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Conference „The Alps in movement“

Rete Montagna  Interna,onal  Congress   Bolzano 6th -8th November 2014 Eurac  Conven,on  Center  -­‐  Bolzano/Bozen  -­‐  IT  November,  6th  -­‐  8th  2014

New railway  infrastructures  and  accessibility   in  mountain  regions:  a  case  study  from  the  Alps  

FEDERICO CAVALLARO,  ELISA  RAVAZZOLI    

European Academy  of  Bozen/Bolzano   Ins@tute  for  Regional  Development  and  Loca@on  Management


Conference „The Alps in movement“ Bolzano 6th -8th November 2014

2014


Conference „The Alps in movement“ Bolzano 6th -8th November 2014

New railway infrastructures and accessibility in mountain regions: a case study from the Alps

European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano Institute for Regional Development and Location Management Federico Cavallaro, Elisa Ravazzoli


Outline 1.  The alpine arch: current condition 2.  The alpine arch: future condition 3.  The Brenner axis: current and future condition, variation in travel times 4.  Conclusions and next steps


Main alpine and peri-alpine cities • 

Transalpine corridors as connections between the main peri-alpine cities


The current condition: freight • 

The use of private vehicles as favorite transport mean along the alpine corridors

• 

In last 30 years substantial increase in the freight transport

• 

Unsustainable growth of road traffic (exception: Switzerland)

Source: Alpinfo, 2012


Push- and pull-measures •  Rail is unattractive: unsuitability of existing rail products, difficult accessibility to intermodal nodes, low competition…

•  Need for tools to improve rail service: •  Push-measures: discourage the use of road transport systems

Source: www.loxlee-loves-engines.com

•  P u l l - m e a s u r e s : i m p r o v i n g t h e attractiveness of alternatives to the road transport => Realization of new infrastructures as one of the main pull-measures.

Source: www.spz.logout.cz


Outline 1.  The alpine arch: current condition 2.  The alpine arch: future condition 3.  The Brenner axis: current and future condition, variation in travel times 4.  Conclusions and next steps


The future layout/1… •  7 railway corridors: Genoa-Marseille, Milan-Turin–Lyon, Genoa–Basel via Gotthard and Lötschberg, Verona-Munich, Venice–Vienna, Venezia-Maribor •  No new highways (according to the Transport Protocol of the Alpine Convention)


The future layout/2‌ Impact of new rail infrastructures on travel times: comparison with car

Current travel time by train

Future travel time by train

Current and future travel time by car

Difference train-car today

Difference train-car future

Genoa - Basel

05:40

04:13

05:09

+00:31

-00:56

Genoa - Zurich

05:15

03:38

04:40

+00:35

-01:02

Genoa - Marseille

05:39

03:15

04:11

+01:24

-00:56

Milan - Lyon

04:46

02:32

04:57

-00:13

-02:25

Verona - Munich

05:23

03:00

04:35

+00:48

-01:35

Venice - Vienna

07:58

06:33

06:14

+01:44

+00:19

Main terminal stations


…its temporal consequences… Current travel times

Future travel times: • 

shortening of the transversal links

• 

longitudinal alpine connections will present fewer changes

• 

centrifugal shape

• 

trans-boundary connections time-consuming if related to the physical distance


… and its spatial consequences •  The distortion of the grid highlights the compressions and the dilatations of space •  New infrastructures decrease the area covered in every direction, particularly on the French and Austrian sides.


Methodology 1.Geodatabase creation Delimitation of the study area; Design of the railway network model for present and future railway lines and nodes; Identification of cities within the transportation network.

Tool: GIS

3.Visualization 2.Method Multidimensional scaling of present and future travel times matrix.

Use of GIS to create shapefile nodes on the basis of the MDS rescaling of points for both current and future railway network.

Tool: Matlab

1.Statistical database

Tool: Darcy 2.0 and GIS

List of the current and future travel times; Creation of distance matrix for present and future travel times (between all pair cities).

Tool: access

City Vienna

Geographical Coordinates Longitude16.2332 Latitude 47.8028

Geographical Coordinates rescaled for present times Longitude15.0803 Latitude 47.787

Geographical Coordinates rescaled for future times Longitude 15.5859 Latitude 47.4002


Outline 1.  The alpine arch: current condition 2.  The alpine arch: future condition 3.  The Brenner axis: current and future condition, variation in travel times 4.  Conclusions and next steps


Brenner: E45 highway & railway


Preeminent role of Brenner

Source: Imonitraf!, 2014


The historical railway line •  Existing railway line not adequate for an HS/HC service: gradients, tight curve radii and tunnels difficult to enlarge => Speed limited even to 40 km/h between Innsbruck and Brenner


The new HS/HC railway line •  Part of the TEN-T corridor n°1 (BerlinPalermo) •  Northern access line: Munich (D) - Innsbruck (A) •  BBT: Innsbruck (A) Fortezza (I) •  Southern access line: Fortezza (I) – Verona (I) •  Construction: 2008-2025 BBT, 2035 (?) Southern access line


The new HS/HC railway line •  Munich – Verona: from 05 h 23 m to 03 h 00 m


South Tyrol-Verona: bus + train


South Tyrol-Verona: car •  Transport protocol of the Alpine Convention: no new main roads along the alpine arch •  No relevant changes in future travel times by car •  Rail can be a valid alternative for freight and passenger transport •  The contextual adoption of pushmeasures can make this change more evident


HS/HC railway line: local impact

•  South Tyrol – Innsbruck: competitiveness of the new public transport system as the fastest means of transport •  South Tyrol – Trento: fewer changes due to the limited distance •  South Tyrol – Verona: relevant changes, mostly on the Municipalities on the east side of the Province


Outline 1.  The alpine arch: current condition 2.  The alpine arch: future condition 3.  The Brenner axis: current and future condition, variation in travel times 4.  Conclusions and next steps


Conclusions •  Travel times: one of the most important parameters that affects the modal choice of travelers. •  Trans-national scale: HS/HC railways as the main future transport mode for the alpine area. Relevant reduction of travel times in almost all cases •  But this is not enough! •  Regional scale: more complex problem. Competitiveness only with an integration with local PT timetables


Next steps: indirect impacts •  The new infrastructural layout will change travel behaviors, with significant consequences that affect the economy, the territorial layout, the society and the environment •  Such consequences are called „indirect impacts“ and are still not adequately assessed •  Relevant changes are already visible (e.g., Bolzano station): infrastructures grants mobility, but at the same time they create territorial mobility.


Thank you for your attention

Federico Cavallaro Institute for Regional Development and Location Management European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano Drususallee 1 39100 Bozen, Italien T +39 0471 055355 F +39 0471 055429 federico.cavallaro@eurac.edu www.eurac.edu


2014

Profile for Eurac Research - Institute for Regional Development

RM Congress - Presentation - 04 Cavallaro  

The Alps in Movement - 2014 - Rete Montagna Congress

RM Congress - Presentation - 04 Cavallaro  

The Alps in Movement - 2014 - Rete Montagna Congress

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