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On the way to sustainable mobility! The electric cars that drove around in the first science fiction films seemed to represent life in a society way off into the future. Cars were powered by petrol and later occasionally by LPG and diesel. Now, the fantasy has become a reality. Electric cars have now become so advanced that they have become accessible to the man in the street. Driving electric is good for the environment and good for the economy. Actually making the switch requires cooperation at all kinds of levels – economic, technological, governmental – between commercial and non-commercial parties.

Towards electric mobility in The Netherlands

In this brochure, Essent and Enexis invite you to join them on an accelerated journey towards sustainable mobility and help make the Netherlands a pioneer in the field of electric transportation. Attaining such a position will create opportunities for our knowledge and services economy. Let us together make the most of these opportunities!

An invitation to cooperation


1 Mobility: the key to a sustainable future


1

Mobility is a fast-growing necessity

It is a major factor in both our work and our private

If we want the economy to continue growing and

lives. The fact that the economy is growing and

want to carry on living comfortably, travelling and

足society is becoming more individualised means

engaging in leisure activities, we will have to find

that the need for mobility is also growing.

ways of making our mobility a lot cleaner and

The downside of the increasing number of

more sustainable. By switching to electrically-

kilometres we are travelling are well-documented,

powered cars, we take a huge step towards

namely air pollution, noise nuisance, congested

sustainable mobility and with that towards a

roads and severe dependency on fossil fuels, of

sustainable future in the Netherlands.

which sources are becoming more and more scarce.

Society is becoming more and more individual and that will lead to an additional increase in the need for mobility Share of one-person households per province, 2007 and 2025 Noord-Holland Groningen Zuid-Holland Utrecht

2005

Friesland Limburg

2000

Gelderland Zeeland

1995

Overijssel Noord-Brabant

1990

Drenthe Flevoland

1985 7

8

the Netherlands 0

nsport

50

100

All forms of mobility



150

200

0

5

10

15

2007

20

25

2025

30

35

40

45

50


Cars play an important role in economic and leisure activities.

Mobility motives

Modes of transport Other 1%

Business 3%

Public transport 5% Education 9%

Walking 17% Other 11% Leisure time 38% Car 48% Commuting 17%

Motorcycle/bicycle 28% Shopping 21%

Leisure time Shopping

Commuting

Business

Business

Other

Car

Walking

Motor cycle

Other

Public transport

The number of private cars and the number of kilometres travelled have increased in recent years Number of private cars (in millions of vehicles)

Growth in the cumulative distance travelled per year (in billions of km) Noord-Holland

2005

2005

2000

2000

2005

Noord

Groningen

G

Zuid-Holland

Zuid

Utrecht

2005

Friesland 1995

1995

1990

2000

1990

1985

1995

1985

1980 0

1

2

Private cars

14

25

36

47

Private Lightcars transport

58

6

7

Light transport

50

Overijssel

O

Noord-Brabant

Noord

Drenthe

1985 0 8

Ge

Zeeland

1990

1985 03

Gelderland

1995

1990

1980

Limburg

2000

0

100

50

150

100

200

150

Flevoland

F

the Netherlands

the Net

200

All forms of mobility All forms of mobility



0

5


2 Electricity: the most powerful motor of sustainable mobility


2

Electric transportation: clean, silent and efficient

Electric cars generate the greatest reduction in

Alternative fuels Besides electricity there are

emissions of CO2, fine dust, small particles and

other, alternative fuels on which cars can run,

other hazardous materials. All kinds of sources

such as biofuel, hydrogen and natural gas.

can be used to generate electrical energy. If we

The use of biofuel is subject to limitations.

use sustainably generated energy (solar, wind)

The use of hydrogen requires a lot of research plus

to 足produce electricity, electric cars, and of course

considerable investments. Although natural gas is

electric scooters and buses as well, will even

a lot cleaner than petrol, it is still a fossil fuel and

be completely climate neutral, with no other

is therefore no solution for the long term.

足hazardous materials being emitted.

Electric cars are considerably cheaper to use and

Electric transportation offers high levels of energy

maintain than conventional and hybrid vehicles.

efficiency. The fact that a lot more energy is

The fuel costs and with that the costs per kilo-

足converted into motion rather than into heat means

metre are a lot lower. An electric car has fewer

the yield from electric motors is a lot higher than

moving parts and therefore experiences less wear

in the case of internal combustion engines.

and tear.

On top of this, electric cars are almost silent. Only one conclusion is possible: electricity is the most powerful motor of sustainable mobility.




Cars can run on a number of different energy sources; electric transportation offers considerable possibilities for reducing our dependency on oil. Various engines are needed in order to run a car on different fuels

Various fuels can be used as energy source for an electric car

Petrol Natural gas

Oil

Oil

Biofuel crops

Diesel

Sun

LPG Wind Biofuel crops

Electricity

Ethanol/ petrol Coal

Natural gas/ Green Gas

CNG*

* Compressed Natural Gas

Well-to-wheel analyses have shown that electric transportation is the most energy-efficient and clean form of transport CO2 emission ‘well-to-wheel’ in 2010 in gCO2eq/km

‘Well-to-wheel’ efficiency based on the same fuel (natural gas) in %

Gas oil

Conventional vehicles Conventional vehicles

19%

Hydrogen-powered vehicles (reforming) Hydrogen-powered vehicles (electrolysis) Electric vehicles

2,1x 28%

1,6x

13%

3x 40%

24

140

Diesel 24

128

Worst case

161

Best case

17

Coal (gasification) Hydrogen-powered vehicles Natural gas (reforming)

220

Hydrogen-powered vehicles (electrolysis)

Biofuel vehicles

Electric vehicles Well-to-tank

98

EU mix

196

100% recycled

9

EU mix

60

100% recycled

0

Tank-to-wheel

Well-to-wheel




2



Electric cars generate the greatest reduction in emissions of CO2, fine dust, small particles and other hazardous materials


Sample calculation: one million electric vehicles would reduce energy consumption in the Netherlands by 17-34 PJ per year, and CO2 emissions by 1.5-2.3 Mton per year Saving Electricity

Fuel mix

Petrol

Oil

Electricity

Sustainable

60 g CO2/km 1.2 MJ/km

Comparable with emissions of:

E-car on 100% sustainable fuel CO2: 1.5 Mton/year Energy: 17 PJ/year

1.2 million households

164 g CO2/km 2.4 MJ/km

0 g CO2/km 0 MJ/km fossil energy

E-car on 100% sustainable fuel CO2: 2.3 Mton/year Energy: 34 PJ/year

1.8 million households

Electric transportation produces no local emissions and electric cars contribute to an additional reduction in NOx and PM10 values in cities The top 6 Dutch cities as regards exposure to extreme values PM10 and N02 in proportion to the number of people resident in areas with PM10 and NO2 values above the permitted level in 2006

73 Zaanstad 26 100 Amsterdam The Hague 16 12

40 196

14 Utrecht

Rotterdam

4 Tilburg

Number of residents x1000 of an area with an NO2 value above the permitted level

Number of residents x1000 of an area with a PM10 value above the permitted level

The total number of residents exposed to NO2 above the permitted level is 166,100

The total number of residents exposed to PM10 above the permitted level is 415,100




3 Electric transportation is playing an important role in the future of sustainable energy


3

Driving electric leading to considerable increase in energy storage capacity

In the future we are going to use more and more

Creating storage facilities close to local sources

sustainable energy. After all, sun and wind are

will limit the costs of these investments.

available in abundance. Electric cars mean we are able now and in the future to make optimal use of

More intensive use of capacity

that sustainable energy. Up to now we did not

Intelligent control instruments will mean we can

have the means to realise the flexible storage of

soon respond effectively to the growing need for

- primarily - wind and solar energy despite this

energy and successfully manage its distribution

being necessary given that the yield from these

and delivery. One of those instruments is the

sources cannot be influenced and is subject to

Mobile Smart Grid, a distribution concept with

fluctuations. Electric cars offer the possibility of

which we can use the generating capacity and

flexible storage in their batteries. The more

the capacity of the existing electricity network

electrically-powered cars there are, the more

intelligently and more intensively. This will enable

potential storage capacity there will be, and that is

us to meet the increasing demand for electricity

yet another incentive for the production and use of

with just a limited number of extension investments

sustainable, clean energy.

being required. This will increase the total share of sustainable energy in the total energy mix in the

Storage facilities close to local sources

Netherlands.

Future energy management will be characterised by increasing decentralisation. Small local units will start supplying more and more of the energy

Available peak capacity for electricity generation in the Netherlands (GW)

required. This means there will be plenty of opportunities to generate sustainable energy or

75

Solar

20

Wind

27

Thermal units

use windmills and solar panels. Investments in the network are necessary to distribute the energy generated locally across the regional network.

2 21 2009

12

2050


Sustainable energy sources are not available continually and yields fluctuate. The use of electrical energy can be optimised through flexible storage and control of demand and the electric car plays a key role in this respect (2050). Extreme situation 1: High demand, no wind and solar

Extreme situation 2: Low demand, lots of wind and solar

Fossil sources Solar and wind

Surplus Solar and wind Intermittent sources

Shortage

Fossil Controleerbare sources bronnen Supply

Demand

Options to prevent shortage: 1) construction of more conventional power stations 2) reduce demand 3) take energy from storage

Supply

Demand

Options to prevent surplus: 1) discharge of (excess) wind energy 2) increase demand 3) add energy to storage

The energy landscape Current situation: central generation, local use

Future situation: central and local generation, additional energy exchange at regional level

Network Network

13


3

Ingenuity is the trump card!

Intelligent control mechanisms like the Mobile Smart Grid (MSG) and Demand Side Management (DSM) are meant to ensure the optimal coordination of network and production capacity and demand and vice versa.

Demand from the market

MSG DSM

Network capacity

Production capacity

What is the Mobile Smart Grid?

What is Demand Side Management?

The Mobile Smart Grid (MSG) is the total system of smart interaction between electric cars, network and generating facilities (central and local). The MSG consists of hardware and software for the communication and management of demand, based on the availability of energy and network capacity. The MSG enables power network companies to optimise the capacity of the electricity network.

Demand Side Management (DSM) ensures that demand is influenced on behalf of the network and/or production capacity, possibly with a link to and controlled by a price mechanism. Demand Side Management enables power supply companies to, in cooperation with customers, optimise the use of sustainable energy.

14


Charge electric cars intelligently Charging between 6.00 p.m. and 9.00 p.m. would cause a 13% increase in the current peak in demand

A Mobile Smart Grid can shift most of the demand to non-peak hours

25,000

25,000

Extra demand caused by 0.7 million electric cars in 2020

Extra demand caused by 0.7 million electric cars in 2020

20,000

20,000

15,000

15,000

10,000

10,000

5,000

5,000

1

3

5

7

9

11

Average daily demand

13

15

17

19

21

23

24 (twenty-four hours)

Additional demand EV

Substantial investments of approximately â‚Ź 5 billion are necessary to production and network expansion

1

3

5

7

9

11

Average daily demand

13

15

17

19

21

23

24 (twenty-four hours)

Additional demand EV

Minimum investments required (approx. â‚Ź 300 million)

15


4 Driving electric accessible to all


4

The EV battery is sufficient for five times the average daily distance travelled

Electric cars are now so technologically advanced

travelled. As a result, sufficient driving capacity

that they can easily compete with conventional

is now available to the vast majority of motorists

cars. However, competitive purchase prices are also

(90%!). It takes no more than two hours to charge

needed to make driving electric accessible to the

batteries sufficiently for daily use. In the short to

general public. The government is helping out by

medium term, long distance drivers could use

providing tax incentive schemes. Mass production

plug-in hybrids and other mobility solutions such

is also intended to lead to attractive prices.

as car and train combinations.

Various famous car makers have unfolded plans to bring large numbers of electric cars onto the market

Many-branched network In order to introduce

in the coming years. It is essential that the tax

electric transportation successfully, there must be

incentive measures continue to apply. Significant

sufficient charging possibilities along motorways,

progress has been made in the field of charging

at parking places, at petrol stations and at home.

technology in recent years. With the latest

A many-branched infrastructure which reaches

generation of batteries cars can now be produced

to every corner of our country will make driving

which can travel 5 times the average daily distance

electric accessible to all.

18


Main categories of electric cars Hybrid electric car

Plug-in hybrid electric car

Plug-in hybrid electric car range extender

ICE

ICE

ICE

Regenerative braking system

Regenerative braking system

Regenerative braking system

Regenerative braking system

Electric motor

Electric motor

Electric motor

Electric motor

Batteries

Batteries

Batteries

Fuel tank Petrol/diesel

Fuel tank Petrol/diesel

Fuel tank Petrol/diesel

Electric range: - km

Electric range: 50-70 km

Fully electric car

Batteries

Electric range: 50-70 km

Electric range: ca. 200 km

Daily distances travelled in the Netherlands Daily distance travelled by car in km per segment

Average daily distance travelled

Business

75

2.5 x

(Private) Commuting

41

5x

(Private) Leisure

29

Total average

40

> 150 km 101-150 km 76-100 km

7x

51-75 km

5x

0.1-50 km 0%

200

Average daily distance travelled

The range of an electric VW Golf is 200 km (37 kWh battery)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

91% of all motorists in the Netherlands travel less than 150 km per day

Car costs in 2009 and 2020 Total costs of car ownership 2009 business lease car, in euro

Total costs of car ownership 2020 business lease car, in euro

47 k

38 k

37 k2 33 k

Car

16 k

37 k

Car incl. battery1

16 k

Fuel

6k

Fuel

5k

Maintenance

3k

Maintenance Road tax

3k 3k

25 k

Road tax

3k

Private motor vehicle and motorcycle tax

7k

3k 2k

Private motor vehicle and motorcycle tax

7k

Insurance

3k

5k

Insurance

3k 2k

3k

3 k3

Conventional car

Electric car

The maintenance costs for an electric car are 36% lower than for a conventional car. 1 Car incl. battery is calculated plus interest less residual value.

Conventional car

Car incl. battery1

Electric car

2 Total costs of ownership for conventional cars is lower in 2020 than in 2009 due to the reduction in fuel costs due to internal combustion engine improvements. 3 Electric car insurance is lower in 2020 than in 2009 because the premium is coupled to an increasingly lower purchase value.

19


5 Widespread charging infrastructure


5

Work to be done

The transition to electric transportation presents

plans. For example, Amsterdam has launched a

enormous challenges and opportunities.

plan to construct a comprehensive network of

Where are the charging stations going to be

charging stations. Soon, anyone who enters the

located? Who is going to operate them and what

capital in an electric car will also be entitled to

additional services are to be offered? How are we

preferential parking. In Den Bosch charging

going to pay for the electricity we use in our cars

points are to be set up at central places in the city.

in the future? Petrol station owners, financial and

Ideas are already being put forward to use electric

commercial service providers, network operators

buses for public transport services in and around

and energy suppliers are all going to have work to

the capital of the province of Brabant. Last but not

do to shape the new business.

least, the interests of the car drivers themselves

City councils and provincial and national

are another crucial factor. Those interests have to

government bodies are also going to have important

be analysed and seriously considered in order to

roles to play. After all, they will have to decide on

make everyone enthusiastic about electric

the location and design of the charging stations.

足transportation. Consumer organisations and

Through low emission zones and parking

other pressure groups are going to follow the

足incentives in town and city centres they will leave

development of electric transportation from close

their mark on the development of electric

by. How are they going to be involved in pilot

足transportation and on the image presented to the

projects, how can they ensure that their voice is

public. Various pilot projects are now getting

heard, for example in the context of choosing the

started, generally on the basis of cooperation

locations of charging stations, and how will they

between the government, energy suppliers,

be informed about, for example, the pricing of

network operators, hauliers, fleet managers and

electrical energy for cars? This again presents

car manufacturers. Various large Dutch local

plenty of inviting opportunities.

authorities have developed electric transportation

22


23


6 A pioneering role for the Netherlands


The Netherlands is ideally suited for a pioneering

of fiscal incentives, financial support for pilot

role as regards electric transportation thanks to

projects and other ambitious plans. The government

the relatively short distances travelled by car.

also wants to accelerate the construction of a

Most of the major cities are less than 200 kilometres

national network of charging points. The network

apart. The average distances travelled by car in our

operators in the Netherlands are enthusiastic

country can now easily be covered using electrical

supporters of electric transportation and are

energy. We have a good and modern electricity

keen to get involved. By 2012 they want to have

network which is the essential basis for a many-

constructed around ten thousand charging points.

branched charging infrastructure. What is more,

In short, the Netherlands has all it takes to fulfil

our power companies are leading the way as

the role of electric transportation pioneer.

regards the generation and application of sustainable energy.

Economic benefits Driving electric opens up prospects for innovation, research and development

Public-private cooperation There is a great

and the development and marketing of new

deal of knowledge and innovative strength in the

products and services. This means activities like

energy and car sectors. We have proven convincingly

the optimisation of batteries, charging technology,

that we are strong in public-private partnerships.

the integration of car and batteries, car design and

The transition to electric transportation offers

the layout of charging stations. Sample calculation:

huge opportunities. Cooperation between

If there were a million electric vehicles being used

companies, energy suppliers, universities and

in the Netherlands, electric transportation with all

research institutes is the ideal way to make optimal

the commercial activities related to it, would

use of those opportunities.

generate a turnover of 1.6 billion euros per year.

The government at national, provincial and local

Huge opportunities are therefore going to present

levels approves of electric transportation and is

themselves which will boost our knowledge and

actively supporting its development in the form

services economy.

26


Opportunities for the Dutch knowledge and services economy

Sample calculation: a million electric cars generate a turnover of e 1.6 billion per year € 0.25 billion Electric cars

Battery production • Accu R&D • Oplaadtechnologie R&D

€ 0.4 billion Sales and maintenance

Design and production • Car design • Integration of car and battery R&D • Assembly

• Market research • Maintenance concepts and know how • Battery reuse

€ 0.32 billion Charging infrastructure

• Charging points R&D • Rapid charging technology R&D

• Integration of payment systems and Smart Grid

• Innovative mobility solutions • (Battery) leasing

€ 0.15 billion Installation and service

Production

Lease and financing

• Large-scale roll out of services • Maintenance concepts and know how

Operation • Service concepts • Charging behaviour research • Payment solutions

€ 0.5 billion

Electricity

Generation • Sustainable energy generation

Distribution • Local energy solutions

• Mobile Smart Grid ICT • Mobile Smart Grid network management and regulation • Battery reuse

Sales and service • Product benefits • Payment solutions

27


7 Electric transportation requires close cooperation


7

A consistent incentives policy is essential

The transition to driving electric is based on

convinces companies to commit to and invest in

phases. Various drive technologies will be used in

the development of electric transportation.

parallel until driving electric is implemented on a large scale. Once the industry moves to mass

Cooperation in three areas Close cooperation

production, this will lead to attractive purchase

between numerous commercial and non-

prices, certainly if the government’s fiscal

commercial parties is necessary to get electric

incentive schemes continue to apply. Government

transportation successfully off the ground.

incentive measures are eminently important, not

In this context, there are three distinct areas,

just to boost demand for electric cars among

namely the demand side (affordable electric cars

consumers but also, for example, to stimulate

for consumers), the supply side (production of

research and development. This will accelerate

affordable electric cars by the industry) and a

technical developments - with possible favourable

sustainable infrastructure (network of charging

consequences for production costs. A consistent

points, availability, electricity storage, etc.).

financial incentive policy generates trust and

Various technologies in parallel 100%

Conventional and bio-fuel vehicles (Plug-in) hybrid vehicles Electric vehicles

0% 2009

(Plug-in) hybrid cars play an important role in the conversion to fully electric cars

30

20xx


Cooperation in three areas Create clear and attractive fiscal regulations to compensate the high initial purchase price for consumers.

Demand side Car industry Lease companies Pressure groups Environmental organisations Governments

Guarantee the car industry, car companies and knowledge institutes the possibility to develop and produce electric cars for the Dutch market.

Supply side Car industry Delivery companies Financial institutions Knowledge institutes Governments

Realise, based on a overall vision, the required infrastructure (charging points, payment, control model) including possibilities for using sufficient sustainable energy.

Infrastructure Car industry Owners' parking options Power network companies Commercial power companies ICT companies Governments

The share of electric cars could be 7% in 2020 This insight is based on Essent’s moderately optimistic scenario Expectations of various other parties are predominantly positive but are not always consistent: • according to ECN: 10% in 2020, 45% in 2040 (numbers of cars) • government plan entitled ‘Driving electric action plan’ [Plan van Aanpak Elektrisch Rijden] of July 2009: 1 million by 2025

Expected number of cars per year in millions

2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2010 0

1

2

Total

8

9

10

Electric cars

31


How fast the costs of an electric car decrease depends partly on a consistent incentive policy Sooner or later ownership of an electric car will

production and reduce the purchase price and this

cost less than that of a conventional car. When the

can be heavily affected by a confidence-building

exact turning point is reached depends partly on

incentive policy.

how quickly the industry is able to move to mass

Cost development of car ownership lease segment, in euros

Cost development of car ownership (private) commuting, in euros

50,000

80,000 70,000

40,000 60,000 50,000

30,000

40,000 20,000

30,000 20,000

10,000 10,000 0

0

2008

2010

2012

Electric cars

2014

2016

2018

Conventional cars Hybrid cars

32

2020

2008

2010

2012

Electric cars

2014

2016

2018

2020

Conventional cars Hybrid cars


Booking progress through cooperation 2-4 years Parties involved

Customer demand

Develop fiscal regime (to compensate the high initial purchase price)

Implementation programmes

Monitoring and implementation

Setting up mass production (in selective car types)

Mass production

Proof of concept = pilots

Available EVs

Create conditions for OEMs* to start mass production

Standardisation of the car - charging point communication

Development of market model for charging infrastructure

Design Mobile Smart Grid Implementation of Mobile Smart Grid Design market model and structure of Mobile Smart Grid

Car industry Delivery companies Financial institutions Knowledge institutes Governments

Roll out charging points network (in anticipation of demand)

Proof of concept = pilots

Infrastructure

Car industry Lease companies Pressure groups Environmental organisations Governments

Car industry Owners’ parking options Power network companies Commercial power companies ICT companies Governments

Standardisation

* OEM = Original Equipment Manufacturer

33


34


8 Essent and Enexis invite you to join in!

Electric transportation enables us to go some way

accelerate the transition process by working

to meeting the growing need for sustainable

together, carrying out research, initiating pilot

mobility. Unlike any other development, electric

projects and creating a basis for support.

transportation enables us to create a better

We can only fulfil the promise if we work together.

balance between economic growth and quality

So join us now!

of life. It therefore shows great promise. The transition to electric transportation is a

Additional contact details can be found at

long-term development. We can direct and

www.essent.nl/elektrischrijden.

35


Annex Electric cars are energy efficient Well-to-wheel efficiency based on the same fuel (natural gas) in % Conventional vehicles

Mechanical drive

ICE

H2 production

H2 transport

80%

95%

Hydrogenpowered vehicles (electrolysis)

Electricity production

Transport

Electrolysis

58%

92%

70%

Electric vehicles

Electricity production 58%

36

19%

95%

20% Hydrogenpowered vehicles (reforming)

Well-to-wheel efficiency:

Transport 92%

H2 compression

Fuel cell

76% H2 transport 95%

Battery charger 89%

Electric drive

54% H2 compression

89%

Fuel cell

76%

54%

Li-ion batteries 94%

Well-to-wheel efficiency: 28%

Electric drive

Well-to-wheel efficiency: 13%

89%

Electric drive 89%

Well-to-wheel efficiency: 40%


Sources of graphs, overviews, etc. shown Section 1 Statistics Netherlands [Centraal Bureau voor Statistiek] 2008, 2004 (pag. 2); RWS-AVV MON ’05 2005 (top of pag. 3); Statistics Netherlands 2004 (bottom of pag. 3)

Section 2 IEA 2005, Siemens (pag. 7 - see also annex pag. 36); emissions registration via the Netherlands Environmental ­Assessment Agency [Planbureau voor de leefomgeving] (PBL) 2007; TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) Air in Research 2009 [Lucht in onderzoek 2009] (bottom of pag. 9)

Section 3 UTCE/SenterNovem (2009): “Towards a sustainable electricity supply” [“Naar een duurzame elektriciteitsvoorziening”]

Publisher’s details

(pag. 12)

Section 4 Honda (top of pag. 19); Statistics Netherlands (CBS), Publisher Essent New Energy and Enexis Editing Albert Vondeling, Leonie Syrier Editing advice Hans Huigen, Wouter Vermeiden,

Goudappel, Netherlands Mobility Centre [Mobiliteit Centrum ­Nederland] (middle of pag. 19 ); Business model for electric ­transportation, Essent 2008 (bottom of pag. 19)

Johan Withagen, Harry Oltheten, New Energy Electric Transportation Team

Section 6 Business model for electric transportation,

Design and realisation Wit Creatives, Deventer

Essent 2008 (pag. 27)

The compilers have done their very best to present

Section 7 Business model for electric transportation,

all ­details carefully.

Essent 2008 (bottom of pag. 31)

If you have any comments please contact us via www.essent.nl/elektrischrijden.

Annex Well to wheel analysis from EIA (2005) without Gasoline production (90%) and Gasoline Transportation (98%); Efficiency of

September 2009

modern gas fired power plant; Source Siemens, Alstom, GE (pag. 36)


E-mobility in the Netherlands