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ISSN 1868-5943

February 1 / 2015 C 44346

it EU R G, B OFISH a russe t l

Denmark A fishermen’s guild slowly overcomes steep odds Projects: The Marine Lipids Network Aquaculture: Robot cage cleaning system tested in Croatia Technology: How Global Information Systems make fishing safer is a member of the FISH INFO network


World seafood trade and investments – major expansion ahead Seafood products are among the most widely traded commodities in the world totalling USD 125 billion annually. By 2022 FAO forecasts global seafood demand to expand by 20 million tons supplied mainly from fish farming, requiring massive investments of around USD 100 billion. This opens up huge opportunities for private sector projects and funding. NASF is the world’s largest seafood business conference and a leading meeting place for top-executives. Get insights into vital trends and developments forming the future of the industry…. Meet key global decision makers from industry, capital markets and policy sectors.

10 years of Inspiring the Industry North Atlantic Seafood Forum (NASF), Bergen Norway, March 3-5, 2015 NASF CONFERENCE IS HELD IN BERGEN – THE WORLD MARINE CAPITAL

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In cooperation with

In this issue

Denmark’s ambitious plans to boost growth The Danish seafood sector is multifaceted, comprising a significant fishing sector for species for human consumption, an industrial fishery, farmed fish production, the manufacture of equipment for all parts of the sector, as well as seafood processing companies. The sector is responsible for some 11 of Danish food exports in value and employed 8,400 people in 2013. The sector plays a disproportionately important role in some of the more isolated coastal and inland communities in Denmark, where it is sometimes the only source of employment. The continued development of the sector is therefore not only desirable, but also necessary if these communities are to survive and thrive. The Danish government has therefore commissioned sector representatives to formulate a growth plan for the sector that will make it more competitive and better prepared to meet the challenges of the future. See more on page 48 Bosnia and Herzegovina: The fisheries sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina is comprised mainly of artisanal and recreational fisheries in marine and freshwater with a modest production of farmed fish. The country is blessed with abundant resources of high quality freshwater which could be used to increase the production of farmed fish. The country exports seafood primarily in the form of fresh fish on ice and mainly to the EU. The rest of the production is sold to fishmongers, supermarkets, and restaurants. There is plenty of scope for the sector to develop further, however it will call for reforms to improve efficiency, build capacity, and promote investments in the field. Read more on page 50 Functional foods: Although the idea is an old one the term functional foods is relatively new. It generally refers to foods that have been enriched with nutrients that give the consumer benefits over and above the intrinsic value of the food itself. Seafood has a number of valuable nutrients that can be isolated, concentrated and added to other products so that they too can offer some of the health-enhancing benefits that seafood offers. While some argue that functional foods enriched, for example, with nutrients derived from seafood, are an inadequate substitute for eating seafood itself, in some circumstances it may be the only way to obtain these nutrients, such as in cases where they are used to compensate for nutritional deficiencies, problems brought on by lifestyles, reduced tolerance for certain foods, or for therapeutic reasons. Read more about seafood’s use to enrich food products on page 32 Treating emissions from fish farms: Aquaculture is set to grow exponentially over the next 15 years. While much of this growth will take place in Asia, production in Europe is also expected to grow. One of the reasons for the stagnation in European farmed fish output is the strict environmental criteria that need to be followed. These, among others, relate to the discharge of waste from the farm into the environment. Most of this waste is in the form of nutrients, that is nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, which can cause excessive plant growth in the water courses into which they are emitted. This can cause damage to the ecosystem and reduce biodiversity and is therefore strictly controlled. Fish farming is the source of nitrogen and phosphorus-based pollutants primarily from uneaten feed and fish excretions. There are different methods of removing these pollutants from the water depending also on the kind of system that is used to cultivate the fish and the sediment that is left can also be used for different purposes. Read Dr Manfred Klinkhardt’s article on page 25 Shrimp is one of the most highly produced and traded seafood products in the world today with centres of production in Asia, and Central and Southern America and markets in the EU, the US and Japan as well as other countries. Shrimp is mainly farmed but significant volumes of wild shrimp are also produced and traded. Shrimp is cultured or fished in freshwater, marine, and brackish water and is available in a number of different product forms making it one of the most versatile commodities. Read more on page 56

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


Table of News 6 International News

Events 14 FEAP annual conference shows way forward for aquaculture industry

15 Tenth North Atlantic Seafood Forum, Bergen, 3-5 March 2015 Predicting tomorrow’s trends today

Projects 18 The Marine Lipids Network Putting fish by-products to better use

Fisheries 20 First volume of a comprehensive work on North American freshwater fishes Learned, yet accessible to all

Aquaculture 22 New indoor project brings shrimp farming to Latvia Organic, live shrimp for Riga market

23 Water discharge from aquaculture – Waste or resource? Making good use of nutrients benefits the environment

26 New net cleaning robot, Yanmar NCL-LX, tried out in Croatian cages Mechanised cleaning offers several benefits

Processing 29 Fish and seafood as functional food Compromise between fast food and balanced diet?

Denmark 33 The growth plan for Danish sheries and aquaculture Industry, authorities, and research together can foster growth


Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

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Contents 38 Thorupstrand Kyst skerlaug explores all avenues to succeed Fishermen’s guild is critical to the local community 41 AquaPri overcomes the odds to produce pike-perch A product for discerning clients 44 Dybvad Stül Industri has a new product Plate freezers now for continuous freezing 46 Konsumfi sk brings together stakeholders in three harbours Closer cooperation will help the whole community

Bosnia Herzegovina 49 Fisheries and aquaculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina Rich resources could be better exploited

Technology 53 Geospatial technology in the fishing industry Mapping hazards for greater safety

Trade And Markets 56 Shrimp market report EU, US increase imports in 2014 58 Fishmeal and fish oil market report Prices touch record highs in 2014 as supply lags demand 59 Lobster, salmon, pangasius see renewed interest from American consumers Seafood providers adapt to consumer trends and global supply

Fish Infonetwork News 60 News 61 Events

Worldwide Fish News

Guest Pages: Dr Audun Lem



6, 7, 10, 11



6, 8









65 Diary Dates




66 Imprint 66 List of Advertisers








10, 12

62 Collaborating with organisations and stakeholders makes for more effective implementation Reaching out beyond fisheries and aquaculture


9, 11, 13 13 Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015




sea bass A Danish trawler caught more than expected, when fishers aboard pulled up an unexploded bomb in their nets. A mustard gas bomb originating from World War II and measuring 90 cm was caught in the Baltic Sea near the island of Bornholm, just south of Sweden. A bomb disposal team was called in to handle the deadly catch and following its removal a thorough

cleaning of the boat and the cargo was made to ensure no contamination. The bomb was resunk in a marked area just 1,2 km from Nexø. The southern Baltic Sea is well known for its tens of thousands unexploded bombs sunk at the end of World War II. Being an attractive fishing area, fishermen come into contact with the corroding bombs causing serious injuries.

Belgium: Latvia is first country to have EMFF programme adopted The European Commission has adopted a key investment package for the Latvian fisheries operational programme worth almost EUR184 million, including EUR139 million of EU investments. The package seeks to enhance the competitiveness, sustainability and viability of the sector in Latvia. The programme aims to more than treble aquaculture production, and to increase net profits for fishermen without compromising sustainability. Karmenu Vella, Commissioner for Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, said “sustainability runs through the heart of this programme. With this investment, much needed jobs and growth can be

created in the Latvian fishing industry” Projects that limit the impact of fishing on the marine environment, ensure the balance between fishing capacity and available fishing opportunities, and promote environmentally sustainable aquaculture will be supported through the package. The programme will also foster marketing and processing as vital parts of the fisheries industry. This EMFF investment will be instrumental for Community Led Local Development by creating employment opportunities and promoting social well-being and cultural heritage by sustainably capitalising on Latvia’s environmental assets.

Investments worth EUR184mwill increase sustainability, competitiveness and create jobs in the Latvian fisheries and aquaculture sector.

Belgium: Package of measures to save sea bass stock The European Commission has announced measures to prevent the collapse of the declining sea bass stock. Immediately effective emergency measures will place a ban on targeting the fish stock by trawling during the spawning season, which runs until the end of April. The pelagic trawling ban is a critical first step in this package of measures. Pelagic trawling at this time is estimated to reduce the spawning stock by 25, which endanger the rebuilding of the stock. The measure will therefore come into force immediately and last until 30 April 2015. It will apply to the the Channel Islands, Celtic Sea, Irish Sea and southern North Sea. Other measures will limit the number of fish anglers may catch to three fish per angler per day, and set a minimum size of 42 cm.

The European Commission has announced a package of measures to protect sea bass Emergency ban on pelagic trawling of sea bass during spawning season (until the end of April) n

The Irish Sea

The North Sea The Celtic Sea The Channel Islands Complementary measures will be proposed to manage recreational fishing and limit catches by all other commercial fisheries in coordination with

The United Kingdom




Pelagic trawlers endanger sea bass during the spawning season (when they are most vulnerable) account

If the fishing of sea bass during the spawning season continues, the stock’s future will be jeopardised


Sea bass

a stock in decline 20










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Sea bass is one of the most valuable fish on which many fishermen, especially small fishing enterprises, depend. Recent scientific analyses have reinforced previous concerns of unsustainable fishing advising urgently a substantial reduction in fishing. International scientific bodies have called for an 80 reduction in catches to turn the situation around. Following a lack of agreement between Member States since 2012 on coordinated and effective measures to protect this important stock and another lack of agreement of EU ministers in December’s Fisheries Council, on 19 December 2014 the UK made a formal request to the Commission to take emergency measures. The Commission then consulted the Member States involved and analysed the scientific evidence available. On the basis of discussions with all Member States and based on the scientific evidence the Commission has taken its own decision. The Commission has previously taken such emergency measures to protect vulnerable stocks, most recently with anchovy in the Bay of Biscay.

The Netherlands

The European Commission will put forward a proposal to the Council

SSB n 1000 t

Denmark: An explosive catch

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015 Fi he ies

n 2012 n recreational fishing

[ NEWS INTERNATIONAL ] Belgium: EU ďŹ shing eet performance improves The European Commission’s Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) has published its 2014 Annual Economic Report on the EU fishing fleet. The report points out that the fleet has become increasingly fuel

efficient thanks to the use of more fuel efficient fishing gear, reductions in the fleet, and changes in fishing behaviour. Compared to 2008 fuel use intensity decreased by 10 in 2012. The fleet generated EUR6.9bn in revenue in 2012.

The most important venue for the aquaculture industry

How is the EU ďŹ shing eet doing? The proďŹ tability of the EU ďŹ shing eet has gradually improved over the period 2002-2012












improved that of the small-scale segment deteriorated. For the fleet as a whole employment fell by 2 a year from 2008 to 2012. Wages however increased over the same period. The entire report can be downloaded from


The EU ďŹ shing eet: facts & ďŹ gures


This was less than in 2011, but costs declined even further, so the economic performance in 2012 was an improvement over 2011. However, this was not uniform over all fleet segments. While the large-scale and distant water fleet performance











GVA (Gross value added)/Gross tonnage index of 2002 ďŹ gure

fuel crises n 2003 and 2008 based on a sample of national eets

3 different types of eets 86,283 vessels

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EU small scale coastal eet

EU large scale eet

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16% 8%

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11% 16%

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More value with less landings


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Top countries for value of landings

Top countries for ďŹ sheries jobs





23% 19% 18% 11%





15% 13% 13%

Energy consumption The EU eet’s fuel consumption has decreased This is mainly due to changes in ďŹ shing practices and the introduction of energy saving technologies (more environmentally friendly ďŹ shing gear etc ) 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012

1 474 1 479 1 416 1 302 1 237

Ene gy consumpt on n millions of litres of fuel based on a sample of nat onal eets Scient fic Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) The 2014 Annual Economic Repo t on the EU Fishing Fleet 2014 Pub ications OďŹƒce of the European Union Luxembourg ISBN

Italy Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ NEWS INTERNATIONAL ] Denmark: Sustainability, quality, food safety drive Danish seafood exports The Danish Agriculture and Food Council have just published a report showing increased demand from abroad for cod, shrimp, and other species, reports Fiskeri Tidende. As a result Denmark has maintained its position as the largest exporter of seafood in the EU, a title that belonged to Spain until 2012. Seafood is a fragile commodity and requires good logistics, traceability, and food safety. Denmark is at the forefront in these areas, which maintains the high demand for Danish seafood, according to Chief Economist Thomas Søby, of the Danish Agriculture and Food Council. Another reason is the strong demand for the MSC (Marine Stewardship Council)

label. Three fourths of Danish seafood is certified to the MSC standard, which guarantees sustainable fishing. Demand for the MSC label is growing everywhere and being able to deliver sustainable products drives exports. As an example, several supermarket chains in Germany require that their seafood is certified, says Tine Hansen Due, Communications Manager at MSC Denmark. In the first 10 months of 2014, Danish seafood exports increased 4 (EUR 84m) compared to 2013. Export volumes grew 6 in the same period so that exports of seafood now make up 13 of all food exports, overtaking Danish dairy exports.

Denmark 14,3% Others 20,4% Spain 12,8%

France 5,3% Poland 5,9%

Netherlands 12,6%

UK 8,1% Germany 8,4%

Sweden 12,3%

Main seafood exporters in the EU in 2013 (Eurostat).

Denmark: BSAC to focus on Landing obligation and multi-species management plan The Baltic Sea Advisory Council (BSAC) held its Executive Committee meeting on 27 January 2015 at the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries in Copenhagen. The event was attended by 17 members and a number of observers. The Secretary of the BSAC, Ms Sally Clink, presented the programme of work for 20152016. The two main areas of focus are the implementation of the landing obligation in the Baltic and the introduction of a multi-annual multi-species management plan for the Baltic fish stocks.

Status on implementation of the landing obligation in the Baltic Sea Selectivity in the cod fishery and the implementation of the landing obligation (LO) are key issues for the BSAC. National fisheries representatives were therefore invited to give information on how the LO in the Baltic is working. In Denmark 8

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

the LO has been implemented for demersal fisheries, but there are problems due to incoherent legislation. Frustration over having to kill small fish and bring them ashore, only to have to throw them out was raised. With large numbers of cod at this time of the year, this increases the mortality of the juvenile stock. From Sweden it was reported that most fishermen accept the LO, but it is hard for small-scale fishermen due to the great distances in Sweden and poor infrastructure. Estonian fishers had raised questions about what to enter into their logbooks and answers from the ministry had not been clear. Germany specified that although having received information from the authorities, fundamental questions remained unanswered and the veterinary rules were not clear, and this was having a negative effect on the sector. The Polish representative said that there had not been enough time to prepare for the LO and that neither the fishermen

nor the administration was ready. The frustration felt by the fishermen was undermining confidence and he called for guidelines for the fishermen and for the inspectors. It was concluded that it was in the interests of all to make the LO work and the BSAC would highlight the main issues towards the ministries and politicians who were not taking responsibility.

Projects on cod assessment, results-based management, and well-being of fishermen As part of the meeting BSAC invited several speakers to discuss various topics. Marie Storr-Paulsen (DTU Aqua) presented information on eastern Baltic cod saying that recruitment of cod was good, but that growth was an issue and this related to a change in diet and poor availability of food. Another important factor was the number

of seal parasites using cod as a middle host. And a final element concerned discards, but for the time being no information was available on the effect of the two new regulations in the Baltic: the landing obligation and changing the MCRS (minimum conservation reference size) of 38 cms to 35 cms. Possible short-term solutions to the growth issue were to look at the parasite infection, to examine stomach data, and to estimate seal predation. A more long term consideration was to carry out a parasite study of the captured cod. Clara Ulrich (DTU Aqua) presented encouraging results from the MINIDISC project which is experimenting with results-based management with free gear choice and full documentation of catches with e-Log and CCTV under the landing obligation. Results so far were limited, but there were signs of creativity e.g. the design of a panel to allow flounder to escape. Thus

[ NEWS INTERNATIONAL ] the project was looking successful already and there was also great interest in finding out how fishermen arrived at decisions on gear use and development. Stefan Neuenfeldt (DTU Aqua) introduced INSPIRE – the spatial ecology of herring, sprat, cod, and flounder. The project debunks the assumption that the sea is homogenous and instead takes into account the spatial heterogeneity

of the Baltic as well as the dynamics of fish stocks over time. Looking at regional recruitment of fish stocks may yield information that global recruitment cannot provide. One question the project aims to investigate is whether migrations contribute to observed changes in stock distribution; it would appear that they do not and that the current hypothesis is that there is no active redistribution of adult cod in the Baltic.

Finally Jørgen Møller Christiansen (Researcher at the Center for Maritime Health and Society, University of Southern Denmark) introduced a recently completed study into the health and well-being of fishermen in Denmark. This, first-of-its-kind project, interviewed fishermen and hosted focus groups getting both positive and negative feedback. Issues raised by the fishermen included: improvement of the work environment, reducing occupational

accidents, control, regulation, and fishing quotas, discard policy, the development of fishing gear, to create a hotline for fishermen, and – an important point – to do something about generation renewal. Presentations from the meeting and additional information are available on the BSAC website: temModule&id=2275&kind=4&pag eId=1106

Spain: Government collaborates with industry and NGO’s to combat illegal fishing in West African waters Illegal fishing and piracy have increased off the coast of West Africa over the past few years, even as they decline off the coast of Somalia. Now the Gulf of Guinea has become the piracy hotspot, accounting for 19 of attacks

worldwide, as recorded by the International Maritime Bureau. This number does not necessarily include the amount of pirate fishing taking place in West African waters. Illegal, Unregulated, and Unreported (IUU) fishing has

become rampant in this region and threaten fish stocks as well the livelihoods of millions who depend on fish as income and a critical source of protein. The Spanish Directorate General of Fisheries Management (Secretaria

General de Pesca), the Producers Association of Large Tuna Freezers (Organización de Productores Asociados de Grandes Atuneros Congeladores OPAGAC), and the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) recently signed a

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Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ NEWS INTERNATIONAL ] Memorandum of Understanding to implement a new joint project allowing the Spanish government to track and monitor fishing vessels operating in West African waters more effectively. Beginning November 2014, the project

will supply Spanish fishing vessels with surveillance technology that will make it possible to monitor vessels suspected of IUU and other illegal activities. The EJF has been working closely with governments in the region, and European

governments through their Fisheries Intelligence Network (FIN) to ensure that sanctions are imposed for IUU activities, to ensure that illegally-caught fish does not reach markets, to improve transparency in fisheries and to

identify trends across the region to inform good decision-making practice. The identities of the vessels involved will not be made public in an effort to guarantee confidentiality, and to not jeopardize any surveillance efforts.

Norway: Significant rise in salmon escapes The significant rise in salmon escapes from farms in western Norway in the first month of 2015 instigated a “crisis meeting” attended by the Norwegian Minister of Fisheries Elisabeth Aspaker, reports Undercurrent News. The number of reported incidents for salmon escapes in Western Norway was nine for

January, whereas the government expected zero escapes. Due to strong storms on 10-11 January more than six salmon farms had reported escapes, estimated at around 120,000 salmon and trout. The incident is being investigated by Norway’s Fisheries Directorate, who reported that approximately 110,000 of the

Norway and EU agree on 2015 North Sea quotas After lengthy discussions took place in Clonakilty, Ireland, the EU and Norway have reached a bilateral agreement on 2015 management of shared stocks in the North Sea. TAC’s for cod, haddock and plaice have increased from 2014 levels by 5, 7, and 15 percent respectively. However, the TACs for saithe and whiting have been reduced by 15 percent, with a small reduction for herring in the same area. European Commissioner for

Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Karmenu Vella welcomed the agreement: “This arrangement grants both EU and Norwegian fishermen valuable access to fish stocks, provides much needed stability to our fisheries sector, and strengthens our important relationship with Norway on fisheries”. Increases in North Sea cod allowable catch is welcomed by many stakeholders as the fish is highly sought after.

escaped fish comprise of sterile triploid salmon from Fyllingsnes Fisk and of rainbow trout from Sjotroll Havbruk, which do not pose a genetic danger to wild salmon. However, rainbow trout is an alien species to Norway, and there is evidence that they could damage spawning grounds of wild salmon and sea trout.

The Minister of Fisheries described the escapes as “tragic” and acknowledged the industry’s lack of resistance to such storms. Discrepancies in how fisheries companies organise the re-catching of escaped fish have been also observed. Partly as a result regulations governing re-catching fish and of fines for escapes will be reviewed.

Latvia: EU funds expected to help treble Latvian aquaculture production The European Commission has adopted a key investment package for the Latvian fisheries and aquaculture sector worth almost EUR184 million, including EUR139 million of EU investments, reports FIS. The package seeks to enhance the competiveness, sustainability and viability of the sector in Latvia. The programme aims to more than treble aquaculture production, and to increase net profits for

fishermen without compromising sustainability. Projects that limit the impact of fishing on the marine environment, ensure the balance between fishing capacity and available fishing opportunities, and promote environmentally sustainable aquaculture will be supported through the package. The programme will also foster marketing and processing as vital parts of the fisheries industry.

Belgium: Database of commercial designations to be launched at SEG The European Commission is planning to hold special sessions on the new rules for labelling of fishery and aquaculture products for EU consumers at this year’s

Seafood Expo Global, in Brussels from April 21-23. Information on market issues including sanitary rules, labelling, and consumerrelated information will be at

the heart of a presentation by the European Commissioner for Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Karmenu Vella, on 22 April, which will also include

unveiling a new database of commercial designations for fish and aquaculture products. The European Commission can be found in Hall 7 – Stand 1411.

Mediterranean: Aquaculture of predatory species effecting wild fish stocks Since 1950 aquaculture in the Mediterranean has grown substantially. Today the mix of farmed fish in the Mediterranean looks very different from a few decades ago, with seabass and seabream dominating production for many countries including Greece and Turkey, which are the two largest producers in the region. This is a shift from herbivorous finfish 10

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

and shellfish species, which traditionally require fewer marine resources to cultivate. Since seabream and seabass are predatory fish they require wild fish to be caught, mostly pelagic, to be used as feed. This shift in production is known as, “farming up the food chain”. The cultivation of seabass and seabream can significantly affect wild stocks of small prey

fish and is known to require more inputs of wild fish, than a farmed seabass or seabream’s wild counterpart would consume. Demand for fish feed is set to increase as fish even higher up the food chain, like the greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), are being explored for farming in many Mediterranean countries. Larger proportions of oil and plant material are being

added into aquafeed, to decrease pressure on wild fish stocks, however, this may affect the predatory fish’s growth rates, and increase the cost and time of production. It is thought that increasing production of lower trophic level finfish like grey mullet, will decrease pressure on wild fish stocks, and aid in using marine fish resources for aquaculture more efficiently.

[ NEWS INTERNATIONAL ] Spain: Galician mussel industry concerned by new EU labelling rules Galician mussel farmers and raft fisherman have become uneasy as new EU regulations threaten the industry. On 12 December 2014 new EU rules allowing packaging of mussel to refrain from mention of the species or country of origin came into effect, and just a little over a month later the biotoxin chemical control method was implemented. The Galician Mussel Regulatory Council depends on the Protected Designation of Origin, because of the premium associated with fresh Galician mussels, and partly blames the cannery industry in supporting the label bans, in order to import cheaper mussel from Chile, and other countries. The biotoxin

method will also impact the sector’s interest in Galicia, and instead the regulatory council advocates for continuity of mouse bioassays. According to the Association of Mussel Fishermen from Combarro and Raxó, Amecrona, Secretary Suso Castiñeiras, the new rules of the common organisation of fishery and aquaculture markets make it possible to hide the origin of processed or preserved mussels from third countries. He noted, that this harms consumer’s rights and interests, and favours companies using foreign mussel products. The Galician mussel sector is likely to take a knock, when the name Galicia is taken off the label for many of their products.

Belgium: FEAP recognises Želimir FiliLJ for his contributions to aquaculture The Federation for European Aquaculture Producers (FEAP) presented their award for Excellence in European Aquaculture to Želimir Filiü at their president’s meeting in Brussels on 2 December. Mr Filiü, was nominated by a jury composed of previous award winners, for his dedication to the development of technology for fish and shellfish farming, and contributing to the economic growth of Europe’s aquaculture sector. After graduating from university in the 1970’s Mr Filiü started work at the Ruÿer Boškoviü Institute, Centre for Marine Research in Rovinj, Croatia investigating spawning

and juvenile development of seabass and seabream. Soon after, Mr Filiü developed a prototype hatchery and cage facilities, which would later be used for some of the first mariculture facilities in Europe. Želimir Filiü to this day is still making contributions to Europe’s aquaculture sector and is an active member of many recognised national and European associations of aquaculture. FEAP warmly welcomed Mr Filiü’ nomination recognising him for excellence and his commitment to the development of aquaculture in the Mediterranean.

Visit us at Seafood Expo North America (Boston), 15–17 March 2015, Booth 1375

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ NEWS INTERNATIONAL ] Mexico: Offshore Mariculture goes abroad Following five successful European events the 6th Offshore Mariculture Conference 2015 will be held in Baja California, Mexico on the 9-12 June 2015 and will bring industry professionals together to network, discuss topical issues and exchange information and ideas on the business of offshore fish farming. Following the two and a half days of technical presentations and discussions,

delegates will have the opportunity to visit a number of offshore fish farms and experience their inner workings first hand. In the coastal lagoons of Baja California aquaculture is recognised as an activity of strategic importance for the economic, social and regional development, encouraging productive diversification, the creation of permanent sources of labour and the production

of high nutritional quality food. The programme will include sessions on: the latest international and national (Mexican) developments in offshore aquaculture (including legislation, policies, research and strategies); Business management (including permits, financing, marketing and Spatial Planning/Integrated Coastal Zone Management); Species – what to farm; Stock management

and husbandry (including fish welfare, feeding strategies, stock and health management); Innovative technologies (including harvesting and processing, cage engineering, offshore facilities, containment facilities, moorings, feed systems, cages and netting.) Further information about the conference organised by Mercator Media can be found on:

Latvia: Fish processors’ exports to Western markets expand In 2014, the turnover of the Latvian fish processing industry increased 5 compared with the previous year, Didzis Smits, President of the Latvian Fish Processing Industry Union reported to BNS. “This has been achieved due to the increased exports to Western markets. The export growth is led by the company Karavela,

while export volumes to traditional Eastern markets remain at last year’s level,” said Smits. At the same time he acknowledged that fish processors are also negatively affected by a decline in value of the Russian rouble and the geopolitical situation. He stated that in the current

situation it is important not to think about profit, but to maintain market position until it stabilises. Smits pointed out that since the country’s independence, the Latvian fish processing industry has experienced a number of serious crises on the Russian market. He also admitted that the current

Russian crisis has not affected the industry as hard as the global crisis in 2009. The Latvian Fish Processing Industry Union has eight members with a total turnover exceeding EUR 140m in 2013. The same year production and export volumes increased 12 compared to 2012.

Italy: Event on implementation and socio-economic impacts of CFP On 28-30 April 2015 the 22nd Conference of the European Association of Fisheries Economists (EAFE) titled “New management issues within the reformed Common Fishery Policy: implementation and socio-economic impacts” will be held at the University of Salerno. The conference, organised by the Department of Economics

and Statistics Sciences at the University of Salerno and the research organisation, Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics Research (NISEA), is intended to provide a forum to disclose recent advances in capture fisheries and aquaculture economics and management and to promote discussion amongst researchers, managers, policy makers, and

other stakeholders in the fisheries sector. The conference aims to promote cooperation in research in fisheries and aquaculture; to assist in the dissemination of information about fisheries economics; and to broaden understanding of the economics of fisheries and aquaculture. Keynote speakers will include Christopher Costello Bren School,

UC Santa Barbara and National Bureau of Economic Research, Audun Lem, Deputy Director, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, FAO, and Ernesto Penas Lado (European Commission DG-MARE Director of the Directorate A, Policy development and co-ordination). More information is available at www.eafe2015.

Lithuania: Atlantic salmon deleted from Red List The abundance of salmon is determined by river pollution, dam construction and the intensity of fishing in the Baltic Sea and along migratory pathways. This fish’s natural habitat is the Baltic Sea, the Curonian Lagoon and in the rivers of Nemunas, Neris, Žeimena and Šventoji. In the 50s the stock of Atlantic salmon in Lithuania began to decrease. As a result, it was included in 12

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

Lithuania’s Red List in 1981 and a programme of maintenance, restoration and enrichment of the stock was carried out by the Fisheries Service under the Ministry of Agriculture. Since 1998 EU and Lithuanian budgetary resources have been used for the breeding of fish, and for the protection of fish spawning areas and the improvement of fish migration conditions. Since the start of a

salmon restocking and protection program in 1998, the salmon population has improved remarkably. Fifteen years ago the salmon population in the Nemunas River basin was estimated to be 4-5 thousand individuals. Thanks to the conservation initiatives, the stock has been restored to a level that allows recreational fishing, and in 2013, more than 21,000 licenses were issued.

Valdas Geþys, the Fisheries Service Head of Division of Pisciculture said that the recent deletion of salmon from the Red List of Lithuania does not indicate the termination of the breeding and growing of salmon. The release of at least half a million of salmon (and seatrout) fingerlings into inland waters will continue over the coming years to keep the stock stable.

[ NEWS INTERNATIONAL ] Vietnam: Government sets new standard for pangasius farms Commercial aquaculture in Vietnam will need to comply with international or VietGAP standards by the end of 2015. Vietnamese authorities feel that this certification is crucial to develop sustainable aquaculture practices and mitigate harmful impacts from production as well as to increase product value

and promote export activities. Commercial fish farms may only be established in pre-approved planning areas and must also register their yield with supervising agencies. The new certification scheme requires higher levels of safety, especially in the cultivation of farmed pangasius, a catfish species, in addition to

the requirements already set by importing markets. Pangasius destined to become frozen fillets will only be permitted to use inputs, such as chemical additives, feed, and fingerlings, that are approved by Vietnamese law. Training courses provided by the Directorate of Fisheries, under the Ministry of Agriculture and

Rural Development have taken place over 2014 to help farmers comply with VietGap standards. Last year, pangasius production in Vietnam reached 1.1 million tonnes from a farming area of 5,200 hectares, mostly in the Mekong Delta region. More than 90 per cent of world exports of pangasius originate in Vietnam.

Spain: Shellfish to prolong the life of vegetables and fruit Chitosan, a polysaccharide, or polymeric carbohydrate, is derived by treating shrimp shells and exoskeletons of other crustaceans with the alkali sodium hydroxide. Chitosan has previously been used in agriculture as a seed bio-pesticide, helping to fight off fungal infections and in medicine as an antibacterial agent. The Biomat

Research Group from the University of the Basque Country in San Sebastián, Spain has recently published a study showing chitosan can be used to prolong the shelf life of fruit and vegetables. Results of the study showed that carrots sprayed with or dipped into a chitosan-based gel coating, delayed microbial spoilage without causing

unfavourable impacts on the quality attributes. The “shellfish coating” actually added positive effects to colour and texture when compared to uncoated samples. The chitosan gel coating is obviously edible, tasteless, and so thin that it is unnoticed during consumption, but gives the products a slight wet look and has the advantage

of self-repairing holes where the gel coating is rubbed off. The best results for shelf life extensions were reached when chitosan was combined with existing MAP (Modified Atmosphere Packaging) technologies. The complete study can be found here: S0925521414002671

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



FEAP annual conference shows way forward for aquaculture industry Confidence in culture was the theme at the third edition of FEAP’s annual European aquaculture event, Aquaculture in Motion, which was co-organised with FEFAC, the European Feed Manufacturers’ Federation in December. To satisfy consumer and society’s expectations of European aquaculture, the sector knows that it must provide confidence in the professional activity and its products, adapting to change and investing in new tools for production, management and innovation. Over 90 participants from 18 different European countries attended the event.


he meeting was opened by Mathieu Bergé, responsible for aquaculture in the Aquitaine Region, the FEAP President, Arnault Chaperon, and Niels Alsted, chair of FEFAC’s fish feed committee. Lowri Evans, Director General of DG Mare made a keynote introduction highlighting that the EU will continue to do all it can towards putting the framework in place to provide the business conditions and the support that will encourage growth and jobs in European aquaculture.

Industry needs to shape the debate on aquaculture The aquaculture industry has many positive messages to communicate. For example, fish farming is the most environmentally compatible way of meeting the world’s growing demand for protein. It plays a fundamental role in fighting poverty and malnutrition and is the only way to provide an increasing global population access to a healthful source of protein. The industry needs to become much better at getting these and other positive messages across to consumers and the organisations that influence consumer opinion, said Arnault Chaperon in his intervention, so as to improve the image of the industry and 14

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Over 90 participants from 18 different European countries attended FEAP’s annual European aquaculture event, Aquaculture in Motion, which was co-organised with FEFAC, the European Feed Manufacturers’ Federation.

to counter messages that denigrate the sector. A better image may in turn lead to better prices. For example, wild seabass was twice the price of the farmed variety in 2013, a difference that Mr Chaperon attributed partly to the image of the farmed product. His point was further substantiated by Véronique Ehanno from the French Interprofessional Committee for Aquaculture Products, who emphasised the need for the industry and its communication campaigns to shape the debate on aquaculture and not to appear defensive.

Consumer research in France has shown how 80 of the consumers in a sample were as likely to buy farmed fish as wild (the remainder eschewed farmed fish). The need therefore is to make farmed fish more visible, not only with positive messages in the media, but physically – on store shelves, at fishmongers, and in restaurants. Later, during the final session, the importance of positive communication was reinforced by Gilles Doignon of DG MARE who spoke about the EU’s aquaculture promotional campaign ‘Farmed in the EU’.

Science is key to improving outcomes The second session addressed the issue of confidence in European aquaculture: confidence in product safety, in feed safety, in environmental issues and in welfare. Catherine McManus from Marine Harvest presented the numerous safety measures that are used in the farming of salmon showing how levels of contaminants (dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs, and mercury) have fallen by approximately half over the eight years to 2013 and are well

[ EVENTS ] within the threshold level in even the strictest market. Similarly, antibiotic use has dropped thanks to better husbandry practices and improved vaccines, and in terms of grams per tonnes of live weight, antibiotic use in the company is substantially less than, for example, in the livestock industry. Lower usage of antibiotics has positive implications for the environment. Neil Auchterlonie of CEFAS (UK) showed that confidence in environmental issues is gained from a combination of a legislative

framework, a science- supported evidence base and a voluntary approach by the industry. Finally, Nancy De Briyne from the Federation of European veterinarians explained the main welfare issues and the challenges of measuring and monitoring welfare.

Reduce the administrative burden to foster growth In the third session Niels Alsted discussed the ongoing developments

within the fish feed industry and the challenges that still need tackling, notably on ingredients. Javier Ojeda from Apromar (Spain) provided a farmer’s perspective on certification and responding to the consumer’s choices. Nikos Zampoukas from DG RESEARCH explained the EU research programmes related to aquaculture, giving specific examples, and Lara Barazi from Kefalonian Fisheries (Greece) noted the lack of systematic market studies and consumer surveys and the role of the EU in

communicating its positive values and principles. Richie Flynn, IFA, closed the meeting by stressing that sustainability is the driver and, increasingly, the selling point of the EU aquaculture industry and its products. This conference has shown how the aquaculture sector has become self-aware, responsible and educated but that the legislators need to recognise this and take the measures necessary, notably on simplification, to foster growth.

Tenth North Atlantic Seafood Forum, Bergen, 3-5 March 2015

Predicting tomorrow’s trends today This year, the North Atlantic Seafood Forum, the seafood industry’s premium business conference, can celebrate a decade of its existence. The event has grown steadily over the last nine years attracting ever greater numbers of senior industry executives and offering an increasingly ambitious programme of sessions, panels, and side events covering the entire gamut of ďŹ sheries and aquaculture-related issues.


he seafood industry is at a crossroads. In the EU, the world’s biggest market for seafood, the introduction of the reformed Common Fisheries Policy in 2014 and the new European Maritime and Fisheries Fund has created a sense both of anticipation and of frustration. Globally, over the last two decades, demand for seafood has accelerated as societies become more prosperous and increasingly aware of the benefits of seafood consumption. Production from capture fisheries has plateaued, while aquaculture output, which is forecast to overtake capture fisheries in 2014, has risen steadily though at a slower rate in the last decade than the one before. Overfishing is still an enormous

challenge with recent studies showing that stocks of species at the top of the food chain, tunas and swordfish, are at 10 of their 1950 levels. Stopping and reversing these developments calls for responsible fisheries management at a regional and global level. At the same time, fishing and aquaculture provide millions with livelihoods, and billions with a source of valuable protein. These are just some of the broad, and occasionally contradictory, developments that are affecting the sector.

Seafood matters in the EU Some of these topics will be discussed at the 2015 edition of the

North Atlantic Seafood Forum, where the overarching theme, Global seafood trade and market access - Seafood in a new geopolitical role, directly alludes to at least one of the most important

trends in the seafood industry today – the growing trade in seafood. Appropriately enough, given this theme, the conference will be opened this year by Guus Pastoor, leader of the EU Fish

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Attendees at the tenth edition of the North Atlantic Seafood Forum can look forward to an exciting programme as well as multiple networking opportunities.

Processors and Traders Association (AIPCE-CEP), an organisation that represents European seafood processors and traders. The federation promotes the need for stable and predictable access to imported raw materials to maintain the supply of seafood to EU consumers. Imports form the backbone of the industry in the EU accounting for 63 (8.9m tonnes) of the total market supply. Imports of whitefish make up an even higher proportion of the total whitefish supply at 89, a figure that has remained unchanged since last year, according to the latest edition (2014) of the Whitefish Study produced by the association. Apart from supplying fish to the market, the sector, which employs thousands of people and generated a turnover 16

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

of EUR29bn, plays an important economic role in the EU. While seafood is clearly an important part of the EU economy, its impact at the global level is conceivably even greater. According to the FAO 55m people were engaged in capture fisheries and aquaculture, while small scale fisheries employed 90 of the world’s capture fishers in 2010. Seafood, the FAO has calculated, represents almost 17 of human protein supply, and with its nutritional profile of healthy fats, high protein content, and essential micronutrients, even small quantities can stave off malnourishment among poor and vulnerable populations. In December 2013 FAO and the World Bank together with other partners released a report with

projections on developments in the global fisheries and aquaculture sector by 2030. The projections show that total food fish consumption will be highest in China followed by Southeast Asia and Europe and Central Asia. Major net exporters of fish are projected to be Southeast Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, China, and India, while North America, Europe and Central Asia, and Japan are expected to be the biggest importers, much as they are today. Europe and Central Asia will have the biggest share of global demersal net imports, while China will dominate salmon and North America, shrimp. More information about the seafood trade in 2030 will be provided by Arni Mathiesen, Assistant Director General of the FAO, in his address.

Stakeholders working together can secure the industry’s future The first session of the conference will also include presentations on marine research and its importance for the development of the aquaculture and fisheries industry, by Tore Nepstad, CEO, Institute of Marine Research, Norway. Already three years ago the country identified the importance of knowledge as key to the development of the marine sector including the seafood industry. Closer collaboration between the different actors in the seafood sector, industry, researchers, equipment manufacturers, ancillary service suppliers, as well as local administrations, and financial institutions will be needed to ensure its future development.

[ EVENTS ] The session will conclude with a presentation by Simon Jarding, Director, Royal Greenland, and Chair International Cold Water Prawn Forum, on the outlook for coldwater prawns (Pandalus borealis), a species that has seen steep reductions in quotas and catches since 2004. Canada and Greenland are the world’s biggest producers of this widely traded commodity. As in previous editions of the conference, there will be sessions dedicated to salmon, whitefish, pelagics, as well as sustainability, and finance, some of which are held in parallel. The salmon session will include a forecast on markets and prices by Lars Liabø, Chairman, Kontali, a company that specialises in data analysis for the fisheries and aquaculture sector. Market research specialist Jean Jacques Vandenheede from Nielsen will analyse consumer trends to see whether demand for salmon will continue to grow in the face of high prices. And another presentation, by Borge Prytz Larsen, Director, Severnaya Compania, Russia, will examine the postembargo market for salmon in Russia, which, until the embargo, was the biggest customer for Norwegian salmon.

Sustainability is a key theme Sustainability will be the theme of one of the sessions at which Lahsen Ababouch, Director, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, FAO, and Rupert Howes, CEO, MSC, among others, will make presentations. The emphasis on sustainability is driven by the need to ensure fish supplies in the future especially considering the world’s growing population and the increasing demand for fish. The retail sector too, in particular the supermarket chains, is playing a role by increasingly demanding fish from sustainable sources, partly in response to pressure from NGOs. Fisheries in many countries are seeking sustainability certification in response; in Denmark, for example, the fisheries associations’ aim is to have all fisheries certified as soon as possible. The whitefish session will look at supply of capture and farmed whitefish, as well as markets, while the concurrent pelagic session will focus on supply and markets for the pelagic industry. This session will also look at the developments in the production and markets for fishmeal and fish oil. Despite the increased use of

alternatives these are still two of the most important components of fish feed, which in turn is currently the single highest cost in farmed fish production. How prices for fishmeal and fish oil develop will therefore influence the aquaculture industry. In the FAO World Bank report referred to earlier, global fishmeal production in 2030 is projected to increase by about 8 to 7,600m tonnes compared to 2010. While traditional production areas in Latin America and Europe are expected to still be the largest producers the main production growth will come from other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, China, and Africa. China, Southeast Asia and Europe are projected to be the largest consumers of fishmeal in 2030 and in China this use will be almost exclusively for aquaculture. Price projections suggest that there will be a significant increase in prices of fishmeal and fish oil and the use of these commodities is therefore expected to be restricted to high value aquaculture and livestock products. On the other hand the projections also show that aquaculture production will become less and less dependent on fishmeal as plant-based alternatives and more efficient feeding practices develop. So while

production of feed-dependent species is projected to grow rapidly to 2030, fishmeal production is expected to stay more or less flat. Each year the North Atlantic Seafood Forum offers something new on its programme, and this year is no exception. On 3 March, the first day of the event, a leadership seminar will bring together industry leaders, consultants, a recruitment agency, and academics to address young people about the prospects and challenges they can expect in the industry. Starting the event with a seminar addressed at young people is an acknowledgement that the future of the seafood industry lies not only in the availability of resources and markets, but equally in the hands of tomorrow’s leaders. For more information about the event visit

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ PROJECTS ] The Marine Lipids Network

Putting fish by-products to better use Danish researchers and fish processors have got together to form a network that will investigate the potential of adding value to by-products from the processing industry. The ambition of the network is to deliver five project ideas worth an estimated DKK38m a year by 2018.


ats from marine sources are well known to have health benefits thanks primarily to the presence of omega-3 fatty acids, but mono-unsaturated fatty acids are also emerging in this area. Among adults the consumption of these molecules is associated with lower risks of mortality from coronary heart disease, and they are important for brain and neural development during gestation and infancy. Omega-3 fatty acids are associated with positive effects on several other medical conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, mental illnesses, as well as inflammatory diseases and cancer. As awareness of these benefits has spread it has spawned a growing industry of nutraceuticals and functional foods that provide alternate ways to ingest these fatty acids.

Multiple sources of fish oil Fish oil is traditionally extracted from low value pelagic species that are rich in oil, but are not used for human consumption. Catches of these fish vary from year to year depending on climatic conditions and the state of the stocks, so volumes and prices of the fish oil tend to fluctuate. About 80 of the global fish oil production is used in the production of feeds for aquatic and terrestrial animals, while the rest is used in the production of nutraceuticals for human consumption. Another source of marine lipids is krill, the common 18

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name for a group of about 85 crustacean species, found in the Antarctic Ocean. Fish oil can also be extracted from the waste and by-products generated by the fish processing sector, a source that is increasing in importance as processors seek ways to increase both profitability and sustainability. In Denmark, Sara Kobbelgaard from the Danish Technological Institute has just won funding from the Danish government to establish a marine lipid network that will bring together fish catching and processing companies as well as research organisations to investigate ways of deriving more value from the by-products and waste generated by fish processing. The objective of the network is to produce five ideas for projects that will use some 10 of the approximately 90,000 tonnes of fish by-products in 2012 released by the Danish herring, mackerel, trout, and salmon processing industries, to create a value of DKK38m annually by 2018. The network aims to create a competence community that will identify barriers and business perspectives and the potential for development within marine lipids. The network will work on different aspects such as improving the production processes, getting a better quality product, understanding the market for these fats, and seeking new uses for them in the fields of nutrition, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.

Finding ways of adding more value to fish waste Today by-products from fish processing, says Dr Kobbelgaard, are sold mainly to mink farmers who use it to feed their stock, or they are sold to the feed mills, where they are turned into meal. In the network the objective is to find other alternatives which will give a price for these by-products that is better than the one that is currently achievable to increase sustainability. The different byproducts will be analysed for relevant partners to find out, what lipids they contain and how much they potentially are worth. Quality parameters will also be studied to understand how best to treat the product in order to get the most return. Some oils produced from by-products can be very good with regard to some parameters and

very bad with regard to others, so this is also something that will need to be investigated. A network structure, Dr Kobbelgaard feels, allows all the participants to put forward their points of view and to discuss the problems and issues that affect each partner. Since the network represents companies from the entire value chain, each with its own set of concerns, the issues are perceived from different angles giving a more credible and robust understanding. The Marine Lipids Network will have a two-year lifespan and has been supported by the Grønt Udviklings- og Demonstrationsprogram, (Green Development and Demonstration Programme) under the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. For more information contact Sara Kobbelgaard,

Sara Kobbelgaard from the Danish Technological Institute leads the Marine Lipids Network.

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HEALTHY FOOD We provide our international customers with healthy, nutritious, high-quality pelagic fish such as Herring, Mackerel, Horse mackerel, Blue Whiting, Silver Smelt, Sardine, Sardinella, Sprats and Sandeel.

RESPECT FOR ENVIRONMENT We use sustainable production methods with a relatively small ecological footprint.

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[ FISHERIES ] First volume of a comprehensive work on North American freshwater fishes

Learned, yet accessible to all The first of a planned three volumes on North America’s freshwater fishes is a detailed study of the species within the families Petromyzontidae (lampreys) to Catostomidae (suckers). The book focuses on similarities in the species’ morphology, behaviour, and genetics and their physiological peculiarities, among other aspects. Despite the complexity of the subject, the clear language and superior illustrations make this a volume for scientists, students, and fish enthusiasts alike.


iven the rather unexceptional title of this book – the first of three volumes – a lot of people will probably dismiss it as just another catalogue of species (dozens of which are already on the book market). But a closer look soon reveals that this book is completely different from what one might expect (or even fear) on reading its brief title. It combines the accuracy and complexity of an academic book with the meticulous completeness of almost monographic species descriptions. And all this in a didactically excellently prepared presentation that everyone can understand! The freshwater fish presented are not, as is unfortunately often the case, merely illustrated and superficially described based on appearances, but brought close to the readers in their biodiversity. With a few exceptions, the taxonomic chapters of this book always follow the same pattern. It is less about the geographical distribution and distinction of the different species within the families, but focuses more on their similarities in morphology and ecology, family relations, typical behaviours and aspects of reproductive biology. The environmental requirements of the individual taxa as well as genetic and physiological peculiarities are also addressed comprehensively. The chapters of the book were written by 23 acknowledged ichthyologists and professional scientists working in teaching and 20

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

research at prestigious universities and institutions in North America. This is evidenced by the 125-page bibliography which lists over 4,000 scientific articles, books, and other sources, including several publications of the authors involved. The references to further reading make this book a valuable source of information for those who want to go into more detail or who are themselves working on the presented fish families. Although the book is, of course, concerned only with North American fish species and families – Petromyzontidae (lampreys), Dasyatidae (whiptail stingrays), Acipenseridae (sturgeons), Polyodontidae (paddlefishes), Lepisosteidae (gars), Amiidae (bowfins), Hiodontidae (mooneyes), Anguillidae (freshwater eels), Engraulidae (anchovies), Cyprinidae (carps and minnows), Catostomidae (suckers) – it provides a wealth of valuable information for fish specialists and enthusiasts in other regions of the world, too. As an encyclopedic work, it sets new standards in terms of density and meticulous precision, and it deals with scientific content in understandable language.

This small criticism should not, however, in any way detract from the significance of Freshwater Fishes of North America. It can not only be recommended to biology students, scientists and naturalists, but also without any reservations to anyone who is in any way interested in or enthusiastic about fish. Let‘s hope that the next two volumes will be published as soon as possible to complete this impressive work. MK

Freshwater Fishes of North America Volume 1: Petromyzontidae to Catostomidae Edited by Melvin L. Warren, Jr., and Brooks M. Burr Illustrated by Joseph R. Tomelleri John Hopkins University Press, 2014. 644 pages, ISBN-13: 978-14214-1201-6 (hardcover), ISBN-13: 978-1-4214-1202-3 (electronic), price 64.50 EUR

Although this praise also applies in principle to the book’s visual presentation and design, a distinction has to be made here between the outstanding drawings of fish illustrator Joseph R. Tomelleri and some of the photos (e.g. top of page 417) that do not quite meet these high standards in some passages.

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[ AQUACULTURE ] New indoor project brings shrimp farming to Latvia

Organic, live shrimp for Riga market A shrimp farming project is currently underway in Riga, Latvia, producing high quality organic shrimp in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS). The project was launched in May 2014 and uses an intensive biofloc RAS. This system recirculates 100% of the water and has zero discharge, causing no negative effect on the external environment and ensuring the quality of organic shrimp production. shrimp farming project is currently underway in Riga, Latvia, producing high quality organic shrimp in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS). The project was launched in May 2014 and uses an intensive biofloc RAS. This system recirculates 100 of the water and has zero discharge, causing no negative effect on the external environment and ensuring the quality of organic shrimp production.


and the technology it uses is based on know-how and innovation. One of the factors that also contributed to the decision to start the indoor shrimp farm was the huge demand for shrimp and the increase in shrimp prices. In addition, the reduced global supply of shrimp due to Early Mortality Syndrome provides Mere Shrimp Farms with a competitive advantage in the form of a higher demand for organic and sustainable shrimp.

Gints Dzelme, the founder of Mere Shrimp Farms, says that the concept of the intensive indoor shrimp farm originated from his 15 years of professional experience in the water treatment business. Having participated in various aquaculture projects during the last seven years, Mr Dzelme searched for opportunities to set up an aquaculture project himself. Consumer awareness of the advantages of organic, locally-produced shrimp was an important factor in his decision to implement the project – an indoor intensive shrimp farm, using biofloc technology and 100 water recirculation.

Since May 2014, the company has successfully run a pilot project – an intensive, indoor shrimp farm in Riga. Although the project is still at an early stage, it is now expecting its first harvest of three hundred kilos (25-30 g each) of whiteleg shrimp. Production will be two tonnes of whiteleg shrimp yearly once it starts producing to capacity.

High tech cultivation is more efficient than conventional production As well as being a more sustainable farming method, the farm is also easier to run compared to a conventional farm due to its automated monitoring and management systems. The farm 22

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

Chemical-free production – a unique selling point Mere Shrimp Farms offers locally cultivated, live, organic shrimp produced without the use of antibiotics, preservatives or chemicals and are available all year round. The main customers of Mere Shrimp Farms are private individuals, restaurants, catering businesses and special seafood stores. The company also sells live shrimp from the farm. Live shrimp is delivered to restaurants and using their specially equipped tanks the shrimp can be kept fresh

Mere Shrimp Farms has started a production of organic whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in a recirculation system.

and live for up to two weeks without impairing quality. The future vision of Mere Shrimp Farms is to expand and sell their production in Tallinn and Vilnius. The price of Mere Shrimps Farm

is €49 per kg including taxes. Although it might seem relatively high, for example, in Italian local fish markets, the best locally caught shrimp costs around €60. Iveta Zvinklyte,

Mere Shrimp Farms Lutrinu street 1 LV-1002 Riga Latvia Tel.: +37129425870

Founder: Gints Dzelme Product: Organic whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) System: Recirculation aquaculture Product form: Live shrimp (25-30 g) Volumes: Two tonnes per year (estimated) Market: Riga Customers: Retail, HORECA, private individuals

[ AQUACULTURE ] Water discharge from aquaculture – Waste or resource?

Making good use of nutrients beneďŹ ts the environment When evaluating the environmental sustainability of aquaculture operations water consumption and water discharge quality are important criteria. Today water usage is governed by more or less strict rules almost everywhere in the world. For aquaculture, this often means the obligation to clean and treat the water discharge in such a way that natural ecosystems remain unaffected.


ater is essential to aquaculture: it is used for farming fish and other aquatic organisms and then returned to the cycle of nature. During the course of its use the water is contaminated with various substances that can reduce its quality and pose certain risks to ecosystems and to our drinking water. The effluent from fish farms is in no way comparable with effluents from industry or from car washes, however, because it mainly contains nutrients, mostly nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. That is to say exactly the same pollutants as are discharged into many rivers and lakes from agriculture during the fertilization of arable land and as a result of livestock. If too much nitrate and phosphate gets into the water this leads to over-fertilization and then eutrophication

with excessive plant growth. This does not only damage the ecosystem but can also have a detrimental effect on biological diversity. Externally visible signs of such changes include increased silting of water bodies and mass development of microalgae, known as algal blooms or “red tides� (this term comes from the brown or red coloration of the water during algal blooms, often caused by dinoflagellates), which are even sometimes toxic and can cause mass mortality of fish. In contrast to agriculture, where nutrients mostly diffuse into neighbouring water bodies and are thus difficult to quantify and rarely assignable to specific polluters, the monitoring of the water discharge from aquaculture facilities is relatively simple. There can be considerable

Raceways, such as those used by this hatchery in Turkey, need far more water than closed recirculating systems.

differences between individual aquaculture enterprises, however, depending on the type of fish produced, location, size, and intensity of production. Some facilities get their water from surface water, mainly lakes or

rivers, others use groundwater that comes from a spring or is pumped up from the depths. Net cages, which are “open systems� that interact with the environment are to be evaluated differently from traditional farming in

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Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ AQUACULTURE ] ponds that require little water to replace evaporation and seepage losses. Raceways need far more water than closed recirculating systems, whose water is treated after use and can be used several times. Maintaining healthy water quality in natural aquatic ecosystems is a primary goal of national and European legislation. That is why effluent quantities and nutrient loads are mostly subject to official regulations, compliance with which is checked regularly.

Pollution of water discharge mainly consists of nutrients Water discharge from aquaculture facilities mainly contains nitrogen and phosphorus-based nutrients that come from fish excrement and uneaten feed. These occur both in dissolved and solid (particulate) form. In addition, however, it may still contain other substances and impurities – although usually in very small amounts, for example, parasites, bacteria, fungal spores and other microbes, or possibly chemicals that are sometimes used at the farms. These include detergents and disinfectants for removing algae and microbes from equipment, nets and tanks, or narcotics with which the fish are sedated during transport or handling. And pigments, vitamins and minerals from the feed that dissolve in the water can also sometimes be detected, or medicaments, including antibiotics if they were used for treatment of diseases in the fish. Which of these contaminants and how much of them enters the water depends on several factors, for example on the composition of the feed, the species and size of fish, but especially on the type and intensity of production and the biomass of the fish 24

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

population. The larger the biomass of fish per cubic metre, the more feed is administered daily, the more the fish excrete and the higher is usually the level of water pollution. Despite high

ponds. However, these terms can be misleading, because the “selfcleaning” capacity of a raceway is limited to the rapid and continuous discharge of dissolved and particulate nutrients which

Aquaculture discharges the same nutrients into the environment as agriculture and livestock farming fish densities, however, the concentration of impurities in the water can be relatively low. If a farming facility operates a raceway with a high density of fish and large amounts of water flowing through it there will often be less impurities in the water than in systems that produce a relatively low quantity of fish but with less water. When estimating an aquaculture operation it is thus necessary to view the total load of pollution that it causes in natural waters. To compensate for possible environmental damages many states impose wastewater charges that are generally based on the substances that are released into the environment and the damage classes to which these belong. It is hoped that the resulting cost pressure will motivate the polluters to seek effective and inexpensive water treatment techniques. The indicated correlations between fish density and feed quantity, water throughput rate, degree and concentration of water pollution already indicate how difficult it can be in each concrete case to find and implement purification processes that are both efficient and cost-effective. In practice, a distinction is often made between systems that are “self-cleaning” such as raceways or circular tanks, and systems that are not. This latter group includes, for example,

prevents their sedimentation in the raceway and thus the threat of oxygen depletion. This does not, however, mean that the pollutants have disappeared from the water or that the water had as it were “cleaned itself.” In contrast, in “non-self-cleaning” systems particles of excrement and uneaten feed settle on the bottom as sludge and are not removed until the ponds are cleaned. Until then, however, a considerable part of the sedimented particulate nutrients dissolves again and can cause algal blooms.

Technical options for reducing water pollution The efficiency of many water purification processes depends largely on the amount of time that elapses between the moment the contaminants (e.g., uneaten feed, the fishes’ excrement, excretion of ammonium through the gills) are released into the water and their transport to a wastewater treatment facility. As long as the nutrients and other contaminants are still present in particle-bound form they can be relatively easily and completely removed from the water. An elegant and relatively inexpensive method for concentration, thickening and elimination of nutrients is to use settling tanks that can be built in different ways. The basic idea behind these purification systems is to pass polluted

water from the fish tanks into a separate tank where it will remain until the coarse and fine particles have settled to the bottom and can be removed. The effectiveness of the settling tank depends on the time the water spends within it and the time required for sedimentation, and ultimately on the relative size of the tanks compared to the total volume of water in the farming facility. The space needed to install such a system is not available everywhere, however. In pond farming the lowest pond is thus often used as a settling basin or even converted into a wetland to remove most of the dissolved nutrients from the water and convert them into plant biomass. Combined systems consisting of sedimentation and plant ponds can significantly improve nutrient retention. Another method for eliminating the dissolved nutrients is to use the water discharge for irrigating agricultural land. This does not only water the crops but also fertilizes them. For flow-through systems such as raceways with high water throughput settling tanks are only of limited use, however. The water quantity flowing out of the raceway is comparatively high and the concentration of nutrients contained in it low. A settling tank would have to be exceptionally large to guarantee the length of time necessary for the sedimentation of particulate matter and thus a measurable cleaning effect. However, because this space is rarely available such farming facilities usually make use of separating techniques such as decanters, gravel filters, centrifugal and plate separators, protein skimmers, flotation or chemical flocculation. The most important purification technology, however, is probably microscreens which are mostly used in the form of drum filters, as well as disk or

[ AQUACULTURE ] Making specific use of the economic potential of water discharge

Settling tanks are an effective method for smaller aquaculture enterprises to reduce the presence of particulate substances in the water discharge.

belt filters. Microscreens require a fair amount of maintenance and energy but are characterized by reliably good and consistent cleaning results for particlebound nutrients. These “coarse contaminants� are also removed from the water discharge very quickly, which counteracts redissolution of nutrients, a process which is strongly time-dependent. The mechanical cleaning effect mainly depends on the mesh size of the filter screen, which is in practice mostly between 60 and 100 microns. This enables up to 90 percent of particulate matter and 80 percent of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to be removed from the water. By using extremely tight mesh sizes of 40 microns it is even possible to reduce the risk of infection due to some parasites such as Ichthyophthirius multifilis (which can measure up to 1 millimetre) and a certain proportion of Saprolegnia infections, for example (in combination with UV light or ozone). Although microscreens have no direct influence on dissolved nutrients they do, however, reduce these loads indirectly through the rapid mechanical removal of fish excrement and uneaten feed, thereby relieving the strain on biological filters,

especially in recirculating systems (RAS) with internal water recycling. To prevent clogging of the narrow meshes by the separated solids, the fine mesh material which is made of plastic or stainless steel is at intervals automatically cleaned by a backwash rinse system. Depending on the fish population and amount of feed the water required for this is on average between about 1 and 2 percent of the amount of outflowing water that passes through the microscreen filter. During this process the separated particulate dirt, i.e. the solid filtrate, is partly resuspended. It thus seems reasonable to thicken the relatively liquid slurry to increase the dry matter content and reduce the volume of sludge. This secondary sedimentation can take place, for example, in a second downstream filter screen or in a funnel-shaped settling tank, which is called a “Dortmund tank� after the location of its first use in Dortmund in Germany 1887. In a Dortmund tank the slurry water is fed from below into the tank, whereby the flow rate decreases on the way up because of the widening of the funnel. This calms the water, the solids settle out and sink down the inclined side walls to the bottom where they can be removed.

Like unprocessed water discharge, sludge from aquaculture facilities still contains significant amounts of nutrients which lead to eutrophication of natural waters if their release is not controlled. It can also, however, be used profitably for the production of secondary products. If thickened, the sludge can for example be used directly as a substrate in biogas plants (“fish manure�). This also applies to plant biomass that grows in tertiary treatment ponds or plant settling ponds thanks to the nutrients dissolved in the water discharge. The production of crops that can be marketed directly can be even more lucrative. A nice example

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of this is the culture of aquatic and marsh plants on coco mats that grow in the water discharge from a zander RAS in southern Germany. Once the plants have grown and taken root the mats can be picked up and rolled out like lawns and used for initial plant growth on re-naturalised river and lake banks. Combining fish farms with mussel and algae cultures in IMTA (Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture) is also an attractive option. The Canadian salmon producer Cooke Aquaculture operates such a facility off the coast of New Brunswick. At the centre of this pilot project, which is one of the world’s first IMTA salmon farms, is a salmon farm around which several mussel farms are located. These filter the organic excrement

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Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ AQUACULTURE ] and feed residues that occur during salmon farming out of the water and use them for their own growth. In a second ring around the salmon farm and mussel cultures, algae cultures have been set up: their growth is partly supported by the inorganic excrement of the salmon and mussels which contain nitrogen and phosphorus. The IMTA principle thus combines the rearing of salmon, whose feeding leads to a lot of nutrients entering the ecosystem, with the production of “extractive” species such as mussels and algae that convert at least a certain share of this nutrient input back into biomass. IMTA systems thus contribute towards improving the quality of the water and the environment and also open up the opportunity to expand the product offering to include additional species.

Similar approaches were pursued by the international project ZAFIRA (Zero discharge aquaculture by farming in integrated recirculating systems in Asia) from 2002 to 2006, which attempted to combine modern Western RAS technologies with traditional Chinese methods of integrated agriculture based on minimum discharge of nutrients. Basically, in such projects it is usually a matter of using the “waste” (or nutrients) from one farming process as the basis for the next production step. In the ZAFIRA project the sludge from fish farms was used for bacterial production of single-cell proteins as well as sea cucumbers. In Europe, aquaculture researchers’ fascination with closed material and energy cycles is to be seen in numerous aquaponics projects

The IMTA salmon farm of Cooke Aquaculture combines salmon farming (rear) with the production of mussels (centre) and algae (front).

that are currently experiencing a tremendous boom. A project which is costing almost six million euros is probably of particular significance here. 18 partners from ten countries are taking part in the EU project INAPRO (“Innovative model and demonstration based water management for resource efficiency in integrated multitrophic agriculture and aquaculture systems”) which

is scheduled to take four years. In four demonstration projects, the technical and economic feasibility of aquaponics systems is to be proved and some of the obstacles that face this technology in practice removed. As we know, the step from the “research playground” to commercial breakthrough is otherwise often too big for smaller companies. MK

New net cleaning robot, Yanmar NCL-LX, tried out in Croatian cages

Mechanised cleaning offers several benefits A new generation of cage cleaning robots developed in Japan was tested recently in Croatia at one of Cromaris’ farm sites in the Adriatic. The automated cleaning technology offers an alternative to removing the nets from the cages to clean them and then replacing them.


t the beginning of October, there was plenty of activity at the Cromaris plants and fish farms, where seabass, dentex, meagre and gilthead seabream are bred in Gaženica, and off Zadar. Apart from the catamarans


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and fishing boats used to feed, monitor, maintain and catch the caged fish, a luxury motor vessel, the Nada, moored alongside with forty participants including managers and others responsible for technology at the largest

Takitarou Osaka, maker of the robot, and Marino Košta, Cromaris’ robot operator

[ AQUACULTURE ] Croatian fish farms, and their colleagues from Italy, Greece, Portugal, France and Tunisia. They were invited to a presentation of Yanmar’s new NCL-LX robot cage cleaner, organised by Navela, distributors for Yanmar, and Cromaris, the hosts. The robot is a powerful, high efficiency machine intended for use in large cages used to breed tuna or salmon, and also smaller fish such as seabass. Takitarou Osaka, its creator, came in person to demonstrate how it worked.

Exclusive presentation of automated cleaning Before coming to Croatia, the robot had spent several months being tested in Norway, and the Adriatic Sea was chosen as the location for this demonstration

and monitoring for the entire Mediterranean, due to the high technological level of fish farming here, the fact that four Yanmar robots have been operational for several years in the area, and the experience acquired by Navela in Pula. Thanks to this, Navela has been awarded the status of sole distributor in the Mediterranean, where there is the greatest concentration of fish farms in this part of the world, outside Scandinavia. There are almost 21,000 cages for breeding whitefish and 250 for tuna in the area. Breeding technology and innovations are critical for the development of mariculture, and cage cleaning is an extremely important aspect. The condition of the nets from which cages are made has a direct effect on the success and

quality of breeding. Nets which are submerged in sea water begin to acquire a coating, composed of algae, various invertebrates, the remains of fish food and fish secretions. This leads to a reduction in the free flow of fresh seawater and oxygen, which increases the risk of disease for the fish. The net is also more likely to be damaged, allowing fish to escape, while the added weight becomes a burden on the anchoring system. These problems also affect their feeding habits. The old technology used for cleaning cages was based on replacing them, which was a huge task with a high risk of damage to equipment. Of course, the notion of cleaning the cages in situ, during breeding, offers a completely different approach. Today, nets are changed, while the whitefish, such as seabass, are under a year

old, and housed in smaller cages. When the fish are transferred to larger cages, mechanical cleaning is required, once or up to three times during the cycle until the fish reach maturity. Tuna cages are cleaned regularly throughout the cycle. Small cages are also cleaned mechanically if the mesh becomes severely overgrown and coated.

Sea robots So, many people were interested in coming to see first hand an example of the second generation of Yanmar robots. Yanmar went into the cage-cleaning business nine years ago, after years of development and research on model NCL-SE3, better known as Sensui-Kun. In the late 1980s, Yanmar Marine Farms was established with the aim

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[ AQUACULTURE ] changing the mesh requires a boat, five staff on board, and two divers in the water.

The larger robot in the control position. Although an older model, it was the first time for many of the visitors to view it.

of researching mariculture and developing their own products to improve bio-resources and maintain the environment. Yanmar Marine Systems deal with the production of mariculture equipment. In Croatia, the Sensui-Kun robot was demonstrated five years ago in tuna farming. It is an underwater cleaning device with its own power supply, consisting of several components. The guidance mechanism with a monitoring system and independent power supply, including a highpressure pump, is located on the service vessel, while the robot itself, which is the underwater component, is of course placed in the sea. It is equipped with jets

for the intake of water under high pressure. This affects its propeller rotation, and the thrust enables the robot to maintain a neutral, floating position in relation to the cage. Cleaning is carried out by high-pressure jets. The entire operation can be managed by one person using a joystick, and the work process can be seen in real time on a screen. The tasks and benefits available through the use of this cleaning system are multiple. Clean nets mean parasites cannot develop, and other treatments to tackle growths or diseases are rendered less necessary. Water flow through the mesh is increased, and with it, the level of oxygen in the water, while


Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

Multiple benefits

Navela d.o.o. The economic benefits from the use of cleaning robots are also significant. Cleaning is four times as efficient as classic methods, and the effects last longer and reduce the need for new mesh. Damage to the mesh, which occurs when it is changed is also eliminated, reducing costs, particularly when one takes into consideration that

Castropola 54, Pula Tel. +385 52 214 542, fax. +385 52 213 558 This article is reproduced with permission from More Magazine, Croatia

NCL-SE3 speciďŹ cations

NCL-LX speciďŹ cations Outer dimensions: 810 x 1003 x 760 mm Weight: 150 kg Max. treveling speed: 6,2 m/min Max. reachable depth: 30 m

the danger of injury to the fish is reduced, the cages do not become heavy due to growths and marine organisms, the use of cleaning products is reduced, and cleaning can be carried out whenever necessary.

The technology used by both Yanmar robots is essentially the same. The difference is in the quantity and speed of cleaning they achieve. The smaller robot can clean 372 square metres of mesh per hour, while the larger one is four times more efficient, cleaning 1,600 square metres per hour. It is of course much bigger, with three cleaning discs and three propellers, rather than the single ones of the smaller model. It can tackle an area 191 cm wide, compared to the 57 cm reach of the smaller model. Its high pressure pump is capable of producing almost twice the cleaning water pressure. The presentation at the Cromaris fish farms was the first opportunity for many of the visitors to see how these machines operated, while others were introduced to the larger model for the first time. They were particularly impressed by the fact that the system is fully integrated, providing fully functional equipment, and the opportunity to network with others who are already using it.

Propeller: 450 mm Water pressure: 11,3 MPa TV monitor: 15 inch, color Control: joystick x 2

Outer dimensions: 1358 x 2287 x 874 mm Weight: 500 kg Max. treveling speed: 14 m/min Max. reachable depth: 50 m

Max. cleaning surface: 1600 m2 /h Propeller: 450 mm x 3 Water pressure: 20,5 MPa

[ PROCESSING ] Fish and seafood as functional food

Compromise between fast food and balanced diet? Functional food is the name given to foods which, beyond their actual nutritional value, also have additional properties that are achieved via technological treatment. The aim is to have a positive influence on consumers’ health, their physical and mental wellbeing, or even to prevent disease. Some foods – and these certainly include fish and seafood – already meet such claims naturally.


igid timetables, pressure to meet deadlines, and hectic daily work can often be an obstacle to a healthy and balanced diet. Instead of preparing light meals from fresh ingredients in a way that will preserve the vitamins they contain people often end up having to still their hunger with a

ready meal. And if on account of this they afterwards suffer from a bad conscience many of them will try to ease it by swallowing food supplements in the hope of doing their bodies some good and making up for the presumed nutritional deficiencies. Wouldn’t it be more comfortable and more effective,

clever product developers might have thought, to include these helpful food additives right from the outset and in so doing deliver an added value? And with that, the idea of functional foods was born… foods that are not only filling but at the same time follow a preventive approach and compensate for

nutritional deficiencies and counteract diet-related diseases. Although the term functional food is relatively new there have been foods that meet this requirement for quite a long time. The idea of fortified products originally came from Japan, where the functional

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ PROCESSING ] as in the case of allergies, with food products r UP TVQQPSU EJFUBSZ UIFSBQZ GPS example among people with lipid metabolism disorders.

An average salmon or mackerel dish already covers the daily requirement of the important omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.

food idea has in the meantime matured to a veritable food concept which today encompasses an almost inconceivable number of products. Almost a fifth of these are officially recognised as real functional food products in Japan and they are traded under the abbreviation FOSHU which stands for Food for Specified Health Use. Alongside these products there is a much greater fraction which also lays claim to, and advertises, functional added value on the packaging, but are not officially approved as FOSHU. That functional food would be successful in Asia, was actually not surprising, given the fact that a specific health value is traditionally associated with many foods there: some are good for the intestines and liver, while others help with an upset stomach or potency disorders. In the EU, the term functional food is not legally defined. This allows food manufacturers to advertise any products from fruit juice to margarine and yogurt as functional if they are enriched with detectable or presumed health-promoting additives. And in Europe, too, foods that are considered in the literal sense to be functional food were available on the market long before the term itself became established. For example, salt enriched with 30

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

iodine, fruit juice with an extra portion of calcium, sweets and margarine with added vitamins, or products with added fibre to reduce intestinal transit or have a positive influence on lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Among the particularly popular additives are probiotics (mostly lactic acid bacteria), prebiotics (which include fibres), and synbiotics (which are said to combine the advantages of proand prebiotics). There are also vitamins and antioxidants, minerals, trace elements, plant supplements and unsaturated fatty acids, especially the omega-3 type. The added value of functional foods is rarely visible because the products mostly continue to enter the market in the usual format. By enriching them with additional substances they only acquire an additional function that goes beyond the nutritional and sensory properties of food. The prime objective is often one of the following: r UP DPNQFOTBUF GPS OVUSJUJPOBM deficiencies by enrichment with fibres, amino acids, calcium, selenium, iodine, etc., r UP DPSSFDU UIF UZQJDBM DPOTFquences of particular lifestyles, for example with the help of antioxidants or bioactive substances, r UP QSPWJEF DPOTVNFST XIP TVGfer from reduced food tolerance,

Functional foods are divided into two different groups. Firstly, foods that in their natural state are already rich in the desired health-promoting ingredients. They are often referred to as intrinsic functional foods. And secondly, foods that gain their positive effect only through controlled supply, enrichment or mixture with health-promoting ingredients (nutraceuticals), also called extrinsic functional foods.

High nutritional value makes seafood a functional food Fish and seafood have per se numerous components that are good for human health. Because of this inherent functionality it is good and, indeed, recommendable to eat seafood regularly. The production of many species in aquaculture also opens up the possibility of providing the fishes with additional functional properties by giving them specially enriched feed. Seafood can thus be both an intrinsic and an extrinsic functional food. In addition, some of the valuable healthpromoting nutraceuticals and bioactive substances that are contained in fish can also be extracted and isolated. Not only the fillets, but also the waste from slaughtering and processing, i.e. the skin, head, bones and intestines, often contain many of these ingredients. Such isolates can then in turn be used to enrich other products (e.g. bread, eggs, dairy products) in order to give them additional functional properties, too. Many experts believe that natural seafood products offer greater health benefits than extrinsic functional foods. This is because natural

products do not only possess the aforementioned inherent functionality, i.e. numerous valuable ingredients, but also contain these substances in their natural complexity. By this is meant that nature offers all the different components and ingredients in an optimal, if not to say perfect, blend. All substances and nutrients are in balance with each other, they are embedded in a tissue matrix and therefore protected. This ensures, among other things, that they maintain their effectiveness over a long period of time, are not present in excess quantities, and are digested more slowly, and thus exert their beneficial effect in the body of the consumer only gradually. It has long been undisputed that fish is one of the healthiest foods. Recent studies have increasingly revealed more and more valuable ingredients and their healthpromoting effects. The integrated European research project SEAFOODplus and the network for marine functional food (MARIFUNC) in which research institutes from five Nordic countries were involved provided important insights into the health value of fish. The results of these projects demonstrate not only the important contribution that fish makes to seafood consumers’ health but also point to the substances that are responsible for these effects. The best-known ingredients in fish that have a functional effect are probably the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the omega-3 type, especially EPA and DHA. In the 1970s it was first presumed that the low rate of heart attacks and coronary artery disease of the Inuit in Greenland was due to their EPA and DHArich diet. Since then, not only has this effect been proved beyond reasonable doubt, but other positive effects of the omega-3 fatty

[ PROCESSING ] acids have been observed. Among other things they reduce the risk of some cancers, promote brain development and cognitive abilities in infancy, and help prevent Alzheimer’s disease. The main sources of EPA and DHA are fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel and herring. While nuts and some vegetable oils also contain omega-3 fatty acids these are mostly alphalinolenic acid (ALA), which is also one of the essential fatty acids, but one of which the human body can only convert just under 5 to the far more important EPA and DHA. Consumption of fatty fish is thus the easiest and most reliable way to guarantee an adequate supply of valuable fatty acids. An average portion of salmon or mackerel already covers our daily requirement of EPA and DHA. And since the two fatty acids are relatively heat stable, they remain biologically effective in canned and hot smoked products. Less well known but equally valuable are bioactive proteins and peptides in fish. These substances inhibit the angiotensin I-enzyme (ACE for Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme) and thus promote the dilation of the blood vessels, resulting in a hypotensive effect. Japanese researchers have identified in mussels and sardines alone more than a dozen such ACE inhibitory peptides. A specific protein of the blue whiting is said to stimulate the formation of an intestinal hormone that curbs appetite and could be helpful in combating obesity. And highly specific substances that block the enzyme PEP (prolyl endopeptidase) not only exist in red wine, green tea or some herbal extracts but also in the flesh of cod, salmon and trout. This enzyme is directly connected with neurodegenerative disorders such as memory disorders and possibly Alzheimer’s disease (Alzheimer’s disease patients have very high

PEP activity). And the PEP enzyme appears to play a role in depression, schizophrenia and autism, too. Regular consumption of fish helps prevent such diseases. The importance of taurine in fish was long underestimated. Since the human body can produce taurine itself it was assumed that additional supply via the diet was

unnecessary… Or perhaps only necessary in the case of vegetarians, because taurine is only present in animal protein, but not in plants. A few years ago the importance of the amino acid taurine for the human organism was reevaluated. Taurine is important for the development of the brain, the retina of the eye, and the liver in newborns. It facilitates the passage

of important substances into the bloodstream, promotes fat burning and the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, guards against cardiovascular disorders, oedema and high blood pressure. Another argument in favour of fish consumption is the high content of antioxidants it contains. Antioxidants prevent premature cell aging and can at least in test tube experiments even

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[ PROCESSING ] antioxidant peptides derived in part from the skin of pollock, acidsoluble collagen from the bones and scales of individual species and chitosan, various chitosan oligomers and glucosamine from crustacean shells, which serve as a source of calcium (whose health value in functional foods, however, is highly controversial).

The combination of fish with fruit or vegetables is particularly valuable from a nutritional point of view.

check the spreading of cancer cells within the tissue. One of the many important trace elements which are found in fish is selenium. Because selenium reduces the risk of colon, prostate and lung cancer the EC Directive 90/496/EC recommends a daily intake (RDI) of 55 μg which is easily to be covered with a lot of seafood products. A more certain and more elegant way would obviously be to enrich the fish fillet additionally with selenium, thereby making the fish into an extrinsic functional food. This is exactly what researchers succeeded in doing in the context of SEAFOODplus: they mixed some garlic, which has strong seleniumabsorbing properties, into the feed of African catfish. It was also possible to increase the taurine content in fish in the same way. Because the enrichment of live fish with health-promoting substances is relatively complicated and the outcome difficult to predict, it is in practice easier to mix the functional substances into the products during processing. This mostly works without any major problems with dietary fibres such as apple pomace, a waste product during juice production. Fifty percent of apple pomace consists of 32

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

fibres, and the pomace contains pectin and gallic acid which have a cholesterol reducing effect and bind free radicals. In products with minced mackerel (such as burgers or lasagna) no taste impairment was perceptible with a fruit share of up to about 2 to 3.

Seafood components as nutraceuticals in other foods Enrichment of other kinds of foods with bioactive substances derived from fish and seafood is extremely popular. The omega-3 fatty acids are well to the fore in terms of popularity. They are to be found in eggs, bread, sausage and dairy products and various spreads for example, and are particularly well-liked in North America because they meet the American Heart Association’s dietary recommendations for increased intake of DHA and EPA, promising health benefits without consumers having to make drastic changes to their eating habits. But the list of marine nutraceuticals and bioactive substances that can be considered as health promoting additives for functional food is much longer. In addition to omega-3 fatty acids there are now several fish hydrolysates and

More and more consumers are wondering anyway which physiological and biochemical effects of functional food have actually been tested and scientifically proven and whether the promises made by food manufacturers are really correct or whether an excessive intake might not even be harmful. Even some vitamins that are useful and essential in normal doses can decalcify bone and thus have negative effects in larger quantities. From a nutritional perspective, the benefits of functional foods are usually only achieved when consumed as part of a varied mixed diet. And there is growing distrust because many people no longer understand how everything fits together, and deep down they have the feeling that producers are unnecessarily altering food on which humanity has fed for thousands of years without any problems. More important than the food industry’s advertising claims would therefore probably be campaigns to improve awareness and the level of knowledge and acceptance of functional foods. In spite of numerous directives and legal regulations concerning food the EU still has no explicit rules governing functional food. At the moment there is not even a clear definition of what functional food actually is and whether it should be categorised as food, as something therapeutic, or even as medication. Each EU member state handles the problem differently.

In Germany, for example, there are special regulations for dietary supplements (NemV), dietary foods (DiätV) and Novel Food (NFV), which also in part relate to functional food. In essence, however, functional food products are covered under the general food law. This at least ensures that the products comply with the applicable regulations for health and fraud protection of consumers. The Health Claims Regulation (EC no. 1924/2006) of the European Parliament on nutrition and health claims made on foods has also been in force since July 2007. It obliges manufacturers to provide truthful information on the health value of their products. Some advertising claims are only permitted if scientific evidence is available. This applies, for example, to general statements which are clearly associated with health such as beneficial to blood circulation, reduces cholesterol or strengthens the immune system. Such claims are only allowed if they are listed as such in the Community Register. Even indisputably correct statements such as calcium is good for your bones may only be used for promotional purposes if they are included in the positive list of generic health claims. Although a varied and balanced diet is still the best and easiest method to avoid nutritional deficiencies or even compensate for unhealthy splurges the range of, and the market for, functional foods will continue to grow in the coming years. For the manufacturers of such products the temptation to enter into previously untapped market gaps and to develop new sales opportunities is simply too great to pass up on a voluntary basis. We can probably be sure that in future fish and seafood will play a greater and more important role in this development than in the past. MK


The growth plan for Danish fisheries and aquaculture

Industry, authorities, and research together can foster growth A group of associations from the aquaculture, fisheries, and related sectors have been tasked by the government to formulate a strategy for the growth and development of their industries as part of the government’s overall growth plan. The team has made concrete suggestions that can help remove barriers to growth, where they exist, as well as promote innovation and creative thinking to increase the competitiveness of the sectors.


he Danish fishing fleet has seen a number of changes since the introduction of individual transferable quotas, which started with the herring fishery in 2003 then encompassed other pelagic fisheries, and, finally, since 2007, demersal fisheries have also been managed based on property or user rights. Numbers, capacity, and engine power have all fallen since these changes in management were introduced, though some segments of the fleet have been more affected than others. The Danish fleet is complex as it comprises vessels of different sizes, uses a variety of gears, and targets several different species both for human consumption and for industrial use. The fleet is categorised by vessel length, gear, engine power and capacity. Between 2003 and 2013 the total number of vessels

in the fleet fell by a third to 2,634, while gross tonnage dropped by 37 to 68,000 GT, and engine power by 36 to 243,000 kW. However, these changes were distributed unevenly across the fleet. The biggest changes were seen in the 24-40 m segment which lost almost two thirds of its vessels, power, and capacity.

supplies the raw material for the production of fishmeal and fish oil products, which were exported for a combined value of over DKK3bn. Another aquaculture-related industry that has evolved over the years is

the fish farming equipment sector that exports products and knowhow to many of the world’s countries. Further, equipment for the seafood processing industry is also designed, produced and exported

Seafood forms 11% of the value of Danish food exports The Danish fisheries and aquaculture sector is an important part of the Danish economy. Food exports from Denmark amount to some 178 billion kroner annually of which fish and seafood contribute some 20 billion kroner based on a first hand value of farmed and wild fish of DKK4bn. In addition, Denmark has a significant industrial fishery which

Structure of the Danish fishing fleet Vessel length





<12 m





12-15 m





15-18 m





18-24 m





24-40 m





>40 m










Source: The Danish AgriFish Agency

Please visit us: SPG-Brussels, 21-23 April 2015, Hall 4, Stand 6201 Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Certified fish may be one of the ways to penetrate new markets. The Danish fisheries sector aims to have all its fisheries certified to the Marine Stewardship Council standard.

from Denmark. Fish and seafood and the industries related to this sector are important for Denmark for their contribution to the economy, but also for the knowhow and innovation they generate and for the jobs they create, sometimes in areas where other employment opportunities are few or non-existent. These factors contributed to a decision by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries to approach the sector organisations involved in the fisheries, aquaculture, and related sectors to develop a growth plan for these sectors that would strengthen their competitiveness and enable them to contribute to the Danish economy, jobs, and the maintenance of the Danish regions both now and in the future. The organisations involved in formulating this plan for growth, Team Fish Growth (TFG), a group of industry associations from the fisheries, aquaculture, processing, fishmeal and fish oil, and manufacturers of equipment related to these sectors, feel that if the recommendations are followed, the result could mean closer collaboration between industry, the authorities, and research leading to a 40 increase in the value of production already at the first link in the value addition 34

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chain. The organisations warn however that this depends on certain pre-conditions including growth in the supply of raw materials, innovation, effective administration, and a results-based regulation of the industry.

Increased raw material supply a prerequisite to growth The need to increase the supply of fish is one of the primary preconditions for the growth envisaged by TFG. While catches for human consumption over the last five years have fluctuated between 170,000 tonnes and 200,000 tonnes TFG thinks that this could be increased to 350,000 tonnes by 2020 assuming that the fishing quotas allocated by the EU increase as stocks do better and if fishers are allowed to choose the most effective gears. The authors also take into account the discard ban introduced by the reformed Common Fisheries Policy which is gradually being phased in and which will result in the landing of a certain quantity of fish that would otherwise be returned to sea. Species that are currently not being optimally utilised by the industry, such as brown crab and flounder,

and species that have moved to Danish waters due to climate change are also potential ways of increasing catch volumes. Cockles and razor clams that grow outside traditional fishing areas could also add to the catches if pilot fisheries were allowed to find out the potential of these stocks. Finally, if the industrial fishery was better managed the authors of the report feel that annual catches of 800,000 to one million tonnes is realistic although the average of the last five years is about 700,000 tonnes.

Increasing landings will thus call for several factors to fall into place if they are to be realised. Fishermen feel that this should be achievable. Tamme Bolt, for example, a fisherman from Thyborøn, caught 1,000 tonnes in 2014 and feels it should be possible to catch an additional 10 in 2015 if the quotas are increased. With regard to fish that instead of being discarded is now expected to be landed he is less sure. We need to have clear guidelines on how to implement the rules governing fish that would normally be discarded, he says. Limited quantities of small fish that cannot be used for other than fish meal and oil is one issue, while fish for human consumption that gets caught without having quota for it is another story. In general TFG is of the opinion that a 30 increase in raw materials from traditional fishing and an additional amount from the exploitation of hitherto unused resources should be possible by 2030. The aquaculture industry is also expected to produce more, and sales from fish production, fishmeal and fish oil, as well as equipment are expected to grow from DKK5.6bn in 2012 to

Tamme Bolt, a fisherman who supplies fish to the Thyborøn auction, thinks it should be possible to increase landings by a small margin as envisaged in the growth plan.


almost double that by 2020 and create 1,800 more jobs in outer areas.

Involve fishers more closely in data collection Altogether the report from TFG contains 14 recommendations subdivided into six categories. The main categories are, increasing the supply of raw material; administration of the sector in a way that prioritises growth; and research, innovation and education to promote growth. Better data is one of the first points that the authors bring up under the increased supply of raw materials as reliable data on fisheries is the only way to know how much can be fished. They suggest that the data foundation, which forms the basis of the advice to the authorities, should be strengthened and quality assured, and should also integrate information from the fishermen themselves. The fishing industry should therefore be much more closely involved in the cooperation between the authorities and DTU Aqua with regard to fisheries data and the advice that is based on this information. The report emphasises that many of the demands placed by the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) on the fisheries sector including the landing obligation, and the ban on fishing in the case of mixed fisheries if quota for one species is lacking, have economic consequences that will stunt growth in the sector if they are not taken into account in the advice that is given to the authorities. The landing obligation introduced by the CFP will bring in quantities of fish that would, under the former policy, have been discarded. This fish could be a raw material for industry, however research followed by demonstration projects

The Danish fleet is complex as it comprises vessels of different sizes, uses a variety of gears, and targets several different species both for human consumption and for industrial use.

are needed to evaluate how this material as well as other currently under-utilised resources, could be used optimally. The latter include industrial catches which could be used in the production of added value products such as fish oil for human consumption or for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications; low value fish such as flounder; and other species including aquatic plants, which are sources of proteins, fats, and other nutrients. Bivalves, that is, mussels, cockles, clams, and oysters, too are a resource, whose potential is not fully utilised, thanks partly to a lack of tradition and partly to a restrictive regulatory framework. The fishing and processing industry with support from the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund will take the lead in investigating the possibilities offered by these under-utilised species.

Better collaboration between harbours to make them more attractive The Danish harbours play a major role in the landing, trade, and distribution of fish and attracting

Danish landings of fish for human consumption, tonnes 2010










Source: The Danish AgriFish Agency

more raw material to harbours is another avenue to be followed to increase the overall supply of fish. Harbours need to be competitive and to offer services that will attract fishermen and fishing vessels both from Denmark and from abroad. Between 2009 and 2013 total landings in Danish harbours fell by 20 to 847,000 tonnes, chiefly due to a fall in catches of industrial species. However, the value of landings increased by 27 to DKK3.4bn. Landings by foreign vessels to the ten largest ports decreased steeply over the same period from 1,800 to 600, of which roughly half were landings of fish for human consumption and the other half were industrial catches. The need to attract more vessels to the ports is important not only for the supply of fish but also for the survival of the ports themselves. Greater cooperation between ports to increase synergies and

win efficiencies of scale is already being practiced in some ports, for example, Thyborøn, Hvide Sande, and Thorsminde, on the Danish west coast have established a cluster called Konsumfisk, that brings together the auctions, fisheries organisations, service companies, and the port authorities, to develop ways of securing the longterm future of the ports and the towns behind them. Denmark is Europe’s largest industrial fishing nation and exports of fishmeal and fish oil amounted to DKK3.4bn in 2013. In terms of exported volumes Denmark is the second largest exporter of fish oil in the world and the third largest exporter of fishmeal. However, in the fiveyear period up to 2013 average annual catch volumes of industrial species fell by half to 750,000 tonnes compared to the previous Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Jens Kjærulf Petersen, head of department at the Danish Shellfish Centre.

five-year period’s annual average, which was 1.5m tonnes. As a result the industry is looking for a strategy that will illustrate how the current excess capacity can be better utilised and how greater volumes of industrial species can be fished.

Higher nitrogen quotas, fewer administrative burdens will unleash aquaculture growth Globally, the main sources of fish and seafood in the future will be the aquaculture industry. Farmed production, thanks to an average annual growth rate of 6.2 between 2002 and 2012, overtook capture production for human consumption in 2014 according to projections from the FAO and the OECD. While capture production is expected to increase from 72m tonnes in 2014 to 75m tonnes in 2023, aquaculture production is forecast to reach 90m tonnes that year. The growth however is in Africa, Asia, the Americas, and in non-EU countries. Within the EU production has stagnated and in Denmark this is attributed to the stringent restriction on the levels of nitrogen that may be emitted by fish farmers. These restrictions have inhibited growth in the sector, but have also forced the industry to look for alternative 36

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ways of expanding production. One of these is the use of recirculation systems which use complex filters to remove and detoxify impurities in the water, which is then recirculated. The drawback of the system is that they are expensive, require skilled personnel, and need to be adapted to the species being farmed. In the case of marine aquaculture another type of mitigation that is being considered is the compensatory cultivation of mussels and seaweed. The theory is that by farming mussels and seaweed nitrogen is absorbed from the environment and this can compensate for nitrogen that is released into the environment by fish farming. At the Danish Shellfish Centre, Jens Kjerulf Petersen, the head of department, says that mitigation culture of mussels has been shown to be a cost efficient tool that compensates for the effects of eutrophication of coastal waters caused by agricultural run-off. Some marine fish farmers would like to apply the same logic to the cultivation of fish. Called IMTA (integrated multi-trophic aquaculture) it envisages the cultivation of the volume of mussels and seaweed required to take up an amount of nutrients equivalent to those emitted by the fish farming. The use of IMTA as a mitigation

measure for fish farming is not without controversy. Some believe the mussels and/or macroalgae should act as a physical filter and be grown in the vicinity of the sea cages. This would, however, probably not work and taken to the extreme would prevent the adequate exchange of fresh seawater in the cages and could ultimately suffocate the fish. Jens Petersen feels that it makes far more sense to locate the mitigation culture in an area, where it would be most efficient, for example, where there is the best growth conditions, where there is an upwelling, or good conditions for mussel farming, so that the highest yield is obtained. Mitigation culture is one of the areas the Team Fish Growth would like to see develop including having its effects documented, such as its contribution to biodiversity. It also recommends the regulation of mitigation culture with rules that specify where such cultures should be located, and how their impact can be calculated and used to compensate for emissions. But TFG also recommends increasing the limits for nitrogen emissions, enabling the merging of quotas, and using integrated coastal planning to identify sites where aquaculture can be practiced, as well as where offshore farms can be placed, if the aquaculture industry in Denmark is to live up to its potential.

Simplify raw material imports Finally, to increase the supply of seafood, imports of raw material need to be simplified. In Denmark two thirds of the raw material for the processing sector is imported, the remainder comes from domestic catches and a small part from aquaculture production. This raw material formed the basis for exports worth DKK22bn

in 2013 (including fishmeal and fish oil). Liberalising the import of raw materials, reducing customs duties, and speeding up the administration of imports will contribute to the increased inflow of raw materials. The TFG report also underlines the importance of parity with neighbouring countries in terms of rules and regulations governing imports and with regard to the import fees to which the processing industry is subject.

Administrative procedures too cumbersome The growth plan put forward by the industry includes recommendations for how the administration of the sector should be changed in order to foster development. A long standing demand from the fishing sector is that the administration should set the overall goals and then let the fishermen themselves decide how to achieve these. The aim is to have a results-based management. The Common Fisheries Policy introduces a number of new elements, such as fishing at Maximum Sustainable Yield, and banning discards, but how this is to be implemented is unclear. The industry thinks that a handsoff approach from the administration after setting the overall goals will unleash innovations in gear, fishing methods, and technology. As fisheries policy is set at the EU level it will be necessary for the Danish authorities to communicate their point of view clearly with a view to influencing policy developments there. Fishers should be allowed to choose the gear and fishing methods they use, and the MSY principle and the allocation of TACs should take into account mixed fisheries and that all fish must be counted against the quota. The results of demonstration


projects should be swiftly incorporated into legislation and the political side of the process must not be underestimated, so politicians must carry the procedure through negotiations in Brussels. What applies to the fishing sector is also an issue for the aquaculture industry, where permissions can take months to obtain as they have to be processed by several different authorities. In 2010 an aquaculture committee tasked with finding ways that would allow the sector to expand made several recommendations, many of which have still not been implemented. The industry would like to see these recommendations implemented and the processing times for environmental approval for applications to start or expand aquaculture production to be reduced to half a year. The introduction of transferable quotas for nitrogen should be prioritised so as to allow the development of the sector to be controlled by the market rather than the authorities. Long timeframes for processing applications make investments in the sector less attractive, which runs counter to the thinking behind the support that is available from the government and the EMFF for the development and expansion of the sector. The industry would like therefore to see a more efficient and rapid administration of the support schemes so that funding can quickly be disbursed and utilised.

Selling Danish fish, seafood, and equipment for the sector will call for a concerted effort by the industry and the government to overcome commercial, political, and cultural barriers.

Collaboration between research and industry should be systematised A factor critical to the sector’s growth is the degree of symbiosis between the industry and the research and educational establishment. Close collaboration between universities, research and educational institutions on the one hand and the industry on the other will benefit both parties and contribute to increased growth and greater innovation in the sector. While there is already a degree of collaboration between the industry and the research establishment this can be improved and made more efficient. In this regard the growth team has suggested that the constituent parts of the aquaculture cluster – farmers, technology producers, feed manufacturers – will enter into a discussion with

Danish aquaculture production, tonnes Trout and salmon Eel Other species Mussels Total

























Source: The Danish AgriFish Agency

the research establishment to identify research priorities. All existing research papers within fisheries and aquaculture should be collected into a database that is accessible to the industry. Regarding education within fisheries and aquaculture, the recommendation is that they should be evaluated for their relevance and their ability to equip students with the means to confront and solve the problems that are likely to develop over the medium and long term.

Potential new markets overseas and in Denmark Exports of Danish seafood are traditionally to neighbouring markets. However, there is significant potential in markets further afield, in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia particularly in China. Selling to these markets will however call for a concerted effort by both the industry and the government to promote Danish seafood and overcome commercial, political, and cultural barriers. An export strategy that identifies markets with the most potential followed by information campaigns, export advisory services, and support for promotion are among the proposals from the

growth team. The potential of new products and species should be explored and potential buyers in new markets identified. Finally the growth team feels that the domestic market has the potential to absorb more Danishcaught fish. Today only 5 of Danish fish is sold in Denmark, a figure that could be increased with the right incentives. Campaigns to increase fish consumption both of traditional and non-traditional species are one tool, emphasising the environmental benefits of eating locally caught fish, and looking at ways to reduce costs connected with the production and distribution of fish are other ways of increasing consumption of Danish caught fish. The recommendations put forward in the growth plan offer a way to trigger growth in the Danish seafood industry, but, more generally, should also increase the long-term competitiveness and resilience of the sectors involved. This is of critical importance for the many small coastal and inland communities, which are dependent on fisheriesor aquaculture-related industries, and which form a distinctive part of Denmark’s social structure. Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Thorupstrand Kystfiskerlaug explores all avenues to succeed

Fishermen’s guild is critical to the local community The Thorupstrand Kystfiskerlaug (Thorupstrand coastal fishers’ guild) was established in 2006 in response to the restructuring in the Danish fishing sector which introduced transferable quotas and resulted in a degree of consolidation in the fleet.


n Denmark a system of transferable fishing concessions was implemented in 2003 for the pelagic and industrial fishing fleets and in 2007 a system of individual fishing rights was introduced for the demersal fishery, according to a 2012 report from the Institute of Food and Resource Economics by Jesper Levring Andersen.

Restructuring in fishery sector reduces vessel numbers and capacity Individual vessel quota shares (VQS) were distributed to all vessels that earned more than EUR30,000 a year in the period 2003-2005. The restructuring in the fishing sector resulted in boat owners acquiring very valuable quotas, although the crew of the boat did not receive any part of this. Some fishers decided to sell their quotas and to pull out of the fishery resulting in a consolidation in the sector. The number of vessels earning more than EUR30,000 a year shrank from about 1,500 vessels in 2000 to 716 vessels in 2010. While the number earning less than EUR30,000 a year, a group comprised primarily of vessels less than 12 m in length, stayed more or less stable at 1,265 to 1,121 over the same period. At Thorupstrand, a small fishing village on the Danish west coast, the effect of the new regulatory 38

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

Vessels belonging to fishers in the Thorupstrand coastal fishers’ guild on the beach. This is one of the few places left where vessels arrive and depart from the beach in contrast to a harbour.

regime was that the number of fishing vessels was reduced by almost 50, from 20 vessels to 11. Fishermen that had worked on the boats in return for a share of the catch, were particularly hard hit as their livelihoods vanished leaving them with nothing. Thorupstrand was fortunate under the circumstances, in other villages, such as Lildstrand, the entire fleet disappeared removing an important source of economic activity for the whole community.

Guild works on communal economic principles In 2006 some 20 fishing families in Thorupstrand, both those

with a share in a vessel and those without, formed a guild as a response to the changes wrought by the introduction of individual transferable fishing rights. From the outset the guild had a cooperative economic principle, with each member having a vote in decisions affecting the guild. The entrance fee of DKK100,000 to the guild paid by each member and the cooperative economic principle were security for a loan the guild received from a couple of banks, and for which the guild could buy quotas. These quotas were owned by the guild and rented out on an annual basis to the members, who all were entitled to rent the quota for a year. The rent goes to service the debt

taken on by the guild to buy the quotas. Members may not trade or speculate in quotas for the benefit of individuals. And a fisher leaving the guild will only receive the DKK100,000 that he contributed in the first place. Any appreciation in the value of the quota thus stays with the guild. One of the advantages of the system is that it gives young fishermen without much capital a chance. They only have to pay DKK100,000 into the guild and then they can rent the quota they need. The alternative would be to spend millions of kroner buying quotas on the market, or of course, to move to the closest fishing harbour and get a job as a fisherman on a fishing vessel. For the share-owning fishermen


the advantage of pooling the quota and then renting it is that the money they make from renting could contribute to pay for a new boat or new gear.

Expanding into processing and retail sales The Thorupstrand coastal fishers’ guild has now about 11 members and has expanded into processing and retail sales. By eliminating middlemen the guild hopes to secure its financial viability and it has therefore invested in a processing facility at Thorupstrand, a fishing village on the west coast of Denmark, where the guild is based. The processing facility has been equipped since February 2014 with a grader and a machine for the production of ice and here the fish as it comes of the boat can be graded, sorted, packed in boxes and iced. Other species such as crabs or other species of fish that get caught in the nets are also sorted out. Three former fishermen are responsible for the processing. Cod is cleaned on board the vessel says Ask Schlichting, the manager of the guild, unlike flat fish, which is cleaned

Fish is now processed at a facility owned by the guild. The fish can be sorted, graded, and filleted. Part-time workers from the village can be rapidly summoned by sms when a cargo of fish arrives.

after it is brought ashore. Thorupstrand is different from other fishing villages in that the boats are not in a harbour, but stand on the beach. When they go out they are dragged into the water from the shore and when they return they are pulled on to the beach. A huge and ancient winch is used to pull the boats in to the water, while a

Ask Schlichting, the manager of the Thorupstrand coastal fishers’ guild (Thorupstrand Kystfiskerlaug)

large bulldozer drags them on to the beach on their return. This is one of the last places in northern Europe where this is done, says Mr Schlichting, in contrast to 15 years ago, when all the beaches along the west coast of Jutland had boats on them like this. Then, even the boats were constructed in ways that took into account

the kind of beach from which they would be launched. Today, however, most boats sail into harbours, but for the Thorupstrand fishermen the closest harbour is some distance away so they prefer to land on the beach. Having the boats on the beach although picturesque is hardly

The vessels are launched from the beach in to the water and are pulled back by the bulldozer on to the beach when they return. Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



The re-modelled fishing vessel purchased by the guild is berthed in the centre of Copenhagen to sell sustainably-caught fish to consumers.

the whole year, though December, January, and February are particularly stormy.

Sustainable catches of very high quality

The guild has opened a fish shop in Thorupstrand, which sells fishbased light meals and sandwiches as well as fresh fish.

practical. Filling them with supplies, launching them, beaching them again, and landing the catch, is more demanding than berthing in a harbour and unloading the fish there. But most of the fishermen are local residents and prefer to sail from and to their own village. Also, depending on where they are fishing, it may in fact be closer to return to the village rather than land the fish at a harbour. 40

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Thorupstrand is also fortunate because it is one of the places along the west coast of Jutland, where fishermen have the highest number of days at sea. This is because its geographic position shields it to some extent from the strong winds that are characteristic of the region and which often prevent the fishermen from going out to sea. A fisher from Thorupstrand may fish for a total of 200 days in the year spread out over

The vessels of Thorupstrand fish exclusively with Danish seines and gillnets, gear that is protective of the environment. This kind of labour-intensive fishing results in a catch of very high quality – 95 is exported as Grade E (the highest possible) fish. The guild is trying to build on this – using the story behind its establishment, the fact that the fishery does no damage to the environment, is sustainable and the fish is of excellent quality – to promote the fish and sell it on markets far away from Thorupstrand, such as in Copenhagen. Here potential customers who are interested by the story and may be tempted to support a good cause may be more numerous than in other places. In keeping with its idea of eliminating the middleman, the guild has in fact organised its own retail outlet

right in the centre of the city in one of the more exclusive areas. The shop is actually a refitted fishing vessel that sells a variety of fish both from Thorupstrand and elsewhere as the selection has to be large enough to attract customers. Ask Schlichting says the guild is working on providing more and even fresher fish to the shop. Ideally we would like to catch the fish and have it in shops and restaurants all over Denmark the next day. Right now a lot of the fish caught by the guild is sold at the auction in Hanstholm and the guild is trying to change this. But it takes time to build up a network of customers who know and appreciate the product and are willing to be flexible about species. The bulk of the catch is cod and flat fish, though another 10-12 species of fish are also caught and the composition of the catch often varies. Thorupstrand does not offer a lot of economic opportunities, the fishery and activities associated with it are among the only sources of jobs in the village. So the sustainability of the fishery is directly linked to the sustainability of the whole community. Most of the fishers are full time fishermen, though some of them also do a little work on farms in the vicinity. Fishers or former fishers run the processing facility as well as a retail outlet the guild has established at Thorupstrand itself, where it is possible to both buy chilled fish, but also readymade sandwiches and light meals that use fish as the basic ingredient. A number of part-time workers from the village are summoned when the boats arrive to clean and fillet the fish. In a small village any source of jobs is crucial to the wellbeing of the community. To quite a degree the future of Thorupstrand depends on the future of the guild.


AquaPri overcomes the odds to produce pike-perch

A product for discerning clients AquaPri is one of the few companies in Europe to successfully farm pike-perch in a closed recirculation system. While other attempts to rear this species both in Denmark and abroad have floundered for one reason or another, the company is currently completing a large new facility to replace its existing on-growing tanks for the fish.


anish aquaculture production is dominated by trout, raised both in freshwater and saltwater, and salmon. Of the 43,000 tonnes of farmed fish that were produced in 2013 41,000 tonnes (95) were trout and salmon. The other main cultured species are eel with a production of 1,000 tonnes and mussels with a volume of 560 tonnes in 2013. The Danish aquaculture industry, in common with the sector in the rest of Europe, has shown little if any growth for more than a decade. Since 2000 aquaculture production in the EU has stagnated at 1.3 million tonnes, while almost doubling in Asia and America, and almost tripling in Africa, over the same period. The lack of growth in the European aquaculture sector is all the more striking as demand for fish in Europe has been increasing steadily. Since domestic capture fisheries do not meet European requirements for fish the result has been that today 65 of Europe’s requirement for fish and seafood is met through imports.

More support available for fish farming The lack of growth in the European aquaculture sector can be attributed to a number of factors. These include a shortage of suitable sites, cumbersome bureaucracy, competition with other users of marine areas and inland water courses, and strict

environmental protection laws. Recently, however, policy makers have realised the potential of the sector as a source of economic growth, particularly in rural regions with few other opportunities, as well its importance for the supply of fish in Europe. The Common Fisheries Policy and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund both reflect this emphasis on aquaculture, and include several measures to support its sustainable development. Among these is the introduction of new species as well as the use of recirculation systems. In Denmark one of the outcomes of the environmental legislation has been the development of recirculation systems that are largely isolated from their surroundings. These systems have been used to grow rainbow trout, salmon, and eel, but also some less well-known species such as pike-perch (Sander lucioperca). AquaPri, a family-owned company, is Denmark’s biggest producer of pike-perch. The firm has a history in the fisheries business that goes back to the early 1900s and today is an important producer of trout (both freshwater and marine), trout roe, and also has an interest in salmon produced on land. However, while salmon and trout are long-domesticated species, cultivating pike-perch is pioneering work with all the perils and joys that go with it. Though we have had our successes the path

Henning Priess, co-owner of AquaPri.

Julia Lynne Overton, hatchery manager at AquaPri.

this far has been anything but smooth, says Julia Lynne Overton, the hatchery manager, partly because pike-perch is still a wild species. This means that the fish has traits that, while beneficial in the wild, need to be bred out in the farmed fish. The company started its pike-perch farming activities around 2007 in Egtved using a converted eel farm with

a recirculation system that was gradually adapted to the requirements of the new species. Initially the entire production cycle was at this site but a few years ago the company invested in another site in Holstebro, which was used as an additional grow-out facility for the fingerlings. The Holstebro site is now to be replaced with the bigger, purpose-built Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Recirculation is expensive and technically demanding Recirculation systems, as the name suggests, repeatedly recycle the water in the system after cleaning and reprocessing it. Very little fresh water is added to the system. Mechanical filters remove the larger particulate impurities, faecal matter and uneaten food, while biofilters strip from the water the very fine particles and dissolved substances converting them into harmless products. Biofilters are made of microorganisms often settled on a substrate. It is the metabolic activity of these microorganisms that renders harmless the toxic substances secreted by the fish or generated by the breakdown of proteins from the fish faeces or the uneaten feed. Recirculation systems have the advantages that they have little impact on the environment, all the parameters, temperature, oxygen levels, acidity etc. can be controlled, the risk of diseases brought by the water is very low, and they can be used for a number of species. On the other hand these systems are expensive and technically complex requiring trained personnel to run and maintain them. The biofilter is the heart of the system and like any sensitive living creature needs to be treated carefully so that it performs optimally. At AquaPri farming pike-perch in a closed recirculation system was a process of learning both about the fish and about the system. Because it is a new species to be farmed in these systems there was little help to draw on from others’ experience. Many of the other producers in the Netherlands, Germany, or France 42

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

have either given up or have gone under, says Ms Overton, so we had to experience everything first hand.

Kurt Mogensen

grow-out facility that is currently under construction in the Vejen municipality.

Wild ďŹ sh are highly sensitive As a wild fish pike-perch are particularly prone to stress, sensitive to the bacterial loading of the water, and intolerant of high densities. And if something goes wrong, it can happen with little warning and needs to be corrected immediately. Among the problems that have surfaced is cannibalism among the young fish. Larvae that are slightly bigger than the others can start to feed on their smaller siblings. This is in fact a survival strategy for the fish in the wild as there the eggs hatch in a staggered fashion so that in environments, where food is scarce, the newly hatched larvae will function as feed for the older fish thus ensuring their survival, explains Ms Overton. AquaPri has also learned that cannibalism is something that the fish learn from each other. If there are five cannibals one day there will be 50 the next and 500 the day after, so rapidly containing the problem is vital. Fortunately this has become less of an issue with each succeeding generation, as fish with these or other undesirable impulses, such as territorialism, are isolated and not bred further. The broodstock that the company is using originates from a local lake, but it has also started collecting populations from different parts of Europe to start a breeding programme. This will entail crossing fish from different populations with desirable characteristics and then isolating candidate fish from the next generation that show the most promise and breeding those eventually to obtain the individuals that can be

Pike perch is a relatively unknown ďŹ sh on many markets

At AquaPri pike-perch eggs are stripped from the broodstock to get a better estimate of egg numbers and survival rates.

used as broodstock. In the hatchery music is constantly played in the background. It is to get the fish accustomed to sounds, explains Julia Overton, because initially the wild fish would react very badly to any noise, but they gradually get more used to sounds.

Fish can spawn four times a year By controlling the temperature and light the fish can be made to spawn four times a year in

the recirculation system in contrast to the wild where once a year is the norm. Although a freshwater fish the eggs in size and number are akin to those of marine fish. At AquaPri the eggs and the milt are stripped from the fish rather than allowing the fish to spawn. Stripping the fish enables accurate data about numbers of eggs, fertilisation and survival rates. Samples from different groups of eggs are monitored and if a sample is not developing as it should the group can be discarded without

Kurt Mogensen


Fillets of pike-perch are also used in the production of sashimi at high-end sushi restaurants in Denmark.

Trout roe is exported to the Japanese market.

wasting resources on it. While this approach is more labour intensive it is cost-efficient in the long run. The larvae although tiny when the eggs hatch grow rapidly once they are introduced to pelleted feed. It takes 15-18 months to reach a market sized fish of 800 g to 1.2 kg, says Henning Priess, the managing director and coowner of the company. The main product at the moment is whole round fish, but the company is also looking at producing fillets, and here the size of the fish plays a role. At about 1 kg it is possible to get a good fillet, he says, but we are looking for a market for slightly smaller fillets as growth is very rapid up to about 800 g, but then flattens dramatically making it disproportionately

expensive to produce a larger fish. The market for pike-perch is also affected by the wild catch, with prices fluctuating depending on whether the catch is good or poor. Pike-perch is still a niche product, relatively unknown in many markets. Today the company is selling the fish in Switzerland, Germany, France, and a little in Denmark. It is easier to sell in markets that know the fish, says Mr Priess, for example Spain, though a big consumer of fish, is unfamiliar with pike-perch and breaking into that market is difficult. On the other hand the Baltic States and countries in central Europe like Hungary and the Czech Republic that produce the fish themselves are more promising. The new grow-out facility

The new grow-out site in the Vejen municipality is expected to be ready around the second quarter of 2015.

is expected to be ready in March or April 2015. While the company has learned much about the production of pike-perch in closed recirculation, how the fish will react to the new system will

be studied with great interest in Denmark and outside. Because if sustainable farmed fish production is to increase in the EU, these systems will have an increasingly important role to play.

AquaPri A/S Havnevej 18 DK – 3300 FrederiksvÌrk DENMARK Tel: +45 47 76 00 10 Fax: +45 47 77 03 70

Activity: Fish farming Products: Trout (freshwater) 2,600 t, trout (marine) 3,200 t, trout roe 500 t, pike-perch 200 t Markets: Russia, Japan, Ukraine, USA, EU Turnover: EUR27m (2013-14) Employees: 85

Co-owner: Henning Priess Hatchery Manager: Julia Lynne Overton Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Dybvad Stål Industri has a new product

Plate freezers now for continuous freezing Dybvad Stål Industri makes plate freezers for the production of frozen blocks that are used by fish, and other food processing companies. The company designs and manufactures manual or automatic vertical and horizontal freezers that it supplies to processing plants on land as well as on board fishing vessels in countries round the world.


n a quiet corner in north east Jutland is the town of Dybvad (pop. 628), home to Dybvad Stål Industri, a company established in 1969 that specialised at the time in steel components. A decade later building on the experience and abilities gained working first with steel and later with aluminium DSI manufactured its first plate freezer and in 1997 the company decided to pull out of component fabrication altogether and concentrate on plate freezers. Today the company has one of the widest ranges of plate freezer models in the world. As the name suggests the basic unit of plate freezers are two hollow extruded aluminium plates which contain the refrigerant. The material to be frozen is filled into the cavity between the two plates. As the plates are in direct contact with the material the freezing is relatively rapid and results in a block, the thickness of which corresponds to the distance between the plates. This distance can be adjusted depending on the size of the block that needs to be produced.

Raw material quality determines that of the frozen product Freezing is a way of locking in the freshness of the fish and preventing its deterioration. By freezing products it is possible to prolong their shelf life substantially and 44

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

Most of the production operates on board fishing vessels

and developed. The company can offer a range of vertical and horizontal plate freezers that can be used wherever there is a demand for the production of blocks. We work very much with the fishing industry, says Peter N Christensen, the Sales Director at DSI, roughly 60 of our production is intended for fishing vessels, and we serve both the small vessels that have one or two freezers on board as well as the big Dutch pelagic trawlers that may have 50 freezers in operation and can process 400-500 tonnes of fish per day. The remaining 40 of the production goes to the on shore processing industry, where it is used to freeze fish fillets or crustaceans. Building plate freezers is a specialised operation that calls for specialised knowledge and tools so the barriers for entry are relatively high. Plate freezing is among the most effective ways of freezing, both in terms of freezing speeds as well as energy consumption, says Mr Christensen, which is also why DSI decided to focus on this type of freezing. Installation costs for a plate freezer are somewhat higher than, for example, for a blast freezer, on the other hand a plate freezer requires less space, which is an advantage particularly in the constrained space on board a vessel.

At DSI plate freezers are not just manufactured, but also designed

A plate freezer is designed to produce blocks, so for any

Peter N. Christensen, Sales Director, Dybvad Stål Industri.

if the freezing is done properly and with care the quality of the product will hardly be affected. For optimum quality however, the fish should be frozen as soon as possible after it is caught and should be kept refrigerated while waiting to be frozen. The quality of the final product is determined by the quality of the raw material – the quality of poorly handled raw material will not improve after being frozen. Once frozen, fish, if stored properly, can safely be shipped halfway around the globe to be thawed, processed, and then frozen again and sent to the market. Proper freezing and storage are among the factors that have contributed to the development of a processing industry in China and other parts of Asia that depends on frozen raw material in the form of whole round or headed and gutted fish from the US and Europe.

Fish is typically frozen either individually (individually quick frozen) or in blocks. Plate freezers are used for the manufacture of blocks. They are made to ensure the blocks are not too thick as this will negatively influence the efficiency of the freezing. Small pelagic fish are often the raw material for the production of blocks. However, their high fat content makes it necessary to glaze the blocks to prevent the fish from coming in contact with atmospheric oxygen and the fats within the fish from getting oxidised (rancid). The finished blocks are often wrapped in plastic for the same reason, before being packaged in cardboard cartons.


A horizontal freezer under construction. The plates are generally bigger than in a vertical freezer and they are used to freeze fish, fish fillets and crustaceans.

other product form, for example, individual pieces or prepackaged goods, a different kind of freezer is required. Blocks because of their regular shape and size are very easy to handle and store and can be produced in both the horizontal and vertical plate freezers that DSI manufactures. In vertical freezers the product is placed in the vertical chambers between the freezing plates, while in the horizontal freezers the product is placed in a carton or tray between the plates. In both cases the final product is a block of regular dimensions that can be removed from the freezer automatically, semi-automatically, or manually, and placed in storage. Both vertical and horizontal freezers are available in a range of configurations that can produce blocks of different lengths and widths and the thickness of the block can also be varied. The ability to produce blocks of different sizes is useful because block sizes can vary depending on the market they are being produced for. In Russia blocks are one size, while in the EU they are another and for North America and Asia the sizes can be different. When fulfilling an order DSI will typically work closely with the client

providing drawings and sharing the layout of the equipment so that the client can incorporate it into his facility on land or aboard the vessel.

Carbon dioxide substitutes conventional refrigerants The expertise at DSI is in designing and building freezers rather than in refrigeration technology. That said, the company is fully capable of advising on the capacity of the refrigeration systems that are needed to power its freezers. When selling its freezers the company relies on a network of refrigeration companies and contractors around the world, who are responsible for actually connecting the freezer to the refrigeration system. These people function as agents and are responsible for the marketing, sales and after sales service in the different areas and they give the orders to DSI from the client. Today many of the contracts that the company has won have been because vessels are being renovated or because old freezers are being phased out and replaced with new machines that use newer and more environmentally compatible refrigerants. The

first freezers were powered by CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) gases, which were discovered to have highly destructive effects on the environment, in particular on the ozone layer which shields the earth from the ultraviolet rays from the sun. CFCs were replaced by HCFCs (hydro chlorofluorocarbons) and HFCs (hydro fluorocarbons), which were initially thought to be better alternatives. However, these too were found to have unwelcome side effects particularly in their global warming abilities. Today there is a push to use natural refrigerants including carbon dioxide, ammonia, and hydrocarbons such as propane and butane, none of which have an impact on the ozone layer and only a minimal effect on global warming if at all. Freezers using the old refrigerants are thus slowly being phased out in some parts of the world providing DSI with opportunities to install new equipment that use more environmentally friendly refrigerants. Many of the company’s freezers use carbon dioxide, a refrigerant that it began testing many years ago, after research showed that it offered several advantages compared with conventional refrigerants both with regard to the environment and in terms of efficiency. In addition to carbon dioxide the company is also using ammonia, and Freon, an HFC.

Greater automation for improved safety Developments at DSI also include systems that automate the removal of the blocks from the freezers thereby reducing the time needed between batches and which are sought after on board vessels where conditions can be particularly harsh. After removing the blocks from the freezer the system places them on a conveyor which carries them away to the packaging line. However, one of the disadvantages of vertical freezers compared with tunnel or spiral freezers is that they are not continuous, that is, product cannot be frozen as it leaves the processing line. Plate freezers need to be fully loaded, the product is frozen, and then the blocks are removed before it is filled up again, each operation in a discrete step. To address this issue DSI has developed a horizontal freezer where a single work station can be opened, loaded, closed, and the contents frozen, opening up the possibility of continuous freezing. Innovative developments like this as well as leaner manufacturing practices to keep down costs, combined with high quality products and flexible customer service have enabled DSI to compete with manufacturers from countries with lower cost levels. Peter N Christensen believes that if DSI can maintain these features the company will remain attractive to clients seeking freezing solutions in the years ahead.

Dybvad Stål Industri A/S Parkvej 5 DK 9352 Dybvad Denmark Tel.: +45 98 86 42 99 Fax: +45 98 86 46 60

Sales Director: Peter N Christensen Products: Vertical and horizontal plate freezers Clients: Freezing facilities on board and on shore Markets: World wide Employees: 12 in the office, 35 in production

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Konsumfisk brings together stakeholders in three harbours

Closer cooperation will help the whole community Three Danish harbours on the west coast of Jutland have entered into a collaboration that brings together all the main actors – fishermen, auctions, buyers, processors, and service providers – in an alliance that seeks to expand the opportunities offered by the high quality fresh fish that is landed and traded each day. Called Konsumfisk, the collaboration ultimately hopes to attract more boats, higher volumes of fish, increase value addition, and draw more jobs and people to the area. Fish quality drives progress

Heidi Ebey Grønkjær, the project manager at Konsumfisk, a cluster established to contribute to sustaining and revitalising three harbour towns on the Danish west coast.


he restructuring in the Danish fisheries sector over the last 15 years has resulted in greater concentration of the fleet in fewer harbours. Several of the smaller harbours are no longer hubs for the fishing industry as the boats have gone and with them the ancillary industries tied to the boats. Today the main Danish fishing harbours are on the west coast of Jutland and include Hvide Sande, Thyborøn, Hanstholm, Hirtshals and Skagen. Strandby on the east coast of northern Jutland and Nexø on Bornholm are the other two main Danish harbours. These changes which can


Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

be attributed to several factors including the capacity adjustment of the fleet, falling landings of industrial species, compliance with conservation objectives, and a decrease in cod catches, are ongoing and will result in a sector with a very different structure than existed fifteen years ago. These changes also have an impact on the harbours where the fleets are based and to maintain their relevance and their status as hubs for the industry some harbours are taking initiatives that will add to their attractions, bringing in additional vessels, jobs, and opportunities.

Three Danish harbours on the west coast of Jutland, Thyborøn, Hvide Sande, and Thorsminde, have formally established a collaboration that seeks to exploit the high quality of the fish that is landed to bring ideas, investments, people, and employment opportunities to the area. The core of the cluster is the three harbours, the local fishing associations that together represent over 400 fishermen, and the fish auction company that has a branch in each of the three harbours. In addition, there are the service companies including electricians, smiths, and nets and rope suppliers, as well as the fish traders and processors associated with the harbours. One of the most important selling points for fish from the three harbours is the quality of the catch. Heidi Grønkjær, project manager, Konsumfisk, explains that working on the quality of the fish has been a priority for a couple of years now and the efforts are starting to bear fruit. The quality is determined among other things by the length of the fishing trip and vessels these days are typically only at sea for

three or four days compared to 10 days in the past. The fish when it comes ashore is naturally fresher after a three-day trip, but other measures also make a difference. Vessels now have ice on board and the fish when it is caught is usually sorted, gutted and laid on ice in trays, reducing handling when it comes on shore to a minimum. Fish like this is termed sea-packaged and is known for its high quality. The quality of the catch in turn attracts buyers to the electronic auction. The software comes from a private provider and links the sellers with buyers, who are physically present in the hall, as well as with some 150 buyers throughout Europe, who are bidding electronically. All the three auctions are connected to the system so the buyers at all three places see the same thing on the screens. The auctions are interested in delivering the fish as quickly as possible to ensure that the buyer is provided with the best quality and will therefore often arrange for the transport using one of the local logistics firms so that the fish can be delivered to the buyer’s door within the next 24 hours. The emphasis on quality is well-known to


The auction at Thybøron harbour is attended by local buyers in person as well as by about 150 traders from other parts of Denmark and Europe who participate over the Internet.

the buyers physically present at the auction, who are familiar with the boats and the skippers, and know where the best fish comes from. But helped by modern technology this reputation is gradually spreading to other countries, says Ms Grønkjær. Every day text messages can be sent to all the buyers informing them of the quantities, species, and the boats that have landed the fish. Buyers can inform their customers and then based on their response can bid for the fish. The technology also allows the fishers to watch the auction remotely and see how prices are developing.

Better dialogue between fishers, buyers, and others Konsumfisk however is aiming higher than just trying to encourage fishermen to look after their fish on board to improve the quality. By bringing the fishermen and the buyers together into one

organisation, we create a forum, where they can talk to each other, says Ms Grønkjær. This is important because the two parties can then better understand each other’s needs and requirements and can conceivably even plan for long term changes in the sector, such as a decline in the number of fishermen. In line with its mandate Konsumfisk organises workshops, seminars, and dialogue meetings and has also implemented some projects. One of these, for example, involved getting a buyer at the auction to start supplying a canteen in the nearby city of Holstebro. Now, from never serving fish the canteen has started offering fish once a week to its customers. This project, although small, in fact served two purposes. On the one hand it linked a buyer with a new customer, while on the other it either created new fish consumers or persuaded some people to eat more fish, both outcomes that Konsumfisk was created to achieve.

Konsumfisk was established five years ago and was given an extension from the start of 2015 for a further three years. Funding comes from a fee that the members pay as well as a contribution from the local commune. Over the last three years the organisation has established a name and a reputation for itself as a link to the fishermen of the west coast of Jutland and has been involved in events promoting fish consumption across the country. Konsumfisk is a channel to the fishermen, says Heidi Grønkjær, so if a buyer wants a quantity of a certain kind of fish on a regular basis he can get in touch with us, and we will help him. Now there is a demand for similar organisations in other parts of the country as people can see this is a useful platform to initiate activities. Many of the activities that Konsumfisk launches are to add value to the product. Demand, even for high quality fish, will sometimes drop and prices will fall too. In

situations like this it is important to try and develop products from the fish that can boost its value or to find markets that are willing to pay a higher price. There are also seasons when the quality of the fish is not as high for biological reasons and rather than being sold as fresh fish on ice, it may have more potential in some other form. Konsumfisk tests ideas for products on focus groups to assist industry and give it new input into consumer preferences, but also looks into the potential of using parts of the fish for example, heads, guts, skin or bones, that normally would be discarded. Getting consumers to either start eating fish or to eat more of it is another target for Konsumfisk. Increased sales of fish will benefits the entire supply chain, but also improve the health and wellbeing of consumers and is arguably better for the environment if it substitutes the consumption of meat. Ms Gronkjær has worked with Fiskebranchen, an organisation dedicated to increasing fish consumption in Denmark, putting together events for this purpose.

Landings of industrial species down, fish for humans up Of the three harbours in Konsumfisk Thyborøn is by far the largest. In fact, in terms of tonnage of fish landed, it is the second largest of all the Danish harbours being overtaken only by Skagen. Hvide Sande is considerably smaller with roughly 20 of the landings in Thyborøn, while Thorsminde does not count among the 10 largest Danish harbours, which accounted for 91 of landings and 88 of the value in 2013. Landings at Thyborøn have fallen over the last five years from 285,000 tonnes in 2009 to 186,000 tonnes Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



increased from 7,400 tonnes in 2009 to 10,000 tonnes in 2013, though the average price went from DKK18,200 to DKK16,200 per tonne. Landings of flat fish have increased steadily over the five year period. In Hvide Sande the picture is similar, landings of industrial species declined almost 20 from 2009 to 38,600 tonnes in 2013, while landings of species for human consumption over the same period went up by 30 to 7,000 tonnes mostly due to an increase in Danish landings of flatfish (Data from Fisheries in the ten largest harbours, Danish AgriFish Agency).

Landings of fish for human consumption at Thyborøn have increased over the last five years led by cod-type species and flat fish.

in 2013, a decline of 34, while in Hvide Sande, which saw a decrease over the same period from 53,000 tonnes to 46,000 tonnes, it was proportionately less drastic at 14. At the same time

the value increased in Thyborøn from DKK422m to DKK532m and in Hvide Sande from DKK131m to DKK190m. In Danish harbours as a whole landings have fallen by almost a fifth from 1.1m tonnes

to 847,000 tonnes while their value has increased by 28 from DKK2.7bn to DKK3.4bn. The decline in landings at Thyborøn can be largely attributed to the Danish industrial fishery, which went from 270,000 tonnes in 2009 to 148,000 tonnes in 2013. Danish landings at Thyborøn of fish for human consumption

Konsumfisk would like to see more vessels coming into the harbours Thyborøn, Hvide Sande, and Thorsminde. Both Thyborøn and Hvide Sande have seen a decline in the number of landings between 2009 and 2013 for industrial fish as well as fish for human consumption. Landings by foreign vessels also declined, though in Hvide Sande they are marginal. Attracting more vessels to the ports is part of Konsumfisk’s remit as vessels provide jobs for all kinds of service companies, but if more vessels land at Konsumfisk’s harbours less will be landing at other harbours – a conundrum that may have to be resolved at some point in the future.

Konsumfisk Havnegade 15, 2nd floor DK-7680 Thyborøn Tel.: +45 2441 6530 The fish auctions at Thyborøn, Hvide Sande, and Thorsminde, are part of the core of Konsumfisk.


Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

Project manager: Heidi Ebey Grønkjær

Partners in Konsumfisk: Thyborøn Havn, Hvide Sande Havn, Thorsminde Havn, Thyborøn Havns Fiskeriforening, Sydvestjysk Fiskeriforening, Danske Fiskeauktioner, Fiskernes Fremtid – Hvide Sande, Region Midt Jylland


Fisheries and aquaculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Rich resources could be better exploited The ďŹ shery and aquaculture sector in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) includes artisanal and recreational ďŹ sheries on marine and inland waters. The main types of aquaculture production systems are pond, tank and cage cultures. Farmed production is predominantly ďŹ sh, with only a small cultivation of molluscs.


osnia and Herzegovina is located in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula and covers an area of just over 51,000 km2. It borders Serbia to the east, Montenegro to the south east, Croatia to the north and west, and has a 12 kilometer coastline on the Adriatic Sea. The landscape varies from mountains to arable land in the north and Mediterranean vineyards in the south. Most of the major towns are located in valleys. Climatically, Bosnian summers last from May to September and are warm and humid, whilst winters tend to be foggy and snowy and last from November to February. Autumn and spring are usually short. Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of two entities and the Brcko District (BD). One of the entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), covers 50 percent of the territory, while the other, Republika Srpska (RS), has about 49. Brcko District covers the remaining one percent of the total territory.

Abundant sources of freshwater BiH is rich in high quality water resources. All natural waters in BiH are owned by the state, or by the two entities and the

Brcko District (BD) that constitute BiH. These ownership rights can be given or leased to public and private organisations. The authorities within the entities and the BD responsible for water resource issues are the Ministry of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry (MAWMF) in FBiH, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management (MAFWM) in RS and the Department of Spatial Planning in BD. The amount of Total Renewable Water Resources (TRWR) is 37.5 km3 per year. The dependency ratio is only 5.3 percent, which is exceptionally favorable. Rivers in BiH – a total of about 1,125 m3 per sec – flow either northward through the Danube into the Black Sea (62.5 percent) or southward into the Adriatic Sea (35.5 percent). Within the two main drainage basins nine river basins exist including Korana/ Glina, Bosna, Una, Vrbas, Sava, Krka-Cetina, Neretva, Drina and Trebisnjica. The hydrological characteristics and capacities of the country are determined by geomorphological and hydrogeological factors. The Dinara Mountains and the Alps cause high amounts of precipitations. Together with the extensive underground hydrological potential of the karst region’s water retaining capacity it is able to feed



Montenegro gr

Adriatic Sea

Albania a

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the numerous river-sized springs. Consequently, the majority of rivers originate from karst underground waters and strong springs.


Waters originating in the country flow through more than a total of 20,000 km long, dense web of streams and rivers. The total Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Rainbow trout is one of the species that is farmed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Different varieties of carp, pike-perch, and catďŹ sh are also grown.

length of the main rivers is 2,630 km while the estimated total length of all water flows longer than 10 km is about 9,000 km.

Table 1 Aquaculture facilities Size of the facilities 2012


Trout ďŹ shponds (sq. m) Carp ďŹ shponds (ha) Cages (cubic m)


Table 2 Fish production, tonnes 2010













Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

In addition to the huge and dense web of rivers, there are a total of 59 natural and artificial lakes in BiH, 36 of which are natural lakes. Their total area is about 3,111 ha. Comparing the total size of natural lakes with the size of BiH, it is around one-tenth of the world average. In mountainous regions natural lakes have been important drinking water sources for animal husbandry. Though natural lakes have no economic importance they could still play a special role in sport fishing tourism.

Furthermore, for flood control, water accumulation/storage and electricity generation, 23 water reservoirs have been constructed with a total area of 18,773 ha.

Characteristics of the ďŹ sheries sector There are 213 species of fish fauna in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Seventy six (36 percent) of them are marine, such as seabass, sea bream, 26 (12 percent) are diadromous, and 111 (52 percent) are freshwater fish species, including carps, catfish, pike-perch, tench, and trout. There are a total of 164 angling associations with about 17,000 licensed members.


Table 3 Imports of ďŹ sh and seafood to Bosnia and Herzegovina Imports of

2010 Value (BAM)


Quantity (kg)

Value (BAM)

2012 Quantity (kg)

Value (BAM)


Quantity (kg)

Value (BAM)

Quantity (kg)


Processed ďŹ sh

47,292,275 10,848,012 52,125,815 10,340,323



Crustaceans Molluscs Processed crustaceans and molluscs Total

48,229,988 11,923,478


Table 4 Exports of ďŹ sh and seafood from Bosnia and Herzegovina Exports of

2010 Value (BAM)



Value (BAM)

Quantity (kg)

Value (BAM)


Quantity (kg)

Value (BAM)

Quantity (kg)



Crustaceans Processed crustaceans and molluscs

Quantity (kg)


Processed ďŹ sh Molluscs



Aquaculture enterprises operating in the country number some 125. The licensing procedure for both fisheries and aquaculture is rather complicated, as a result about 40 of the fish farms are not yet licensed in BiH. Though subsidies for the sector are available in the two entities (in BD this is entirely missing) they are difficult to obtain due to complex administrative procedures. There are two development banks (one for FBiH and one for RS) which finance small and medium-sized enterprises, but access to loans is not easy due to complex administrative procedures. Twenty-eight commercial banks act as partners of the development banks, but they do not have their own loan

products for fisheries and aquaculture, while the eight microcredit institutions are considered too expensive to deal with.

Domestic and international markets The Agricultural Department of the Foreign Trade Chamber of Bosnia and Herzegovina has established and maintains the Association of Fish Producers. The Chamber supports the nine registered members, who are the biggest producers and main fish exporters of the country, in their export and import activities. The main objective of the chamber is to increase tax free export quotas. According to data from the

Chamber, 2,406 tonnes, which is a substantial part of fish production, was exported in 2011. More than half of exports went to EU countries as fresh products on ice. A small amount of fish is exported in smoked form. In 2013 the total export of fish and fishery products was BAM18m, while the total value of imports (around 11,000 tonnes) were BAM52.5m.

country is mainly maintained through supermarkets, specialised units of food markets and retailer shops. A significant part of the fish is sold on-farm in gutted form while in supermarkets, fish shops and fish markets it is sold mainly gutted and iced. The majority of fish is consumed during the Christmas period in Republika Srpska.

Fish produced on farms is sold directly to farm-gate consumers or to supermarkets, specialised fish shops and restaurants. There is no wholesale fish market in the country. Approximately 65 percent of the total production of fish is sold in domestic markets. The fish supply in the

Fish and seafood prices The average price of “river and lake fish� was BAM4.1 (EUR2.05) per kg in 2013 in the Republika Srpska. Farm surveys reveal that the price of trout sold on a large scale varies from between BAM 5.5 and 6.5 per kg across Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Table 5 Production and capacities of main exporting freshwater ďŹ sh farms, 2011 Exporter

Area (m2)

Annual capacity (t)


Production (t)









the country. The retail farm-gate price of live trout is about BAM 7 per kg while that of gutted ones is BAM 9. These prices which may seasonally change are similar in the FBiH and BD. According to FAO statistics, per capita consumption of fish and fish products was estimated to be 5.85 kg in 2011.

Several measures needed to develop sector There are three fields in which actions are needed in order to improve the efficiency and support the sustainable development of the sector. These are: sector administration; capacity building of key stakeholders; and support for basic investment in the field of both fisheries and aquaculture. Improved sector administration is the first step to be completed. This should include strategic action in the form of upgrading the status of the sector, improving sector administration with state level coordination measures, improving legislation, enforcing laws, and public friendly licensing of existing and new fish farms. Capacity building includes technical support and training for government organisations to improve services as well as to fisheries/angling organisations and fish farmers. The third group of recommended interventions in the field of inland fisheries and aquaculture include equipping 52

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

angling associations and fish farms, installing mechanical filters at land based trout farms, and equipping fish farms with fish transport equipment and

with fish processing and preserving units. This article is condensed from a report by the Department for

Agriculture, Food, Forestry and Rural Development, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina


with the latest information



[ TECHNOLOGY ] Geospatial technology in the ďŹ shing industry

Mapping hazards for greater safety Geographic Information Systems (GIS) store, display, and allow the manipulation of geographic or spatial data facilitating sharing and analysis of this information. Essentially, one can think of it as map-making on the computer, and using these maps to analyse a situation and solve problems.


he use of GIS in industry has allowed businesses to cut costs through increased efficiency and enhanced communication. Better record keeping and decision making are akin to managing on a geographic level. These tools also allow for easier compliance with government regulation. Movements of water play an important role in fisheries and aquatic science. Although water is dynamic and ever-changing, GIS technology has given scientists and industry the ability to track, store, and navigate for relevant information. Satellite imagery can be used to identify closures, show habitat loss, track invasive and endangered species, and manage fleets, among almost an infinite number of other applications. Essentially, the capabilities of GIS as a tool in fisheries is based on the ability to update and share data through a network for online data collection. GIS allows for the clear interpretation of metadata in by bringing together a lot of information in a visually appealing and useful way. Using spatial data has grown in appeal to members of Europe’s fishing industry in recent years as gathering and storing data has become easier and cheaper as the technology develops. Today, GIS has attracted new categories of users, such as industry members, who employ it not just for research, or government compliance, but also to ease access

To work safely and efficiently fishing vessels, need practical and available information on the vast systems of power cables, connecting energy infrastructure

of information and create real time visual data that can be relayed across vast networks. As more data is collected, historical observation allows for detailed analysis of problems facing the fisheries sector today, and collaboration with other industries enables the transmission of data across different systems.

Surface and subsea offshore hazard mapping Among those exploring GIS capabilities is the Kingfisher division of Seafish, a company that has provided the industry with information regarding offshore structures and the seabed for the past 40 years and

helped to improve safety and raise awareness of surface and subsea hazards along the coasts of the UK and around Northern Europe. Kingfisher sits within the Fishing Safety workstream at Seafish, a Non Departmental Public Body that aims to improve efficiency and raise product standards in the UK Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015







always been responsible for providing information on surface and subsea hazards for fishing vessels, but transitioned to the use of GIS technology from CAD, an older mapping system, to help improve database efficiency and map creation. The transition to mapmaking in GIS, has given the department new capabilities to display more data, and help to supply better information to fishing vessels throughout Northern Europe.




























































































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KIS-ORCA graphic display of subsurface pipelines throughout the North Sea

seafood industry. Kingfisher is dedicated to the management and dissemination of spatial data and maps, with the remit of improving fishers’ awareness 54

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

of potentially hazardous offshore structures. Aled Nicholas, an information officer at Kingfisher, gave some insight on how they have developed GIS as a

tool over the last four years for mapping subsea hazards to be distributed to vessels through a variety of communication and data networks. Kingfisher has

As installations of new renewable energy structures, oil and gas wells and other infrastructure increase in the seas of Northern Europe, it has become increasingly important for vessels, to be informed of what activities are taking place and where. Fishing vessels have had to adapt to the increasing demands of avoiding offshore infrastructure and zones such as marine protected areas. Offshore infrastructure, including telecommunication, power cables and wind farms, is increasing in the North and Irish Seas. In order to make fishing vessels aware of the cornucopia of subsea hazards, which are potential threats to safety, Kingfisher works with the oil and gas, subsea cable and renewable energy industries collecting and mapping up to date and accurate information that can be easily accessed by fishers. Because new structures are installed offshore so frequently, many of their locations are not reflected quickly enough, or accurately on admiralty charts that vessels use to navigate.

Cables, wind farms, oil and gas installations Kingfisher Information Service Offshore Renewable and Cable Awareness project (KIS-ORCA)


Fishing vessels have many obstacles to navigate in order to avoid grounding, like this subsea wellhead

is a joint initiative between the renewables industry, and subsea cable industry to supply fishing vessels with the most accurate and up to date information on the exact location of offshore and subsea hazards. This is primarily to ensure the safety of fishermen, but also helps prevent damage to infrastructure by vessels. With this information fishing vessels can see a display of potential hazards that exist in the seabed and ensure they avoid them. Offshore oil and gas infrastructure may also pose a significant hazard to vessels fishing in the vicinity of oil and gas fields. As with KISORCA, the offshore industries work with Kingfisher to ensure their structures are mapped accurately and in a timely manner – a project called FishSAFE. Over the last 15 years, Kingfisher and the oil and gas industry have successfully managed the FishSAFE programme to gather and distribute

spatial data on pipelines, wellheads, and other structures.

Projects supply information to fishers As part of KIS-ORCA and FishSAFE the UK fishermen’s federations distribute data throughout the UK. Vessels receive a CD, SD card or USB stick containing all the project data for their onboard fishing plotter system. Vessels can also access information for free through the KIS-ORCA website for cables and subsea hazards and though the FishSAFE website for oil and gas developments, where they can obtain a preview of data, with layers including cable networks, wind farms, offshore drilling sights, and electric substations, among other hazards. This data can be downloaded directly and integrated into plotter systems. The spatial information is converted by Kingfisher into

formats compatible with the plotter systems frequently used by fishing vessels. Using this information in the plotter system gives skippers a real time visual display of their exact location relative to the cable or hazards.

Constantly-changing data is a challenge to disseminate Because most marine data is extremely dynamic by nature, it can pose large challenges to providing up to date maps, and spatial data. Most databases offer annual updates, but in reality the information changes much more rapidly, with wind farm installations, and new wells added several times a month. Kingfisher has adapted to these challenges and, although, KIS-ORCA data is updated annually and FishSAFE data biannually, Kingfisher supplements the data by providing biweekly bulletins to fisherman informing them of any changes

that have taken place in addition to using social media to send out updates. Although this information is not reflected in the vessels’ plotter systems, it does help to increase awareness about potential new hazards. Due to technology limitations, collecting real time data is very difficult, especially since hazards change so frequently. Imperfect communication between data collectors, and those who package it also contributes to limitations associated with the technology and presents a challenge to retrieving the most up to date data possible. Coordination and harmonisation of data has become a significant challenge to the adaptation of spatial marine data, not just for offshore hazards and subsurface mapping, but also for vessel tracking and management systems. Integrating GIS technologies for greater ease of mapmaking and easier dissemination of data, has given Kingfisher more room to incorporate more data features into their products. The information provided by Kingfisher, including web mapping, is of great use for anyone in the fishing industry, says Aled Nicholas. Web mapping provides a simple tool to display spatial data on a website that can also be made interactive to facilitate ease of use. He sees Kingfisher expanding upon their current capabilities by including more web mapping, to accommodate any changes that are not reflected in the less frequent data updates for plotter systems. GIS is a handy tool that provides fishing vessels with a reliable resource to navigate subsea and offshore hazards. Andrew Orringer, Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ TRADE AND MARKETS ] Shrimp market report

EU, US increase imports in 2014 As much as 15% of the total value of fish products marketed worldwide is shrimp. Shrimp prices have been lower than other fish products due to the spectacular growth in production (80% over the past ten years). Farmed, wild, marine and freshwater, as well as the ability to process it into a variety of product forms make shrimp a versatile commodity produced and traded in many markets.


rom 1950 until 2000 shrimp catches increased continuously. Only in the 2000’s a certain stability began to be noticed, when production fluctuated between 2 and 2.5 million tonnes of shrimp. Today worldwide shrimp production stands at around 8 million tonnes, 56 of which is farmed.

Steep fall in northern prawn quotas However, wild shrimp is still an important part of world production and trade. World production of northern prawn (Pandalus borealis) has been decreasing since 2004, when it reached its peak (450,000 mt). Since then, catches have fallen by 50 and are expected to continue to fall. The shortage of supply over recent years, due to the delicate situation of the resource, has resulted in a strong rise in prices. Up to around 300,000 tonnes of northern prawn are caught every year. This is the most important wild species in terms of capture shrimp volume. Four fifths of the catch come from Canada and Greenland making these countries the leaders in wild northern prawn production. In 2007 183,000 tonnes of shrimp were caught, but in order to conserve the resource, the quota has been decreased year after year to reach 116,582 tonnes in 2014. This change has had a negative impact on shrimp processing plants which add value to a large part of this volume. 56

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Canadian landings of northern prawn have been decreasing since 2012 (143.348 tonnes per year) to only 86.271 tonnes in the period of January - September 2014. Despite these unfavourable conditions, Canadian exports of northern prawn have increased in the last two years (from 87,839 tonnes in 2012 to 94,348 in 2013). Demand in Ukraine, Russia and Norway has declined thus reducing the Canadian exports of northern prawn by 5.2 in the period from January to July, 2014. The European Union also imported 17 more the same period. The EU market annually imports around 6,000 tonnes of northern prawn from Canada. The lesser supply and the growth in European demand have caused prices to increase and even to double over the past four years (in June 2014, they were at 10.65 USD/kg). China and Russia are the second and third markets in Canada for this species (around 20,000 tonnes yearly, respectively), while exports to the USA are less than 1 of the total imported production. However, this market is a leading consumer of shrimp and the lack of whiteleg shrimp points to there being an increase in the demand in this country.

Greenland exports more to Russia Greenland is the second largest producer in the world of this cold water shrimp species after Canada. Greenland is also the main supplier to the EU (38,000-39,000 tonnes

Canada and Greenland are the most important producers of northern prawn. Quotas have been declining however in an effort to conserve the resource. Here, northern prawns cooked on board Canadian vessels are peeled at a factory in Latvia for the Scandinavian market.

yearly). Northern prawn production is mainly sent to Sweden, the United Kingdom and Italy. However, in the period from January to July 2014, Greenland exported one third less to the EU than in the same period the previous year. Overall, total exports of northern prawn from Greenland were down 17.5. The country markets its shrimp products cooked and peeled. It also markets the whole shrimp, which is in demand from China, Russia and Sweden, however, in smaller volumes than cooked or peeled. Russia, for example, imported 17.3 more shrimp from Greenland in the first seven months of 2014 if compared to the same period in 2013. However, it is worth mentioning that China and Sweden imported less than in the same period in 2013.

Argentina has evolved into a major wild shrimp producer An ongoing increase in catches over the past few years indicates that wild shrimp is also an important product in Argentina. In 2005, shrimp landings hardly reached 7,500 tonnes, but in 2013 it increased to over 100,000 tonnes. Although Spain and other countries are still the main markets for Argentinian shrimp, Asia is becoming increasingly important with Japan and China increasing the volumes of Argentinian shrimp imports. In 2010, Argentina exported shrimp to 28 countries around the world, and only 5,800 mt were sent to the Asian continent. In 2013, shrimp

[ TRADE AND MARKETS ] EU Imports of shrimp in 2014 from non-EU countries, tonnes China, 23,578 Ecuador, 83,488 Others, 265,175

India, 73,074

Indonesia, 13,929 Thailand, 14,929 Viet Nam, 39,527 Source: EUMOFA

EU Imports of shrimp in 2014 from non-EU countries, million euro China, 112 Ecuador, 549 Others, 1,742

India, 525

Indonesia, 131 Thailand, 162 Viet Nam, 329 Source: EUMOFA

was exported to 48 countries and around 25,000 mt was bound for the Asian market – a 350 increase. Over these three years Japan increased its purchases of Argentinean shrimp by over 10,000 mt.

Huge increase in value of Vietnamese exports to the EU, US Vietnam mainly exports its shrimp production to the USA, Japan and the EU. In 2014, Japan was the only market for shrimp from Vietnam that decreased both in terms of volume and value. Exports to Japan declined by 4 in value, possibly due to the yen’s

depreciation against the US dollar, while exports to the USA and the EU grew by 48.3 and 50.6 in value, respectively. Shrimp exports are expected to peak at over USD4 billion, up 25 year on year. As bilateral agreements with the major markets are about to be signed, especially the Free Trade Agreement between Vietnam and EU, from the beginning of 2015, Vietnam seafood exports will enjoy better trade conditions.

Farmed shrimp affected by disease Early mortality syndrome has had a very significant impact on shrimp supply from Thailand,

where production has dropped by 60 over recent years, resulting in a loss of its status as the world’s main shrimp exporter. Exports of shrimp from Thailand to all its main markets have fallen since 2013. This country mainly exports its preserved and prepared production to Japan. Prepared and preserved shrimp is the main type of exported shrimp and only 6.61 of the total shrimp exports in January – July 2014 were fresh shrimp. The main markets are USA, Japan and EU, however, a year on year decline in total imports is noted in all the main markets. In India, around 14.5 million people depend on fishing and aquaculture to earn a living. Even though consumption is growing at a rate of 20 today, over 99 of processed sea products are exported. Over the past 14 years, exports in terms of value have quadrupled, surpassing USD5,000 million (around one million tonnes). However, by 2020 India aims to export goods worth USD10,000 million. Shrimp is the most important commodity in India’s fish exports, especially frozen, which today accounts for 31 of exports in terms of volume and 67 in value. All caught shrimp is exported to other countries. India, which has doubled its whiteleg shrimp production, is now the leading supplier of shrimp in the world in terms of value. Regarding volume, 48 of total shrimp production (wild and farmed) is exported. Southeast Asia is the main market for India’s fish products (26.4), followed by the United States (25.7) and the EU (20). Over the last decade, wild shrimp catches have kept stable (around 350,000-450,000 mt per year), with small variations, depending on the climatic conditions. The future growth of the shrimp industry in India depends on aquaculture, mainly on whiteleg shrimp. The main challenges for the expansion

of farmed whiteleg shrimp are the production costs, which have risen, and the scarcity of pathogenfree larvae to supply the growing demand of the producers.

Imports to the EU and the US increase The main markets for wild and farmed shrimp are the US, the EU and Japan. Both the EU and the US increased their overall imports in the period from January to July 2014 compared to the same period in 2013. The EU imported more from Canada, India, Ecuador and Vietnam, but decreased its imports from Greenland and Thailand. In general, the EU market imported 3.6 more. The USA also imported greater volumes of shrimp in the period from January to July 2014 than in the same period a year ago. In 2014, the USA demanded more shrimp from Indonesia, India, Vietnam and Ecuador. However, it imported almost 50 less from Thailand than a year ago. The decline in imports from Thailand can be seen since 2012, when US imports declined by around 50, too. Although the main markets for shrimp have been the US, Japan and the EU, new markets for shrimp are emerging. China is one of them. At the moment China imports relatively low amounts of shrimp, but the country’s imports of shrimp are expected to grow. In 2013 Chinese imports of shrimp increased by 35 compared to the year before to 64,000 mt, while in the period between January and June 2014 China imported 28,000 mt, almost 16 more shrimp than in the same period a year earlier. With imports growing at this rate China is definitely a market to keep an eye on. Source: Conxemar Iveta Zvinklyte, Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


[ TRADE AND MARKETS ] Fishmeal and fish oil market report

Prices touch record highs in 2014 as supply lags demand Demand for fishmeal and fish oil is increasing in tact with the global increase in agriculture and fish farming. Low quotas and poor catches in Peru pushed prices up in 2014 and industries are actively seeking alternatives to use in feeds.


he low catch was caused primarily by the abnormally high sea temperatures, forcing anchovy stocks to deeper and cooler waters or to the south where industrial catches were prohibited within a ten mile zone. A short ban to suspend fishing operations for a few days due to high juvenile levels complicated the situation further. It seemed apparent that the El Niño would affect all agents of the value chain this year, although the full effects can never be completely predicted or confirmed. Nevertheless, the market was quiet during this period as buyers hesitated to order and China, the largest global fishmeal consumer, had built up a stock of 253,000 metric tonnes.

Low catch levels trigger high prices in Peru The quiet was broken shortly after the first anchovy fishing season in Peru concluded in August. Despite the deadline being extended to 10 August, only 68 of the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) was caught, or 1.71 million tonnes. Compared with the catch from the two seasons of 2013, which allowed 2.05 and 2.3 million tonnes respectively, the confirmed low catch level brought anxiety to markets immediately. Furthermore, in October, IMARPE made the recommendation that no quota be allowed for the second season until a reassessment survey was completed. This recommendation 58

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was due to the fact that after the first survey, only 1.45 million tonnes of anchovy biomass were found, while in 2013 the figure was 10.8–12.1 million. With these factors, the market did not hesitate to respond with record high prices. In October 2014, an FOB price of USD 2,400 per tonne was recorded for super prime fishmeal in Peru. Since then, prices have remained generally stable at this level. Usually at the end of the year, Chinese demands for its pork industry, which is the largest in the world, increase for the upcoming Spring Festival. This year is no exception and by December 2014, China had already quickly consumed its large fishmeal stock and had only an estimated 30 000 tonnes left. Peruvians may sell their remaining stock of just 30,000 tonnes soon and obtain rewarding prices.

Human consumption will compete with animal feed for fish oil In the long term, demands for fishmeal and oil can only increase with the growth of the aquaculture and terrestrial farming industry. Noticeably, Viet Nam, a significant aquaculture producer, has become the fourth largest destination for Peruvian fishmeal export. Oil production destined for direct human consumption will also seriously compete with the aquaculture and animal farming sectors.

As demand for fishmeal and fish oil increases, farmers can expect to pay higher prices for feed.

Globally, efforts to reduce the pressure on supply never cease, with countries working to diversify their sourcing. China has had to diversify its sources of product from Southeast Asia, Morocco and Panama. Norway has initiated contact with Chinese authorities in order to return to the largest fishmeal market. Denmark could continue its exports to China, and there may also now be a chance for Iceland to get a supply license from the Chinese Government.

High prices propel the search for alternatives GLOBEFISH anticipates that consuming countries will strengthen their search for alternatives in order to reduce their dependency on fishmeal, especially given the current extreme prices. The fishmeal and soymeal price ratio is now 4.13:1, compared with 2.10:1 last year. In the short term, it seems that the vulnerability of fishmeal/oil production will not

change if production continues to mainly rely on pelagic species. Utilising more by-products from processing factories could help the situation. In early December 2014, IMARPE confirmed its recommendation after a second survey that there should be no quota issued for the second fishing season. The justification for this recommendation was that the anchovy habitat had been significantly reduced and that a large portion of the anchovy in the Northern-Central region consisted of juveniles. There are hopeful prospects for this spring however, as the survey for the first TAC of 2015 will be carried out in April, when they could potentially find considerable stock volume with the appropriate size and weight. However, it could still be a difficult financial year for Peruvian fishmeal producers in 2015, as they will have to sell production made from the low catch of 2014, similar to the situation in 2013. FAO GLOBEFISH

[ TRADE AND MARKETS ] Lobster, salmon, pangasius see renewed interest from American consumers

Seafood providers adapt to consumer trends and global supply When evaluating the environmental sustainability of aquaculture operations water consumption and water discharge quality are important criteria. Today water usage is governed by more or less strict rules almost everywhere in the world. For aquaculture, this often means the obligation to clean and treat the water discharge in such a way that natural ecosystems remain unaffected.


nited States seafood markets are complicated and constantly changing, The North American Seafood Expo give industry members a venue to unveil and discover new products and adapt to new consumer trends. Exhibitors at Seafood Expo North America, 15-17 March 2015, will use the opportunity to observe new consumer trends arising in the United States, which imports seafood worth more than USD140 billion a year, and is the third largest consumer of seafood in the world behind China and Indonesia. In 2015, exhibitors are adding new products to their range in line with demands form US consumers. Because seafood consumption in the United States remains relatively constant, much of what determines the mix of products imported and landed in the United States is consumer preferences. Several industry players say that new products develop due to a combination of price and consumer demand, which ultimately determine what seafood is put on the shelves of grocery stores, and on dinner plates in restaurants. Many fish distributers focus on a mix of products, and markets to maintain flexibility in case of a shift in consumer demand.

The rise of swai Whitefish has always followed shrimp, tuna, and salmon, the three most consumed fish in the US. However, certain whitefish species are becoming increasingly popular among consumers, and distributers are taking notice. “Both catfish and swai are very popular among consumers and are flying off the shelves… catfish is gold right now” says Shawn Cessna, Marketing Director for Western Edge Seafood in Claysville, Pennsylvania. In fact swai which is also known more widely as pangasius, was the 6th most consumed fish in the United States in 2013. Most pangasius is imported from Vietnam in the frozen fillet form. In the last four years pangasius has made a sizeable dent in the US consumer market, and along with catfish products has become important to food servicing industries as an economical alternative to pricier forms of whitefish like seabass and cod.

Increased demand for lobster and salmon Mark Powell, Vice President of Sales for Fischer King Seafood in Halifax, NS, Canada says most (80) of Fischer King Seafood’s

Many in the seafood industry showcase product lines that include an ever adapting array of fish and fish products to get a better idea of what trends are occurring in regional and international markets.

products are caught in Canada and then exported to the United States. According to Mr. Powell, a lot of salmon and lobster products are getting cheaper. Lobster, which has gone down in price significantly in the US over the past several years can now be found in some chain restaurants, and Fischer King Seafood is expanding their palette of lobster products. Joel Kudlowitz of Dockside Fresh Seafood in White Plains, New York also says that there is more acceptance among American consumers of foreign products.

“There is a new acceptance of Norwegian Salmon”, where before American consumers shied away from Norwegian farmed salmon because of its colour and higher fat content. At Seafood Expo North America exhibitors will use the presence of large numbers of buyers, producers, traders, and consumers to get a comprehensive insight into many aspects of the challenging US market. Andrew Oringer Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015





Intensive work programme for 2015 approved at EUROFISH Governing Council The recently concluded EUROFISH Governing Council 2015 brought together representatives from the EUROFISH member countries, observers from institutions (FAO, GFCM, and others) and from countries interested in the activities of the organisation. At the meeting the organisation’s activities over the past year (2014) were reviewed and the programme of work for 2015 was approved. EUROFISH activities include dissemination of information through print and electronic media (the EUROFISH Magazine, other publications, and the websites); the organisation of events such as conferences and workshops; and participation in bilateral or multilateral-funded projects. Formal discussions on the first day of the meeting were followed by a presentation on

the prospects for fisheries and aquaculture in 2030. In a nutshell, demand for fish and seafood is expected to rise, along with trade and consumption, and to successfully meet this demand it will be necessary to effectively manage global resources. Participants also heard about the FAO Blue Growth Initiative, which emphasises cooperation and coordination among all stakeholders to promote the sustainable use of aquatic renewable resources. Finally, there was also a presentation on trends in the trade in seafood products, which disclosed that the expected growth in EU economies will have a positive influence on the European seafood market. The second day of the session was devoted to administrative and financial matters.

Members, observers, and staff at the EUROFISH Governing Council meeting. The picture was taken on the roof of the Copenhagen building, where EUROFISH has its office.


Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015


Study tour of Malaysia for government officers from Myanmar INFOFISH organised an overseas study tour for government officers from Myanmar to Malaysia in November 2014. The visit was to contribute to designing and implementing the National Plan of Action for Poverty Alleviation and Rural Development through Agriculture (NAPA) as envisaged by FAO/Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Rural Development. The aim was to enhance the capacity of the ministries and departments in planning, development, implementation and monitoring of agriculture and rural development programmes for poverty alleviation by exposing key officials from these organisations to the magnitude and spectrum of similar activities in other countries of the region. Led by Mr Oo Tin Thein, Deputy Director General, Cooperative

Trade Promotion Department, Ministry of Cooperative, the 14 visiting senior officials represented the Departments of Livestock breeding and Veterinary; Fisheries; Rural Development; Agriculture; Irrigation; Forest; Social Welfare; Trade Promotion; General Administration; and Planning in the Government of Myanmar. In addition to interaction with the functionaries of agriculture and agro-based industries the visiting officials were also exposed to ongoing development activities, especially in rural areas of Malaysia. The first two days were reserved for presentations by various agencies belonging to agriculture, rural development, livestock, and other relevant ministries followed by a round table session where representatives from different government and private agencies of Malaysia took part in the

A delegation of government officials from Myanmar came to Malaysia to enhance their capacity for designing, implementing and monitoring programmes in their ministries.

[ discussion. Participants saw the mode of implementation and achievements by the beneficiaries


covered under various poverty alleviation programmes in remote villages.


Ornamental Fish Trade Conference, Sri Lanka 1st

The Sri Lankan International Ornamental Fish Trade Conference was held in November 2014 in Colombo. The conference focused on the status of the ornamental fish market, on supply, and on trade issues relevant to the domestic and international market. It included presentations on recent advances in different sub sectors like ornamental fish farming, health, conservation and legal issues. The conference was co-organised by the Sri Lanka Export Development Board (EDB), Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development, Sri Lanka, Ministry of Industry and Commerce, Sri Lanka and INFOFISH in collaboration

with Ornamental Fish International (OFI). The event was inaugurated by Hon Rajitha Senaratne, Minister of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development and chaired by Mr Gerald Bassleer, President of OFI. It attracted more than 120 local and international participants. Eleven speakers shared their knowledge in the three different sessions: Ornamental Fish Production and Trade – Country Situation; Farming and Health; and Trade and Conservation. The participants visited a private ornamental fish producing company in Colombo, Sri Lanka for the field visit on the last day of the event.


The Fish Infonetwork ( FIN ) The FIN consists of 7 independent partner organizations. They cover all aspects of post-harvest fisheries and aquaculture. With more than 50 governments supporting the network, which also has strong links to the private sector, the activities are truly international. The FIN pages, which are a regular feature in the four network magazines – Infofish International, Infopesca Internacional, Eurofish Magazine, and Infosamak Magazine – present the FIN-wide spectrum of activities, showing actions and results. The FIN has more than 80 full-time staff and works with more than one hundred inter national experts in all fields of fisheries. Through its link from FAO Globefish to the FAO Fisheries Department, it also has access to the latest information and knowledge on fisheries policy and management issues worldwide. FIN executes donor projects, prepares market research for private companies, and organizes training courses on marketing and quality assurance. All seven services offer different possibilities for co-operation with the private sector, institutes, government offices and donors. Globefish Fishery Industries Division FAO Viale delle Terme di Caracalla I 00100 Rome, Italy Tel.: (+39) 06 5705 6313/5059 Fax: (+39) 06 5705 5188 Partners: European Commission (DG MARE) Brussels, Belgium Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute, (ASMI), USA Norwegian Seafood Council, Tromsoe, Norway FranceAgriMer - Montreuil-sous-Bois, France Seafish, the Authority, United Kingdom Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Spain

Infopesca Casilla de Correo 7086 Julio Herrea y Obes 1296 11200 Montevideo, Uruguay Tel.: (+598) 2 9028701/2 Fax: (+598) 2 9030501 Member Countries: Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Columbia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay, Venezuela

Infofish Menara Olympia, Level 2 8 Jalan Raja Chulan Kuala Lumpur 50200, Malaysia Tel.: (+603) 20783466 Fax: (+603) 2078 6804 Member Countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Iran, Malaysia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Thailand

Infopeche Tour C -19éme étage, Cité Administrative, Abidjan 01, Cote d‘Ivoire Tel.: (+225) 228980 / 215775 Fax: (+225) 218054 Member Countries: Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Morocco, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

Eurofish H.C. Andersens Boulevard 44 - 46 DK-1553 Copenhagen V, Denmark Tel: (+45) 333 777 55 Fax: (+45) 333 777 56, Member Countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Turkey,

Infoyu Room 203, Bldg 18, Maizidian Street, Chaoyang District Beijing 100026, P.R. China Tel.: (+86) 10 64195140 Fax: (+86) 10 64195141 Member Countries: China

Infosamak 71 Boulevard Rahal Meskini B.P. 16243 Casablanca, Morocco Tel.: (+212) 22540856 Fax: (+212) 22540855 Member Countries: Algeria, Bahrain, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, Yemen

Organisers and speakers at the 1st Sri Lankan International Ornamental Fish Trade Conference that was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



Collaborating with organisations and stakeholders makes for more effective implementation

Reaching out beyond fisheries and aquaculture Audun Lem, until recently the head of the GLOBEFISH project and chief of the Products, Trade and Marketing Branch, was recently promoted to deputy director of the Policy and Economics Division in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. While assisting the director in the day-to-day management of the division and providing guidance and support for almost 80 staff, Dr Lem will also work to increase the FAO’s impact by collaborating more with other international organisations, stakeholders, research establishments and other bodies, by finding synergies with other partners, and by identifying external funding opportunities. He sees it as imperative that the FAO gets better at cooperating with other organisations in the pursuit of its goals. In GLOBEFISH you initiated the fish price index a few years ago using fish trade data from the Norwegian Seafood Council. Will the index continue to be published? In the short term I will continue to oversee GLOBEFISH from my new position, but many of the regular activities at GLOBEFISH such as the publications programme and the price index run more or less on their own, thanks to great inputs from a dedicated and enthusiastic team. We receive the price data from Norway, and we are really grateful for this. For the index itself, we rely on the services of two well respected academics, Frank Asche and Sigbjorn Tveterås from the University of Stavanger, who update the index based on the new data and then it is published. So my task, more or less, is to secure funding and staffing, and I am confident that it will continue. In fact, we will upgrade the work on the index because we get so many requests from governments. They want in depth explanations, some of them want to have their own indexes and methodology, in fact, we have requests now from Argentina, from Japan, and from a number of other countries that want 62

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to construct their own indexes in much greater detail based on their own fisheries. GLOBEFISH focuses on the major markets and the large trade flows, but these countries naturally want their own, to see how the prices they get for their exported products evolve, how they compare to our indexes, for example, to see if they get less or more, it’s interesting. This is perhaps a field that we have neglected somewhat in the past, we focused very much on market information and trade information, but we did not pay as much attention as we could have to the more academic dimension of our work, which is also important for the long term impact. And, of course, since our aim is not only to disseminate knowledge, but also to create it, I think, by having this academic dimension and working together with universities all over the world, we also add value to their fisheries research. The index has also given the sector and price developments a lot of added visibility and both the Financial Times and The Economist have referred to it on a number of occasions. We are also working on how to integrate fish prices into the overall FAO Food Price Index. Since the

Dr Audun Lem, Deputy Director, Policy and Economics Division, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, FAO

methodologies in use are different, this takes some adjustments but the plan is to have this done before the end of 2015.

What is interesting about the fish price index for the sector is to see the development of prices. But for policy makers it is perhaps


the codes that are as relevant today as they were twenty years ago. Concretely, how do you see the success of the Code? How do you measure it? Are there indicators that can be used to assess its success or otherwise?

Aquaculture is critical to the global supply of fish yet the industry has not been able to shake free of the negative image it has among some stakeholders. Greater transparency, better communication, and a more unified voice would all contribute to countering this adverse perception.

even more interesting to compare price developments for fish and fishery products to livestock and chicken and other types of protein. And this comparison is generating more attention and interest from outside our own sector. If we create more interest in the role of aquaculture and fisheries in nutrition, and in protein generation, so getting more integrated in the debate on food, I think it also adds to our own work and strengthens the relative position of the sector. And in my new position as Deputy Director I am trying to encourage all the units in the division to integrate more in the wider food agenda, including our policy team and the colleagues working on statistics and information. The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries celebrates its 20th anniversary this year. How will this be marked and is the code as relevant today as it was when it was first released? Are fisheries more responsible and more sustainable? Yes, there will be a number of activities and events within the FAO, with external participation,

of course. There will be a focus on the Code at the North Atlantic Seafood Forum in Bergen in March and there will be an even larger event in Vigo in October, where there will be a two-day FAO conference with FAO member countries invited in collaboration with the government of Spain. There will probably be 100-120 countries present, with strong participation from both the public and the private sector as well as civil society representatives. The Code provides guidance, it contains principles, which then trickle down through technical guidelines and International Plans of Actions to be implemented by FAO’s member countries, and then finally many of them become a part of national law. So then it is not just a principle anymore, it is a part of national legislation. There are also agreed international instruments that have evolved from the Code. The Code applies to both fisheries and aquaculture. Production and harvesting, but the Code really addresses the whole value chain. So, responsible trade, for example, and the importance of scientific knowledge, research and development, there are many principles in

It depends on the indicators you select. If we talk about the ability of the fisheries and aquaculture sector to supply food to human beings, I think, the result is very positive. If you see the amount of fish and fishery products that are produced now compared to 20 years ago, there has been a tremendous increase. Capture fisheries are more or less stabilised, but aquaculture continues to grow and that in itself is a tremendous achievement. However, there are still many stocks that are overfished but the situation is not bleak. If you look at the most recent copy of SOFIA (The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014), you will notice that whereas in the past we used to classify fully fished fisheries and over exploited in the same category, this has now been separated out and it gives a much clearer picture of the actual situation. And you will see that the large majority of fish stocks are fished at the MSY level or below. The approval of the Code in 1995 certainly accelerated or contributed to the debate on the need for more sustainable fisheries. And in that sense it certainly has been a success. On the other hand, maybe we took it for granted that the Code of Conduct would be well-known outside the sector, and that is not necessarily the case. And while it is well-known within fisheries administrations around the world, we have to communicate more outside our sector. The fisheries and aquaculture sector has been to a large extent a field for those within the

sector, with difficulty in getting the message through to policy makers or to the general public. But given its importance, not only economically but also as a provider of food, of protein and of crucially important nutrients, we have to communicate more and better with other sectors, whether they deal with planning of resources or coastal planning, or food production in general, or zoning, or coastal, or rural economic activities, we have to become more integrated. And this, of course, is a process that is already taking place. Already in the principles of ecosystem management there is a recognition that you cannot manage a resource on its own, but as an element in a bigger picture, taking into account the mutual impacts between various sectors. How do the standards established by organisations like the Marine Stewardship Council, for example, relate to the Code? The FAO member countries asked the FAO to develop guidelines on certification of marine capture fisheries, inland fisheries, and aquaculture, which were then endorsed by the FAO member countries at the FAO Committee on Fisheries and by the FAO governing bodies. The guidelines exist for consultation and are a baseline used by stakeholders. The MSC together with other scheme owners have built their own eco-labelling certification schemes based on the principles of the code. So in that sense it’s the code of conduct which underlines also the certification systems of the MSC and others. And now, of course, there is an initiative called The Global Seafood Sustainability Initiative, which is a stakeholder driven initiative, to some extent, also with the involvement of NGO’s, including WWF, which is a Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015



partner of MSC, to come up with a benchmarking tool to harmonise and provide some clarity in the situation among the different eco labels. FAO is supporting that process because we would also like to see a situation with more clarity and transparency on the ecolabelling of fish and fishery products. Especially from the point of view of developing countries who produce the vast majority of fish in the world and that these are not faced with a situation in which eco-labels constitute a barrier to market access for their exports. What is the Blue Growth Initiative that the FAO has launched? What does it hope to achieve and how will it be funded? The Blue Growth Initiative is a new FAO programme, which is getting a lot of attention from member countries. It is a framework for delivery that is more coherent as it reaches beyond the fisheries and aquaculture sector to cover coastal management, forestry, water, and shared resources, while at the same time including production both from capture fisheries and aquaculture, trade, food security, and nutrition. It is thus a more inclusive delivery programme for activities that are relevant for fisheries and aquaculture, but goes beyond, what was traditionally defined as the sector. And this is something that we are now rolling out on a pilot basis in Indonesia and Morocco together with the World Bank, UNEP, Worldfish, and others. It is also an excellent means for communicating what the sector is doing and what it can do in terms of its contribution to food production, local economic development, and food security. But most importantly, it should be a more effective implementation


Eurofish Magazine 1 / 2015

mechanism to face the challenges in the sector. The funding will not come from FAO and that is why it is so necessary to work with partners. FAO will pay its own costs, but in order to have an impact you also need investment. And investments are needed in the fisheries and aquaculture sector, not to catch more fish, but to produce better, to create value. In aquaculture more investments is needed to allow the sector to grow and to be able to supply the growing demand for fish from world consumers. In the harvesting sector, perhaps you also sometimes need to reduce capacity, invest in infrastructure, in the cold chain, for example. Reduction of food losses are also important. When you look at post-harvest losses in many areas of the world, it’s scandalous how much is lost because of bad storage, exposure to the elements or outdated technology. Aquaculture is increasingly important for global fish supply, but there are also environmental impacts from aquaculture, pollution, destruction of habitats, so how do you reconcile these two? On the one hand aquaculture is needed to contribute to global fish supply, it has become the most important source for direct human consumption, yet, on the other, it has these negative impacts. Well, firstly, we shouldn’t talk about aquaculture anymore as an emerging industry. It is not emerging. It has fully emerged and, in fact, in 2014 supply from aquaculture overtook that from capture fisheries in its contribution to direct human consumption. Now, when you look back

at aquaculture in the 1970s, it was greeted very positively as a supplier of fish and fishery products with great potential. In the late 1970’s or early 1980’s with the increase in use of antibiotics, destruction of mangroves in many countries, and some disease problems, perceptions changed for the worse, despite the fact that most of these problems have been overcome. If we talk about mangrove destruction that happened for a number of reasons, out of ignorance, out of a lack of properly defined property rights at the time in many zones of the world, lack of local legislation, but these issues have been firmly addressed by all relevant producing countries. The use of antibiotics has also been vastly reduced, though it still exists, just like it exists, of course, and at a much larger scale, for livestock and poultry and other sources of protein, but the reduction in the aquaculture sector has been incredible. And if you look at the salmon-producing sector, the reduction has been perhaps more than 95. If you look, for example, at Norway, I think it’s down to just some few hundred kilos a year, maybe through vaccination of the fish, through better selection, through better feed, and growing conditions, etc. But the negative perceptions of aquaculture still persist among many stakeholders and it’s a challenge to the industry to overcome that. I don’t think there is one solution, but certainly more transparency and more factual information could help address the situation. The industry is very fragmented, it doesn’t really have one voice or one strong industry association either. The salmon people speak for themselves and the shrimp farmers talk for themselves, but

there’s no single international body with a broad participation from the industry that can really promote and communicate the evolution and achievements that the sector represents. The FAO is promoting the use of small pelagics or small fish for human consumption. Now much of this fish also goes into the manufacture of fish meal and fish oil for the aquaculture industry. How can both be used for human consumption as well as to support a growing aquaculture industry? Well, to some extent we talk about different fish stocks and fish species. If we talk about the vast resources of small pelagics that are available off the coast of Chile and Peru, the volumes are so large and they appear over such a very limited period of time that it is impossible to preserve this fish and make it available to local consumers, except for a very small amount. So, at least for the foreseeable future, the vast majority of these resources will continue to be used for fish meal and fish oil, which then enters the food chain through aquaculture or livestock or poultry production. At the same time these governments are promoting fish consumption, but not necessarily of these species, and of domestic aquaculture. The urban populations in Peru or Chile probably would prefer other species for fish consumption and all year round. Fish consumption in these countries has always been low. It’s slowly growing, not really because of small pelagics, but because of more farmed production of salmon, trout, and mussels and also greater recognition that fish consumption is healthy.


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