind Pulse has formulated a number of ambitions for the cultural sector so as to be able to fulfil its role as the driver of transition. They have been noted down in ‘a sustainability agenda for the cultural sector for the 2017-2020 period’.

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Culture as a driver of transition, Pulse - Cultural Network for Transition, June 2016

A sustainability agenda for the cultural sector (2017-2020) As a cultural sector we want to contribute to the transition to a just and sustainable society. To this end we are expressing a number of aims that we would like to take up with the whole of the heterogeneous cultural sector. These aims should be seen in the light of the vision outlined above. To achieve these aims, it is necessary to have a framework for recognition and support.

1. We endorse the UN Sustainable Development Goals (2015). On the basis of a critical-reflective position, we translate the SDGs, use them as guidelines, express clearly our contribution to their achievement, and communicate this to society. We are systematically reducing our ecological footprint and therefore also the CO2 emissions resulting from our work. We are integrating the SDGs into our missions and operations and making our contribution visible. We are working on the politicisation of sustainability issues: we are increasing awareness, putting sustainability issues on the social agenda and making them the subject of public discussion. 2. We are cooperating within the sector to reinforce the transition to a just and sustainable society. We are making time, room and expertise available to work together on transition; we are organising sector-wide initiatives. 3. By means of co-creation we are working with other sectors on the transition to a just and sustainable society. In this way, culture, ecology and the social and economic realms form important pillars of this transition. We offer inspiration by sharing cultural practices that critically question social developments and imagine a sustainable future. Together with other sectors we are developing broadly supported images of the futures and implementing them in projects. We bring several sectors and the scientific research community together, stimulate cooperation and experiment and thereby reinforce the transition on local, regional and international levels.

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Galafassi, D., S. Kagan, M. Milkoreit, M. Heras, C. Bilodeau, S. Juarez Bourke, A. Merrie, L. Guerrero, G. Pétursdóttir and J. D. Tàbara. (2018). "Raising the temperature": the arts on a warming planet. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 31: 71-79 Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2017.12.010

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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

ScienceDirect ‘Raising the temperature’: the arts on a warming planet$ Diego Galafassi1, Sacha Kagan2, Manjana Milkoreit3, MarÄąĚ a Heras4, Chantal Bilodeau5, Sadhbh Juarez Bourke6, Andrew Merrie1, Leonie Guerrero1, GuĂ°ruĚ n PeĚ tursdoĚ ttir7 and Joan David TaĚ€bara4 The search for decisive actions to remain below 1.5  C of global temperature rise will require profound cultural transformations. Yet our knowledge of how to promote and bring about such deep transformative changes in the minds and behaviours of individuals and societies is still limited. As climate change unravels and the planet becomes increasingly connected, societies will need to articulate a shared purpose that is both engaging and respectful of cultural diversity. Thus, there is a growing need to ‘raise the temperature’ of integration between multiple ways of knowing climate change. We have reviewed a range of literatures and synthesized them in order to draw out the perceived role of the arts in fostering climate transformations. Our analysis of climate-related art projects and initiatives shows increased engagement in recent years, particularly with the narrative, visual and performing arts. The arts are moving beyond raising awareness and entering the terrain of interdisciplinarity and knowledge co-creation. We conclude that climate-arts can contribute positively in fostering the imagination and emotional predisposition for the development and implementation of the transformations necessary to address the 1.5  C challenge.

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2018, 31:71–79 This review comes from a themed issue on Sustainability governance and transformation Edited by Bronwyn Hayward and Linda Sygna For a complete overview see the Issue and the Editorial Available online 6th January 2018 Received: 12 June 2017; Accepted: 19 December 2017

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2017.12.010 1877-3435/ĂŁ 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Introduction

Attempts to stay below a 1.5  C global temperature rise will require profound cultural transformations. While climate scientists and economists seek to identify scenarios in which there is a chance of meeting the 1.5  C target [1–3], other areas of knowledge and culture are developing approaches to engage critically and expand the imaginative foundation for possible pathways that would allow us to reconnect human prosperity to the dynamics of Earth’s ecosystems [4–6,7].

Addresses 1 Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden 2 Institute of Sociology and Cultural Organization (ISCO), Leuphana University LuĚˆneburg, Scharnhorststr. 1, 5-213, 21335 LuĚˆneburg, Germany 3 Department of Political Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States 4 Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA) — Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) Edifici ICTA-ICP, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del ValleĚ€s, Barcelona 5 The Arctic Cycle, 19 South Road, Bloomingdale, NJ 07403, United States 6 Methods Center, Leuphana University, LuĚˆneburg, Germany 7 Institute for Sustainability Studies, University of Iceland, Saemundargata 10, Reykjavik 107, Iceland

As climate change impacts biophysical, social, economic and political systems, it is best seen not solely as a technical problem but as a challenge requiring cultural, adaptive and creative responses [1,8], in which transformations in social–ecological systems are a key strategy to mitigate and adapt to climate change [9]. Transformations are conceptualized and studied in diverse ways but overall they refer to fundamental changes in structure, function and relations at the personal, political and practical spheres of interdependent social, ecological and technical systems, leading to new patterns of interactions and diverse outcomes [10–12]. When applied to global sustainability, the notion of transformations is commonly used to claim that fundamental changes in current social–ecological systems are necessary [10–12]. Cultural transformations are those that affect the cultural roots of groups and societies, including beliefs, behaviours, values and worldviews [13–16].

Corresponding author: Galafassi, Diego (diego.galafassi@su.se)

$

Invited contribution to Special Issue in COSUST, 1.5  C Climate Change and Social Transformation – Issue 2: 2018.

www.sciencedirect.com

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Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2018, 31:71–79


Galafassi, D., S. Kagan, M. Milkoreit, M. Heras, C. Bilodeau, S. Juarez Bourke, A. Merrie, L. Guerrero, G. PĂŠtursdĂłttir and J. D. TĂ bara. (2018). "Raising the temperature": the arts on a warming planet. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 31: 71-79 72 Sustainability governance and transformation

In the quest for transformative change, many have recognized the need for mobilizing multifaceted sources of knowledge and value systems to provide a robust understanding of the complexities of climate change and generate multiple pathways toward sustainable and equitable social–ecological systems [17]. However, there is limited understanding of how to do that in practice. Despite increasing interest in the ‘human dimension’ of global environmental change across a variety of disciplines [8,18–23], the arts are a forgotten dimension in IPCC reports: a word search in IPCC AR5 shows that the term ‘arts’ (in the sense of artistic practice) does not appear [24]. In this article, we position the arts as key contributors to processes related to social learning, as they are particularly well-suited to give access to sources of knowledge and to drive action relevant for climate transformations. We first review the most recent literature on climate-related art and examine artistic projects undertaken over a 17-year time period (2000–2016).

and adaptating to climate impacts [14]. Despite advances in climate adaptation literature, limited knowledge is available on how to promote and bring about transformative changes in the cultural dimensions of climate change [20]. Scholars have called for strengthening the integration of social sciences and the humanities in global environmental change research [23,25–27] or for a ‘cultural turn’ in climate change action [22]. This is related to the growing realisation of the inability of dichotomies such as those between fact/value or nature/culture to make sense of the objects of sustainability and to prompt broader and more significant engagements toward social–ecological transformations [7,18]. Various disciplines in the social sciences and humanities have begun to frame climate change as a dynamic cultural and societal force capable of re-shaping humanity’s relationship with nature, and spurring a deeper inquiry into the existential aspects of human life [8,28] (Figure 1).

Why do the arts matter on a warming planet? Along similar lines, some authors have called for a ‘humanistic climate response’ that understands people as the solution [29] and pays attention to the human experience: affect and emotions, human values, subjectivity and the possibilities for the fulfilment of human potential [30]. Increasingly, we observe a discursive shift toward an understanding that both the impacts of and

A world where the increase in average global temperatures is limited to only 1.5  C above pre-industrial levels requires a wide range of innovative actions in specific contexts. Current climate change research seeks to inform and help societies address the critical biophysical and social challenges brought on by global warming. So far, this work has focused on managing carbon emissions Figure 1

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability

An artistic illustration of climate change as a cultural and societal force capable of spurring inquiries into a wider range of aspects of human life.

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2018, 31:71–79

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Galafassi, D., S. Kagan, M. Milkoreit, M. Heras, C. Bilodeau, S. Juarez Bourke, A. Merrie, L. Guerrero, G. PĂŠtursdĂłttir and J. D. TĂ bara. (2018). "Raising the temperature": the arts on a warming planet. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 31: 71-79 The arts in a warming planet Galafassi et al. 73

the world in their living qualitative complexity. As such, it reveals layers of partly contradictory dynamic tensions beyond orderly conceptual models [21] thereby making questions more relevant and exploring their existential values [44] rather than short-circuiting them in the search for ‘solutions’ [45]. Many forms of artistic expression seek to address such complexity while not being offputting [46].

solutions to climate change are deeply mediated by culture [31]. Researchers are beginning to see cultural change as a set of key learning mechanisms from which possible solutions to climate change could emerge [29]. In this sense, the 1.5  C challenge is the ultimate expression of our ‘learning race’ toward sustainability [32]: will societies learn fast enough to meet the multifaceted changes in beliefs, perceptions, behaviours and practices required for transformations toward sustainability?

To the extent that social change occurs first in emotions and second in people’s minds (rationales and moral judgement), artistic engagement can be central to climate change-related societal transformations. It is of no surprise therefore that climate-related art has emerged as a cultural response to the social, behavioural and political challenges posed by climate change. Artistic practices offer possibilities for revealing limitations of existing knowledge systems and foster experiences that promote novel ways of understanding and responding to climate change, more attentive to our embodied, imaginative and emotional experiences [42,47].

The multifaceted challenges of climate change cannot be addressed by science alone. It is often easier to provide risk assessments and model the problem than to agree on the actions that need to be taken in specific contexts to address those risks. Sound decisions depend on both factual understanding and values [33]. Improving societies’ capacities to respond to climate change requires an open and engaging transdisciplinary processes with large and diverse populations aimed at sharing experiences, cocreating knowledge and reimagining public goals [20]. While the effective communication of climate science is an important component of public mobilization, and making climate change more personally relevant has been suggested as a key predictor for climate change engagement [34], public engagement hinges on complex social and psychological mechanisms [35,36]. Due to the nature of climate change [19], individuals face ‘psychological barriers’ with regard to mitigation and adaptation actions [36] in addition to economic and communication challenges. As such, inclusive processes and methods that go beyond conventional science communication and fearinducing representations [37] are required to make climate change meaningful for large numbers of people in the shared quest for transformation.

The reach of climate-related arts In global change and sustainability literature, arts have been argued to play a variety of roles in transformations (Table 1). These relate to the potential of art experiences to open up creative engagement, support reflexivity and act as a principal conduit for cultural renewal. Art may extend climate change engagement toward the affective and personal experience, which may become a force that can help close the gap between what we know and what we actually do about climate change [15,48]. Climate art is growing within the diversity of contemporary artistic approaches [62–64]. Climate-related art is connected to other artistic traditions like ‘land art’ and the art movements that emerged from the 1960s and 1970s environmental movement, and to work in the arena of artscience [54]. Earlier artistic engagements with global climate change emerged from the genre of ‘ecological art’ from the late-1970s, with work such as ‘Lagoon Cycle’ (1974–1982) by Helen and Newton Harrison and some of their more recent work [65]. The topic then became widespread in photography and film, as exemplified by the documentary ‘An Inconvenient Truth’, which was a central piece of awareness raising in the late-2000s [66].

The creation of meaning involves more than narrowlydefined cognitive (i.e. logico-deductive) aspects of climate change; it calls for the inclusion of ethical, affective and aesthetic knowledges, which affect how humans interpret and assign value to certain aspects of the world [23,38]. Inasmuch as engagement with climate change goes beyond an understanding of the biophysical phenomena to encompass care and multiple forms of connection, the arts could provide a powerful conduit for such engagement [39]. Historically, artists and artistic practices have played a central role in major societal transformations by heralding shifts in mindsets, opening up new political horizons and providing — sometimes even forcing — the creation of novel spaces for reflexivity and experimentation [40]. Art has confronted humanity’s greatest challenges, such as war, inequality, disease, and many others, providing social spaces for grief and reconciliation and the renewal of human consciousness [41–43]. A unique characteristic of artistic inquiry is its ability to engage with more-thanrational, non-reductive knowledge and experiences of www.sciencedirect.com

More recently, there has been a proliferation of different art forms engaging with the topic of climate change. In this review, we explore these developments by mapping out recent initiatives that deal explicitly, at least in part, with the topic of climate change, either in content or form, or as articulated by the creators. We compiled a catalogue of artworks — processes or outcomes of a specific art practice — and art projects — initiatives, exhibitions and on-going networks 26

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Galafassi, D., S. Kagan, M. Milkoreit, M. Heras, C. Bilodeau, S. Juarez Bourke, A. Merrie, L. Guerrero, G. PĂŠtursdĂłttir and J. D. TĂ bara. (2018). "Raising the temperature": the arts on a warming planet. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 31: 71-79 The arts in a warming planet Galafassi et al. 75

Figure 2

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability

Here, we illustrate the increase over time in the number of art projects present in the compiled climate-related art catalogue. These are growing networks of initiatives, cultural actors, artists and practitioners.

Raising the temperature on knowledge integration: More-than-rational ways of thinking and acting

relating to the world. Related to this, a third cluster of projects is focused on using creativity, inspiration, positive stories and support thinking toward finding practical solutions. Yet another set of projects (a further 18% of entries) concentrates on imaginative futures and visioning. In fact, a climate change science fiction genre (cli-fi) has emerged [67].

In the early 2000s, there were already calls for artists to engage with climate change [68] as it was becoming apparent that climate science alone was not sufficient to motivate the public and politicians to act across multiple scales [69]. In the last decade, artistic engagement with climate change has been framed primarily through its ability to provide an accessible channel to connect with phenomena that are unpredictable, often difficult to comprehend and seem remote in time and space. Awareness-raising has been a major component of these early works, although a few of them were met with criticism because they arguably generated a sense of powerlessness [68].

Though this would require further exploration that is beyond the scope of this review, we noticed that the most prominent biophysical phenomena featured in artworks are the melting ice in the Arctic and the rising seas. There seems to be less focus on other issues such as ocean acidification, loss of species diversity and emergence of infectious diseases, for example. Two-thirds of the projects we found related to visualizing the planet’s changing ecosystems deal with the Arctic. This suggests that artistic production has been greater in relation to changes in certain geographical areas and not others. Public imagination (at least in the West) and imagery of climate change might be biased toward certain areas, and climate change might be perceived as, or imagined to be, a limited set of biophysical changes, for example, melting ice and sea level rise. www.sciencedirect.com

Our review reveals increased artistic activity in a variety of expressive forms especially from the late 2000s onwards (Figure 2). Although the role of the arts in climate change transformations has been stated as needed repeatedly, there are relatively few studies on the impacts of artistic engagement with climate change. We are also doubtful whether such studies could even be designed 27

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Galafassi, D., S. Kagan, M. Milkoreit, M. Heras, C. Bilodeau, S. Juarez Bourke, A. Merrie, L. Guerrero, G. Pétursdóttir and J. D. Tàbara. (2018). "Raising the temperature": the arts on a warming planet. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 31: 71-79 76 Sustainability governance and transformation

Figure 3

Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability

Representation of the number of artworks present in the climate-related art catalogue.

given the multidimensional and multifaceted effects of the arts which challenges current social science tools and methodologies. Our review gained insight about the general orientations of these projects, but it does not assess whether particular goals were achieved and how these achievements might have contributed to transformations. Such research would require more clearly stated goals from the projects, and a broad assessment approach, involving multiple methods [53]. Another approach would be to develop artworks and forms of artistic expression as part of a research project explicitly designed from the onset to address these critical and as yet unanswered questions.

Figure 4

Theater and Performance Film Installation Plastic arts Other

11 10 9

Opera Virtual Reality

We also observe a wave of artistic initiatives and projects, mostly in Europe, focused on, or containing a strong component of, co-creation and co-design by scientists, artists, practitioners and communities in the development of knowledge and solutions (about 20% of projects have such qualities). These projects emphasize broad dialogue rather than awareness raising. They unfold through the practice of transdisciplinarity and futures-making, and use the freedom of artistic practices to expand the epistemological repertoire and explore dimensions and facets

16 12

Music Novel

Game

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3 1 1 Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability

Art forms present in the climate-related art catalogue.

of climate change that are not accessible through standard scientific methods. One example is the interactive art installation ‘Sustainability in an Imaginary World’ [70]. Co-designed 28

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Galafassi, D., S. Kagan, M. Milkoreit, M. Heras, C. Bilodeau, S. Juarez Bourke, A. Merrie, L. Guerrero, G. PĂŠtursdĂłttir and J. D. TĂ bara. (2018). "Raising the temperature": the arts on a warming planet. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 31: 71-79 The arts in a warming planet Galafassi et al. 77

Earlier work was primarily concerned with raising awareness about the biophysical phenomena of climate change. In recent years, artistic engagements have sought to develop knowledge integration processes, in particular through the practice of imaginative futures and performance. Claiming that arts have an important role to play in transformations does not mean to approach art in an instrumental way. On the contrary, what makes art a unique contributor is its freedom to pursue open-ended explorations of any topic through an ever-expanding set of practices not wedded to finished ‘outcomes’ or ‘solutions’. This is an important aspect to keep present while there is also a need to research the actual agency and contribution of artistic processes in particular contexts of societal climate transformations. Art in climate transformations is best seen as an open inquiry process, unconstrained by standard scientific methods, and involving not just artists and scientists but also communities and change agents across multiple domains of action. Its unique qualities lie in challenging taken-for-granted convictions, often in an engaging and creative way, a process that can lead to new ways of perceiving, understanding and acting upon climate change.

by scientists and artists, the work distinctly moves beyond the notion of ‘sharing information’ about a problem to deliberately make use of the aesthetic experience of audiences to pose questions of experience, affect, creativity and self-reflection. As a result [70], the project embraced a plurality of meanings about the future, while seeking to empower audiences to imagine plural futures. Another example [71] is the use of participatory drama to understand sources of vulnerability, risks and resilience in communities in Kenya. Although admittedly in the early stages of development, these multidisciplinary projects suggest that the arts can play an important role in ‘raising the temperature’ in social learning, cultural innovation and knowledge integration relevant to climate transformations [20]. In this second wave, climate-related art is not solely communicative; it is a process of opening up imaginative spaces where audiences can move more freely and reconsider the role of humans as responsible beings with personal agency and stakes in a changing world. Artistic engagements may therefore be able to bring to the surface, often in unique ways, the assumptions underpinning different knowledge systems, beliefs as well as the affective, ethical and moral dimensions of climate change. The arts may operate as ‘spaces of possibility’, accelerating systemic and institutional (social, political and cultural) innovation [52,56]. Because of their wide reach and freedom to explore multiple realities, artistic practices are able to link climate change to a variety of other human challenges, potentially developing more meaningful forms of engagement. The range of potentially devastating impacts of climate change across vast areas of society requires spaces for reflection that invite citizens to frame such challenges in ways that make sense and are relevant to them. Artistic works are usually concerned with deepening questions rather than providing answers and solutions. This quality can be fundamental in the co-creation of innovative solutions to address the current climate quandary. In this sense, the arts represent a potential public space that can open up the framing of a particular problem, rather than closing down the possibilities for action, limiting solutions, and presenting problems framed exclusively by experts.

It is in this way that the arts can play a unique role in the integration of knowledge, emotions and moral judgement to support social learning in the face of the global climate threat. Future research could seek to better understand the actual contribution of artistic processes as path-making strategies in societal climate transformations. The arts provide fresh approaches that can support societies in thinking, feeling and narrating their experiences of complex issues of socio-ecological change. Artistic engagements are becoming sites of active experimentation, enacting novel social–ecological relationships and leading to more-than-rational explorations of current systems and possible futures. They create spaces in which the normative aspects of climate change can be addressed, and thus negotiated and redefined through collaborative processes. This may empower citizens to take an active role in co-constructing the meaning of nature in society, and it may also help to reframe current risks and vulnerabilities as spaces for social innovation.

Conclusion

In short, moving toward a future that remains below a 1.5  C global temperature rise requires developing ‘narratives of hope’ [72]. Art can provide a means to envision, express and shape the kind of society we collectively want to create. In this sense, climate change becomes an opportunity to open up spaces of collaboration and innovation, and to transform our relationship to the planet Earth.

Social learning, a key component of climate transformations, requires spaces of creativity and innovation. Artists have been working to make climate change culturally meaningful both at the very personal and collective levels. We found an increasing number of artworks, projects and networks on climate-related arts, especially in the last decade. These cultural and creative engagements suggest the potential of the arts to inspire and open up multiple ways of engaging large amounts of people with the challenge of climate change. www.sciencedirect.com

Conflict of interests All authors declare no conflict of interests. 29

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Galafassi, D., S. Kagan, M. Milkoreit, M. Heras, C. Bilodeau, S. Juarez Bourke, A. Merrie, L. Guerrero, G. PĂŠtursdĂłttir and J. D. TĂ bara. (2018). "Raising the temperature": the arts on a warming planet. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 31: 71-79 78 Sustainability governance and transformation

15. O’Brien K: Global environmental change II: from adaptation to deliberate transformation. Progress Hum Geogr 2012, 36:667-676.

Acknowledgements Visualizations by Alfonso M. Cuadrado, architect and draughtsman from aRRsa! Creative Platform (arrsa.org). We thank Isak Stoddard and two reviewers for insightful comments on the manuscript. This research has received funding support from the EU project IMPRESSIONS — Impacts and Risks from High-End Scenarios: Strategies for Innovative Solutions (www.impressions-project.eu; EC FP7/2007–2013 grant no 603416). Diego Galafassi acknowledges the support of the Strategic Research Program EkoKlim at Stockholm University through the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS).

16. Beddoe R, Costanza R, Farley J, Garza E, Kent J, Kubiszewski I, Martinez L, McCowen T, Murphy K, Myers N: Overcoming systemic roadblocks to sustainability: the evolutionary redesign of worldviews, institutions, and technologies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009, 106:2483-2489. 17. Tschakert P, Tuana N, Westskog H, Koelle B, Afrika A: TCHANGE: the role of values and visioning in transformation science. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2016, 20:21-25. 18. LoĚˆvbrand E, Beck S, Chilvers J, Forsyth T, HedreĚ n J, Hulme M, Lidskog R, Vasileiadou E: Global environmental change. Glob Environ Change 2015, 32:211-218.

Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at https://doi.org/10.1016/j. cosust.2017.12.010.

19. Moser SC: Communicating climate change: history, challenges, process and future directions. WIREs Clim Change 2010, 1:31-53. 20. Tàbara JD, Clair ALS, Hermansen EAT: Transforming  communication and knowledge production processes to address high-end climate change. Environ Sci Policy 2017, 70:31-37. This paper argues for the need of finding novel ways of producing, framing and communicating climate knowledge in order to move towards solutions. Frames public engagement and culture as part of a transformative processes to address climate change.

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Moore, S and Tickell, A 2014 ‘The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview’, D’Art Topics in Arts Policy, No. 34b, Julie’s Bicycle and the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies, Sydney Link: http://www.ifacca.org/topic/ecological-sustainability/

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The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview November 2014 IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

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Moore, S and Tickell, A 2014 ‘The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview’, D’Art Topics in Arts Policy, No. 34b, Julie’s Bicycle and IFACCA

Introduction

"At its most basic, climate change and environmental protection are amongst the most urgent and all encompassing issues of our time. We therefore need to understand the particular responsibilities that we have in the Arts, and to help our sector to understand and address these issues."

In 2013 Julie’s Bicycle1 and the International Federation of Arts Councils and Culture Agencies (IFACCA)2 established a partnership aimed at informing international arts leaders about global developments in policies and programmes related to culture and environmental sustainability, and how these impact on national arts and cultural organisations. We thank the Canada Council for the Arts and Arts Council Ireland/An Chomhairle Ealaíon for their financial assistance towards this project. Our aims were to: • broaden the understanding of environmental sustainability across the international arts community; • indicate what levels of aspiration and intention already exist among national arts funding agencies and culture ministries; • identify the potential for further work, collaboration and partnerships.

Imagine… Our vision for the Arts in Wales 2013 to 2018, Arts Council of Wales

This report presents the learning from six months of research across a wide range of national arts councils and ministries of culture. The findings will be used to consolidate partnerships, resource and support needs, position the issue of environmental sustainability with key strategic bodies, and champion environmental best practice. The report provides a snapshot of national policymakers’ level of engagement with environmental sustainability with an emphasis on policies, not on artistic content or wider arts practice. It has yielded some fascinating insights, enough to develop an opening hypothesis but not, at this stage, definitive conclusions. The findings are the result of surveys and interviews carried out by Julie’s Bicycle and IFACCA between November 2013 and May 2014 and supplemented with desk-based research. An interim report was presented to IFACCA’s 4th CEO Leadership Seminar in Santiago, Chile, in January 2014. The responses present a diverse range of interpretation, understanding and interest on the topic and indicate a degree of readiness to integrate environmental sustainability into strategic thinking. This is particularly pertinent in the context of the current advocacy efforts to include culture in the post-2015 development agenda. The report contains early examples of good practice; begins to identify agencies already embedding environmental sustainability in their country or region; and potential partners and collaborations. This is just a beginning and we acknowledge that there will be many ideas, resource sets and initiatives that are not included here. We hope this will stimulate discussion, enthusiasm and an appetite for more.

Alison Tickell Executive Director  Julie’s Bicycle

Sarah Gardner Executive Director IFACCA

1 www.juliesbicycle.com 2 www.ifacca.org IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

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‘The preservation of the environment is directly connected to the issue of the continuation of human life. Yet, the treatment of the environment is often affected by the cultural practices of communities. For this reason, there must be constant dialogue between environmental and cultural agencies to ensure that environmental and cultural factors are included in national development discussions and strategies.’

There is, however, evidence of a growing awareness that a proactive response is necessary. Building a resilient international arts infrastructure means anticipating emerging trends such as commodity and energy availability and long term asset management, as well as general regulatory and policy frameworks and shifting cultural values. Good leadership in the arts means recognising and driving new ideas that connect the arts to wider communities, economies, and values, and finally that the ‘social contract’ – the ‘do-no-harm’ contract that receiving public funding implies – is the foundation upon which artistic investment, community development, skills, tourism and audience development rest. Our final word goes to the issue itself. We live in an age of consequence and it is prompting transformation everywhere. We know that what we exploit of the earth’s natural resources – water, oil, gas, food, minerals – and how we manage these resources, is shaping the future. The latest, and richest evidence yet, about climate change and our changing environment was summarised in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s 5th Assessment Report3 . Collated by thousands of scientists from 130 countries, the report concludes that that “Human influence on the climate system is clear,” that “it is extremely likely4 that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century,” and that we must act rapidly to expedite a low carbon global infrastructure, which will have “significant cobenefits for human health, ecosystem impacts, and sufficiency of resources and resilience of the energy system.”

National Cultural Policy of Jamaica, 2003

Art has been at the heart of culture since time immemorial, crafting ideas and values and reflecting the inner workings of communities and societies. An irrepressible human activity, art is a universal and abiding response to the world around us. The relationship between art and the environment is profound. Often nature plays the part of the muse, inspiring content and commentary, and artists may make their art using materials from the natural world. Just as often the environment is considered a central part of our national cultural heritages. Over the last twenty years the implications of what we take and make from natural resources has taken on new dimensions: our growing knowledge of environmental and ecological degradation is prompting us to reflect on environmental stewardship and our role as cultural custodians of the future.

In 2015 a new global agreement of climate change will be reached at the much anticipated United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – Conference Of the Parties 21 talks in Paris . 5

There are plenty of compelling reasons to embrace sustainable arts practice: climate change, biodiversity loss, waste, and water use are already having far reaching consequences on the natural equilibriums upon which we depend. The arts, like any other sector, draw on these resources, and have a real ecological footprint.

Human wellbeing the world over is dependent upon ‘ecosystem services’ provided by nature for free. Such services – like water, air purification, fisheries, timber production and nutrient cycling – are predominantly public goods with no markets so their loss is not detected by our current economic incentive system and thus continues unabated. This is where culture comes in. Perhaps it is possible to contribute to this great challenge by encouraging formal frameworks which will affect values, investments and actions that take good care of our rich and precious environment.

There are also reasons that are particular to the arts: they have a connection to individual and collective experience which can imagine, influence, perhaps even make the world around us. In other words, the arts have a determining effect on culture. As such they should be at the heart of a sustainable worldview.

In all spheres of life and art it is time to acknowledge the intimate connectivity of humans to one another, and to the ecosystem as a whole. The challenge for the arts now is to recognize that sector leadership, in the absence of robust political, regulatory or financial interventions, is critical, and that this is not an issue that can be left to others.

But are they? The short answer is ‘no’. While there are some examples of outstanding practice, the arts community has not yet reached a consensus that environmental sustainability matters; and the patchy application of policies and resources, as shown in this report, are evidence of good intentions not matched by actions.

3 www.ipcc.ch/ 4 The IPCC uses very specific vocabulary to indicate probabilities, where ‘Extremely Likely’ means a likelihood of 95–100%. 5 unfccc.int/meetings/unfccc_calendar/items/2655.php?year=2015 IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

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Introduction to the policy context for the arts and culture The arts and cultural communities have well-developed narratives that integrate social and financial sustainability and that articulate the overlaps the arts share with wider issues. The sector is wellplaced to integrate the environmental dimension with social and financial dimensions: in part, the narratives have already been written.

‘Cultural factors influence lifestyles, individual behaviour, consumption patterns, values related to environmental stewardship, and our interaction with the natural environment. Local and indigenous knowledge systems and environmental management practices provide valuable insight and tools for tackling ecological challenges, preventing biodiversity loss, reducing land degradation, and mitigating the effects of climate change.’

Formal definitions of sustainability often place environmental sustainability as the anchor sustainability principle, acknowledging that the air we breathe, the water we drink, the ecosystems that keep the planet healthy are prerequisites for social, financial, and cultural health. If the arts community accepts that this is the case, it has implications for governance and investment decisions both now and into the future such as: what overarching principles underpin policy frameworks and how these are managed; and how might these principles inform investment in more ecologically sustainable infrastructures, technologies and markets.

UNESCO6 Whilst there is no overarching international compliancy framework specific to the arts and cultural sector, in every legislature the sector is subject to the rules built into policies and infrastructures: regulations and taxation on land use, buildings and events, commodities, utilities and products. For example, a recent audit of environmental requirements for a major UK outdoor music event yielded a total of 84 compliancy and regulatory requirements.7 There are also many national and local voluntary pledges, protocols, awards and certifications (some of which can be found in the Appendices). It seems that the formal framework for the arts and culture in relation to environmental sustainability is not as empty as we initially assumed. Environmental sustainability features as a priority in many national policies. Occasionally sustainability is embedded within cultural policies, and where not, another ministry or department invariably champions it.

Many economies and sectors have already recognised that a sustainable future economy means investing now in sustainable infrastructure. It is worth noting that investment in renewable power capacity topped USD 250 billion globally in 20138, an energy revolution that is taking place in developed and developing countries alike. It would be wise to understand what opportunities the arts and culture have to accelerate initiatives that exploit wider trends and stimulate new opportunities now and for the years to come. An obvious and pressing reason to develop a coherent approach to culture and environmental sustainability is to support the post2015 Sustainable Development Agenda. The significant investment and the strenuous efforts of many, especially United Nations agencies in this Agenda, have begun to pay off as the outcomes of the Millennium Development Goals are evaluated. Culture – the sphere within which humans freely think and act – has been promoted by many as a vital contributing element. During 2013 and 2014 a widely supported campaign to include culture as part of the Sustainable Development Goals, championed by IFACCA and five other key international networks and undertaken in consultation with UNESCO, highlighted the potential benefits of giving greater attention to culture’s fundamental role in achieving development outcomes9.

While things are heading in the right direction, responses are inconsistent and although diverse approaches are important it is hard to find policy being co-shaped so that culture and sustainability fit together, where the look, feel and flavour of environmental sustainability is designed around, by, and for the arts. It is clear from our research that arts and cultural policies which include environmental sustainability are in short supply and there is very little practical and focused guidance for arts funders, workers, or practitioners. For example, four of the survey respondents require arts organisations to consider some kind of response to environmental sustainability, but only one offers comprehensive, and arts-specific, templates, resources and tools.

8  International Energy Agency-Medium-Term_Renewable_Energy_Market_Report_2014 9 www.culture2015goal.net

6 www.en.unesco.org/post2015/sites/post2015/files/Think%20Piece%20Culture.pdf 7  Julie’s Bicycle audit for a major UK live music promoter IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

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DEFINING CULTURE AND SUSTAINABILITY Recognising culture as a creative and dynamic life force will profoundly influence our understanding, interpretation and shaping of our world. The environment, natural and built, is one of the key determining factors of culture, both contemporary and heritage. The Hangzhou Declaration of 2013 (UNESCO, now superseded by the Florence Declaration) specifically invoked culture to promote environmental sustainability in a number of ways. Of the nine goals proposed, five specifically linked the environment with culture.10 It should also be noted that for culture and development programmes to achieve their full potential, there is a need for greater environmental literacy and an evidence base that is compatible with the goals as conceived at the 2012 Rio + 20 Summit in its outcome document, The Future We Want.11

Building international consensus on the relationship between culture and sustainability needs a common understanding of the two central concepts, culture and sustainability. Both these terms are diversely interpreted and understood, an ambivalence which is felt throughout the survey responses. Culture can refer to the arts and heritage: buildings, pieces of art and artefacts, historical sites, and occasionally protected landscapes. In this context it is often associated primarily with the arts. More broadly, culture is used in its sociological context and includes societies and communities and their relationships to land and seascapes, ecosystems and wild life. The survey responses and cultural policies studied during the desk-based research phase appear to cover the entire spectrum of meanings.

The cultural sector, in the main, has well-articulated values that promote equality, inclusion, diversity and community. In many ways these values arise from the sector’s sense of responsibility towards audiences, artists, artworks, and cultural heritage. When asked directly whether environmental sustainability is relevant, most sector representatives answered in the affirmative: good environmental stewardship is a value set that meshes well with other sector values. The next step is learning how to articulate this in a more explicit fashion, both in language and in action.

Similarly the term ‘sustainability’ can mean any of the three so-called ‘pillars’ of sustainable development: financial, social and environmental, and it tends to default to the first two. In our desk-based research on cultural policies we found a significant body of evidence supporting this tendency. This is hardly surprising: the international arts and cultural communities have developed powerful narratives around social and financial sustainability. Arguments for inclusion, diversity, equity, investment and value have been strenuously made, with common assumptions and metrics underpinning an evidence base that is used as leverage for public investment and accountability. These arguments have immeasurably strengthened the status of the arts, and enable culture to sit easily and compatibly with social and financial sustainability dimensions.

We should recognise that the arguments and policies establishing culture and the arts’ role in sustainable development are, for the most part, not going to come from outside, at least not in a way that can be tangibly interpreted and translated into practice. It is up to the sector itself to write its own narrative and take up this leadership opportunity, moving beyond individual well-being and into the shaping of our global human values with reference to the well-being of our planet and its life-support systems.

We do not yet have an equivalent evidence base or common narrative for environmental sustainability in the arts and culture. This is a missed opportunity. We would recommend mainstreaming environmental sustainability into cultural policy statements as a matter of course and have action plans and accountability trails to evaluate, and celebrate, achievement.

‘Cultural traditions influence citizens’ everyday life and behaviour more than legislative regulation.’ National Cultural Policy, Czech Republic

Building a reasonably comprehensive data set, which will make the case to funders, partners and other stakeholders – not least partners from the political, environmental and sustainability sectors – will be invaluable. However, of equal importance is the need to develop a common language with a shared consensus on meaning which will enable the cultural and creative community to translate its potential to play a leading part in addressing our global environmental crisis and participate fully in the shaping of our new future for the benefit of all society.

10 These are: Integrate culture within all development policies and programmes, as equal measure with human rights, equality and sustainability; Build on culture to promote environmental sustainability ; Use culture to strengthen resilience to disasters and combat climate change through mitigation and adaptation; Harness culture as a resource for achieving sustainable urban development and management ; Capitalise on culture to foster innovative and sustainable models of cooperation 11 www.un.org/en/sustainablefuture/ IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

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Survey and research findings Twenty-three survey responses12 were collected from a diverse cross-section of countries: Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Cuba, England, France, Ireland, Malta, Namibia, New Zealand, Norway, Pacific Islands13, Singapore, Sweden, South Africa, Tunisia, Wales, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The key findings from the survey can be summarized as follows:

3.  It is apparent from the responses that there is a broad spectrum of engagement ranging from very engaged and literate to well-intentioned but inactive. These levels fall, broadly, into three categories: a) Well engaged, literate and committed as evidenced through investment and distributed funding opportunities, contractual requirements, resource support, and measurement tools; b) Engaged and well intentioned, with some initiatives underway but not built into the infrastructure systematically; c) Well-intentioned but not yet translated into action.

1. Most respondents believe environmental sustainability to be relevant to arts councils and cultural ministries, and to the organisations they fund. Over half of respondents (14 of 23) consider environmental sustainability to be relevant, with the majority considering it as very relevant (10). The majority of respondents (13 of 23) also consider it to be relevant specifically to arts councils and culture ministries and to funded organisations (and half of those consider it very relevant). The remainder (7/23) were not able to, or chose not to, answer the question. A full three-quarters of respondents (15 of 23) are aware of arts organisations within their portfolio integrating environmental issues within their artistic work.

4. Most respondents (15 of 23) do not have a division or unit with a specific focus on environmental sustainability, but almost half (10 of 23) have a staff member (internal or in another government department) with a relevant remit.  Several respondents have assigned a senior staff member (Manager/Director) to the issue, while others have departmental leads. Where the lead sits in another government department, this is generally the Ministry of the Environment (or equivalent). The presence of someone with assigned responsibility suggests that amongst this group there is broad acceptance that environmental sustainability is part of day-today responsibilities.

2. For the majority of respondents (15 of 23), financial savings, achieved by creating efficiencies, are the primary motivation for action. Regulations and compliancy sit alongside ethical and moral concerns as the other key drivers.

5. While the level of general environmental and sustainability literacy is high, and organisations are philosophically supportive of environmental action it has not, as yet, translated into widespread practical resourcing and support.

 Only four respondents cite pressure from artists and audiences as a reason to act on environmental sustainability. In order to encourage the development of environmental sustainability policies in government funding agencies, it would be helpful to understand how they establish their priorities. The focus on financial benefits is noteworthy in relation to general trends in sustainability practices. While prioritising financial sustainability (over the other two dimensions of environmental and ethical and/or social sustainability) is currently common, there is growing impetus to turn the current order of priorities on its head so that environmental sustainability is recognised as the anchor principle.

When asked what impacts matter to individual countries a wide range was cited covering all the nine planetary boundaries14 . However, there is a wide disjunction between general literacy and action. Only two bodies (Arts Council England and the Ministry of the Flemish Community, Arts and Heritage Belgium) already capture environmental data systematically. Given the lack of infrastructure support for resource development this is not surprising; so understanding what individual countries perceive to be their primary needs, and actively championing them, is a key recommendation.

12 One respondent answered a parallel questionnaire intended for arts organisations, not funding agencies. We were able to integrate this respondent’s answers into the data for this survey only where the questions were identical, hence responses to some questions totalled 23, and some 22. 13  No specific country was indicated. IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

14 Climate change (exceeded limits) ; biodiversity loss (exceeded limits); biogeochemical (partly exceeded limits); ocean acidification; land use; fresh water; ozone depletion; atmospheric aerosols; chemical pollution. 38

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6.  While a third of respondents (8/23) request that funded arts organisations consider environmental impacts as part of their subsidised activities, few are strongly proactive in providing the resources to do this.

7. Four respondents have invested in research on environmental sustainability and over half the respondents expressed interest in developing resources and support for the organisations they fund.

 Arts Council England and Arts Council of Wales ask a majority cohort of funded organisations to report on sustainability as standard practice and England has mandatory comprehensive measurement and analytic tools with which to encourage – and gauge – progress. Organisations supported by Arts Council England have benefitted from significant efficiency savings, outstanding engagement levels and the establishment of benchmarks for the sector. These represent tangible benefits for both the funding agencies and for the organisations they support.15

Nevertheless the majority of respondents (15 of 23) said their own organisations are reluctant to commit to any new or external initiatives or partnerships without having more information first. Whilst this is entirely understandable, recognising the potential for the cultural community to coalesce around this issue should be an important motivation in seeking to give environmental sustainability a higher policy priority. 8. For some countries the arts and culture sectors are (or shortly will be) subject to direct environmental legislation. However, for the majority legislation is not (or will not be) specific to the arts. From our survey, at least nine agencies are anticipating legislation and translating it into policy.

Only one respondent, the Ministry of Culture of Cuba, highlighted the responsibility that culture and the arts have to educate the public about environmental sustainability and receives funds from central government for this purpose. This was the only instance of this found in the survey responses.

 Those are: Ministry of the Flemish Community, Arts and Heritage, Belgium; Arts Council of Wales; National Arts Council of Namibia; Ministry of Culture and Communication, France; Arts Council of Ireland; Creative Scotland; Arts Council England; Ministry of Culture, Cuba; and the Canada Council for the Arts.

Three of 2216 respondents provide funding for environmental sustainability initiatives, and three of 22 provide bespoke tools and resource support. Despite this, the general perception is that environmental sustainability is on the way to being an important issue for the sector (an average score of five out of 10, 10 being very advanced).

9.  References to culture and the arts’ relationship to the environment and sustainable development were found (in desk-based research) to be cited in a substantial number of cultural, environmental, and sustainable development policies.

 Developing a better understanding of the gap between intention and implementation (known as the ‘value-action gap’17) would be very helpful, and key to achieving a paradigm shift. The ‘value-action’ gap is true of society at large, and will be exacerbated by a general lack of resources and sector specific information, poor championing and investment, and little creative mandate for a holistic approach.

These included national policies of: Anguilla, Bahamas, Belgium (Flemish Community), Belize, Botswana, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, England, Fiji, Finland, France, Jamaica, Kiribati, Latvia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malta, Namibia, Palau, Samoa, Scotland, Seychelles, Small Island Developing States, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Wales, and Zimbabwe18. This list is not comprehensive and further research may well identify more countries making a clear link between the environment and cultural policies.

15 www.artscouncil.org.uk/advice-and-guidance/browse-advice-and-guidance/ sustaining-great-art 16  One respondent answered a parallel questionnaire intended for arts organisations, not IFACCA members. We were able to integrate this respondent’s answers into the data for this survey only where the questions were identical, hence responses to some questions totalled 23, some 22. 17  Vermeir and Verbeke, 2006 IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

18 Please see Appendix IV for a summary of policy research undertaken and specific references for each country. 39

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There is a strong argument to recognize environmental sustainability as the anchor sustainability dimension from which many financial and social benefits spring, but more substantial data is needed to create an evidence base to support this. Arts Council England stipulates the systematic collection of environmental data as a reporting requirement and shows how evidence-based interventions can be prompts for systemic change; the carbon calculators they use – the Creative IG Tools – have been licensed to Australia, translated into seven European languages and will be licensed in North America. The intervention by Arts Council England has been an inspiration to others and has helped to position environmental sustainability as a critical issue for culture.

10.  The survey responses show a clearly differentiated approach to environmental sustainability between developed and developing economies. Preoccupations and priorities vary according to social, economic, political and geographical context. These factors also affect the degree of urgency with which the topic is reflected in policies and the kind of language used to write about it. Capacity to take action is limited by the resources (financial and human) available to address environmental sustainability, as well as the mandate that agencies and ministries have from their community and/or government. Developing economies tend to be more reliant upon local and regional art, craft and natural heritage for art and arts activities, and tourism for livelihoods (e.g. Zimbabwe, Namibia, Small Island Developing States). The cultural policies and statements from these countries are more likely to identify the natural environment as cultural heritage, and conserving this heritage as a high priority. However, these countries have less internal financial or human resource to dedicate specifically to this issue and thus are acutely aware of constraints to action. Interest in identifying external and collective funding opportunities amongst this group is very high.  Developed countries with strong environmental policies (England, Scotland, Belgium, Wales, France) focus predominantly on the implementation of practical ‘housekeeping’ such as audits, action plans, environmental data, energy and resource efficiencies and accountability.

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Conclusions and Recommendations This research suggests that the level of literacy in environmental sustainability has some way to go before there is a shared narrative on environmental sustainability with only one respondent gathering data across its portfolio as a funding requirement. Building a reasonably comprehensive evidence base to make the case for sustainability for funders, partners and other stakeholders (especially those with sustainability and environmental remits) would stand the sector in good stead.

6. Build a narrative and evidence base appropriate to regions and countries which will help make the case for environmental sustainability to funders, partners and other stakeholders 7.  Consider options for developing funding opportunities and streams for arts and cultural organisations to develop environmentally sustainable cultural and business practice 8. Encourage key national and regional agencies to mainstream environmental sustainability into policy statements as a matter of course and have action plans and accountability trails to evaluate, and celebrate, achievement

However, there are signs of real commitment growing. Thirty of the national policies reviewed for this report have environmental statements, and four respondents have a named staff member or unit responsible for sustainability, while others have crossdepartmental relationships. Almost every cultural policy we have encountered refers to sustainability in some way. We are well aware, however, that what is written in policies will not always translate into intention and/or action, and all too often definitions of sustainable development are limited to social and/or economic sustainability. There may also be inherent commitments to sustainability already forming part of living and working practice in certain countries, and these may not be explicitly articulated in something like a policy document.

9. Build on the principles of partnership and collaboration both as a community of arts councils and ministries of culture, and with external strategic bodies committed to addressing sustainability challenges such as the C40 initiative, United Nations, governments and, where appropriate, the corporate sector 10. Encourage inter-departmental or inter-ministerial groups for the development, design and implementation of policies on culture and environmental sustainability

Based on the findings of this research report, there are a number of initiatives that could be taken to enhance the level of inclusion of environmental sustainability in cultural policymaking and action:

11. Encourage knowledge and skills transfer and exchange between developing and developed countries

1. Explore the feasibility of creating a central coordination function that could provide information or resources to support national and regional networking and/or hub development

12. Continue to promote the value of culture in achieving the post-2015 Sustainable Development Agenda, identifying what the implications for environmental sustainability in the arts and culture might be

2. Identify the level of interest and commitment by potential key partners to support the development of such an international information and resource service either in an advisory or financial capacity

‘There is a need to think about culture and its impact on the environment. Local ecological knowledge and traditional management practices, as part of the local systems of values and meanings, have proved to be environmentally sustainable. The challenge is now to translate this into practical projects and to change policies that strengthen the cultural dimensions of the relations between the environment and development.’

3. Identify strategic regional and national partners that could assist in resource development and delivery 4. Investigate the potential to develop a shared understanding of the basis for measuring environmental impacts thereby allowing for aggregation and analysis, tracking of progress on reducing those impacts and comparison of environmental performance. A shared methodology and tools would enable efficiency and avoid duplication; important given limited resources and expertise 5. Develop and distribute material that would build environmental literacy and data to understand environmental impacts and develop international codes of practice which can sit alongside social and financial data

Strategic Development Plan, Republic of Fiji19

19  www.culture.gov.fj/Annual%20Reports/SDP%20Culture%20NPO%20 -Website%20version.pdf IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

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Examples of national legislation and policy Responses to the survey question: ‘Do you know of any current or future legislation requiring your organisation to act on environmental sustainability?’ highlighted specific national legislation, policies and pledges relating to environmental sustainability in the arts in their territory. For the most part, creative organisations are subject to the general environmental legislation framework applicable in their country, without any specific legislation for the sector. Our research found that the legal and/or policy interpretation of environmental protection generally conforms to the economic status of countries: developed economies are focused on greenhouse gas emissions, reduction strategies, targets and pricing with energy as the primary focus and waste, water and transport areas of further priority. Environmental conservation laws and policies in certain areas where natural heritage is prioritised, such as Canada and Scotland, deserve a mention. Brokering relationships between artists and the environment is, in policy terms, rare amongst this group.

IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

Developing countries generally have legislation and policy frameworks that connect natural culture with anthropogenic culture, natural environment and the social and financial wellbeing of communities. Links between art, craft, the sustainable harvesting of natural resources, and the maintenance of traditional life styles and habitats are easily made and reflected generally as statements of intent closely linked to the maintenance of cultural heritage. Very few cultural policies contain practical requirements, accountability trails or conditions. Where arts and cultural communities are subject to policy requirements from other ministries, mainly environment ministries, these are not specifically interpreted or tailored for the cultural sector and instead impose general conditions or regulations on all sectors. Some national overviews of policies and legislation, compiled from survey results, interviews and desk-based research are provided below:

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Europe

• Belgium’s Minister for Environment, Nature and Culture, Joke Schauvliege, put forward a number of issues which applicants and committees should take into account: partnership and cooperation, consideration for the position of individual artists, the social embedding of the organization, and relationship to other sectors such as education and ecology/sustainability. There have been multiple initiatives and collaborations, as well as tools and resources developed for improving environmental sustainability practices and themes in the arts and culture sectors throughout Belgium. A joint ministerial position for environment, nature and culture, such as this one in Belgium, lends significant legitimacy to connecting culture and environmental sustainability.

• The Ministry of Culture and Communication in France pointed out that, more than laws, there are regulatory incentives linked to France’s sustainable development strategy and their work incorporates some aspect of environmental auditing, resources and training. It was explained that many theatres have provided audits, and tools are being built at the initiative of groups composed by actors in the cultural sector. These tools will focus mainly on greenhouse gas emissions and energy audits for buildings.

•R  epublic of Ireland legislation relates to mandatory reporting in the public sector on energy use and reducing consumption as outlined in the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan. Ireland’s second National Energy Efficiency Action Plan to 2020 was published by the Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources in February 2013, with the goals relating specifically to the public sector, including an obligation on public bodies to develop and implement energy management programmes; capital projects with projected energy consumption in excess of 1GWh per annum to formally integrate the principles of energy efficient design in the project development phase; and an energy monitoring and reporting system.

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Case Study: United Kingdom

Arts Council England, Creative Scotland and Arts Council of Wales Environmental sustainability is part of strategic planning and action for the arts councils in England, Scotland and Wales. This commitment to environmental sustainability is the result of sectoral leadership from a critical mass of organisations working in partnership with these arts councils, champions within these bodies and helpful legislative prompts.

England: Arts Council England Arts Council England now requires its 700 National Portfolio Organisations, Major Partner Museums and Bridge Organisations to report on their energy and water usage and to have an environmental policy and action plan.

Arts Council England specified the UK Climate Change Act 2008 as the legislation requiring their organisation to act on environmental sustainability, which sets out a legally binding target to reduce UK carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. They also explained their reporting requirement: ‘Government departments, non-ministerial departments, agencies and Non-Departmental Public Bodies must report as a minimum certain GHG emissions in their Annual Reports as part of their statements on sustainability performance’.

Arts Council England partnered with Julie’s Bicycle to provide online tools, resources and support to the reporting organisations. Julie’s Bicycle was able to build on work already underway with 99 National Portfolio Organisations using the online Julie’s Bicycle Creative IG Tools, a set of environmental impacts tools now being used in 11 countries across the world.

As well as reducing the ecological footprint of the UK’s arts and cultural sector, this approach based in reporting aims to stimulate a wider cultural shift in arts practice, fostering new creative thinking and new markets for greener goods and services.

It was estimated that the total carbon footprint of these 704 organisations was 121,000 tonnes27. This represents a total spend of ~£26 million, just from energy and water. The results gathered from funded arts organisations by Julie’s Bicycle is the biggest single dataset of its kind in the world. The quantifying of current environmental impacts allows for the setting of benchmarks and improvements for the buildings and offices of arts and cultural organisations. This crucial response of the arts and culture sector to tackling their carbon footprint and playing their part in the global shift required for sustainable development is also being reflected in artistic responses, which have proliferated around sustainability in recent years. By making environmental reporting a requirement in the arts and culture sector, this global issue will inevitably be reflected in the creative content produced by or in affiliation with these organisations. As stated in the report on the first year reporting results: ‘It can be surmised that the flourishing of creative invention around sustainability is intimately connected to flourishing confidence, expertise and literacy evidence across the creative community.’ Arts Council England reporting requirements are a direct and perhaps inevitable consequence of a wider cultural shift and are a model of how effective interventions can be forces of wider change. Clearly the intervention by Arts Council England has served as an inspiration to others and helped to position sound environmental data and the importance of practical responses as a business-critical issue for culture. The metrics gathered will be invaluable, and a step forward by the international community in understanding our collective responsibilities. 27 www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/pdf/Sustaining-Great-Art.pdf IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

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Moore, S and Tickell, A 2014 ‘The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview’, D’Art Topics in Arts Policy, No. 34b, Julie’s Bicycle and IFACCA

Wales: Arts Council of Wales Arts Council of Wales identified in their response that the Sustainability Duty, as part of the current programme of legislation of the Welsh Government, is the legislation that requires they act on environmental sustainability in the arts. Further research revealed that this comes under section 79 of the Government of Wales Act 2006.28 The Sustainable Development Annual Report 2011– 2012 explains the onus on Ministers to carry out a review of the effectiveness of their Sustainable Development Scheme.

Scotland: Creative Scotland Creative Scotland is the development body for the arts and creative industries in Scotland. Similar to Arts Council England, they are required under the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009, to deliver the Act’s emissions reduction targets (42% by 2020), and to act in the most sustainable way possible. Creative Scotland publicly publishes their environmental commitments. They are developing an environmental management system, producing guidance, support and tools for the organisations that they fund, enabling them to report on their sustainable behaviour and contribution to CO2 emission reduction. Creative Scotland will also demonstrate how the work they fund positively influences sustainable behaviour. One such example of this is Imagining Natural Scotland – a funded interdisciplinary project exploring the interplay between the natural world and its representation. Its aim was also to promote deep collaboration and knowledge exchange between the creative and scientific sectors. As well as a carbon management plan and monitoring, measuring and evaluation of day-to-day actions, environmental sustainability is the responsibility of all staff and will be built into job descriptions and contracts. Creative Scotland recently announced that from 2014 it would ask funding recipients to provide environmental information (through the Julie’s Bicycle IG Tools licensed to Creative Carbon Scotland).

IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

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28 Sustainable Development Report, Wales. www.wales.gov.uk/docs/desh/publications/121121susdevannualreporten.pdf D’Art Report 34b

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Moore, S and Tickell, A 2014 ‘The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview’, D’Art Topics in Arts Policy, No. 34b, Julie’s Bicycle and IFACCA

• Latvia similarly recognises the overlap in the roles of cultural and environmental ministers. A feature of their cultural policy is for inter-ministerial or intergovernmental co-operation. The Ministry of Culture is cooperating with the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development and the administration units of the planning regions that have taken over the coordination role for cultural policy on a regional level. This type of collaboration could be the ideal spark for an environmental cultural policy, realising the role that the arts and culture sectors could have in contributing to their sustainable development agenda.

• In its 2003 publication A Swedish Strategy for Sustainable Development, the Swedish government said that cultural policy measures ‘must be based on a holistic view of human beings and their environment and integrated into all sectors of society.’31 In the Swedish Government Bill ‘Time for Culture’ 2009/10:3 published by the Ministry of Culture as an update and revision to its cultural policy, Sweden pledges that ‘opportunities will be improved for developing an appropriate and relevant knowledge base for environmental work in the area of culture,’ however currently this appears to be predominantly interpreted in the context of public environments and urban development.32 Within the Swedish Arts Council, there is a staff member responsible for reporting back to the government on the carbon footprint of the organization itself – but this does not stretch to the impact of funded organisations.

• Malta has a relatively high policy awareness of environmental risks among European countries due to issues including its limited freshwater resources. The Maltese National Cultural Policy aims to ‘promote understanding of the interrelationship of well-being between society, culture, economy, and the environment’ and makes explicit reference to the Policy’s relationship to the EU 2020 strategy goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and highlights Gozo’s eco-island initiative as ‘as part of a creative and innovative process towards sustainable development.’29 An adviser to Malta’s Parliamentary Secretariat for Culture who contributed to this research also mentions that ‘The National Directorate of Cultural Programs and its counterparts in the provinces and municipalities have developed an Awareness Raising Program on environmental sustainability and protection in each territory.’ • The current National Cultural Policy in the Czech Republic supports ‘culture as a sector that can play an essential role in the development of Czech society in the future and a sector where the economic, environmental and social development of the state is supported’30. Section 1.13 of their policy is titled ‘Help solving environmental issues by works of art’, and fully endorses the idea that cultural activities will play a major role in sustainable development issues. It goes so far as to claim ‘Cultural traditions influence citizen’s everyday life and behaviour more than legislative regulation.’

29  Malta National Cultural Policy, www.maltaculture.com/content.aspx?id=190610 31  Czech Republic National Cultural Policy www.mkcr.cz/assets/kulturni-politika/cultural-policy_EN.pdf IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle: The arts and environmental sustainability: an international overview

31 A Swedish Strategy for Sustainable Development, www.government.se/ content/1/c6/02/52/75/98358436.pdf 33 Time for Culture 2009/10:30, Swedish Ministry of Culture www.government.se/content/1/c6/15/21/01/32cfb85b.pdf 46

D’Art Report 34b

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ARTISTIC PROJECTS 47


In this second chapter, we would like to present the most artistic part of the reader, introducing you to some artistic projects. These projects use the power of arts as a way to raise awareness about climate change, highlighting the impacts of it through music and art representations. As the last presented paper, “Art for the Planet’s Sake” from Hannah van den Bergh, underlines: “the art touches a part that science alone cannot reach”. The first article of this section is “An Interview with Laurie Goldman” from Amy Brandy, Artists and Climate Change, March 2020. Laurie Goldman is the Director of Public Engagement at The ClimateMusic Project, an organisation bringing together scientists, composers, musicians and other creators to compose and perform music inspired by climate science. Following the first one, we have the article “Melting Ice” from Pamela Burnard, February 2018, addressing the impacts of climate change through an intercultural performance called “Melting Ice”. The project is approaching the topic from the choreographic practice and performance as a radical harmony or solubility of the body in all that we do not call the body. The last article of the section is “Art for the Planet’s Sake” from Hannah van den Bergh, IETM & COAL, November 2015. It presents contemporary arts models and best practices which tackle environmental issues and advocate for change. The publication calls the reader to reflect on the intersection of arts and the environment, underlining which barriers hinders us and why it is hard to act towards environmental sustainability. 48


Brady, A. (2020) An Interview with Laurie Goldman, Artists and Climate Change: building earth connections Link: https://artistsandclimatechange.com/2020/03/03/an-interview-withlaurie-goldman/

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Brady, A. (2020) An Interview with Laurie Goldman, Artists and Climate Change: building earth connections

An Interview with Laurie Goldman Amy Brady

|

3 March 2020

This month, I have for you an interview with Laurie Goldman, the Director of Public Engagement at The ClimateMusic Project, an organization that brings together scientists, composers, musicians, and other creatives to compose and perform music inspired by the science of climate change. They were recently featured in the New York Times and have lots of big plans for the future. I’ve interviewed dozens of artists since this newsletter began, but never someone who creates climate music. What can music communicate about climate change that perhaps other means of communication can’t? Or put another way, what do you hope audiences take away from The ClimateMusic Project’s compositions and performances? Music has a way of reaching people on a more emotional level. The ClimateMusic Project aims to leverage the power of music to capture hearts and minds in a way that a scientific article or lecture about climate change cannot. We hope, and have found, that audiences gain new insights from our work and ultimately are motivated to action. Our ultimate goal is actually not to create music, but to inspire action. Along the way, we are proud that we create engaging and compelling performances. How did The ClimateMusic Project come about? Our founder, Stephan Crawford, was seeking to figure out a way to communicate science in a more engaging manner. He was concerned that while people knew about the issue of climate change, they did not necessarily appreciate the necessity for urgent action or the fact that they could be part of the solution. Stephan has a musical background and understood the ability of music to affect people so he worked on a concept to use the medium of music to convey science. From there he invited a composer and band as well as a few scientists to a daylong “hack” that ultimately resulted in a composition that incorporated compelling music guided by science. What genres of music does your group create and perform? We have three current compositions in very different genres. The first composition, Climate, by composer Erik Ian Walker, is an electronic/symphonic piece that portrays the atmospheric impacts of climate change. Icarus In Flight, composed by Richard Festinger, is a chamber music composition that highlights the human drivers of climate change – fossil fuel use, population growth, and land use change. The most recent piece is a jazz and spoken-word piece by COPUS called What If We…? that portrays sea-level rise and its effect on populations and land. What If We…? features a compelling chorus sung by children: “what if we change?” It’s powerful. As you can see, our compositions are quite diverse – people like to listen to genres they appreciate, and we aim to reach as many people as possible using whatever style resonates. Our goal is to use music to speak to people in the communities where they live. If that involves hip hop, electronic, country, samba, reggae, or whatever, we want to work with composers in those genres. We are looking to build our portfolio by working with environmentally engaged composers around the world to reach local audiences. In fact, we are developing a methodology so that it will be easier for composers to work with us and our extended team of scientists. However, it is important for the compositions to be guided by the science of climate change.

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Brady, A. (2020) An Interview with Laurie Goldman, Artists and Climate Change: building earth connections

Can you elaborate on what you mean by “guided by science?” We have a team of scientists who collaborate to ensure fidelity to the data and the scientific narrative we seek to communicate. Composers have creative freedom within a framework set by our science team. It can be as simple as aligning tempo and pitch to the data and narrative we provide (though that isn’t exactly “simple”) or the collaboration can be more creatively complex. Our piece on sea-level rise featured embedded data sonifications, realistic headlines from 2045, as well as a duel between drums and bass with drums representing the ocean. We work closely with our science advisers to ensure fidelity to the science: the process is very much a collaboration where musicians bring creativity and work with the team to make sure the science is accurately portrayed. Who are some of your collaborators? We work with a team of scientists from the University of California, Berkeley and the California Institute of Technology, and the list is expanding. Our chief science adviser is a lead author for the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments of climate change (for which the IPCC has been awarded a Nobel prize). In addition, we have an extended team of more than thirty people focused on visual elements, public outreach, partnership, etc. And we have a stellar Leadership Council from sectors such as business, arts, and public policy that advises us on strategy to build upon our work. One of our top priorities is motivating action, so we have developed a network of organizations dedicated to making a difference on the issue. Our partners include Cool Effect, the San Francisco Department of the Environment, Interfaith Power & Light, the Global Footprint Network, and Re-volv. They help people learn about the issue, form community around the issue, or engage on projects to mitigate or adapt. We are working to add other partners to our network so we can give people options for action. The last thing we would want to do is get people concerned about climate change but not show them a path for action! We ask audiences to get engaged if they are not already, to do more if they are already taking some action, and to bring their friends if they are already leading in terms of their own activity. The ClimateMusic Project’s performances often include visual elements. What does this add to the performances? We include visuals to enhance understanding of the narrative. Climate change is complex and some people are visual learners while others are more auditory learners. Visuals can highlight the data elements, or provide historical and future references. Plus they can add beauty or highlight concern. We also generally have an opportunity for audience engagement after each performance. That takes different forms but usually includes a chance to interact with our science team, our composers, our action partners and our core team. It helps to build further understanding and also to hash out any anxiety that arises about the future. So far, our compositions have featured two scenarios for the future, one that shows the trajectory if we fail to take sufficient action and a more hopeful scenario the demonstrates what we can achieve if we implement the solutions that are already available. We know that we can work together to make our world a better place for all and we strive to communicate that fact. What’s next for The ClimateMusic Project? We have had quite a few requests for engagement, especially since a profile of our work was highlighted by the New York Times last November. The 50th anniversary of Earth Day is coming up and we are scheduled to perform in a few places (details to come on our website). We are also working to build our action partner network to get folks more engaged. And, we will have an online methodology so we may work with musi51


Brady, A. (2020) An Interview with Laurie Goldman, Artists and Climate Change: building earth connections

-cians around the world who want to compose new pieces that will reach broad audiences. We will be reaching out to select composers in the coming year. We are also about to launch an exciting new project with Los Angeles-based composer and Grammy winner Heitor Pereira that will be geared toward kids and focused on biodiversity and climate change. That project will likely include some new animated elements and a longer campaign that will really engage kids! In fact, we plan to work on a strategy to bring our work to schools and take advantage of their curiosity and interest in action. Stay tuned. And, of course, we are always looking for support for our work. We are a nonprofit organization trying to make a difference! (Top image: The ClimateMusic Project at the Global Climate Action Summit in San Francisco. Photo by Sven Eberlein.) This article is part of the Climate Art Interviews series. It was originally published in Amy Brady’s “Burning Worlds” newsletter. Subscribe to get Amy’s newsletter delivered straight to your inbox. ___________________________ Amy Brady is the Deputy Publisher of Guernica magazine and Senior Editor of the Chicago Review of Books. Her writing about art, culture, and climate has appeared in the Village Voice, the Los Angeles Times, Pacific Standard, the New Republic, and other places. She is also the editor of the monthly newsletter “Burning Worlds,” which explores how artists and writers are thinking about climate change. She holds a PHD in English and is the recipient of a CLIR/Mellon Library of Congress Fellowship. Read more of her work at AmyBradyWrites.com at and follow her on Twitter at @ingredient_x.

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Burnard, P., Cook, P. J., Jasilek, S., & Bauer-Nilsen, B. (2018). Performing arts activism for addressing climate change: Conceptualizing an intercultural choreographic practice and dance performance called Melting Ice. Choreographic Practices Volume 9 Number 1 p. 1-5 and 14 Š 2018 Intellect Ltd Article. English language. doi: 10.1386/chor.9.1.119_1 Link: https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.23809

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Burnard, P., Cook, P. J., Jasilek, S., & Bauer-Nilsen, B. (2018). Performing arts activism for addressing climate change: Conceptualizing an intercultural choreographic practice and dance performance called Melting Ice

CP Journal: CHOREGRAPHIC PRACTICES: PERFORMING ECOLOGIES IN A WORLD IN CRISIS: REVISED AND REDUCED_SENT 30July2017

Title: Performing arts activism: Conceptualising an eco artistic, intercultural choreographic practice and performance called “Siku Aappoq/Melting Ice” for addressing climate change.

Authors: Pamela Burnard, Peter Cook, Susanne Jasilek and Birgitte BauerNilsen Abstract: In this article we argue that the power and politics of the arts is a way of raising awareness and responding to the globally shared problem of climate change. The impact of climate change is addressed here in the connection between an intercultural dance performance called “Siku Aappoq/Melting Ice” and the performative locus, which exists, politically, culturally and geographically inscribed. The approach to choreographic practice sees the body as a site from which comes forward the story of climate change as processes happening in nature to an iceberg and performance as the radical harmony or solubility of the body in all that we do not call the body. This is the context for deepening our connection to the viscosity of the living earth. The perceived impact of a choreographic practice seems to manifest itself primarily when looking back at how the dancers were becoming and being icebergs, and, in the act of labelling the choreographic practice of dance-making, the process gives rise to activism. [Film

excerpt

and

full

length

filmed

performance

http://bibacc.org/performative-project/] Keywords: climate change, arts activism, intercultural choreographic practice 1 54

see


Burnard, P., Cook, P. J., Jasilek, S., & Bauer-Nilsen, B. (2018). Performing arts activism for addressing climate change: Conceptualizing an intercultural choreographic practice and dance performance called Melting Ice

INTRODUCTION We know that climate change is a physical phenomenon that affects humanity within contemporary society, politics, economies, and culture. We also know that climate change is forcing us to revise and redefine our global roles, positions, thoughts and behaviours. The diverse effects of the melting ice means that people are socially and culturally confronted with conflicts and contestations connected to the ‘facts’ of climate change.

Figure 1: Sea ice in The Arctic Ocean Viewed from a satellite in 1980 and 2012. Ice disappearance is accelerating. Source: DMI: Martin Breum, Når isen forsvinder page 17, Gyldendal 2013. We know that ice in the Greenland has reduced dramatically from 1980 to 2012 (Martin Breum, 2013). This has a big influence world-wide because the rise of the water and air temperatures affects climate around the world. Drought has been documented in Brazil, and floods and heavy storms have been observed in other parts of the world. Our climate and our world are changing rapidly. It is incumbent on us as global citizens to find new solutions to new challenges, and decide what

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Burnard, P., Cook, P. J., Jasilek, S., & Bauer-Nilsen, B. (2018). Performing arts activism for addressing climate change: Conceptualizing an intercultural choreographic practice and dance performance called Melting Ice

our own roles will be in the shifting landscape of our interconnected lives. Some people see their task to be the understanding of Nature, so that they may take their place somewhere in her great design. Breum (2013) argues that melting of the ice makes it possible to travel by ship both through the northwest passage and northeastern passage of Greenland to Canada and Russia. While this means that it is easier to travel with goods, it also has a profound effect on the political situation of the counties around Greenland because they believe they own a part of the sea. The diverse effects of the melting ice means that people are socially and culturally confronted with conflicts and contestations connected to the ‘facts’ of climate change. We are facing an anthropogenic degradation – melting ice (“Siku Aappoq’) on the one hand and increased regions of drought which will increase food prices, because harvests will fail, and humans will loose their neighbours and houses in heavy storms and floods. These phenomena can create famine, instability in political relations and wars. Therefore our age of climate change can also be an era of civil and international conflict. Furthermore it can lead to the decline of many species and be regarded as violence against them (Rebekka Solnit, The Guardian, April 7th 2014). We think the power and politics of the arts is a way of raising awareness and responding to this globally shared problem. In this article the impact of climate change is addressed in an intercultural performance called “Melting Ice”. This is the Greenlanders and Scandinavians approach to climate change. The approach

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Burnard, P., Cook, P. J., Jasilek, S., & Bauer-Nilsen, B. (2018). Performing arts activism for addressing climate change: Conceptualizing an intercultural choreographic practice and dance performance called Melting Ice

to choreographic practice and performance is the radical harmony or solubility of the body in all that we do not call the body. Environmental art offers a means of expression, communicative exchange, public engagement

and

insight

into

one

another's

interpretation

of

issues.

Environmental artists offer artistic form to “doing democracy” in the creation of spaces where, among other things, myths are uncovered and broken down. In their work on the political uses of popular culture, Inghorn and Street (2013) argue that popular culture plays three roles in art as activism or activist arts: representing the wider world, forming collective identities and mobilizing action. Increasingly new and important artistic communities, practices and forms of art activism, are being used to influence public engagement with, and even drive, current debate on climate change. We are even, at times, seeing arts and popular culture indirectly shape future policy initiatives. Mattern and Love (2013:39) emphasize that in the newly emerging arts-based environmental education ‘many neighbourhoods, cities, states and even nations are turning to the arts and culture as a stimulus for community development by bringing public attention to community needs’. This means that politics is an important factor in the perception of the challenges associated with climate change. Historically, a turning point was reached in the 1980s, when we saw the genesis of what Mantere (1992) terms the ‘new environmental education through art’’. In 1992, a little more than twenty years after the landmark 1971 InSEA conference in Helsinki, the Earth Summit took place in Rio de Janeiro – the big UN Conference on Environment and Development. It was at this time that Mantere

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Burnard, P., Cook, P. J., Jasilek, S., & Bauer-Nilsen, B. (2018). Performing arts activism for addressing climate change: Conceptualizing an intercultural choreographic practice and dance performance called Melting Ice

articulated, in her seminal article “Ecology, Environmental Education and Art Teaching”, that, in her view, ecological thinking and action should be regarded as a guiding principle of all education. Art education and the arts specifically could play an important role in the development of new forms of Environmental Education. For Mantere, a genuine appreciation of nature and motivation to act for the good of the environment are based, above all, on positive and valued experiences and these are often of an aesthetic nature. Such experiences can be generated by open and immediate contact with the phenomena of nature and the new and fresh view of these phenomena that art provides. The key point here is that to perceive “better” is the necessary starting point to creative change in personal and collective decision making, lifestyles and public awareness (Mantere, 1995). Participation in arts activism is a method used for increasing sensitivity and raising awareness of the environment. The categories that Jokela (1995) offers, which work towards achieving or accomplishing this purposive orientation, include: 1. Exercises on focusing your observations and perceiving them more sensitively; 2. Exercises which bring forward the processes happening in nature and help in perceiving them more sensitively: growth and decay, the flow of water, the turning of day and night, etc; 3. Exercises which aim to alter set ways of viewing the environment; and 4. Exercises which test the scale of the environment and human ‘limits’.

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Burnard, P., Cook, P. J., Jasilek, S., & Bauer-Nilsen, B. (2018). Performing arts activism for addressing climate change: Conceptualizing an intercultural choreographic practice and dance performance called Melting Ice

[...] Composer and musician: Carsten Dahl wants to use dripping water and the sound of ice besides demonstrating the opposition to the high York

tempo

and

sophisticated

jazz-music

from

New

to symbolize society’s high speed and the greed to want

more. He also uses the missionary music in Greenland. The singer Aviaja Lumholdt decides to talk to the iceberg and use songs and rhythms from the shaman’s songs. Installation artist Marianne Grønnow wants to make a transparent blanket/a crystal in organza material to symbolize an iceberg. The dancers to go under, be upon and move the iceberg can use this crystal. The dancers are mystic characters with white paint on their bodies a small clothe around their hips. Light designer Jesper Kongshaug wants to create an atmosphere for the light in Greenland and its different reflection on the installation/ the crystal and the dancer’s skin. After I have received the music and the installation/crystal blanket is in process of being created, I make the first movement material that is qualitative, dynamic and essential movements for each scene. I want to use this material in the rehearsal with the dancers. The final synopsis is made by me and is given to the artists.

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H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015. p. 5-8, 11, 16-17 and 29-32 Link: https://www.ietm.org/en/publications

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H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

f r esh p er sp ec tives/ 4 w w w .ie t m.org

art for the planet’s sake Arts and Environment

picture: ‘The drowned mermaid’, Stig (from Art Not Oil coalition)

Hannah Van Den Bergh November 2015

in partnership with

ISBN: 978-2-9601106-8-5

IETM is supported by: This publication is distributed free of charge and follows the Creative Commons agreement Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives (CC BY-NC-ND)

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The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsi­ble for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

f r esh p er sp ec tives w w w .ie t m.org

Climate change engulfs us. It is the unavoidable normality that consistently adds to the order of the everyday, leaving a lasting impression through natural disasters, rising water levels, crop failure, biodiversity loss, and human conflict: a process of continual attrition. Scientists inform us that our civilisation is nearing collapse, unless we implement a radical change towards a low-carbon and low-resource economy. Art prepares us, not in calculations but in humanity.

01.

Introduction Ecology is the new opiate of the masses. Slavoj Žižek

Against the backdrop of COP21, the UN Climate Talks in Paris in December 2015, – what has been described as the ‘most critical’ climate talks to date – we anticipate a radical revision of environmental politics. Faced with conflicting ideologies, politics and approaches, can nature be the unifying policy? What we anticipate is, fundamentally, another opportunity to sit and talk. Global emissions have doubled since the first UN climate meeting in 1995, so rather than wait for action we turn to the arts. Our wealth of cultural idiosyncrasies ‘influence lifestyles, individual behaviour, consumption patterns, values related to environmental stewardship, and our interaction with the natural environment’, as defined by the UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda. Confronting ecological change with artistic response, from the arts and ecology centre in Germany ufaFabrik, to relatively new arts platforms like MELD in Greece who recognise that ‘a different kind of art is coming’. At the heart of this debate is the pragmatism of living against sustainable principles. This must be Plan A, because there is no Plan B in terms of climate survival. The recent IFACCA/Julie’s Bicycle report, ‘The Arts and Environmental Sustainability’,1 gives a definition of (the often elusive principle of) ‘sustainability’ in relation to the arts, and in anticipation of the post2015 Sustainable Development Agenda.

The authoring organisations recognise that ‘sustainability’ combines financial, social and environmental resources, but places environmental sustainability as the core principle upon which social, financial and cultural health is built. There is a need to develop a common language and shared consensus to translate this in practice: how do we shift attitudes to embrace the conservative principles of financial viability, future proofing, resilience and adaptation to secure minimal environmental impact? And with the arts enjoying a surge of activity through globalisation and cheap travel, how do we weigh this against impact and emissions? As Naomi Klein prophesised, ‘the solution to global warming is not to fix the world, it is to fix ourselves’2.

2     http://www.thischangeseverything.org

Through IETM and COAL we have found artists and organisations eager to evoke change in the climate debate. This publication does not aim to provide a series of answers, but illuminates work in practice and experimentation in the arts and cultural sector. Because culture is the main voice of humanity, and ‘human development can only be effective if we explicitly consider the integral value to the process of culture and cultural factors such as memory, creativity, diversity and knowledge’ – as outlined in the UCLG 2015 ‘Culture 21 – Actions’3. This is an outline of the role of arts in observing, understanding and critiquing approaches, and proposing solutions to environmental sustainability. It began with a call for contributions by IETM and COAL on the theme, with 34 responses from the sector. This work also draws on published writing and reports that have opened and challenged discussion about the role of the sector, and which are provided as reference texts for your further reading. Finally, special contributions from researchers, artists, managers and activists enrich this publication with an international perspective and a political contextualisation. 3     http://www.agenda21culture.net/images/a21c/4th-pilar/ zz_Culture4pillarSD_eng.pdf

Picture from The Museum of Garbage (picture: Stefanie Kuhlmann, Judith Jung and Gabrielle Reeves)

1     http://www.juliesbicycle.com/resources/ifacca-dart-report

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H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

f r esh p er sp ec tives w w w .ie t m.org

This text has only sought to capture a snapshot of the activity being pioneered by the arts and cultural sector. As our climate changes, so does our response, and we anticipate a lot of change in the years to come. The text is structured into four main parts. The first part on Sustainable People aims to understand and embrace the role and power of artists and creators to be the messengers of climate change, imagine the future, freely denounce and critique social and economic systems that protect working practice at the cost of our environment. As Ariane Koek, founder of Arts@CERN (the large hadron collider in Switzerland) captured in one sentence: ‘The arts touch the parts that science alone cannot reach’. The chapter It’s Not Easy Being Green starts from the assumption that sustainable practice must extend beyond a purely conceptual subject matter in art. It is vital that the arts community sets an example by working sustainably. Following a chapter of Conclusions and a set of Resources, the text ends with a set of Guest Contributions commissioned by international experts for this issue of Fresh Perspectives. In ‘Striving for Meaningful Impact’ Chantal Bilodeau (Canada) considers the effects of arts practice on the artist, the audience, the sector and the wider community, and approaches to measuring their impacts. In ‘Community and Art as a Way Towards Ecological Sustainability’ Marco Kusumawijaya (Indonesia) explains how we should approach connections between artists and local communities, and the role for development and change in social microenvironments.

In ‘Prefiguring Sustainability: ResponseAbility and Spaces of Possibility’ Sacha Kagan (Germany) calls for a rethink of sustainability that is holistic, encouraging ‘response-ability’ within local communities. ‘The S-word’ by Yasmine Ostendorf (UK) reflects on how cultural differences change meanings when considering approaches to sustainability, focusing on arts practice in Korea, Singapore, Japan and the wider ASEAN region.

02.

SUSTAINABLE PEOPLE Artists and creators can be the messengers of climate change, imagine the future, freely denounce and critique social and economic systems that protect harmful working practice, at the cost of our environment. We must stop perpetuating a norm that sees artists and scientists at two ends of a spectrum, but encourage integration, collaboration and discussion as combined creative forces. Culture has a transformative power on human development, making the complex language of environmental research relevant to the needs, worries and hedonism of a global people. Artists can be the mouth-piece, the microphone, provoking behaviour change, connecting with humanity and at times – in activism, campaigning against unethical practice. There is a place for arts within the environment discussion, and a hubbub of activity within the arts community that condemns, comments on and celebrates our natural environment, imagining the future.

Changing the narrative In ‘On Culture, the Environment and Sustainable Development’ Mike Van Graan (South Africa) deconstructs the Sustainable Development Goals and how generalised approaches to policy have been interpreted in African contexts.

Culture is at the top of this agenda Ban Ki-Moon on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals

Preventing catastrophic climate change, limiting global warming beyond a further two degrees, and implementing the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals are among

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the greatest challenges facing humankind. The environment is undoubtedly one of the most urgent. Understanding our role and relationship to the planet – how we approach and discuss the necessity of change – can be the role of the artists. Rather than being overwhelmed and disconnected by statistical data, graphs and projections, as valuable as they are, the arts community must have a part to play in imagining the sustainable future we hear communicated at the UN Climate Talks in Paris and the numerous other international gatherings that punctuate the environmental sustainability question. It is the rich and meaningful experience art creates that has the power to target the emotions of an audience, community and individuals, that is proven effective in communicating scientific facts and phenomena. Generally speaking, global inertia continues because climate is complex and talking in quantities of the unimaginable. Change is nominal. The trend of UN conferences, Papal Encyclicals, Presidential speeches and celebrity tweets only serve to highlight our inaction. Speculation around the long-term behavioural change necessary to implement mission statements and projections such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals is rife with criticism. Contrary to popular belief, the facts cannot speak for themselves. It is the plot lines, pictures and performances that trigger connection and change. Injecting the statistics with humanity is imperative in explaining climate change: being able to understand the impact through visualisation and imagination. Marcus Brigstocke, a comedian invited to join a recent Cape Farewell Arctic expedition for artists concluded that ‘the artistic community is not well placed to deal with the urgency suggested by the scientific case, because of the danger of being seduced. We should be careful about being in love with the tragedy of melting ice because it needs to translate into something that makes sense of it’1. Furthermore, the echoed response by Laurent Fabius, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development, and the President of COP21, after his visit to the Arctic Circle last year is evocative: ‘I have a very lively memory of the horrifying noise 1      h t t p : / / c o n v e r s a t i o n s . e - f l u x . c o m / t / why-climate-action-needs-the-arts/2270


H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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and sight of huge ice blocks cracking and breaking away from the pack. The Arctic is indeed the gatekeeper of climate disorder: for years, this region has been sending us signals that we cannot neglect anymore’. It is vital that artists are present in the global conversations on environment, so often weighed down in party politics and ideological orthodoxy, to communicate empathy, pathos, wit, beauty and human error. Beyond blind panic, artists have the opportunity – and the power – to change the climate narrative. As a society we need to build the confidence to believe that a different, sustainable way of living is possible. While our path is fundamentally guided by the ongoing research of the scientific community, arguably steered by rational, practical knowledge, we also need personal, unique, aesthetic responses that engage the emotions that cause people to act. If art is to have a place in the environment paradigm, it must be to communicate, share, reflect, question and criticise. Without it, we are pre-disposed to continue in much the same manner: media reporting fuelled by data, politicians preparing rousing speeches and incremental change sacrificed by corporate profits. As Yasmine Ostendorf identifies in her attached essay ‘The S-word’, sustainability is becoming homogenous to a lifestyle choice that is one of expense and luxury. Art does not necessarily offer an ethical or green solution, but it has a role in challenging perception. How can we imagine what more than two degrees temperature increase means for the future? How do we reconcile the ecological impact of affluent societies against those with more basic needs? How can we understand the sheer volume of man-made waste, floating plastic islands and the wreckage of a tsunami?

‘Luxo è lixo’ (Luxury is Trash’), project by Basurama in Brasil (picture: courtesy of Basurama).

How can we transform personal responsibility into collective consensus? How can we move from denouncing behaviours to creating sustainable proposals1? What will evoke global action?

web platforms, radically changed the narrative. It caused a mass outpouring of grief, expression and ultimately, action through donations, aid and housing. It was one picture, connected into human empathy, that triggered change.

In the summer of 2015 the world witnessed mass migration of an unprecedented and unforeseen scale. In Europe, migration from Africa and the Middle East caused in many cases by displacement, persecution, and war, was thought in some discussions to stem from the rudimental effects of climate change: ongoing drought and spoilt crops2. The picture of a three-yearold boy lying face down on the beach in Greece, drowned crossing dangerous waters, sparked international outcry over the human cost of the crisis and, in a matter of hours, shared on social media and

In Tiananmen Square, the image of a man standing in front of four tanks, representing the disproportionate violence used against a peaceful protest. In Vietnam, the image of a girl caught in a napalm attack, her clothes burnt off her skin. The graphic images of Syrian victims tortured under the Assad regime, surfaced and exhibited at the UN Headquarters in New York. Most recently, we are heavy, shaken by savage attacks in Paris and Beirut in November 2015, targeting a music venue, restaurant, football stadium and open-air market. Overwhelmed by images of human despair we are united in humanity. Far from becoming desensitised, our response is one of solidarity.

1     Morin, E., Pistoletto, M. ‘Impliquons-nous’, Actes Sud: Paris, October 2015.

Consider this locally: when a factory closes we are connected to the human impact of job losses, not the numbers or projections. It is the emotional power and human connection – that which we can understand,

2     ‘Drought is being implicated as a key instigator in the Syrian conflict… Observers, including UN experts estimated that between 2 and 3 million of Syria’s 10 million rural inhabitants were reduced to ‘extreme poverty‘’ (https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2013/09/09/ drought-and-syria-manmade-climate-change-or-just-climate/)

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H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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and so imagine the impact on our own fami-lies, friends and communities – that leaves a lasting impression and the charge to cause us to act. As author Margaret Atwood wrote in post-apocalyptic bioengineering catastro-phe ‘Oryx and Crake’, ‘When any civiliza-tion is dust and ashes… art is all that’s left over. Images, words, music. Imaginative structures. Meaning – human meaning – is defined by them.’ Through giving stage to the human imagination, alerting an emo-tional response through images, debate, theatre, poetry and performance – rousing and evocative – we have the power to give a human voice to climate change, encourag-ing action to move our environment away from further unnecessary destruction. We are not faced with two separate crises (environmental and cultural), but one com-plex question. As Ariane Koek, Founder of Arts@CERN, the large hadron collider in Switzerland, described ‘the level of heated debate about the so-called two-cultures is a constant source of bafflement to me. Of course arts and science are linked. Both are about creativity. Both require technical mastery. And both are about exploring the limits of human potential.’ In his guest contribution to this publication, ‘Prefiguring sustainability’, Sacha Kagan describes this as ‘spaces of possibility’, where an artist invites audiences to experi-ence new and uncertain situations based on relationships of trust. Working to convey and evoke the imminence and enormity of climate impacts are a roster of successful case studies:

1      h t t p : // b l o g . m e l d . c c /c a t e g o r y / p r o j e c t s - 2 / climate-change-hip-pop-opera/

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2    

www.yildiz.edu.tr/~kanat/wm.doc


H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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Finding connections between communi-ties, to share a common message, is vital in changing attitudes on a global scale. In his attached essay ‘Community and art as a way towards ecological sustainabil-ity’ Marco Kusumawijaya looks in more detail at the importance of community-led change, projects like that being developed at the Bumi Pemuda Rahayu sustainability learning centre in Indonesia, which uses two basic ideas to progress artistic interventions in local communities: creative conversation in people’s mother language, and change created on a manageable scale.

A little less conversation, a little more action Continual market growth risks the ecologi-cal systems that we depend on for survival. Communicating the risks must go beyond discussion and reflection in favour of action. Is this the role of the arts? With the global economy facing ever-increasing challenges, and resources for art provisions being hit hard and fast, the value of a culture of cre-ating art is undermined and threatened. If the crux of public funding is defined only by purpose, does the systemic cuts felt by the arts sector deem artistic work purposeless?

Art that is blind to, or unaffected by the world it inhabits, of which climate change is an unwavering reality, is arguably pas-sive or simply not looking. Climate change has no time for art in a vacuum. We need provocation.

Should art extend from reflection into action? It has been fervently argued that arts and activism are different beings. But can art carve itself a place within this com-plex infrastructure of politics, ideologies, data and profits to influence long-term policy when it comes to our limited anthro-pogenic existence? Should it?

Nudge theory is a concept that uses small acts of positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions to influence motives, incen-tives and decision-making. Without forbid-ding any options or significantly changing economic incentives, a nudge can alter people’s behaviour in a predictable way. It has been found more effective than consensual change via direct instruction, legislation or enforcement. It may be as simple as putting fruit at eye level, as opposed to banning junk food. It is used avidly in behavioural science, political theory and economics. Amplifying social behaviour is reinforced by the ability to connect through networks. If social media has taught us anything, it is that relationships are fundamentally valua-ble in human coexistence. The scope to use nudge theory to extend from short-term often politically motivated initiatives to long-term behavioural changes that impact a whole society can be permeated by fun-damental artistic preferences to commu-nicate, educate, reflect, and question the society we live in.

Whether that’s mutations of role, taking example from Alice Audrey Grindhammer who calls herself a ‘garbologist’ in explor-ing solutions for the global waste crisis. Or holistic interpretations within our formal infrastructure, as per Amy Balkin whose ‘Public Smog’ project aims to list the Earth’s atmosphere on the UNESCO World Heritage Register. Or, of course, there is the fundamental human right to protest. The public exposure of the Greenpeace campaign, a celebration of Shell retracting Arctic drilling garnered high-profile support from the arts community, including poetry by actor Emma Thompson, music from Charlotte Church and global support from actor Jude Law and musician Sir Paul McCartney, among many others1. What has been termed a clash of David and Goliath proportions between Big Oil and energy companies met with climate action groups singing praises of ecological responsibility, can and must be governed. It cannot rely in the hands of companies who will trade our planet’s results for quick profits. Given the urgent and unstoppable question of climate change, questions need to shift to mass activity: our common global society.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environ1 ment/11898950/Emma-Thompson-joins-Greenpeace-tocelebrate-Shell-scrapping-Arctic-drilling.html

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H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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03.

iT’S NOT EASY BEING GREEN Sustainable practice must extend beyond a purely conceptual subject matter in art. We must recognise the importance of sustainable processes, and take action to work in a way that reduces environmental impact in the approach to creation: from production to design, management, travel and evaluation. It is vital that the arts community sets an example by working sustainably. Green practice is not achievable in isolation. To thrive, it relies on an infrastructure of financial viability, encourages digital innovation and is ambitious for lasting impact. The timeless questions remain: how do we make work abroad if travelling has large environmental consequences? How do we work with green business if we don’t have the funds for investment? Where do we draw the line between ethics and sponsorship? How do we continue to make art when so much time and resource must go into measuring outputs? Influencing the infrastructure within which art is made is crucial to making active, conscientious decisions about the approach we take in cultivating environmentally sustainable practice. Rethinking policy support needs to consider the nuances of arts in the wider community. Funding institutions responsible for setting a benchmark for sustainable practice must avoid using ‘sustainability’ as a trend or fad, one for tick boxes on application forms and the domain of the wealthy. To truly invite a culture shift for a new environmental standard in arts practice, we need to see real financial investment to support a change in behaviour.

Big Oil, Big Art, Big Question Ethics occupies a lot of the discussion when it comes to art and the environment1. The relationships between high-profile arts providers and environmentally unsustainable, profit-driven companies exploiting natural resources, is one that receives ongoing media scrutiny and activism. The freedom of the arts to confront and comment on the environment is perhaps dirtied by the affiliation with companies who have vastly contributed to climate decay. Is this justified? Do these associations restrict freedom to create dialogue in criticism of the activity of fossil fuel companies, and how do these associations implicate the artists they seek to support? Art that is dangerous, controversial or critical of big oil is undermined by sponsorship. The willingness to receive high-profile sponsorship from big oil companies, fails to tackle climate objectives. At a time when the arts are increasingly reliant on financial backing from alternative and corporate sources due to funding cuts, do we need to be clearer about ethical values and whom we associate with? Can ethics ever be a collective decision and is it justified to vilify organisations who do choose to continue to engage relationships with big oil support? One thing is certain, funding from big oil companies and the debate it invites, has become a regular topic of conversation for arts organisations. Tate Britain has recently celebrated 25 years of BP sponsorship, and a number of other British institutions, including the National Gallery, British Museum and Natural History Museum continue to receive BP’s financial support. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, home of the New York City Ballet and New York City Opera, and the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History in America have received significant sponsorship from oil fortunes. GOMA - Gallery Of Modern Art in Brisbane, Australia, received sponsorship from Santos GLNG. It was only in November 2015 that the Science Museum UK pulled out of a controversial sponsorship deal with Shell. 1     The topic of ethically controversial sponsorship for the arts is discussed at length in IETM’s publication The Art of Disobedience, dealing with the relationship between arts and politics, https://www.ietm.org/en/publications

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In equal measure, the trend in big oil sponsorship has received plentiful opposition. Rising Tide UK’s Art Not Oil coalition aims to put an end to oil industry sponsorship of the arts. Liberate Tate is a network dedicated to taking creative disobedience against the British institution Tate until it drops oil company funding. Generation Alpha have challenged Brisbane Gallery Of Modern Art (GOMA)’s oil sponsorship staging the death of a Koala bear who pretended to die after a chemical leak in a local aquifer with contaminants including arsenic, uranium, lead and nickel. Yoko Ono founded the New York alliance Artists Against Fracking. In Norway, the Stopp Oljesponsing av Norsk Kulturliv tries to distance links between public funding and fossil fuels. Jazz sous les Pommiers in France refused Areva’s support, connected with the nuclear sector. The Reclaim Shakespeare Company took the stage in an interval at the Roundhouse encouraging the general public to tear the logos of oil companies out of the theatre programme. ‘At a time when the world should fear much more the heat of the sun and the furious winter’s rages, BP is conspiring to distract us from the naked truth of climate change and with its daring folly burn the world’ and in naming and shaming the oil giant, The Reclaim Shakespeare Company have facilitated interventions at the World Shakespeare Festival and Royal Shakespeare Company. The Fossil Funds Free consortium between the UK and America, pledges a commitment not to take any oil, coal or gas corporate sponsorship. Activists at the UN Climate Talks are planning to target the Louvre in Paris over the art gallery’s ties with French oil company Total, and Italian oil company Eni. The normalisation of fossil fuels usage means polluting the environment is an inevitable and unavoidable consequence. ‘Crude’ behaviour as it were, becomes normality and the social conscience attached to the profits of big oil organisations is overshadowed. Supporting culture has arguably given big oil a ‘social licence to operate’ or a ‘licence to spill’. ‘Greenwash’ for big oil organisations acts to protect reputations and mythologise an environmentally responsible public image that may


H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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have been marred by oil spills or deep-sea drilling, distracting attention and buying acceptance. Motive-driven sponsorship that seeks to cover up unethical behaviour does more damage than good and stifles the demands of justice for communities directly affected by polluting practice: a distraction from human rights impacts, and poor ecological efforts. And when it comes to arts sponsorship, motive of self-interest is hard to paint over; we must preserve clarity at the intentions and narratives behind this funding. As author, filmmaker and social activist Naomi Klein wrote in ‘No Logo’ , ‘we become collectively convinced not that corporations are hitching a ride on our cultural and communal activities, but that creativity and congregation would be impossible without their generosity’. Mel Evans’ recent publication ‘Artwash: Big Oil and the Arts’ confronts the intricacies of big oil relationships, and asks if cultural organisations, in accepting money, become accomplices to environmental crimes. A clean motive would perhaps be more persuasive if big oil was funding small organisations and community projects and not just aiming to win big in public relations impact by supporting Big Art with relatively small contributions. Increasingly trusts, foundations and public funds are recognising the importance of supporting environmental practice. Earmarking resources for sustainable capital development, sustainable travel and ecological design within the process of making leaves decisions about green practice in the hands of funders, grant schemes and artist in residency programmes. From a Southeast Asian perspective, be comparison, opportunities to fund travel are limited. Being “green” becomes an achievement of financial, social and political context, far more than an active choice. Realistically, the resources and incentive for sustainable practice stops at the funder’s door. Extending visits to work with local communities, network and explore make necessary travel more sustainable. Mella Jaasma, co-director of Cemeti Art House in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, has worked with artists through a residency programme

Jason deCaires Taylor, ‘The rising tide’, underwater sculpture’ (picture: Jason deCaires Taylor)

encouraging outreach to local people and craftsmen, inviting artists actively looking to work and learn about local materials and knowledge to influence their artistic process. Using the residency programme, Cemeti Art House hopes to highlight and extend the value of travel visits to maximise the potential both for the artist, but also the benefits for local communities.

Green Fatigue The newspaper The Guardian described sustainability as ‘the geeky, pimply teenager who has come to our party, turned off the music and told us that we would really be much happier if we stopped having so much fun’1. Are we suffering from green fatigue? ‘Sustainability’ is undoubtedly the buzzword gracing the lips of artists, businessmen and politicians alike. What was once ‘eco’ or ‘green’ is now ‘sustainable’, and it does little to capture the imagination or or understand the challenges presented by contemporary culture. It is a word that is lost in translation, not just in different cultural contexts, as Yasmine Ostendorf highlights in her work in Asia, but in everyday 1     http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/ sustainability-movement-faces-extinction

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practice. Sacha Kagan argues that ‘sustainability’ needs reinvention. It has become the go-to funder criteria, alongside ‘community’, ‘digital’ and ‘innovative’. What feels like an ethical cheat-sheet – a fast track to social virtue – whereby we can tick a box to say we’re sustainable without demonstrating long-term vision or impact, is a dangerous way to side-step the real environmental concerns. There is a sense that sustainability equates to social good. But the moral high ground will soon be underwater alongside Bangladesh, Venice, the Pacific Islands, and numerous coastal cities around the world. Sustainability represents the chase for something impossible: there is simply no end game in working conscientiously. It cheats real change, and side steps a language and dialogue of positive development. Sustainability represents survival and scarcity. The world of capital, profits and instant gratification is far more interested in prosperity and growth.


H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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Prefiguring Sustainability: Response-Ability & Spaces of Possibility Sacha Kagan

We must stop thinking and working in silos – and in terms of so-called ‘pillars’ of sustainability (whether the environmental, economic, social or cultural ‘pillar’), reproducing and perpetuating the failed mental models that brought us where we are. In the following lines, I suggest an engagement for arts organisations, which is not merely about sustainability awareness-raising (with a narrow focus on the environmental as a separate concern), nor just about environmental management within arts organisations, however urgent and useful such approaches are. Sustainability is about reinventing worlds; it is a cultural project. Cultural (and arts) organisations are bearers of ‘spaces of possibilities’ towards sustainable futures. This is not just about professional artists (who of course can be very inspiring initiators), or about artists in social practice and communities (also playing essential roles), but it is also about sharing response-ability for more diffused artful doing and learning by local communities in spaces of challenging experience, imagination and experimentation. Arts organisations and sustainability as an integrated multi-dimensional search process Arts organisations (like any human organisations) work in complex and rapidly changing environments – or rather than ‘environments’, we should rather say in unfolding ‘worlds’, co-evolving with the organisation. These worlds are multi-dimensional: physical, ecological, social, economic, political, historical and cultural. Worlds are made of dynamic encounters of things, people, other living beings, places and times... many of these are related to each other in specific, multiple ways – even though it is a lazy and dangerous simplification to just claim that ‘everything is related to everything else’. Sustainability is a normative search process which aims to address these worlds as a whole – not seeing them as a collection of separate domains (with the very

unfortunate image of ‘pillars’ of sustainability1), but seeing the personal, the social, economic, political, cultural and ecological realities as different levels, dimensions of worlds (or interrelated ecologies, as Felix Guattari famously suggested2). Sustainability is not a fixed normative picture, like a fixed model or template. Because reality is complex, changing and contextual, sustainability too is a constantly changing horizon, a search process that constantly needs to be revised and critically reviewed. Sustainability as a search process seeks no universal, but transversal properties that allow trans-local exchanges and translations, thanks to inter- and transcultural learning. This is not to say that the dimensions are only instrumental to each other. The four or five dimensions of sustainability each hold intrinsic value and point to specific goals. The ecological dimension is foundational upon which everything else is built, and points us to the existence-value (and not only use-value) of many forms of life than constitute ecosystems around us and often together with us, whether in cities, in rural areas or in more-or-less wild areas. The social dimension points to the imperative of justice, for all groups in a society, which means developing a dynamic awareness to the situations of any marginalised group and to the dynamics of injustice. The cultural dimension points to the value of culture, the vitality of cultural and artistic expressions and their diversity, allowing a rich cultural life, guarding against cultural homogenisation, and linking a living cultural heritage to cultural change. The economic dimension seeks economic viability, not only of the arts organisation itself, but also of other organisations and agents with which the organisation is related. The economic dimension of sustainability points to the question of desirable and sufficient wealth and well-being, which often can be achieved through diverse forms of mixed economies ([1] market, [2] public, [3] gift, and [4] an economy of the commons, through shared community and stewardship of available 1     Dessein, J., Soini, K., Fairclough, G., and Horlings, L. (Eds.). ‘Culture in, for and as Sustainable Development. Conclusions from the COST Action IS1007 Investigating Cultural Sustainability’, University of Jyväskylä, 2015. 2    

Felix Guattari. ‘Les trois écologies’, Paris: Galilée, 1989.

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common resources). The personal dimension points to individual self-development and fulfillment. Arts organisations therefore need to develop an integrated understanding of these contexts for their work: • •

• • •

Sound practices of environmental management Practices that open up to all layers of society, including marginalised minorities and those seeking social justice Enlivenment of the cultural dimension Personal fulfillment of employees, volunteers, partners and audiences Practices which are economically viable for oneself and for others, also questioning the typical economic self-exploitation of the creative sector

As cultural organisations, arts organisations deal, more explicitly than other organisations, with the structures of meanings that we find and that we shape in the world around us: the worldviews that we hold, the values that we cherish and that we practice, and things that are speaking back to us. Arts organisations contribute to the changes in the symbolic universe that we build and inhabit, and which is full of sensory realities, sights and sounds, smells and tastes, sensations and movements. Engaging with culture, as an arts organisation means playing an important role in society, contributing to shape the systems of meanings in that society. This does have long-term impacts. Arts organisations thus have a special responsibility towards the cultural dimension of sustainability – in the sense of ‘cultural sustainability’. Cultures are also a fundamental key in the search process of sustainability, when looking at all dimensions of sustainability together, in an integrated way – in the sense of ‘cultures of sustainability’. There will not be a shift of civilisation towards sustainability without a fundamental shift in contemporary culture, towards an aesthetically grounded understanding and respect for life in all its human and other-than-human complexity.


H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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This means, for the arts organisation, to enrich the symbolic universe which is attached to the local realities – a kind of ‘enlightened localism’ (as discussed by Manickam Nadarajah1) and to enrich the symbolic universe which is attached to global realities, at the level of the whole planet – a kind of planetary consciousness of humanity as a species (as discussed by Edgar Morin2). It also implies not only the development of certain ethical values (beyond a simplistic green moralism), but also the enrichment and diversification of our skills, competences and ways of knowing reality. Constituencies and response-ability Sustainability is a normative search process, questioning society, not just looking at the world around and describing it with a detached gaze. It requires that the arts organisations develop a ‘response-ability’, an ability to respond to issues of unsustainability. This means first of all, an ability to respond to the multiple constituencies inhabiting the immediate environment as well as the rest of the world. To be able to respond to constituencies and the issues they face, arts organisations first have to recognise all their constituencies and to acknowledge them. We can visualize such constituencies along three axes of space, time and otherness:

who do walk into the theatre. For example, the multicultural appeal of arts organisations is often still lacking (in some cases even despite genuinely emerging efforts). The response-abilities of arts organisations are not, however, limited to engaging with immediate situations. They are relating to historical heritage as well as to future generations. Furthermore, sustainability also calls attention to our community with non-humans. For example, the local ecosystem of the river that flows through a city demands to be attended to, not only in very concrete terms (with art managers implementing good practice in environmental management), but also in symbolic terms (e.g. the symbolic relationships of the city to its river and to the river’s ecosystem). The constituencies also include humans and non-humans that are far away from the local environment of an arts organization. Whether for geopolitical reasons – if we think of the Syrian refugees, who in Europe were long felt as ‘far away’ by many, until the reality-check came closer to home, revealing the un-reflected selfishness of many Europeans; or if we think of LGBTQI people who are persecuted in Uganda, Russia and too many other countries – or for global ecological reasons, when we refer to climate change and the many communities affected worldwide. Any arts organisation needs to address the issues related to our global interconnections, and planetary responsibilities as one fast-growing species on this planet.

Arts organisations need to develop qualitative performance indicators that address the multiple dimensions of sustainability, and that can give a meaningful feedback about the effectiveness and the limits of the work done so far. One attempt to develop such a tool emerged in Canada: Douglas Worts and his colleagues developed a few years ago a set of qualitative performance indicators for self-assessment by museums, called the ‘Critical Assessment Framework’, which focuses especially on the levels of individuals (visitors and non-visitors), communities (locally) and the museum (the staff and volunteers at the own organisation). As Douglas Worts himself argued meanwhile, such an evaluation framework would need further expansion, to also include relations with other organisations, as well as the ecology and society of whole regions and the entire planet. Grounding spaces of possibility in artistic inquiry Thanks to artistic openness, to the new and to continuous learning, arts organisations have a great potential to become not only learning organisations (i.e. organisations that are continuously learning and evolving, developing themselves), but also open learning spaces for others.

1     Nadarajah, M., Tomoko Yamamoto, A. (Eds.). ‘Urban crisis: Culture and the sustainability of cities’, Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2007.

This potential needs to be tapped into. Sustainable development requires transversal, creative ideas and approaches to new questions facing society. This is where artists come to the forefront. A growing number of artists are dealing with issues of social, economic, political, intercultural and/or ecological natures (as I discussed in the book ‘Art and Sustainability3’), which all can shed new lights on questions of sustainable development. The role of the arts organisation, in this process, is to accompany, support and foster such artistic inquiries. It is to provide a space of free play that artists need in order to be able to share their inquiries with others. But it is also to challenge and stimulate artists to further develop and realize their perspectives in relation to the locality where the art organisation is placed.

2     Morin, E. ‘L’an I de l’ère écologique’, Paris: Tallandier, 2007. See also: Morin, E. ‘La méthode’, Paris: Seuil, 2008.

3      Kagan, S. ‘Art and Sustainability: Connecting patterns for a culture of complexity’, Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2011.

• • •

One axis goes from the local level to the planetary level... A second axis goes from the long dead to the not-yet-born... A third axis goes from the human to the many others (that is, non-humans).

Some arts organisations may still fail to engage all of the local human constituencies: for example, among the inhabitants of a city, many non-visitors may be considered a ‘lost cause’ by certain arts organisations. Sustainability requires to seriously engage with the diversity of local communities rather than stick to the niche audiences

If arts organisations aim to seriously relate to these diverse constituencies (as some are already doing), and to have cultural impacts, they need to further develop their approaches and formats to enhance their response-ability to this world. This asks an arts administrator or manager to think beyond existing ‘performance indicators’ and develop new ones. This requires creativity and a qualitative turn, looking beyond the existing, mostly quantitative, indicators about revenues, attendance numbers, etc.

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H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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As many arts organisations are well versed in, artists can bring perspectives that help develop critical reflexivity in society (when they are not content with playing within the sandbox of the art worlds): •

They can make us become aware of routines, social conventions, habits and other aspects of our lives, of which we are barely aware (or fully unaware). They can warm them and invite us to try out alternatives.

They can shape new aesthetic experiences that open up our perception to the intricate complexity of our environment, while making it accessible. They can shape symbols and reshape the symbolic values of any aspect of everyday life. This symbolic work is very important for cultural change.

They can help us engage in new situations with an experimental attitude that is open to sensorial and intuitive knowledge, as well as to lateral thinking (thinking in metaphors instead of thinking in a narrowly deductive way), and thinking by doing instead of first thinking and then doing1. All these qualities of ‘artful doing’ are not reserved to artists alone. They can become contagious.

Through sharing these different reflexive perspectives, the artists may be able to provoke detachment from lazy thinking, enchantment to envision alternative realities, and empowerment to experiment with change. These qualities of artistic inquiry, and the creative processes they awaken, should be at the core of the arts organisation as an open learning space. To be able to unfold these potentials for change, artists need open frames that allow for unplanned experiments and stimulate critical learning. The art manager’s role is thus to open up these frames, allowing and fostering these artistic reflexivities and letting them flow through the arts organisation. The arts professionals can also 1     Hans Dieleman, ‘Transdisciplinary Artful Doing in Spaces of Experimentation and Imagination’, in Transdisciplinary Journal of Engineering and Science, Vol. 3, 2012, pp. 44-57.

The ‘Tag des guten Lebens’ in Cologne, is not only a yearly car-free-Sunday festival with 100 000 visitors, but a space of possibility where thousands of residents in many streets develop own creative re-appropriations of urban space (picture: Marén Wirths on Flickr).

connect together the different challenging perspectives offered by different artists. However, the constitution of spaces of possibility for sustainable development requires that arts organisations move beyond their own habitual spaces (both physically, socially and metaphorically). To reach out to people who are not part of cultural elites or of activist networks, these spaces have to be located in institutionally still undetermined spaces, where creative experiments and the everyday life of local inhabitants may come together, functioning as emergent open commons. This calls forward artistic and cultural interventions across the urban fabric, beyond the spatial-temporal and conventional frameworks habitually associated to existing cultural organisations and art worlds. In spaces of possibility, the qualities of artistic inquiry that I shortly listed above are embedded in local (often urban) initiatives, embedded in neighborhoods and aiming to transform everyday life while addressing urban development and politics, rather

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than performed as single art projects. They are strategically deployed for the realisation of an archipelago of heterotopian spaces – where we can concretely experiment potential futures without waiting for others to do it for us. One example of such an archipelago is in the city of Hamburg (Germany), the Right to the City network (including the Gängeviertel, Keimzelle, KEBAP, Planbude and other spaces and initiatives). Spaces of possibility are actively networked with each other and with wider movements working towards emancipatory and ecological goals (such as discussed for example in the ‘Convivialist Manifesto’2). These spaces offer civil society the opportunity to activate change-agency and empowerment by operationalising ‘prefigurative politics’ – the immediate practical experimentation with desired future forms of social life, without waiting for (necessary) transformed larger political and economic structures to allow the wider dissemination of such 2      ‘Manifeste Convivialiste : declaration d’interdépendance’, Lormont: Le bord de l’eau, 2013 - English version online


H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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social innovations. Spaces of possibilities are ‘spaces of imagination and experimentation’, as coined by Hans Dieleman. Art organisations can contribute to grounding spaces of possibility in artistic inquiry, by opening up spaces of challenging experience, imagination and experimentation. Sustainability is a radical search process, it requires highly challenging (rather than comfortable) aesthetic experiences, while at the same time such experiences should remain accessible to different participants. The same artistic proposal will be more or less challenging, depending on the background of each participant. How to avoid merely providing comfortable aesthetic satisfaction that maintains people in a state of uncritical anaesthesia (or offers pseudo-challenges to blasé high-culture elites)? Spaces of possibility are not places for anaesthesia and political self-satisfaction. Spaces of possibility unfold in thinking by doing. This is as if the artist, or other initiator, is inviting people to take a ride on a bike, although they have not yet learned how to ride a bike. The art organisation needs to develop safe places where participants can feel enough trust to ‘take a ride’ in a situation that is new and uncertain, and allow themselves to experience surprise and confusion, and still be open to learn something new out of it. What I also mean concretely by experimentation is that art organisations can also offer some hands-on activities that invite people to experiment with doing things differently. It can be a workshop, a market, a big living room or playroom set up in the middle of the street, or many other things. It should invite people to bring together their heads, their hearts and their hands. Invite people to a place where they can test out things, like acrobats walking on a rope with a safety net below them. Imagination is important because spaces of possibility are about exploring multiple alternative realities and alternative futures. The goal is not to close down people’s imaginations so that they “get it”, so that they get the one correct image or interpretation. Arts organisations are no churches for a

gospel of sustainability. The goal is to invite people to engage with situations and with their imaginations, without settling down too soon. This is about developing safe and trust-inspiring places that invite their visitors to a participation with consequences, not just some token or superficial participation. These places need to foster a social creativity – a creativity that is no longer just the privilege of individual artists on stage – a creativity that flows as a good conversation between friends. Participants need to be stimulated to think and act differently, even if it feels silly. Creating that type of creative climate is also a real challenge for the arts organization.

Engaging with the search process of sustainability, arts organisations are challenged to relate both to ‘cultural sustainability’ and to ‘cultures of sustainability’. Their potential contribution to the multiple dimensions of sustainable development implies more than mere environmental awareness raising and the necessary greening of creative processes. Arts organisations have a role to play in the wider diffusion of artful, aesthetically challenging and playfully experimental practices and spaces in local communities (based in artistic inquiry, but reaching beyond single arts projects), contributing to the development of spaces of possibility, as prefigurative politics for sustainability transformation2.

Finally, shaping spaces of possibility, as arts organisations, is like weaving a spider web, not alone but together with many other spiders from outside the cultural sector – joining existing urban and regional cross-sector networks (such as ‘Transition’ or ‘Right to the City’ networks in different cities) and helping build new ones. Such networks involve a great diversity of aspects and dimensions of economy, society, ecology, culture and local everyday life. Sustainability implies moving away from thinking and acting within specific professional fields. The work of such networks is to engage each other into shared public discourses and to build a democratic space together, to continue experimenting and connecting different experiences. There can and should be tensions within such networks. It is actually deleterious to expect or enforce permanent consensus. A balance between collaboration and antagonism is much more sane, as long as the conversations and web-spinning continue (in an ‘agonistic’ democratic space as argued by Chantal Mouffe1).

1     Mouffe, C. ‘Agonistics. Thinking the world politically’, London: Verso, 2013.

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2     The notion of ‘sustainability transformation’, which has gained some popularity in the field of Sustainability Science, points to radical innovation towards sustainability, i.e. a more disruptive change than what was discussed in earlier sustainability discourses.


H. Van Den Bergh, “Art for the Planet’s Sake. Fresh Perspectives on Arts and Environment”, IETM, Brussels, November 2015.

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06.

resources There is a wealth of resources, publications and articles that develop the arts and environment question. Below is a selection of interesting literature that was used to develop this publication, and will provide you further reading to continue to find inspiration, question arts practice and make change.

Greenpeace, ‘Make IT Green: Cloud Computing and its Contribution to Climate Change’

United Cities and Local Governments, Culture Summit, ‘Culture and Sustainable Cities Final Report’

IFACCA, D’Art Report 34, ‘The Arts and Environmental Sustainability: An International Overview’

UN System Task Team on the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda, ‘Culture: a driver and an enabler of sustainable practice’

Imagine2020, ‘THERE IS NOTHING THAT IS BEYOND OUR IMAGINATION’

IETM’s Fresh Perspectives series - see IETM’s

Julie’s Bicycle, ‘Practical Communicating Sustainability’

Guide:

Artists and Climate Change: Contributions from the artistic community in response to the questions of climate change.

Julie’s Bicycle, ‘Fit for the Future Guide: Investing in Environmentally Sustainable Buildings’

ASEF, Green Guide – Korea, launched 24 November 2015

Julie’s Bicycle, ‘Practical Guide: Audience Travel’

ASEF, Green Guide – Singapore, launched 3 December 2015

Julie’s Bicycle, ‘Practical Guide: Waste Management in Buildings’

ASEF, Connect2Culture, ‘Linking the Arts to Environment & Sustainable Development’

Julie’s Bicycle, ‘Where Science Meets Art’

CERN, ‘Great Arts for Great Science’ (scroll until the bottom of the page - Press pack)

Julie’s Bicycle, ‘Sustaining Great Art: Arts Council Year Three Report’ Mel Evans, ‘ArtWash: Big Oil and the Arts’

Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management (CIWEM), ‘Policy Position Statement, Arts and the Environment’ (browse under ‘Other topics’)

Naomi Klein, ‘This Changes Everything. Capitalism vs The Climate’ Nesta, ‘Selling Sustainability’

Cultura21 is a transversal, translocal network, constituted of an international level grounded in several Cultura21 organisations around the world. Culture(s) in Sustainable Futures – 2015: Conference and main outputs of the process. Emergence, ‘Culture Shift’

Nesta, ‘Galvanising Community-led Responses to Climate Change’ Ressource0: a resource platform on art, ecology and sustainable development, developed by COAL. TINFO, Theatre Info Finland, ‘TINFO News – Sustainability, Resilience and Performace Utopias’

European Cultural Foundation, Idea Camp Green Art Lab Alliance, ‘A selection of funding opportunities for arts and culture projects related to environmental sustainability’

United Cities and Local Governments, Agenda21, ‘Culture – Actions’ United Cities and Local Governments, Agenda21 for Culture, ‘Culture as the Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development’

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publications


SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES 75


The final section is dedicated to the technical part on how music events can reduce their footprint and

become

more

environmentally

friendly.

Sometimes, by just changing our behaviours and habits, we can already foster a sustainable future mentality respecting the environment. This last part includes two guides on different aspects and kind of initiatives to be more environmentally sustainable. We have selected these guides because events and touring have a key role in the music sector but there is much more to look at regarding other processes in the music industry, for example the production of music, music instruments, streaming... 1. “Green Touring Guide: A Guide for Musicians, Agents, Tour Managers, Promoters, Venues and Booking agencies” from Jan Christian Polania Giese and Julian Butz, Green Touring Network. 2. “Tips on how to organise environmentally sustainable events” from the European Music Council in the framework of STAMP Project, Agust/September 2018. 76


Polania Giese, J. C. and J. Butz. (2016). Green Touring Guide: A guide for musicians, agents, tour managers, promoters, venues and booking agencies. Green Touring Network. Link: https://greentouring.net/downloads/GreenTouringGuide_EN.pdf

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Green Touring Guide

A guide for musicians, agents, tour managers, promoters, venues, and booking agencies

Jan Christian Polania Giese Julian Butz

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Polania Giese, J. C. and J. Butz. (2016). Green Touring Guide: A guide for musicians, agents, tour managers, promoters, venues and booking agencies. Green Touring Network.

Text and editing: Jan Christian Polania Giese, Green Music Initiative Julian Butz, kollektif

Project workshop “Green Touring”, Popakademie Baden-Württemberg: Zora Brändle Johannes Dam Anastasia Fischer Vivian Joana Al Jabiri Daniel Lenk Tom Ulrichs

Published by: Popakademie Baden-Württemberg University of Popular Music and Music Business Tina Sikorski Hafenstraße 33 | 68159 Mannheim (Unesco City of Music) www.popakademie.de pws@popakademie.de

In cooperation with: Green Music Initiative c/o Thema1 GmbH kollektif EnergieAgentur NRW

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Polania Giese, J. C. and J. Butz. (2016). Green Touring Guide: A guide for musicians, agents, tour managers, promoters, venues and booking agencies. Green Touring Network.

This guide was written for 

Performers,

Agents,

Tour managers,

Booking agencies,

Promoters,

Venues,

and all persons involved in the organization and execution of a tour.

Chapter legend

Mobility

Venue

Catering

Hospitality

Merchandise

Communication

Quick guide to measures

Low-cost implementation:

1

Quickly realized:

2

High communicative impact:

3

High environmental impact:

4

1

Icons made by Freepik from Flaticon is licensed by Creative Commons BY 3.0 Icons made by Freepik from Flaticon is licensed by Creative Commons BY 3.0 3 Icons made by Daniel Bruce from Flaticon is licensed by Creative Commons BY 3.0 4 Icons made by Freepik from Flaticon is licensed by Creative Commons BY 3.0 2

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Polania Giese, J. C. and J. Butz. (2016). Green Touring Guide: A guide for musicians, agents, tour managers, promoters, venues and booking agencies. Green Touring Network.

Table of contents 1 FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................ 5 2 GET STARTED NOW — SEVEN STEPS FOR GREEN TOURING ...................................................... 7 3 CLIMATE CHANGE AND TOURING............................................................................................ 8 4 BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT THE GUIDE .............................................................................. 10 THE CHALLENGES ................................................................................................................... 10 TARGET GROUPS .................................................................................................................... 11 HOW TO USE THE GUIDE .......................................................................................................... 11 5 BEST PRACTICES: LOOKING AT WHAT OTHERS ARE DOING..................................................... 13 RADIOHEAD – THE PIONEERS .................................................................................................... 13 WE INVENTED PARIS: PIQUENIQUE ACOUSTIQUE FOR THE ENVIRONMENT ........................................... 15 CLUESO – DIY CLIMATE PROTECTION .......................................................................................... 17 JACK JOHNSON – GREEN TOURING AROUND THE WORLD ................................................................. 19 6 SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................................ 20 A SHORT INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT .......................................................... 20 CATEGORIZING AND SELECTING MEASURES ................................................................................... 21 NAVIGATING THE LABEL JUNGLE — HOW CAN I RECOGNIZE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PRODUCTS? ....... 22 HELPFUL INSTRUMENTS – MEASURE AND MONITOR THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF A TOUR WITH CARBON TOOLS .............................................................................................................................. 22 7 MOBILITY ............................................................................................................................. 24 MEASURES: BAND ................................................................................................................. 25 MEASURES: AUDIENCES .......................................................................................................... 27 LABEL ................................................................................................................................. 28 MARKETPLACE ...................................................................................................................... 29 8 VENUE ................................................................................................................................. 30 MEASURES ........................................................................................................................... 31 LABELS ................................................................................................................................ 32 MARKETPLACE ...................................................................................................................... 32

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9 CATERING ............................................................................................................................ 33 MEASURES ........................................................................................................................... 34 LABEL ................................................................................................................................. 35 MARKETPLACE ...................................................................................................................... 36 10 HOSPITALITY ...................................................................................................................... 37 MEASURES ......................................................................................................................... 38 LABELS .............................................................................................................................. 39 MARKETPLACE .................................................................................................................... 39 11 MERCHANDISE & PROMOTION ........................................................................................... 40 MEASURES ......................................................................................................................... 41 LABEL................................................................................................................................ 42 MARKETPLACE .................................................................................................................... 43 12 COMMUNICATION.............................................................................................................. 44 TIPS & TRICKS ..................................................................................................................... 46 MARKETPLACE .................................................................................................................... 49 13 OUTLOOK ........................................................................................................................... 50 14 CREDITS ............................................................................................................................. 51 15 SOURCES ............................................................................................................................ 52

About the authors The Green Touring Guide was compiled by students from the Popakademie Baden-Württemberg in collaboration with the Green Music Initiative and kollektif. It was written in consultation with booking and management agencies as well as representatives of labels. In addition to having written this guide, this group is also the initiator of the Green Touring Network.

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Green Touring Guide | Foreword

Polania Giese, J. C. and J. Butz. (2016). Green Touring Guide: A guide for musicians, agents, tour managers, promoters, venues and booking agencies. Green Touring Network.

1 Foreword Alternatives for climate change On December 13, 2015, the majority of governments worldwide finally agreed on a globally binding climate agreement at the climate summit in Paris, which limits global warming to a maximum of 1.52.0°C (UNFCCC, 2015). It was a move that is as momentous as it is necessary. This demonstrates that it is not only the vast majority of scientists who recognize the fact that climate change is a threat to mankind (BMUB, 2015), but also international politics. Even countries like Saudi Arabia, whose main source of income is crude oil, are on board. This agreement was only possible because there are now viable alternatives to fossil fuels, which are currently the status quo. Remaining with Saudi Arabia as an example: This country sees itself as a future leader in the field of solar energy; after all, its oil reserves will be exhausted at some point. Business as usual is not an option Two surveys initiated by the United Nations and the European Commission show that a large percentage of the world population also views climate change as a threat to their own livelihoods (EU KOM, 2015; WWViews, 2015). Hence, for many people, there is no alternative to combating climate change — continuing as before is not an option. This has resulted in more intensive joint efforts being made to formulate detailed plans and measures, which are in fact being put into action. When doing so, it is important to concentrate on the areas in which most of the greenhouse gases detrimental for the environment are generated. These are: 

agriculture,

the generation of power and heat, and

the transportation sector (Rahmstorf & Schellnhuber, 2007).

What does music have to do with climate protection? The aforementioned climate-related circumstances are not just abstract. Rather, they are a part of daily life both in private routines and when on tour. Just a few minor or major changes can contribute to less greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere and contributing to the global increase in temperature, as well as the resulting environmental catastrophes such as flooding, hurricanes, droughts, and heat waves. So it’s just muesli, tents, and acoustic gigs from now on? Green touring does not mean that from now on, all distances should be traveled by train, all amplifiers be thrown out, all meals replaced with spelt muesli, and that musicians need to sleep in tents. Instead, it means that even with just a few prudent measures in many areas, touring can even become more comfortable for musicians and in some cases cost less and make the live experience more intense for fans (in a positive way!). What we are talking about here are better alternatives! Admittedly, it does take some getting used to, but it’s something that can be done step by step.

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Green Touring Guide | Foreword

Polania Giese, J. C. and J. Butz. (2016). Green Touring Guide: A guide for musicians, agents, tour managers, promoters, venues and booking agencies. Green Touring Network.

The medium is the message Even if all major musicians were to significantly reduce their carbon footprint while on tour, the immediate positive impact on the global climate would still be rather small. After all, the music industry’s emissions in no way compare to those of other sectors, such as the automobile or pharmaceutical industries. So why start here? The strong motivation that led to the compilation of this Green Touring Guide is based on the fact that musicians are prominent role models for many people, or are at least the center of a great deal of attention. If my favorite indie band from the UK has its shirts manufactured in a manner that is fair and ecological, then I as a fan might look closer at the origin of my clothes the next time I go shopping. Naturally, it would be a little creepy if all musicians were to start touring Germany and the world in “Heal the World” fashion, and this is not at all what we are aiming for. Instead, we believe that persons and companies involved in tours are experienced enough to communicate the issue of going green in a manner that is appropriate for each performer. Discreet messages, such as entries in the tour log about tasty regional eco-beer from the Uckermark, can contribute just as much to people in society rethinking their decisions as big gestures, such as announcing that performances will only take place in clubs with green power from now on. The Green Touring Guide With this guide, we wish to point out possibilities and tools for reducing the carbon footprint of a tour and how this can be communicated without being suspected of “greenwashing”. It contains suggestions and inspirations for rethinking the way things are done — and we hope that it will also prepare readers for a music sector that is undergoing a great deal of change.

The authors: Jan Christian Polanía Giese & Julian Butz

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Green Touring Guide | Get started now — Seven steps for green touring

2 Get started now — Seven steps for green touring Drive

•Save gas with the tour bus •Contact the Verkehrsclub Deutschland (VCD) to find the most climatefriendly transportation alternatives

Perform

•Utilize climate-friendly venues •Use greenclubindex.de to find clubs who are actively helping to protect the climate

Eat

•Eat better and go easy on the climate •Modify the tour rider or brief the tour caterer: “We would like seasonal, regional food from organic sources that contains meat/is meat-free/vegan.”

Sleep

Merchandise

Talk

•Climate-friendly accommodations •Make bookings via Bookdifferent.com, sort by CO2 and select the appropriate price/comfort level

•Better stuff •Use only tour shirts that are certified organic/sustainable (e.g. GOTS)

•The most difficult aspect, as it depends on each individual performer •In general: Show what you do, what your plans are, and where you intend to go

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Green Touring Guide | Climate change and touring

3 Climate change and touring Climate change refers to a change in the earth’s climate, regardless of whether this change is caused by mankind or not. Over the past 100 years, the average temperature on the earth has increased by approximately 0.85°C (BMUB, 2015)5. By the year 2100, an increase of up to 6.5°C is expected if nothing is done to counteract climate change.

Carbon footprint of a tour 9%

34%

Venues Accomodation Promo

33%

Merch Audience Travel Band Travel 10% 12% 2%

Figure 1 Carbon footprint of the 2014 We Invented Paris tour (source: author’s diagram)

This would have catastrophic consequences for mankind, and would change the earth as we know it significantly. The expansion of deserts, heat waves, droughts, floods, an ice-free north pole, and the scarcity of water and food would make life on this planet significantly more difficult. It is extremely likely that the increase in temperature is due to a greenhouse effect caused by man (BMUB, 2015). Humans release a large number of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane. This results in the sunlight which is reflected by the earth’s surface leaving the atmosphere only slowly, thereby causing the earth to heat up, like in a greenhouse.

5

Here is a brief overview of the effects of climate change (in German): www.bmub.bund.de/fileadmin/Daten_BMU/Download_PDF/Klimaschutz/ipcc_sachstandsbericht_5_synthese _bf.pdf

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Green Touring Guide | Climate change and touring

Mankind’s greatest influence on the greenhouse effect is via the combustion of fossil fuels during the generation of electricity and heat, as well as through the use of airplanes, cars etc. Furthermore, the production of food in agriculture also plays a significant role (Rahmstorf & Schellnhuber, 2007). Naturally, music itself is not bad for the environment. But at a concert, festival, or on a tour, a large number of aspects are involved that can be detrimental for the climate. As can be seen in Fig. 1, the main sources of emissions are the public traveling to the location and the emissions of the venue itself. In figures, this means that for each individual fan who visits a concert, 5kg of CO2 is generated. For a medium-sized gig, this would add up to a total of around 1.5 metric tons (Siegle, 2012). This corresponds approximately to a one-way flight to New York (Atmosfair, o. J.). To put these figures in a German context: In Germany, 74.4 million tickets were sold (Statista, 2014)for music events in 2013. If we assume that each visitor results in 5kg of CO2, this means that a total of 372,000 metric tons of CO2 were released. This would equal 248,000 flights to New York.

x 248,000

Figure 2 CO2 emissions of one concert equal that of a one-way flight from Berlin to New York. If all concerts in Germany were added up, this would equal 248,000 flights. (Source: Author’s own diagram; calculations: (Atmosfair, o. J.))

Carbon offsetting Climate compensation or carbon offsetting describes the option of compensating for the CO2 emissions of a particular activity at another location in a manner that results in lower financial costs. Hence, a company could purchase certificates that affirm a certain amount of CO2 savings. The proceeds from these certificates are then used to e.g. support reforestation projects. However, because this does not result in lower emissions and the amount of greenhouse gas emissions remains the same, this option is seen as a secondary climate protection measure.

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Green Touring Guide | Basic information about the Guide

4 Basic information about the Guide Environmental and climate protection are already a matter of common sense in the German festival scene as well as internationally6. However, in the touring sector, this is not at all the case: Green touring is still in its infancy. The reason for this was identified in numerous interviews with bookers, event promoters, as well as the musicians themselves. However, the challenges stand alongside a great many opportunities — not only for the environment, but also for tour budgets. Last but not least: Concert visitors could also benefit from this. There are already a few pioneers who have successfully implemented a number of Green Touring measures.

The challenges Fear of high additional costs. “Green touring takes up a lot of time and is expensive to implement.” There are many measures where this is not at all the case. The low-cost measures are labeled as follows: and those that require little time to implement, as such:

Unknown terrain. “Climate protection is a complicated issue, and it's hard to know when to start, if at all.” Man-made climate change is a scientifically proven fact. The most important measures for counteracting it are labeled as follows:

What are the benefits? “What do we get out of it? After all, our main job is to make music!” Relevant economic advantages are possible, but are not the focus of many measures. Instead, the media-related advantages and the boosting of one’s image are more important here. Particularly visible measures are labeled as follows:

Suspicions of “greenwashing” “A performer’s image is always at risk. When we start with green touring and announce it, we’ll have critics breathing down our necks!” With enough transparency and honest communication regarding the actual goals achieved, you knock the wind out of critics’ sails. In order to avoid being labeled as an eco-fanatic (raised green pointing

6

Here is a small selection of green festivals: http://www.greenmusicinitiative.de/best-practise/festivals/ 88

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Green Touring Guide | Basic information about the Guide

finger), customized and smart communication is necessary. This is where the Guide comes in by providing basic pointers and inspiration in the form of case studies.

Target groups Apart from measures which are expensive and difficult to implement, there is also a large number of activities that can be realized with a small or no budget. Hence, the Guide is not only written for bands that play at major venues, but also musicians who make an appearance in smaller clubs.

Performers

Managers

Bookers

Promoters

Venues

Figure 3 target groups of the Green Touring Guide (source: author’s diagram)

How to use the Guide The following explains how the Guide can be used with the help of an example. In the chosen example, a decision is made in favor of a more efficient transportation strategy. Depending on the intention, a number of the steps described can also be skipped.

1. Obtain an overview Examine best practices

Examine scope of measures

Mobility

Venue

Catering

Hospitality

Merchandise

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Green Touring Guide | Basic information about the Guide

2. Plan (with musicians) Which areas to become active in?

Example: Mobility identified as important issue -> Develop implementation plan

Estimate tour footprint

Follow musicians’ interests

Recognize important labels and use as aid

Select climaterelevant areas

Aspects of a personal nature

E.g.: Blue Angel

Find providers on the Marketplace

Use recommended aids E.g. ranking list on fuel consumption for vans

3. Implement & communicate Identify representatives

Book vehicle

Communicate

Consider consumption ranking when choosing vehicle

Where necessary, inform about measures(s) during tour Example: Invest cost savings in “Free Band Shirts” promotion

4. Compare & communicate Communicate success

Calculate savings & evaluate success

€ saved

CO2 reduction

Where applicable, also speak about failures

Plan catalog of measures for next tour Figure 4 Guide design (source: author’s diagram)

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Green Touring Guide | Best practices: Looking at what others are doing

5 Best practices: Looking at what others are doing Radiohead – The pioneers 2007 was a special year for Radiohead: The British band led by singer Thom Yorke not only made a huge impact with their pay-what-you-want model for their album “In Rainbows”, but was also the first major musical act to have detailed CO2 measurements taken of their own tour activities. By doing so, they put the concept of “green touring” on the map for the international media and music creators for the very first time. What initially sparked Radiohead into examining their own ecological footprint were concerts in America where the atmosphere was fantastic, but which almost caused Yorke to permanently discontinue his tours: The front man was fundamentally put off live shows by the many flights, the massive number of fans who arrived by car, and the excessive consumption of resources (Adam, 2006). Fortunately, the band chose to take a much less drastic step instead of completely withdrawing from live tours — namely a green perspective. The first thing Yorke and the Radiohead management did was commission the sustainability agency “Best Foot Forward” with compiling a carbon footprint based on values from previous US tours. In addition to the band and crew, it was also to consider travel to the location and the consumption of visitors, which Yorke predicted to be the biggest factor. The 2003 theater tour (in city centers) and the 2006 amphitheater tour (at isolated venues) (Best Foot Forward, 2007) served as the basis for the evaluation.

Figure 5 Radiohead Live (source: Michell Zappa, Radiohead in Amsterdam, CC-BY-SA-2.0)

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Green Touring Guide | Best practices: Looking at what others are doing

5.1.1 Overview of the results (Best Foot Forward, 2007) • Amphitheater tour: 9,073 metric tons of CO2 (12 shows) • Theater tour: 2,295 metric tons of CO2 (19 shows) • The fans generated 86% of the CO2 emissions of the theater tour and 97% for the amphitheater tour. • The CO2 emissions of the fans resulted mainly from the fact that they arrived en masse by car • Most of the emissions generated by the band & the crew came from traveling • Merchandise & catering accounted for approx. 5% of the emissions • Rehearsal, pre-production, tour setup and equipment barely registered During the course of the data collection, scenarios for future tours were already being compiled, e.g. traveling by ship, domestic travel by train, festivals instead of headliner shows... Which of these were actually implemented? Radiohead went on a concert tour with a comprehensive environmental concept (Triple Pundit, 2008) for the first time in 2008, which they aptly called “Carbon Neutral World Tour”.

5.1.2 Measures: Fan travel • Concerts exclusively in cities/urban areas with good public transportation • Fans were asked to use public transportation (communication via media partners) • Earlier admission for concertgoers with public transportation tickets • Appeal to fans coming by car to carpool • CO2 calculator and information on climate change on online channels and ticket purchase links

5.1.3 Measures: Transportation & shipping • Rental of two local equipment sets (lighting, video, gear) for Europe and America • Use of local rental sound systems for each tour country • Reduction of shipping weight from a former 20 metric tons to one metric ton (only 12 antique guitars and some odds and ends in luggage) • Use of trucks with biofuel and vans with the most efficient machines • Use of the most efficient routes and avoiding crew flights

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5.1.4 Measures: Energy, light & sound • Venues were requested to purchase green power from local providers (many venues switched completely to power from renewable sources due to the Radiohead show) • Retrofitting of light show to 100% LED lighting (called an “LED Forest”); highly praised light show with a positive effect for the band and the environment • Use of local digital consoles, making it possible to save and use plug & play for sound settings, thereby avoiding having to transport the console • Re-using half-empty wireless microphone batteries for non-critical or private use

5.1.5 Measures: Communication • Transparent communication of the motivation, the footprint results, and the green measures via their own channels and third parties (e.g. sustainability blogs) • Inclusion of fans in the issue, thereby sensitizing and encouraging them to change things in their daily lives as well • Educating and including the entire crew, collective celebration of green ideas (“Our light designer Andi Watson took the ecology concept to the maximum!”) With the “Carbon Neutral World Tour”, Radiohead impressively proved themselves to be forward thinkers where green touring is concerned, and proved that entertainment and climate protection can indeed go hand in hand. Although the analytical approach may exceed the means of a great many performers, Yorke’s approach — with a focus on actual CO2 reduction instead of going green for the sake of it — provided important input for the overall live performance market, including for smallerscale performers and agents looking for inspiration on how to contribute to climate protection.

We Invented Paris: Piquenique Acoustique for the environment We Invented Paris is an example of how a local indie band can also take the Radiohead route on a small scale. This performer collective led by Swiss singer Flavian Graber has existed since 2010, and since then has made a name for itself as a creative do-it-yourself cell with unusual concert campaigns such as the “Couchsurfing Europe Tour” or the “Speedgigs” (30 gigs in one day). In summer 2014, the Paris inventors came together with the Green Music Initiative (GMI, 2014) and a student-run project group from the Popakademie Baden-Württemberg to come up with an suitable environmental concept for their live shows. For this purpose, the recently completed “Rocket Spaceship Tour” (35 concerts, 12,000 visitors) was examined closely to obtain a carbon footprint that was as accurate as possible. Subsequently, it was — true to the name of the band — visualized in a diagram shaped like the Eiffel tower.

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5.2.1 Carbon footprint of We Invented Paris:

Promotion Band Travel Accommodation Fan travel Merchandising Venue power

≈ 0.6 t CO2 ≈ 4.1 t CO2 ≈ 3.1 t CO2 ≈ 10.5 t CO2 ≈ 3.6 t CO2 ≈ 10.8 t CO2

Total emissions:

≈ 32.6 t CO2

Per show: Per visitor:

≈ 0.93 t CO2 ≈ 2.7 kg CO2

Figure 6 WIP carbon footprint (source: We Invented Paris)

5.2.2 Almost a metric ton of CO2 per show?! It is hard to imagine how much that is, considering that carbon dioxide is a gas. However, if we assume that one metric ton of CO2 requires a volume of 556.2m3, which corresponds to a cube with sides that are 8.22m long, the scale becomes clear. 32.6 metric tons (total for the We Invented Paris tour) corresponds approximately to the CO2 emissions of a festival lasting several days with 3,000 visitors.

Figure 7 How much is a metric ton of CO2? (Source: Carbon Visuals; Actual volume of one metric ton of carbon dioxide gas, CC BY 2.0)

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Green Touring Guide | Best practices: Looking at what others are doing

5.2.3 Development of a green touring concept Based on the footprint, a sustainable touring concept for We Invented Paris was developed in the next step. The goal was to compile a catalog of green measures which the band could actually put into practice step by step. By the 2014 fall tour, a great number of measures had already been successfully realized. When booking venues, locations from the Green Club Index received preference, and the routing was planned efficiently (no zig-zags, no off days). The technical rider was adapted in all environmentally relevant areas (“green rider). The request for green power and organic catering was very well-received by the promoters! Cooking was done together with fans and there were healthy lunch packages on the road instead of salty snacks. Tour promotion took place almost exclusively digitally, and only small series of posters were printed on environmentally friendly paper. Furthermore, the band’s merchandise was produced under fair conditions — a step that an increasing number of performers are taking that is as social as it is ecological, and one that more and more music fans recognize and appreciate. But how can all this be communicated!? We Invented Paris came up with an ingenious solution to call the rather unwieldy issue of “green touring” to the attention of fans and place it in a positive light: During their appearance at the 2014 Southside Festival, the band invited fans to “Piquenique Acoustique”, a combination of an organic breakfast brunch and an acoustic concert. This spectacle took place on the “Green Camping” grounds of the festival. Farmers from the region provided fruit, vegetables, bread, yogurt, and barbecue ingredients, 500 music fans turned up and listened with rapt attention — and at the same time the issue of climate change was broached and sung about casually, as that was also the day We Invented Paris released their single “Polar Bears”. Climate protection can be fun, too!

Figure 8 Piquenique Acoustique by We Invented Paris at the Southside Festival (source: Daniel Lenk)

Clueso – DIY climate protection Sustainability is unheard of among German performers, you say? Certainly not! Seeed only plays in halls that use renewable energy, Die Ärzte compensates for its emissions with reforestation, and even Philip Poisel and Revolverheld engage in environmental management. One of the biggest German performers for whom climate protection is a matter of course is Clueso. A native of Erfurt, Germany, he and his “family” from the shared apartment in Zughafen deal with this issue with pleasant calm and

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Green Touring Guide | Best practices: Looking at what others are doing

make no big fuss about their green activities. However, Clueso is really a master when it comes to green touring! Starting with the studio, where a great deal was built using recycled materials, to the use of LED lamps (Vogel, 2015) and the climate-friendly cup system: As little as possible should go to waste. Clueso can count on support from his environment, which “reflects a lot on things and attempts to do things in a manner that’s cool” (Clueso). Thanks to the structure at Zughafen, which unites the management, tour management, and ticketing in a single building, innovative ideas can be realized a lot quicker than is the case with other performers, who need to convince one partner after the other of the green idea. This convincing legwork is not necessary with Clueso — here, ecological habits have long since become part of daily touring operations. This becomes clear when you take a glance at the measures that Clueso has been implementing for years. He makes it a point to support local organic catering businesses, consumes mostly vegetarian dishes (and when there’s meat, only the “really good stuff” will do), and even brings along his own cook when on tours, who purchases on-site local ingredients. His stage outfits are tailored by an environmentally conscious designer who works with ecological providers. Even his fan shirts are of the highest quality; they are produced under fair conditions and consist 100% of organic cotton (Loosen, 2015). Printing takes place right in Erfurt. In addition to being sold at the merchandise stand, Clueso products are also sold via Fairtrade stores. Clueso is an ambassador for fair trade and categorically rejects advertisements for “odd companies”. This makes him likeable, just like the fact that he has been collaborating with Viva Con Agua for many years. When it comes to sustainability, Clueso relies on friends instead of large companies. This is where roommates become green consultants. This example shows that you can already do a lot on your own, and that this issue can be brought to fans’ attention even without large-scale campaigns.

Figure 9 Clueso live (source: Andreas Lawen, Fotandi (Own Work), Clueso Rock Am Ring 2015, CC-BY-SA-3.0)

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Green Touring Guide | Best practices: Looking at what others are doing

Jack Johnson – Green touring around the world When green touring is mentioned, the name Jack Johnson is often heard. And not without good reason! For many years now, the singer-songwriter hailing from Hawaii has been going on large-scale tours where the focus is explicitly on sustainability in production. On his homepage, the performer communicates in a detailed fashion which measures were taken and where exactly CO2 was saved (Jack Johnson Music, o. J.).

Figure 10 Jack Johnson live (source: Josh Rhinehart, Jack Johnson, Bonnaroo08 jackjohnson2, CC BY-SA 3.0)

In 2014, Jack Johnson implemented green measures in the following areas: Water: Disposable bottles were completely banned from tour activities and replaced with refillable water dispensers. These were available everywhere. Fans too could bring their own containers and obtain water at water stations free of charge. Trash: The goal of the tour was to produce no trash where possible. Hence, only recycled materials were used. Biodegradable products were composted. Travel: Trucks for the tour were fueled with biodiesel. A “Jack Johnson Ride Sharing” program was created. This encouraged fans to carpool, organize buses, or to travel to the shows by bicycle. Catering: Contact was established with local farmers who took care of catering locally. This made it possible to ensure that the catering provided organically grown food. Merchandise: The merchandise was manufactured completely out of sustainable products, whereby the focus was on using recyclable materials!

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Green Touring Guide | Successful implementation

6 Successful implementation A short introduction to environmental management The best way to have a properly planned green touring campaign is to follow an environmental management process. (However, if you wish to simply browse through the topic or would like to rapidly implement a few measures in a pragmatically minded fashion, simply skip this chapter.) An environmental management system differs from economic management processes solely in its goal. From the perspective of a band/management:

6.1.1 Plan  Obtaining an overview - Where are we now? o Which aspects of a tour result in the most emissions? o Approach: Measure the exact CO2 emissions, e.g. with the help of the IG Tools (see p. 22). o Which environmental measures might the band and others already be implementing?  Determining requirements - Where do we want to go? What do we intend to achieve? o Each person and every performer has his own ideas regarding the environment and sustainability. o Opinions within a band should be discussed and subsequently a summary of the expectations formulated. o Setting goals (including long-term ones)

•Determine emissions •Identify core topics •Plan measures

•Assign representatives •Implement measures

Plan

Do

Act

Check

•Communicate •Set new goals

•Verify implementation of measures •Monitor effectiveness

Figure 11 The environmental management cycle (source: author’s diagram)

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6.1.2 Do, check & act  Assign representatives for certain areas  Implement the measures as planned  No later than by the end of the tour, verify if the planned measures o were in fact implemented o actually achieved their desired effect  Begin communicating o what was done o what worked o where improvement is necessary  Communicate all points internally. Before releasing information to the outside, it is vital that it be reflected on and plans be made on how exactly to communicate it.  Finally: Formulate new goals and/or work on old goals that were not achieved — it is not possible to do everything at once, everything has to be done step by step (Sounds for Nature, 2013)

Categorizing and selecting measures The following chapters introduce a wide range of different measures. However, they differ significantly in terms of their positive effect on the environment and their media impact, as well as in terms of the resources required.

Costs • Time and effort • Savings

Environment

Time

• Relevance

• Time and effort

• Savings

Communication • Visibility

Figures 11 Decision-making spheres (source: author’s diagram based on (Bilabel, 2015))

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Navigating the label jungle — How can I recognize environmentally friendly products? There is a wide range of product labels which differ from each other in terms of quality and informative value. Hence, it is easy to get lost, and sometimes you might not know if what you are doing will even be good for the environment in the end. At the moment, the European Commission is tidying up the jungle of labels as part of a comprehensive initiative7 . However, until that happens, you will need to know how to navigate it some other way. In the individual chapters, selected labels will be presented that, in the opinion of the authors, are highly informative and point out environmentally friendly products. For further information on this topic, please consult the following independent websites: www.label-online.de (operated by the consumer advice center) www.siegelklarheit.de (operated by the federal government).

Helpful instruments – Measure and monitor the carbon footprint of a tour with carbon tools The British environmental organization Julie‘s Bicycle is a pioneer in the field of green touring, and publishes scientifically well-founded reports and guidelines in this area at irregular intervals (Julie’s Bicycle, 2010, 2015c). Furthermore, Julie‘s Bicycle also developed a tool which allows users to easily measure the carbon footprint of a tour or an event: The Industry Green Tool (IG Tool) (Julie’s Bicycle, o. J.). The carbon footprint refers to the total quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generated directly or indirectly during all activities related to a tour. In addition to CO2, there are also other emissions detrimental for the environment generated during various activities. However, they are converted to their equivalent CO2 value. For example, methane is 16x as detrimental to the environment as carbon dioxide, which is why 1 kg of methane is converted to 16 kg of CO 2. This tool, which was originally developed for British bands, offers a good overview of the major emission sources on a tour when used. It also allows multiple tours to be compared with each other and improvements to be displayed, and can be found here: http://www.juliesbicycle.com/services/ig-tools

7

The information provided comes from the environmental footprint initiative of the European Commission, which aims to create more transparency and clarity in the field of sustainable consumption. More info: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-310_de.htm 100

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Figure 12 IG Tool screenshot (source: http://www.juliesbicycle.com/services/ig-tools)

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Tips on how to organise enviromentally sustainable events. European Music Council in the frame of the STAMP project, 2018

TIPS ON HOW TO ORGANISE ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE EVENTS (Document developed by the European Music Council in the frame of the STAMP project)

STEP 1: WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? In a global context of urgency, we tend to be overwhelmed on how to take action and to empower ourselves on how to deal with the various impacts of global warming on earth and on human beings. The impacts of climate change though can be measured and noticed all around the world. Raising awareness on these issues is therefore very important but it is even more important to change the way we work, live and organise events, produce… These guidelines are suggestions on how you can make your organisation and your events more environmentally friendly. There are of course many other ways to get involved in this topic and we do not pretend to be exhaustive but would like to plant a seed in your organisation. You can set the example and raise awareness through your way of working.

STEP 2: MAKE ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY A PRIORITY      

The initiative should be supported by the board and steering committee of the organisation/festival Plan from the beginning some attainable goals depending on what you want to focus on (recycling, eco-friendly catering, advertising for green mobility…) Elect one person in charge of sustainable strategy, who will coordinate the process and will make sure partners and suppliers are also accordingly chosen Analyse all the different actors who will be concerned by this process and how you could use, prevent, guide, choose them: city, venues, audience, participants, artists, exhibitors Analyse what is already done in the organisation or at previous festival editions, where you are starting at (figures from previous festivals) Get in touch with other festival organisations and networks (http://www.powerfulthinking.org.uk/get-involved/)

STEP 3: START IN YOUR OFFICE → Electronical devices    

  

Look for labels when buying electronical devices, ex: EU Ecolabel, Energy Star... Bring your appliances not working anymore to recycling organisations or back to suppliers Use power strips with on/off button and shut down when not using anymore Turn your computer and screen off when leaving the office: try the cake electronic appliances rule (when a staff member forgets to turn lights/computer/screen off, he/she has to bring a cake to the office in the week) Only use USB sticks with high storage space to avoid waste of energy from other inefficient USB sticks Regular cleaning and maintenance electronical devices to improve efficiency and longevity Try to use Energy Efficient Ethernet: reduce power consumption during periods of low data activity

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Tips on how to organise enviromentally sustainable events. European Music Council in the frame of the STAMP project, 2018

→ Emails       

Target your recipient when sending an email: the more recipients the more energy used Delete any attached documents not relevant Prefer the use of hyperlinks or compressed documents Archive and keep only relevant emails Delete and/or directly unsubscribe to any spams/unwanted emails lists/newsletters (ex: unroll.me...) Print emails, attached documents and webpages only when really needed and delete unwanted text Avoid writing emails if you can say it or if no real need

→ Internet use       

Simplify your research on the Internet: prefer to enter directly the URL link then to use a search engine Bookmark the websites you use the more often Use only key words when using a search engine Try to use eco-friendly search engines, ex: Ecosia, Lilo... Limit your use of clouds Try an eco-conception of your website (tools to reduce “Internet pollution”) or green webhosting Make sure the website is accessible for everybody (blind/visually impaired) (tips here)

→ Printer      

Use recycled paper Adjust your printer to print only in black & white (in colour only when needed) and double-sided Use a font using less ink, ex: Ecofont, Garamond, Century Gothic, Ryman Eco, Vera Sans Regular Install timers on printers to ensure shut down during out of office hours Re-use prints made by mistake Think twice before printing

→ Office        

Reduce, reuse and recycle Create/use some guideline for your office Use local office and environmentally friendly suppliers Use tap water instead of plastic bottles Use washable kitchen and toilet handtowels Buy a coffee machine/water boiler to avoid use of vending machines and Fairtrade and organic teas and coffee Stop using disposable straws, coffee stirrers When searching for accommodation use green options

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Tips on how to organise enviromentally sustainable events. European Music Council in the frame of the STAMP project, 2018

         

Try to order local organic fruits and vegetable for staff Stop using plastic plates, cups and cutlery and use reusable items instead Prefer vegetarian with local seasonal products meals Choose cleaning company which uses eco-friendly products Encourage your team to cycle or use public transport to get to work Use recycle paper and font using less ink (Ecofont, Garamond, Century Gothic, Ryman Eco, Vera Sans Regular), black & white, double-sided Re-use prints made by mistake Give directives on how to produce less electronic waste (delete unnecessary emails, internet research (type directly your website address instead of using a browser, use an eco-friendly browser...) Create some clear guidelines to be sent to the different actors in the festival (staff, suppliers, venues, partners, participants…) Buy healthy snacks and seasonal fruits for staff

STEP 4: CHOOSE PARTNERS, SPONSORS AND SUPPLIERS → Partners    

Partner up with a bicycle company (offering bike rental to participants) Try to get free public transportation or interesting discounts for you participants during your events/festival Get in touch with local organisations to see how you can recycle and/or produce less waste Choose eco-friendly venues (using less energy): give green guidelines for lights/stage/ energy use (ex: http://greener.liveperformance.com.au/uploads/pages/10/design_guide__energy_efficient_stage_lighting.pdf) Involve local council : for eco-friendly incentives

→ Sponsors  

Think of a guideline to give to sponsors: use eco friendly/recycled material, use local sponsors, ask to use less packaging or negotiate with them so that they take back their packaging Use less goodies and only really useful ones (pocket ashtrays, set of reusable cutlery, one good water bottle, travel kit, dry tooth paste, other possible examples here: https://www.objets-decommunication-responsable.com/goodies-ecologiques-pour-une-communication-responsable/) If visibility is needed for sponsors: use creative ways of marketing (stamp food, create a stand with activities, photo booth...)

→ Suppliers 

Give guidelines on how to send in a sustainable way material to be exposed (connect exhibitors from the same city with each other, try to use less flyers and plastic goodies -> raise awareness)

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Tips on how to organise enviromentally sustainable events. European Music Council in the frame of the STAMP project, 2018

   

       

Choose an eco-friendly printing company Use catering which respects environment and use reusable cutlery, local food, less meat - select a catering agency with eco-friendly standards Partner up with an organisation to buy (if needed) cutlery or put into place returnable glasses (easy to be featured by sponsors) Partner up with an organisation in coordination with the caterer, which will get the extra food and redistribute it to a charity or stop food waste organisation/ negotiate with the caterer on what to do with extra food Use reusable decoration: upcycling, rent decoration Use eco-friendly organic toilets (http://www.pootopia.co.uk/facilities/) & recycle compost waste Choose sound & light company according to your guidelines (less energy consumption) Buy in bulk Choose a cleaning company which uses eco-friendly products Choose an eco-friendly stage designer and recycle all material used for the stage Use preferably badges made out of cardboard and lanyards made out of bamboo or recycled material Do not offer any disposable straws, coffee stirrers, plastic cutlery, plates or cups

STEP 5: COMMUNICATE WITH ALL PARTICIPANTS/AUDIENCE        

Label things: i.e switch off the light when leaving, turn off your power strips (use power strips with on/off button) Recycle (plastic, paper, waste, glass) & trash for cigarette butts in all areas of the festival (festival grounds, catering area, staff offices, backstage, venues…) Provide boxes to give back badges and use reusable badges and other reusable items from the festival/event not needed for participants Try to spot eco-friendly hotel and restaurants for guest tips Put some tips in programme book on green mobility (car sharing, public transportation, cycling), accommodation, food Make water fountains for tap water available: toilets are not a good option for water bottle refill as water bottles often don’t fit under the tap Promote green technical/hospital rider from artists (ex from Julie’s Bicycle here .These are requests and /or suggestions of artists to the event organisers mainly for the backstage and electricity needs.) Advertise for car-sharing services, train, bicycle and avoiding taking the plane

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Tips on how to organise enviromentally sustainable events. European Music Council in the frame of the STAMP project, 2018

INSPIRED BY https://www.greenit.fr/ http://ecoinfo.cnrs.fr/ https://greenyourfestival.ie/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/guide.pdf http://www.lecollectifdesfestivals.org/collectif/download/fiches_pratiques/Fiche%20D%C3%A9marche%2 0DD%20Avril%202018.pdf https://zerowasteeurope.eu/public-sector-resources/ https://www.zerowastefrance.org/publication/mon-evenement-zero-waste/ https://www.thebalancesmb.com/going-green-ideas-for-the-office-2948097 file:///Z:/other_projects/Sustainability-Project/Working-the-Tweed-Little-Green-Book.pdf file:///Z:/other_projects/Sustainability-Project/Green_Music_Guide_2009.pdf file:///Z:/other_projects/Sustainability-Project/mon-evenement-zero-waste.pdf http://www.powerful-thinking.org.uk/get-involved/ https://issuu.com/mattwicking/docs/greeningthearts http://www.powerful-thinking.org.uk/site/wp-content/uploads/The_Show_Must_Go_On_Nov-2015.pdf https://www.juliesbicycle.com/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=ce38148f-6f3d-4366-a383-035d64a6ed85 https://www.juliesbicycle.com/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=67a31863-5070-4595-beb0-ec324960120f https://www.juliesbicycle.com/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=5a15108f-a3a4-4425-b483-2561fdb1a23d https://www.juliesbicycle.com/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=f3951ef1-2286-4616-b511-7a1ed0f937c4 file:///Z:/other_projects/Sustainability-Project/The%20Guide%20To%20A%20Greener%20Festival.pdf http://greener.liveperformance.com.au/uploads/pages/10/design_guide__energy_efficient_stage_lighting.pdf Websites found in August & September 2018

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SHIFT: Shared initiatives for training on the SDGs, Environmental Sustainability https://shift-culture.eu/achieve-environmental-sustainability-in-your-work/ The Powerful Thinking Guide: Smart Energy for Festivals and Events, 2017 http://www.powerful-thinking.org.uk/resources/powerful-thinking-guide-2017/ The Powerful Thinking Guide: The Show Must Go On, environmental impact report and vision for the UK festival industry, 2015 http://www.powerful-thinking.org.uk/site/wp-content/uploads/ TheShowMustGoOnReport18..3.16.pdf The Powerful Thinking, Fact sheets http://www.powerful-thinking.org.uk/resources/fact-sheets/ A greener festival, Knowledge base https://www.agreenerfestival.com/knowledge-base/ Making Berlin clubbing greener, Deutsche Welle, 2019 https://www.dw.com/en/making-berlin-clubbing-greener/a-47412968#:~:text=Berlin's %20politicians%20and%20clubs%20are,by%20the%20year%20of%202050. This is What Climate Change Sounds Like, Knvul Sheikh, The New York Times, 2020 https://nyti.ms/2K42afX European festivals unite to create greener future, IQ Magazine, 2020 https://www.iq-mag.net/2020/05/european-festivals-unite-to-create-greener-futuregex/ Musicians "have to be proactive" on Climate Change, BBC News, 2019 https://www.bbc.com/news/newsbeat-50485444 Ben's Strategy Blog: The pain and pleasure of long-distance rail journeys, Creative Carbon Scotland, 2020 https://www.creativecarbonscotland.com/long-distance-rail-journeys/ Fields of Green: Towards sustainable Scottish music festivals, 2016 https://www.creativecarbonscotland.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/CCS-FOGguide-FINAL.pdf Green Orchestras Guide: a simple guide to sustainable practices, Julie's Bicycle, 2011, https://juliesbicycle.com/resource-green-orchestras-guide-2011/#:~:text=A% 20practical%20and%20basic%20guide,work%20to%20marketing%20and%20rehearsals. Benkeser, C. (2019). "Without energy and labour, no streaming can happen". Interview to Kyle Devine. SPEX https://spex.de/kyle-devine-decomposed-a-political-ecology-of-music-interview-english/

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Baumanns, L. (2020). Nachhaltigkeit im Konzert-Touring: Definition relevanter Indikatoren und Entwicklung eines Use Case Diagramms für ein Tour Management Tool. Bachelorarbeit: Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin. https://www.pachamamaculture.com/academics Juillet 2020. Partage d'experiénces éco responsables dans le secteur des musiques actualles. Le diagnostic environnemental et quelques actions du project DEMO. https://demo-europe.eu/fr/le-diagnostic-environnemental-demo/ Sharp, G. (2020). Responsible music and digital technology, the transition is still to come. AuxSons - Musiques & Vibrations du Monde. https://www.auxsons.com/en/focus/responsible-music-and-digital-technology-thetransition-is-still-to-come/?doing_wp_cron=1605531400.8398740291595458984375

FEATURED PROJECTS TO THE EFM ONLINE SERIES AEC Goes Green: https://www.aec-music.eu/about-aec/news/aec-goes-green-statement-on-aec-andenvironmental-sustainability Bozar's focus on climate issues: https://www.bozar.be/en/activities/165371-gallery-of-futures Cluptopia with Livekomm, member of Live DMA: https://clubtopia.de/ Going home, from Live Music Now Scottland: https://www.creativecarbonscotland.com/resource/case-study-going-home-with-livemusic-now/ Take the Green Train, Europe Jazz Network: https://www.europejazz.net/activity/take-green-train Tree Opera from the Latvian National Music Council: https://vimeo.com/371366285

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Conference Reader 2020  

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